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Sample records for amine terminated sams

  1. Amine terminated SAMs: Investigating why oxygen is present in these films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baio, J.E.; Weidner, T.; Brison, J. [National ESCA and Surface Analysis Center for Biomedical Problems, University of Washington, Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering, Box 351750, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Graham, D.J. [Asemblon, 15340 NE 92nd Street, Suite B, Redmond, WA 98052 United States (United States); Gamble, Lara J. [National ESCA and Surface Analysis Center for Biomedical Problems, University of Washington, Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering, Box 351750, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)], E-mail: gamble@nb.engr.washington.edu; Castner, David G. [National ESCA and Surface Analysis Center for Biomedical Problems, University of Washington, Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering, Box 351750, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)], E-mail: castner@nb.engr.washington.edu

    2009-05-15

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold prepared from amine-terminated alkanethiols have long been employed as model positively charged surfaces. Yet in previous studies significant amounts of unexpected oxygen containing species are always detected in amine terminated SAMs. Thus, the goal of this investigation was to determine the source of these oxygen species and minimize their presence in the SAM. The surface composition, structure, and order of amine-terminated SAMs on Au were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS), sum frequency generation (SFG) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. XPS determined compositions of amine-terminated SAMs in the current study exhibited oxygen concentrations of 2.4 {+-} 0.4 atomic %, a substantially lower amount of oxygen than reported in previously published studies. High-resolution XPS results from the S{sub 2p}, C{sub 1s} and N{sub 1s} regions did not detect any oxidized species. Angle-resolved XPS indicated that the small amount of oxygen detected was located at or near the amine head group. Small amounts of oxidized nitrogen, carbon and sulfur secondary ions, as well as ions attributed to water, were detected in the ToF-SIMS data due to the higher sensitivity of ToF-SIMS. The lack of N-O, S-O, and C-O stretches in the SFG spectra are consistent with the XPS and ToF-SIMS results and together show that oxidation of the amine-terminated thiols alone can only account for, at most, a small fraction of the oxygen detected by XPS. Both the SFG and angle-dependent NEXAFS indicated the presence of gauche defects in the amine SAMs. However, the SFG spectral features near 2865 cm{sup -1}, assigned to the stretch of the methylene group next to the terminal amine unit, demonstrate the SAM is reasonably ordered. The SFG results also show another broad feature near 3200 cm{sup -1} related to hydrogen-bonded water. From this multi

  2. Carbodiimide/NHS derivatization of COOH-terminated SAMs: activation or byproduct formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazon, Francisco; Benavides, Cindy Montenegro; Léonard, Didier; Souteyrand, Éliane; Chevolot, Yann; Cloarec, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-29

    COOH-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are widely used in biosensor technology to bind different amine-containing biomolecules. A covalent amide bond, however, can be achieved only if the carboxylic acids are activated. This activation process usually consists of forming an N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester (NHS-ester) by consecutively reacting carboxylic acids with a carbodiimide and NHS. Though many papers report using this method,1-8 the experimental conditions vary greatly between them and chemical characterization at this stage is often omitted. Evidence of an efficient activation is therefore rarely shown. Furthermore, recent publications9-11 have highlighted the complexity of this process, with the possible formation of different byproducts. In this paper, we have conducted a study on NHS activation under different conditions with chemical characterization by polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS). Our results indicate that the nature of the solvent and carbodiimide and the reactant concentrations play crucial roles in activation kinetics and efficiency.

  3. Organic chemistry on surfaces: Direct cyclopropanation by dihalocarbene addition to vinyl terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs)

    OpenAIRE

    Malgorzata Adamkiewicz; David O’Hagan; Georg Hähner

    2014-01-01

    C11-Vinyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on silica surfaces are successfully modified in C–C bond forming reactions with dihalocarbenes to generate SAMs, terminated with dihalo- (fluoro, chloro, bromo) cyclopropane motifs with about 30% surface coverage.

  4. Organic chemistry on surfaces: Direct cyclopropanation by dihalocarbene addition to vinyl terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Adamkiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available C11-Vinyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs on silica surfaces are successfully modified in C–C bond forming reactions with dihalocarbenes to generate SAMs, terminated with dihalo- (fluoro, chloro, bromo cyclopropane motifs with about 30% surface coverage.

  5. Organic chemistry on surfaces: Direct cyclopropanation by dihalocarbene addition to vinyl terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamkiewicz, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Summary C11-Vinyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on silica surfaces are successfully modified in C–C bond forming reactions with dihalocarbenes to generate SAMs, terminated with dihalo- (fluoro, chloro, bromo) cyclopropane motifs with about 30% surface coverage. PMID:25550756

  6. Enhancing amine terminals in an amine-deprived collagen matrix.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tiong, William H C

    2008-10-21

    Collagen, though widely used as a core biomaterial in many clinical applications, is often limited by its rapid degradability which prevents full exploitation of its potential in vivo. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer, a highly branched macromolecule, possesses versatile multiterminal amine surface groups that enable them to be tethered to collagen molecules and enhance their potential. In this study, we hypothesized that incorporation of PAMAM dendrimer in a collagen matrix through cross-linking will result in a durable, cross-linked collagen biomaterial with free -NH 2 groups available for further multi-biomolecular tethering. The aim of this study was to assess the physicochemical properties of a G1 PAMAM cross-linked collagen matrix and its cellular sustainability in vitro. Different amounts of G1 PAMAM dendrimer (5 or 10 mg) were integrated into bovine-derived collagen matrices through a cross-linking process, mediated by 5 or 25 mM 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) in 5 mM N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and 50 mM 2-morpholinoethane sulfonic acid buffer at pH 5.5. The physicochemical properties of resultant matrices were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), collagenase degradation assay, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and ninhydrin assay. Cellular sustainability of the matrices was assessed with Alamar Blue assay and SEM. There was no significant difference in cellular behavior between the treated and nontreated groups. However, the benefit of incorporating PAMAM in the cross-linking reaction was limited when higher concentrations of either agent were used. These results confirm the hypothesis that PAMAM dendrimer can be incorporated in the collagen cross-linking process in order to modulate the properties of the resulting cross-linked collagen biomaterial with free -NH 2 groups available for multi-biomolecular tethering.

  7. Optimization of amine-terminated polyacrylonitrile synthesis and characterization

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    Mohamed H. El-Newehy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Amine-terminated PANs were prepared in two steps. The first step includes free radical polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN using initiator pair of ammonium persulfate and sodium thiosulfate as redox system. In the second step, the amino groups were introduced through the reaction of polyacrylonitrile with excess of different diamines (10-fold including ethylenediamine (EDA, hexamethylenediamine (HMDA and octamethylenediamine (OMDA, to yield PAN–EDA, PAN–HMDA and PAN–OMDA, respectively. Optimization of the amine-terminated PANs synthesis was carried out at different temperatures (30–90 °C and different time intervals (4–24 h. In addition, the introduction of the amino group was followed by the piperidine test and recording of the FT-IR spectra. All polymers were characterized by, 1H NMR spectra, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and FT-IR spectra.

  8. Platinum-Catalyzed, Terminal-Selective C(sp(3))-H Oxidation of Aliphatic Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Melissa; Sanford, Melanie S

    2015-10-14

    This Communication describes the terminal-selective, Pt-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H oxidation of aliphatic amines without the requirement for directing groups. CuCl2 is employed as a stoichiometric oxidant, and the reactions proceed in high yield at Pt loadings as low as 1 mol%. These transformations are conducted in the presence of sulfuric acid, which reacts with the amine substrates in situ to form ammonium salts. We propose that protonation of the amine serves at least three important roles: (i) it renders the substrates soluble in the aqueous reaction medium; (ii) it limits binding of the amine nitrogen to Pt or Cu; and (iii) it electronically deactivates the C-H bonds proximal to the nitrogen center. We demonstrate that this strategy is effective for the terminal-selective C(sp(3))-H oxidation of a variety of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines. PMID:26439251

  9. INFLUENCE OF MOLECULAR STRUCTURES OF SECONDARY AMINE TERMINATED POLY(ESTER-AMINE)S ON THE CURING PERFORMANCE WITH EPOXY RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Five secondary amine terminated poly(ester-amine)s (defined as PEA) with controlled molecular structures were synthesized through reacting excessive piperazine with phthalicdiglycol diacrylate (PDDA) and 1,1,1-trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) at a constant secondary amine/acrylate group ratio of 1.5/1 and at different PDDA/TMPTA molar ratios.Both IR and 1H-NMR spectra indicated that all acrylate groups were consumed in the reaction, based on which the structural parameters were calculated from the 1H-NMR spectra. With decreasing PDDA/TMPTA ratio, the content of secondary amine, degree of branching, molecular weight, Tg and Td increased accordingly. These polymers were further used as both crosslinkers and flexibilizers for a linear epoxy resin E51 to form cured films under ambient condition, The gel content,relative hardness and Tg of the resulting films increased as PEA molecules changed from linear to highly branching structures. Due to the flexibility of PEA molecules, all the films possessed excellent mechanical performance.

  10. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs...

  11. Biocidal polymers: synthesis and antimicrobial properties of benzaldehyde derivatives immobilized onto amine-terminated polyacrylonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamri Abdullah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The design and applications of antimicrobial polymers is a growing field. Antimicrobial polymers can help to solve the problems associated with the use of conventional antimicrobial agents. Polymers with active functional groups can act as a carrier system for antimicrobial agents. In our study, we aim to prepare and develop some antimicrobial polymers for biomedical applications and water treatment. Results The antimicrobial polymers based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN were prepared. Functional groups were created onto polyacrylonitrile via amination using different types of diamines such as ethylenediamine (EDA and hexamethylenediamine (HMDA to yield amine-terminated polymers. Antimicrobial polymers were obtained by immobilization of benzaldehyde and its derivatives which include, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde onto amine-terminated polymers. The antimicrobial activity of the prepared polymers against different types of microorganisms including Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Escherichia coli; and Salmonella typhi as well as fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Cryptpcoccus neoformans were explored by the cut plug method and viable cell counting methods. Conclusions Amine-terminated polyacrylonitrile were used as a novel polymeric carrier for benzaldehyde derivatives as antimicrobial agents. The prepared polymers can inhibit the growth of the microorganisms. The activity was varied according to the tested microorganism as well as the polymer microstructure. It was found that the activity increased with increasing the number phenolic hydroxyl group of the bioactive group. Finally, it is anticipated that the prepared antimicrobial polymers would be of great help in the field of biomedical applications and biological water treatment.

  12. Thermally controlled permeation of ionic molecules through synthetic nanopores functionalized with amine-terminated polymer brushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Saima; Ali, Mubarak; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    2012-06-01

    We present temperature-dependent ionic transport through an array of nanopores (cylindrical and conical) and a single conical nanopore functionalized with amine-terminated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) [PNIPAAM-NH2] brushes. For this purpose, nanopores are fabricated in heavy ion irradiated polyethylene terephthlate (PET) membranes by a controlled chemical track-etching technique, which leads to the generation of carboxyl (COOH) groups on the pore surface. End-functionalized polymer chains are immobilized onto the inner pore walls via a ‘grafting-to’ approach through the covalent linkage of surface COOH moieties with the terminal amine groups of the PNIPAAM molecules by using carbodiimide coupling chemistry. The success of the chemical modification reaction is corroborated by measuring the permeation flux of charged analytes across the multipore membranes in an aqueous solution, and for the case of single conical pore by measuring the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, which are dictated by the electrostatic interaction of the charged pore surface with the mobile ions in an electrolyte solution. The effective nanopore diameter is tuned by manipulating the environmental temperature due to the swelling/shrinking behaviour of polymer brushes attached to the inner nanopore walls, leading to a decrease/increase in the ionic transport across the membrane. This process should permit the thermal gating and controlled release of ionic drug molecules through the nanopores modified with thermoresponsive polymer chains across the membrane.

  13. Thermally controlled permeation of ionic molecules through synthetic nanopores functionalized with amine-terminated polymer brushes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present temperature-dependent ionic transport through an array of nanopores (cylindrical and conical) and a single conical nanopore functionalized with amine-terminated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) [PNIPAAM-NH2] brushes. For this purpose, nanopores are fabricated in heavy ion irradiated polyethylene terephthlate (PET) membranes by a controlled chemical track-etching technique, which leads to the generation of carboxyl (COOH) groups on the pore surface. End-functionalized polymer chains are immobilized onto the inner pore walls via a ‘grafting-to’ approach through the covalent linkage of surface COOH moieties with the terminal amine groups of the PNIPAAM molecules by using carbodiimide coupling chemistry. The success of the chemical modification reaction is corroborated by measuring the permeation flux of charged analytes across the multipore membranes in an aqueous solution, and for the case of single conical pore by measuring the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics, which are dictated by the electrostatic interaction of the charged pore surface with the mobile ions in an electrolyte solution. The effective nanopore diameter is tuned by manipulating the environmental temperature due to the swelling/shrinking behaviour of polymer brushes attached to the inner nanopore walls, leading to a decrease/increase in the ionic transport across the membrane. This process should permit the thermal gating and controlled release of ionic drug molecules through the nanopores modified with thermoresponsive polymer chains across the membrane. (paper)

  14. Excited state electron distribution and role of the terminal amine in acidic and basic tryptophan dipeptide fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Azaria S.; Nathan, Moshe; Juszczak, Laura J.

    2016-08-01

    The results of quantum yield (QY) study of tryptophanyl glutamate (Trp-Glu), tryptophanyl lysine (Trp-Lys) and lysinyl tryptophan (Lys-Trp) dipeptides over the pH range, 1.5-13, show that the charge state of the N-terminal amine, and not the nominal molecular charge determines the QY. When the terminal amine is protonated, QY is low (10-2) for all three dipeptides. As the terminal amine cation is found proximal to the indole ring in Trp-Glu and Trp-Lys conformers but not in those for Lys-Trp, its effect may lie only in the partitioning of energy between nonradiative processes, not on QY reduction. QY is also low when both the N-terminal amine and indole amine are deprotonated. These two low QY states can be distinguished by fluorescence lifetime measurement. Molecular dynamics simulation shows that the Chi 1 conformers persist for tens of nanoseconds such that 100-101 ns lifetimes may be associated with individual Chi 1 conformers. The ground state electron density or isosurface of high QY (0.30) 3-methyindole has a uniform electron density over the indole ring as do the higher QY Trp dipeptide conformers. This validates the association of ground state isosurfaces with QY. Excited state orbitals from calculated high intensity, low energy absorption transitions are typically centered over the indole ring for higher QY dipeptide species and off the ring in lower QY species. Thus excited state orbitals substantiate the earlier finding that the ground state isosurface charge density pattern on the indole ring can be predictive of QY.

  15. Fast and Convenient Synthesis of Amine-Terminated Polylactide as a Macroinitiator for ω-Benzyloxycarbonyl-L-Lysine-N-Carboxyanhydrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjie Ju

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Amine-terminated poly (L-lactide (NH2-PLLA with various chain lengths were successfully synthesized by sequential tert-butyl-N-(3-hydroxypropyl carbamate initiated bulk ring-opening polymerization (ROP of L-lactide (L-LA in the presence of Stannous(II 2-ethylhexanoate (Sn(Oct2 and deprotection of the N-tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc group at the end of the polymer chain. The polymers obtained were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, and GPC method. NH2-PLLA thus prepared was used to initiate the polymerization of ω-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine-N-carboxyanhydride (Lys (Z-NCA, and the result confirmed the high nucleophilicity of the terminal amine group. This method was not only suitable for the preparation of low molecular weight NH2-PLLA, but also quite efficient in the synthesis of high molecular weight samples.

  16. A Lanthipeptide-like N-Terminal Leader Region Guides Peptide Epimerization by Radical SAM Epimerases: Implications for RiPP Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sebastian W; Lackner, Gerald; Morinaka, Brandon I; Morishita, Yohei; Asai, Teigo; Riniker, Sereina; Piel, Jörn

    2016-09-26

    Ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide natural products (RiPPs) exhibit diverse structures and bioactivities and are classified into distinct biosynthetic families. A recently reported family is the proteusins, with the prototype members polytheonamides being generated by almost 50 maturation steps, including introduction of d-residues at multiple positions by an unusual radical SAM epimerase. A region in the protein-like N-terminal leader of proteusin precursors is identified that is crucial for epimerization. It resembles a precursor motif previously shown to mediate interaction in thioether bridge-formation in class I lanthipeptide biosynthesis. Beyond this region, similarities were identified between proteusin and further RiPP families, including class I lanthipeptides. The data suggest that common leader features guide distinct maturation types and that nitrile hydratase-like enzymes are ancestors of several RiPP classes.

  17. Sandwich Sam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    SAM, a 28-year-old Canadian, has a nice family name: Goodman. Four years ago, he came to China and now he owns two cafes. Sam is not tall. To match his loose black sweater, he wears a pair of jeans which are so long that the trouser legs are wrinkled over his sneakers. Why did he think of running a cafe in Beijing? "After graduating from college, I went to Hong Kong to be a fitness coach for half a year. Then, I went to South Korea. While sightseeing, I taught English to make a living.

  18. 铝表面自组装端羟基聚酯胺膜的XPS和STM表征%Characterization of SAMs of Hyperbranched Polyurethane End-terminated with Hydroxyl on Aluminum Substrate by XPS and STM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华兰; 冀克俭; 周彤; 李翠平; 邵鸿飞; 邓卫华; 赵晓刚; 李艳玲; 于名讯

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembled monolayers(SAMs) of hyperbranched polyurethane with end-terminated hydroxyl(HTP) on aluminum substrate was prepared and characterized by XPS and STM. Adsorption assemble of HTP on aluminum sub-strate was verified. The thickness of SAMs increased with the increase of aluminum substrate immersing time in HTP solu-tion and the adsorption terminus of HTP on aluminum was reached after 2 h. Molecules conglomeration were seen with holes on SAMs from STM image. It is proposed that common-effect of muti-hydroxyl structures of HTP SAMs and holes on SAMs is the main factor to improve adhesion strength of resins.%制备了端羟基聚酯胺(HTP)在铝基片上的自组装膜并进行了XPS和STM表征,确认了HTP在铝基片上的吸附组装;由XPS的吸附时间扫描,自组装单分子膜(SAMs)随浸泡时间的延长而增厚,在2 h后达到平衡。由HTP在铝基片的STM三维图可以看到HTP自组装膜以团块形式组成,其间包含孔洞缺陷。提出了铝基片上HTP-SAMs的多羟基结构与膜上孔洞的共同作用是提高环氧类涂层附着力的主要原因。

  19. Fate and transformation products of amine-terminated PAMAM dendrimers under ozonation and irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago-Morales, Javier [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Rosal, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.rosal@uah.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Advanced Study Institute of Madrid, IMDEA Agua, Parque Científico Tecnológico, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Hernando, María D. [Spanish National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology – INIA, Crta. de la Coruña, km 7.5, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ulaszewska, Maria M. [Advanced Study Institute of Madrid, IMDEA Agua, Parque Científico Tecnológico, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); García-Calvo, Eloy [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Advanced Study Institute of Madrid, IMDEA Agua, Parque Científico Tecnológico, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R. [Advanced Study Institute of Madrid, IMDEA Agua, Parque Científico Tecnológico, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Pesticide Residue Research Group, Department of Hydrogeology and Analytical Chemistry, University of Almería, 04120 Almería (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • We detected transformation products from dendrimer under ozonation and irradiation. • Retro-Michael fragmentation pathway with highly oxygenated structures. • High toxicity of G3 PAMAM dendrimer for green algae. • Reactive oxygen species were associated with the toxic damage. • Transformation mixtures could be more toxic than the parent dendrimer. -- Abstract: This article deals with the degradation of a third-generation (G3) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer under ozonation and irradiation. The identification and quantification of G3 PAMAM dendrimer and its transformation products has been performed by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. The dendrimer was completely depleted by ozone in less than 1 min. The effect of ultraviolet irradiation was attributed to hydroxyl-mediated oxidation. The transformation products were attributed to the oxidation of amines, which resulted in highly oxidized structures with abundance of carboxylic acids, which started from the formation of amine oxide and the scission of the C-N bond of the amide group. We studied the toxicity of treated mixtures for six different organisms: the acute toxicity for the bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the microcrustacean Daphnia magna, the multigenerational growth inhibition of the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and the seed germination phytotoxicity of Licopersicon esculentum, Lactuca sativa and Lolium perenne. Ozonation and irradiation originated transformation products are more toxic than the parent dendrimer. The toxicity of the dendrimer for the green alga was linked to a strong increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species with intense lipid peroxidation.

  20. Preparation, optical properties and cell staining of water soluble amine-terminated PAMAM G2.0-Au nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jin-lan; FU Jin-dian; NIE Zhen-yuan; SHEN li

    2005-01-01

    The solution chemical and optical characteristics of formation of amine-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimer G2.0(NH2-PAMAM G2.0)-Au nanocomposites in the aqueous solution of NH2-PAMAM G2.0 at various mole ratios of Au(Ⅲ) to NH2-PAMAM G2.0 were studied by both UV-visible spectrometry and fluorospectrometry. The NH2-PAMAM G2.0-Au nanocomposites, with a type of structure in which one Au nanoparticle is surrounded by several NH2-PAMAM G2.0 dendrimers, emit strong bluish violet fluorescence, and are uniform, water soluble and biocompatible as well as very stable in frozen conditions. The size of gold nanoparticles in the nanocomposites is about 2.5 nm and decreases with the increase of NH2-PAMAM G2.0 concentration. The NH2-PAMAM G2.0 plays an important role in acting as host or micro-reactor for Au(Ⅲ) before Au(Ⅲ) reduction and acting as dispersant and stabilizer for gold nanoparticles after Au(Ⅲ) reduction. Preliminary experiments of cells staining to human embryonic lung fibroblast cell lines show that the NH2-PAMAM G2.0-Au nanocomposites can be used as optical imaging markers for bioanalyses and medical diagnoses.

  1. Organoselenium-catalyzed, hydroxy-controlled regio- and stereoselective amination of terminal alkenes: efficient synthesis of 3-amino allylic alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhimin; Wei, Jialiang; Liao, Lihao; Huang, Haiyan; Zhao, Xiaodan

    2015-04-17

    An efficient route to prepare 3-amino allylic alcohols in excellent regio- and stereoselectivity in the presence of bases by orangoselenium catalysis has been developed. In the absence of bases α,β-unsaturated aldehydes were formed in up to 97% yield. Control experiments reveal that the hydroxy group is crucial for the direct amination. PMID:25849818

  2. SAM Photovoltaic Model Technical Reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-05-27

    This manual describes the photovoltaic performance model in the System Advisor Model (SAM). The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory maintains and distributes SAM, which is available as a free download from https://sam.nrel.gov. These descriptions are based on SAM 2015.1.30 (SSC 41).

  3. Layer by layer assembly of catalase and amine-terminated ionic liquid onto titanium nitride nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode: Study of direct voltammetry and bioelectrocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saadati, Shagayegh [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salimi, Abdollah, E-mail: absalimi@uok.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hallaj, Rahman; Rostami, Amin [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalase and amine-terminated ionic liquid were immobilized to GC/TiNnp with LBL assembly method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First a thin layer of NH{sub 2}-IL is covalently attached to GC/TiNnp electrode using electro-oxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With alternative assemble of IL and catalase with positive and negative charged, multilayer was formed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immobilized catalase shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biosensor response is directly correlated to the number of bilayers. - Abstract: A novel, simple and facile layer by layer (LBL) approach is used for modification of glassy carbon (GC) electrode with multilayer of catalase and nanocomposite containing 1-(3-Aminopropyl)-3-methylimidazolium bromide (amine terminated ionic liquid (NH{sub 2}-IL)) and titanium nitride nanoparticles (TiNnp). First a thin layer of NH{sub 2}-IL is covalently attached to GC/TiNnp electrode using electro-oxidation method. Then, with alternative self assemble positively charged NH{sub 2}-IL and negatively charged catalase a sensitive H{sub 2}O{sub 2} biosensor is constructed, whose response is directly correlated to the number of bilayers. The surface coverage of active catalase per bilayer, heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) and Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub M}) of immobilized catalase were 3.32 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} mol cm{sup -2}, 5.28 s{sup -1} and 1.1 mM, respectively. The biosensor shows good stability, high reproducibility, long life-time, and fast amperometric response with the high sensitivity of 380 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2} and low detection limit of 100 nM at concentration range up to 2.1 mM.

  4. Amine-terminated ionic liquid functionalized carbon nanotubes for enhanced interfacial electron transfer of Shewanella putrefaciens anode in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huan; Wu, Xiao-Shuai; Zou, Long; Wen, Guo-Yun; Liu, Ding-Yu; Qiao, Yan

    2016-05-01

    An amine-terminated ionic liquid (IL-NH2) is applied to functionalize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for improving the interfacial electron transfer of Shewanella putrefaciens (S. putrefaciens) anode in Microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The introduction of thin layer of ILs does not change the morphology of CNTs a lot but increases surface positive charges as well as nitrogen functional groups of the CNTs based anode. The CNT-IL composite not only improves the adhesion of S. putrefaciens cells but also promotes both of the flavin-mediated and the direct electron transfer between the S. putrefaciens cells and the anode. It is interesting that the CNT-IL is more favorable for the mediated electron transfer than for the direct electron transfer. The CNT-IL/carbon cloth anode delivers 3-fold higher power density than that of CNT anode and shows great long-term stability in the batch-mode S. putrefaciens MFCs. This CNT-IL could be a promising anode material for high performance MFCs.

  5. Toughening of Epoxy Resin with Solid Amine Terminated Poly (ethy-lene glycol) Benzoate and Effect of Red Mud Waste Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.C.Samanta; T.Maity; S.Dalai; A.K.Banthia

    2008-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to modify the toughness of triethylene tetramine cured DGEBA (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A) resin using solid amine terminated poly (ethylene glycol) benzoate (ATPEGB) as modifier with and without red mud waste particles. The solid ATPEGB modifier synthesized from the acid catalyzed esterification reaction of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and 4-amino benzoic acid was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopies, viscosity measurements, and solubility parameter calculation. The unfilled and red mud waste filled modified epoxy networks were evaluated with impact, adhesive, tensile, flexural and thermal properties by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric (TG) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The effect of modifier concentration and red mud waste particles on toughening behavior was also investigated. The optimum properties were obtained at 12.5 phr (parts per hundred parts of resin) concentration of the modifier. The ATPEGB modified cured epoxy was thermally stable up to 315℃. The morphology on fracture surfaces of cured epoxy was also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  6. SAM: The Swiss Army Menu

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnet, David; Appert, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    National audience This article introduces the Swiss Army Menu (SAM), a radial menu that enables a very large number of functions on a single small tactile screen. The design of SAM relies on four different kinds of items, support for navigating in hierarchies of items and a control based on small thumb movements. SAM can thus offer a set of functions so large that it would typically have required a number of widgets that could not have been displayed in a single viewport at the same time.

  7. Several novel N-donor tridentate ligands formed in chemical studies of new fac-Re(CO)3 complexes relevant to fac-99mTc(CO)3 radiopharmaceuticals: attack of a terminal amine on coordinated acetonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Theshini; Marzilli, Patricia A; Fronczek, Frank R; Marzilli, Luigi G

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate syntheses of fac-[Re(CO)(3)L](+) complexes in organic solvents, we treated fac-[Re(CO)(3)(CH(3)CN)(3)]PF(6)/BF(4) in acetonitrile with triamine ligands (L). When L had two primary or two tertiary terminal amine groups, the expected fac-[Re(CO)(3)L](+) complexes formed. In contrast, N,N-dimethyldiethylenetriamine (N,N-Me(2)dien) formed an unusual compound, fac-[Re(CO)(3)(DAE)]BF(4) {DAE = (Z)-N'-(2-(2-(dimethylamino)ethylamino)ethyl)acetimidamide = (Me(2)NCH(2)CH(2))NH(CH(2)CH(2)N=C(NH(2))Me)}. DAE is formed by addition of acetonitrile to the N,N-Me(2)dien terminal primary amine, converting this sp(3) nitrogen to an sp(2) nitrogen with a double bond to the original acetonitrile sp carbon. The three Ns bound to Re derive from N,N-Me(2)dien. The pathway to fac-[Re(CO)(3)(DAE)]BF(4) is suggested by a second unusual compound, fac-[Re(CO)(3)(MAE)]PF(6) {MAE = N-methyl-N-(2-(methyl-(2-(methylamino)ethyl)amino)ethyl)acetimidamide = MeN(H)-CH(2)CH(2)-N(Me)-CH(2)CH(2)-N(Me)-C(Me)=NH}, isolated after treating fac-[Re(CO)(3)(CH(3)CN)(3)]PF(6) with N,N',N''-trimethyldiethylenetriamine (N,N',N''-Me(3)dien). MAE chelates via a terminal and a central sp(3) N from N,N',N''-Me(3)dien and via one sp(2) NH in a C(Me)=NH group. This group is derived from acetonitrile by addition of the other N,N',N''-Me(3)dien terminal amine to the nitrile carbon. This addition creates an endocyclic NMe group within a seven-membered chelate ring. The structure and other properties of fac-[Re(CO)(3)(MAE)]PF(6) allow us to propose a reaction scheme for the formation of the unprecedented DAE ligand. The new compounds advance our understanding of the spectral and structural properties of Re analogues of (99m)Tc radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:20104873

  8. System for Award Management (SAM) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The SAM API is a RESTful method of retrieving public information about the businesses, organizations, or individuals (referred to as entities) within the SAM entity...

  9. The growth-suppressive function of the polycomb group protein polyhomeotic is mediated by polymerization of its sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Angela K; Leal, Belinda Z; Chadwell, Linda V; Wang, Renjing; Ilangovan, Udayar; Kaur, Yogeet; Junco, Sarah E; Schirf, Virgil; Osmulski, Pawel A; Gaczynska, Maria; Hinck, Andrew P; Demeler, Borries; McEwen, Donald G; Kim, Chongwoo A

    2012-03-16

    Polyhomeotic (Ph), a member of the Polycomb Group (PcG), is a gene silencer critical for proper development. We present a previously unrecognized way of controlling Ph function through modulation of its sterile alpha motif (SAM) polymerization leading to the identification of a novel target for tuning the activities of proteins. SAM domain containing proteins have been shown to require SAM polymerization for proper function. However, the role of the Ph SAM polymer in PcG-mediated gene silencing was uncertain. Here, we first show that Ph SAM polymerization is indeed required for its gene silencing function. Interestingly, the unstructured linker sequence N-terminal to Ph SAM can shorten the length of polymers compared with when Ph SAM is individually isolated. Substituting the native linker with a random, unstructured sequence (RLink) can still limit polymerization, but not as well as the native linker. Consequently, the increased polymeric Ph RLink exhibits better gene silencing ability. In the Drosophila wing disc, Ph RLink expression suppresses growth compared with no effect for wild-type Ph, and opposite to the overgrowth phenotype observed for polymer-deficient Ph mutants. These data provide the first demonstration that the inherent activity of a protein containing a polymeric SAM can be enhanced by increasing SAM polymerization. Because the SAM linker had not been previously considered important for the function of SAM-containing proteins, our finding opens numerous opportunities to manipulate linker sequences of hundreds of polymeric SAM proteins to regulate a diverse array of intracellular functions. PMID:22275371

  10. SAM and the Particle Physics Data Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LauriLoebel-Carpenter; LeeLueking; 等

    2001-01-01

    The D0 experiment's data and job management system software,SAM,is an operational prototype of many of the concepts being developed for Grid computing .We explain how the components of SAM map into the Data Grid architecture,We discuss the future use of Grid components to either replace existing components of SAM or to extend its functionality and utility.owrk being carried out as part of the Particle Physics Data Grid(PPDG) project.

  11. Samsø Energy Vision 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Hansen, Kenneth; Ridjan, Iva;

    The purpose of this report is to investigate potential scenarios for converting Samsø into 100% renewable energy supply in 2030 with focus on local electricity and biomass resources. Firstly, a 2013 reference scenario is established to investigate whether Samsø is 100% renewable today. Next, scen...

  12. The impact of a ligand binding on strand migration in the SAM-I riboswitch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    Full Text Available Riboswitches sense cellular concentrations of small molecules and use this information to adjust synthesis rates of related metabolites. Riboswitches include an aptamer domain to detect the ligand and an expression platform to control gene expression. Previous structural studies of riboswitches largely focused on aptamers, truncating the expression domain to suppress conformational switching. To link ligand/aptamer binding to conformational switching, we constructed models of an S-adenosyl methionine (SAM-I riboswitch RNA segment incorporating elements of the expression platform, allowing formation of an antiterminator (AT helix. Using Anton, a computer specially developed for long timescale Molecular Dynamics (MD, we simulated an extended (three microseconds MD trajectory with SAM bound to a modeled riboswitch RNA segment. Remarkably, we observed a strand migration, converting three base pairs from an antiterminator (AT helix, characteristic of the transcription ON state, to a P1 helix, characteristic of the OFF state. This conformational switching towards the OFF state is observed only in the presence of SAM. Among seven extended trajectories with three starting structures, the presence of SAM enhances the trend towards the OFF state for two out of three starting structures tested. Our simulation provides a visual demonstration of how a small molecule (<500 MW binding to a limited surface can trigger a large scale conformational rearrangement in a 40 kDa RNA by perturbing the Free Energy Landscape. Such a mechanism can explain minimal requirements for SAM binding and transcription termination for SAM-I riboswitches previously reported experimentally.

  13. Probing the nature and resistance of the molecule-electrode contact in SAM-based junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchand Sangeeth, C. S.; Wan, Albert; Nijhuis, Christian A.

    2015-07-01

    It is challenging to quantify the contact resistance and to determine the nature of the molecule-electrode contacts in molecular two-terminal junctions. Here we show that potentiodynamic and temperature dependent impedance measurements give insights into the nature of the SAM-electrode interface and other bottlenecks of charge transport (the capacitance of the SAM (CSAM) and the resistance of the SAM (RSAM)), unlike DC methods, independently of each other. We found that the resistance of the top-electrode-SAM contact for junctions with the form of AgTS-SCn//GaOx/EGaIn with n = 10, 12, 14, 16 or 18 is bias and temperature independent and hence Ohmic (non-rectifying) in nature, and is orders of magnitude smaller than RSAM. The CSAM and RSAM are independent of the temperature, indicating that the mechanism of charge transport in these SAM-based junctions is coherent tunneling and the charge carrier trapping at the interfaces is negligible.It is challenging to quantify the contact resistance and to determine the nature of the molecule-electrode contacts in molecular two-terminal junctions. Here we show that potentiodynamic and temperature dependent impedance measurements give insights into the nature of the SAM-electrode interface and other bottlenecks of charge transport (the capacitance of the SAM (CSAM) and the resistance of the SAM (RSAM)), unlike DC methods, independently of each other. We found that the resistance of the top-electrode-SAM contact for junctions with the form of AgTS-SCn//GaOx/EGaIn with n = 10, 12, 14, 16 or 18 is bias and temperature independent and hence Ohmic (non-rectifying) in nature, and is orders of magnitude smaller than RSAM. The CSAM and RSAM are independent of the temperature, indicating that the mechanism of charge transport in these SAM-based junctions is coherent tunneling and the charge carrier trapping at the interfaces is negligible. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental procedure, Nyquist

  14. Discovery of charmed particles : Sam Ting

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The great physics event of the year was the discovery of charmed particles in the USA. One of the co-discoverers, Sam Ting, was at CERN involved in an ISR experiment and described the discovery to a packed auditorium.

  15. Formation of organic monolayers on hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces via silicon-carbon bond: effect of terminal groups on stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Functionalization of hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces with stable and dense aryl-terminated alkyl self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) provides opportunities for the development of low cost organic field effect transistors. In this paper we present results for one such σ-π SAMs, 3-phenylpropyl (C6H5(CH2)3-) SAMs on porous silicon, and compare its stability with octyl (CH3(CH2)7-) SAMs on Si(100). The SAMs were prepared using the Grignard reagent method and characterized using X-ray photoelectron and FT-infrared spectroscopies and contact angle measurements Our results show the 3-phenylpropyl SAMs are not as susceptible to oxidation as the octyl SAMs, and we attribute the increased stability in the former to be due to its more dense structure arising from the π-π stacking of the phenyl rings. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics

  16. Several Novel N-Donor Tridentate Ligands Formed in Chemical Studies of New fac-Re(CO)3 Complexes Relevant to fac-99mTc(CO)3 Radiopharmaceuticals. Attack of a Terminal Amine on Coordinated Acetonitrile

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, Theshini; Marzilli, Patricia A.; Fronczek, Frank R.; Marzilli, Luigi G.

    2010-01-01

    A novel ligand was discovered in which acetonitrile appears to have inserted between the two protons and the nitrogen of a primary amine. A proposed pathway for this process involves a putative seven-membered chelate ring (formed by attack of a primary amine on coordinated acetonitrile) that undergoes proton transfer and rearrangement. The pathway is supported by the structure of a related compound that has a methyl group in place of one of the protons.

  17. Stability of phosphonic self assembled monolayers (SAMs) on cobalt chromium (Co-Cr) alloy under oxidative conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhure, Rahul; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M.; Bonner, Carl; Hall, Felicia; Mahapatro, Anil

    2011-04-01

    Cobalt chromium (Co-Cr) alloys have been widely used in the biomedical arena for cardiovascular, orthopedic and dental applications. Surface modification of the alloy allows us to tailor the interfacial properties to address critical challenges of Co-Cr alloy in medical applications. Self assembled monolayers (SAMs) of Octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA) have been used to form thin films on the oxide layer of the Co-Cr alloy surface by solution deposition technique. The SAMs formed were investigated for their stability to oxidative conditions of ambient laboratory environment over periods of 1, 3, 7 and 14 days. The samples were then characterized for their stability using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements. Detailed high energy XPS elemental scans confirmed the presence of the phosphonic monolayer after oxidative exposure which suggested that the SAMs were firmly attached to the oxide layer of Co-Cr alloy. AFM images gave topographical data of the surface and showed islands of SAMs on Co-Cr alloy surface, before and after SAM formation and also over the duration of the oxidative exposure. Contact angle measurements confirmed the hydrophobicity of the surface over 14 days. Thus the SAMs were found to be stable for the duration of the study. These SAMs could be subsequently tailored by modifying the terminal functional groups and could be used for various potential biomedical applications such as drug delivery, biocompatibility and tissue integration.

  18. Preparation of metal-SAM-dendrimer-SAM-metal junctions by supramolecular metal transfer printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Christian A.; ter Maat, Jurjen; Bisri, Satria Z.; Weusthof, Marcel H. H.; Salm, Cora; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Ravoo, Bart Jan; Huskensa, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David N.

    2008-01-01

    Metal-self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-dendrimer-SAM-metal junctions were prepared by a new type of metal transfer printing (mTP) that uses multiple beta-cyclodextrin (beta CD) host-guest interactions between a metal-coated stamp decorated with a monolayer of host molecules and a substrate which is fu

  19. Preparation of metal-SAM-dendrimer-SAM-metal junctions by supramolecular metal transfer printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Christian A.; Maat, ter Jurjen; Bisri, Satria Z.; Weusthof, Marcel H.H.; Salm, Cora; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Ravoo, Bart Jan; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David N.

    2008-01-01

    Metal-self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-dendrimer-SAM-metal junctions were prepared by a new type of metal transfer printing (mTP) that uses multiple ß-cyclodextrin (ßCD) host-guest interactions between a metal-coated stamp decorated with a monolayer of host molecules and a substrate which is functiona

  20. Novi pristopi v arhitekturi - Naredi sam (DIY)

    OpenAIRE

    Čretnik, Janeta

    2015-01-01

    Zaradi ekonomske krize in želje po individualnosti ali po trajnostnem in ekološkem načrtovanju so na veliki popularnosti pridobili projekti naredi sam oziroma »DIY – Do It Yourself«. V tem oziru v teoretičnem delu predstavimo pojme »DIY« (Do It Yourself – naredi sam), »Upcycling« (nadgradnja), »Recycling« (reciklaža) ter »Open source« (odprta koda). Prav tako raziščemo zgodovino tega pristopa kot tudi razloge, ki so glavni vzrok nujnosti oziroma popularnosti takšnih projektov. Projektna na...

  1. Samâ’ dalam Tradisi Tasawuf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Aqil Siradj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Samâ‘ in Tasawuf has been a very important element in the dissemination of this spiritual dimension of Islam. Yet, it has received very little both from the practitioners of Tasawuf and its intellectuals. This paper tries to expose this simply in a hope to make it heard in the academic and popular circle. Here, samâ‘ is not only understood as a form of music, as many would do, but also as an art of listening of which music is certainly part. The paper will explore the meaning and definition of this term, putting emphasis on its many-faceted function in the formation and development of one’s soul and spirituality. It is argued that soul is musical and artistic. Using art and music to talk to soul is therefore the proper way and means. The paper will also try to show that samâ‘ is also an indispensable part of spiritual method to reach and know God. Knowledge of God in other words, can be gained through this practice. Hence, samâ‘ is treated not only as a form of entertainment, but also a kind of practical epistemology.

  2. Sam's Journey to "Reach for the Stars"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Sue

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experiences as a parent of a child with Down syndrome. Although her son Sam's first years were filled with numerous hospitalizations and visits to pediatricians, which she feared would further delay his development, she soon discovered an organization known as the National Association of Child Development…

  3. Structural Basis for Methyl Transfer by a Radical SAM Enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boal, Amie K.; Grove, Tyler L.; McLaughlin, Monica I.; Yennawar, Neela H.; Booker, Squire J.; Rosenzweig, Amy C. (NWU); (Penn)

    2014-10-02

    The radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) enzymes RlmN and Cfr methylate 23S ribosomal RNA, modifying the C2 or C8 position of adenosine 2503. The methyl groups are installed by a two-step sequence involving initial methylation of a conserved Cys residue (RlmN Cys{sup 355}) by SAM. Methyl transfer to the substrate requires reductive cleavage of a second equivalent of SAM. Crystal structures of RlmN and RlmN with SAM show that a single molecule of SAM coordinates the [4Fe-4S] cluster. Residue Cys{sup 355} is S-methylated and located proximal to the SAM methyl group, suggesting the SAM that is involved in the initial methyl transfer binds at the same site. Thus, RlmN accomplishes its complex reaction with structural economy, harnessing the two most important reactivities of SAM within a single site.

  4. Effect of Alkyl Chain Length on Carboxylic Acid SAMs on Ti-6Al-4V

    OpenAIRE

    Buckholtz, Gavin A.; Gawalt, Ellen S.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of methyl-terminated carboxylic acid self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with even numbers of carbons, from eighteen to thirty, was investigated on the oxide surface of Ti-6Al-4V and component metal oxides. Modified surfaces were characterized using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and contact angle analysis. Infrared spectroscopy indicated that using aero...

  5. STM study of short chain hydrophobic thiol SAMs on HOPG and Au capped HOPG under ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Alexis; Maurer, Mackenzie; Senevirathne, Indrajith

    2015-03-01

    Self-assembled monolayer(SAM) surfaces provide common architecture in many device applications including sensor engineering. The conductivity characteristics and surface molecular structure and orientation of these SAM are important as physiochemical properties are dependent on the surface arrangement. SAMs used in this study are short chain -R terminated (hydrophobic) 1-Butanethiol on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) surface and on thermally annealed Au thin film capped on HOPG. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM), contact angle measurements and reflective spectroscopy are used to assess the SAM layered surfaces. Solutions of 1-Butanethiol, dissolved in 200 proof Ethanol with 5mM concentration were prepared for the self-assembly process. These solutions were used in developing SAMs on purchased, freshly cleaved HOPG substrates. Au thin layers were sputter deposited on HOPG and subsequently annealed. Initial data shows low Au deposition yields rougher inconsistent surfaces. Ambient conditions under which data was obtained impose fresh surfaces for each investigation. Tentative surface structure, consistency and thiol molecular arrangement of the SAM layer on HOPG and Au capped HOPG will be discussed. National Science Foundation.

  6. Effect of Alkyl Chain Length on Carboxylic Acid SAMs on Ti-6Al-4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin A. Buckholtz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation of methyl-terminated carboxylic acid self-assembled monolayers (SAMs with even numbers of carbons, from eighteen to thirty, was investigated on the oxide surface of Ti-6Al-4V and component metal oxides. Modified surfaces were characterized using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and contact angle analysis. Infrared spectroscopy indicated that using aerosol spray deposition techniques, stable, all-trans SAMs of octacosanoic (28 carbons and triacontanoic (30 carbons acids were formed on the alloy. Films were similarly formed on titanium and aluminum oxide. The surface of vanadium oxide exhibited limited reactivity. MALDI-TOF MS confirmed that formed films were monolayers, without multilayers or aggregates present. Water contact angles are indicative of the presence of hydrophobic methyl groups at the interface. This stable carboxylic acid SAM formation could be a useful alternative to phosphonic acid SAMs for corrosion and other applications.

  7. Understanding the SAM influence on the South Pacific ENSO teleconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogt, Ryan L.; Bromwich, David H.; Hines, Keith M.

    2011-04-01

    The relationship between the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode (SAM) is examined, with the goal of understanding how various strong SAM events modulate the ENSO teleconnection to the South Pacific (45°-70°S, 150°-70°W). The focus is on multi-month, multi-event variations during the last 50 years. A significant ( p positive (negative) phases of the SAM more often than expected by chance. The South Pacific teleconnection magnitude is found to be strongly dependent on the SAM phase. Only when ENSO events occur with a weak SAM or when a La Niña (El Niño) occurs with a positive (negative) SAM phase are significant South Pacific teleconnections found. This modulation in the South Pacific ENSO teleconnection is directly tied to the interaction of the anomalous ENSO and SAM transient eddy momentum fluxes. During La Niña/SAM+ and El Niño/SAM- combinations, the anomalous transient momentum fluxes in the Pacific act to reinforce the circulation anomalies in the midlatitudes, altering the circulation in such a way to maintain the ENSO teleconnections. In La Niña/SAM- and El Niño/SAM+ cases, the anomalous transient eddies oppose each other in the midlatitudes, overall acting to reduce the magnitude of the high latitude ENSO teleconnection.

  8. Dynamics of SAMs in Boundary Lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Manojlović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Surfactant molecules have some properties responsible for a number ofremarkable phenomena, such as oriented adsorption of surfactants at surfaces and interfaces. The capability to self -assemble into well- defined structures is often seen as being more important than their surface activity. When a surfactant solution is in contact with a solid surface, the surfactant molecules adsorb onto the surface, ideally forming an adsorbed layer of a high order, termed as a self- assembled monolayer (SAM. Many surface properties are influenced bysuch a film, and therefore, SAMs offer the capability to form ordered organic surface coatings, suitable for various applications, such as wetting or corrosion protection. Due to the flexibility in choosing the molecular architecture, organic molecules have many interesting applications, such as biosensors, in Photoelectronics, in controlling water adsorption or boundary lubricant coating. This paper Focuses on cationic surfactants (quaternary ammonium surfactants with some unique properties that are not present in other surfactants.

  9. On LAM's and SAM's for Halley's rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peale, Stanton J.

    1992-01-01

    Non principal axis rotation for comet Halley is inferred from dual periodicities evident in the observations. The modes where the spin axis precesses around the axis of minimum moment of inertia (long axis mode or LAM) and where it precesses around the axis of maximum moment of inertia (short axis mode or SAM) are described from an inertial point of view. The currently favored LAM model for Halley's rotation state satisfies observational and dynamical constraints that apparently no SAM can satisfy. But it cannot reproduce the observed post perihelion brightening through seasonal illumination of localized sources on the nucleus, whereas a SAM can easily produce post or pre perihelion brightening by this mechanism. However, the likelihood of a LAM rotation for elongated nuclei of periodic comets such as Halley together with Halley's extreme post perihelion behavior far from the Sun suggest that Halley's post perihelion brightening may be due to effects other than seasonal illumination of localized sources, and therefore such brightening may not constrain its rotation state.

  10. Amine Functionalized Porous Network

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-05-28

    Amine groups can be introduced in porous materials by a direct (one pot) or post-synthetic modification (PSM) process on aldehyde groups, and the resulting porous materials have increased gas affinity.

  11. System Advisor Model, SAM 2014.1.14: General Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, N.; Dobos, A. P.; Freeman, J.; Neises, T.; Wagner, M.; Ferguson, T.; Gilman, P.; Janzou, S.

    2014-02-01

    This document describes the capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM), Version 2013.9.20, released on September 9, 2013. SAM is a computer model that calculates performance and financial metrics of renewable energy systems. Project developers, policy makers, equipment manufacturers, and researchers use graphs and tables of SAM results in the process of evaluating financial, technology, and incentive options for renewable energy projects. SAM simulates the performance of photovoltaic, concentrating solar power, solar water heating, wind, geothermal, biomass, and conventional power systems. The financial model can represent financial structures for projects that either buy and sell electricity at retail rates (residential and commercial) or sell electricity at a price determined in a power purchase agreement (utility). SAM's advanced simulation options facilitate parametric and sensitivity analyses, and statistical analysis capabilities are available for Monte Carlo simulation and weather variability (P50/P90) studies. SAM can also read input variables from Microsoft Excel worksheets. For software developers, the SAM software development kit (SDK) makes it possible to use SAM simulation modules in their applications written in C/C++, C#, Java, Python, and MATLAB. NREL provides both SAM and the SDK as free downloads at http://sam.nrel.gov. Technical support and more information about the software are available on the website.

  12. Formation and Stability of Phenylphosphonic Acid Monolayers on ZnO: Comparison of In Situ and Ex Situ SAM Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapenko, Alexandra; Klöffel, Tobias; Meyer, Bernd; Witte, Gregor

    2016-05-24

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) enable an electronic interface tailoring of conductive metal oxides and offer an alternative to common transparent electrodes in optoelectronic devices. Here, the influence of surface orientation and pretreatment on the formation and stability of SAMs has been studied for the case of phenylphosphonic acid (PPA) on ZnO single crystals. Using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near-edge X-ray adsorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, the thermal stability and orientational ordering of PPA-SAMs on the polar and mixed-terminated ZnO surfaces were analyzed. On all surfaces, PPA-SAMs remain stable up to 550 K, while at higher temperatures a C-P bond cleavage and dissociative desorption takes place yielding two distinct desorption peaks. Based on DFT calculations, these desorption channels are attributed to protonated and deprotonated chemisorbed PPA molecules, which can be related to tri- and bidentate species, hence allowing to determine their relative abundance from the intensity ratio. Beside immersion, an alternative monolayer preparation based on vacuum deposition in combination with controlled desorption of excess multilayers is demonstrated. This enables a SAM preparation on bare ZnO surfaces without any precoating due to exposure to ambient air, which is further compared with SAM formation on intentionally hydroxylated substrates. Corresponding TDS data indicate that initial hydroxylation favors the formation of tridentate and deprotonated bidentate, while the OMBD preparation on bare surfaces yields a larger fraction of protonated bidentate species. The orientation of PPA molecules adopted in the SAMs was determined from the dichroism of K-edge NEXAFS measurements and reveals an almost upright orientation for the deprotonated species, while a slight tilting is obtained for monolayer films with a large fraction of protonated

  13. Preparation of metal-SAM-dendrimer-SAM-metal junctions by supramolecular metal transfer printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, C.A.; Maat, ter J.; Bisri, S.Z.; Weusthof, M.H.H.; Salm, C.; Schmitz, J.; Ravoo, B.J.; Huskens, J.; Reinhoudt, D.N.

    2008-01-01

    Metal–self-assembled monolayer (SAM)–dendrimer–SAM–metal junctions were prepared by a new type of metal transfer printing (mTP) that uses multiple -cyclodextrin (CD) host–guest interactions between a metal-coated stamp decorated with a monolayer of host molecules and a substrate which is functionali

  14. SOAR Adaptive Module (SAM): seeing improvement with a UV laser

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Tighe, Roberto; Schurter, Patricio; Martinez, Manuel; Thomas, Sandrine; van der Bliek, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive module of the 4.1-m SOAR telescope, SAM, corrects ground-layer turbulence using a UV laser guide star. It has been commissioned in 2013 and it is in regular science operation since 2014. SAM works with the CCD imager covering a 3' field or with the speckle camera. It operates routinely and stably, delivering resolution in the I band equal to the free-atmosphere seeing. This paper describes the SAM system as a whole, providing essential reference for its users and technical information of interest to instrumentalists. Operation of the instrument, its performance, and science projects done with SAM so far are reviewed.

  15. Providing output of DIRAC-SAM jobs to the IT-based SAM-Nagios framework

    CERN Document Server

    Volkl, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Information available on LHCb grid sites in the SAM-Nagios monitor- ing framework - gathered mainly through functional tests - has been sup- plemented with results from LHCbDIRAC SAMJobs published by means of message client newly integrated in LHCbDIRAC. These are displayed as a new metric org.lhcb.DiracTest-lhcb giving additional debug in- formation to system administrators and influencing reports on grid site performances in the future

  16. System Advisor Model, SAM 2011.12.2: General Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, P.; Dobos, A.

    2012-02-01

    This document describes the capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM), Version 2011.12.2, released on December 2, 2011. SAM is software that models the cost and performance of renewable energy systems. Project developers, policy makers, equipment manufacturers, and researchers use graphs and tables of SAM results in the process of evaluating financial, technology, and incentive options for renewable energy projects. SAM simulates the performance of solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and conventional power systems. The financial model can represent financing structures for projects that either buy and sell electricity at retail rates (residential and commercial) or sell electricity at a price determined in a power purchase agreement (utility). Advanced analysis options facilitate parametric, sensitivity, and statistical analyses, and allow for interfacing SAM with Microsoft Excel or with other computer programs. SAM is available as a free download at http://sam.nrel.gov. Technical support and more information about the software are available on the website.

  17. Crystal structures of the SAM-III/S[subscript MK] riboswitch reveal the SAM-dependent translation inhibition mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, C.; Smith, A.M.; Fuchs, R.T.; Ding, F.; Rajashankar, K.; Henkin, T.M.; Ke, A. (Cornell); (OSU)

    2010-01-07

    Three distinct classes of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-responsive riboswitches have been identified that regulate bacterial gene expression at the levels of transcription attenuation or translation inhibition. The SMK box (SAM-III) translational riboswitch has been identified in the SAM synthetase gene in members of the Lactobacillales. Here we report the 2.2-{angstrom} crystal structure of the Enterococcus faecalis SMK box riboswitch. The Y-shaped riboswitch organizes its conserved nucleotides around a three-way junction for SAM recognition. The Shine-Dalgarno sequence, which is sequestered by base-pairing with the anti-Shine-Dalgarno sequence in response to SAM binding, also directly participates in SAM recognition. The riboswitch makes extensive interactions with the adenosine and sulfonium moieties of SAM but does not appear to recognize the tail of the methionine moiety. We captured a structural snapshot of the SMK box riboswitch sampling the near-cognate ligand S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) in which SAH was found to adopt an alternative conformation and fails to make several key interactions.

  18. Sam Wagstaffi unustatud kired / Ahto Külvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Külvet, Ahto

    2008-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilm "Black, White & Gray: Sam Wagstaff and Robert Mapplethorpe" : autor ja režissöör James Crump : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2007. Filmi näidati filminädala "Art in America" raames Tallinnas

  19. Technical Manual for the SAM Physical Trough Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M. J.; Gilman, P.

    2011-06-01

    NREL, in conjunction with Sandia National Lab and the U.S Department of Energy, developed the System Advisor Model (SAM) analysis tool for renewable energy system performance and economic analysis. This paper documents the technical background and engineering formulation for one of SAM's two parabolic trough system models in SAM. The Physical Trough model calculates performance relationships based on physical first principles where possible, allowing the modeler to predict electricity production for a wider range of component geometries than is possible in the Empirical Trough model. This document describes the major parabolic trough plant subsystems in detail including the solar field, power block, thermal storage, piping, auxiliary heating, and control systems. This model makes use of both existing subsystem performance modeling approaches, and new approaches developed specifically for SAM.

  20. Annals of SAM meeting '96. National meeting on precious metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Works are presented at the SAM meeting '96 of the Argentine Materials Association. The papers can be grouped under the following main topics: physical metallurgy; ceramics; polymers; precious metals; extractive metallurgy; corrosion; powder metallurgy. refs., ills

  1. Kuula. Kuu artist Sam Sparro. Kuu plaat / Mart Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Mart, 1964-

    2008-01-01

    Artistist Sam Sparrost. Heliplaatidest: "Sex And The City" Original Motion Picture Soundtrack, "Maestro: Blue Note Trip", Melvin/Soo/Remmel/Julm "Geografix", Alanis Morrisette "Flavors Of Entanglement", Guillemots "Red"

  2. NACO/SAM observations of sources at the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez-Bermudez, J; Alberdi, A; Pott, J U

    2012-01-01

    Sparse aperture masking (SAM) interferometry combined with Adaptive Optics (AO) is a technique that is uniquely suited to investigate structures near the diffraction limit of large telescopes. The strengths of the technique are a robust calibration of the Point Spread Function (PSF) while maintaining a relatively high dynamic range. We used SAM+AO observations to investigate the circumstellar environment of several bright sources with infrared excess in the central parsec of the Galaxy. For our observations, unstable atmospheric conditions as well as significant residuals after the background subtraction presented serious problems for the standard approach of calibrating SAM data via interspersed observations of reference stars. We circumvented these difficulties by constructing a synthesized calibrator directly from sources within the field-of-view. When observing crowded fields, this novel method can boost the efficiency of SAM observations because it renders interspersed calibrator observations unnecessary...

  3. Updating a Vietnam SAM 2005: A hybrid approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bui Van Trinh; Anh Ngoc Nguyen

    2009-01-01

    The Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) is one of the most useful tools of economic research. The matrix can be used for policy analysis and economic planning, and offers an efficient means of summarizing complex economic relationships and identifying gaps in statistical information. Being an extension of the existing national economic accounts, a SAM is a consistent and complete representation of the socio-economic system that captures the interdependencies between institutional groups. It is bot...

  4. A Financial Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for Luxembourg

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) is a comprehensive, economy-wide data framework of real accounts, typically representing the economy of a nation but also providing the link between the economy and the rest of the world in terms of trade flows. However, in order to have a complete picture of the transactions taking place in an economy, real accounts are not sufficient and need to be complemented with financial accounts. This paper describes the construction of the first financial SAM for Luxe...

  5. Cloning and Analysis of Genes SAMS From Glycine soja

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jinping; BAI Xi; LI Yong; JI Wei; WANG Xi; ZHU Yanming

    2008-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) plays important role in trans-methyl reactions. Under the condition of drought (30%PEG),salinity (200 mmol·L-1 NaCI) and low temperature (4℃),total RNA was extracted from the leaf and the first strand of eDNA was synthesized with reverse transcription.S-adenosylmethionine synthetase gene (SAMS gene) was amplified by PeR with the first strand eDNA as template and a pair of primers which was based on constructed ESTs sequence.Full-length SAMS gene sequence was obtained by BLAST comparison. According to the analysis, completed sequence of SAMS gene was integrality.The sequence of the SAMS gene was 1185 bp in length with an opening reading frame (ORF) encoding 394 amino acids.The cDNA sequence showed a significant homology to the SAM genes from Phaseolus lunatus (89%),Medicago sativa (85%).A prokaryotie expression vectors based on pET-32b had been constructed and prokaryotie expression was analyzed in order to lay a strong foundation for resist adversity function analysis through situation of genie expression analysis.

  6. Diamond surface functionalization with biomimicry - Amine surface tether and thiol moiety for electrochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund, James B.; Causey, Corey P.; Wolter, Scott D.; Parker, Charles B.; Stoner, Brian R.; Toone, Eric J.; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2014-05-01

    The surface of conducting diamond was functionalized with a terminal thiol group that is capable of binding and detecting nitrogen-oxygen species. The functionalization process employed multiple steps starting with doped diamond films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by hydrogen termination and photochemical attachment of a chemically protected amine alkene. The surface tether was deprotected to reveal the amine functionality, which enabled the tether to be extended with surface chemistry to add a terminal thiol moiety for electrochemical sensing applications. Each step of the process was validated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis.

  7. Highly luminescent and nontoxic amine-capped nanoparticles from porous silicon: synthesis and their use in biomedical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahire, Jayshree H; Wang, Qi; Coxon, Paul R; Malhotra, Girish; Brydson, Rik; Chen, Rongjun; Chao, Yimin

    2012-06-27

    Stable and brightly luminescent amine-terminated Si nanoparticles (SiNPs) have been synthesized from electrochemically etched porous silicon (PSi). The surface amine termination was confirmed by FTIR, NMR, and XPS studies. The mean diameter of the crystal core of 4.6 nm was measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which is in a good agreement with the size obtained by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The dry, amine-terminated product can be obtained from bulk silicon wafers in less than 4 h. This represents a significant improvement over similar routines using PSi where times of >10 h are common. The emission quantum yield was found to be about 22% and the nanoparticles exhibited an exceptional stability over a wide pH range (4-14). They are resistant to aging over several weeks. The amine-terminated SiNPs showed no significant cytotoxic effects toward HepG2 cells, as assessed with MTT assays.

  8. Cloning and characterization of mr-s, a novel SAM domain protein, predominantly expressed in retinal photoreceptor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koike Chieko

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sterile alpha motif (SAM domains are ~70 residues long and have been reported as common protein-protein interaction modules. This domain is found in a large number of proteins, including Polycomb group (PcG proteins and ETS family transcription factors. In this work, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a novel SAM domain-containing protein, which is predominantly expressed in retinal photoreceptors and the pineal gland and is designated mouse mr-s (major retinal SAM domain protein. Results mr-s is evolutionarily conserved from zebrafish through human, organisms through which the mechanism of photoreceptor development is also highly conserved. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the SAM domain of mr-s is most closely related to a mouse polyhomeotic (ph ortholog, Mph1/Rae28, which is known as an epigenetic molecule involved in chromatin modifications. These findings provide the possibility that mr-s may play a critical role by regulating gene expression in photoreceptor development. mr-s is preferentially expressed in the photoreceptors at postnatal day 3–6 (P3-6, when photoreceptors undergo terminal differentiation, and in the adult pineal gland. Transcription of mr-s is directly regulated by the cone-rod homeodomain protein Crx. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that the mr-s protein self-associates mainly through the SAM domain-containing region as well as ph. The mr-s protein localizes mainly in the nucleus, when mr-s is overexpressed in HEK293T cells. Moreover, in the luciferase assays, we found that mr-s protein fused to GAL4 DNA-binding domain functions as a transcriptional repressor. We revealed that the repression activity of mr-s is not due to a homophilic interaction through its SAM domain but to the C-terminal region. Conclusion We identified a novel gene, mr-s, which is predominantly expressed in retinal photoreceptors and pineal gland. Based on its expression pattern and biochemical analysis

  9. Anomalous length dependence of conductance of aromatic nanoribbons with amine anchoring groups

    OpenAIRE

    Sanvito, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    PUBLISHED Two sets of aromatic nanoribbons, based around a common hexagonal scaffolding, with single and dual terminal amine groups have been considered as potential molecular wires in a junction formed by gold leads. Charge transport through the two-terminal device has been modeled using density functional theory (with and without self-interaction correction) and the nonequilibrium Green's function method. The effects of wire length, multiple terminal contacts, and pathways across the jun...

  10. Functional relationship between CABIT, SAM and 14-3-3 binding domains of GAREM1 that play a role in its subcellular localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishino, Tasuku; Matsunaga, Ryota; Konishi, Hiroaki, E-mail: hkonishi@pu-hiroshima.ac.jp

    2015-08-21

    GAREM1 (Grb2-associated regulator of Erk/MAPK1) is an adaptor protein that is involved in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway. The nuclear localization of GAREM1 depends on the nuclear localization sequence (NLS), which is located at the N-terminal CABIT (cysteine-containing, all in Themis) domain. Here, we identified 14-3-3ε as a GAREM-binding protein, and its binding site is closely located to the NLS. This 14-3-3 binding site was of the atypical type and independent of GAREM phosphorylation. Moreover, the binding of 14-3-3 had an effect on the nuclear localization of GAREM1. Unexpectedly, we observed that the CABIT domain had intramolecular association with the C-terminal SAM (sterile alpha motif) domain. This association might be inhibited by binding of 14-3-3 at the CABIT domain. Our results demonstrate that the mechanism underlying the nuclear localization of GAREM1 depends on its NLS in the CABIT domain, which is controlled by the binding of 14-3-3 and the C-terminal SAM domain. We suggest that the interplay between 14-3-3, SAM domain and CABIT domain might be responsible for the distribution of GAREM1 in mammalian cells. - Highlights: • 14-3-3ε regulated the nuclear localization of GAREM1 as its binding partner. • The atypical 14-3-3 binding site of GAREM1 is located near the NLS in CABIT domain. • The CABIT domain had intramolecular association with the SAM domain in GAREM1. • Subcellular localization of GAREM1 is affected with its CABIT-SAM interaction.

  11. Obituary: Sam Roweis (1972-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, David

    2011-12-01

    Computer scientist and statistical astronomer Sam Roweis took his own life in New York City on 2010 January 12. He was a brilliant and accomplished researcher in the field of machine learning, and a strong advocate for the use of computational statistics for automating discovery and scientific data analysis. He made several important contributions to astronomy and was working on adaptive astronomical data analysis at the time of his death. Roweis obtained his PhD in 1999 from the California Institute of Technology, where he worked on a remarkable range of subjects, including DNA computing, modeling of dynamical systems, signal processing, and speech recognition. During this time he unified and clarified some of the most important data analysis techniques, including Principal Component Analysis, Hidden Markov Models, and Expectation Maximization. His work was aimed at making data analysis and modeling faster, but also better justified scientifically. The last years of his PhD were spent in Princeton NJ, where he came in contact with a young generation of cosmologists thinking about microwave background and large-scale structure data. In a postdoc at University College London, Roweis co-created the Locally Linear Embedding (LLE) algorithm; a simple but flexible technique for mapping a large data set onto a low-dimensional manifold. The LLE paper obtained more than 2700 citations in 9 years, launched a new sub-field of machine learning known as "manifold learning," and inspired work in data visualization, search, and applied mathematics. In 2001, Roweis took a faculty job at the University of Toronto Computer Science Department. He continued working on data analysis methods that have probabilistic interpretation and therefore scientific applicability, but at the same time have good performance on large data sets. He was awarded a Sloan Fellowship, a Canada Research Chair, and a fellowship of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, among other honors and awards

  12. Azide Tripodal Dendrons from Behera's Amine and Their Clicked Dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmare, Farhana; Abadjian, Marie-Caline Z; Wiener, Erik C; Grotjahn, Douglas B

    2016-08-01

    Diazo transfer reactions on Behera's amine and its next-generation analogue formed G0 and G1 azide dendrons bearing three and nine tert-butyl-protected esters, respectively. The utility of the new dendrons was demonstrated by copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, with 1,3,5-triethynylbenzene, forming two novel dendrimers in a convergent manner. Acid-mediated dendrimer deprotection was successful, and the resulting carboxy-terminated dendrimers were analyzed by NMR and DOSY experiments. PMID:27454340

  13. Technoeconomic Modeling of Battery Energy Storage in SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiOrio, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Janzou, Steven [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Detailed comprehensive lead-acid and lithium-ion battery models have been integrated with photovoltaic models in an effort to allow System Advisor Model (SAM) to offer the ability to predict the performance and economic benefit of behind the meter storage. In a system with storage, excess PV energy can be saved until later in the day when PV production has fallen, or until times of peak demand when it is more valuable. Complex dispatch strategies can be developed to leverage storage to reduce energy consumption or power demand based on the utility rate structure. This document describes the details of the battery performance and economic models in SAM.

  14. Termination Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

  15. Diamond surface functionalization with biomimicry – Amine surface tether and thiol moiety for electrochemical sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sund, James B., E-mail: jim@jamessund.com [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Causey, Corey P. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Wolter, Scott D. [Department of Physics, Elon University, Elon, NC 27244 (United States); Parker, Charles B., E-mail: charles.parker@duke.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Stoner, Brian R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Research Triangle Institute (RTI) International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Toone, Eric J. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Glass, Jeffrey T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Diamond surfaces were functionalized with organic molecules using a novel approach. • Used biomimicry to select a molecule to bind NO, similar to the human body. • Molecular orbital theory predicted the molecule-analyte oxidation behavior. • A thiol moiety was attached to an amine surface tether on the diamond surface. • XPS analysis verified each surface functionalization step. - Abstract: The surface of conducting diamond was functionalized with a terminal thiol group that is capable of binding and detecting nitrogen–oxygen species. The functionalization process employed multiple steps starting with doped diamond films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by hydrogen termination and photochemical attachment of a chemically protected amine alkene. The surface tether was deprotected to reveal the amine functionality, which enabled the tether to be extended with surface chemistry to add a terminal thiol moiety for electrochemical sensing applications. Each step of the process was validated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis.

  16. Biogenic amines in dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Linares, Daniel M.; Martín, M. Cruz; Ladero Losada, Víctor Manuel; Álvarez González, Miguel Ángel; Fernández García, María

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BA) are organic, basic, nitrogenous compounds with biological activity, mainly formed by the decarboxylation of amino acids. BA are present in a wide range of foods, including dairy products, and can accumulate in high concentrations. In some cheeses more than 1000 mg of BA have been detected per kilogram of cheese. The consumption of food containing large amounts of these amines can have toxicological consequences. Although there is no specific legislation regarding the BA c...

  17. Social Activity Method (SAM): A Fractal Language for Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I shall present and develop my organisational language, "social activity method" (SAM), and illustrate some of its applications. I shall introduce a new scheme for "modes of recontextualisation" that enables the analysis of the ways in which one activity--which might be school mathematics or social research or any…

  18. Dynamics within alkylsiloxane SAMs studied by sensitive dielectric spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Mary; Stevens, Derrick; Bochinski, Jason; Clarke, Laura

    2009-03-01

    Self assembled monolayers (SAMs) are a ubiquitous tool in modern research and their static structure has been extensively studied. Fewer investigations have addressed dynamics within these systems; however, such motions within SAMs will affect surface properties such as friction and blocking ability (permeability). In this study, sensitive, dielectric spectroscopy over a broad temperature range (4-400 K) has been employed to study relaxations within planar alkylsiloxane SAMs[1] . Highly disordered SAMs of varying density were grown by vapor deposition. Two dielectric relaxations were observed. The first, a polyethylene-like relaxation similar to that previously reported in phase-segregated alkyl side-chain polymers, is observed for all films with alkyl chains containing four or more carbons. This is an interacting or glassy relaxation. The second motion, which is observable only at high film densities, is a local mode, which follows an Arrhenius dependence on temperature, and has been previously assigned to a sub-chain rotation. [1] M.C. Scott, D.R. Stevens, J.R. Bochinski, L.I. Clarke, ACS Nano. DOI: 10.1021/nn800543j.

  19. GoSam @ LHC: algorithms and applications to Higgs production

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, G; Greiner, N; Heinrich, G; Luisoni, G; Mastrolia, P; Mirabella, E; Ossola, G; Peraro, T; Reichel, J; Schlenk, J; von Soden-Fraunhofen, J F; Tramontano, F

    2013-01-01

    We elaborate on GoSam, a code-writer for automated one-loop calculations. After recalling its main features, we present a selection of phenomenological results recently obtained, giving relevance at the evaluation of NLO QCD corrections to the production of a Higgs boson in association with jets and heavy quarks.

  20. ISO19770-1:2012 SAM process guidance

    CERN Document Server

    Canavan, Rory

    2012-01-01

    The pocket guide offers a concise summary of the principles of software asset management as conveyed by ISO 19770-1: 2012, and provides advice and guidance on how to kick-start your own SAM programme - something the Standard alone doesn't offer.

  1. Role of Sam68 in Post-Transcriptional Gene Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Sánchez-Jiménez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The STAR family of proteins links signaling pathways to various aspects of post-transcriptional regulation and processing of RNAs. Sam68 belongs to this class of heteronuclear ribonucleoprotein particle K (hnRNP K homology (KH single domain-containing family of RNA-binding proteins that also contains some domains predicted to bind critical components in signal transduction pathways. In response to phosphorylation and other post-transcriptional modifications, Sam68 has been shown to have the ability to link signal transduction pathways to downstream effects regulating RNA metabolism, including transcription, alternative splicing or RNA transport. In addition to its function as a docking protein in some signaling pathways, this prototypic STAR protein has been identified to have a nuclear localization and to take part in the formation of both nuclear and cytosolic multi-molecular complexes such as Sam68 nuclear bodies and stress granules. Coupling with other proteins and RNA targets, Sam68 may play a role in the regulation of differential expression and mRNA processing and translation according to internal and external signals, thus mediating important physiological functions, such as cell death, proliferation or cell differentiation.

  2. Spatio-angularly multiplexed (SAM) holographic storage in photorefractive crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shiquan

    In this thesis a novel multiplexing scheme for dense holographic storage in photorefractive crystals, Spatio-Angular Multiplexing (or SAM), is described in detail. In SAM Fourier transform holograms are formed in spatially overlapping regions of a crystal and are distinguished from one another by using variously angled reference beams. SAM takes advantage of both the high storage density possible using angularly multiplexed volume holograms and also the low crosstalk possible using spatially multiplexed Fourier transform holograms. Compared to pure spatial multiplexing, SAM increases the storage capacity by fully utilising the volume of the storage medium. On the other hand, SAM reduces the number of holograms overlapping any one hologram in a given volume, and so increases the diffraction efficiency achievable as compared to pure angular multiplexing. SAM offers the possibility of incorporating the recorded crystal into a content addressable memory (CAM) system for parallel access of all stored patterns. In order to obtain the maximum diffraction efficiency and signal to noise ratio, the hologram must be replayed by a readout beam incident at the correct angle of readout beam. The optimum angle may be shifted away from the angle used in recording by a ''Bragg-shift", caused (under certain conditions) by phase coupling between the two writing beams during recording. Although this Bragg shift is small, a large diffraction efficiency enhancement is obtained when the grating is read out at the optimum angle. We have calculated the Bragg shift, using a numerical calculation based on an earlier theory, and have obtained good agreement with experiment. Using the novel SAM scheme, we have succeeded in storing 756 high resolution binary patterns in an Fe:LiNbO3 crystal of volume 1cm3, with an average diffraction efficiency of 0.5%. This large database is designed for practical use in a novel associative memory system, called a high order feedback neural network (HOFNET

  3. Fabrication of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and inorganic micropattern on flexible polymer substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Junhui; Zhu, Peixin; Masuda, Yoshitake; Koumoto, Kunihito

    2004-04-13

    By grafting (aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) as the buffer layer on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) surface, the SAMs ofoctadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS), phenyltrichlorosilane (PTCS), vinyltrichlorosilane (VTCS), andp-tolyltrichlorosilane (TTCS) were fabricated on the flexible polymer substrate. The properties of SAMs were accurately controlled by adjusting the immersing time of substrates in the solutions and the concentration of the solutions. The SAMs acted as templates, and TiO2 micropattern was successfully deposited on OTS, TTCS, and PTCS SAMs. PMID:15875858

  4. Influence of the wet chemistry on the SAM GCMS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, A.; Freissinet, C.; Szopa, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Miller, K.; Eigendbrode, J.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Stern, J. C.; Pinnick, V. T.; Coll, P. J.; François, P.; Cabane, M.; Teinturier, S.; Coscia, D.; Dworkin, J. P.; Summons, R. E.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    The SAM GC-MS instrument on the Curiosity rover allows to analyze volatile compounds from the atmosphere or volatile compounds from the Martian regolith and refractory compounds in the regolith after sample treatment using wet chemistry. One portion of the wet chemistry experiment is composed of MTBSTFA (N-methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide) / DMF (dimethylformamide). Indeed, chemical derivatization of polar molecular compounds is achieved by the MTBSTFA silylation reaction in order to transform refractory polar compounds into a more volatile form that can be analyzed and detected by GC-MS. Results obtained on Rocknest (Leshin et al. 2013; Glavin et al. 2013) and John Klein showed the presence of MTBSTFA reaction products in the system. This means that MTBSTFA is part of the background signal under its gaseous phase and is derived from at least one of the seven MTBSTFA/DMF filled derivatization cups in SAM. Since MTBSTFA is able to react in the gaseous phase, its detection implies the possibility to have some MTBSTFA reactions with all the labile compounds possibly present in the Martian soil, in the sampling system and/or inside the SAM instrument. As such, in order to better understand the portion of products detected coming from internal reactions, we have performed several lab experiments to mimic the SAM pyrolysis and gas processing system. Specifically, we have investigated possible MTBSTFA reactions with organics at high temperatures (100°C up to 600°C) from the SAM trap (Tenax) and with oxychlorine compounds present on Mars (Glavin et al. 2013). References: Leshin et al. Science, in press; Glavin et al. JGR-Planets, accepted.

  5. Anomalous length dependence of conductance of aromatic nanoribbons with amine anchoring groups

    KAUST Repository

    Bilić, Ante

    2012-09-06

    Two sets of aromatic nanoribbons, based around a common hexagonal scaffolding, with single and dual terminal amine groups have been considered as potential molecular wires in a junction formed by gold leads. Charge transport through the two-terminal device has been modeled using density functional theory (with and without self-interaction correction) and the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function method. The effects of wire length, multiple terminal contacts, and pathways across the junction have been investigated. For nanoribbons with the oligopyrene motif and conventional single amine terminal groups, an increase in the wire length causes an exponential drop in the conductance. In contrast, for the nanoribbons with the oligoperylene motif and dual amine anchoring groups the predicted conductance rises with the wire length over the whole range of investigated lengths. Only when the effects of self-interaction correction are taken into account, the conductance of the oligoperylene ribbons exhibits saturation for longer members of the series. The oligoperylene nanoribbons, with dual amine groups at both terminals, show the potential to fully harness the highly conjugated system of π molecular orbitals across the junction. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  6. Amine Swingbed Payload Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsch, Mary; Curley, Su

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has been designed as a laboratory for demonstrating technologies in a microgravity environment, benefitting exploration programs by reducing the overall risk of implementing such technologies in new spacecraft. At the beginning of fiscal year 2010, the ISS program manager requested that the amine-based, pressure-swing carbon dioxide and humidity absorption technology (designed by Hamilton Sundstrand, baselined for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, and tested at the Johnson Space Center in relevant environments, including with humans, since 2005) be developed into a payload for ISS Utilization. In addition to evaluating the amine technology in a flight environment before the first launch of the Orion vehicle, the ISS program wanted to determine the capability of the amine technology to remove carbon dioxide from the ISS cabin environment at the metabolic rate of the full 6 ]person crew. Because the amine technology vents the absorbed carbon dioxide and water vapor to space vacuum (open loop), additional hardware needed to be developed to minimize the amount of air and water resources lost overboard. Additionally, the payload system would be launched on two separate Space Shuttle flights, with the heart of the payload-the swingbed unit itself-launching a full year before the remainder of the payload. This paper discusses the project management and challenges of developing the amine swingbed payload in order to accomplish the technology objectives of both the open -loop Orion application as well as the closed-loop ISS application.

  7. [Preliminary study on autoregulation of samR involved in development and differentiation of Streptomyces ansochromogenes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-ling; Yang, Hai-hua; Tan, Hua-rong

    2005-02-01

    The previous result showed that samR plays an important role in the development progress of Streptomyces ansochromogenes. It was reported that the differentiation progress of S. ansochromogenes was accelerated by a recombinant plasmid containing an extra copy of samR gene. However, the differentiation progress of S. ansochromogenes was not further accelerated by a multicopy plasmid containing samR gene. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) demonstrated that SamR binds to its own promoter region specifically. All these results hint that samR is an autoregulatory gene in Streptomyces ansochromogenes. PMID:15847153

  8. Drakon-terminal sdelajet aeroport Pekina samõm bolshim na Zemlje

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Pekingisse rajatavast lennujaama terminalist. Kavandas briti arhitektuuribüroo Foster and Partners. Projekti tutvustab arhitekt Norman Foster. Projektiga töötasid ka hollandi planeerijad NACO B.U ja ameerika inseneribüroo ARUP

  9. Fabrication and characterization of indium sulfide thin films deposited on SAMs modified substrates surfaces by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to explore the optoelectronic properties of nanostructured indium sulfide (In2S3) thin films for a wide range of applications, the In2S3 thin films were successfully deposited on the APTS layers (-NH2-terminated) modified ITO glass substrates using the chemical bath deposition technique. The surface morphology, structure and composition of the resultant In2S3 thin films were characterized by FESEM, XRD, and XPS, respectively. Also, the correlations between the optical properties, photocurrent response and the thickness of thin films were established. According to the different deposition mechanisms on the varying SAMs terminational groups, the positive and negative micropatterned In2S3 thin films were successfully fabricated on modified Si substrates surface combining with the ultraviolet lithography process. This offers an attractive opportunity to fabricate patterned In2S3 thin films for controlling the spatial positioning of functional materials in microsystems.

  10. Simulated SAM A-scans on multilayer MEMS components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janting, Jakob; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Greisen, Christoffer

    2002-01-01

    A spreadsheet program for simulation of Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM) A-scans on multilayer structures has been developed. Using this program, structure variations in samples can be analysed better. Further samples can be prepared to get optimal signal for enhanced failure and materials anal....... The calculation of N, the program interface, and simulated A-scans on MEMS test structures for a pressure sensor are presented. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. Technical Manual for the SAM Biomass Power Generation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgenson, J.; Gilman, P.; Dobos, A.

    2011-09-01

    This technical manual provides context for the implementation of the biomass electric power generation performance model in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) System Advisor Model (SAM). Additionally, the report details the engineering and scientific principles behind the underlying calculations in the model. The framework established in this manual is designed to give users a complete understanding of behind-the-scenes calculations and the results generated.

  12. Genome sequencing and annotation of Stenotrophomonas sp. SAM8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Selim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report draft genome sequence of Stenotrophomonas sp. strain SAM8, isolated from environmental water. The draft genome size is 3,665,538 bp with a G + C content of 67.2% and contains 6 rRNA sequence (single copies of 5S, 16S & 23S rRNA. The genome sequence can be accessed at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession no. LDAV00000000.

  13. The ALICE Glance Shift Accounting Management System (SAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Silva, H.; Abreu Da Silva, I.; Ronchetti, F.; Telesca, A.; Maidantchik, C.

    2015-12-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is an experiment at the CERN LHC (Large Hadron Collider) studying the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma. The experiment operation requires a 24 hours a day and 7 days a week shift crew at the experimental site, composed by the ALICE collaboration members. Shift duties are calculated for each institute according to their correlated members. In order to ensure the full coverage of the experiment operation as well as its good quality, the ALICE Shift Accounting Management System (SAMS) is used to manage the shift bookings as well as the needed training. ALICE SAMS is the result of a joint effort between the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) and the ALICE Collaboration. The Glance technology, developed by the UFRJ and the ATLAS experiment, sits at the basis of the system as an intermediate layer isolating the particularities of the databases. In this paper, we describe the ALICE SAMS development process and functionalities. The database has been modelled according to the collaboration needs and is fully integrated with the ALICE Collaboration repository to access members information and respectively roles and activities. Run, period and training coordinators can manage their subsystem operation and ensure an efficient personnel management. Members of the ALICE collaboration can book shifts and on-call according to pre-defined rights. ALICE SAMS features a user profile containing all the statistics and user contact information as well as the Institutes profile. Both the user and institute profiles are public (within the scope of the collaboration) and show the credit balance in real time. A shift calendar allows the Run Coordinator to plan data taking periods in terms of which subsystems shifts are enabled or disabled and on-call responsible people and slots. An overview display presents the shift crew present in the control room and allows the Run Coordination team to confirm the presence

  14. Bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Arora

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic amines are an important group of industrial chemicals, which are widely used for manufacturing of dyes, pesticides, drugs, pigments, and other industrial products. These compounds have been considered highly toxic to human beings due to their carcinogenic nature. Three groups of aromatic amines have been recognized: monocyclic, polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic amines. Bacterial degradation of several monocyclic aromatic compounds has been studied in a variety of bacteria, which utilizes monocyclic aromatic amines as their sole source of carbon and energy. Several degradation pathways have been proposed and the related enzymes and genes have also been characterized. Many reviews have been reviewed toxicity of monocyclic aromatic amines; however, there is lack of review on biodegradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. The aim of this review is to summarize bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. This review will increase our current understanding of biochemical and molecular basis of bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines.

  15. Genetic characterization of senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, K

    1997-01-01

    The Senescence-Accelerated Mouse (SAM) strains are unique and appropriate models for genetic studies on aging because the SAMP strains have an "accelerated senescence" phenotype for which the SAMR strains are controls, and each SAMP strain has a strain-specific age-associated disorder. Furthermore, because they have gone through sufficient generations of sister-brother mating, they can be considered inbred strains, which can be analyzed genetically. There are now 11 SAMP strains and 3 SAMR strains descended from the progenitor litters. Analysis with the Gompertz function shows that the SAMP strains have the same initial mortality rate (IMR) as the SAMR strains but a shorter mortality rate doubling time (MRDT), presumably due to genes that accelerated the rate of senescence in the SAMP strains. This accelerated senescence may also occur in cultured fibroblast-like cells. We performed molecular genetic characterization of all the SAM strains to acquire a base of genetic information from which we could develop hypotheses on the mechanism of development of SAM strains and genetic factors that contribute to accelerated senescence. PMID:9088910

  16. Atmospheric amines - Part I. A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xinlei; Wexler, Anthony S.; Clegg, Simon L.

    2011-01-01

    Amines are emitted by a wide range of sources and are ubiquitous atmospheric organic bases. Approximately 150 amines and about 30 amino acids have been identified in the atmosphere. We review the present knowledge of atmospherically relevant amines with respect to their sources, fluxes, and dynamics including gas-phase reactions, gas-to-particle conversion and deposition. The health effects of aliphatic and aromatic amines are briefly summarized as well as the atmospheric occurrence and reactivity of amino acids and urea.

  17. Supported Gold Nanoparticles for Efficient α-Oxygenation of Secondary and Tertiary Amines into Amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiongjie; Kataoka, Kengo; Yatabe, Takafumi; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2016-06-13

    Although the α-oxygenation of amines is a highly attractive method for the synthesis of amides, efficient catalysts suited to a wide range of secondary and tertiary alkyl amines using O2 as the terminal oxidant have no precedent. This report describes a novel, green α-oxygenation of a wide range of linear and cyclic secondary and tertiary amines mediated by gold nanoparticles supported on alumina (Au/Al2 O3 ). The observed catalysis was truly heterogeneous, and the catalyst could be reused. The present α-oxygenation utilizes O2 as the terminal oxidant and water as the oxygen atom source of amides. The method generates water as the only theoretical by-product, which highlights the environmentally benign nature of the present reaction. Additionally, the present α-oxygenation provides a convenient method for the synthesis of (18) O-labeled amides using H2 (18) O as the oxygen source. PMID:27151621

  18. Preparation and reactivity of carboxylic acid-terminated boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedziolka-Joensson, Joanna [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley, BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, UMR 8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Boland, Susan; Leech, Donal [School of Chemistry, National University of Irland, Galway (Ireland); Boukherroub, Rabah [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley, BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, UMR 8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Szunerits, Sabine, E-mail: sabine.szunerits@iri.univ-lille1.f [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley, BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, UMR 8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports on the formation of carboxy-terminated boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. The carboxylic acid termination was prepared in a controlled way by reacting photochemically oxidized BDD with succinic anhydride. The resulting interface was readily employed for the linking of an amine-terminated ligand such as an osmium complex bearing an amine terminal group. The interfaces were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Contact angle measurements were used to follow the changes in surface wetting properties due to surface functionalization. The chemical reactivity of the carboxyl-terminated BDD was investigated by covalent coupling of the acid groups to an amine-terminated osmium complex.

  19. The SAMS: Smartphone Addiction Management System and verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heyoung; Ahn, Heejune; Choi, Samwook; Choi, Wanbok

    2014-01-01

    While the popularity of smartphones has given enormous convenience to our lives, their pathological use has created a new mental health concern among the community. Hence, intensive research is being conducted on the etiology and treatment of the condition. However, the traditional clinical approach based surveys and interviews has serious limitations: health professionals cannot perform continual assessment and intervention for the affected group and the subjectivity of assessment is questionable. To cope with these limitations, a comprehensive ICT (Information and Communications Technology) system called SAMS (Smartphone Addiction Management System) is developed for objective assessment and intervention. The SAMS system consists of an Android smartphone application and a web application server. The SAMS client monitors the user's application usage together with GPS location and Internet access location, and transmits the data to the SAMS server. The SAMS server stores the usage data and performs key statistical data analysis and usage intervention according to the clinicians' decision. To verify the reliability and efficacy of the developed system, a comparison study with survey-based screening with the K-SAS (Korean Smartphone Addiction Scale) as well as self-field trials is performed. The comparison study is done using usage data from 14 users who are 19 to 50 year old adults that left at least 1 week usage logs and completed the survey questionnaires. The field trial fully verified the accuracy of the time, location, and Internet access information in the usage measurement and the reliability of the system operation over more than 2 weeks. The comparison study showed that daily use count has a strong correlation with K-SAS scores, whereas daily use times do not strongly correlate for potentially addicted users. The correlation coefficients of count and times with total K-SAS score are CC = 0.62 and CC =0.07, respectively, and the t-test analysis for the

  20. Advances in heterocyclic ketene aminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of the reactions of heterocyclic ketene aminals are reviewed with the emphases on regioselective alkylation, acylation and glycosylation reactions, and on the aza-ene reactions with α,β-unsaturated compounds, azo and carbonyl compounds. Reactions with 1,3-dipoles and other reagents to synthesize fused heterocycles are also discussed.

  1. Age-Related Changes in Bone Mass in the Senescence-Accelerated Mouse (SAM): SAM-R/3 and SAM-P/6 as New Murine Models for Senile Osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushita, Mutsumi; Tsuboyama, Tadao; Kasai, Ryuichi; Okumura, Hideo; Yamamuro, Takao; HIGUCHI, Keiichi; Higuchi, Kayoko; Kohno, Atsuko; Yonezu, Tomonori; Utani, Atsushi; Umezawa, Makiko; TAKEDA, Toshio

    1986-01-01

    Age-related changes of the femoral bone mass in several strains of the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) were investigated. Microdensitometrically, all strains exhibited essentially the same patterns of age changes, that is, bone mass corrected by the diameter of the shaft reached the peak value when the mice were 4 or 5 months of age and then fell linearly with age up to over 20 months of age. Two strains, SAM-R/3 and SAM-P/6, which originated from the same ancestry on pedigree, had a signi...

  2. Investment and Saving in Russian Macroeconomy. Compilation and Analyses of an aggregated SAM for Russia, 1995

    OpenAIRE

    Yasushi Nakamura

    1998-01-01

    Assessing investment activity is a key to understanding the present Russian economy; the Russian official national accounts, however, do not give very much information on it because of their large statistical discrepancies. Using a matrix balancing method, we construct an aggregated Social Accounting Matrix (SAM), which integrates a Russian Flow of Funds table into the Russian national accounts and contains no discrepancies. Comparing the Russian SAM with Japanese and US SAMs, we find some ch...

  3. Utility of SAM68 in the progression and prognosis for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is often lethal and non-MIBC (NMIBC) can recur and progress, yet prognostic markers are currently inadequate. SAM68, a member of RNA-binding proteins, has been reported to contribute to progression of other cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential utility of SAM68 in the progression and prognosis of bladder cancer. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry were utilized to examine the expression of SAM68 in ten pairs of MIBC and adjacent normal bladder urothelium, and eight pairs of MIBC and non-MIBC (NMIBC) tissues from the same patient. Moreover, SAM68 protein expression level and localization were examined by immunohistochemistry in 129 clinicopathologically characterized MIBC samples. Prognostic associations were determined by multivariable analysis incorporating standard prognostic factors. SAM68 expression was elevated in MIBC tissues compared with adjacent normal bladder urothelium, and was increased at both transcriptional and translational levels in MIBC tissues compared with NMIBC tissues of the same patient. For MIBC, high expression and nucleus-cytoplasm co-expression of SAM68 were associated with higher T-stage, higher N-stage and worse recurrence-free survival. Five-year recurrence-free survival was 80% and 52.9% for MIBC patients with low and high SAM68 expression, respectively (p = 0.001). SAM68 nucleus-cytoplasm co-expression associated with worse 5-year recurrence-free survival rate (49.2%) than SAM68 expression confined to the nucleus (82.5%) or cytoplasm (75.5%) alone. On multivariable analysis SAM68 expression level, SAM68 nucleus-cytoplasm co-expression, T-stage, and N-stage were all independent prognostic factors for recurrence-free survival of MIBC patients. SAM68 expression is increased in MIBC when compared to normal urothelium and NMIBC, and appears to be a potentially useful prognostic marker for MIBC

  4. Electronic patient self-assessment and management (SAM): A novel framework for cancer survivorship

    OpenAIRE

    Tighe Foss; Carroll Peter R; Cooperberg Matthew R; Basch Ethan; Salz Talya; Vickers Andrew J; Eastham James; Rosen Raymond C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background We propose a novel framework for management of cancer survivorship: electronic patient Self-Assessment and Management (SAM). SAM is a framework for transfer of information to and from patients in such a way as to increase both the patient's and the health care provider's understanding of the patient's progress, and to help ensure that patient care follows best practice. Methods Patients who participate in the SAM system are contacted by email at regular intervals and asked...

  5. The nuclear protein Sam68 is cleaved by the FMDV 3C protease redistributing Sam68 to the cytoplasm during FMDV infection of host cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picornavirus infection can lead to disruption of nuclear pore traffic, shut-off of cell translation machinery, and cleavage of proteins involved in cellular signal transduction and the innate response to infection. Here, we demonstrated that the FMDV 3Cpro induced the cleavage of nuclear RNA-binding protein Sam68 C-terminus containing the nuclear localization sequence (NLS). Consequently, it stimulated the redistribution of Sam68 to the cytoplasm. The siRNA knockdown of Sam68 resulted in a 1000-fold reduction in viral titers, which prompted us to study the effect of Sam68 on FMDV post-entry events. Interestingly, Sam68 interacts with the internal ribosomal entry site within the 5′ non-translated region of the FMDV genome, and Sam68 knockdown decreased FMDV IRES-driven activity in vitro suggesting that it could modulate translation of the viral genome. The results uncover a novel role for Sam68 in the context of picornaviruses and the proteolysis of a new cellular target of the FMDV 3Cpro.

  6. The nuclear protein Sam68 is cleaved by the FMDV 3C protease redistributing Sam68 to the cytoplasm during FMDV infection of host cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Paul; Schafer, Elizabeth A.; Rieder, Elizabeth, E-mail: elizabeth.rieder@ars.usda.gov

    2012-03-30

    Picornavirus infection can lead to disruption of nuclear pore traffic, shut-off of cell translation machinery, and cleavage of proteins involved in cellular signal transduction and the innate response to infection. Here, we demonstrated that the FMDV 3C{sup pro} induced the cleavage of nuclear RNA-binding protein Sam68 C-terminus containing the nuclear localization sequence (NLS). Consequently, it stimulated the redistribution of Sam68 to the cytoplasm. The siRNA knockdown of Sam68 resulted in a 1000-fold reduction in viral titers, which prompted us to study the effect of Sam68 on FMDV post-entry events. Interestingly, Sam68 interacts with the internal ribosomal entry site within the 5 Prime non-translated region of the FMDV genome, and Sam68 knockdown decreased FMDV IRES-driven activity in vitro suggesting that it could modulate translation of the viral genome. The results uncover a novel role for Sam68 in the context of picornaviruses and the proteolysis of a new cellular target of the FMDV 3C{sup pro}.

  7. Analysis of heterocyclic aromatic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murkovic, M

    2007-09-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines are formed in protein and amino acid-rich foods at temperatures above 150 degrees C. Of more than twenty heterocyclic aromatic amines identified ten have been shown to have carcinogenic potential. As nutritional hazards, their reliable determination in prepared food, their uptake and elimination in living organisms, including humans, and assessment of associated risks are important food-safety issues. The concentration in foods is normally in the low ng g(-1) range, which poses a challenge to the analytical chemist. Because of the complex nature of food matrixes, clean-up and enrichment of the extracts are also complex, usually involving both cation-exchange (propylsulfonic acid silica gel, PRS) and reversed-phase purification. The application of novel solid-phase extraction cartridges with a wettable apolar phase combined with cation-exchange characteristics simplified this process--both the polar and apolar heterocyclic aromatic amines were recovered in one fraction. Copper phthalocyanine trisulfonate bonded to cotton ("blue cotton") or rayon, and molecular imprinted polymers have also been successfully used for one-step sample clean-up. For analysis of the heterocyclic aromatic amines, liquid chromatography with base-deactivated reversed-phase columns has been used, and, recently, semi-micro and capillary columns have been introduced. The photometric, fluorimetric, or electrochemical detectors used previously have been replaced by mass spectrometers. Increased specificity and sub-ppb sensitivities have been achieved by the use of the selected-reaction-monitoring mode of detection of advanced MS instrumentation, for example the triple quadrupole and Q-TOF instrument combination. Gas chromatography, also with mass-selective detection, has been used for specific applications; the extra derivatization step needed for volatilization has been balanced by the higher chromatographic resolution. PMID:17546447

  8. Water adsorption isotherms on CH3-, OH-, and COOH-terminated organic surfaces at ambient conditions measured with PM-RAIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Aimee; Kwag, Hye Rin; Barnette, Anna L; Kim, Seong H

    2012-10-30

    The water adsorption isotherms on methyl (CH(3))-, hydroxyl (OH)-, and carboxylic acid (COOH)-terminated alkylthiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au were studied at room temperature and ambient pressure with polarization modulation reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (PM-RAIRS). PM-RAIRS analysis showed that water does not adsorb at all on the CH(3)-SAM/Au at subsaturation humidity conditions. In a dry Ar environment, the OH-SAM/Au holds at least 2 layer thick strongly bound water molecules which exhibit a broad O-H stretch vibration peak centered at ∼3360 cm(-1). The peak position implies that the strongly bound water layer on the OH SAM is more like a liquid than an ice. The additional uptake of water in humid environments is relatively weak, and the peak position changes very little. Unlike the OH-SAM/Au, the COOH-SAM/Au does not have strongly bound water layer. This seems to be due to the strong hydrogen bonding between terminal COOH groups in dry conditions. The weak interactions between water and carboxyl groups at low relative humidity (RH) and the solvation of dissociated carboxylic groups in high RH lead to a type III isotherm behavior, based on the BET categories, for water adsorption on the COOH-SAM/Au. The water spectra on the COOH-SAM at RH > 45% are centered at ∼3430 cm(-1) and very broad, indicating that the hydrogen-bonding network of water on the COOH-SAM is much different from that on the OH-SAM.

  9. Status of the implementation of SAM measures. Why now?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of having accident sequences leading to extensive core degradation or even containment failure has been recognized at the beginning of the development of nuclear programs. However, though the results reported in the WASH 1400 study clearly showed that the expected Core Melt Frequency (CMF) or Large Early Release Frequency (LERF) were much higher than originally anticipated, they were deemed sufficiently low to justify limiting Severe accident concerns to better understanding of some relevant physical phenomena. Little attention was given to possible hardware modifications or implementation of countermeasures allowing to mitigate the consequences of core-melt sequences until the TMI-2 accident. Thereafter all western countries relying on nuclear energy for part of their electricity generation started developing national programs to address severe accident issues. However, because regulatory frames or perceived threats to communities, as well as the kind of relationship existing between Safety Authorities and Utilities could differ from country to country, the adopted approaches were not uniform across the board. In particular, provisions adopted or contemplated for the management of Severe Accidents could be country or plant specific. In 1986, the Chernobyl accident gave a new impetus to Severe Accident activities and re-emphasized the need for maintaining containment integrity in case of accidents involving extended core degradation. However, though these activities were developed in a very coordinated way in each country, it seemed difficult to obtain a broad overview of international activities, in particular in the field of Severe Accident Management (SAM). In 1989, a CSNI Senior Group of Experts on Severe Accident Management (SESAM) was set up to fill this gap and provide advice to CSNI on how to coordinate and disseminate the SAM related activities carried out under the Principal Working Groups. In this regard, SESAM organized a Specialist

  10. Combined heterogeneous metal/chiral amine: multiple relay catalysis for versatile eco-friendly synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiana, Luca; Jiang, Yan; Palo-Nieto, Carlos; Afewerki, Samson; Incerti-Pradillos, Celia A; Verho, Oscar; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Johnston, Eric V; Córdova, Armando

    2014-03-24

    Herein is described a versatile and broad synergistic strategy for expansion of chemical space and the synthesis of valuable molecules (e.g. carbocycles and heterocycles), with up to three quaternary stereocenters, in a highly enantioselective fashion from simple alcohols (31 examples, 95:5 to >99.5:0.5 e.r.) using integrated heterogeneous metal/chiral amine multiple relay catalysis and air/O₂ as the terminal oxidant. A novel highly 1,4-selective heterogeneous metal/amine co-catalyzed hydrogenation of enals was also added to the relay catalysis sequences. PMID:24677482

  11. Film-forming amines in shell boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topp, Holger [Astrium RST Rostock GmbH, Rostock (Germany); Hater, Wolfgang [BK Giulini, Ludwigshafen (Germany); BKG Water Solutions, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Bache, Andre de [BK Giulini, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Kolk, Christian zum [BKG Water Solutions, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Studies were conducted with the aim of providing answers to important questions concerning the use of film-forming amines in steam generators. Tests were carried out in test steam generators under controlled conditions to study the three following application areas: the influence of film-forming amines on boiling behavior and heat transfer, the influence of film-forming amines on oxidic protective film formation, and the influence of film-forming amines on critical operating conditions. In the experiments water treatment with trisodium phosphate (which is normally used with shell boilers) was compared with treatment with film-forming amines. In all three areas the treatment with film-forming amines achieved comparable or better results than the treatment with trisodium phosphate. (orig.)

  12. Biogenic amines in seafood: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biji, K B; Ravishankar, C N; Venkateswarlu, R; Mohan, C O; Gopal, T K Srinivasa

    2016-05-01

    The biogenic amines are low molecular weight organic bases present normally in the body with biological activity influencing important physiological functions. The physiological functions of these molecules are achieved by very low concentrations in the tissues. However, significantly high amounts of biogenic amines are produced during processing and storage of seafood as a result of microbial contamination and inadequate storage conditions. Microorganisms having decarboxylase enzyme activity convert amino acids to their respective biogenic amines. Biogenic amines in seafood have been implicated as a major causative agent of food borne illness, where intoxication results from the ingestion of foods containing higher amount of biogenic amines. Hence its identification, quantitation and awareness of this food borne toxin are important in relation to food safety and spoilage. The aim of this paper is to review the basic concepts of seafood quality and safety in relation to biogenic amines along with its control measures and future areas for research. PMID:27407186

  13. Terminal Ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the important issues of terminal ballistics in a comprehensive way combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. The first chapter reviews the experimental equipment which are used for ballistic tests and the diagnostics for material characterization under impulsive loading conditions. The second chapter covers essential features of the codes which are used for terminal ballistics such as the Euler vs. Lagrange schemes and meshing techniques, as well as the most popular material models. The third chapter, devoted to the penetration mechanics of rigid penetrators, brings the update of modeling in this field. The fourth chapter deals with plate perforation and the fifth chapter deals with the penetration mechanics of shaped charge jets and eroding long rods. The last two chapters discuss several techniques for the disruption and defeating of the main threats in armor design. Throughout the book the authors demonstrate the advantages of numerical simulations in unde...

  14. Terminal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank; Allais, Arnaud; Mirebeau, Pierre; Ganhungu, Francois; Lallouet, Nicolas

    2009-10-20

    A terminal structure (2) for a superconducting cable (1) is described. It consists of a conductor (2a) and an insulator (2b) that surrounds the conductor (2a), wherein the superconducting cable (1) has a core with a superconducting conductor (5) and a layer of insulation that surrounds the conductor (5), and wherein the core is arranged in such a way that it can move longitudinally in a cryostat. The conductor (2a) of the terminal structure (2) is electrically connected with the superconducting conductor (5) or with a normal conductor (6) that is connected with the superconducting conductor (5) by means of a tubular part (7) made of an electrically conductive material, wherein the superconducting conductor (5) or the normal conductor (6) can slide in the part (7) in the direction of the superconductor.

  15. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

    OpenAIRE

    Attila Kántor; Miroslava Kačániová; Vendula Pachlová

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine). The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD), ...

  16. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  17. PENENTUAN KANDUNGAN LOGAM Pb DAN Cr PADA AIR DAN SEDIMEN DI SUNGAI AO DESA SAM SAM KABUPATEN TABANAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI PUTU DIANTARIANI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on the heavy metal content, Pb and Cr in water and sediment of Ao River in Sam SamVillage, Tabanan Regency have been carried out. Sample of water taken at 8 location per week during 4weeks, while sample of sediment only taken once at 8 location. Determination of metal content of Pb and Crconducted using destruction method with mixture of HNO3 dan HCl (3:1 and analysed with AbsorptionAtomic Spectrophotometer.The result showed that mean metal content of Pb and Cr in water of Ao river at the location aftertextile industry (location 5 until 8 from four times intake of samples have passed enabled boundarythreshold that is 0,03 mg/L for Pb and 0,05 mg/L for Cr. Mean Pb content in sediment at location 1, 2, 3, 4and 5 still under natural content while location 6, 7 and 8 over the natural boundary threshold. Meanwhile forthe Cr metal only at location 8 over the natural boundary threshold. The highest metal content of Pb and Cr insediment and water found at location 8 that is each of 0,496 mg/L and 0,213 mg/L for Pb and Cr in water and141,844 mg/Kg and 33,489 mg/Kg for Pb and Cr in sediment respectively.

  18. A ruthenium racemisation catalyst for the synthesis of primary amines from secondary amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingen, Dennis; Altıntaş, Çiğdem; Rudolf Schaller, Max; Vogt, Dieter

    2016-08-01

    A Ru-based half sandwich complex used in amine and alcohol racemization reactions was found to be active in the splitting of secondary amines to primary amines using NH3. Conversions up to 80% along with very high selectivities were achieved. However, after about 80% conversion the catalyst lost activity. Similar to Shvo's catalyst, the complex might deactivate under the influence of ammonia. It was revealed that not NH3 but mainly the primary amine is responsible for the deactivation. PMID:27321431

  19. Chemical analyses of hydroxyapatite formation on SAM surfaces modified with COOH, NH(2), CH(3), and OH functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Isao; Akamatsu, Mai; Fujii, Eri; Poolthong, Suchit; Okazaki, Masayuki

    2010-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite formation was examined at the surface of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) modified with four functional groups, -COOH, -NH(2), -CH(3), and -OH. For COOH-SAM and NH(2)-SAM, scanning electron spectroscopic observation showed that flake-like sheet crystals covered the whole wafer and small broccoli-like crystals were observed occasionally on the flake-like crystal base layer. For CH(3)-SAM and OH-SAM, no flake-like sheet crystals were observed; broccoli-like crystals were observed in a dispersed manner for CH(3)-SAM, but in localized spots for OH-SAM. X-ray diffraction patterns showed a strong apatite pattern oriented toward the c-axis direction for COOH-SAM. ESCA analysis revealed distinct Ca, P, O peaks for COOH-, NH(2)-, CH(3)-, and OH-SAM. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis indicated that during the supply of supersaturated calcium phosphate solution, the deposition of precipitates increased monotonically with time for COOH-SAM, increased slightly for NH(2)-SAM, but little increase in deposition was detected for CH(3)-SAM and OH-SAM.

  20. Winning Attitude & Dedication to Physical Therapy Keep Sam Schmidt on Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosley, Nikki Prevenslik

    2006-01-01

    This article relates how Sam Schmidt returned to living a productive life after an accident left him with spinal cord injury. Schmidt was a former Indy Racing League driver who founded Sam Schmidt Motorsports after his accident in 2000. Schmidt's car hit the wall as he exited turn two during a practice session at Walt Disney World Speedway in…

  1. NaCo/SAM observations of sources at the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bermudez, J.; Schödel, R.; Alberdi, A.; Pott, J. U.

    2012-07-01

    Sparse aperture masking (SAM) interferometry combined with Adaptive Optics (AO) is a technique that is uniquely suited to investigate structures near the diffraction limit of large telescopes. The strengths of the technique are a robust calibration of the Point Spread Function (PSF) while maintaining a relatively high dynamic range. We used SAM+AO observations to investigate the circumstellar environment of several bright sources with infrared excess in the central parsec of the Galaxy. For our observations, unstable atmospheric conditions as well as significant residuals after the background subtraction presented serious problems for the standard approach of calibrating SAM data via interspersed observations of reference stars. We circumvented these difficulties by constructing a synthesized calibrator directly from sources within the field-of-view. When observing crowded fields, this novel method can boost the efficiency of SAM observations because it renders interspersed calibrator observations unnecessary. Here, we presented the first NaCo/SAM images reconstructed using this method.

  2. S.A.M., the Italian Martian Simulation Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletta, G.; Ferri, F.; Fanti, G.; D'Alessandro, M.; Bertoloni, G.; Pavarin, D.; Bettanini, C.; Cozza, P.; Pretto, P.; Bianchini, G.; Debei, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Martian Environment Simulator (SAM “Simulatore di Ambiente Marziano”) is a interdisciplinary project of Astrobiology done at University of Padua. The research is aimed to the study of the survival of the microorganisms exposed to the “extreme” planetary environment. The facility has been designed in order to simulate Mars’ environmental conditions in terms of atmospheric pressure, temperature cycles and UV radiation dose. The bacterial cells, contained into dedicated capsules, will be exposed to thermal cycles simulating diurnal and seasonal Martian cycles. The metabolism of the different biological samples will be analysed at different phases of the experiment, to study their survival and eventual activity of protein synthesis (mortality, mutations and capability of DNA reparing). We describe the experimental facility and provide the perspectives of the biological experiments we will perform in order to provide hints on the possibility of life on Mars either autochthonous or imported from Earth.

  3. Social activity method (SAM): A fractal language for mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Paul

    2013-09-01

    In this paper I shall present and develop my organisational language, social activity method (SAM), and illustrate some of its applications. I shall introduce a new scheme for modes of recontextualisation that enables the analysis of the ways in which one activity - which might be school mathematics or social research or any empirically observed regularity of practice - recontextualises the practice of another and I shall also present, deploy, and develop an existing scheme - domains of action - in an analysis of school mathematics examination papers and in the structuring of what I refer to as the esoteric domain. This domain is here conceived as a hybrid domain of, first, linguistic and extralinguistic resources that are unambiguously mathematical in terms of both expression and content and, second, pedagogic theory - often tacit - that enables the mathematical gaze onto other practices and so recontextualises them. A second and more general theme that runs through the paper is the claim that there is nothing that is beyond semiosis, that there is nothing to which we have direct access, unmediated by interpretation. This state of affairs has implications for mathematics education. Specifically, insofar as an individual's mathematical semiotic system is under continuous development - the curriculum never being graspable all at once - understanding - as a stable semiotic moment - of any aspect or object of mathematics is always localised to the individual and is at best transient, and the sequencing of such moments may well also be more individualised than consistent in some correspondence with the sequencing of the curriculum. This being the case, a concentration on understanding as a goal may well serve to inhibit the pragmatic acquisition and deployment of mathematical technologies, which should be the principal aim of mathematics teaching and learning. The paper is primarily concerned with mathematics education. SAM, however, is a language that is available for

  4. Photon multiplication in wide-gap BAM and SAM aluminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushchik, Aleksandr; Lushchik, Cheslav; Feldbach, Eduard; Kudryavtseva, Irina; Liblik, Peeter; Maaroos, Aarne; Nagirnyi, Vitali; Savikhin, Fjodor; Vasil'chenko, Eugeni

    2005-08-01

    Processes of various intrinsic and impurity luminescence excitation by 4-32 eV photons or 18 and 300 keV electrons have been studied in pure and doped BaMgAl10O17 (BAM) and SrMgAl10O17 (SAM) phosphors at 6-300 K. In BAM:Eu (l0%), the quantum yield of Eu2+ center emission is QY = 1 in the region of exciting photon energies of hνec = 7-12 eV, the value of QY reaches 2 at 14-21 eV and sharply increases at hνec = 22-32 eV, where secondary electron-hole pairs are created by hot conduction electrons. The processes connected with the rise of QY for various types of emission in the region of 14-21 eV have been thoroughly studied for BAM and SAM phosphors. It has been suggested that such exciting photons cause the ionization of oxygen ions and form hot valence holes, the energy of which is partially used for the excitation of Eu2+ ions (4f7→4f65d1 transitions) due to nonradiative Auger transitions. The intensity of the Eu2+ emission increases after a single nanosecond electron pulse with a rise time of 50-150 ns. This rise is connected with the energy transfer from spinel blocks to Eu2+ ions located at cation planes of the β-alumina-type materials.

  5. Economic Analysis Case Studies of Battery Energy Storage with SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiOrio, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Janzou, Steven [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Interest in energy storage has continued to increase as states like California have introduced mandates and subsidies to spur adoption. This energy storage includes customer sited behind-the-meter storage coupled with photovoltaics (PV). This paper presents case study results from California and Tennessee, which were performed to assess the economic benefit of customer-installed systems. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued.

  6. Sam68 is Overexpressed in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer and Promotes Tumor Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lijuan; Che, Hailuo; Li, Mingmei; Li, Xuepeng

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the deadliest gynecological malignancy, and evidence is accumulating on how molecular markers may be associated with the origin and process of EOC. Sam68 (Src-associated in mitosis, of 68 kD), is a K homology domain RNA-binding protein that has been investigated as a risk factor in multiple types of tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of the Sam68 gene in the pathogenesis of EOC. MATERIAL AND METHODS Western blot assay and real-time quantitative PCR methods were performed to examine Sam68 expression in EOC tissue specimens. The association of Sam68 expression with clinic-pathologic variables of EOC was evaluated. Then gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies were adopted to examine the regulation of Sam68 on the proliferation of EOC OVCAR-3 cells using CCK-8 and colony forming assays. RESULTS Sam68 was overexpressed in both mRNA and protein levels in EOC tumor tissue (n=152) in an association with malignant factors of EOC such as International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, residual tumor size (cm), histological grade, and lymph node metastasis. In vitro results demonstrated that Sam68 overexpression was upregulated while Sam68 knockdown downregulated the proliferation of EOC OVCAR-3 cells via regulation of cell growth and colony formation. CONCLUSIONS Sam68 was overexpressed in EOC tissue in association with such cancer malignant factors of FIGO stage, histological grade, and lymph node metastasis, and also positively regulated the proliferation of EOC cells. Our research suggests that Sam68 might accelerate cell cycle progression, and present as a prognostic marker for EOC. PMID:27623016

  7. Amine degradation and associated problems in the gas treating unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumeister, E.R. [Dow Chemical Co. (United States); Souza, R.C.O [Dow Brasil S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Amine degradation and associated problems in the amine gas treating unit cannot be completely avoided or eliminated. They can be cost effectively mitigated using a thorough amine management program. Economic and performance benefits realized from an amine management program include several improvements and performance index. Better yields, lower costs, and fewer environmental concerns are some of the additional advantages of using a comprehensive amine management system to help run the amine gas treating unit. (author)

  8. Speaking Personally--with Amin Qazi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an interview with Amin Quazi, the founding chief executive officer of Unizin, a university-owned consortium focused on the emerging digital teaching and learning ecosystem. Amin has a bachelor's degree in chemical engineering from The University of Iowa and a master's degree in business administration from the Carlson School…

  9. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.C.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Bottema, K.C.; Dubois, A.E.J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allerg*, intoler*, and

  10. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)], E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Mozo, Ismael; Garcia de la Fuente, Isaias; Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Riesco, Nicolas [Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE113TU Leicestershire (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-30

    Mixtures with dimethyl or trimethylpyridines and alkane, aromatic compound or 1-alkanol have been examined using different theories: DISQUAC, Flory, the concentration-concentration structure factor, S{sub CC}(0), or the Kirkwood-Buff formalism. DISQUAC represents fairly well the available experimental data, and improves theoretical calculations from Dortmund UNIFAC. Two important effects have been investigated: (i) the effect of increasing the number of methyl groups attached to the aromatic ring of the amine; (ii) the effect of modifying the position of the methyl groups in this ring. The molar excess enthalpy, H{sup E}, and the molar excess volume, V{sup E}, decrease in systems with alkane or methanol as follows: pyridine > 3-methylpyridine > 3,5-dimethylpyridine and pyridine > 2-methylpyridine > 2,4-dimethylpyridine > 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine, which has been attributed to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions in the same sequences. This is in agreement with the relative variation of the effective dipole moment, {mu}-bar, and of the differences between the boiling temperature of a pyridine base and that of the homomorphic alkane. For heptane solutions, the observed H{sup E} variation, H{sup E} (3,5-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,4-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,6-dimethylpyridine), is explained similarly. Calculations on the basis of the Flory model confirm that orientational effects become weaker in systems with alkane in the order: pyridine > methylpyridine > dimethylpyridine > trimethylpyridine. S{sub CC}(0) calculations show that steric effects increase with the number of CH{sub 3}- groups in the pyridine base, and that the steric effects exerted by methyl groups in positions 2 and 6 are higher than when they are placed in positions 3 and 5. The hydrogen bond energy in methanol mixtures is independent of the pyridine base, and it is estimated to be -35.2 kJ mol{sup -1}. Heterocoordination in these solutions is due in part to size effects. Their

  11. Terminal ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.

  12. The integrated conjugative plasmid pSAM2 of Streptomyces ambofaciens is related to temperate bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccard, F; Smokvina, T; Pernodet, J L; Friedmann, A; Guérineau, M

    1989-03-01

    Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC23877 and derivatives contain the 11-kb element pSAM2 present in an integrated state or as a free and integrated plasmid. This element, able to integrate site-specifically in the genome of different Streptomyces species, is conjugative and mobilizes chromosomal markers. Besides these plasmid functions, we have shown that the site-specific recombination system of pSAM2 presents strong similarities with that of several temperate phages. The integration event is promoted by a site-specific recombinase of the integrase family. The int gene encoding this integrase is closely linked to the plasmid attachment site (attP). A small open reading frame (ORF) overlaps the int gene and the predicted protein exhibits similarities with Xis proteins involved in phages excision. The integrated copy of pSAM2 in strain ATCC23877 is flanked by att sequences (attL and attR). Another att sequence (attX) is present in this strain and attX and attL are the boundaries of a 42-kb fragment (xSAM1) absent, as well as pSAM2, from S.ambofaciens DSM40697. Sequences partially similar to pSAM2 int gene are found near the chromosomal integration zone in both S.ambofaciens strains. The possible origin of pSAM2, an element carrying plasmid as well as phage features, is discussed.

  13. Analysis of a regional change in the sign of the SAM-temperature relationship in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gareth J.; di Battista, Stefano; Naik, Sushant S.; Thamban, Meloth

    2011-01-01

    This study examines regional atmospheric circulation changes associated with a reversal in the sign of the relationship between the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and near-surface temperatures at Halley station, East Antarctica, during the 1980s. We show that the key factor affecting the regional SAM-temperature relationship (STR) is the relative magnitude of two climatological low pressure centres to the west and east of the area, which determines the source region of air masses advected into the locality. The principal difference affecting the STR is shown to be a trend towards a significantly weaker climatological low (higher pressure) at ~20°E during a positive phase of the SAM. Specifically, it is variations in the phase and magnitude of the wave number three patterns of atmospheric circulation, the non-annular component of the SAM, which are the principal factors governing the regional STR. A similar reversal is observed in the sign of the correlation between the SAM and oxygen-isotope values from an ice core located some 1,200 km east of Halley. This relationship is examined throughout the 20th Century, by comparing the isotope data to SAM reconstructions, and demonstrates marked decadal variability. Thus, these data suggest that switches in the STR are more likely to reflect natural variability in the long-wave patterns over the Southern Ocean rather than the influence of an anthropogenic forcing. This finding is important when considering the potential utility of Antarctic isotope data as a proxy for the SAM.

  14. The nuclear protein Sam68 is recruited to the cytoplasmic stress granules during enterovirus 71 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Chen, Ning; Li, Pengfei; Pan, Ziye; Ding, Yun; Zou, Dehua; Li, Liyang; Xiao, Lijie; Shen, Binglei; Liu, Shuxia; Cao, Hongwei; Cui, Yudong

    2016-07-01

    Our previous study found that the nuclear protein, 68-kDa Src-associated in mitosis protein (Sam68), is translocated to the cytoplasm and forms punctate pattern during enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection [Virus Research, 180 (2014), 1-11]. However, the exact function of this punctate pattern in cytoplasm during EV71 infection remains unknown. In this study, we firstly have examined this punctate pattern of Sam68 re-localization in the cytoplasm, and observed the obvious recruitments of Sam68 to the EV71-induced stress granules (SGs). Sam68, belongs to the KH domain family of RNA binding proteins (RBPs), was then confirmed that its KH domain was essential for this recruitment. Nevertheless, Knockdown of Sam68 expression using ShRNA had no effects on SGs assembly, indicating that Sam68 is not a constitutive component of the SGs during EV71 infection. Lastly, we investigated the importance of microtubulin transport to SGs aggregation, and revealed that microtubule depolymerization inhibited SGs formation, suggesting that EV71-induced SGs move throughout the cytoplasm in a microtubule-dependent manner. Taken together, these results illuminated that EV71 infections can induce SGs formation, and Sam68, as a SGs component, migrates alone with SGs dependent on intact microtubule upon the viral infections. These findings may provide novel underlying mechanism for delineating the role of SGs during EV71 infection. PMID:27057671

  15. Sam68 exerts separable effects on cell cycle progression and apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resnick Ross J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The RNA-binding protein Sam68 has been implicated in a number of cellular processes, including transcription, RNA splicing and export, translation, signal transduction, cell cycle progression and replication of the human immunodeficiency virus and poliovirus. However, the precise impact it has on essential cellular functions remains largely obscure. Results In this report we show that conditional overexpression of Sam68 in fibroblasts results in both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Arrest in G1 phase of the cell cycle is associated with decreased levels of cyclins D1 and E RNA and protein, resulting in dramatically reduced Rb phosphorylation. Interestingly, cell cycle arrest does not require the specific RNA binding ability of Sam68. In marked contrast, induction of apoptosis by Sam68 absolutely requires a fully-functional RNA binding domain. Moreover, the anti-cancer agent trichostatin A potentiates Sam68-driven apoptosis. Conclusions For the first time we have shown that Sam68, an RNA binding protein with multiple apparent functions, exerts functionally separable effects on cell proliferation and survival, dependent on its ability to bind specifically to RNA. These findings shed new light on the ability of signal transducing RNA binding proteins to influence essential cell function. Moreover, the ability of a class of anti-cancer therapeutics to modulate its ability to promote apoptosis suggests that Sam68 status may impact some cancer treatments.

  16. Sam68 Mediates the Activation of Insulin and Leptin Signalling in Breast Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pérez-Pérez

    Full Text Available Obesity is a well-known risk factor for breast cancer development in postmenopausal women. High insulin and leptin levels seem to have a role modulating the growth of these tumours. Sam68 is an RNA-binding protein with signalling functions that has been found to be overexpressed in breast cancer. Moreover, Sam68 may be recruited to insulin and leptin signalling pathways, mediating its effects on survival, growth and proliferation in different cellular types. We aimed to study the expression of Sam68 and its phosphorylation level upon insulin and leptin stimulation, and the role of Sam68 in the proliferative effect and signalling pathways that are activated by insulin or leptin in human breast adenocarcinoma cells. In the human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines MCF7, MDA-MB-231 and BT-474, Sam68 protein quantity and gene expression were increased upon leptin or insulin stimulation, as it was checked by qPCR and immunoblot. Moreover, both insulin and leptin stimulation promoted an increase in Sam68 tyrosine phosphorylation and negatively regulated its RNA binding capacity. siRNA was used to downregulate Sam68 expression, which resulted in lower proliferative effects of both insulin and leptin, as well as a lower activation of MAPK and PI3K pathways promoted by both hormones. These effects may be partly explained by the decrease in IRS-1 expression by down-regulation of Sam68. These results suggest the participation of Sam68 in both leptin and insulin receptor signaling in human breast cancer cells, mediating the trophic effects of these hormones in proliferation and cellular growth.

  17. Dielectric properties of supramolecular ionic structures obtained from multifunctional carboxylic acids and amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Lidia; Yu, Liyun; Hvilsted, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    ), are investigated. Here the relative dielectric permittivities of the supramolecular ionic structures formed with the multifunctional carboxylic acids were lower than those from the supramolecular ionic structures formed with the two carboxymethyl ether-terminated poly(ethylene glycol)s.......The dielectric properties of several supramolecular ionic polymers and networks, linked by the ammonium salts of hexamethylene diamine (HMDA), tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TAEA), poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers and two short bis carboxymethyl ether-terminated poly(ethylene glycol)s (Di...... networks, formed by mixing multifunctional carboxylic acids such as citric acid (CA), tricarballylic acid (TCAA), trimesic acid (TMA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DETPA) with two di ff erent Je ff amine polyetheramines (designated as D400 and D2000...

  18. Quantifying amine permeation sources with acid neutralization: calibrations and amines measured in coastal and continental atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Freshour

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An acid titration method for quantifying amine permeation rates was used to calibrate an Ambient pressure Proton transfer Mass Spectrometer (AmPMS that monitors ambient amine compounds. The method involves capturing amines entrained in a N2 flow by bubbling it through an acidified solution (~ 10−5 M HCl, and the amines are quantified via changes in solution pH with time. Home-made permeation tubes had permeation rates (typically tens of pmol s−1 that depended on the type of amine and tubing and on temperature. Calibrations of AmPMS yielded sensitivities for ammonia, methyl amine, dimethyl amine, and trimethyl amine that are close to the sensitivity assuming a gas-kinetic, ion-molecule rate coefficient. The permeation tubes were also designed to deliver a reproducible amount of amine to a flow reactor where nucleation with sulfuric acid was studied. The high proton affinity compound dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, linked to oceanic environments, was also studied and AmPMS is highly sensitive to it. AmPMS was deployed recently in two field campaigns and mixing ratios are reported for ammonia, alkyl amines, and DMSO and correlations between these species and with particle formation events are discussed.

  19. A New Structural Form in the SAM/Metal-Dependent O;#8209;Methyltransferase Family: MycE from the Mycinamicin Biosynthetic Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akey, David L.; Li, Shengying; Konwerski, Jamie R.; Confer, Laura A.; Bernard, Steffen M.; Anzai, Yojiro; Kato, Fumio; Sherman, David H.; Smith, Janet L. (Michigan); (Toho)

    2012-08-01

    O-linked methylation of sugar substituents is a common modification in the biosynthesis of many natural products and is catalyzed by multiple families of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM or AdoMet)-dependent methyltransferases (MTs). Mycinamicins, potent antibiotics from Micromonospora griseorubida, can be methylated at two positions on a 6-deoxyallose substituent. The first methylation is catalyzed by MycE, a SAM- and metal-dependent MT. Crystal structures were determined for MycE bound to the product S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (AdoHcy) and magnesium, both with and without the natural substrate mycinamicin VI. This represents the first structure of a natural product sugar MT in complex with its natural substrate. MycE is a tetramer of a two-domain polypeptide, comprising a C-terminal catalytic MT domain and an N-terminal auxiliary domain, which is important for quaternary assembly and for substrate binding. The symmetric MycE tetramer has a novel MT organization in which each of the four active sites is formed at the junction of three monomers within the tetramer. The active-site structure supports a mechanism in which a conserved histidine acts as a general base, and the metal ion helps to position the methyl acceptor and to stabilize a hydroxylate intermediate. A conserved tyrosine is suggested to support activity through interactions with the transferred methyl group from the SAM methyl donor. The structure of the free enzyme reveals a dramatic order-disorder transition in the active site relative to the S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine complexes, suggesting a mechanism for product/substrate exchange through concerted movement of five loops and the polypeptide C-terminus.

  20. biogenic aerosol precursors: volatile amines from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Uwe; Sintermann, Jörg; Spirig, Christoph; Ammann, Christof; Neftel, Albrecht

    2010-05-01

    Information on the occurrence of volatile biogenic amines in the atmosphere is marginal. This group of N-bearing organic compounds are assumed to be a small, though significant component of the atmospheric N-cycle, but are not accounted for in global assessments due to the scarceness of available data. There is increasing evidence for an important role of biogenic amines in the formation of new particulate matter, as well as for aerosol secondary growth. Volatile amines are ubiquitously formed by biodegradation of organic matter, and agriculture is assumed to dominantly contribute to their atmospheric burden. Here we show that the mixing ratios of volatile amines within livestock buildings scale about 2 orders of magnitude lower than NH3, confirming the few literature data available (e.g., Schade and Crutzen, J. Atm. Chem. 22, 319-346, 1995). Flux measurements after manure application in the field, mixing ratios in the headspace of manure storage pools, and concentrations in distilled manure all indicate major depletion of amines relative to NH3 during manure processing. We conclude that the agricultural source distribution of NH3 and amines is not similar. While for NH3 the spreading of manure in the field dominates agricultural emissions, the direct release from livestock buildings dominates the budget of volatile biogenic amines.

  1. Efecto de la polietilenimina en la actividad catalítica de la peroxidasa de rábano (horseradish peroxidase inmovilizada en electrodos de oro modificados con monocapas autoensambladas de tioles (SAMs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro R. Matheus

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the Polyethyleneimine in the Activity Catalytic of the horseradish peroxidase Immobilized on Gold Electrodes Modified with a Self-assembled Monolayer of Thiols (SAMs. Studies were conducted bycyclic voltammetry (CV to investigate the effect of the polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI in the electrochemical reversibility of the mediator thionine and thus the catalytic activity of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase of recombinant HRP-NHis (horseradish peroxidase to the has been added to a chain of six histidine in the extreme N-terminal protein. This self produced monolayers of thiols (SAMS on gold electrodes, with chemical modifications obtained through successive stages in the solid phase of the electrode. The gold electrodes were modified with monolayer SAM-TOA-[ANTA/DADOO] -Co2+ [SAM: self-assembled monolayers of thiols, TOA: dithioctic acid, ANTA: nitrilotriacetic acid, DADOO: 1,8-diamino-3,6-dioxa octane]. The results showed that the presence of the polymer improves the electrochemical reversibility of the mediator to endure catalyticcurrents as high as those that are obtained with molar ratios ANTA:DADOO 10:1 in the absence of PEI, and improve the response voltammetric obtained.

  2. Biogenic amines and radiosensitivity of solitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different stability of cells to ionizing radiation is considered from a position of the ''elevated biochemical radioresistance background'' concept. Experimental evidence presented indicates an important role of endogenic amines (serotonin and histamine) possessing radioprotector properties in the cell radioresistance formation. The concept about their effect as being solely a result of circulatory hypoxia is critically discussed. The experimental results favor the existence of a ''cellular'' component, along with the ''hypoxic'' one, in the mechanism of action of biogenic amines. These compounds can affect the initial stages of peroxide oxidation of lipids, thereby favoring a less intensive oxidation induced by radiation. Biogenic amines can also exert influence on the cyclic nucleotide system

  3. Efficient Data Mining in SAMS through Association Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Rahul B. Diwate

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a protocol for secure mining of association rules in distributed databases. Previous techniques all people deals with different database, now a day’s people also deals with the distributed database. Can we develop a kind of application in which the people can access the distributed data which is already store in remote location in encrypted format? This proposes system technique is used for efficient data mining in SAMS (Student Assessment Management System through association rules in distributed databases. The current leading techniques are that of Kantarcioglu and Clifton. This proposed system is ready to implements two methods, one that computes the union of private subsets that each of the interacting users hold, and another that tests the inclusion of an element held by one user in a subset held by another .We propose a protocol for secure mining through association rule consist a different level of execution process to secure storage of data and access of data. This paper will focus on such process for secure storage plus secure access of data

  4. Self-assembled monolayers of terminal acetylenes as replacements for thiols in bottom-up tunneling junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fracasso, Davide; Kumar, Sumit; Rudolf, Petra; Chiechi, Ryan C.

    2014-01-01

    Why use thiols in Molecular Electronics? They stink, oxidize readily, poison catalysts, and often require nontrivial protection/deprotection chemistry. In this communication we demonstrate the fabrication of tunneling junctions formed by contact of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of terminal alkyne

  5. Advance in the synthesis of aromatic amine via direct amination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Arylamines are very common and important organic molecules. Acting as important intermediates in medical and chemical industry, they are widely used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, dyes, pesticides, rubber additives, isocyanates and heterocyclic compounds. The traditional methods for the synthesis of arylamines include several steps. The production of aniline, for example, includes the following steps: the production of nitro-benzene by the nitration of benzene, and the reduction of the resulting nitro-benzene by catalytic hydrogenation or other reduction ways[1-6]; or the substitution of phenol or chlorbenzene by amino groups, etc.[7-10]. There are several disadvantages for these methods: low atom utilization, strict operation condition, large amount of by-products and serious environmental pollution, which could not afford for the needs of a sustainable civilization. So there has been growing interest in the direct amination to produce arylamines recently. With the direct methods, the multi- step reaction may change into one step, the atom utilization can be evidently improved, and the by-products H2 or/and H2O are harmless to the environment.

  6. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) - Smoking-Attributable Mortality (SAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking-attributable mortality (SAM) is the number of deaths caused by cigarette...

  7. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) - Smoking Attributable Mortality (SAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking attributable mortality (SAM) is the number of deaths caused by cigarette...

  8. Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee Wilderness: A report on wilderness character monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides a detailed summary of the baseline wilderness character assessment completed for the Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge...

  9. Self-organizing map (SOM) of space acceleration measurement system (SAMS) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, A.; Smith, A. D.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, space acceleration measurement system (SAMS) data have been classified using self-organizing map (SOM) networks without any supervision; i.e., no a priori knowledge is assumed regarding input patterns belonging to a certain class. Input patterns are created on the basis of power spectral densities of SAMS data. Results for SAMS data from STS-50 and STS-57 missions are presented. Following issues are discussed in details: impact of number of neurons, global ordering of SOM weight vectors, effectiveness of a SOM in data classification, and effects of shifting time windows in the generation of input patterns. The concept of 'cascade of SOM networks' is also developed and tested. It has been found that a SOM network can successfully classify SAMS data obtained during STS-50 and STS-57 missions.

  10. Investigation of Self Assembled Monolayers (SAM) Applied on Si(100) Surfaces by Atomic Force Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniaturization of analytical instrumentation in a molecular and nanometer level has technologically significant. The fabrication of nanopatterns with high resolution SPM nanolithograpy may be applied on atomically flat surfaces. Self Assembled-Monolayers (SAMs) are well-ordered two dimensional molecular assemblies formed by a strong adsorption of an active surfactant on a solid surface. In this study, SAM organic thin film method is applied on silicon surfaces. We used various cleaning procedures such as chemical cleaning, ion beam treatment, on p-type Si(1OO) surfaces. SAMs films were produced from bipolar amphiphiles, Octadecylamine ODA-HCl, 1,12-diaminododecane (DAD) and n-tridecylamine (TDA) molecules on Si wafers. Contact mode scanning method and roughness analysis on the scan images were utilized on the SAM coated and uncoated surfaces by Atomic Force Microscopy

  11. SAmBA: an interactive software for optimizing the design of biological macromolecules crystallization experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audic, S; Lopez, F; Claverie, J M; Poirot, O; Abergel, C

    1997-10-01

    SAmBA is a new software for the design of minimal experimental protocols using the notion of orthogonal arrays of strength 2. The main application of SAmBA is the search of protein crystallization conditions. Given a user input defining the relevant effectors/variables (e.g., pH, temperature, salts) and states (e.g., pH: 5, 6, 7 and 8), this software proposes an optimal set of experiments in which all tested variables and the pairwise interactions between them are symmetrically sampled. No a priori restrictions on the number and range of experimental variables is imposed. SAmBA consists of two complementary programs, SAm and BA, using a simulated annealing approach and a backtracking algorithm, respectively. The software is freely available as C code or as an interactive JAVA applet at http:/(/)igs-server.cnrs-mrs.fr. PMID:9329089

  12. Must, valge + hall : Sam Wagstaffi ja Robert Mapplethorpe'i portree / Madis Palm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palm, Madis

    2008-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilm "Black, White & Gray: Sam Wagstaff and Robert Mapplethorpe" : autor ja režissöör James Crump : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2007. Filmi näidati filminädala "Art in America" raames Tallinnas

  13. Fabrication and characterization of indium sulfide thin films deposited on SAMs modified substrates surfaces by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng Xu [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, 730050 (China); Lu Yongjuan; Zhang Xiaoliang [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 10049 (China); Yang Baoping [College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, 730050 (China); Yi Gewen [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Jia Junhong, E-mail: jhjia@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China)

    2011-11-01

    In an effort to explore the optoelectronic properties of nanostructured indium sulfide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films for a wide range of applications, the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were successfully deposited on the APTS layers (-NH{sub 2}-terminated) modified ITO glass substrates using the chemical bath deposition technique. The surface morphology, structure and composition of the resultant In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were characterized by FESEM, XRD, and XPS, respectively. Also, the correlations between the optical properties, photocurrent response and the thickness of thin films were established. According to the different deposition mechanisms on the varying SAMs terminational groups, the positive and negative micropatterned In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were successfully fabricated on modified Si substrates surface combining with the ultraviolet lithography process. This offers an attractive opportunity to fabricate patterned In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films for controlling the spatial positioning of functional materials in microsystems.

  14. Graphite Oxide and Aromatic Amines : Size Matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyrou, Konstantinos; Calvaresi, Matteo; Diamanti, Evmorfi A. K.; Tsoufis, Theodoros; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies are performed in order to illuminate, for first time, the intercalation mechanism of polycyclic aromatic molecules into graphite oxide. Two representative molecules of this family, aniline and naphthalene amine are investigated. After intercalation, aniline molec

  15. Identification of trans-acting factors regulating SamDC expression in Oryza sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Supratim, E-mail: supratim_genetics@yahoo.co.in [Department of Crop Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Division of Plant Biology, Bose Institute, Kolkata (India); Roychoudhury, Aryadeep [Post Graduate Department of Biotechnology, St. Xavier' s College (Autonomous), 30, Mother Teresa Sarani, Kolkata - 700016, West Bengal (India); Sengupta, Dibyendu N. [Division of Plant Biology, Bose Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Identification of cis elements responsible for SamDC expression by in silico analysis. • qPCR analysis of SamDC expression to abiotic and biotic stress treatments. • Detection of SamDC regulators using identified cis-elements as probe by EMSA. • Southwestern Blot analysis to predict the size of the trans-acting factors. - Abstract: Abiotic stress affects the growth and productivity of crop plants; to cope with the adverse environmental conditions, plants have developed efficient defense machinery comprising of antioxidants like phenolics and flavonoids, and osmolytes like polyamines. SamDC is a key enzyme in the polyamine biosynthesis pathway in plants. In our present communication we have done in silico analysis of the promoter region of SamDC to look for the presence of different cis-regulatory elements contributing to its expression. Based on the presence of different cis-regulatory elements we completed comparative analysis of SamDC gene expression in rice lamina of IR-29 and Nonabokra by qPCR in response to the abiotic stress treatments of salinity, drought, cold and the biotic stress treatments of ABA and light. Additionally, to explore the role of the cis-regulatory elements in regulating the expression of SamDC gene in plants we comparatively analyzed the binding of rice nuclear proteins prepared from IR-29 and Nonabokra undergoing various stress treatments. The intensity of the complex formed was low and inducible in IR-29 in contrast to Nonabokra. Southwestern blot analysis helped in predicting the size of the trans-acting factors binding to these cis-elements. To our knowledge this is the first report on the comprehensive analysis of SamDC gene expression in rice and identification of the trans-acting factors regulating its expression.

  16. The Combustion Experiment on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument Suite on the Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J. C.; Malespin, C. A.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Graham, H. V.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Brunner, A. E.; Freissinet, C.; Franz, H. B.; Fuentes, J.; Glavin, D. P.; Leshin, L. A.; Mahaffy, P. R.; McAdam, A. C.; Ming, D. W.; Navvaro-Gonzales, R.; Niles, P. B.; Steele, A.

    2014-01-01

    The combustion experiment on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite on Curiosity will heat a sample of Mars regolith in the presence of oxygen and measure composition of the evolved gases using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) and tunable laser spectrometry (TLS). QMS will enable detection of combustion products such as CO, CO2, NO, and other oxidized species, while TLS will enable precise measurements of the abundance and carbon isotopic composition (delta(sup 13)C) of the evolved CO2 and hydrogen isotopic composition (deltaD) of H2O. SAM will perform a two-step combustion to isolate combustible materials below approx.550 C and above approx.550 C. The combustion experiment on SAM, if properly designed and executed, has the potential to answer multiple questions regarding the origins of volatiles seen thus far in SAM evolved gas analysis (EGA) on Mars. Constraints imposed by SAM and MSL time and power resources, as well as SAM consumables (oxygen gas), will limit the number of SAM combustion experiments, so it is imperative to design an experiment targeting the most pressing science questions. Low temperature combustion experiments will primarily target the quantification of carbon (and nitrogen) contributed by SAM wet chemistry reagants MTBSTFA (N-Methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide) and DMF (Dimethylformamide), which have been identified in the background of blank and sample runs and may adsorb to the sample while the cup is in the Sample Manipulation System (SMS). In addition, differences between the sample and "blank" may yield information regarding abundance and delta(sup 13)C of bulk (both organic and inorganic) martian carbon. High temperature combustion experiments primarily aim to detect refractory organic matter, if present in Cumberland fines, as well as address the question of quantification and deltaD value of water evolution associated with hydroxyl hydrogen in clay minerals.

  17. Aromatic amines sources, environmental impact and remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Luciana; Mondal, P. K.; Alves, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic amines are widely used industrial chemicals as their major sources in the environment include several chemical industry sectors such as oil refining, synthetic polymers, dyes, adhesives, rubbers, perfume, pharmaceuticals, pesticides and explosives. They result also from diesel exhaust, combustion of wood chips and rubber and tobacco smoke. Some types of aromatic amines are generated during cooking, special grilled meat and fish, as well. The intensive use and production of these comp...

  18. Surface amination of poly(acrylonitrile)

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwig, Andreas; Mulder, Marcel; Smolders, Cees A.

    1994-01-01

    The surface amination of poly (acrylonitrile) by ammonia plasma treatment has been studied. Furthermore, two other surface modification techniques have been investigated, the plasma chemical decomposition of an amino group containing chemical (tris-(2-aminoethyl)amine) onto the polymer surface and the surface reduction by lithium aluminium hydride. The three different methods are compared with respect to the adhesion improvement of the coatings onto the modified surfaces.

  19. Biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood

    OpenAIRE

    Pierina eVisciano; Maria eSchirone; Rosanna eTofalo; Giovanna eSuzzi

    2012-01-01

    The presence of biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of biogenic amines in raw seafood. On the other hand, some foo...

  20. Genetic typing of the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) strains with microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, C; Higuchi, K; Shimizu, M; Matsushita, T; Kogishi, K; Wang, J; Chiba, T; Festing, M F; Hosokawa, M

    1999-03-01

    The Senescence-Accelerated Mouse (SAM) strains constitute a murine model of accelerated senescence originating from the ancestral AKR/J strains and consist of nine senescence-prone (SAMP) strains and four senescence-resistant (SAMR) strains. The chromosomes (Chrs) of the SAM strains were typed with 581 microsatellite markers amplified by PCR, and the fundamental genetic information of the SAM strains was obtained. One-third of the examined markers displayed polymorphism among the strains, and only two alleles were detected in almost all loci among the SAM and AKR/J strains. However, in 12 loci (5.6% of total 215 polymorphic markers), the third allele was detected among the SAM strains. The genetic typing and developmental history suggested that the SAM strains were related inbred strains developed by the accidental crossing between the AKR/J strain and other unknown strain(s). Comparison of the distribution of the loci in the SAMP and the SAMR series revealed notable differences in the four regions on Chrs 4, 14, 16, and 17. This indicated that some of these chromosomal sites might contain the genes responsible for accelerated senescence in the SAMP series. PMID:10051317

  1. Stability of hexa(ethylene glycol) SAMs towards the exposure to natural light and repeated reimmersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorn, Stefan [Institute for Applied Physics, Eberhard-Karls University of Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076, Tuebingen (Germany); Dettinger, Ulf [Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Eberhard-Karls-University, Auf der Morgenstelle 18, 72076, Tuebingen (Germany); Skoda, Maximilian W.A. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Jacobs, Robert M.J. [Department of Chemistry, Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3TA (United Kingdom); Peisert, Heiko [Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Eberhard-Karls-University, Auf der Morgenstelle 18, 72076, Tuebingen (Germany); Gerlach, Alexander [Institute for Applied Physics, Eberhard-Karls University of Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076, Tuebingen (Germany); Chasse, Thomas [Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Eberhard-Karls-University, Auf der Morgenstelle 18, 72076, Tuebingen (Germany); Schreiber, Frank, E-mail: frank.schreiber@uni-tuebingen.de [Institute for Applied Physics, Eberhard-Karls University of Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the stability of HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 6}-CH{sub 3} self assembling monolayers (hexa(ethylene glycol) SAMs) on gold regarding reimmersion and exposure to natural light over long periods of time up to several months. With polarisation modulation infrared spectroscopy we were able to monitor significant changes in the fingerprint region (900-1800 cm{sup -1}) of the absorption modes of the SAMs, starting after a few days of exposure to natural light. We observed an exponential intensity decrease of modes indicating helical conformation of the SAM, as well as an exponential increase of modes indicating esters and formates suggesting a degradation of the SAM. X-ray photoelectron spectra of carbon C1s and sulphur S2p confirm the chemical nature of those changes. SAMs stored without light exposure show a drastically decreased change in the infrared spectra. In addition, we could find substantial conformational changes upon repeated drying and reimmersion in EtOH, manifesting in an intensity decrease of the absorption modes indicating hexa(ethylene glycol) molecules in helical conformation. Since the XPS data do not show changes in the chemical structure, we assume disordering effects and dissolution of molecules in solution. Our results suggest that SAMs can be stored over long periods of time in air without major changes if light exposure is avoided.

  2. Electronic patient self-assessment and management (SAM: a novel framework for cancer survivorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tighe Foss

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We propose a novel framework for management of cancer survivorship: electronic patient Self-Assessment and Management (SAM. SAM is a framework for transfer of information to and from patients in such a way as to increase both the patient's and the health care provider's understanding of the patient's progress, and to help ensure that patient care follows best practice. Methods Patients who participate in the SAM system are contacted by email at regular intervals and asked to complete validated questionnaires online. Patient responses on these questionnaires are then analyzed in order to provide patients with real-time, online information about their progress and to provide them with tailored and standardized medical advice. Patient-level data from the questionnaires are ported in real time to the patient's health care provider to be uploaded to clinic notes. An initial version of SAM has been developed at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC and the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF for aiding the clinical management of patients after surgery for prostate cancer. Results Pilot testing at MSKCC and UCSF suggests that implementation of SAM systems are feasible, with no major problems with compliance (> 70% response rate or security. Conclusion SAM is a conceptually simple framework for passing information to and from patients in such a way as to increase both the patient's and the health care provider's understanding of the patient's progress, and to help ensure that patient care follows best practice.

  3. Sam68 Is Required for DNA Damage Responses via Regulating Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Fu, Kai; Hodgson, Andrea; Wier, Eric M; Wen, Matthew G; Kamenyeva, Olena; Xia, Xue; Koo, Lily Y; Wan, Fengyi

    2016-09-01

    The rapid and robust synthesis of polymers of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose (PAR) chains, primarily catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), is crucial for cellular responses to DNA damage. However, the precise mechanisms through which PARP1 is activated and PAR is robustly synthesized are not fully understood. Here, we identified Src-associated substrate during mitosis of 68 kDa (Sam68) as a novel signaling molecule in DNA damage responses (DDRs). In the absence of Sam68, DNA damage-triggered PAR production and PAR-dependent DNA repair signaling were dramatically diminished. With serial cellular and biochemical assays, we demonstrated that Sam68 is recruited to and significantly overlaps with PARP1 at DNA lesions and that the interaction between Sam68 and PARP1 is crucial for DNA damage-initiated and PARP1-conferred PAR production. Utilizing cell lines and knockout mice, we illustrated that Sam68-deleted cells and animals are hypersensitive to genotoxicity caused by DNA-damaging agents. Together, our findings suggest that Sam68 plays a crucial role in DDR via regulating DNA damage-initiated PAR production. PMID:27635653

  4. Fabrication and Surface Properties of Composite Films of SAM/Pt/ZnO/SiO 2

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Ke Xin

    2008-12-16

    Through synthetic architecture and functionalization with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), complex nanocomposite films of SAM/Pt/ZnO/SiO2 have been facilely prepared in this work. The nanostructured films are highly uniform and porous, showing a wide range of tunable wettabilities from superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity (water contact angles: 0° to 170°). Our approach offers synthetic flexibility in controlling film architecture, surface topography, coating texture, crystallite size, and chemical composition of modifiers (e.g., SAMs derived from alkanethiols). For example, wettability properties of the nanocomposite films can be finely tuned with both inorganic phase (i.e., ZnO/SiO2 and Pt/ZnO/SiO2) and organic phase (i.e., SAMs on Pt/ZnO/SiO2). Due to the presence of catalytic components Pt/ZnO within the nanocomposites, surface reactions of the organic modifiers can further take place at room temperature and elevated temperatures, which provides a means for SAM formation and elimination. Because the Pt/ZnO forms an excellent pair of metal-semiconductors for photocatalysis, the anchored SAMs can also be modified or depleted by UV irradiation (i.e., the films possess self-cleaning ability). Potential applications of these nanocomposite films have been addressed. Our durability tests also confirm that the films are thermally stable and structurally robust in modification- regeneration cycles. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  5. Mechanism and Correlated Factors of SAM Phenomenon after Aortic Valve Replacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing; WEN Jianguo; SHU Liliang; LIU Chao; ZHANG Jingchao; ZHAO Wenzeng

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism and correlated factors of systolic anterior motion (SAM) phenomenon after aortic valve replacement, 48 patients with severe aortic valvular stenosis were studied. Tested by echo-Doppler one week after aortic valve replacement, the patients were divided into two groups: SAM group and non-SAM group. The data of the left ventricular end-diastolic diameters, the left ventricular end-systolic diameters, the left ventricular outflow diameters, the thickness of the interventricular septum, the posterior wall of left ventricle, the blood velocities of left ventricular outflow and intra-cavitary gradients were recorded and compared. The results showed that no patients died during or after the operation. The blood velocities of left ventricular outflow was increased significantly in 9 patients (>2.5 m/s), and 6 of them developed SAM phenomenon. There was significant difference in all indexes (P<0.05 or P<0.01) except the posterior wall of left ventricle (P>0.05) between two groups. These indicated that the present of SAM phenomenon after aortic valve replacement may be directly related to the increase of blood velocities of left ventricular outflow and intra-cavitary gradients. It is also suggested that smaller left ventricular diastolic diameters, left ventricular systolic diameters, left ventricular outflow diameters and hypertrophy of interventricular septum may be the anatomy basis of SAM phenomenon.

  6. Synthesis of Indole-2-carboxylate Derivatives via Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Amination of Aryl C-H Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clagg, Kyle; Hou, Haiyun; Weinstein, Adam B; Russell, David; Stahl, Shannon S; Koenig, Stefan G

    2016-08-01

    A direct oxidative C-H amination affording 1-acetyl indolecarboxylates starting from 2-acetamido-3-arylacrylates has been achieved. Indole-2-carboxylates can be targeted with a straightforward deacetylation of the initial reaction products. The C-H amination reaction is carried out using a catalytic Pd(II) source with oxygen as the terminal oxidant. The scope and application of this chemistry is demonstrated with good to high yields for numerous electron-rich and electron-poor substrates. Further reaction of selected products via Suzuki arylation and deacetylation provides access to highly functionalized indole structures. PMID:27404018

  7. Accurate determination of aldehydes in amine catalysts or amines by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Bhajendra N

    2014-01-31

    Carbonyl compounds, specifically aldehydes, present in amine catalysts or amines are determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using ultraviolet detection of their corresponding 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones. The primary focus has been to establish optimum conditions for determining aldehydes accurately because these add exposure concerns when the amine catalysts are used to manufacture polyurethane products. Concentrations of aldehydes determined by this method are found to vary with the pH of the aqueous amine solution and the derivatization time, the latter being problematic when the derivatization reaction proceeds slowly and not to completion in neutral and basic media. Accurate determination of aldehydes in amines through derivatization can be carried out at an effective solution pH of about 2 and with derivatization time of 20min. Hydrochloric acid has been used for neutralization of an amine. For complete derivatization, it is essential to protonate all nitrogen atoms in the amine. An approach for the determination of an adequate amount of acid needed for complete derivatization has been described. Several 0.2M buffer solutions varying in pH from 4 to 8 have also been used to make amine solutions for carrying out derivatization of aldehydes. These solutions have effective pHs of 10 or higher and provide much lower aldehyde concentrations compared to their true values. Mechanisms for the formation of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones in both acidic and basic media are discussed. PMID:24411140

  8. Reductive Amination of Aldehydes and Ketones with Primary Amines by Using Lithium Amidoborane as Reducing Reagent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐维亮; 郑学丽; 吴国涛; 陈萍

    2012-01-01

    A variety of secondary amines were obtained in high isolated yields in the reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones by using lithium amidoborane as reducing agent. Compared to ammonia borane, lithium amidoborane has higher reducibility, and thus, exhibits faster reaction rate.

  9. Synthesis of Bis(hydroxylmethylfurfuryl)amine Monomers from 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhanwei; Yan, Peifang; Liu, Kairui; Wan, Lu; Xu, Wenjuan; Li, Huixiang; Liu, Xiumei; Zhang, Z Conrad

    2016-06-01

    We report the synthesis of bis(hydroxylmethylfurfuryl)amine (BHMFA) from 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) by reacting 5-HMF with primary amines in the presence of homogeneous Ru(II) catalysts having sterically strained ligands. BHMFA is a group of furan-based monomers that offer great potential to form functional biopolymers with tunable properties. A range of primary amines, such as aliphatic and benzyl amines, are readily converted with 5-HMF to form the corresponding BHMFA in good yields. The reaction proceeds through reductive amination of 5-HMF with primary amine to form secondary amine, followed by reductive amination of 5-HMF with in situ generated secondary amine to produce BHMFA. PMID:27151257

  10. Analysis of a regional change in the sign of the SAM-temperature relationship in Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Gareth J. [British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Di Battista, Stefano [Meteogiornale, Milan (Italy); Naik, Sushant S.; Thamban, Meloth [National Center for Antarctic and Ocean Research, Goa (India)

    2011-01-15

    This study examines regional atmospheric circulation changes associated with a reversal in the sign of the relationship between the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and near-surface temperatures at Halley station, East Antarctica, during the 1980s. We show that the key factor affecting the regional SAM-temperature relationship (STR) is the relative magnitude of two climatological low pressure centres to the west and east of the area, which determines the source region of air masses advected into the locality. The principal difference affecting the STR is shown to be a trend towards a significantly weaker climatological low (higher pressure) at {proportional_to}20 E during a positive phase of the SAM. Specifically, it is variations in the phase and magnitude of the wave number three patterns of atmospheric circulation, the non-annular component of the SAM, which are the principal factors governing the regional STR. A similar reversal is observed in the sign of the correlation between the SAM and oxygen-isotope values from an ice core located some 1,200 km east of Halley. This relationship is examined throughout the 20th Century, by comparing the isotope data to SAM reconstructions, and demonstrates marked decadal variability. Thus, these data suggest that switches in the STR are more likely to reflect natural variability in the long-wave patterns over the Southern Ocean rather than the influence of an anthropogenic forcing. This finding is important when considering the potential utility of Antarctic isotope data as a proxy for the SAM. (orig.)

  11. CCN activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical. The particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA and butylamine (BA reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ ≤ 0.25. Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3, contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA aerosol. TMA + N2O5 form semi-volatile organics in low RH conditions that have κ ~ 0.20, indicative of slightly soluble organic material. As RH increases, several inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR ideal mixing rules. Higher CCN activity (κ > 0.3 was also observed for humid BA+N2O5 aerosols compared with dry aerosol (κ ~ 0.2, as a result of the formation of inorganic salts such as NH4NO3 and butylamine nitrate (C4H11N · HNO3. Compared with TMA, BA+N2O5 reactions produce more volatile aerosols. The BA+N2O5 aerosol products under humid experiments were found to be very sensitive to the temperature within the stream-wise continuous flow thermal gradient CCN counter. The CCN counter, when set above a 21 °C temperature difference, evaporates BA+N2O5 aerosol formed at RH ≥ 30%; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 and is dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss settings. The aerosol behaves non-ideally, hence simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems κ ranges from 0.2 < κ < 0.7. This work indicates that

  12. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD, DAD detectors and Extend-C18 LC column (50 mm x 3.0 mm ID, 1.8 μm particle size. In this study the highest level of biogenic amine in all wine samples represent tryptamine (TRM with the highest content 170.9±5.3 mg/L in Pinot Blanc wine. Phenylalanine (PHE cadaverine (CAD, histamine (HIS and spermidine (SPD were not detected in all wines; mainly SPD was not detected in 16 wines, HIS not detected in 14 wines, PHE and CAD not detected in 2 wines. Tyramine (TYR, spermine (SPN and putrescine (PUT were detected in all wines, but PUT and SPN in very low concentration. The worst wine samples with high biogenic amine content were Saint Laurent (BF, Pinot Blanc (S and Pinot Noir (AF.

  13. A survey of biogenic amines in vinegars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, J L; Callejón, R M; Morales, M L; García-Parrilla, M C

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports the determination of biogenic amines by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fluorescence detection after derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) in balsamic, apple, and red, white, and Sherry wine vinegars. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) with mixed-mode resins method was used before analysis. The method was successfully validated obtaining adequate values of selectivity, response linearity, precision, accuracy, and low detection and quantification limits. The total content of biogenic amines in vinegars ranged from 23.35 to 1445.2 μg/L, being lower than those reported in wines. Putrescine was the amine that showed the highest concentrations in most samples. Methylamine and phenylethylamine were not determined in any vinegar. Balsamic and "Pedro Ximénez" Sherry vinegars reached the highest amounts of biogenic amines, while apple, white and Sherry wine vinegars had the lowest concentrations. Principal component analysis using the biogenic amines as variables, allowed to separate the different kind of vinegars, excepting red vinegars. PMID:23871015

  14. Biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierina eVisciano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of biogenic amines in raw seafood. On the other hand, some food technological treatments such as salting, ripening, fermentation or marination can increase the levels of biogenic amines in processed seafood. The consumption of high amount of biogenic amines, above all histamine, can result in food borne poisoning which is a worldwide problem. The European Regulation established as maximum limits for histamine, in fishery products from fish species associated with high histidine amounts, values ranging from 100 to 200 mg/kg, while for products which have undergone enzyme maturation treatment in brine, the aforementioned limits rise to 200 and 400 mg/kg. Preventive measures and emerging methods aiming at controlling the production of biogenic amines are also reported for potential application in seafood industries.

  15. Senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM): a novel murine model of senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, T; Hosokawa, M; Higuchi, K

    1997-01-01

    The Senescence-Accelerated Mouse (SAM) has been under development by our research team at Kyoto University since 1970 through the selective inbreeding of the AKR/J strain of mice donated by the Jackson Laboratory in 1968, based on a graded score for senescence, life span, and pathologic phenotype. At present, there are 12 lines of SAM: nine senescence-prone inbred strains (SAMP) including SAMP1, SAMP2, SAMP3, SAMP6, SAMP7, SAMP8, SAMP9, SAMP10, and SAMP11; and three senescence-resistant inbred strains (SAMR) including SAMR1, SAMR4, and SAMR5. Data from survival curves, Gompertzian function, and grading score of senescence, together with growth patterns of body weight of these SAMP and SAMR, revealed that the characteristic feature of aging common to all SAMP mice is "accelerated senescence;" early onset and irreversible advance of senescence manifested by several signs and gross lesions such as the loss of normal behavior, various skin lesions, increased lordokyphosis, etc., after a period of normal development. In the course of SAM development, it became evident that SAMP strains manifest various pathologic phenotypes that are characteristic enough to differentiate the SAM strains. The genetic background and significance of SAM development are discussed. PMID:9088907

  16. SAM-FS: LSC's New Solaris-Based Storage Management Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Kent

    1996-01-01

    SAM-FS is a full featured hierarchical storage management (HSM) device that operates as a file system on Solaris-based machines. The SAM-FS file system provides the user with all of the standard UNIX system utilities and calls, and adds some new commands, i.e. archive, release, stage, sls, sfind, and a family of maintenance commands. The system also offers enhancements such as high performance virtual disk read and write, control of the disk through an extent array, and the ability to dynamically allocate block size. SAM-FS provides 'archive sets' which are groupings of data to be copied to secondary storage. In practice, as soon as a file is written to disk, SAM-FS will make copies onto secondary media. SAM-FS is a scalable storage management system. The system can manage millions of files per system, though this is limited today by the speed of UNIX and its utilities. In the future, a new search algorithm will be implemented that will remove logical and performance restrictions on the number of files managed.

  17. Application of the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) model to dithiophosphate and dithiocarbamate engine wear inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.; Jiang, S.; Cagin, T.; Yamaguchi, E.S.; Frazier, R.; Ho, A.; Tang, Y.; Goddard, W.A. III

    2000-03-23

    In previous studies of dithiophosphate [TP=S{sub 2}P(OR){sub 2}] wear inhibitors bound to an oxidized iron surface, it was found that the cohesive energy of the self-assembled monolayers (SAM) for DTP molecules with various organic R groups correlate with the wear inhibition observed in full engine experiments. In this paper the calculations are expanded to consider dynamics at 500 K and the SAM model is used to predict new candidates for wear inhibitors. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show that the SAM has one DTP per two surface Fe sites of iron oxide. At this coverage the cohesive energy of the SAM at 500 K is in the sequence 2-alkyl > 1-alkyl > aryl, which again correlates with wear inhibitor performance in engine wear tests. Dithiocarbamates are selected as the best candidate to supplement DTP.A number of possible alkyl substitutions for DTC were considered. The SAM model suggests that iC{sub 5} and nC{sub 3} are the best candidates, followed closely by iC{sub 3}.

  18. Organizational Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2011-01-01

    termination are found to significantly affect a firm's relationship termination competence. The findings suggest that managers should regard termination as a legitimate option in customer relationship management. In order to decrease the number of unwanted customers, managers must accept termination...... of organizational termination in order to improve our understanding of the management of termination. The impact of these termination dimensions on the percentage of unwanted customers is developed and tested using PLS on data gathered from a cross-sectional survey of more than 800 sales representatives. We find...

  19. Antibody binding to p-Si using LANL SAM chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Aaron S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-06

    This NMSBA-sponsored project involves the attachment of antibodies to polymeric silicon (p-Si) surfaces, with the ultimate goal of attaching antibodies to nanowires for Vista Therapeutics, Inc. (Santa Fe, NM). This presentation describes the functionalization of p-Si surfaces. the activation of terminal carboxylates on these surfaces, the conjugation of antibodies, and the analyses undertaken at each step. The results of this work show that antibody conjugation is possible on p-Si coatings using the well-known EDC/NHS activation chemistry.

  20. SUICIDAL IDEATION AND BIOGENIC AMINES IN DEPRESSION*

    OpenAIRE

    Palaniappan, V.; V. Ramachandran; Somasundaram, O.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY This report is based on the study of 40 depressives in an attempt to explore the possible association between the suicidal ideas and the biogenic amines. The severity of suicidal ideas was measured on Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale and their amine metabolites were measured (MHFG, HVA and 5 HIAA) in urine and C.S.F. It was observed that the level of 5 HIAA, and Serotonin (5 HT) was more related to suicidal ideas and was inversely related. The probable associations between these are d...

  1. CCN activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X.; Price, D.; Praske, E.; Vu, D.; Purvis-Roberts, K.; Silva, P. J.; Cocker, D. R., III; Asa-Awuku, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA) and butylamine (BA) reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH) is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ ≤ 0.25). Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA) with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3), contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA) aerosol. TMA + N2O5 form semi-volatile organics in low RH conditions that have κ ~ 0.20, indicative of slightly soluble organic material. As RH increases, several inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR) ideal mixing rules. Higher CCN activity (κ > 0.3) was also observed for humid BA+N2O5 aerosols compared with dry aerosol (κ ~ 0.2), as a result of the formation of inorganic salts such as NH4NO3 and butylamine nitrate (C4H11N · HNO3). Compared with TMA, BA+N2O5 reactions produce more volatile aerosols. The BA+N2O5 aerosol products under humid experiments were found to be very sensitive to the temperature within the stream-wise continuous flow thermal gradient CCN counter. The CCN counter, when set above a 21 °C temperature difference, evaporates BA+N2O5 aerosol formed at RH ≥ 30%; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 and is dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss) settings. The aerosol behaves non-ideally, hence simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems κ ranges from 0.2 CCN activity. Thermal gradient CCN

  2. Corrosion inhibition of brass by aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliphatic amines hexylamine (HCA), octylamine (OCA) and decylamine (DCA) have been used as corrosion inhibitors for (70/30) brass in 0.I M HCIO4. The inhibitor efficiency (%P) calculated using weight loss, Tafel extrapolation, linear polarization and impedance methods was found to be in the order DCA> OCA> HCA. These adsorb on brass surface following bockris-swinkels' isotherm. DCA, OCA and HCA displaced 4, 3 and 2 molecules of water from interface respectively. Displacement of water molecules brought a great reorganization of double layer at the interface. These amines during corrosion form complexes with dissolved zinc and copper ions.(Author)

  3. Senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM): a biogerontological resource in aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, T

    1999-01-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM), consisting of 14 senescence-prone inbred strains (SAMP) and 4 senescence-resistant inbred strains (SAMR) has been under development since 1970 through the selective inbreeding of AKR/J strain mice donated by the Jackson laboratory in 1968, based on the data of the grading score of senescence, life span, and pathologic phenotypes. The characteristic feature of aging common to all SAMP and SAMR mice is accelerated senescence and normal aging, respectively. Furthermore, SAMP and SAMR strains manifest various pathobiological phenotypes which include such neurobiological phenotypes as deficits in learning and memory, emotional disorders, abnormal circadian rhythms, brain atrophy, hearing impairment, etc., and are often characteristic enough to differentiate the strains. Various efforts are currently being made using the SAM model to clarify the underlying mechanisms in accelerated senescence as well as the etiopathogenic mechanisms in age-associated pathobiologies. Genetic background and significance of SAM development are discussed. PMID:10537019

  4. Detection of Organics at Mars: How Wet Chemistry Onboard SAM Helps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, A.; Freissinet, Caroline; Szopa, C.; Glavin, D.; Coll, P.; Cabane, M.; Eigenbrode, J.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Coscia, D.; Teinturier, S.; Mahaffy, P.

    2013-01-01

    For the first time in the history of space exploration, a mission of interest to astrobiology could be able to analyze refractory organic compounds in the soil of Mars. Wet chemistry experiment allow organic components to be altered in such a way that improves there detection either by releasing the compounds from sample matricies or by changing the chemical structure to be amenable to analytical conditions. The latter is particular important when polar compounds are present. Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM), on the Curiosity rover of the Mars Science Laboratory mission, has onboard two wet chemistry experiments: derivatization and thermochemolysis. Here we report on the nature of the MTBSTFA derivatization experiment on SAM, the detection of MTBSTFA in initial SAM results, and the implications of this detection.

  5. Enantioselective catalytic syntheses of alpha-branched chiral amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brase, S.; Baumann, T.; Dahmen, S.;

    2007-01-01

    Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials.......Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials....

  6. A molecular probe for the optical detection of biogenic amines

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Boram; Scopelliti, Rosario; Severin, Kay

    2011-01-01

    A coumarin derivative was employed for the detection of biogenic amines in buffered aqueous solution by UV-Vis or fluorescence spectroscopy. Incorporated in a polymeric matrix, the dye can also be used for the optical detection of gaseous amines.

  7. Searching for Reduced Carbon on the Surface of Mars: The SAM Combustion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J. C.; Malespin, C. A.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Webster, C. R.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Brunner, A. E.; Freissinet, C.; Franz, H. B.; Glavin, D. P.; Graham, H. V.; McAdam, A. C.; Ming, D. W.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Niles, P. B.; Steele, A.; Sutter, B.; Trainer, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    The search for reduced carbon has been a major focus of past and present missions to Mars. Thermal evolved gas analysis was used by the Viking and Phoenix landers and is currently in use by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) to characterize volatiles evolved from solid samples, including those associated with reduced organic species. SAM has the additional capability to perform a combustion experiment, in which a sample of Mars regolith is heated in the presence of oxygen and the composition of the evolved gases is measured using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) and tunable laser spectrometry (TLS) [1]. Organics detection on the Martian surface has been complicated by oxidation and destruction during heating by soil oxidants [2], including oxychlorine compounds, and terrestrial organics in the SAM background contributed by one of the SAM wet chemistry reagents MTBSTFA (N-Methyl-N-tertbutyldimethylsilyl- trifluoroacetamide) [3,4]. Thermal Evolved Gas Analysis (TEGA) results from Phoenix show a mid temperature CO2 release between 400 C - 680 C speculated to be carbonate, CO2 adsorbed to grains, or combustion of organics by soil oxidants [5]. Low temperature CO2 evolutions (approx. 200 C - 400 C) were also present at all three sites in Gale Crater where SAM Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA) was performed, and potential sources include combustion of terrestrial organics from SAM, as well as combustion and/or decarboxylation either indigenous martian or exogenous organic carbon [4,6]. By performing an experiment to intentionally combust all reduced materials in the sample, we hope to compare the bulk abundance of CO2 and other oxidized species evolved by combustion to that evolved during an EGA experiment to estimate how much CO2 could be contributed by reduced carbon sources. In addition, C, O, and H isotopic compositions of CO2 and H2O measured by TLS can contribute information regarding the potential sources of these

  8. Data handling with SAM and art at the NOνA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurisano, A.; Backhouse, C.; Davies, G. S.; Illingworth, R.; Mayer, N.; Mengel, M.; Norman, A.; Rocco, D.; Zirnstein, J.

    2015-12-01

    During operations, NOvA produces between 5,000 and 7,000 raw files per day with peaks in excess of 12,000. These files must be processed in several stages to produce fully calibrated and reconstructed analysis files. In addition, many simulated neutrino interactions must be produced and processed through the same stages as data. To accommodate the large volume of data and Monte Carlo, production must be possible both on the Fermilab grid and on off-site farms, such as the ones accessible through the Open Science Grid. To handle the challenge of cataloging these files and to facilitate their off-line processing, we have adopted the SAM system developed at Fermilab. SAM indexes files according to metadata, keeps track of each file's physical locations, provides dataset management facilities, and facilitates data transfer to off-site grids. To integrate SAM with Fermilab's art software framework and the NOvA production workflow, we have developed methods to embed metadata into our configuration files, art files, and standalone ROOT files. A module in the art framework propagates the embedded information from configuration files into art files, and from input art files to output art files, allowing us to maintain a complete processing history within our files. Embedding metadata in configuration files also allows configuration files indexed in SAM to be used as inputs to Monte Carlo production jobs. Further, SAM keeps track of the input files used to create each output file. Parentage information enables the construction of self-draining datasets which have become the primary production paradigm used at NOvA. In this paper we will present an overview of SAM at NOvA and how it has transformed the file production framework used by the experiment.

  9. Results from the Curiosity Rover's SAM Investigation at Gale Crater and links to Habitability of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, P. J.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Webster, C. R.; Cabane, M.; Atreya, S. K.; Conrad, P. G.; Navarro-gonzalez, R.; SAM; MSL Science Teams

    2013-05-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Mission (MSL) has as its goal an exploration of the potential of the ancient Gale Crater to support life. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite (3) contributes to this exploration of habitability with (1) a search for organic compounds in rocks and soils, (2) a determination of the composition of inorganic volatiles compounds in the atmosphere or extracted from solid materials, and (3) measurements of the isotopic composition of several of these volatiles. The initial exploration of the region near the landing point has revealed a diverse geology and SAM has made measurements of both atmospheric and solid samples. Additional prime exploration targets are the clay and sulfate layers in the central mound (Mt. Sharp) of Gale crater. SAM is located in the interior of the Curiosity rover. Nine other instruments complete the payload including an XRD/XRF instrument and a variety of imaging, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, and elemental analysis instrumentation. Several of these instruments serve to locate sampling sites and interrogate candidate materials before solid sample is collected either with a drill or a scoop for delivery to SAM and the XRD/XRF instruments. SAM's instruments are a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), a tunable laser spectrometer (TLS), and a 6-column gas chromatograph (GC) coupled through a solid sample transport system and a gas processing and enrichment system. SAM atmospheric runs include a determination of: new volume mixing ratios for the 5 major isotopic constituents; an upper limit for the volume mixing ratio of methane; C and O isotope ratios in CO2; D/H in water; and the 40Ar/36Ar ratio. Major evolved gases from fines scooped from an eolian drift were H2O, CO2, O2, SO2, and a number of minor species. Chlorine containing compounds in this material were tentatively identified as perchlorates.

  10. Factors influencing biogenic amines accumulation in dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel M. eLinares; Beatriz edel Río; Victor eLadero; Noelia eMartínez; María eFernández; María Cruz eMartín; Miguel A. eAlvarez

    2012-01-01

    Fermented foods are within the food products more often complained of having caused biogenic amines poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain significant levels of biogenic amines, specially tyramine, histamine and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report about cheese elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting biogenic amine...

  11. Systematic Analysis Method of Shear-Wave Splitting:SAM Software System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yuan; Liu Xiqiang; Liang Wei; Hao Ping

    2004-01-01

    In order to make a more effective use of the data from regional digital seismograph networks and to promote the study on shear wave splitting and its application to earthquake stressforecasting, SAM software system, i.e., the software on systematic analysis method of shear wave splitting has been developed. This paper introduces the design aims, system structure,function and characteristics about the SAM software system and shows some graphical interfaces of data input and result output. Lastly, it discusses preliminarily the study of shear wave splitting and its application to earthquake forecasting.

  12. Unsupervised classification of Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) data using ART2-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. D.; Sinha, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) has been developed by NASA to monitor the microgravity acceleration environment aboard the space shuttle. The amount of data collected by a SAMS unit during a shuttle mission is in the several gigabytes range. Adaptive Resonance Theory 2-A (ART2-A), an unsupervised neural network, has been used to cluster these data and to develop cause and effect relationships among disturbances and the acceleration environment. Using input patterns formed on the basis of power spectral densities (psd), data collected from two missions, STS-050 and STS-057, have been clustered.

  13. GoSam. A program for automated one-loop calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Greiner, N.; Heinrich, G.; Reiter, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Luisoni, G. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Mastrolia, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Ossola, G. [City Univ. of New York, NY (United States). New York City College of Technology; Tramontano, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-11-15

    The program package GoSam is presented which aims at the automated calculation of one-loop amplitudes for multi-particle processes. The amplitudes are generated in terms of Feynman diagrams and can be reduced using either D-dimensional integrand-level decomposition or tensor reduction, or a combination of both. GoSam can be used to calculate one-loop corrections to both QCD and electroweak theory, and model files for theories Beyond the Standard Model can be linked as well. A standard interface to programs calculating real radiation is also included. The flexibility of the program is demonstrated by various examples. (orig.)

  14. GoSam. A program for automated one-loop calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program package GoSam is presented which aims at the automated calculation of one-loop amplitudes for multi-particle processes. The amplitudes are generated in terms of Feynman diagrams and can be reduced using either D-dimensional integrand-level decomposition or tensor reduction, or a combination of both. GoSam can be used to calculate one-loop corrections to both QCD and electroweak theory, and model files for theories Beyond the Standard Model can be linked as well. A standard interface to programs calculating real radiation is also included. The flexibility of the program is demonstrated by various examples. (orig.)

  15. Damage Simulation Analysis of Discrete Rods to SAM based on FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At present ship to air missile is the main force of anti-missile. The warhead damage element’ impact and penetration effect are the main factors for damaging supersonic anti-ship missile (SAM. In this paper, the damage mechanism of the anti-ship missile is studied. Dynamic initial velocity of damage elements is modeled and simulated. The four important parts of SAM with typical material are modeled and simulated based on finite element analysis (FEA. It’s useful to the study of the further model of vulnerability analysis of whole anti-ship missiles.

  16. 40 CFR 721.640 - Amine substituted metal salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amine substituted metal salts. 721.640... Substances § 721.640 Amine substituted metal salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine substituted metal...

  17. 40 CFR 721.750 - Aromatic amine compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic amine compound. 721.750... Substances § 721.750 Aromatic amine compound. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance aromatic amine compound (PMN P-86-334) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9490 - Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coco alklydimethyl amine salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9490 Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic). (a) Chemical substances... coco alkyldimethyl amine salts (PMNs P-98-412/414/415/416/417) are subject to reporting under...

  19. Formation of carboxy- and amide-terminated alkyl monolayers on silicon(111) investigated by ATR-FTIR, XPS, and X-ray scattering: Construction of photoswitchable surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rück-Braun, Karola; Petersen, Michael Åxman; Michalik, Fabian;

    2013-01-01

    -FTIR and XPS studies of the fulgimide samples revealed closely covered amide-terminated SAMs. Reversible photoswitching of the headgroup was read out by applying XPS, ATR-FTIR, and difference absorption spectra in the mid-IR. In XPS, we observed a reversible breathing of the amide/imide C1s and N1s signals...

  20. Fate and biodegradability of sulfonated aromatic amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, N.C.G.; Leeuwen, van A.; Voorthuizen, van E.M.; Slenders, P.; Prenafeta, F.X.; Temmink, H.; Lettinga, G.; Field, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Ten sulfonated aromatic amines were tested for their aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity potential in a variety of environmental inocula. Of all the compounds tested, only two aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ABS) isomers, 2- and 4-ABS, were degraded. The observed degradation occurred only

  1. New adducts of Lapachol with primary amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Mirelly D.F.; Litivack-Junior, Jose T.; Antunes, Roberto V.; Silva, Tania M.S.; Camara, Celso A., E-mail: ccelso@dq.ufrpe.b [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    New adducts of lapachol with neat primary aliphatic amines were obtained in a solvent-free reaction in good to reasonable yields (52 to 88%), at room temperature. The new compounds containing a phenazine moiety were obtained from suitable functionalized aminoalkyl compounds, including ethanolamine, 3-propanolamine, 2-methoxy-ethylamine, 3-methoxy-propylamine, n-butylamine and 2-phenetylamine. (author)

  2. Analysis of the interactions between host factor Sam68 and viral elements during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nuclear protein Src-associated protein of 68 kDa in mitosis (Sam68) is known to bind RNA and be involved in cellular processes triggered in response to environmental stresses, including virus infection. Interestingly, Sam68, is a multi-functional protein implicated in the life cycle of retroviru...

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kaus Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kduj Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. nstu Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kbmg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. kgsp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. khdn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. pabe Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kiso Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. ktop Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kmot Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. klse Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. ktrk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. pafa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. krvs Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. pawg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. khut Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. paho Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kbfl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. kcsm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kdmn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kglh Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. ksjt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kmbg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kpdk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. kbrl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. kpeq Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. kbhm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kvel Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kpbg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kcpr Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kgrb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kbis Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kcmi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. katw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. khys Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kgck Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. ktix Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. ktex Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. phmk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kart Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kpbf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kenw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. ptkk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kaby Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. kmhr Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. kahn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. kmce Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kcys Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kisp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kcgi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. keug Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kaeg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. klwb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. ksua Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. kmer Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kiwa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kfoe Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kacv Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. kdbq Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kshv Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. pkmj Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kmia Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. keyw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. Ancillary ligand-free copper catalysed hydrohydrazination of terminal alkynes with NH2NH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Jesse L; Jazzar, Rodolphe; Melaimi, Mohand; Bertrand, Guy

    2016-02-14

    An efficient and selective Cu-catalysed hydrohydrazination of terminal alkynes with parent hydrazine is reported. The methodology tolerates a broad range of functional groups, allows for the synthesis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical azines, and can be extended to hydrazine derivatives and amines. PMID:26757745

  14. Preparation, Characterization, and Surface Modification of Trifluoroethyl Ester-Terminated Silicon Nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesta, W.; Lagen, van B.; Gevaerts, V.S.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Paulusse, J.M.J.; Nielen, M.W.F.; Zuilhof, H.

    2012-01-01

    Platinum-catalyzed hydrosilylation of hydrogen-terminated silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs) with 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl 4-pentenoate gave well-defined nanoparticles (NPs) with surface groups that are reactive toward amines. The particles showed a diameter of 1.4 ± 0.2 nm as revealed by transmission elect

  15. Preparation, characterization, and surface modification of trifluoroethyl ester-terminated silicon nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesta, W.; Lagen, van B.; Gevaert, V.S.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Paulusse, J.M.J.; Nielen, M.W.F.; Zuilhof, H.

    2012-01-01

    Platinum-catalyzed hydrosilylation of hydrogen-terminated silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs) with 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl 4-pentenoate gave well-defined nanoparticles (NPs) with surface groups that are reactive toward amines. The particles showed a diameter of 1.4 ± 0.2 nm as revealed by transmission elect

  16. The PLATO V Terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stifle, J. E.

    This report provides a detailed description of the architecture and programming of the PLATO V terminal, which contains an 8080 microprocessor and is capable of being operated by programs located in a host computer. The terminal contains 8k of memory for storing local programs, a 4k ROM resident program which supervises terminal operation, a 2k…

  17. [Anti-aging studies on the senescence accelerated mouse (SAM) strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryoya

    2010-01-01

    Senescence accelerated mouse (SAM), a murine model of accelerated senescence, was established by Toshio Takeda and colleagues. SAM consists of series of SAMP (prone) and SAMR (resistant) lines. All SAMP lines (from SAMP1 to SAMP11) are characterized by accelerated accumulation of senile features, earlier onset and faster progress of age-associated pathological phenotypes, such as amyloidosis, impaired immune response, senile osteoporosis and deficits in learning and memory. These SAMP lines are useful for evaluation of putative anti-aging therapies. For example, SAMP1 line is used to study the anti-aging effect of the antioxidant containing foods and various anti-oxidants, such as coenzyme Q10, vitamin C, lycopene. SAMP8 line exhibiting an early onset of impaired learning and memory is often used for test strategies for therapeutic intervention of dementia of early onset. SAMP6 is used as an animal model for developing new strategies for the treatment of osteoporosis in humans. Various lines of SAM (P1, P6, P8, P10 and R1) are now commercially available for research. In this review, I will briefly introduce various usages of SAM in anti-aging research. PMID:20046059

  18. Molecular junctions based on SAMs of cruciform oligo(phenylene ethynylene)s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Zhongming; Li, Tao; Jennum, Karsten Stein;

    2012-01-01

    Cruciform oligo(phenylene ethynylene)s (OPEs) with an extended tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) donor moiety (OPE5-TTF and OPE3-TTF) and their simple analogues (OPE5-S and OPE3) without conjugated substituents were used to form high quality self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on ultra-flat gold substrates...

  19. Cross-Reactive Sensor Array for Metal Ion Sensing Based on Fluorescent SAMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Crego-Calama

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent self assembled monolayers (SAMs on glass were previouslydeveloped in our group as new sensing materials for metal ions. These fluorescent SAMs arecomprised by fluorophores and small molecules sequentially deposited on a monolayer onglass. The preorganization provided by the surface avoids the need for complex receptordesign, allowing for a combinatorial approach to sensing systems based on small molecules.Now we show the fabrication of an effective microarray for the screening of metal ions andthe properties of the sensing SAMs. A collection of fluorescent sensing SAMs wasgenerated by combinatorial methods and immobilized on the glass surfaces of a custom-made 140 well microtiter-plate. The resulting libraries are easily measured and show variedresponses to a series cations such as Cu2+ , Co2+ , Pb2+ , Ca2+ and Zn2+ . These surfaces are notdesigned to complex selectively a unique analyte but rather they are intended to producefingerprint type responses to a range of analytes by less specific interactions. The unselectiveresponses of the library to the presence of different cations generate a characteristic patternfor each analyte, a “finger print” response.

  20. Cross-Reactive Sensor Array for Metal Ion Sensing Based on Fluorescent SAMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basabe-Desmonts, Lourdes; van der Baan, Frederieke; Zimmerman, Rebecca S.; Reinhoudt, David N.; Crego-Calama, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescent self assembled monolayers (SAMs) on glass were previously developed in our group as new sensing materials for metal ions. These fluorescent SAMs are comprised by fluorophores and small molecules sequentially deposited on a monolayer on glass. The preorganization provided by the surface avoids the need for complex receptor design, allowing for a combinatorial approach to sensing systems based on small molecules. Now we show the fabrication of an effective microarray for the screening of metal ions and the properties of the sensing SAMs. A collection of fluorescent sensing SAMs was generated by combinatorial methods and immobilized on the glass surfaces of a custom-made 140 well microtiter-plate. The resulting libraries are easily measured and show varied responses to a series cations such as Cu2+, Co2+, Pb2+, Ca2+ and Zn2+. These surfaces are not designed to complex selectively a unique analyte but rather they are intended to produce fingerprint type responses to a range of analytes by less specific interactions. The unselective responses of the library to the presence of different cations generate a characteristic pattern for each analyte, a “finger print” response.

  1. Molten Salt Power Tower Cost Model for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Heath, G. A.

    2013-02-01

    This report describes a component-based cost model developed for molten-salt power tower solar power plants. The cost model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), using data from several prior studies, including a contracted analysis from WorleyParsons Group, which is included herein as an Appendix. The WorleyParsons' analysis also estimated material composition and mass for the plant to facilitate a life cycle analysis of the molten salt power tower technology. Details of the life cycle assessment have been published elsewhere. The cost model provides a reference plant that interfaces with NREL's System Advisor Model or SAM. The reference plant assumes a nominal 100-MWe (net) power tower running with a nitrate salt heat transfer fluid (HTF). Thermal energy storage is provided by direct storage of the HTF in a two-tank system. The design assumes dry-cooling. The model includes a spreadsheet that interfaces with SAM via the Excel Exchange option in SAM. The spreadsheet allows users to estimate the costs of different-size plants and to take into account changes in commodity prices. This report and the accompanying Excel spreadsheet can be downloaded at https://sam.nrel.gov/cost.

  2. Statement of Facts for 1977 City-Wide Mock Trial Competitions. Walker Thomas v. Sam Nomad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. for Citizen Education in the Law, Washington, DC.

    Prepared by the District of Columbia Street Law Project for its annual city-wide mock trial competition, this instructional handout provides material for a civil case over an automobile accident. Walker Thomas is suing Sam Nomad for damages that resulted from a collision, for which both parties blame the other. The handout clarifies the laws and…

  3. Role of Amine Functionality for CO2 Chemisorption on Silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Maximilian W; Jelic, Jelena; Berger, Edith; Reuter, Karsten; Jentys, Andreas; Lercher, Johannes A

    2016-03-01

    The mechanism of CO2 adsorption on primary, secondary, and bibasic aminosilanes synthetically functionalized in porous SiO2 was qualitatively and quantitatively investigated by a combination of IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and quantum mechanical modeling. The mode of CO2 adsorption depends particularly on the nature of the amine group and the spacing between the aminosilanes. Primary amines bonded CO2 preferentially through the formation of intermolecular ammonium carbamates, whereas CO2 was predominantly stabilized as carbamic acid, when interacting with secondary amines. Ammonium carbamate formation requires the transfer of the carbamic acid proton to a second primary amine group to form the ammonium ion and hence two (primary) amine groups are required to bind one CO2 molecule. The higher base strength of secondary amines enables the stabilization of carbamic acid, which is thereby hindered to interact further with nearby amine functions, because their association with Si-OH groups (either protonation or hydrogen bonding) does not allow further stabilization of carbamic acid as carbamate. Steric hindrance of the formation of intermolecular ammonium carbamates leads to higher uptake capacities for secondary amines functionalized in porous SiO2 at higher amine densities. In aminosilanes possessing a primary and a secondary amine group, the secondary amine group tends to be protonated by Si-OH groups and therefore does not substantially interact with CO2. PMID:26700549

  4. Copper-Catalyzed Intramolecular Benzylic C-H Amination for the Synthesis of Isoindolinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Chiaki; Takamatsu, Kazutaka; Hirano, Koji; Miura, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    A copper-catalyzed intramolecular amination occurs at the benzylic C-H of 2-methylbenzamides to deliver the corresponding isoindolinones of great interest in medicinal chemistry. The mild and abundant MnO2 works well as a terminal oxidant, and the reaction proceeds smoothly under potentially explosive organic peroxide-free conditions. Additionally, the directing-group-dependent divergent mechanisms are proposed: 8-aminoquinoline-containing benzamides include a Cu-mediated organometallic pathway whereas an aminyl radical-promoted Hofmann-Loffler-Freytag (HLF)-type mechanism can be operative in the case of N-naphthyl-substituted substrates. PMID:27504671

  5. Ionic networks derived from the protonation of dendritic amines with carboxylic acid end‐functionalized PEGs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Lidia; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of novel ionic networks linked by the ammonium salts of poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers of the first (PPI G1) and second (PPI G2) generation and two short bis carboxymethyl ether terminated poly(ethylene glycol)s (DiCOOH‐PEG) with different molecular...... weights (Mn ∼ 250 and Mn ∼ 600) are reported. Likewise, an ionic network based on PPI G1 and a long αω‐dicarboxylic acid functionalized PEG (Mn ∼ 4800) were evaluated. Simpler ionic structures based on tris(2‐aminoethyl)amine or hexamethylene diamine and the short DiCOOH‐PEGs are also investigated...

  6. Standardized added metabolic activity (SAM): a partial volume independent marker of total lesion glycolysis in liver metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standardized added metabolic activity (SAM) is a new marker of total lesion glycolysis that avoids partial volume effect (PVE) and thresholding. SAM is calculated by drawing a volume of interest (VOI1) around the tumour and a larger VOI (VOI2) around VOI1. Subtracting the background activity in VOI2-VOI1 from VOI1 yields SAM. If VOI1 is set at a reasonable distance from the tumour, PVE are avoided. Phantom and initial clinical validation data are presented. Spheres of a Jaszczak phantom were filled with a 5.4, 3.64 and 2.0 times higher concentration relative to background activity and positron emission tomography (PET) data were acquired during 10 min. SAM of all spheres was expressed as a percentage of the expected value (the actual activity ratio minus 1). In 15 patients a 10-min list-mode acquisition PET study centred on their primary squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) was performed and images of 1-10 min reconstructed. SAM1-9min values of PSCC were expressed as a percentage of SAM10min. Nineteen patients suffering from liver metastases treated with chemotherapy underwent PET/CT prior to (scan 1) and after 3-6 cycles of chemotherapy (scan 2). SAM and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the liver lesions on scan 1 (SAM1 and SUVmax1) and the percentage reduction between both ΔSAM and ΔSUVmax were related to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) response. For the phantom acquisitions, the mean normalized SAM/sphere volume calculated was 94.9 % (SD 5.9 %) of the expected value. In the PSCC patients, the mean difference between SAM1min and SAM10min was only 4 % (SD 5 %). SUVmax1min and SUVmax10min proved to be not significantly different, but the variability was slightly larger than that of SAM (SD 6.4 %). SAM1 and ΔSAM values for responders versus non-responders were, respectively, 57 (SD 119) versus 297 (SD 625) for SAM1 (p = 0.2) and 99 % (SD 3 %) versus 32 % (SD 44 %) for ΔSAM (p = 0.001). SUVmax1 and ΔSUVmax values in responders

  7. Standardized added metabolic activity (SAM): a partial volume independent marker of total lesion glycolysis in liver metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens, Jeroen; Dobbeleir, Andre; Ham, Hamphrey; Asseler, Yves d' ; Goethals, Ingeborg; Wiele, Christophe van de [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2012-09-15

    The standardized added metabolic activity (SAM) is a new marker of total lesion glycolysis that avoids partial volume effect (PVE) and thresholding. SAM is calculated by drawing a volume of interest (VOI{sub 1}) around the tumour and a larger VOI (VOI{sub 2}) around VOI{sub 1}. Subtracting the background activity in VOI{sub 2}-VOI{sub 1} from VOI{sub 1} yields SAM. If VOI{sub 1} is set at a reasonable distance from the tumour, PVE are avoided. Phantom and initial clinical validation data are presented. Spheres of a Jaszczak phantom were filled with a 5.4, 3.64 and 2.0 times higher concentration relative to background activity and positron emission tomography (PET) data were acquired during 10 min. SAM of all spheres was expressed as a percentage of the expected value (the actual activity ratio minus 1). In 15 patients a 10-min list-mode acquisition PET study centred on their primary squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) was performed and images of 1-10 min reconstructed. SAM1-9min values of PSCC were expressed as a percentage of SAM10min. Nineteen patients suffering from liver metastases treated with chemotherapy underwent PET/CT prior to (scan 1) and after 3-6 cycles of chemotherapy (scan 2). SAM and maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) of the liver lesions on scan 1 (SAM1 and SUV{sub max}1) and the percentage reduction between both {Delta}SAM and {Delta}SUV{sub max} were related to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) response. For the phantom acquisitions, the mean normalized SAM/sphere volume calculated was 94.9 % (SD 5.9 %) of the expected value. In the PSCC patients, the mean difference between SAM1min and SAM10min was only 4 % (SD 5 %). SUV{sub max}1min and SUV{sub max}10min proved to be not significantly different, but the variability was slightly larger than that of SAM (SD 6.4 %). SAM1 and {Delta}SAM values for responders versus non-responders were, respectively, 57 (SD 119) versus 297 (SD 625) for SAM1 (p = 0.2) and 99 % (SD 3

  8. End-labeled amino terminated monotelechelic glycopolymers generated by ROMP and Cu(I-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Okoth

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Functionalizable monotelechelic polymers are useful materials for chemical biology and materials science. We report here the synthesis of a capping agent that can be used to terminate polymers prepared by ring-opening metathesis polymerization of norbornenes bearing an activated ester. The terminating agent is a cis-butene derivative bearing a Teoc (2-trimethylsilylethyl carbamate protected primary amine. Post-polymerization modification of the polymer was accomplished by amidation with an azido-amine linker followed by Cu(I-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition with propargyl sugars. Subsequent Teoc deprotection and conjugation with pyrenyl isothiocyanates afforded well-defined end-labeled glycopolymers.

  9. Organic chemistry. Strain-release amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianatassio, Ryan; Lopchuk, Justin M; Wang, Jie; Pan, Chung-Mao; Malins, Lara R; Prieto, Liher; Brandt, Thomas A; Collins, Michael R; Gallego, Gary M; Sach, Neal W; Spangler, Jillian E; Zhu, Huichin; Zhu, Jinjiang; Baran, Phil S

    2016-01-15

    To optimize drug candidates, modern medicinal chemists are increasingly turning to an unconventional structural motif: small, strained ring systems. However, the difficulty of introducing substituents such as bicyclo[1.1.1]pentanes, azetidines, or cyclobutanes often outweighs the challenge of synthesizing the parent scaffold itself. Thus, there is an urgent need for general methods to rapidly and directly append such groups onto core scaffolds. Here we report a general strategy to harness the embedded potential energy of effectively spring-loaded C-C and C-N bonds with the most oft-encountered nucleophiles in pharmaceutical chemistry, amines. Strain-release amination can diversify a range of substrates with a multitude of desirable bioisosteres at both the early and late stages of a synthesis. The technique has also been applied to peptide labeling and bioconjugation.

  10. Amine chemistry. Update on impact on resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, Gregory; Kellogg, Douglas [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Technology and Lab Services; Wilkes, Marty [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Water Technologies Div.

    2012-03-15

    Impurity removal in the steam cycle and the associated prevention of corrosion and/or fouling of system components are the goals of ion exchange resins. However, in many instances (such as a switch to amine chemistry or a change in product specifications), resins do not remove, and, in fact, contribute impurities to the steam cycle. This paper reviews recent data compiled to determine the direct and indirect effects of amines on ion exchange resins used in the power industry. Water chemistries have improved in recent years, in large part due to changes in chemistry and resins, but it is necessary to continue to develop products, processes and techniques to reduce impurities and improve overall water chemistry in power plant systems. (orig.)

  11. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing amines: XIII. Application of the ERAS model to cyclic amine + alkane mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Juan Antonio, E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Sanz, Luis Felipe; García De La Fuente, Isaías; Cobos, José Carlos

    2013-12-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Primary or secondary cyclic amine + alkane mixtures are investigated using ERAS. • ERAS parameters are given. Relatively high X{sub AB} values remark the importance of physical interactions. • ERAS parameters are consistent with those of primary or secondary (linear or aromatic) amines. • H{sub m}{sup E}, V{sub m}{sup E}, and C{sub pm}{sup E} data reveal the existence of physical interactions and structural effects. • ERAS correctly describes H{sub m}{sup E}, V{sub m}{sup E}, C{sub pm}{sup E}, G{sub m}{sup E} and the enthalpy of vaporization of pure amines. - Abstract: Primary or secondary cyclic amine + alkane mixtures have been investigated in the framework of the ERAS (Extended Real Associated Solution) model. The corresponding ERAS parameters are reported. All the amines considered have the same equilibrium constant (K{sub A} = 0.75). Cyclopropylamine, cyclopentylamine, cyclohexylamine and pyrrolidine are characterized by the same enthalpy of self-association (Δh{sub A}{sup *}=−15 kJ mol{sup −1}). Piperidine and hexamethyleneimine show a less negative Δh{sub A}{sup *} value (−13 kJ mol{sup −1}). Experimental data on excess enthalpies, H{sub m}{sup E}, volumes, V{sub m}{sup E}, and isobaric heat capacities, C{sub pm}{sup E}, reveal the existence of physical interactions and structural effects in the studied solutions. The latter lead to values of self-association of pure amines, Δv{sub A}{sup *}, which may depend on the solvent in systems with a given amine. Although the model overestimates the Δh{sub A}{sup *} values, the relatively high values of the physical parameters X{sub AB} remark the importance of physical interactions. ERAS describes correctly the excess functions H{sub m}{sup E}, V{sub m}{sup E}, C{sub pm}{sup E} and G{sub m}{sup E} (molar Gibbs energy), and the enthalpy of vaporization of pure amines. Nevertheless, discrepancies with experimental data are found for the concentration

  12. O-Maltosylation of Heterocyclic Ketene Aminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU,Zhan-Hui(徐占辉); HUANG,Zhi-Tang(黄志镗)

    2002-01-01

    The stereoselective synthesis of O-maltosides by reacting benzoyl-substituted heterocyclic ketene aminals 1 or 2 with acetylated maltosyl bromide 3 was investigated. Compounds 1 or 2 reacted with 3 in the presence of mercuric cyanide to give O-maltosides 4 or 5 with E-configuration. While 1 reacted with 3 in the presence of calcium hydride to give O-maltosides 6 with Zconfiguration.

  13. Rate phenomena in uranium extraction by amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, C. F.; McDowell, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    Kinetics studies and other rate measurements are reviewed in the amine extraction of uranium and of some other related and associated metal ions. Equilibration is relatively fast in the uranium sulfate systems most important to uranium hydrometallurgy. Significantly slow equilibration has been encountered in some other systems. Most of the recorded rate information, both qualitative and quantitative, has come from exploratory and process-development work, while some kinetics studies have been directed specifically toward elucidation of extraction mechanisms. 71 references.

  14. Biogenic Amines in Raw and Processed Seafood

    OpenAIRE

    Visciano, Pierina; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The presence of biogenic amines (BAs) in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of BAs in raw seafood. On the other hand, some food techn...

  15. Amino-terminated diamond surfaces: Photoelectron emission and photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Di; Bandy, Jason A.; Li, Shuo; Hamers, Robert J.

    2016-08-01

    We report a new approach to making stable negative electron-affinity diamond surfaces by terminating diamond with amino groups (also known as amine groups, -NH2). Previous studies have shown that negative electron affinity can be induced by terminating diamond surfaces with hydrogen, creating a surface dipole favorable toward electron emission. Here, we demonstrate that covalent tethering of positive charges in the form of protonated amino groups, -NH3+, also leads to negative electron affinity (NEA) and facile electron emission into vacuum and into water. Amino-terminated diamond was prepared using a very mild plasma discharge. Valence-band photoemission studies of the amino-terminated diamond samples show a characteristic "NEA" peak, demonstrating that the amino-terminated surface has NEA. Diamond's ability to emit electrons into water was evaluated using photochemical conversion of N2 to NH3. Time-resolved surface photovoltage studies were used to characterize charge separation at the diamond interface, and Mott-Schottky measurements were performed to characterize band-bending at the diamond-water interface. XPS studies show that the amino-terminated surfaces provide increased chemical resistance to oxidation compared with H-terminated diamond when illuminated with ultraviolet light.

  16. Rett syndrome - Stimulation of endogenous biogenic amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelligra, R.; Norton, R. D.; Wilkinson, R.; Leon, H. A.; Matson, W. R.

    1992-01-01

    Transient hypercapnic hyperoxemia was induced in two Rett syndrome children by the administration of a gaseous mixture of 80 percent O2 and 20 percent CO2. Time course studies of neurotransmitters and their metabolites showed an immediate and marked increase in central biogenic amine turnover following inhalation of the gas mixture. The increased turnover of biogenic amines was associated with improved clinical changes. This suggests a coupled relationship and provides further support for an etiological role of neurotransmitter dysfunction in Rett syndrome. In a complementary study, elevation of pulmonary CO2 by application of a simple rebreathing device resulted in improvement of abnormal blood gases and elimination of the Cheyne-Stokes-like respiratory pattern of the Rett syndrome. Near normalization of the EEG occurred when a normal respiratory pattern was imposed by means of a respirator. Taken together, these results lead to the preliminary conclusion that cerebral hypoxemia secondary to abnormal respiratory function may contribute to diminished production of biogenic amines in Rett syndrome.

  17. An electronic nose for amine detection based on polymer/SWNT-COOH nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorwongtragooll, Panida; Wisitsoraat, Anurat; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2011-12-01

    An electronic nose (e-nose) system based on polymer/carboxylic-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT-COOH) was developed for sensing various volatile amines. The SWNT-COOH dispersed in the matrix of different polymers; namely, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), cumene terminated polystyrene-co-maleic anhydride (cumene-PSMA), poly(styrenecomaleic acid) partial isobutyl/methyl mixed ester (PSE), and polyvinylpyrrolidon (PVP), were deposited on interdigitated gold electrodes to make the gas sensors. The response of these sensors to volatile amines was studied by both static and dynamic flow measurements. It was found that all sensors exhibited behaviors corresponding to Plateau-Bretano-Stevens law (R2 = 0.81 to 0.99) as the response to volatile amines. Real-world application was demonstrated by applying this e-nose to monitor the odor of sun-dried snakeskin gourami that was pre-processed by salting-preservation. This electronic nose can discriminate sun-dried fish odors with different stored days using a simple pattern recognition based on the principal component analysis (PCA).

  18. The azomethine ylide route to amine C-H functionalization: redox-versions of classic reactions and a pathway to new transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Daniel

    2015-02-17

    Conspectus Redox-neutral methods for the functionalization of amine α-C-H bonds are inherently efficient because they avoid external oxidants and reductants and often do not generate unwanted byproducts. However, most of the current methods for amine α-C-H bond functionalization are oxidative in nature. While the most efficient variants utilize atmospheric oxygen as the terminal oxidant, many such transformations require the use of expensive or toxic oxidants, often coupled with the need for transition metal catalysts. Redox-neutral amine α-functionalizations that involve intramolecular hydride transfer steps provide viable alternatives to certain oxidative reactions. These processes have been known for some time and are particularly well suited for tertiary amine substrates. A mechanistically distinct strategy for secondary amines has emerged only recently, despite sharing common features with a range of classic organic transformations. Among those are such widely used reactions as the Strecker, Mannich, Pictet-Spengler, and Kabachnik-Fields reactions, Friedel-Crafts alkylations, and iminium alkynylations. In these classic processes, condensation of a secondary amine with an aldehyde (or a ketone) typically leads to the formation of an intermediate iminium ion, which is subsequently attacked by a nucleophile. The corresponding redox-versions of these transformations utilize identical starting materials but incorporate an isomerization step that enables α-C-H bond functionalization. Intramolecular versions of these reactions include redox-neutral amine α-amination, α-oxygenation, and α-sulfenylation. In all cases, a reductive N-alkylation is effectively combined with an oxidative α-functionalization, generating water as the only byproduct. Reactions are promoted by simple carboxylic acids and in some cases require no additives. Azomethine ylides, dipolar species whose usage is predominantly in [3 + 2] cycloadditions and other pericyclic processes, have been

  19. The Azomethine Ylide Route to Amine C–H Functionalization: Redox-Versions of Classic Reactions and a Pathway to New Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus Redox-neutral methods for the functionalization of amine α-C–H bonds are inherently efficient because they avoid external oxidants and reductants and often do not generate unwanted byproducts. However, most of the current methods for amine α-C–H bond functionalization are oxidative in nature. While the most efficient variants utilize atmospheric oxygen as the terminal oxidant, many such transformations require the use of expensive or toxic oxidants, often coupled with the need for transition metal catalysts. Redox-neutral amine α-functionalizations that involve intramolecular hydride transfer steps provide viable alternatives to certain oxidative reactions. These processes have been known for some time and are particularly well suited for tertiary amine substrates. A mechanistically distinct strategy for secondary amines has emerged only recently, despite sharing common features with a range of classic organic transformations. Among those are such widely used reactions as the Strecker, Mannich, Pictet–Spengler, and Kabachnik–Fields reactions, Friedel–Crafts alkylations, and iminium alkynylations. In these classic processes, condensation of a secondary amine with an aldehyde (or a ketone) typically leads to the formation of an intermediate iminium ion, which is subsequently attacked by a nucleophile. The corresponding redox-versions of these transformations utilize identical starting materials but incorporate an isomerization step that enables α-C–H bond functionalization. Intramolecular versions of these reactions include redox-neutral amine α-amination, α-oxygenation, and α-sulfenylation. In all cases, a reductive N-alkylation is effectively combined with an oxidative α-functionalization, generating water as the only byproduct. Reactions are promoted by simple carboxylic acids and in some cases require no additives. Azomethine ylides, dipolar species whose usage is predominantly in [3 + 2] cycloadditions and other pericyclic

  20. Oxidation of primary amines to oximes with molecular oxygen using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and WO3/Al2O3 as catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ken; Watanabe, Tomonari; Murahashi, Shun-Ichi

    2013-03-15

    The oxidative transformation of primary amines to their corresponding oximes proceeds with high efficiency under molecular oxygen diluted with molecular nitrogen (O2/N2 = 7/93 v/v, 5 MPa) in the presence of the catalysts 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and tungusten oxide/alumina (WO3/Al2O3). The method is environmentally benign, because the reaction requires only molecular oxygen as the terminal oxidant and gives water as a side product. Various alicyclic amines and aliphatic amines can be converted to their corresponding oximes in excellent yields. It is noteworthy that the oxidative transformation of primary amines proceeds chemoselectively in the presence of other functional groups. The key step of the present oxidation is a fast electron transfer from the primary amine to DPPH followed by proton transfer to give the α-aminoalkyl radical intermediate, which undergoes reaction with molecular oxygen and hydrogen abstraction to give α-aminoalkyl hydroperoxide. Subsequent reaction of the peroxide with WO3/Al2O3 gives oximes. The aerobic oxidation of secondary amines gives the corresponding nitrones. Aerobic oxidative transformation of cyclohexylamines to cyclohexanone oximes is important as a method for industrial production of ε-caprolactam, a raw material for Nylon 6.

  1. Analogue Experiments Identify Possible Precursor Compounds for Chlorohydrocarbons Detected in SAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K.; Summons, R. E.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Martin, M. G.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    Since landing at Gale Crater on August 6, 2012, the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite, aboard the Curiosity Rover, has conducted multiple analyses of scooped and drilled samples and has identified a suite of chlorohydrocarbons including chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, chloromethylpropene, and chlorobenzene (Glavin et al., 2013; Leshin et al., 2013). These compounds were identified after samples were pyrolysed at temperatures up to ~835°C through a combination of Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA) and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). Since these chlorinated species were well above the background levels determined by empty cup blanks analyzed prior to solid sample analyses, thermal degradation of oxychlorine phases, such as perchlorate, present in the Martian soil, are the most likely source of chlorine needed to generate these chlorohydrocarbons. Laboratory analogue experiments show that terrestrial organics internal to SAM, such as N-methyl-N(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA), a derivatization agent, can react with perchlorates to produce all of the chlorohydrocarbons detected by SAM. However, in pyrolysis-trap-GCMS laboratory experiments with MTBSTFA, C4 compounds are the predominant chlorohydrocarbon observed, whereas on SAM the C1 chlorohydrocarbons dominate (Glavin et al., 2013). This, in addition to the previous identification of chloromethane and dichloromethane by the 1976 Viking missions (Biemann et al., 1977), suggest that there could be another, possibly Martian, source of organic carbon contributing to the formation of the C1 chlorohydrocarbons, or other components of the solid samples analyzed by SAM are having a catalytic effect on chlorohydrocarbon generation. Laboratory analogue experiments investigated a suite of organic compounds that have the potential to accumulate on Mars (Benner et al., 2000) and thus serve as sources of carbon for the formation of chlorohydrocarbons detected by the SAM and

  2. Sam68/KHDRBS1 is critical for colon tumorigenesis by regulating genotoxic stress-induced NF-κB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kai; Sun, Xin; Wier, Eric M; Hodgson, Andrea; Liu, Yue; Sears, Cynthia L; Wan, Fengyi

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-mediated transcription is an important mediator for cellular responses to DNA damage. Genotoxic agents trigger a 'nuclear-to-cytoplasmic' NF-κB activation signaling pathway; however, the early nuclear signaling cascade linking DNA damage and NF-κB activation is poorly understood. Here we report that Src-associated-substrate-during-mitosis-of-68kDa/KH domain containing, RNA binding, signal transduction associated 1 (Sam68/KHDRBS1) is a key NF-κB regulator in genotoxic stress-initiated signaling pathway. Sam68 deficiency abolishes DNA damage-stimulated polymers of ADP-ribose (PAR) production and the PAR-dependent NF-κB transactivation of anti-apoptotic genes. Sam68 deleted cells are hypersensitive to genotoxicity caused by DNA damaging agents. Upregulated Sam68 coincides with elevated PAR production and NF-κB-mediated anti-apoptotic transcription in human and mouse colon cancer. Knockdown of Sam68 sensitizes human colon cancer cells to genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis and genetic deletion of Sam68 dampens colon tumor burden in mice. Together our data reveal a novel function of Sam68 in the genotoxic stress-initiated nuclear signaling, which is crucial for colon tumorigenesis. PMID:27458801

  3. On the role of small amines in zeolite synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollmann, L.D.; Schlenker, J.L.; Lawton, S.L.; Kennedy, C.L.; Kennedy, G.J. [Mobil Technology Co., Paulsboro, NJ (United States). Strategic Research Center; Doren, D.J. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    1999-08-26

    A crystallization study was undertaken to relate the structure of small amines to the zeolite product obtained. At SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} = 200, certain noncyclic amines (some not previously recognized) were specific for the formation of 10-ring zeolites, e.g., ZSM-22 and ZSM-23. For example, ethylmethylamine and diethylamine yielded highly crystalline ZSM-22, while ethylamine and isopropylamine yielded ZSM-12. At lower SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios (40), a different set of zeolites was obtained, as expected, ZSM-35 and MCM-22. Again, a specific relationship was observed between the amine employed and the zeolite obtained. In both SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} regimes, several amines played non-structure-specific pore- and pH-stabilizing roles and yielded ZSM-5. With relatively few exceptions, the zeolite products were fully porefilled with amine and low in Na (Na/Al < 1). Computer simulations confirmed a pore-stabilizing role for both structure-specific and non-structure-specific amines. At the same time, among structure-specific (structure-directing) amines, they showed that the interaction energy differences between alternative amine-pore combinations were often quite small (0.5--2.0 kcal/mol, for example). Nevertheless, the changes in amine-pore interaction energies for this group of amines consistently tracked the changes in zeolite products observed.

  4. Enhanced mercury ion adsorption by amine-modified activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Jianzhong [Center of Environmental Sciences, Lincoln University of Missouri, Jefferson City, MO 65102 (United States); Yang, John, E-mail: yangj@lincolnu.edu [Center of Environmental Sciences, Lincoln University of Missouri, Jefferson City, MO 65102 (United States); Deng Baolin [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2009-07-30

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic metals found in water and sediments. In an effort to develop an effective adsorbent for aqueous Hg removal, activated carbon (AC) was modified with an amino-terminated organosilicon (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, APTES). Surface properties of the APTES-modified AC (MAC) were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with the energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and potentiometry. The impacts of solvent, APTES concentration, reactive time and temperature on the surface modification were evaluated. The aqueous Hg adsorptive kinetics and capacity were also determined. Results demonstrated that the strong Hg-binding amine ligands were effectively introduced onto the AC surfaces through the silanol reaction between carbon surface functional groups (-COOH, -COH) and APTES molecules. The modification lowered the pH at the point of zero charge (pH{sub pzc}) to 4.54 from 9.6, favoring cation adsorption. MAC presented a faster rate of the Hg (II) adsorption and more than double adsorptive capacity as compared with AC.

  5. Early Evolved Gas Results from the Curiosity Rover’s SAM Investigation at Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Franz, H.; McAdam, A.; Brunner, A.; Eigenbrode, J.; Stern, J.; SAM Science Team; MSL Science Team

    2013-10-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Mission is designed to explore the habitability of the selected landing site at Gale crater. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite contributes to this study with a search for organic compounds, an analysis of the composition of inorganic volatiles, and measurements of the isotopic composition light elements. Both atmospheric and solid samples are analyzed. The layers in the central mound (Mt. Sharp) of Gale crater are important targets for the MSL mission. However, in situ measurements made during the past year of interesting regions close to the Bradbury landing site have revealed a diverse geology and several primary mission objectives have already been realized. SAM is located in the interior of the Curiosity rover. The MSL cameras, a laser induced breakdown spectrometer, and elemental analysis instrumentation serves to locate sampling sites and interogate candidate materials before solid sample is collected either with a drill or a scoop for delivery to SAM and the XRD instrument CheMin. SAM integrates a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), a tunable laser spectrometer (TLS), and a 6-column gas chromatograph (GC) with a solid sample transport system and a gas processing and enrichment system. Results of SAM atmospheric composition analyses have already been reported (1,2). To date, multiple SAM evolved gas experiments have examined samples from fines scooped from an aeolian drift and from two drilled samples of a mudstone. Major evolved gases are H2O, CO2, O2, SO2, H2S, H2, and a number of minor species. These data help confirm the likely presence of perchlorates, the presence of phylosillicates, and both reduced and oxidized compounds evolved from the same sample. 1) P.R. Mahaffy et al., Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Gases in the Martian Atmosphere from the Curiosity Rover, Science 343, (2013). 2) C.R. Webster et al., Isotope Ratios of H, C and O in Martian Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Water Measured by the

  6. A modular approach for the construction and modification of glyco-SAMs utilizing 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Mike; Winkler, Tobias; Terfort, Andreas; Lindhorst, Thisbe K

    2008-06-21

    We report the synthesis of a broad variety of functionalized molecules for assembly on gold, allowing the formation of biologically relevant SAMs by a modular approach: either utilizing 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of alkynes and azides in solution or by 'click on SAM'. Extensive studies into the various parameters of SAM formation and stability have been carried out, leading us to deduce reliable conditions under which glyco-decorated self-assembled monolayers can be formed and studied such as in SPR-supported binding assays.

  7. Analysis of the interaction between host factor Sam68 and viral elements during foot-and-mouth disease virus infections

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Devendra K.; Lawrence, Paul; Kloc, Anna; Schafer, Elizabeth; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background The nuclear protein Src-associated protein of 68 kDa in mitosis (Sam68) is known to bind RNA and be involved in cellular processes triggered in response to environmental stresses, including virus infection. Interestingly, Sam68 is a multi-functional protein implicated in the life cycle of retroviruses and picornaviruses and is also considered a marker of virus-induced stress granules (SGs). Recently, we demonstrated the partial redistribution of Sam68 to the cytoplasm in FMDV infec...

  8. Standardized added metabolic activity (SAM) IN {sup 18}F-FDG PET assessment of treatment response in colorectal liver metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens, Jeroen; Goethals, I.; Wiele, C.V. de [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Bruyne, S. de [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Damme, N. van; Ceelen, W. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Ghent (Belgium); Smeets, P. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium); Troisi, R. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of General and Hepato-Biliary Surgery, Liver Transplantation Service, Ghent (Belgium); Laurent, S.; Geboes, K. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Ghent (Belgium); Peeters, M. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Ghent (Belgium); Antwerp University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Edegem (Belgium)

    2013-08-15

    Standardized added metabolic activity (SAM) is a PET parameter for assessing the total metabolic load of malignant processes, avoiding partial volume effects and lesion segmentation. The potential role of this parameter in the assessment of response to chemotherapy and bevacizumab was tested in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with potentially resectable liver metastases (mCRC). {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was performed in 18 mCRC patients with liver metastases before treatment and after five cycles of FOLFOX/FOLFIRI and bevacizumab. Of the 18 patients, 16 subsequently underwent resection of liver metastases. Baseline and follow-up SUV{sub max}, and SAM as well as reduction in SUV{sub max} ({nabla}SUV{sub max}) and SAM ({nabla}SAM) of all liver metastases were correlated with morphological response, and progression-free and overall survival (PFS and OS). A significant reduction in metabolic activity of the liver metastases was seen after chemotherapy with a median {nabla}SUV{sub max} of 25.3 % and {nabla}SAM of 94.5 % (p = 0.033 and 0.003). Median baseline SUV{sub max} and SAM values were significantly different between morphological responders and nonresponders (3.8 vs. 7.2, p = 0.021; and 34 vs. 211, p = 0.002, respectively), but neither baseline PET parameters nor morphological response was correlated with PFS or OS. Follow-up SUV{sub max} and SAM as well as {nabla}SAM were found to be prognostic factors. The median PFS and OS in the patient group with a high follow-up SUV{sub max} were 10.4 months and 32 months, compared to a median PFS of 14.7 months and a median OS which had not been reached in the group with a low follow-up SUV{sub max} (p = 0.01 and 0.003, respectively). The patient group with a high follow-up SAM and a low {nabla}SAM had a median PFS and OS of 9.4 months and 32 months, whereas the other group had a median PFS of 14.7 months and a median OS which had not been reached (p = 0.002 for both PFS and OS). {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging is a useful

  9. [Bis(3-amino­prop­yl)amine-κ3 N,N′,N′′]bis­(thio­cyanato-κN)cobalt(II)

    OpenAIRE

    Boeckmann, Jan; Näther, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Co(NCS)2(C6H17N3)], consists of one Co2+ cation, two thio­cyanate anions and one bis­(3-amino­prop­yl)amine ligand, all in general positions. The cobalt cation is coordinated by five N atoms of two terminal N-bonded thio­cyanate anions and one bis­(3-amino­prop­yl)amine ligand, defining a slightly distorted square-pyramidal coordination polyhedron. The mol­ecules are held together in the crystal by weak N—H⋯S inter­actions.

  10. [Bis(3-aminopropyl)amine-κ3N,N′,N′′]bis(thiocyanato-κN)cobalt(II)

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Boeckmann; Christian Näther

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Co(NCS)2(C6H17N3)], consists of one Co2+ cation, two thiocyanate anions and one bis(3-aminopropyl)amine ligand, all in general positions. The cobalt cation is coordinated by five N atoms of two terminal N-bonded thiocyanate anions and one bis(3-aminopropyl)amine ligand, defining a slightly distorted square-pyramidal coordination polyhedron. The molecules are held together in the crystal by weak N—H...S interactions.

  11. Transition from a Metal-Localized Mixed-Valence Compound to a Fully Delocalized and Bridge-Biased Electrophore in a Ruthenium-Amine-Ruthenium Tricenter System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian-Hong; Shao, Jiang-Yang; He, Yan-Qin; Wu, Si-Hai; Yao, Jiannian; Zhong, Yu-Wu

    2016-07-18

    A series of cyclometalated diruthenium complexes with a redox-active amine bridge were synthesized. Depending on the terminal ligands of the ruthenium components and the substituent on the amine unit, the one-electron-oxidized state can be either in the form of a weakly or strongly coupled mixed-valence diruthenium complex, a fully charge-delocalized three-center system, or a bridge-biased electrophore. This transition among different electronic forms was supported by electrochemistry, near-infrared absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, and density functional theory analysis. PMID:27246707

  12. Evolved Gas Analyses of Sedimentary Materials in Gale Crater, Mars: Results of the Curiosity Rover's Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument from Yellowknife Bay to the Stimson Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, B.; McAdam, A. C.; Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Stern, J. C.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Archer, P. D.

    2016-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument aboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover has analyzed 10 samples from Gale Crater. All SAM evolved gas analyses have yielded a multitude of volatiles (e.g, H2O, SO2, H2S, CO2, CO, NO, O2, HC1). The objectives of this work are to 1) Characterize the evolved H2O, SO2, CO2, and O2 gas traces of sediments analyzed by SAM through sol 1178, 2) Constrain sediment mineralogy/composition based on SAM evolved gas analysis (SAM-EGA), and 3) Discuss the implications of these results releative to understanding the geochemical history of Gale Crater.

  13. Comparison of kinetic properties of amine oxidases from sainfoin and lentil and immunochemical characterization of copper/quinoprotein amine oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajoncová, L; Frébort, I; Luhová, L; Sebela, M; Galuszka, P; Pec, P

    1999-01-01

    Kinetic properties of novel amine oxidase isolated from sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) were compared to those of typical plant amine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.6) from lentil (Lens culinaris). The amine oxidase from sainfoin was active toward substrates, such as 1,5-diaminopentane (cadaverine) with K(m) of 0.09 mM and 1,4-diaminobutane (putrescine) with K(m) of 0.24 mM. The maximum rate of oxidation for cadaverine at saturating concentration was 2.7 fold higher than that of putrescine. The amine oxidase from lentil had the maximum rate for putrescine comparable to the rate of sainfoin amine oxidase with the same substrate. Both amine oxidases, like other plant Cu-amine oxidases, were inhibited by substrate analogs (1,5-diamino-3-pentanone, 1,4-diamino-2-butanone and aminoguanidine), Cu2+ chelating agents (diethyltriamine, 1,10-phenanthroline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2,2'-bipyridyl, imidazole, sodium cyanide and sodium azide), some alkaloids (L-lobeline and cinchonine), some lathyrogens (beta-aminopropionitrile and aminoacetonitrile) and other inhibitors (benzamide oxime, acetone oxime, hydroxylamine and pargyline). Tested by Ouchterlony's double diffusion in agarose gel, polyclonal antibodies against the amine oxidase from sainfoin, pea and grass pea cross-reacted with amine oxidases from several other Fabaceae and from barley (Hordeum vulgare) of Poaceae, while amine oxidase from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger did not cross-react at all. However, using Western blotting after SDS-PAGE with rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the amine oxidase from Aspergillus niger, some degree of similarity of plant amine oxidases from sainfoin, pea, field pea, grass pea, fenugreek, common melilot, white sweetclover and Vicia panonica with the A. niger amine oxidase was confirmed. PMID:10092944

  14. Il termine "mafia"

    OpenAIRE

    Fioretti, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    Data la confusione venutasi a creare nel corso della storia passata e recente, si propone uno studio incentrato sulla questione relativa al termine "mafia". Contrariamente a quanto si potrebbe immaginare, "mafia" oggi è un termine polisemico che non significa solo criminalità organizzata o stragi ma anche lealtà, giustizia, coraggio, potere, intrigo. Compito di questo breve saggio è di capire quali sono gli eventi che hanno contribuito a fare di "mafia" un termine polisemico. In questo senso,...

  15. Terminal Antenna Design

    OpenAIRE

    Skrivervik, A. K.; Zurcher, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces first some general considerations about antenna miniaturization and multi-band terminal antenna design. These general design principles are then illustrated on some practical applications.

  16. Biogenic amine metabolism in juvenile neurocardiogenic syncope with dysautonomia

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Ian J.; Lankford, Jeremy E; Hashmi, Syed Shahrukh; Numan, Mohammed T

    2014-01-01

    Objective Biogenic amine brain levels and their cerebral metabolism are frequently studied by quantitation of biogenic amine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compared to age-matched controls. There is a paucity of studies in adolescents and young adults investigating the potential role of disordered cerebral biogenic amine metabolism in young patients who have dysautonomia based on abnormal head-up tilt table (HUTT). Methods In a cohort of juvenile patients with neurocardiogenic synco...

  17. Characterization of a novel amine transaminase from Halomonas elongata

    OpenAIRE

    Cerioli, Lorenzo; Planchestainer, Matteo; Cassidy, Jennifer; Tessaro, Davide; Paradisi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Chiral amines are indispensable building blocks in the production of biologically active compounds. They are fundamental for the pharmaceutical industry, both as active molecules themselves and as chiral auxiliaries in asymmetric synthesis; however, the available synthetic strategies often present disadvantages. ω-Transaminases (ω-TAs) appear as an attractive alternative by driving the stereoselective amination of prochiral ketones. HEWT is a novel amine transaminase from the moderate halophi...

  18. CareSam – A Cross-border Collaboration Contesting notions of elderly Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liveng, Anne; Christensen, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings and discussions generated on the basis of the Danish-Swedish development project CareSam. The article will on the one hand focus on how work in groups consisting of representatives from different levels in the elderly care sector at one time served as learning spaces...... and cultural encounters in which established notions of older people and elderly care were challenged and discussed. Inspired by action research these challenges were brought forth through discussions of and through insight in practical experiences. On the other hand it will focus on the tendencies to narrow...... the diversity of perceptions of elderly people and their care, which were also seen in the project and led to stories in which the meaningfulness of care work were honored. Departing from the interviews presented in the CareSam film and parts of the empirical material produced in connection to the work...

  19. Evolution of SAM in an Enhanced Model for Monitoring WLCG Services

    CERN Document Server

    Collados, D; Traylen, S; Imamagic, E; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2010-01-01

    It is four years now since the first prototypes of tools and tests started to monitor the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) services. One of these tools is the Service Availability Monitoring (SAM) framework, which superseded the SFT tool, and has become a keystone for the monthly WLCG availability and reliability computations. During this time, the grid has evolved into a robust, production-level infrastructure, in no small part thanks to the extensive monitoring infrastructure which includes testing, visualization and reporting. Experience gained with monitoring has led to emerging grid monitoring standards, and provided valuable input for the Operations Automation Strategy aimed at the regionalization of monitoring services. This change in scope, together with an ever-increasing number of services and infrastructures, make enhancements in the architecture of existing monitoring tools a necessity. This paper describes the present architecture of SAM, an enhanced and distributed model for monitoring WLCG s...

  20. Parabolic Trough Reference Plant for Cost Modeling with the Solar Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C.

    2010-07-01

    This report describes a component-based cost model developed for parabolic trough solar power plants. The cost model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), assisted by WorleyParsons Group Inc., for use with NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM). This report includes an overview and explanation of the model, two summary contract reports from WorleyParsons, and an Excel spreadsheet for use with SAM. The cost study uses a reference plant with a 100-MWe capacity and six hours of thermal energy storage. Wet-cooling and dry-cooling configurations are considered. The spreadsheet includes capital and operating cost by component to allow users to estimate the impact of changes in component costs.

  1. Water-COOH Composite Structure with Enhanced Hydrophobicity Formed by Water Molecules Embedded into Carboxyl-Terminated Self-Assembled Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pan; Tu, Yusong; Yang, Jinrong; Wang, Chunlei; Sheng, Nan; Fang, Haiping

    2015-10-30

    By combining molecular dynamics simulations and quantum mechanics calculations, we show the formation of a composite structure composed of embedded water molecules and the COOH matrix on carboxyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers (COOH SAMs) with appropriate packing densities. This composite structure with an integrated hydrogen bond network inside reduces the hydrogen bonds with the water above. This explains the seeming contradiction on the stability of the surface water on COOH SAMs observed in experiments. The existence of the composite structure at appropriate packing densities results in the two-step distribution of contact angles of water droplets on COOH SAMs, around 0° and 35°, which compares favorably to the experimental measurements of contact angles collected from forty research articles over the past 25 years. These findings provide a molecular-level understanding of water on surfaces (including surfaces on biomolecules) with hydrophilic functional groups.

  2. Water-COOH Composite Structure with Enhanced Hydrophobicity Formed by Water Molecules Embedded into Carboxyl-Terminated Self-Assembled Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pan; Tu, Yusong; Yang, Jinrong; Wang, Chunlei; Sheng, Nan; Fang, Haiping

    2015-10-30

    By combining molecular dynamics simulations and quantum mechanics calculations, we show the formation of a composite structure composed of embedded water molecules and the COOH matrix on carboxyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers (COOH SAMs) with appropriate packing densities. This composite structure with an integrated hydrogen bond network inside reduces the hydrogen bonds with the water above. This explains the seeming contradiction on the stability of the surface water on COOH SAMs observed in experiments. The existence of the composite structure at appropriate packing densities results in the two-step distribution of contact angles of water droplets on COOH SAMs, around 0° and 35°, which compares favorably to the experimental measurements of contact angles collected from forty research articles over the past 25 years. These findings provide a molecular-level understanding of water on surfaces (including surfaces on biomolecules) with hydrophilic functional groups. PMID:26565476

  3. Parabolic Trough Collector Cost Update for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report updates the baseline cost for parabolic trough solar fields in the United States within NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM). SAM, available at no cost at https://sam.nrel.gov/, is a performance and financial model designed to facilitate decision making for people involved in the renewable energy industry. SAM is the primary tool used by NREL and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for estimating the performance and cost of concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies and projects. The study performed a bottom-up build and cost estimate for two state-of-the-art parabolic trough designs -- the SkyTrough and the Ultimate Trough. The SkyTrough analysis estimated the potential installed cost for a solar field of 1500 SCAs as $170/m2 +/- $6/m2. The investigation found that SkyTrough installed costs were sensitive to factors such as raw aluminum alloy cost and production volume. For example, in the case of the SkyTrough, the installed cost would rise to nearly $210/m2 if the aluminum alloy cost was $1.70/lb instead of $1.03/lb. Accordingly, one must be aware of fluctuations in the relevant commodities markets to track system cost over time. The estimated installed cost for the Ultimate Trough was only slightly higher at $178/m2, which includes an assembly facility of $11.6 million amortized over the required production volume. Considering the size and overall cost of a 700 SCA Ultimate Trough solar field, two parallel production lines in a fully covered assembly facility, each with the specific torque box, module and mirror jigs, would be justified for a full CSP plant.

  4. Review of current Severe Accident Management (SAM) approaches for Nuclear Power Plants in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    HERMSMEYER Stephan; Iglesias, R.; Herranz, L; REER B.; SONNENKALB M; NOWACK H.; Stefanova, A.; Raimond, E.; CHATELARD P.; FOUCHER Laurent; BARNAK M.; MATEJOVIC P; PASCAL GHISLAIN; VELA GARCIA MONICA; SANGIORGI MARCO

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima accidents highlighted that both the in-depth understanding of such sequences and the development or improvement of adequate Severe Accident Management (SAM) measures are essential in order to further increase the safety of the nuclear power plants operated in Europe. To support this effort, the CESAM (Code for European Severe Accident Management) R&D project, coordinated by GRS, started in April 2013 for 4 years in the 7th EC Framework Programme of research and development of th...

  5. Radical SAM enzymes in the biosynthesis of sugar-containing natural products☆

    OpenAIRE

    Ruszczycky, Mark W.; Ogasawara, Yasushi; Liu, Hung-wen

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrates play a key role in the biological activity of numerous natural products. In many instances their biosynthesis requires radical mediated rearrangements, some of which are catalyzed by radical SAM enzymes. BtrN is one such enzyme responsible for the dehydrogenation of a secondary alcohol in the biosynthesis of 2-deoxystreptamine. DesII is another example that catalyzes a deamination reaction necessary for the net C4 deoxygenation of a glucose derivative en route to desosamine form...

  6. A Model of the Safe Asset Mechanism (SAM): Safety Traps and Economic Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero, Ricardo J; Emmanuel Farhi

    2013-01-01

    The global economy has a chronic shortage of safe assets which lies behind many recent macroeconomic imbalances. This paper provides a simple model of the Safe Asset Mechanism (SAM), its recessionary safety traps, and its policy antidotes. Safety traps share many common features with conventional liquidity traps, but also exhibit important differences, in particular with respect to their reaction to policy packages. In general, policy-puts (such as QE1, LTRO, fiscal policy, etc.) that support...

  7. The SAM framework: modeling the effects of management factors on human behavior in risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D M; Paté-Cornell, M E

    1996-08-01

    Complex engineered systems, such as nuclear reactors and chemical plants, have the potential for catastrophic failure with disastrous consequences. In recent years, human and management factors have been recognized as frequent root causes of major failures in such systems. However, classical probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) techniques do not account for the underlying causes of these errors because they focus on the physical system and do not explicitly address the link between components' performance and organizational factors. This paper describes a general approach for addressing the human and management causes of system failure, called the SAM (System-Action-Management) framework. Beginning with a quantitative risk model of the physical system, SAM expands the scope of analysis to incorporate first the decisions and actions of individuals that affect the physical system. SAM then links management factors (incentives, training, policies and procedures, selection criteria, etc.) to those decisions and actions. The focus of this paper is on four quantitative models of action that describe this last relationship. These models address the formation of intentions for action and their execution as a function of the organizational environment. Intention formation is described by three alternative models: a rational model, a bounded rationality model, and a rule-based model. The execution of intentions is then modeled separately. These four models are designed to assess the probabilities of individual actions from the perspective of management, thus reflecting the uncertainties inherent to human behavior. The SAM framework is illustrated for a hypothetical case of hazardous materials transportation. This framework can be used as a tool to increase the safety and reliability of complex technical systems by modifying the organization, rather than, or in addition to, re-designing the physical system.

  8. Should India Use Commercially Produced Ready To Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF For Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    radha holla

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, nearly 20 million children under five suffer from Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM, a condition which contributes to one million child deaths annually. In India 48% of children under five years of age are stunted and 43 percent are underweight; almost 8 million suffer from SAM. Malnutrition is not a new problem in India, nor is SAM. Several hospitals and non-government organizations are engaged in community-based management of malnutrition using locally produced/procured and locally processed foods along with intensive nutrition education. These programs enable parents to meet the nutritional requirements of their children with foods that are available at low cost. The Supreme Court of India has also directed the government to universalize the Integrated Child Development Scheme and provide one hot cooked meal to children under six years of age to supplement their nutrition. The blame for the increasing number of severely malnourish children can be laid at the door of policies that have destroyed poor people’s access to food. Nonetheless, there is urgent need to ensure that these children do not die; that they recover and maintain a healthy nutritional status. The current thinking – that a centrally produced and processed Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food (RUTF should supplant the locally prepared indigenous foods in treatment of SAM – ignores the multiple causes of malnutrition and destroys the diversity of potential solutions based on locally available foods. This position paper has been drafted by Dr. Vandana Prasad, Radha Holla and Dr. Arun Gupta, members of the Working Group for Children Under Six – a joint effort of Jan Swasthya Abhiyan (People’s Health Movement – India and the Right to Food Campaign which been advocating for the last three years with the Indian government for decentralized and community-based strategies to combat and prevent malnutrition in children.

  9. A regenerable solid amine CO2 concentrator for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, A. M.; Cusick, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    A regenerable solid amine CO2 control system, which employs water vapor for desorption, is being developed for potential use on long duration space missions. During cyclic operation, CO2 is first absorbed from the cabin atmosphere onto the granular amine. Steam is then used to heat the solid amine bed and desorb the CO2. This paper describes the solid amine system operation and application to the Shuttle Orbiter, Manned Space Platform (MSP) and Space Operations Center (SOC). The importance and interplay of system performance parameters are presented together with supporting data and design characteristics.

  10. Mitofilin and CHCHD6 physically interact with Sam50 to sustain cristae structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chengli; Wu, Zhifei; Huang, Lei; Wang, Yajie; Xue, Jie; Chen, Si; Deng, Zixin; Wang, Lianrong; Song, Zhiyin; Chen, Shi

    2015-11-04

    The inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) invaginates to form cristae and the maintenance of cristae depends on the mitochondrial contact site (MICOS) complex. Mitofilin and CHCHD6, which physically interact, are two components of the MICOS. In this study, we performed immunoprecipitation experiments with Mitofilin and CHCHD6 antibodies and identified a complex containing Mitofilin, Sam50, and CHCHD 3 and 6. Using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), we generated knockdown/knockout clones of Mitofilin and CHCHD6. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that vesicle-like cristae morphology appeared in cell lines lacking Mitofilin, and mitochondria exhibited lower cristae density in CHCHD6-knockout cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that knockdown of Mitofilin, but not knockout of CHCHD6, affected their binding partners that control cristae morphology. We also demonstrated that Mitofilin and CHCHD6 directly interacted with Sam50. Additionally, we observed that Mitofilin-knockdown cells showed decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and intracellular ATP content, which were minimally affected in CHCHD6-knockout cells. Taken together, we conclude that the integrity of MICOS and its efficient interaction with Sam50 are indispensable for cristae organization, which is relevant to mitochondrial function.

  11. International ISOE Workshop - Direction Forward for the Finalization of the EG-SAM Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the ISOE Expert Group on Occupational Radiation Protection in Severe Accident Management and Post-accident Recovery (EG-SAM) is to develop a report on best radiation protection management procedures for proper radiation protection job coverage during severe accident initial response and recovery efforts to identify good radiation protection practices and to organise and communicate radiation protection lessons learned from previous reactor accidents. The outcome of the work will be a new ISOE publication on Occupational Radiation Protection in severe accident management that will find broad use within the NPP radiation protection community. The EG-SAM has finalized an interim report which was presented at the Washington workshop. The interim report covered the following topics: RP Management and Organisation; RP Training and Exercises related to Severe Accident Management; Facility Configuration and Readiness; Overall Approach for Worker Protection; Monitoring and Managing the Radioactive Releases and Contamination; Key Lessons Learned from Past Accidents; Conclusions. Utilities and Regulatory Authorities have identified the factors and aspects which play key roles in achieving good practices on occupational radiation protection in severe accident management and post-accident recovery: knowledge, experience, technology, regulatory requirements and guidance, worker involvement, information exchange, training aspects, etc. They have analysed and quantified their impact on worker doses, and submitted recommendations for further work. The next step will be a final meeting of the EG-SAM for the finalization of the report with workshop inputs before its submission for approval

  12. Integration, Validation, and Application of a PV Snow Coverage Model in SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryberg, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Freeman, Janine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Due to the increasing deployment of PV systems in snowy climates, there is significant interest in a method capable of estimating PV losses resulting from snow coverage that has been verified for a wide variety of system designs and locations. A scattering of independent snow coverage models have been developed over the last 15 years; however, there has been very little effort spent on verifying these models beyond the system design and location on which they were based. Moreover, none of the major PV modeling software products have incorporated any of these models into their workflow. In response to this deficiency, we have integrated the methodology of the snow model developed in the paper by Marion et al. [1] into the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) System Advisor Model (SAM). In this work we describe how the snow model is implemented in SAM and discuss our demonstration of the model's effectiveness at reducing error in annual estimations for two PV arrays. Following this, we use this new functionality in conjunction with a long term historical dataset to estimate average snow losses across the United States for a typical PV system design. The open availability of the snow loss estimation capability in SAM to the PV modeling community, coupled with our results of the nation-wide study, will better equip the industry to accurately estimate PV energy production in areas affected by snowfall.

  13. Background and Artifacts Generated by the by the Sample Preparation Experiment on SAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmahdi, Imene; Buch, Arnaud; Szopa, Cyril; Freissinet, Caroline; Glavin, Daniel; Coll, Patrice; Cabane, Michel; Millan, Maeva; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Stern, Jennifer; Coscia, David; Bonnet, Jean-Yves; Teinturier, Samuel; Morisson, Marietta; Stambouli, Moncef; Dequaire, Tristan; Mahaffy, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) is one of the instruments of the Mars Science Laboratory mission. Three analytical devices composed the SAM experiment: the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS), the Gas Chromatography (GC) and the Mass Spectrometer (MS). To adapt the nature of a sample to the analytical devices used, a sample preparation and gas processing system implemented with (a) a pyrolysis system, (b) wet chemistry: MTBSTFA and TMAH (c) the hydrocarbon trap (silica beads, Tenax® TA and Carbosieve G) and the injection trap (Tenax® GR composed of Tenax® TA and 30% of graphite) are employed to concentrate volatiles released from the sample prior to GC-MS analysis. Our study investigates several propositions for chlorinated hydrocarbon formation detected in the SAM background by looking for: (a) all products coming from the interaction of Tenax® and perchlorates present on Mars, (b) also between some soil sample and perchlorates and (c) sources of chlorinated hydrocarbon precursors. Here we report on the detection of chlorohydrocarbon compounds and their potential origin.

  14. Conformational heterogeneity of the SAM-I riboswitch transcriptional ON state: a chaperone-like role for S-adenosyl methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Kim, Joohyun; Jha, Shantenu; Aboul-Ela, Fareed

    2012-05-18

    Riboswitches are promising targets for the design of novel antibiotics and engineering of portable genetic regulatory elements. There is evidence that variability in riboswitch properties allows tuning of expression for genes involved in different stages of biosynthetic pathways by mechanisms that are not currently understood. Here, we explore the mechanism for tuning of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-I riboswitch folding. Most SAM-I riboswitches function at the transcriptional level by sensing the cognate ligand SAM. SAM-I riboswitches orchestrate the biosynthetic pathways of cysteine, methionine, SAM, and so forth. We use base-pair probability predictions to examine the secondary-structure folding landscape of several SAM-I riboswitch sequences. We predict different folding behaviors for different SAM-I riboswitch sequences. We identify several "decoy" base-pairing interactions involving 5' riboswitch residues that can compete with the formation of a P1 helix, a component of the ligand-bound "transcription OFF" state, in the absence of SAM. We hypothesize that blockage of these interactions through SAM contacts contributes to stabilization of the OFF state in the presence of ligand. We also probe folding patterns for a SAM-I riboswitch RNA using constructs with different 3' truncation points experimentally. Folding was monitored through fluorescence, susceptibility to base-catalyzed cleavage, nuclear magnetic resonance, and indirectly through SAM binding. We identify key decision windows at which SAM can affect the folding pathway towards the OFF state. The presence of decoy conformations and differential sensitivities to SAM at different transcript lengths is crucial for SAM-I riboswitches to modulate gene expression in the context of global cellular metabolism. PMID:22425639

  15. A Novel Palladium-catalyzed Amination of Aryl Halides with Amines Using rac-P-Phos as the Ligand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN, Huansheng; WANG, Quanrui; TAO, Fenggang

    2009-01-01

    An efficient palladium-catalyzed amination of aryl halides with amines, using rac-P-Phos as the ancillary ligand and Pd(OAc)2 as the palladium source is developed. The ligand and all of the synthetic intermediates are stable to air and moisture, allowing the easy handling. The catalyst system performed well for a large number of different substrate combinations in 80-110 ℃ to furnish aromatic amines in high yields.

  16. Multilayered Thin Films from Boronic Acid-Functional Poly(amido amine)s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hujaya, S.D.; Engbersen, J.F.J.; Paulusse, J.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the properties of phenylboronic acid-functional poly(amido amine) polymers (BA-PAA) in forming multilayered thin films with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and chondroitin sulfate (ChS), and to evaluate their compatibility with COS-7 cells. Methods Copolymers of phenylboronic acid-

  17. Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Bzdek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of charged species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS. Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid neutralization is cluster size-dependent. With increasing cluster size (and, therefore, a decreasing role of charge, both positively- and negatively-charged cluster compositions converge toward ammonium bisulfate. The reactivity of negatively-charged sulfuric acid-ammonia clusters with dimethylamine and ammonia is also investigated by FTICR-MS. Two series of negatively-charged clusters are investigated: [(HSO4(H2SO4x] and [(NH4x(HSO4x+1(H2SO43]. Dimethylamine substitution for ammonia in [(NH4 x(HSO4 x+1(H2SO43] clusters is nearly collision-limited, and subsequent addition of dimethylamine to neutralize H2SO4 to bisulfate is within one order of magnitude of the substitution rate. Dimethylamine addition to [(HSO4 (H2SO4 x] clusters is either not observed or very slow. The results of this study indicate that amine chemistry will be evident and important only in large ambient negative ions (>m/z 400, whereas amine chemistry may be evident in small ambient positive ions. Addition of ammonia to unneutralized clusters occurs at a rate that is ~2–3 orders of magnitude slower than incorporation of dimethylamine either by substitution or addition

  18. The Multiple Facets of Iodine(III) Compounds in an Unprecedented Catalytic Auto-amination for Chiral Amine Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendia, Julien; Grelier, Gwendal; Darses, Benjamin; Jarvis, Amanda G; Taran, Frédéric; Dauban, Philippe

    2016-06-20

    Iodine(III) reagents are used in catalytic one-pot reactions, first as both oxidants and substrates, then as cross-coupling partners, to afford chiral polyfunctionalized amines. The strategy relies on an initial catalytic auto C(sp(3) )-H amination of the iodine(III) oxidant, which delivers an amine-derived iodine(I) product that is subsequently used in palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings to afford a variety of useful building blocks with high yields and excellent stereoselectivities. This study demonstrates the concept of self-amination of the hypervalent iodine reagents, which increases the value of the aryl moiety. PMID:27158802

  19. The Seismic Aftershock Monitoring System (SAMS) for OSI - Experiences from IFE14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestermann, Nicolai; Sick, Benjamin; Häge, Martin; Blake, Thomas; Labak, Peter; Joswig, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    An on-site inspection (OSI) is the third of four elements of the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The sole purpose of an OSI is to confirm whether a nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of the treaty and to gather any facts which might assist in identifying any possible violator. It thus constitutes the final verification measure under the CTBT if all other available measures are not able to confirm the nature of a suspicious event. The Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) carried out the Integrated Field Exercise 2014 (IFE14) in the Dead Sea Area of Jordan from 3 November to 9. December 2014. It was a fictitious OSI whose aim was to test the inspection capabilities in an integrated manner. The technologies allowed during an OSI are listed in the Treaty. The aim of the Seismic Aftershock Monitoring System (SAMS) is to detect and localize aftershocks of low magnitudes of the triggering event or collapses of underground cavities. The locations of these events are expected in the vicinity of a possible previous explosion and help to narrow down the search area within an inspection area (IA) of an OSI. The success of SAMS depends on the main elements, hardware, software, deployment strategy, the search logic and not least the effective use of personnel. All elements of SAMS were tested and improved during the Built-Up Exercises (BUE) which took place in Austria and Hungary. IFE14 provided more realistic climatic and hazardous terrain conditions with limited resources. Significant variations in topography of the IA of IFE14 in the mountainous Dead Sea Area of Jordan led to considerable challenges which were not expected from experiences encountered during BUE. The SAMS uses mini arrays with an aperture of about 100 meters and with a total of 4 elements. The station network deployed during IFE14 and results of the data analysis will be presented. Possible aftershocks of

  20. Trace Amines and the Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1: Pharmacology, Neurochemistry and Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue ePei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines are a collection of endogenous molecules that play pivotal roles as neurotransmitters and hormones. In addition to the classical biogenic amines resulting from decarboxylation of aromatic acids, including dopamine (DA, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin (5-HT and histamine, other biogenic amines, present at much lower concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS, and hence referred to as trace amines (TAs, are now recognized to play significant neurophysiological and behavioural functions. At the turn of the century, the discovery of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1, a phylogenetically conserved G protein-coupled receptor that is responsive to both TAs, such as β-phenylethylamine, octopamine and tyramine, and structurally-related amphetamines, unveiled mechanisms of action for TAs other than interference with aminergic pathways, laying the foundations for deciphering the functional significance of TAs and its mammalian CNS receptor, TAAR1. Although its molecular interactions and downstream targets have not been fully elucidated, TAAR1 activation triggers accumulation of intracellular cAMP, modulates PKA and PKC signalling and interferes with the β-arrestin2-dependent pathway via G protein-independent mechanisms. TAAR1 is uniquely positioned to exert direct control over DA and 5-HT neuronal firing and release, which has profound implications for understanding the pathophysiology of, and therefore designing more efficacious therapeutic interventions for, a range of neuropsychiatric disorders that involve aminergic dysregulation, including Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, mood disorders and addiction. Indeed, the recent development of novel pharmacological tools targeting TAAR1 has uncovered the remarkable potential of TAAR1-based medications as new generation pharmacotherapies in neuropsychiatry. This review summarizes recent developments in the study of TAs and TAAR1, their intricate neurochemistry and

  1. Trace Amines and the Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1: Pharmacology, Neurochemistry, and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yue; Asif-Malik, Aman; Canales, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines are a collection of endogenous molecules that play pivotal roles as neurotransmitters and hormones. In addition to the "classical" biogenic amines resulting from decarboxylation of aromatic acids, including dopamine (DA), norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin (5-HT), and histamine, other biogenic amines, present at much lower concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS), and hence referred to as "trace" amines (TAs), are now recognized to play significant neurophysiological and behavioral functions. At the turn of the century, the discovery of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), a phylogenetically conserved G protein-coupled receptor that is responsive to both TAs, such as β-phenylethylamine, octopamine, and tyramine, and structurally-related amphetamines, unveiled mechanisms of action for TAs other than interference with aminergic pathways, laying the foundations for deciphering the functional significance of TAs and its mammalian CNS receptor, TAAR1. Although, its molecular interactions and downstream targets have not been fully elucidated, TAAR1 activation triggers accumulation of intracellular cAMP, modulates PKA and PKC signaling and interferes with the β-arrestin2-dependent pathway via G protein-independent mechanisms. TAAR1 is uniquely positioned to exert direct control over DA and 5-HT neuronal firing and release, which has profound implications for understanding the pathophysiology of, and therefore designing more efficacious therapeutic interventions for, a range of neuropsychiatric disorders that involve aminergic dysregulation, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, mood disorders, and addiction. Indeed, the recent development of novel pharmacological tools targeting TAAR1 has uncovered the remarkable potential of TAAR1-based medications as new generation pharmacotherapies in neuropsychiatry. This review summarizes recent developments in the study of TAs and TAAR1, their intricate neurochemistry and

  2. One-pot synthesis of hyperbranched poly(amido amine) clicked with a sugar shell via Michael addition polymerization and thiol click reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the production of glycopolymers via a simple and flexible method.A novel glycopolymer with a hyperbranched poly(amido amine) core and a sugar shell (HPAA-GLc) was synthesized by using thiol-ene click reaction via facile one-pot method.Hyperbranched poly(amido amine) with vinyl terminals was first synthesized by Michael addition polymerization of N,N’-methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) with 1-(2-aminoethyl) piperazine (AEPZ).Subsequently,thiol-ene click reaction between vinyl units of hyperbranched poly(amido amine) and thio-glucose was performed in situ.Based on the NMR result,all the vinyl groups reacted with thiol-glucose in 120 min.Strong photoluminescence emission was observed from the aqueous solution of HPAA-GLc.

  3. Reducing tube bundle deposition using alternative amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle deposition rates were measured in a high-temperature loop for magnetite and hematite depositing onto Inconel-600 under flow-boiling conditions with pH controlled, using one of the following amines: morpholine, ammonia, ethanolamine, or dimethylamine. Hematite particles deposited at rates 10 times greater than those measured for magnetite although the hematite deposition rate dropped when the loop was operated under reducing conditions. The magnetite deposition rate was influenced by the amine used to control the pH, with the relative rate decreasing in the following series: morpholine (1) : ethanolamine (0.72) : ammonia (0.51) dimethylamine (0.25). These trends in deposition rate are discussed in terms of the surface chemistry of the corrosion products. Deposition rates for both magnetite and hematite increased significantly once the mixture quality exceeded about 0.3, which may be related to a change in the heat-transfer mechanism from nucleate boiling to 2-phase forced-convection through a thin film. (author)

  4. Denitration of Uranyl Nitrate Using Tridodecyl Amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrate extraction from uranyl nitrate using extractant tridodecyl amine and paraffin has been carried out. The aim of this research was to prepare uranyl nitrate with low nitrate content (acid deficiency uranyl nitrate/ADUN). ADUN is a raw material for making kernels uranium oxide in a spherical from which cannot easily be broken/cracked. This ADUN was prepared by extracting nitric acid in uranyl nitrate solution with tridodecyl amine (TDA) and paraffin. Nitric acid in uranyl nitrate solution moved into organic phase due to the complex formation with TDA. The aqueous phase was ADUN, it was than analyzed its nitric and uranium contents using titration method. Tree variables were observed, i.e. uranium contents (80-125 g/l), process temperature (50-100 oC) and TDA/Nitrate molar ratio (0.5-1). Experiment results showed that optimum condition accurate at uranium content of 100 g/l, temperature extraction 60-70 oC and TDA to Nitrate molar ratio 0.75-0.80 with an efficiency of 77 %. (author)

  5. Thermodynamics of organic mixtures containing amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)]. E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Mozo, Ismael [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Fuente, Isaias Garcia de la [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)

    2006-02-01

    Binary mixtures containing pyridine (PY), or 2-methylpyridine (2MPY) or 3-methylpyridine (3MPY) or 4-methylpyridine (4MPY) and an organic solvent as benzene, toluene, alkane, or 1-alkanol are investigated in the framework of DISQUAC. The corresponding interaction parameters are reported. The model describes accurately a whole set of thermodynamic properties: vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE), molar excess Gibbs energies (G{sup E}), molar excess enthalpies (H{sup E}), molar excess heat capacities at constant pressure (C{sub P}{sup E}) and the concentration-concentration structure factor (S{sub CC}(0)). It is remarkable that DISQUAC correctly predicts the W-shaped curve of the C{sub P}{sup E} of the pyridine + n-hexadecane system. The model can be applied successfully to mixtures with strong positive or negative deviations from the Raoult's law. DISQUAC improves the theoretical results from UNIFAC (Dortmund version). The replacement of pyridine by a methylpyridine leads to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions, ascribed to the steric effect caused by the methyl group attached to the aromatic ring. This explains that for a given solvent (alkane, 1-alkanol) H{sup E}(pyridine)>H{sup E}(methylpyridine)

  6. Biogenic amines in submicron marine aerosol (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, M.

    2010-12-01

    Ammonium salts of dimethyl and diethyl amine (DMA+ and DEA+) have been detected in size segregated marine samples collected in the North Atlantic over open ocean and at a coastal site. DMA+ and DEA+ peak in the accumulation mode range while very low concentration, close to detection limit, are observed in the coarse size fractions, as well as in sea spray aerosol artificially generated in the laboratory using sea water. These results indicate a secondary formation pathway. DMA+ and DEA+ represent up to 20% of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in our samples , and to our knowledge they are the most abundant organic species besides MSA ever detected in clean marine aerosol . Maximum concentrations have been observed during spring and summer when the biological activity is high and in clean marine air masses, thus indicating biogenic sources. Total organic nitrogen (ON) concentration also peaks in the accumulation mode range and represents in our samples a fraction from 32 to 54 % of the total SOA. Ammonium salt formation from biogenic amines might be an important source of marine SOA and atmospheric nitrogen at the global scale with a seasonal variation connected to the oceanic biological productivity and an atmospheric cycle parallel to that of the organosulfur species.

  7. Reducing tube bundle deposition with alternative amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle deposition rates have been measured in a high-temperature loop for magnetite and hematite depositing onto Inconel-600 under flow-boiling conditions with pH controlled using one of the following amines: morpholine, ammonia, ethanolamine, or dimethylamine. Hematite particles deposited at rates an order of magnitude greater than those measured for magnetite, although the hematite deposition rate dropped when the loop was operated under reducing conditions. The magnetite deposition rate was influenced by the amine used to control the pH, with the relative rate decreasing in the following series: morpholine (1) : ethanolamine (0.72) ammonia (0.51) : dimethylamine (0.25). These trends in deposition rate are discussed in terms of the surface chemistry of the corrosion products. Deposition rates for both magnetite and hematite increased significantly once the mixture quality exceeded about 0.3, which may be related to a change in the heat transfer mechanism from nucleate boiling to two-phase forced convection through a thin film. (author)

  8. Processing method for drainage-containing ethanol amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanol amine is decomposed by aerobically acting Pseudomonas sp. When drainage contains hydrazine, copper sulfate and hydrogen peroxide are added to the drainage under exposed condition to remove hydrazine as a pretreatment of the decomposing step. With such procedures, ethanol amine in the drainage can be processed efficiently. (T.M.)

  9. Determination of Biogenic Amines with HPLC-APCI-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determination of biogenic amines in fish samples can be used as a quality attribute and are commonly performed using a derivatization step followed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV detection. Over estimation and misidentification of biogenic amines can occur when interfering comp...

  10. Synthesis of amine functionalized cellulose nanocrystals: optimization and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Seyedeh Parinaz; Zaman, Masuduz; Mohammed, Nishil; Brinatti, César; Batmaz, Rasim; Berry, Richard; Loh, Watson; Tam, Kam Chiu

    2015-05-29

    A simple protocol was used to prepare amine functionalized cellulose nanocrystals (CNC-NH2). In the first step, epichlorohydrin (EPH) was reacted with ammonium hydroxide to produce 2-hydroxy-3-chloro propylamine (HCPA). In the next step, HCPA was grafted to CNC using the etherification reaction in an organic solution media. Various reaction parameters, such as time, temperature, and reactant molar ratio were performed to determine the optimal reaction conditions. The final product (CNC-NH2(T)) was dialyzed for a week. Further purification via centrifugation yielded the sediment (CNC-NH2(P)) and supernatant (POLY-NH2). The presence of amine groups on the surface of modified CNC was confirmed by FTIR and the amine content was determined by potentiometric titration and elemental analysis. A high amine content of 2.2 and 0.6 mmol amine/g was achieved for CNC-NH2(T) and CNC-NH2(P), respectively. Zeta potential measurements confirmed the charge reversal of amine CNC from positive to negative when the pH was increased from 3 to 10. The flocculation of amine functionalized CNC due to its interactions with a negatively charged surfactant namely, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was investigated at pH 4. It showed promising results for applications, such as in flocculation of fine dispersions in water treatment. This simple and versatile synthetic method to produce high amine content CNC can be used for further conjugation as required for various applications. PMID:25933198

  11. ELPI+ measurements of aerosol growth in an amine absorption column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, J.; Brachert, L.; Desagher, D.; Thielens, M.L.; Khakharia, P.M.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Schaber, K.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, studies have appeared pointing out that aerosols can dominate the total amine emission from amine based PCCC pilot plant scale installations. For the design of countermeasure types (upstream or downstream of the PCCC installation), it is crucial to have an idea of the aerosol size distribu

  12. Secondary organic aerosol formation of primary, secondary and tertiary Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amines have been widely identified in ambient aerosol in both urban and rural environments and they are potential precursors for formation of nitrogen-containing secondary organic aerosols (SOA). However, the role of amines in SOA formation has not been well studied. In this wrok, we use UC-Riversid...

  13. Factors influencing biogenic amines accumulation in dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. eLinares

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods are within the food products more often complained of having caused biogenic amines poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain significant levels of biogenic amines, specially tyramine, histamine and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report about cheese elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting biogenic amines levels. Synthesis of biogenic amines is possible only when three conditions converge: i availability of the substrate amino acids; ii presence of microorganisms with the appropriate catabolic pathway activated; and iii environmental conditions favorable to the decarboxilation activity. These conditions depend on several factors such as milk treatment (pasteurization, use of starter cultures, NaCl concentration, time and temperature of ripening and preservation, pH… which will be discussed in this chapter.

  14. Mechanism of Seizure Termination

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    Physiological mechanisms contributing to seizure termination and organized according to membranes, synapses, networks, and circuits are reviewed by researchers from Albert Einstein College of Medicine, and Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York.

  15. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset includes all terminated HUD Multifamily mortgages except those from the Hospital Mortgage Insurance Program. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the...

  16. Amine Reactivity with Nanoclusters of Sulfuric Acid and Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M. V.; Bzdek, B. R.; DePalma, J.

    2011-12-01

    Alkyl amines have emerged as key species in new particle formation and growth. This interest is reinforced by ambient measurements of amines (e.g. Smith et al., 2010) and enhanced levels of nitrogen (e.g. Bzdek et al., 2011) during growth of newly formed particles. An important mechanism of amine uptake is aminium salt formation, either by substituting for ammonium ions that already exist in the particle or by opening new channels for salt formation that are not favorable with ammonia. This presentation will focus on recent experimental and computational work in our group to study amine uptake into charged nanoclusters of sulfuric acid and ammonia. In the experimental work, clusters are produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution and then drawn into a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer where a specific cluster is isolated and exposed to amine vapor. We find that amine reactivity is dependent on the size, composition and charge of the isolated cluster. For small clusters of either polarity, all ammonium ions reside on the surface and amine substitution occurs with near unit reaction probability. As the cluster size increases, an ammonium ion can be encapsulated in the center of the cluster, which provides a steric hindrance to amine substitution. Negatively charged clusters are more likely to be acidic than positively charged clusters. For acidic clusters, incoming amine molecules first substitute for preexisting ammonium ions and then add to the cluster until a "neutralized" aminium bisulfate composition is reached. Computational studies of these clusters provide fundamental insight into the thermodynamics and kinetics of amine uptake.

  17. The impact of aminated surface ligands and silica shells on the stability, uptake, and toxicity of engineered silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonventre, Josephine A.; Pryor, Joseph B.; Harper, Bryan J.; Harper, Stacey L., E-mail: stacey.harper@oregonstate.edu [Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Inherent nanomaterial characteristics, composition, surface chemistry, and primary particle size, are known to impact particle stability, uptake, and toxicity. Nanocomposites challenge our ability to predict nanoparticle reactivity in biological systems if they are composed of materials with contrasting relative toxicities. We hypothesized that toxicity would be dominated by the nanoparticle surface (shell vs core), and that modulating the surface ligands would have a direct impact on uptake. We exposed developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) to a series of ∼70 nm amine-terminated silver nanoparticles with silica shells (AgSi NPs) to investigate the relative influence of surface amination, composition, and size on toxicity. Like-sized aminated AgSi and Si NPs were more toxic than paired hydroxyl-terminated nanoparticles; however, both AgSi NPs were more toxic than the Si NPs, indicating a significant contribution of the silver core to the toxicity. Incremental increases in surface amination did not linearly increase uptake and toxicity, but did have a marked impact on dispersion stability. Mass-based exposure metrics initially supported the hypothesis that smaller nanoparticles (20 nm) would be more toxic than larger particles (70 nm). However, surface area-based metrics revealed that toxicity was independent of size. Our studies suggest that nanoparticle surfaces play a critical role in the uptake and toxicity of AgSi NPs, while the impact of size may be a function of the exposure metric used. Overall, uptake and toxicity can be dramatically altered by small changes in surface functionalization or exposure media. Only after understanding the magnitude of these changes, can we begin to understand the biologically available dose following nanoparticle exposure.

  18. Loving Sam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, Kathryn

    1998-01-01

    Describes how the author came to love Mark Twain's writings, taught "Huckleberry Finn" and other of Twain's writings to a ninth-grade class in a Hasidic Jewish Academy, and learned to really love Samuel Clemens. Describes how this love inspired the author to write two books celebrating what she has valued most in 40 years of reading Mark Twain.…

  19. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  20. From Terminal to Terminal with Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esslinger, Tilman

    2014-05-01

    We study fundamental concepts of particle and heat transport in a model system using ultracold atoms. It consists of a channel connecting two macroscopic reservoirs of fermionic lithium atoms. The channel can be switched from ballistic to diffusive, and it can be structured to form a quantum point contact or a quantum wire. Measurements of the thermoelectric effect and particle transport in the quantum regime will be presented. Our measurements find an ideal description in the Landauer-Buttiker formalism, which views conduction as the transport of carriers from one terminal to another.

  1. SAMS--a systems architecture for developing intelligent health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Özgün; Erdur, Rıza Cenk; Türksever, Mustafa

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, SAMS, a novel health information system architecture for developing intelligent health information systems is proposed and also some strategies for developing such systems are discussed. The systems fulfilling this architecture will be able to store electronic health records of the patients using OWL ontologies, share patient records among different hospitals and provide physicians expertise to assist them in making decisions. The system is intelligent because it is rule-based, makes use of rule-based reasoning and has the ability to learn and evolve itself. The learning capability is provided by extracting rules from previously given decisions by the physicians and then adding the extracted rules to the system. The proposed system is novel and original in all of these aspects. As a case study, a system is implemented conforming to SAMS architecture for use by dentists in the dental domain. The use of the developed system is described with a scenario. For evaluation, the developed dental information system will be used and tried by a group of dentists. The development of this system proves the applicability of SAMS architecture. By getting decision support from a system derived from this architecture, the cognitive gap between experienced and inexperienced physicians can be compensated. Thus, patient satisfaction can be achieved, inexperienced physicians are supported in decision making and the personnel can improve their knowledge. A physician can diagnose a case, which he/she has never diagnosed before, using this system. With the help of this system, it will be possible to store general domain knowledge in this system and the personnel's need to medical guideline documents will be reduced.

  2. Postmodernism and Language in Sam Shepard's True West and Tooth of Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Mehrabi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sam Shepard has gained a reputation as one of America's foremost living playwrights. In over forty plays, Shepard has broken down traditional notions of dramaturgy in combining both modernist notions of the absurd and familiar icons from the American cultural landscape with an energy tinged by anarchy and violence. Moreover, Shepard has been considered by many critics as a postmodern dramatist. Hassan (1987 piles up a lengthy list of artists from various disciplines whose names epitomize postmodernism for him. The playwrights are: Samuel Beckett, Eugene Ionesco, Harold Pinter and only Sam Shepard and August Wilson from America. One characteristic of postmodern literature in general, is a focus on the instability of meaning and the inadequacy of language to completely and accurately represent truth, along with an irony and playfulness in the treatment of linguistic constructs. In other words, there is a questioning of language as a medium of perception and communication. Language can name the pain but it can’t be the pain; language cannot reach the actual individual feeling. Language is not strong enough to convey the intense emotion.  In postmodern poetics, there is a paradigmatic shift from the idea that language is transparent to the disclosure of its physicality, its intimacy, its obdurate persistence, and its paradoxical fragility. Thus, language is an insufficient means for transforming the ideas that exist in one's mind. The aim of the present article would be to present the ways in which the dramatic language of Sam Shepard, as a postmodern drama, demonstrates inadequacy of language in communication. In order to reach this goal, however, a number of his early dramas will be brought under scrutiny with regard to their language and style from the postmodern point of view.Keywords: Fragmentation, Postmodernism, Language, Grand Narratives, American Drama

  3. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Amin Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, John C.

    2002-11-01

    Extraordinary claims for the The Amin engine, made recently in full-page paid advertisements in Science Magazine and Physics Today are based upon faulty analysis of the proposed cycle. As presented, the engine constitutes a claim to violate the second law of thermodynamics, purporting to produce net useful work while extracting heat from a reservoir at a single temperature. When analyzed correctly, it conforms to the second law and produces at most zero net work when operating under isothermal conditions. The author neglects the torque-angle work needed to change the angular velocity and/or moment of inertia of the working fluid in the cylinder. When this is correctly accounted for, the contradiction with the second law is resolved.

  4. N-(3-Methylphenylquinoxalin-2-amine monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azila Idris

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The quinoxaline system in the title hydrate, C15H13N3·H2O, is roughly planar, the r.m.s. deviation for the 18 non-H atoms being 0.188 Å; this conformation features a short intramolecular C—H...N(pyrazine interaction. In the crystal, the amine H atom forms an N—H...O hydrogen bond to the water molecule, which in turn forms two O—H...N hydrogen bonds to the pyrazine N atoms of different organic molecules. These interactions lead to supramolecular arrays in the bc plane that are two molecules thick; additional π–π interactions stabilize the layers [ring centroid–centroid distance = 3.5923 (7 Å]. The layers stack along the a-axis direction via C—H...π contacts.

  5. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Heng, Lee Yook [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Ling, Tan Ling [Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study.

  6. [Senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM): with special reference to age-associated pathologies and their modulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, T

    1996-07-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) has been under development by our research team at Kyoto University since 1970 through selective inbreeding of the AKR/J strain of mice donated by the Jackson Laboratory in 1968, based on the data of the grading score of senescence, life span, and pathologic phenotypes. At present, there are 12 lines of SAM; the 9 senescence-prone inbred strains (SAMP) include SAMP1, SAMP2, SAMP3, SAMP6, SAMP7, SAMP8, SAMP9, SAMP10 and SAMP11, and the 3 senescence-resistant inbred strains (SAMR) SAMR1, SANR4 and SAMR5. Data from survival curves, the Gompertzian function and the grading score of senescence, together with growth patterns of body weight of these SAMP and SAMR mice revealed that the characteristic feature of aging common to all SAMP mice is "accelerated senescence": early onset and irreversible advance of senescence manifested by several signs and gross lesions such as the loss of normal behavior, various skin lesions, increased lordokyphosis, etc., after a period of normal development. Routine postmortem examinations and the pathobiological features revealed by systematically designed studies have shown several pathologic phenotypes, which are often characteristic enough to differentiate among the various SAM strains: senile amyloidosis in SAMP1, -P2, -P7, -P9, -P10 and -P11, secondary amyloidosis in SAMP2 and -P6, contracted kidney in SAMP1, -P2, -P10, -P11, immunoblastic lymphoma in SAMR1 and -R4, histiocytic sarcoma in SAMR1 and -R4, ovarian cysts in SAMR1, impaired immune response in SAMP1, -P2 and -P8, hyperinflation of the lungs in SAMP1, hearing impairment in SAMP1, degenerative temporomandibular joint disease in SAMP3, senile osteoporosis in SAMP6, deficits in learning and memory in SAMP8 and -P10, emotional disorders in SAMP8 and -P10, cataracts in SAMP9, and brain atrophy in SAMP10. These are all age-associated pathologies, the incidence and severity of which increase with advancing age. The SAM model in which these

  7. GoSam 2.0: Automated one loop calculations within and beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    We present GoSam 2.0, a fully automated framework for the generation and evaluation of one loop amplitudes in multi leg processes. The new version offers numerous improvements both on generational aspects as well as on the reduction side. This leads to a faster and more stable code for calculations within and beyond the Standard Model. Furthermore it contains the extended version of the standardized interface to Monte Carlo programs which allows for an easy combination with other existing tools. We briefly describe the conceptual innovations and present some phenomenological results.

  8. [Research on identification of cabbages and weeds combining spectral imaging technology and SAM taxonomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Qin; Zhang, Shui-fa; Cao, Yang; Zhao, Hui-yi; Dang, Chang-qing

    2015-02-01

    Weeds automatic identification is the key technique and also the bottleneck for implementation of variable spraying and precision pesticide. Therefore, accurate, rapid and non-destructive automatic identification of weeds has become a very important research direction for precision agriculture. Hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture the hyperspectral images of cabbage seedlings and five kinds of weeds such as pigweed, barnyard grass, goosegrass, crabgrass and setaria with the wavelength ranging from 1000 to 2500 nm. In ENVI, by utilizing the MNF rotation to implement the noise reduction and de-correlation of hyperspectral data and reduce the band dimensions from 256 to 11, and extracting the region of interest to get the spectral library as standard spectra, finally, using the SAM taxonomy to identify cabbages and weeds, the classification effect was good when the spectral angle threshold was set as 0. 1 radians. In HSI Analyzer, after selecting the training pixels to obtain the standard spectrum, the SAM taxonomy was used to distinguish weeds from cabbages. Furthermore, in order to measure the recognition accuracy of weeds quantificationally, the statistical data of the weeds and non-weeds were obtained by comparing the SAM classification image with the best classification effects to the manual classification image. The experimental results demonstrated that, when the parameters were set as 5-point smoothing, 0-order derivative and 7-degree spectral angle, the best classification result was acquired and the recognition rate of weeds, non-weeds and overall samples was 80%, 97.3% and 96.8% respectively. The method that combined the spectral imaging technology and the SAM taxonomy together took full advantage of fusion information of spectrum and image. By applying the spatial classification algorithms to establishing training sets for spectral identification, checking the similarity among spectral vectors in the pixel level, integrating the advantages of

  9. Possible Detection of Perchlorates by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument: Comparison with Previous Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalex, Rafael; Sutter, Brad; Archer, Doug; Ming, Doug; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Franz, Heather; Glavin, Daniel; McAdam, Amy; Stern, Jennifer; McKay, Christopher; Coll, Patrice; Cabane, Michel; Mahaffy, Paul; Conrad, Pamela; Martin-Torres, Francisco; Zorzano-Mier, Maria; Grotzinger, John

    2013-01-01

    The first chemical analysis of soluble salts in the soil was carried out by the Phoenix Lander in the Martian Arctic [1]. Surprisingly, chlorine was present as magnesium or calcium perchlorate at 0.4 to 0.6 percent. Additional support for the identification of perchlorate came from the evolved gas analysis which detected the release of molecular oxygen at 350-550C [1]. When Mars-like soils from the Atacama Desert were spiked with magnesium perchlorate (1 percent) and heated using the Viking GC-MS protocol, nearly all the organics were combusted but a small amount was chlorinated, forming chloromethane and dichloromethane [2]. These chlorohydrocarbons were detected by the Viking GC-MS experiments when the Martian soil was analyzed but they were considered to be terrestrial contaminants [3]. Reinterpretation of the Viking results suggests <0.1 percent perchlorate and ppm levels of organic carbon at landing site 1 and 2 [2]. The suggestion of perchlorate in the Viking sites [2] has been challenged on the grounds that the detected compounds (CH3Cl and CH2Cl2) were carried from Earth [4]. Recently the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) ran four samples from an aeolian bedform named Rocknest. The samples analyzed were portioned from the fifth scoop at this location. The samples were heated to 835C at 35C/min with a He flow. The SAM QMS detected a major oxygen release (300-500C) [5], coupled with the release of chlorinated hydrocarbons (chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, and chloromethylpropene) detected both by SAM QMS and GC-MS derived from known Earth organic contaminants in the instrument [6]. Calcium perchlorate appears to be the best candidate for evolved O2 in the Rocknest samples at this time but other Cl species (e.g., chlorates) are possible and must be evaluated. The potential detection of perchlorates in Rocknest material adds weight to the argument that both Viking Landers measured signatures of

  10. Poly(Amido Amine)s Containing Agmatine and Butanol Side Chains as Efficient Gene Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Young-Wook; Ankoné, Marc; Engbersen, Johan F J; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan

    2016-04-01

    A new type of bioreducible poly(amido amine) copolymer is synthesized by the Michael addition polymerization of cystamine bisacrylamide (CBA) with 4-aminobutylguanidine (agmatine, AGM) and 4-aminobutanol (ABOL). Since the positively charged guanidinium groups of AGM and the hydroxybutyl groups of ABOL in the side chains have shown to improve the overall transfection efficiency of poly(amido amine)s, it is hypothesized that poly(CBA-ABOL/AGM) synthesized at the optimal ratio of both components would result in high transfection efficiency and minimal toxicity. In this study, a series of the poly(CBA-ABOL/AGM) copolymers is synthesized as gene carriers. The polymers are characterized and luciferase transfection efficiencies of the polymers in various cell lines are investigated to select the ideal ratio between AGM and ABOL. The poly(CBA-ABOL/AGM) containing 80% AGM and 20% ABOL has shown the best transfection efficiency with the lowest cytotoxicity, indicating that this polymer is very promising as a potent and nontoxic gene carrier. PMID:26663734

  11. Documents from malicious terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Istvan Z.; Vajda, Istvan

    2003-04-01

    The user wishes to communicate with a remote partner over an insecure network. Since the user is a human being, a terminal is needed for communication. Cryptographic algorithms running on the terminal may provide authenticity for the user's messages. In this paper the problem of sending authentic messages from insecure or untrusted terminals is analyzed. In this case attackers are able to gain total control over the terminal, so the user must consider the terminal a potential attacker. Smart cards are often considered the ultimate tool for secure messaging from untrusted terminals. However, their lack of user interface enables man-in-the middle attack from the terminal. The authors assume, that user is a human being with limited memory and computational power, and also makes mistakes in his calculations. They demnostrate, that only exceptional useres are able to authenticate messages without a trusted device. Several biometric media encapsulate the content of the message and the identity of the sender, such as speech, video and handwriting. The authors suggest, that such media is far more difficult to counterfeit than plaintext. Thus, the user must rely on his other resources, like biometric ones. In the protocol proposed by the authors, the user sends messages in a biometric format, strengthened by simple algorithmic authenticators. The smart card functions as a secure time gate ensuring, that the attacker has extremely little time to counterfeit both the biometric and the algorithmic protection on the message. The authors claim, that with the proper calibration of the biometric method and the time gate of the smart card, their protocol is strong enough for practical use.

  12. Local Termination: theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Endrullis, Joerg; Waldmann, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The characterisation of termination using well-founded monotone algebras has been a milestone on the way to automated termination techniques, of which we have seen an extensive development over the past years. Both the semantic characterisation and most known termination methods are concerned with global termination, uniformly of all the terms of a term rewriting system (TRS). In this paper we consider local termination, of specific sets of terms within a given TRS. The principal goal of this paper is generalising the semantic characterisation of global termination to local termination. This is made possible by admitting the well-founded monotone algebras to be partial. We also extend our approach to local relative termination. The interest in local termination naturally arises in program verification, where one is probably interested only in sensible inputs, or just wants to characterise the set of inputs for which a program terminates. Local termination will be also be of interest when dealing with a specif...

  13. The sugar model: catalysis by amines and amino acid products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    Ammonia and amines (including amino acids) were shown to catalyze the formation of sugars from formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde, and the subsequent conversion of sugars to carbonylcontaining products under the conditions studied (pH 5.5 and 50 degrees C). Sterically unhindered primary amines were better catalysts than ammonia, secondary amines, and sterically hindered primary amines (i.e. alpha-aminoisobutyric acid). Reactions catalyzed by primary amines initially consumed formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde about 15-20 times faster than an uncatalyzed control reaction. The amine-catalyzed reactions yielded aldotriose (glyceraldehyde), ketotriose (dihydroxyacetone), aldotetroses (erythrose and threose), ketotetrose (erythrulose), pyruvaldehyde, acetaldehyde, glyoxal, pyruvate, glyoxylate, and several unindentified carbonyl products. The concentrations of the carbonyl products, except pyruvate and ketotetrose, initially increased and then declined during the reaction, indicating their ultimate conversion to other products (like larger sugars or pyruvate). The uncatalyzed control reaction yielded no pyruvate or glyoxylate, and only trace amounts of pyruvaldehyde, acetaldehyde and glyoxal. In the presence of 15 mM catalytic primary amine, such as alanine, the rates of triose and pyruvaldehyde of synthesis were about 15-times and 1200-times faster, respectively, than the uncatalyzed reaction. Since previous studies established that alanine is synthesized from glycolaldehyde and formaldehyde via pyruvaldehyde as its direct precursor, the demonstration that the alanine catalyzes the conversion of glycolaldehyde and formaldehyde to pyruvaldehyde indicates that this synthetic pathway is capable of autocatalysis. The relevance of this synthetic process, named the Sugar Model, to the origin of life is discussed.

  14. Water-soluble primary amine compounds in rural continental precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelska, Krystyna; Galloway, James N.; Watterson, Karen; Keene, William C.

    Procedures for collecting, storing and analysing precipitation samples for organic nitrogen studies were developed. These procedures preserve chemical integrities of the species of interest, allow for up to 3 months storage and quantitative determination of water-soluble primary amine compounds, with the overall error at the 2 nM detection limit of less than 30%. This methodology was applied to study amino compounds in precipitation samples collected over a period of one year in central Virginia. Nitrogen concentrations of 13 amino acids and 3 aliphatic amines were summed to calculate the total amine nitrogen (TAN). The concentration of TAN ranged from below our detection level to 6658 nM, and possibly reflected a seasonal variation in the source strength of the atmospheric amines. Overall, the most commonly occurring amino compounds were methyl amine, ethyl amine, glutamic acid, glycine and serine. On average, the highest overall contribution to the TAN came from arginine, asparagine, glutamine, methyl amine, serine and alanine. However, large qualitative and quantitative variations observed among samples warrant caution in interpretation and application of the averaged values. TAN in Charlottesville precipitation contributed from less than 1 to ca 10% of the ammonium nitrogen level. However, our estimates show that amino compounds may contribute significantly to reduced nitrogen budget in precipitation in remote regions.

  15. Study of the resistance of SAMs on aluminium to acidic and basic solutions using dynamic contact angle measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Ioannis L; Newman, Roger C; McAlpine, Eoghan; Alexander, Morgan R

    2007-01-30

    We report the development of a method to determine the aqueous stability of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) using the Wilhelmy plate dynamic contact angle (DCA) experiment. The DCA is measured in solutions over a range of pH values for alkyl carboxylic and alkyl phosphonic acid SAMs formed on magnetron-sputtered aluminum. The change in DCA on repeated immersion is used as a measure of the degradation of the SAMs by hydrolytic attack. The short and intermediate chain length alkyl acids are not stable in water of neutral pH, whereas molecules with the longest alkyl chains show considerably greater stability in neutral and both high and low pH solutions. The packing density inferred from the DCA and the contact angle hysteresis suggests the C18CO2H monolayer to be slightly less well packed than that of the C18P(=O)(OH)2; this is consistent with related friction force microscopy and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy findings published elsewhere (Foster, T. T.; Alexander, M. R.; Leggett, G. J.; McAlpine, E. Langmuir 2006, 22, 9254-9259). The resistance of the SAMs to acid and alkaline environments is discussed in the context of aluminum oxide solubility, SAM packing density, and the resistance of the interfacial phosphate and carboxylate functionalities to different aqueous conditions. PMID:17241003

  16. Di(1-benzo[][1,2,3]triazol-1-yl)methane: An efficient ligand for copper and amine-free palladium-catalysed Sonogashira coupling reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaspal Singh; Akhilesh Kumar Verma

    2011-11-01

    An efficient Pd-catalysed Sonogashira coupling reaction was achieved in the absence of copper and amine with inorganic base using phosphene-free, air stable di(1-benzo[][1,2,3]triazol-1-yl)methane as ligand. The cross coupling of electron-rich, electron-defficient and hindered aryl halides with terminal alkynes afforded the internal alkynes in good to excellent yields.

  17. Insights into the structure, function and evolution of the radical-SAM 23S rRNA methyltransferase Cfr that confers antibiotic resistance in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karminska, K. H.; Purta, E.; Hansen, L .H.;

    2010-01-01

    The Cfr methyltransferase confers combined resistance to five classes of antibiotics that bind to the peptidyl tranferase center of bacterial ribosomes by catalyzing methylation of the C-8 position of 23S rRNA nucleotide A2503. The same nucleotide is targeted by the housekeeping methyltransferase...... of a 4Fe-4S cluster, a SAM molecule coordinated to the iron-sulfur cluster (SAM1) and a SAM molecule that is the putative methyl group donor (SAM2). All mutations at predicted functional sites affect Cfr activity significantly as assayed by antibiotic susceptibility testing and primer extension analysis...

  18. The nuclear protein Sam68 is redistributed to the cytoplasm and is involved in PI3K/Akt activation during EV71 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Cong, Haolong; Song, Lei; Tien, Po

    2014-02-13

    Nuclear proteins can be triggered to be redistributed to the cytoplasm to assist with EV71 virus replication. This process is frequently involved in cellular signal transduction upon virus infection. In this study, we have demonstrated that a new nuclear protein, 68-kDa Src-associated in mitosis protein (Sam68), was translocated to the cytoplasm and was co-localized with EV71 during virus infection. Confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation assay confirmed that virus 3C protease triggered the redistribution of Sam68 to the cytoplasm. Knockdown of Sam68 expression using ShRNA significantly inhibited virus replication, suggesting that Sam68 may be a host factor involved in EV71 life cycle. In addition, EV71-induced Akt phosphorylation involved a PI3K-dependent mechanism. Sam68 is known to be an upstream regulator of PI3K and our immunoprecipitation studies confirmed that Sam68 interacted directly with the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K and mediated PI3K/Akt activation during EV71 infection. On the contrary, silencing of Sam68 dramatically abrogated Akt phosphorylation. These data, plus the fact that Sam68 is known to be a signaling adaptor protein, indicated that Sam68 is a signal molecule with a functional role in the PI3K/Akt signal pathway during EV71 infection.

  19. Cloning and bioinformatic analysis of SAMS gene in a mangrove tree Sonneratia alba%红树植物杯萼海桑SAMS 基因的克隆与生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秋红; 张自德; 王峰

    2013-01-01

    Sonneratia alba is one of the most salt-tolerant mangroves.S-adenosylmethionine synthetase(SAMS)which was in response to abiotic stresses played an important role in salt tolerance.In order to study the biological mecha-nism of S.alba for adapting stress,the coding region of SaSAMS gene which codes a key enzyme in the S-adenosyl-methionine(SAM)biosynthetic pathway was isolated.Based on the annotation of root transcriptome of S.alba,prim-ers was designed and cDNA of SaSAMS gene was amplified by PCR.The complete coding sequence of SaSAMS gene was 1 182 bp and it encoded a protein of 393 amino acids.Homology comparison and evolutionary tree analysis showed that the SAMS amino acid sequences were relatively conserved in plants.The SaSAMS gene was cloned from a mangrove tree S.alba for the first time and this would facilitate further investigation on molecular mechanism of stress tolerance and regulation networks of stress-related genes in S.alba.%红树植物杯萼海桑是最耐盐的红树植物之一.S-腺苷甲硫氨酸合成酶(S-adenosylmethionine syn-thetase,SAMS)是 S-腺苷甲硫氨酸(S-adenosylmethionine,SAM)生物合成途径的关键酶.SAMS 作为一个逆境胁迫响应蛋白在植物的耐盐调控中发挥着极其重要的作用.本文结合杯萼海桑根的转录组注释,根据编码区序列设计引物,通过PCR克隆杯萼海桑SAMS 基因的编码区 cDNA,并对其进行生物信息分析,为研究杯萼海桑适应逆境的机制奠定理论基础.结果显示PCR扩增了一个长1182 bp 的基因片段,该片段编码由393个氨基酸组成的S-腺苷甲硫氨酸合成酶.同源性比对及进化树分析显示杯萼海桑的SAMS 氨基酸序列进化上相对保守.本研究首次从红树林植物杯萼海桑中克隆S-腺苷甲硫氨酸合成酶基因,并获得其编码区序列,为进一步研究杯萼海桑应对逆境胁迫的分子生物学机制与胁迫相关基因调控网络奠定基础.

  20. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN SELECTED WINES DURING WINEMAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Flasarová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the development of selected biogenic amines (histamine; tyramine; phenylethylamine; putrescine; agmatine; and cadaverine during the winemaking in 10 selected species grown in Central Europe in 2008. The analysis was performed using ion-exchange chromatography by the sodium-citrate buffers with the post-column ninhydrin derivatization and photometric detection. A comparison of the content of biogenic amines in red and wine varieties showed that red wines have higher concentrations of biogenic amines.

  1. Study on surface acid-base property of carboxylic acid-terminated self-assembled monolayers by cyclic voltammetry and electro-chemical impedance spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗立强; 程志亮; 杨秀荣; 汪尔康

    2000-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to study the surface acid-base property of carboxylic acid-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). A carboxylic acid-terminated thiol, such as thioctic acid (1,2-dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid), was self-assembled on gold electrodes. Electron transfer between the bulk solution and the SAM modified electrode was studied at different pH using Fe(CN)63 as a probe. The surface pK. of thioctic acid was determined by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to be 5.6±0.1 and 5.8±0.1, respectively. The method is compared with other methods of monolayer pK.measurement.

  2. Shear-Induced Detachment of Polystyrene Beads from SAM-Coated Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwun Lun; Rosenhahn, Axel; Thelen, Richard; Grunze, Michael; Lobban, Matthew; Karahka, Markus Leopold; Kreuzer, H Jürgen

    2015-10-13

    In this work we experimentally and theoretically analyze the detachment of microscopic polystyrene beads from different self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces in a shear flow in order to develop a mechanistic model for the removal of cells from surfaces. The detachment of the beads from the surface is treated as a thermally activated process applying an Arrhenius Ansatz to determine the activation barrier and attempt frequency of the rate determing step in bead removal. The statistical analysis of the experimental shear detachment data obtained in phosphate-buffered saline buffer results in an activation energy around 20 kJ/mol, which is orders of magnitude lower than the adhesion energy measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The same order of magnitude for the adhesion energy measured by AFM is derived from ab initio calculations of the van der Waals interaction energy between the polystyrene beads and the SAM-covered gold surface. We conclude that the rate determing step for detachment of the beads is the initiation of rolling on the surface (overcoming static friction) and not physical detachment, i.e., lifting the particle off the surface.

  3. Human and management factors in probabilistic risk analysis: the SAM approach and observations from recent applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most severe industrial accidents have been shown to involve one or more human errors and these are generally rooted in management problems. The objective of this paper is to draw some conclusions from the experience that we have acquired from three different studies of this phenomenon: (1) the Piper Alpha accident including problems of operations management and fire risks on-board offshore platforms, (2) the management of the heat shield of the NASA space shuttle orbiter, and (3) the roots of patient risks in anaesthesia. This paper describes and illustrates the SAM approach (System-Action-Management) that was developed and used in these studies to link the probabilities of system failures to human and management factors. This SAM model includes: first, a probabilistic risk analysis of the physical system, second, an analysis of the decisions and actions that affect the probabilities of its basic events, and third, a study of the management factors that influence those decisions and actions. In the three initial studies, the analytical links (conditional probabilities) among these three submodels were coarsely quantified based on statistical data whenever available, or most often, on expert opinions. This paper describes some observations that were made across these three studies, for example, the importance of the informal reward system, the difficulties in the communication of uncertainties, the problems of managing resource constraints, and the safety implications of the short cuts that they often imply

  4. SAM - Sistema Automatizado del Método MECAP para Especificar Casos de Prueba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenyer Domínguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Existen cuatro elementos que son relevantes al momento de definir las pruebas: Confiabilidad, Costo, Tiempo y Calidad. El tiempo de desarrollo y el costo del producto se incrementan cuando se desean pruebas confiables y un software de calidad. Pero ¿qué se puede hacer para que los involucrados comprendan que las pruebas deben ser vistas como una red de seguridad? Si la calidad no se contempla antes de comenzar las pruebas, entonces ella no estará cuando se éstas terminen. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar la herramienta, SAM – Sistema Automatizado del Método MECAP que permite especificar Casos de Prueba a partir de Casos de Uso incorporando elementos que promueven la verificación y validación de la trazabilidad entre la Gestión de Requerimientos, el Análisis y Diseño y las Pruebas. SAM soporta el proceso de pruebas de forma automatizada, mejorando la confiabilidad de las mismas

  5. Antecedents of Customer Relationship Termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    relationships as a managerial task. This paper contributes by (1) developing a conceptualization of relationship termination competence and (2) analyzing its antecedents. The empirical results identify termination acceptance, definition non-customers, organizational relationship termination routines......, and motivation as significant antecedents. Because of this, managers need to develop their organizations in order to use relationship termination as a vital strategy....

  6. Severe accident management (SAM), operator training and instrumentation capabilities - Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Workshop on Operator Training for Severe Accident Management (SAM) and Instrumentation Capabilities During Severe Accidents was organised in collaboration with Electricite de France (Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires). There were 34 participants, representing thirteen OECD Member countries, the Russian Federation and the OECD/NEA. Almost half the participants represented utilities. The second largest group was regulatory authorities and their technical support organisations. Basically, the Workshop was a follow-up to the 1997 Second Specialist Meeting on Operator Aids for Severe Accident Management (SAMOA-2) [Reports NEA/CSNI/R(97)10 and 27] and to the 1992 Specialist Meeting on Instrumentation to Manage Severe Accidents [Reports NEA/CSNI/R(92)11 and (93)3]. It was aimed at sharing and comparing progress made and experience gained from these two meetings, emphasizing practical lessons learnt during training or incidents as well as feedback from instrumentation capability assessment. The objectives of the Workshop were therefore: - to exchange information on recent and current activities in the area of operator training for SAM, and lessons learnt during the management of real incidents ('operator' is defined hear as all personnel involved in SAM); - to compare capabilities and use of instrumentation available during severe accidents; - to monitor progress made; - to identify and discuss differences between approaches relevant to reactor safety; - and to make recommendations to the Working Group on the Analysis and Management of Accidents and the CSNI (GAMA). The Workshop was organised into five sessions: - 1: Introduction; - 2: Tools and Methods; - 3: Training Programmes and Experience; - 4: SAM Organisation Efficiency; - 5: Instrumentation Capabilities. It was concluded by a Panel and General Discussion. This report presents the summary and conclusions: the meeting confirmed that only limited information is needed for making required decisions

  7. Dual-SAM functionalization on integrated cantilevers for specific trace-explosive sensing and non-specific adsorption suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo Guomin; Li Xinxin; Zhang Zhixiang; Yang Tiantian; Wang Yuelin; Cheng Zhenxing; Feng Songlin [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2007-06-27

    Two self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), 6-mercaptonicotinic acid (6-MNA) and hydrophobic heptadecafluorodecyltrimethoxysilane (FAS-17), are used to specifically modify the two surfaces of a piezoresistive SiO{sub 2} cantilever for functionalizations of both specific explosive-sensing improvement and non-specific molecular-adsorption suppression. With the dual-SAM modification technique, the on-chip-integrated ultra-sensitive microcantilever sensor behaves more sensitively and has quicker sensing properties to trace trinitrotoluene (TNT) than the previously reported cantilever functionalized with 4-MBA SAM, as well as being able to significantly suppress the cross-talk influence from environmental air humidity. Measurement results show that the high-performance sensor achieves a rapid, reversible and reproducible response to TNT vapour, with a detecting resolution of tens of ppt.

  8. Preparation and characterization of BiFeO3 thin films by the LPD on OH-functionalized organic SAMs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films were grown on OH-functionalized organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) via liquid-phase deposition (LPD) method at a temperature below 100°C. The BiFeO3 thin films were induced to synthesize on the OH-functionalized organic OTS monolayers prepared on hydroxylated glass substrate by self-assembling technique. The hydrophilic characteristic of the as-prepared OTS-SAMs was measured by contact angle tester. The crystal phase composition, microstructure and topography of the as-synthesized BFO thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscope (AFM), respectively. Results show that compact and homogeneous BFO thin films can be formed on the OH-functionalized SAMs at low temperature.

  9. Biogenic amines in italian pecorino cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Visciano, Pierina; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations, and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (∼62.000t of production in 2010). Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or pasteurized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA). Bacterial amino acid decarboxylase activity and BA content have to be investigated within the complex microbial community of raw milk cheese for different cheese technologies. The results emphasize the necessity of controlling the indigenous bacterial population responsible for high production of BA and the use of competitive adjunct cultures could be suggested. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA's in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, water activity, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge), and the presence of cofactor (pyridoxal phosphate, availability of aminases and deaminases). In fact physico-chemical parameters seem to favor biogenic amine-positive microbiota; both of these environmental factors can easily be modulated, in order to control growth of undesirable microorganisms. Generally, the total content of BA's in Pecorino cheeses can range from about 100-2400

  10. Study on the Reaction of Benzimidazolium Salt with Amine Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The addition-hydrolysis reaction of benzimidazolium salt with some mono- andbifunctional amine nucleophiles is reported, and a novel method of biomimetic synthesis forformamides and heterocycle compounds is provided.

  11. Two simple amine hydrochlorides from the soft coral Lobophytum strictum

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Two simple amine hydrochlorides, viz., 1-amino-1, 1-dimethyl-3-oxo-butane hydrochloride (1) (Diacetonamine) and 2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidone hydrochloride (2) have been isolated from the fraction of the methanolic extract of the soft coral...

  12. FTIR Study of Enhanced Polymeric Blend Membrane with Amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Mushtaq

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, research will be carried out to identify the functional group behavior of glassy and rubbery polymeric blend membrane with amines. Polymeric blend membranes with different blending ratios were prepared and the developed membranes were characterized by FTIR to see the effect of blend ratio on different functional groups. The developed membranes are flat dense sheet membrane of 20% wt/wt. The pure and blend membrane polysulfone, polyethersulfone, polyvinyl acetate with different composition, with 10% methyl diethanol amine, mono ethanol amine, diethanol amine are developed with dimethyl acetamide solvent. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy was utilized to study the interaction between two polymers and to analyze the type of bonding present. To observed frequencies were assigned to various mode of vibration in terms of fundamentals and combination. These spectral changes indicated the existence of molecular interaction among the enhanced polymeric blends; highlight the compatible nature among each other.

  13. Biogenic amines in meat and fermented meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Stadnik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends in food quality and safety promote an increasing search for trace compounds that can affect human health. Biogenic amines belong to this group of substances. They can cause distinctive pharmacological, physiological and toxic effects in organisms. Their amounts are usually increasing as a consequence of the use of poor quality raw materials, during controlled or spontaneous microbial fermentation or in the course of food spoilage. The origin of biogenic amines makes them suitable as chemical indicators of the hygienic quality and freshness of some foods being associated to the degree of food fermentation or degradation. The development of appropriate manufacturing technologies to obtain products free or nearly free from biogenic amines is a challenge for the meat industry. This review briefly summarises current knowledge on the biological implications of biogenic amines on human health and collects data on the factors affecting their formation in meat and fermented meat products.

  14. Amine reclaiming technologies in post-combustion carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tielin; Hovland, Jon; Jens, Klaus J

    2015-01-01

    Amine scrubbing is the most developed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. Degradation of amine solvents due to the presence of high levels of oxygen and other impurities in flue gas causes increasing costs and deterioration in long term performance, and therefore purification of the solvents is needed to overcome these problems. This review presents the reclaiming of amine solvents used for post combustion CO2 capture (PCC). Thermal reclaiming, ion exchange, and electrodialysis, although principally developed for sour gas sweetening, have also been tested for CO2 capture from flue gas. The three technologies all have their strengths and weaknesses, and further development is needed to reduce energy usage and costs. An expected future trend for amine reclamation is to focus on process integration of the current reclaiming technologies into the PCC process in order to drive down costs.

  15. Amine reclaiming technologies in post-combustion carbon dioxide capture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tielin Wang; Jon Hovland; KlauS J.Jens

    2015-01-01

    Amine scrubbing is the most developed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture.Degradation of amine solvents due to the presence of high levels of oxygen and other impurities in flue gas causes increasing costs and deterioration in long term performance,and therefore purification of the solvents is needed to overcome these problems.This review presents the reclaiming of amine solvents used for post combustion CO2 capture (PCC).Thermal reclaiming,ion exchange,and electrodialysis,although principally developed for sour gas sweetening,have also been tested for CO2 capture from flue gas.The three technologies all have their strengths and weaknesses,and further development is needed to reduce energy usage and costs.An expected future trend for amine reclamation is to focus on process integration of the current reclaiming technologies into the PCC process in order to drive down costs.

  16. Reaction and characterization of crosslinking hyperbranched poly(amine-ester) with succine anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Ling; WEI Xiuzhen; ZHU Baoku

    2007-01-01

    Basing on hydroxyl terminated hyperbranched poly(amine-ester)s (HPAEs),the cross-linking reactions and preparation of ester-crosslinked HPAE films were investigated using succine anhydride (SA) as crosslink reagent.It was proved that the cross-linking reaction between HPAE and SA followed a two-step mechanism.This mechanism provides an efficient route to prepare HPAE/SA cross-linked films,in which,the precursor films were prepared by casting HPAE/SA solution at a lower temperature,and then curing the films at a higher temperature.By varying SA content,the solid HPAE/SA films with different cross-linking degrees were prepared successfully.The highest tensile strength of the cross-linked film could reach 59.60 MPa.With all water contact angle smaller than 74.3°,the crosslinked films demonstrated good hydrophilic properties.

  17. Børn, krop og kunst - en performativ udstillingsanalyse af børnekunstfestivalen SamVærk

    OpenAIRE

    Smidt, Michelle Therese; Würtz, Line Havshøj

    2013-01-01

    The thesis is based on an empirical study of the children’s art festival SamVærk, which took place at Lady Square in Copenhagen in the summer of 2012. The primary focus has been to examine if the festival contributes to a new rationale in the cross field between ‘children’s culture’ and ‘temporary space’. SamVærk can be seen as a time typically trend of making use of urban space today, but strives to be a pioneer project in the form of its involvement of children and young people at all stage...

  18. Two Dimensional Polyamides Prepared From Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids And Amines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Huang, Zhi Heng (East Lansing, MI); Wright, Stacy C. (Lansing, MI); Danzig, Morris (Northbrook, IL); Taylor, Andrew C. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2002-07-17

    A polyamide and a process for preparing the polyamide are disclosed. The process comprises reacting in a reaction mixture a monomer selected from unsaturated carboxylic acids, esters of unsaturated carboxylic acids, anhydrides of unsaturated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof, and a first amine to form an intermediate reaction product in the reaction mixture, wherein the first amine is selected from RR.sub.1 NH, RNH.sub.2, RR.sub.1 NH.sub.2.sup.+, RNH.sub.3.sup.+ and mixtures thereof, wherein R and R.sub.1 can be the same or different and each contain between about 1 and 50 carbon atoms and are optionally substituted with heteroatoms oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof, and reacting the intermediate reaction product and a second amine to form a polyamide, wherein the second amine is selected from R.sub.2 R.sub.3 NH, R.sub.2 NH.sub.2, R.sub.2 R.sub.3 NH.sub.2.sup.+, R.sub.2 NH.sub.3.sup.+ and mixtures thereof wherein R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 can be the same or different and each contain between about 1 and 50 carbon atoms and are optionally substituted with heteroatoms oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof, wherein multiple of the R, R.sub.1, R.sub.2, and R.sub.3 are in vertically aligned spaced relationship along a backbone formed by the polyamide. In one version of the invention, the monomer is selected from maleic anhydride, maleic acid esters, and mixtures thereof. In another version of the invention, the first amine is an alkylamine, such as tetradecylamine, and the second amine is a polyalkylene polyamine, such as pentaethylenehexamine. In yet another version of the invention, the first amine and the second amine are olefinic or acetylenic amines, such as the reaction products of an alkyldiamine and an acetylenic carboxylic acid. The first amine and the second amine may be the same or different depending on the desired polyamide polymer structure.

  19. Making Wireless Terminals Simpler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Skovgaard; Popovski, Petar; De Carvalho, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    The exponential growth of user demands and the limitations of 3G systems have brought researchers and industry to propose solutions for the next generation. Among the requirements are higher bit rates and cheaper deployment. In this paper we focus on a terminal complexity problem related to channel...

  20. Volatile amines as criteria for chemical quality assessment. Seafoodplus Traceability

    OpenAIRE

    Etienne, Monique

    2005-01-01

    Volatile amines are the characteristic molecules responsible for the fishy odour and flavour present in fish several days after the catch and they are commonly used as criteria for assessing the fish quality. The nature and the formation of the volatile amines are discussed. Ammonia is present in freshly caught fish, during chilled storage it is formed by endogenous and bacterial enzymes, it is a poor indicator of fish freshness and cannot be considered as an effective marker of fish spoila...