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Sample records for amine terminated sams

  1. Amine terminated SAMs: Investigating why oxygen is present in these films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baio, J.E.; Weidner, T.; Brison, J. [National ESCA and Surface Analysis Center for Biomedical Problems, University of Washington, Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering, Box 351750, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Graham, D.J. [Asemblon, 15340 NE 92nd Street, Suite B, Redmond, WA 98052 United States (United States); Gamble, Lara J. [National ESCA and Surface Analysis Center for Biomedical Problems, University of Washington, Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering, Box 351750, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)], E-mail: gamble@nb.engr.washington.edu; Castner, David G. [National ESCA and Surface Analysis Center for Biomedical Problems, University of Washington, Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering, Box 351750, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)], E-mail: castner@nb.engr.washington.edu

    2009-05-15

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold prepared from amine-terminated alkanethiols have long been employed as model positively charged surfaces. Yet in previous studies significant amounts of unexpected oxygen containing species are always detected in amine terminated SAMs. Thus, the goal of this investigation was to determine the source of these oxygen species and minimize their presence in the SAM. The surface composition, structure, and order of amine-terminated SAMs on Au were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS), sum frequency generation (SFG) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. XPS determined compositions of amine-terminated SAMs in the current study exhibited oxygen concentrations of 2.4 {+-} 0.4 atomic %, a substantially lower amount of oxygen than reported in previously published studies. High-resolution XPS results from the S{sub 2p}, C{sub 1s} and N{sub 1s} regions did not detect any oxidized species. Angle-resolved XPS indicated that the small amount of oxygen detected was located at or near the amine head group. Small amounts of oxidized nitrogen, carbon and sulfur secondary ions, as well as ions attributed to water, were detected in the ToF-SIMS data due to the higher sensitivity of ToF-SIMS. The lack of N-O, S-O, and C-O stretches in the SFG spectra are consistent with the XPS and ToF-SIMS results and together show that oxidation of the amine-terminated thiols alone can only account for, at most, a small fraction of the oxygen detected by XPS. Both the SFG and angle-dependent NEXAFS indicated the presence of gauche defects in the amine SAMs. However, the SFG spectral features near 2865 cm{sup -1}, assigned to the stretch of the methylene group next to the terminal amine unit, demonstrate the SAM is reasonably ordered. The SFG results also show another broad feature near 3200 cm{sup -1} related to hydrogen-bonded water. From this multi

  2. Amine terminated SAMs: Investigating why oxygen is present in these films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold prepared from amine-terminated alkanethiols have long been employed as model positively charged surfaces. Yet in previous studies significant amounts of unexpected oxygen containing species are always detected in amine terminated SAMs. Thus, the goal of this investigation was to determine the source of these oxygen species and minimize their presence in the SAM. The surface composition, structure, and order of amine-terminated SAMs on Au were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS), sum frequency generation (SFG) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. XPS determined compositions of amine-terminated SAMs in the current study exhibited oxygen concentrations of 2.4 ± 0.4 atomic %, a substantially lower amount of oxygen than reported in previously published studies. High-resolution XPS results from the S2p, C1s and N1s regions did not detect any oxidized species. Angle-resolved XPS indicated that the small amount of oxygen detected was located at or near the amine head group. Small amounts of oxidized nitrogen, carbon and sulfur secondary ions, as well as ions attributed to water, were detected in the ToF-SIMS data due to the higher sensitivity of ToF-SIMS. The lack of N-O, S-O, and C-O stretches in the SFG spectra are consistent with the XPS and ToF-SIMS results and together show that oxidation of the amine-terminated thiols alone can only account for, at most, a small fraction of the oxygen detected by XPS. Both the SFG and angle-dependent NEXAFS indicated the presence of gauche defects in the amine SAMs. However, the SFG spectral features near 2865 cm-1, assigned to the stretch of the methylene group next to the terminal amine unit, demonstrate the SAM is reasonably ordered. The SFG results also show another broad feature near 3200 cm-1 related to hydrogen-bonded water. From this multi-technique investigation it is clear

  3. Enhancing amine terminals in an amine-deprived collagen matrix.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tiong, William H C

    2008-10-21

    Collagen, though widely used as a core biomaterial in many clinical applications, is often limited by its rapid degradability which prevents full exploitation of its potential in vivo. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer, a highly branched macromolecule, possesses versatile multiterminal amine surface groups that enable them to be tethered to collagen molecules and enhance their potential. In this study, we hypothesized that incorporation of PAMAM dendrimer in a collagen matrix through cross-linking will result in a durable, cross-linked collagen biomaterial with free -NH 2 groups available for further multi-biomolecular tethering. The aim of this study was to assess the physicochemical properties of a G1 PAMAM cross-linked collagen matrix and its cellular sustainability in vitro. Different amounts of G1 PAMAM dendrimer (5 or 10 mg) were integrated into bovine-derived collagen matrices through a cross-linking process, mediated by 5 or 25 mM 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) in 5 mM N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and 50 mM 2-morpholinoethane sulfonic acid buffer at pH 5.5. The physicochemical properties of resultant matrices were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), collagenase degradation assay, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and ninhydrin assay. Cellular sustainability of the matrices was assessed with Alamar Blue assay and SEM. There was no significant difference in cellular behavior between the treated and nontreated groups. However, the benefit of incorporating PAMAM in the cross-linking reaction was limited when higher concentrations of either agent were used. These results confirm the hypothesis that PAMAM dendrimer can be incorporated in the collagen cross-linking process in order to modulate the properties of the resulting cross-linked collagen biomaterial with free -NH 2 groups available for multi-biomolecular tethering.

  4. Organic chemistry on surfaces: Direct cyclopropanation by dihalocarbene addition to vinyl terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs)

    OpenAIRE

    Malgorzata Adamkiewicz; David O’Hagan; Georg Hähner

    2014-01-01

    C11-Vinyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on silica surfaces are successfully modified in C–C bond forming reactions with dihalocarbenes to generate SAMs, terminated with dihalo- (fluoro, chloro, bromo) cyclopropane motifs with about 30% surface coverage.

  5. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amine terminated bisphenol A... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10017 Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl... chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs...

  6. INFLUENCE OF MOLECULAR STRUCTURES OF SECONDARY AMINE TERMINATED POLY(ESTER-AMINE)S ON THE CURING PERFORMANCE WITH EPOXY RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Five secondary amine terminated poly(ester-amine)s (defined as PEA) with controlled molecular structures were synthesized through reacting excessive piperazine with phthalicdiglycol diacrylate (PDDA) and 1,1,1-trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) at a constant secondary amine/acrylate group ratio of 1.5/1 and at different PDDA/TMPTA molar ratios.Both IR and 1H-NMR spectra indicated that all acrylate groups were consumed in the reaction, based on which the structural parameters were calculated from the 1H-NMR spectra. With decreasing PDDA/TMPTA ratio, the content of secondary amine, degree of branching, molecular weight, Tg and Td increased accordingly. These polymers were further used as both crosslinkers and flexibilizers for a linear epoxy resin E51 to form cured films under ambient condition, The gel content,relative hardness and Tg of the resulting films increased as PEA molecules changed from linear to highly branching structures. Due to the flexibility of PEA molecules, all the films possessed excellent mechanical performance.

  7. SAM pointed domain ETS factor (SPDEF) regulates terminal differentiation and maturation of intestinal goblet cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and Aims: SPDEF (also termed PDEF or PSE) is an ETS family transcription factor that regulates gene expression in the prostate and goblet cell hyperplasia in the lung. Spdef has been reported to be expressed in the intestine. In this paper, we identify an important role for Spdef in regulating intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis and differentiation. Methods: SPDEF expression was inhibited in colon cancer cells to determine its ability to control goblet cell gene activation. The effects of transgenic expression of Spdef on intestinal differentiation and homeostasis were determined. Results: In LS174T colon cancer cells treated with Notch/γ-secretase inhibitor to activate goblet cell gene expression, shRNAs that inhibited SPDEF also repressed expression of goblet cell genes AGR2, MUC2, RETLNB, and SPINK4. Transgenic expression of Spdef caused the expansion of intestinal goblet cells and corresponding reduction in Paneth, enteroendocrine, and absorptive enterocytes. Spdef inhibited proliferation of intestinal crypt cells without induction of apoptosis. Prolonged expression of the Spdef transgene caused a progressive reduction in the number of crypts that expressed Spdef, consistent with its inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Conclusions: Spdef was sufficient to inhibit proliferation of intestinal progenitors and induce differentiation into goblet cells; SPDEF was required for activation of goblet cell associated genes in vitro. These data support a model in which Spdef promotes terminal differentiation into goblet cells of a common goblet/Paneth progenitor.

  8. Thermally controlled permeation of ionic molecules through synthetic nanopores functionalized with amine-terminated polymer brushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Saima; Ali, Mubarak; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    2012-06-01

    We present temperature-dependent ionic transport through an array of nanopores (cylindrical and conical) and a single conical nanopore functionalized with amine-terminated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) [PNIPAAM-NH2] brushes. For this purpose, nanopores are fabricated in heavy ion irradiated polyethylene terephthlate (PET) membranes by a controlled chemical track-etching technique, which leads to the generation of carboxyl (COOH) groups on the pore surface. End-functionalized polymer chains are immobilized onto the inner pore walls via a ‘grafting-to’ approach through the covalent linkage of surface COOH moieties with the terminal amine groups of the PNIPAAM molecules by using carbodiimide coupling chemistry. The success of the chemical modification reaction is corroborated by measuring the permeation flux of charged analytes across the multipore membranes in an aqueous solution, and for the case of single conical pore by measuring the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, which are dictated by the electrostatic interaction of the charged pore surface with the mobile ions in an electrolyte solution. The effective nanopore diameter is tuned by manipulating the environmental temperature due to the swelling/shrinking behaviour of polymer brushes attached to the inner nanopore walls, leading to a decrease/increase in the ionic transport across the membrane. This process should permit the thermal gating and controlled release of ionic drug molecules through the nanopores modified with thermoresponsive polymer chains across the membrane.

  9. Thermally controlled permeation of ionic molecules through synthetic nanopores functionalized with amine-terminated polymer brushes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present temperature-dependent ionic transport through an array of nanopores (cylindrical and conical) and a single conical nanopore functionalized with amine-terminated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) [PNIPAAM-NH2] brushes. For this purpose, nanopores are fabricated in heavy ion irradiated polyethylene terephthlate (PET) membranes by a controlled chemical track-etching technique, which leads to the generation of carboxyl (COOH) groups on the pore surface. End-functionalized polymer chains are immobilized onto the inner pore walls via a ‘grafting-to’ approach through the covalent linkage of surface COOH moieties with the terminal amine groups of the PNIPAAM molecules by using carbodiimide coupling chemistry. The success of the chemical modification reaction is corroborated by measuring the permeation flux of charged analytes across the multipore membranes in an aqueous solution, and for the case of single conical pore by measuring the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics, which are dictated by the electrostatic interaction of the charged pore surface with the mobile ions in an electrolyte solution. The effective nanopore diameter is tuned by manipulating the environmental temperature due to the swelling/shrinking behaviour of polymer brushes attached to the inner nanopore walls, leading to a decrease/increase in the ionic transport across the membrane. This process should permit the thermal gating and controlled release of ionic drug molecules through the nanopores modified with thermoresponsive polymer chains across the membrane. (paper)

  10. Tight-binding model for amine-terminated oligophenyl molecular junctions formed with carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deok Hyeon; Kim, Taekyeong

    2015-05-01

    We measured the conductance of a series of amine-terminated oligophenyl molecular junction formed with carbon electrodes by using a scanning tunneling microscope based break-junction technique. The tight-binding model that includes the molecular backbone states accurately captured the experimentally measured the molecular conductance and the exponential decay trend of the conductance with the molecular backbone length. Furthermore, we found that this model tracked successfully the shift of the highest occupied molecular orbital toward the Fermi energy as increasing the molecular length. Finally, we found that the tight-binding model explaining more week coupling strength with the graphite electrode than that with the Au electrode is in quantitative agreement with the density functional theory calculations.

  11. Excited state electron distribution and role of the terminal amine in acidic and basic tryptophan dipeptide fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Azaria S.; Nathan, Moshe; Juszczak, Laura J.

    2016-08-01

    The results of quantum yield (QY) study of tryptophanyl glutamate (Trp-Glu), tryptophanyl lysine (Trp-Lys) and lysinyl tryptophan (Lys-Trp) dipeptides over the pH range, 1.5-13, show that the charge state of the N-terminal amine, and not the nominal molecular charge determines the QY. When the terminal amine is protonated, QY is low (10-2) for all three dipeptides. As the terminal amine cation is found proximal to the indole ring in Trp-Glu and Trp-Lys conformers but not in those for Lys-Trp, its effect may lie only in the partitioning of energy between nonradiative processes, not on QY reduction. QY is also low when both the N-terminal amine and indole amine are deprotonated. These two low QY states can be distinguished by fluorescence lifetime measurement. Molecular dynamics simulation shows that the Chi 1 conformers persist for tens of nanoseconds such that 100-101 ns lifetimes may be associated with individual Chi 1 conformers. The ground state electron density or isosurface of high QY (0.30) 3-methyindole has a uniform electron density over the indole ring as do the higher QY Trp dipeptide conformers. This validates the association of ground state isosurfaces with QY. Excited state orbitals from calculated high intensity, low energy absorption transitions are typically centered over the indole ring for higher QY dipeptide species and off the ring in lower QY species. Thus excited state orbitals substantiate the earlier finding that the ground state isosurface charge density pattern on the indole ring can be predictive of QY.

  12. Derivatization, characterization, and tribological behavior of an amine-terminated polymer surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The derivatization, characterization, and micro-tribological behavior of an amine-terminated polymer surface were investigated. Thus, the heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA) derivatized film was characterized by means of contact-angle measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that the HFBA-derivatized film was generated on the PEI surface in the presence of a chemical amide bond. The tribological properties were characterized as well. The polymer PEI film had relative high adhesion, friction, and poor anti-wear ability, while the HFBA-derivatized polymer film possessed a very low adhesive force of only about 5.5 nN (a pyramidal Si3N4 tip with radius of curvature about 50 nm was used to measure the adhesion), which was more than an order of magnitude lower than that of the silicon substrate surface. Besides, the HFBA-derivatized film registered good friction-reducing ability and thermal stability. Thus, a good alternative method was presented to improve the tribological properties of polymer film by chemisorbing molecules with low surface energy. This makes it feasible for the derivatized polymer film to find promising application in resolving the tribological problems of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS)

  13. Fast and Convenient Synthesis of Amine-Terminated Polylactide as a Macroinitiator for ω-Benzyloxycarbonyl-L-Lysine-N-Carboxyanhydrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjie Ju

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Amine-terminated poly (L-lactide (NH2-PLLA with various chain lengths were successfully synthesized by sequential tert-butyl-N-(3-hydroxypropyl carbamate initiated bulk ring-opening polymerization (ROP of L-lactide (L-LA in the presence of Stannous(II 2-ethylhexanoate (Sn(Oct2 and deprotection of the N-tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc group at the end of the polymer chain. The polymers obtained were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, and GPC method. NH2-PLLA thus prepared was used to initiate the polymerization of ω-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine-N-carboxyanhydride (Lys (Z-NCA, and the result confirmed the high nucleophilicity of the terminal amine group. This method was not only suitable for the preparation of low molecular weight NH2-PLLA, but also quite efficient in the synthesis of high molecular weight samples.

  14. Sandwich Sam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    SAM, a 28-year-old Canadian, has a nice family name: Goodman. Four years ago, he came to China and now he owns two cafes. Sam is not tall. To match his loose black sweater, he wears a pair of jeans which are so long that the trouser legs are wrinkled over his sneakers. Why did he think of running a cafe in Beijing? "After graduating from college, I went to Hong Kong to be a fitness coach for half a year. Then, I went to South Korea. While sightseeing, I taught English to make a living.

  15. Fate and transformation products of amine-terminated PAMAM dendrimers under ozonation and irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago-Morales, Javier [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Rosal, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.rosal@uah.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Advanced Study Institute of Madrid, IMDEA Agua, Parque Científico Tecnológico, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Hernando, María D. [Spanish National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology – INIA, Crta. de la Coruña, km 7.5, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ulaszewska, Maria M. [Advanced Study Institute of Madrid, IMDEA Agua, Parque Científico Tecnológico, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); García-Calvo, Eloy [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Advanced Study Institute of Madrid, IMDEA Agua, Parque Científico Tecnológico, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R. [Advanced Study Institute of Madrid, IMDEA Agua, Parque Científico Tecnológico, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Pesticide Residue Research Group, Department of Hydrogeology and Analytical Chemistry, University of Almería, 04120 Almería (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • We detected transformation products from dendrimer under ozonation and irradiation. • Retro-Michael fragmentation pathway with highly oxygenated structures. • High toxicity of G3 PAMAM dendrimer for green algae. • Reactive oxygen species were associated with the toxic damage. • Transformation mixtures could be more toxic than the parent dendrimer. -- Abstract: This article deals with the degradation of a third-generation (G3) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer under ozonation and irradiation. The identification and quantification of G3 PAMAM dendrimer and its transformation products has been performed by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. The dendrimer was completely depleted by ozone in less than 1 min. The effect of ultraviolet irradiation was attributed to hydroxyl-mediated oxidation. The transformation products were attributed to the oxidation of amines, which resulted in highly oxidized structures with abundance of carboxylic acids, which started from the formation of amine oxide and the scission of the C-N bond of the amide group. We studied the toxicity of treated mixtures for six different organisms: the acute toxicity for the bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the microcrustacean Daphnia magna, the multigenerational growth inhibition of the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and the seed germination phytotoxicity of Licopersicon esculentum, Lactuca sativa and Lolium perenne. Ozonation and irradiation originated transformation products are more toxic than the parent dendrimer. The toxicity of the dendrimer for the green alga was linked to a strong increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species with intense lipid peroxidation.

  16. Fate and transformation products of amine-terminated PAMAM dendrimers under ozonation and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We detected transformation products from dendrimer under ozonation and irradiation. • Retro-Michael fragmentation pathway with highly oxygenated structures. • High toxicity of G3 PAMAM dendrimer for green algae. • Reactive oxygen species were associated with the toxic damage. • Transformation mixtures could be more toxic than the parent dendrimer. -- Abstract: This article deals with the degradation of a third-generation (G3) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer under ozonation and irradiation. The identification and quantification of G3 PAMAM dendrimer and its transformation products has been performed by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. The dendrimer was completely depleted by ozone in less than 1 min. The effect of ultraviolet irradiation was attributed to hydroxyl-mediated oxidation. The transformation products were attributed to the oxidation of amines, which resulted in highly oxidized structures with abundance of carboxylic acids, which started from the formation of amine oxide and the scission of the C-N bond of the amide group. We studied the toxicity of treated mixtures for six different organisms: the acute toxicity for the bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the microcrustacean Daphnia magna, the multigenerational growth inhibition of the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and the seed germination phytotoxicity of Licopersicon esculentum, Lactuca sativa and Lolium perenne. Ozonation and irradiation originated transformation products are more toxic than the parent dendrimer. The toxicity of the dendrimer for the green alga was linked to a strong increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species with intense lipid peroxidation

  17. 铝表面自组装端羟基聚酯胺膜的XPS和STM表征%Characterization of SAMs of Hyperbranched Polyurethane End-terminated with Hydroxyl on Aluminum Substrate by XPS and STM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华兰; 冀克俭; 周彤; 李翠平; 邵鸿飞; 邓卫华; 赵晓刚; 李艳玲; 于名讯

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembled monolayers(SAMs) of hyperbranched polyurethane with end-terminated hydroxyl(HTP) on aluminum substrate was prepared and characterized by XPS and STM. Adsorption assemble of HTP on aluminum sub-strate was verified. The thickness of SAMs increased with the increase of aluminum substrate immersing time in HTP solu-tion and the adsorption terminus of HTP on aluminum was reached after 2 h. Molecules conglomeration were seen with holes on SAMs from STM image. It is proposed that common-effect of muti-hydroxyl structures of HTP SAMs and holes on SAMs is the main factor to improve adhesion strength of resins.%制备了端羟基聚酯胺(HTP)在铝基片上的自组装膜并进行了XPS和STM表征,确认了HTP在铝基片上的吸附组装;由XPS的吸附时间扫描,自组装单分子膜(SAMs)随浸泡时间的延长而增厚,在2 h后达到平衡。由HTP在铝基片的STM三维图可以看到HTP自组装膜以团块形式组成,其间包含孔洞缺陷。提出了铝基片上HTP-SAMs的多羟基结构与膜上孔洞的共同作用是提高环氧类涂层附着力的主要原因。

  18. A subfamily of PLP-dependent enzymes specialized in handling terminal amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiroli, Davide; Peracchi, Alessio

    2015-09-01

    The present review focuses on a subfamily of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes, belonging to the broader fold-type I structural group and whose archetypes can be considered ornithine δ-transaminase and γ-aminobutyrate transaminase. These proteins were originally christened "subgroup-II aminotransferases" (AT-II) but are very often referred to as "class-III aminotransferases". As names suggest, the subgroup includes mainly transaminases, with just a few interesting exceptions. However, at variance with most other PLP-dependent enzymes, catalysts in this subfamily seem specialized at utilizing substrates whose amino function is not adjacent to a carboxylate group. AT-II enzymes are widespread in biology and play mostly catabolic roles. Furthermore, today several transaminases in this group are being used as bioorganic tools for the asymmetric synthesis of chiral amines. We present an overview of the biochemical and structural features of these enzymes, illustrating how they are distinctive and how they compare with those of the other fold-type I enzymes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cofactor-dependent proteins: evolution, chemical diversity and bio-applications. PMID:25770684

  19. Preparation, optical properties and cell staining of water soluble amine-terminated PAMAM G2.0-Au nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jin-lan; FU Jin-dian; NIE Zhen-yuan; SHEN li

    2005-01-01

    The solution chemical and optical characteristics of formation of amine-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimer G2.0(NH2-PAMAM G2.0)-Au nanocomposites in the aqueous solution of NH2-PAMAM G2.0 at various mole ratios of Au(Ⅲ) to NH2-PAMAM G2.0 were studied by both UV-visible spectrometry and fluorospectrometry. The NH2-PAMAM G2.0-Au nanocomposites, with a type of structure in which one Au nanoparticle is surrounded by several NH2-PAMAM G2.0 dendrimers, emit strong bluish violet fluorescence, and are uniform, water soluble and biocompatible as well as very stable in frozen conditions. The size of gold nanoparticles in the nanocomposites is about 2.5 nm and decreases with the increase of NH2-PAMAM G2.0 concentration. The NH2-PAMAM G2.0 plays an important role in acting as host or micro-reactor for Au(Ⅲ) before Au(Ⅲ) reduction and acting as dispersant and stabilizer for gold nanoparticles after Au(Ⅲ) reduction. Preliminary experiments of cells staining to human embryonic lung fibroblast cell lines show that the NH2-PAMAM G2.0-Au nanocomposites can be used as optical imaging markers for bioanalyses and medical diagnoses.

  20. Organoselenium-catalyzed, hydroxy-controlled regio- and stereoselective amination of terminal alkenes: efficient synthesis of 3-amino allylic alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhimin; Wei, Jialiang; Liao, Lihao; Huang, Haiyan; Zhao, Xiaodan

    2015-04-17

    An efficient route to prepare 3-amino allylic alcohols in excellent regio- and stereoselectivity in the presence of bases by orangoselenium catalysis has been developed. In the absence of bases α,β-unsaturated aldehydes were formed in up to 97% yield. Control experiments reveal that the hydroxy group is crucial for the direct amination. PMID:25849818

  1. Systematic Optimization of C-Terminal Amine-Based Isotope Labeling of Substrates Approach for Deep Screening of C-Terminome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; He, Quanze; Ye, Juanying; Li, Yanhong; Huang, Lin; Li, Qingqing; Huang, Jingnan; Lu, Jianan; Zhang, Xumin

    2015-10-20

    It is well-known that protein C-termini play important roles in various biological processes, and thus the precise characterization of C-termini is essential for fully elucidating protein structures and understanding protein functions. Although many efforts have been made in the field during the latest 2 decades, the progress is still far behind its counterpart, N-termini, and it necessitates more novel or optimized methods. Herein, we report an optimized C-termini identification approach based on the C-terminal amine-based isotope labeling of substrates (C-TAILS) method. We optimized the amidation reaction conditions to achieve higher yield of fully amidated product. We evaluated different carboxyl and amine blocking reagents and found the superior performance of Ac-NHS and ethanolamine. Replacement of dimethylation with acetylation for Lys blocking resulted in the identification of 232 C-terminal peptides in an Escherichia coli sample, about 42% higher than the conventional C-TAILS. A systematic data analysis revealed that the optimized method is unbiased to the number of lysine in peptides, more reproducible and with higher MASCOT scores. Moreover, the introduction of the Single-Charge Ion Inclusion (SCII) method to alleviate the charge deficiency of small peptides allowed an additional 26% increase in identification number. With the optimized method, we identified 481 C-terminal peptides corresponding to 369 C-termini in E. coli in a triplicate experiments using 80 μg each. Our optimized method would benefit the deep screening of C-terminome and possibly help discover some novel C-terminal modifications. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002409. PMID:26361894

  2. Layer by layer assembly of catalase and amine-terminated ionic liquid onto titanium nitride nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode: Study of direct voltammetry and bioelectrocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saadati, Shagayegh [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salimi, Abdollah, E-mail: absalimi@uok.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hallaj, Rahman; Rostami, Amin [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalase and amine-terminated ionic liquid were immobilized to GC/TiNnp with LBL assembly method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First a thin layer of NH{sub 2}-IL is covalently attached to GC/TiNnp electrode using electro-oxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With alternative assemble of IL and catalase with positive and negative charged, multilayer was formed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immobilized catalase shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biosensor response is directly correlated to the number of bilayers. - Abstract: A novel, simple and facile layer by layer (LBL) approach is used for modification of glassy carbon (GC) electrode with multilayer of catalase and nanocomposite containing 1-(3-Aminopropyl)-3-methylimidazolium bromide (amine terminated ionic liquid (NH{sub 2}-IL)) and titanium nitride nanoparticles (TiNnp). First a thin layer of NH{sub 2}-IL is covalently attached to GC/TiNnp electrode using electro-oxidation method. Then, with alternative self assemble positively charged NH{sub 2}-IL and negatively charged catalase a sensitive H{sub 2}O{sub 2} biosensor is constructed, whose response is directly correlated to the number of bilayers. The surface coverage of active catalase per bilayer, heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) and Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub M}) of immobilized catalase were 3.32 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} mol cm{sup -2}, 5.28 s{sup -1} and 1.1 mM, respectively. The biosensor shows good stability, high reproducibility, long life-time, and fast amperometric response with the high sensitivity of 380 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2} and low detection limit of 100 nM at concentration range up to 2.1 mM.

  3. SAM Photovoltaic Model Technical Reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-05-27

    This manual describes the photovoltaic performance model in the System Advisor Model (SAM). The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory maintains and distributes SAM, which is available as a free download from https://sam.nrel.gov. These descriptions are based on SAM 2015.1.30 (SSC 41).

  4. Toughening of Epoxy Resin with Solid Amine Terminated Poly (ethy-lene glycol) Benzoate and Effect of Red Mud Waste Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.C.Samanta; T.Maity; S.Dalai; A.K.Banthia

    2008-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to modify the toughness of triethylene tetramine cured DGEBA (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A) resin using solid amine terminated poly (ethylene glycol) benzoate (ATPEGB) as modifier with and without red mud waste particles. The solid ATPEGB modifier synthesized from the acid catalyzed esterification reaction of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and 4-amino benzoic acid was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopies, viscosity measurements, and solubility parameter calculation. The unfilled and red mud waste filled modified epoxy networks were evaluated with impact, adhesive, tensile, flexural and thermal properties by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric (TG) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The effect of modifier concentration and red mud waste particles on toughening behavior was also investigated. The optimum properties were obtained at 12.5 phr (parts per hundred parts of resin) concentration of the modifier. The ATPEGB modified cured epoxy was thermally stable up to 315℃. The morphology on fracture surfaces of cured epoxy was also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  5. Amine-terminated ionic liquid functionalized carbon nanotubes for enhanced interfacial electron transfer of Shewanella putrefaciens anode in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huan; Wu, Xiao-Shuai; Zou, Long; Wen, Guo-Yun; Liu, Ding-Yu; Qiao, Yan

    2016-05-01

    An amine-terminated ionic liquid (IL-NH2) is applied to functionalize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for improving the interfacial electron transfer of Shewanella putrefaciens (S. putrefaciens) anode in Microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The introduction of thin layer of ILs does not change the morphology of CNTs a lot but increases surface positive charges as well as nitrogen functional groups of the CNTs based anode. The CNT-IL composite not only improves the adhesion of S. putrefaciens cells but also promotes both of the flavin-mediated and the direct electron transfer between the S. putrefaciens cells and the anode. It is interesting that the CNT-IL is more favorable for the mediated electron transfer than for the direct electron transfer. The CNT-IL/carbon cloth anode delivers 3-fold higher power density than that of CNT anode and shows great long-term stability in the batch-mode S. putrefaciens MFCs. This CNT-IL could be a promising anode material for high performance MFCs.

  6. Isothiourea-mediated organocatalytic Michael 1ddition-lactonization on a surface : modification of SAMs on silicon oxide substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Chisholm, Ross; Parkin, John David; Smith, Andrew David; Hähner, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Tailoring the functionality of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) can be achieved either by depositing prefunctionalized molecules with the appropriate terminal groups or by chemical modification of an existing SAM in situ. The latter approach is particularly advantageous to allow for diversity of surface functionalization from a single SAM and if the incorporation of bulky groups is desired. In the present study an organocatalytic isothiourea mediated Michael addition-lactonization process ana...

  7. System for Award Management (SAM) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The SAM API is a RESTful method of retrieving public information about the businesses, organizations, or individuals (referred to as entities) within the SAM entity...

  8. The growth-suppressive function of the polycomb group protein polyhomeotic is mediated by polymerization of its sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Angela K; Leal, Belinda Z; Chadwell, Linda V; Wang, Renjing; Ilangovan, Udayar; Kaur, Yogeet; Junco, Sarah E; Schirf, Virgil; Osmulski, Pawel A; Gaczynska, Maria; Hinck, Andrew P; Demeler, Borries; McEwen, Donald G; Kim, Chongwoo A

    2012-03-16

    Polyhomeotic (Ph), a member of the Polycomb Group (PcG), is a gene silencer critical for proper development. We present a previously unrecognized way of controlling Ph function through modulation of its sterile alpha motif (SAM) polymerization leading to the identification of a novel target for tuning the activities of proteins. SAM domain containing proteins have been shown to require SAM polymerization for proper function. However, the role of the Ph SAM polymer in PcG-mediated gene silencing was uncertain. Here, we first show that Ph SAM polymerization is indeed required for its gene silencing function. Interestingly, the unstructured linker sequence N-terminal to Ph SAM can shorten the length of polymers compared with when Ph SAM is individually isolated. Substituting the native linker with a random, unstructured sequence (RLink) can still limit polymerization, but not as well as the native linker. Consequently, the increased polymeric Ph RLink exhibits better gene silencing ability. In the Drosophila wing disc, Ph RLink expression suppresses growth compared with no effect for wild-type Ph, and opposite to the overgrowth phenotype observed for polymer-deficient Ph mutants. These data provide the first demonstration that the inherent activity of a protein containing a polymeric SAM can be enhanced by increasing SAM polymerization. Because the SAM linker had not been previously considered important for the function of SAM-containing proteins, our finding opens numerous opportunities to manipulate linker sequences of hundreds of polymeric SAM proteins to regulate a diverse array of intracellular functions. PMID:22275371

  9. Samsø Energy Vision 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Hansen, Kenneth; Ridjan, Iva;

    The purpose of this report is to investigate potential scenarios for converting Samsø into 100% renewable energy supply in 2030 with focus on local electricity and biomass resources. Firstly, a 2013 reference scenario is established to investigate whether Samsø is 100% renewable today. Next, scen...

  10. The impact of a ligand binding on strand migration in the SAM-I riboswitch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    Full Text Available Riboswitches sense cellular concentrations of small molecules and use this information to adjust synthesis rates of related metabolites. Riboswitches include an aptamer domain to detect the ligand and an expression platform to control gene expression. Previous structural studies of riboswitches largely focused on aptamers, truncating the expression domain to suppress conformational switching. To link ligand/aptamer binding to conformational switching, we constructed models of an S-adenosyl methionine (SAM-I riboswitch RNA segment incorporating elements of the expression platform, allowing formation of an antiterminator (AT helix. Using Anton, a computer specially developed for long timescale Molecular Dynamics (MD, we simulated an extended (three microseconds MD trajectory with SAM bound to a modeled riboswitch RNA segment. Remarkably, we observed a strand migration, converting three base pairs from an antiterminator (AT helix, characteristic of the transcription ON state, to a P1 helix, characteristic of the OFF state. This conformational switching towards the OFF state is observed only in the presence of SAM. Among seven extended trajectories with three starting structures, the presence of SAM enhances the trend towards the OFF state for two out of three starting structures tested. Our simulation provides a visual demonstration of how a small molecule (<500 MW binding to a limited surface can trigger a large scale conformational rearrangement in a 40 kDa RNA by perturbing the Free Energy Landscape. Such a mechanism can explain minimal requirements for SAM binding and transcription termination for SAM-I riboswitches previously reported experimentally.

  11. Probing the nature and resistance of the molecule-electrode contact in SAM-based junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchand Sangeeth, C. S.; Wan, Albert; Nijhuis, Christian A.

    2015-07-01

    It is challenging to quantify the contact resistance and to determine the nature of the molecule-electrode contacts in molecular two-terminal junctions. Here we show that potentiodynamic and temperature dependent impedance measurements give insights into the nature of the SAM-electrode interface and other bottlenecks of charge transport (the capacitance of the SAM (CSAM) and the resistance of the SAM (RSAM)), unlike DC methods, independently of each other. We found that the resistance of the top-electrode-SAM contact for junctions with the form of AgTS-SCn//GaOx/EGaIn with n = 10, 12, 14, 16 or 18 is bias and temperature independent and hence Ohmic (non-rectifying) in nature, and is orders of magnitude smaller than RSAM. The CSAM and RSAM are independent of the temperature, indicating that the mechanism of charge transport in these SAM-based junctions is coherent tunneling and the charge carrier trapping at the interfaces is negligible.It is challenging to quantify the contact resistance and to determine the nature of the molecule-electrode contacts in molecular two-terminal junctions. Here we show that potentiodynamic and temperature dependent impedance measurements give insights into the nature of the SAM-electrode interface and other bottlenecks of charge transport (the capacitance of the SAM (CSAM) and the resistance of the SAM (RSAM)), unlike DC methods, independently of each other. We found that the resistance of the top-electrode-SAM contact for junctions with the form of AgTS-SCn//GaOx/EGaIn with n = 10, 12, 14, 16 or 18 is bias and temperature independent and hence Ohmic (non-rectifying) in nature, and is orders of magnitude smaller than RSAM. The CSAM and RSAM are independent of the temperature, indicating that the mechanism of charge transport in these SAM-based junctions is coherent tunneling and the charge carrier trapping at the interfaces is negligible. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental procedure, Nyquist

  12. Formation of organic monolayers on hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces via silicon-carbon bond: effect of terminal groups on stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Functionalization of hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces with stable and dense aryl-terminated alkyl self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) provides opportunities for the development of low cost organic field effect transistors. In this paper we present results for one such σ-π SAMs, 3-phenylpropyl (C6H5(CH2)3-) SAMs on porous silicon, and compare its stability with octyl (CH3(CH2)7-) SAMs on Si(100). The SAMs were prepared using the Grignard reagent method and characterized using X-ray photoelectron and FT-infrared spectroscopies and contact angle measurements Our results show the 3-phenylpropyl SAMs are not as susceptible to oxidation as the octyl SAMs, and we attribute the increased stability in the former to be due to its more dense structure arising from the π-π stacking of the phenyl rings. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics

  13. Radiation streaming with SAM-CE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SAM-CE Monte Carlo code has been employed to calculate doses, due to neutron streaming, on the operating floor and other locations of the Millstone Unit II Nuclear Power Facility. Calculated results were compared against measured doses

  14. SAM - Focus of Challenging Expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A text about 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency' is in a progressed status of preparation in a common effort of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Six practical goals of emergency response are defined in this paper: 1. Mitigating the consequences of an emergency or event at its origin; 2. Preventing the occurrence of deterministic effects in individuals; 3. Rendering first aid and to treat injuries; 4. Reducing, using reasonable steps, the occurrence of stochastic effects in the population; 5. Limiting the occurrence of non-radiological effects in individuals and in the population; and 6. Protecting the environment and property. The paper addresses about twelve functions: Threat assessment; Identification, notification, activation; The accident management capability at the affected site; Urgent protective actions; Instructing and warning the public; Protection of emergency workers; Initial phase assessment; Emergency operations management; Medical management; Informing the public; Actions affecting agriculture and longer term protective actions; Non-radiological consequences; Recovery actions. Severe Accident Management (SAM) means the intelligent and efficient application of knowledge which has been prepared by researchers, and which has been evaluated and configured by engineers to become a practicable tool for extremely difficult situations. The decision maker is the person in charge at the affected site which is leading the emergency response. The decision maker's situation is extremely demanding and taking the right decisions in situations in such a case requires disciplined work. The more reliable the advice in such a situation is, the higher are the chances that the right decisions are taken. This Workshop will show what efforts have been and are being made to develop at least Severe Accident Management to

  15. AFM-assisted fabrication of thiol SAM pattern with alternating quantified surface potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simons Janet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs are widely used in many nano- and bio-technology applications. We report a new approach to create and characterize a thiol SAMs micropattern with alternating charges on a flat gold-coated substrate using atomic force microscopy (AFM and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM. We produced SAMs-patterns made of alternating positively charged, negatively charged, and hydrophobic-terminated thiols by an automated AFM-assisted manipulation, or nanografting. We show that these thiol patterns possess only small topographical differences as revealed by AFM, and distinguished differences in surface potential (20-50 mV, revealed by KPFM. The pattern can be helpful in the development of biosensor technologies, specifically for selective binding of biomolecules based on charge and hydrophobicity, and serve as a model for creating surfaces with quantified alternating surface potential distribution.

  16. Stability of phosphonic self assembled monolayers (SAMs) on cobalt chromium (Co-Cr) alloy under oxidative conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobalt chromium (Co-Cr) alloys have been widely used in the biomedical arena for cardiovascular, orthopedic and dental applications. Surface modification of the alloy allows us to tailor the interfacial properties to address critical challenges of Co-Cr alloy in medical applications. Self assembled monolayers (SAMs) of Octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA) have been used to form thin films on the oxide layer of the Co-Cr alloy surface by solution deposition technique. The SAMs formed were investigated for their stability to oxidative conditions of ambient laboratory environment over periods of 1, 3, 7 and 14 days. The samples were then characterized for their stability using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements. Detailed high energy XPS elemental scans confirmed the presence of the phosphonic monolayer after oxidative exposure which suggested that the SAMs were firmly attached to the oxide layer of Co-Cr alloy. AFM images gave topographical data of the surface and showed islands of SAMs on Co-Cr alloy surface, before and after SAM formation and also over the duration of the oxidative exposure. Contact angle measurements confirmed the hydrophobicity of the surface over 14 days. Thus the SAMs were found to be stable for the duration of the study. These SAMs could be subsequently tailored by modifying the terminal functional groups and could be used for various potential biomedical applications such as drug delivery, biocompatibility and tissue integration.

  17. Stability of phosphonic self assembled monolayers (SAMs) on cobalt chromium (Co-Cr) alloy under oxidative conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhure, Rahul; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M.; Bonner, Carl; Hall, Felicia; Mahapatro, Anil

    2011-04-01

    Cobalt chromium (Co-Cr) alloys have been widely used in the biomedical arena for cardiovascular, orthopedic and dental applications. Surface modification of the alloy allows us to tailor the interfacial properties to address critical challenges of Co-Cr alloy in medical applications. Self assembled monolayers (SAMs) of Octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA) have been used to form thin films on the oxide layer of the Co-Cr alloy surface by solution deposition technique. The SAMs formed were investigated for their stability to oxidative conditions of ambient laboratory environment over periods of 1, 3, 7 and 14 days. The samples were then characterized for their stability using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements. Detailed high energy XPS elemental scans confirmed the presence of the phosphonic monolayer after oxidative exposure which suggested that the SAMs were firmly attached to the oxide layer of Co-Cr alloy. AFM images gave topographical data of the surface and showed islands of SAMs on Co-Cr alloy surface, before and after SAM formation and also over the duration of the oxidative exposure. Contact angle measurements confirmed the hydrophobicity of the surface over 14 days. Thus the SAMs were found to be stable for the duration of the study. These SAMs could be subsequently tailored by modifying the terminal functional groups and could be used for various potential biomedical applications such as drug delivery, biocompatibility and tissue integration.

  18. Novi pristopi v arhitekturi - Naredi sam (DIY)

    OpenAIRE

    Čretnik, Janeta

    2015-01-01

    Zaradi ekonomske krize in želje po individualnosti ali po trajnostnem in ekološkem načrtovanju so na veliki popularnosti pridobili projekti naredi sam oziroma »DIY – Do It Yourself«. V tem oziru v teoretičnem delu predstavimo pojme »DIY« (Do It Yourself – naredi sam), »Upcycling« (nadgradnja), »Recycling« (reciklaža) ter »Open source« (odprta koda). Prav tako raziščemo zgodovino tega pristopa kot tudi razloge, ki so glavni vzrok nujnosti oziroma popularnosti takšnih projektov. Projektna na...

  19. Effect of Alkyl Chain Length on Carboxylic Acid SAMs on Ti-6Al-4V

    OpenAIRE

    Buckholtz, Gavin A.; Gawalt, Ellen S.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of methyl-terminated carboxylic acid self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with even numbers of carbons, from eighteen to thirty, was investigated on the oxide surface of Ti-6Al-4V and component metal oxides. Modified surfaces were characterized using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and contact angle analysis. Infrared spectroscopy indicated that using aero...

  20. Structural Basis for Methyl Transfer by a Radical SAM Enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boal, Amie K.; Grove, Tyler L.; McLaughlin, Monica I.; Yennawar, Neela H.; Booker, Squire J.; Rosenzweig, Amy C. (NWU); (Penn)

    2014-10-02

    The radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) enzymes RlmN and Cfr methylate 23S ribosomal RNA, modifying the C2 or C8 position of adenosine 2503. The methyl groups are installed by a two-step sequence involving initial methylation of a conserved Cys residue (RlmN Cys{sup 355}) by SAM. Methyl transfer to the substrate requires reductive cleavage of a second equivalent of SAM. Crystal structures of RlmN and RlmN with SAM show that a single molecule of SAM coordinates the [4Fe-4S] cluster. Residue Cys{sup 355} is S-methylated and located proximal to the SAM methyl group, suggesting the SAM that is involved in the initial methyl transfer binds at the same site. Thus, RlmN accomplishes its complex reaction with structural economy, harnessing the two most important reactivities of SAM within a single site.

  1. Sam's Journey to "Reach for the Stars"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Sue

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experiences as a parent of a child with Down syndrome. Although her son Sam's first years were filled with numerous hospitalizations and visits to pediatricians, which she feared would further delay his development, she soon discovered an organization known as the National Association of Child Development…

  2. Samâ’ dalam Tradisi Tasawuf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Aqil Siradj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Samâ‘ in Tasawuf has been a very important element in the dissemination of this spiritual dimension of Islam. Yet, it has received very little both from the practitioners of Tasawuf and its intellectuals. This paper tries to expose this simply in a hope to make it heard in the academic and popular circle. Here, samâ‘ is not only understood as a form of music, as many would do, but also as an art of listening of which music is certainly part. The paper will explore the meaning and definition of this term, putting emphasis on its many-faceted function in the formation and development of one’s soul and spirituality. It is argued that soul is musical and artistic. Using art and music to talk to soul is therefore the proper way and means. The paper will also try to show that samâ‘ is also an indispensable part of spiritual method to reach and know God. Knowledge of God in other words, can be gained through this practice. Hence, samâ‘ is treated not only as a form of entertainment, but also a kind of practical epistemology.

  3. Effect of Alkyl Chain Length on Carboxylic Acid SAMs on Ti-6Al-4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin A. Buckholtz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation of methyl-terminated carboxylic acid self-assembled monolayers (SAMs with even numbers of carbons, from eighteen to thirty, was investigated on the oxide surface of Ti-6Al-4V and component metal oxides. Modified surfaces were characterized using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and contact angle analysis. Infrared spectroscopy indicated that using aerosol spray deposition techniques, stable, all-trans SAMs of octacosanoic (28 carbons and triacontanoic (30 carbons acids were formed on the alloy. Films were similarly formed on titanium and aluminum oxide. The surface of vanadium oxide exhibited limited reactivity. MALDI-TOF MS confirmed that formed films were monolayers, without multilayers or aggregates present. Water contact angles are indicative of the presence of hydrophobic methyl groups at the interface. This stable carboxylic acid SAM formation could be a useful alternative to phosphonic acid SAMs for corrosion and other applications.

  4. Amine functionalized nanodiamond promotes cellular adhesion, proliferation and neurite outgrowth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we report the production of amine functionalized nanodiamond. The amine functionalized nanodiamond forms a conformal monolayer on a negatively charged surface produced via plasma polymerization of acrylic acid. Nanodiamond terminated surfaces were studied as substrates for neuronal cell culture. NG108-15 neuroblastoma-glyoma hybrid cells were successfully cultured upon amine functionalized nanodiamond coated surfaces for between 1 and 7 d. Additionally, primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and Schwann cells isolated from Wistar rats were also successfully cultured over a period of 21 d illustrating the potential of the coating for applications in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. (paper)

  5. Dynamics of SAMs in Boundary Lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Manojlović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Surfactant molecules have some properties responsible for a number ofremarkable phenomena, such as oriented adsorption of surfactants at surfaces and interfaces. The capability to self -assemble into well- defined structures is often seen as being more important than their surface activity. When a surfactant solution is in contact with a solid surface, the surfactant molecules adsorb onto the surface, ideally forming an adsorbed layer of a high order, termed as a self- assembled monolayer (SAM. Many surface properties are influenced bysuch a film, and therefore, SAMs offer the capability to form ordered organic surface coatings, suitable for various applications, such as wetting or corrosion protection. Due to the flexibility in choosing the molecular architecture, organic molecules have many interesting applications, such as biosensors, in Photoelectronics, in controlling water adsorption or boundary lubricant coating. This paper Focuses on cationic surfactants (quaternary ammonium surfactants with some unique properties that are not present in other surfactants.

  6. Amine Functionalized Porous Network

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-05-28

    Amine groups can be introduced in porous materials by a direct (one pot) or post-synthetic modification (PSM) process on aldehyde groups, and the resulting porous materials have increased gas affinity.

  7. System Advisor Model, SAM 2014.1.14: General Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, N.; Dobos, A. P.; Freeman, J.; Neises, T.; Wagner, M.; Ferguson, T.; Gilman, P.; Janzou, S.

    2014-02-01

    This document describes the capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM), Version 2013.9.20, released on September 9, 2013. SAM is a computer model that calculates performance and financial metrics of renewable energy systems. Project developers, policy makers, equipment manufacturers, and researchers use graphs and tables of SAM results in the process of evaluating financial, technology, and incentive options for renewable energy projects. SAM simulates the performance of photovoltaic, concentrating solar power, solar water heating, wind, geothermal, biomass, and conventional power systems. The financial model can represent financial structures for projects that either buy and sell electricity at retail rates (residential and commercial) or sell electricity at a price determined in a power purchase agreement (utility). SAM's advanced simulation options facilitate parametric and sensitivity analyses, and statistical analysis capabilities are available for Monte Carlo simulation and weather variability (P50/P90) studies. SAM can also read input variables from Microsoft Excel worksheets. For software developers, the SAM software development kit (SDK) makes it possible to use SAM simulation modules in their applications written in C/C++, C#, Java, Python, and MATLAB. NREL provides both SAM and the SDK as free downloads at http://sam.nrel.gov. Technical support and more information about the software are available on the website.

  8. Formation and Stability of Phenylphosphonic Acid Monolayers on ZnO: Comparison of In Situ and Ex Situ SAM Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapenko, Alexandra; Klöffel, Tobias; Meyer, Bernd; Witte, Gregor

    2016-05-24

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) enable an electronic interface tailoring of conductive metal oxides and offer an alternative to common transparent electrodes in optoelectronic devices. Here, the influence of surface orientation and pretreatment on the formation and stability of SAMs has been studied for the case of phenylphosphonic acid (PPA) on ZnO single crystals. Using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near-edge X-ray adsorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, the thermal stability and orientational ordering of PPA-SAMs on the polar and mixed-terminated ZnO surfaces were analyzed. On all surfaces, PPA-SAMs remain stable up to 550 K, while at higher temperatures a C-P bond cleavage and dissociative desorption takes place yielding two distinct desorption peaks. Based on DFT calculations, these desorption channels are attributed to protonated and deprotonated chemisorbed PPA molecules, which can be related to tri- and bidentate species, hence allowing to determine their relative abundance from the intensity ratio. Beside immersion, an alternative monolayer preparation based on vacuum deposition in combination with controlled desorption of excess multilayers is demonstrated. This enables a SAM preparation on bare ZnO surfaces without any precoating due to exposure to ambient air, which is further compared with SAM formation on intentionally hydroxylated substrates. Corresponding TDS data indicate that initial hydroxylation favors the formation of tridentate and deprotonated bidentate, while the OMBD preparation on bare surfaces yields a larger fraction of protonated bidentate species. The orientation of PPA molecules adopted in the SAMs was determined from the dichroism of K-edge NEXAFS measurements and reveals an almost upright orientation for the deprotonated species, while a slight tilting is obtained for monolayer films with a large fraction of protonated

  9. MMW, IR, and SAM signature collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichstetter, Fred; Ward, Mary E.

    2002-08-01

    During the development of smart weapon's seeker/sensors, it is imperative to collect high quality signatures of the targets the system is intended to engage. These signatures are used to support algorithm development so the system can find and engage the targets of interest in the specific kill area on the target. Englin AFB FL is the AF development center for munitions; and in support of the development effort, the 46th Test Wing (46 TW) has initiated significant improvements in collection capabilities for signatures in the MMW, Infrared and Seismic, Acoustic and Magnetic (SAM) spectrum. Additionally, the Joint Munitions Test and Evaluation program office maintains a fleet of foreign ground vehicle targets used for such signature collection including items such as tanks, SCUD missile launchers, air defense units such as SA-06, SA-8, SA-13, and associated ground support trucks and general purpose vehicles. The major test facility includes a 300 ft tower used for mounting the instrumentation suite that currently includes, 10, 35 and 94 GHz MMW and 2-5(mu) and 8-12(mu) IR instrumentation systems. This facility has undergone major improvements in terms of background signature reduction, construction of a high bay building to house the turntable on which the targets are mounted, and an additional in- ground stationary turntable primarily for IR signature collection. Our experience using this facility to collect signatures for the smart weapons development community has confirmed a significant improvement in quality and efficiency. The need for the stationary turntable signature collection capability was driven by the requirements of the IR community who are interested in collecting signatures in clutter. This tends to be contrary to the MMW community that desires minimum background clutter. The resulting location, adjacent to the MMW tower, allows variations in the type and amount of clutter background that could be incorporated and also provides maximum utilization of

  10. SOAR Adaptive Module (SAM): seeing improvement with a UV laser

    CERN Document Server

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Tighe, Roberto; Schurter, Patricio; Martinez, Manuel; Thomas, Sandrine; van der Bliek, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive module of the 4.1-m SOAR telescope, SAM, corrects ground-layer turbulence using a UV laser guide star. It has been commissioned in 2013 and it is in regular science operation since 2014. SAM works with the CCD imager covering a 3' field or with the speckle camera. It operates routinely and stably, delivering resolution in the I band equal to the free-atmosphere seeing. This paper describes the SAM system as a whole, providing essential reference for its users and technical information of interest to instrumentalists. Operation of the instrument, its performance, and science projects done with SAM so far are reviewed.

  11. Inhibition of Sam68 triggers adipose tissue browning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junlan; Cheng, Min; Boriboun, Chan; Ardehali, Mariam M; Jiang, Changfei; Liu, Qinghua; Han, Shuling; Goukassian, David A; Tang, Yao-Liang; Zhao, Ting C; Zhao, Ming; Cai, Lu; Richard, Stéphane; Kishore, Raj; Qin, Gangjian

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; molecular mechanisms that promote energy expenditure can be utilized for effective therapy. Src-associated in mitosis of 68 kDa (Sam68) is potentially significant, because knockout (KO) of Sam68 leads to markedly reduced adiposity. In the present study, we sought to determine the mechanism by which Sam68 regulates adiposity and energy homeostasis. We first found that Sam68 KO mice have a significantly reduced body weight as compared to controls, and the difference is explained entirely by decreased adiposity. Interestingly, these effects were not mediated by a difference in food intake; rather, they were associated with enhanced physical activity. When they were fed a high-fat diet, Sam68 KO mice gained much less body weight and fat mass than their WT littermates did, and they displayed an improved glucose and insulin tolerance. In Sam68 KO mice, the brown adipose tissue (BAT), inguinal, and epididymal depots were smaller, and their adipocytes were less hypertrophied as compared to their WT littermates. The BAT of Sam68 KO mice exhibited reduced lipid stores and expressed higher levels of Ucp1 and key thermogenic and fatty acid oxidation genes. Similarly, depots of inguinal and epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) in Sam68 KO mice appeared browner, their multilocular Ucp1-positive cells were much more abundant, and the expression of Ucp1, Cidea, Prdm16, and Ppargc1a genes was greater as compared to WT controls, which suggests that the loss of Sam68 also promotes WAT browning. Furthermore, in all of the fat depots of the Sam68 KO mice, the expression of M2 macrophage markers was up-regulated, and that of M1 markers was down-regulated. Thus, Sam68 plays a crucial role in controlling thermogenesis and may be targeted to combat obesity and associated disorders. PMID:25934704

  12. Providing output of DIRAC-SAM jobs to the IT-based SAM-Nagios framework

    CERN Document Server

    Volkl, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Information available on LHCb grid sites in the SAM-Nagios monitor- ing framework - gathered mainly through functional tests - has been sup- plemented with results from LHCbDIRAC SAMJobs published by means of message client newly integrated in LHCbDIRAC. These are displayed as a new metric org.lhcb.DiracTest-lhcb giving additional debug in- formation to system administrators and influencing reports on grid site performances in the future

  13. System Advisor Model, SAM 2011.12.2: General Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, P.; Dobos, A.

    2012-02-01

    This document describes the capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM), Version 2011.12.2, released on December 2, 2011. SAM is software that models the cost and performance of renewable energy systems. Project developers, policy makers, equipment manufacturers, and researchers use graphs and tables of SAM results in the process of evaluating financial, technology, and incentive options for renewable energy projects. SAM simulates the performance of solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and conventional power systems. The financial model can represent financing structures for projects that either buy and sell electricity at retail rates (residential and commercial) or sell electricity at a price determined in a power purchase agreement (utility). Advanced analysis options facilitate parametric, sensitivity, and statistical analyses, and allow for interfacing SAM with Microsoft Excel or with other computer programs. SAM is available as a free download at http://sam.nrel.gov. Technical support and more information about the software are available on the website.

  14. STES applications model (SAM) user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmer, A.M.

    1979-01-04

    This document is a user's guide for the STES Applications Model (SAM) which can be used to identify industrial applications which are good candidates for Solar Total Energy Systems (STES). SAM computes and ranks equivalent cost ratio and calculates fuel displacement potential by geographic location (50 states) and by industrial application (140 three digit SIC categories) for seven time periods (from 1985 to 2015 in five year increments). SAM is written in FORTRAN for the FTN compiler on the CDC 7600 computer.

  15. The economics of amine usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EPRI computer programm, 'Aminemod', a PWR chemistry model, has been used to compare the technical advantages of the 'advanced' amines, ethanolamine, 1,2 diaminoethane and 5 aminopentanol over morpholine in generating an elevated pH in the moisture separator and the economics of using these amines has been assessed by using an MS Excel spreadsheet in conjunction with Aminemod. The advanced amines are capable of achieving 1 pH unit above neutrality, the EPRI target for prevention of erosion-corrison, at acceptable cost and, compared with 'conventional' amines, at considerably reduced ionic load on the condensate polisher. The exercise demonstrates that it is essential to evaluate the effect of an amine dosing regime on the total operating cost and that it is not possible to prejudge the economic outcome on the basis of an amine's purchase price. (orig.)

  16. Technical Manual for the SAM Physical Trough Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M. J.; Gilman, P.

    2011-06-01

    NREL, in conjunction with Sandia National Lab and the U.S Department of Energy, developed the System Advisor Model (SAM) analysis tool for renewable energy system performance and economic analysis. This paper documents the technical background and engineering formulation for one of SAM's two parabolic trough system models in SAM. The Physical Trough model calculates performance relationships based on physical first principles where possible, allowing the modeler to predict electricity production for a wider range of component geometries than is possible in the Empirical Trough model. This document describes the major parabolic trough plant subsystems in detail including the solar field, power block, thermal storage, piping, auxiliary heating, and control systems. This model makes use of both existing subsystem performance modeling approaches, and new approaches developed specifically for SAM.

  17. 77 FR 50493 - Sam Rayburn Dam Project Power Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... are included in DOE Order No. RA 6120.2 entitled Power Marketing Administration Financial Reporting... Southwestern Power Administration Sam Rayburn Dam Project Power Rate AGENCY: Southwestern Power Administration... Administrator, Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern), has prepared Current and Revised 2012...

  18. 78 FR 47695 - Sam Rayburn Dam Power Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... September 30, 2013 (77 FR 67813, November. 14, 2012). The Administrator, Southwestern Power Administration... Marketing Administration Financial Reporting. Procedures for public participation in power and transmission... Southwestern Power Administration Sam Rayburn Dam Power Rate AGENCY: Southwestern Power Administration,...

  19. Validation of iSAM Using the Plant Startup Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Chan Su; Um, Kil Sup [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    For the export of the nuclear fuel, KEPCO Nuclear Fuel (KNF) has developed the KNF-owned safety analysis method, iSAM, which is the acronym of 'integrated Non-LOCA Safety Analysis Methodology.' In the iSAM, KNF standard RETRAN model developed to analyze all the Non-LOCA transients by KNF and best-estimate RETRAN code are used. RETRAN code is a flexible, transient thermal-hydraulic code developed for the United States electric power industry under the sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The applicability of the iSAM to FSAR Chapter 15 design basis events for OPR1000 and APR1400 has been confirmed already and the licensing process is going on now. In this paper, to supplement validation of iSAM, Yonggwang Unit 3 natural circulation and turbine trip test is assessed with KNF standard RETRAN model and compared with measured plant data

  20. Validation of iSAM Using the Plant Startup Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the export of the nuclear fuel, KEPCO Nuclear Fuel (KNF) has developed the KNF-owned safety analysis method, iSAM, which is the acronym of 'integrated Non-LOCA Safety Analysis Methodology.' In the iSAM, KNF standard RETRAN model developed to analyze all the Non-LOCA transients by KNF and best-estimate RETRAN code are used. RETRAN code is a flexible, transient thermal-hydraulic code developed for the United States electric power industry under the sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The applicability of the iSAM to FSAR Chapter 15 design basis events for OPR1000 and APR1400 has been confirmed already and the licensing process is going on now. In this paper, to supplement validation of iSAM, Yonggwang Unit 3 natural circulation and turbine trip test is assessed with KNF standard RETRAN model and compared with measured plant data

  1. Kuula. Kuu artist Sam Sparro. Kuu plaat / Mart Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Mart, 1964-

    2008-01-01

    Artistist Sam Sparrost. Heliplaatidest: "Sex And The City" Original Motion Picture Soundtrack, "Maestro: Blue Note Trip", Melvin/Soo/Remmel/Julm "Geografix", Alanis Morrisette "Flavors Of Entanglement", Guillemots "Red"

  2. Sam Wagstaffi unustatud kired / Ahto Külvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Külvet, Ahto

    2008-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilm "Black, White & Gray: Sam Wagstaff and Robert Mapplethorpe" : autor ja režissöör James Crump : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2007. Filmi näidati filminädala "Art in America" raames Tallinnas

  3. Annals of SAM meeting '96. National meeting on precious metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Works are presented at the SAM meeting '96 of the Argentine Materials Association. The papers can be grouped under the following main topics: physical metallurgy; ceramics; polymers; precious metals; extractive metallurgy; corrosion; powder metallurgy. refs., ills

  4. SAM - an interactive code for evaluation of electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985-86 by the authors was developed the package of computer codes SAM for evaluation of the wide range of 2D electro-magnetostatic problems arising at designing of the injection units of accelerators and high power RF sources. This work describes in detail the methods and algorithms used or designed by the authors at developing the package of computer codes SAM. The examples of the real electron-optics system simulation are presented

  5. A Financial Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for Luxembourg

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) is a comprehensive, economy-wide data framework of real accounts, typically representing the economy of a nation but also providing the link between the economy and the rest of the world in terms of trade flows. However, in order to have a complete picture of the transactions taking place in an economy, real accounts are not sufficient and need to be complemented with financial accounts. This paper describes the construction of the first financial SAM for Luxe...

  6. Diamond surface functionalization with biomimicry - Amine surface tether and thiol moiety for electrochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund, James B.; Causey, Corey P.; Wolter, Scott D.; Parker, Charles B.; Stoner, Brian R.; Toone, Eric J.; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2014-05-01

    The surface of conducting diamond was functionalized with a terminal thiol group that is capable of binding and detecting nitrogen-oxygen species. The functionalization process employed multiple steps starting with doped diamond films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by hydrogen termination and photochemical attachment of a chemically protected amine alkene. The surface tether was deprotected to reveal the amine functionality, which enabled the tether to be extended with surface chemistry to add a terminal thiol moiety for electrochemical sensing applications. Each step of the process was validated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis.

  7. Cloning and Analysis of Genes SAMS From Glycine soja

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jinping; BAI Xi; LI Yong; JI Wei; WANG Xi; ZHU Yanming

    2008-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) plays important role in trans-methyl reactions. Under the condition of drought (30%PEG),salinity (200 mmol·L-1 NaCI) and low temperature (4℃),total RNA was extracted from the leaf and the first strand of eDNA was synthesized with reverse transcription.S-adenosylmethionine synthetase gene (SAMS gene) was amplified by PeR with the first strand eDNA as template and a pair of primers which was based on constructed ESTs sequence.Full-length SAMS gene sequence was obtained by BLAST comparison. According to the analysis, completed sequence of SAMS gene was integrality.The sequence of the SAMS gene was 1185 bp in length with an opening reading frame (ORF) encoding 394 amino acids.The cDNA sequence showed a significant homology to the SAM genes from Phaseolus lunatus (89%),Medicago sativa (85%).A prokaryotie expression vectors based on pET-32b had been constructed and prokaryotie expression was analyzed in order to lay a strong foundation for resist adversity function analysis through situation of genie expression analysis.

  8. Cloning and characterization of mr-s, a novel SAM domain protein, predominantly expressed in retinal photoreceptor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koike Chieko

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sterile alpha motif (SAM domains are ~70 residues long and have been reported as common protein-protein interaction modules. This domain is found in a large number of proteins, including Polycomb group (PcG proteins and ETS family transcription factors. In this work, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a novel SAM domain-containing protein, which is predominantly expressed in retinal photoreceptors and the pineal gland and is designated mouse mr-s (major retinal SAM domain protein. Results mr-s is evolutionarily conserved from zebrafish through human, organisms through which the mechanism of photoreceptor development is also highly conserved. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the SAM domain of mr-s is most closely related to a mouse polyhomeotic (ph ortholog, Mph1/Rae28, which is known as an epigenetic molecule involved in chromatin modifications. These findings provide the possibility that mr-s may play a critical role by regulating gene expression in photoreceptor development. mr-s is preferentially expressed in the photoreceptors at postnatal day 3–6 (P3-6, when photoreceptors undergo terminal differentiation, and in the adult pineal gland. Transcription of mr-s is directly regulated by the cone-rod homeodomain protein Crx. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that the mr-s protein self-associates mainly through the SAM domain-containing region as well as ph. The mr-s protein localizes mainly in the nucleus, when mr-s is overexpressed in HEK293T cells. Moreover, in the luciferase assays, we found that mr-s protein fused to GAL4 DNA-binding domain functions as a transcriptional repressor. We revealed that the repression activity of mr-s is not due to a homophilic interaction through its SAM domain but to the C-terminal region. Conclusion We identified a novel gene, mr-s, which is predominantly expressed in retinal photoreceptors and pineal gland. Based on its expression pattern and biochemical analysis

  9. Ensuring GRID resource availability with the SAM framework in LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LHCb experiment has chosen to use the SAM framework (Service Availability Monitoring Environment from EGEE-II) [1] make extensive tests of the LHCb environment at all the accessible grid resources. The availability and the proper definition of the local Computing and Storage Elements, user interfaces as well as the WLCG software environment are checked. The SAM framework is also used to pre-install the LHCb applications in the shared software area provided by each site. The deployment of the LHCb applications is based on a python tool developed inside the experiment. It is used for software management including incremental installation of interdependent packages and clean package removal. After the application software is installed a validation test of the whole MC chain is run. According to the results of the experiment specific SAM tests, the sites are (re)integrated into the LHCb production system managed by DIRAC [2]. The possibility of automated dynamic site certification using the SAM test suite is explored. This paper will describe the various ways of the LHCb use of the SAM framework. Practical experience in the recent production runs, current limitations and future developments will be presented

  10. Ensuring GRID resource availability with the SAM framework in LHCb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closier, J.; Paterson, S.; Santinelli, R.

    2008-07-01

    The LHCb experiment has chosen to use the SAM framework (Service Availability Monitoring Environment from EGEE-II) [1] make extensive tests of the LHCb environment at all the accessible grid resources. The availability and the proper definition of the local Computing and Storage Elements, user interfaces as well as the WLCG software environment are checked. The SAM framework is also used to pre-install the LHCb applications in the shared software area provided by each site. The deployment of the LHCb applications is based on a python tool developed inside the experiment. It is used for software management including incremental installation of interdependent packages and clean package removal. After the application software is installed a validation test of the whole MC chain is run. According to the results of the experiment specific SAM tests, the sites are (re)integrated into the LHCb production system managed by DIRAC [2]. The possibility of automated dynamic site certification using the SAM test suite is explored. This paper will describe the various ways of the LHCb use of the SAM framework. Practical experience in the recent production runs, current limitations and future developments will be presented.

  11. Functional relationship between CABIT, SAM and 14-3-3 binding domains of GAREM1 that play a role in its subcellular localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishino, Tasuku; Matsunaga, Ryota; Konishi, Hiroaki, E-mail: hkonishi@pu-hiroshima.ac.jp

    2015-08-21

    GAREM1 (Grb2-associated regulator of Erk/MAPK1) is an adaptor protein that is involved in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway. The nuclear localization of GAREM1 depends on the nuclear localization sequence (NLS), which is located at the N-terminal CABIT (cysteine-containing, all in Themis) domain. Here, we identified 14-3-3ε as a GAREM-binding protein, and its binding site is closely located to the NLS. This 14-3-3 binding site was of the atypical type and independent of GAREM phosphorylation. Moreover, the binding of 14-3-3 had an effect on the nuclear localization of GAREM1. Unexpectedly, we observed that the CABIT domain had intramolecular association with the C-terminal SAM (sterile alpha motif) domain. This association might be inhibited by binding of 14-3-3 at the CABIT domain. Our results demonstrate that the mechanism underlying the nuclear localization of GAREM1 depends on its NLS in the CABIT domain, which is controlled by the binding of 14-3-3 and the C-terminal SAM domain. We suggest that the interplay between 14-3-3, SAM domain and CABIT domain might be responsible for the distribution of GAREM1 in mammalian cells. - Highlights: • 14-3-3ε regulated the nuclear localization of GAREM1 as its binding partner. • The atypical 14-3-3 binding site of GAREM1 is located near the NLS in CABIT domain. • The CABIT domain had intramolecular association with the SAM domain in GAREM1. • Subcellular localization of GAREM1 is affected with its CABIT-SAM interaction.

  12. Termination Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

  13. Workshop proceedings of ISAMM 2009 - Physical phenomena affecting SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    Eight papers were presented during the session and the technical scope of the session appeared somewhat larger than suggested by the title. The papers covered: (i) Physical phenomena related to debris coolability and modelling; (ii) Physical phenomena related to the source term in Severe accident; (iii) Status of SERENA experiment on steam explosion; (iv) Conclusions of the OECD /NEA workshop on in-vessel Coolability; (v) Example of strategies implementation on SAM examples. General outcome of the accompanying discussions showed that while there is a common understanding on the physical phenomena, the comprehension of importance given to the phenomena dealt in the session by the different countries may largely vary and may therefore naturally impacts the strategies of SAM in the countries. Examples given on SAMGs optimization have raised the question of having a clear harmonized reference document recalling the basic principles of SAM and the degree of freedom given in this domain (with regard to complexity, information, etc.). (author)

  14. Obituary: Sam Roweis (1972-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, David

    2011-12-01

    Computer scientist and statistical astronomer Sam Roweis took his own life in New York City on 2010 January 12. He was a brilliant and accomplished researcher in the field of machine learning, and a strong advocate for the use of computational statistics for automating discovery and scientific data analysis. He made several important contributions to astronomy and was working on adaptive astronomical data analysis at the time of his death. Roweis obtained his PhD in 1999 from the California Institute of Technology, where he worked on a remarkable range of subjects, including DNA computing, modeling of dynamical systems, signal processing, and speech recognition. During this time he unified and clarified some of the most important data analysis techniques, including Principal Component Analysis, Hidden Markov Models, and Expectation Maximization. His work was aimed at making data analysis and modeling faster, but also better justified scientifically. The last years of his PhD were spent in Princeton NJ, where he came in contact with a young generation of cosmologists thinking about microwave background and large-scale structure data. In a postdoc at University College London, Roweis co-created the Locally Linear Embedding (LLE) algorithm; a simple but flexible technique for mapping a large data set onto a low-dimensional manifold. The LLE paper obtained more than 2700 citations in 9 years, launched a new sub-field of machine learning known as "manifold learning," and inspired work in data visualization, search, and applied mathematics. In 2001, Roweis took a faculty job at the University of Toronto Computer Science Department. He continued working on data analysis methods that have probabilistic interpretation and therefore scientific applicability, but at the same time have good performance on large data sets. He was awarded a Sloan Fellowship, a Canada Research Chair, and a fellowship of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, among other honors and awards

  15. Diamond surface functionalization with biomimicry – Amine surface tether and thiol moiety for electrochemical sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sund, James B., E-mail: jim@jamessund.com [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Causey, Corey P. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Wolter, Scott D. [Department of Physics, Elon University, Elon, NC 27244 (United States); Parker, Charles B., E-mail: charles.parker@duke.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Stoner, Brian R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Research Triangle Institute (RTI) International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Toone, Eric J. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Glass, Jeffrey T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Diamond surfaces were functionalized with organic molecules using a novel approach. • Used biomimicry to select a molecule to bind NO, similar to the human body. • Molecular orbital theory predicted the molecule-analyte oxidation behavior. • A thiol moiety was attached to an amine surface tether on the diamond surface. • XPS analysis verified each surface functionalization step. - Abstract: The surface of conducting diamond was functionalized with a terminal thiol group that is capable of binding and detecting nitrogen–oxygen species. The functionalization process employed multiple steps starting with doped diamond films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by hydrogen termination and photochemical attachment of a chemically protected amine alkene. The surface tether was deprotected to reveal the amine functionality, which enabled the tether to be extended with surface chemistry to add a terminal thiol moiety for electrochemical sensing applications. Each step of the process was validated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis.

  16. Diamond surface functionalization with biomimicry – Amine surface tether and thiol moiety for electrochemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Diamond surfaces were functionalized with organic molecules using a novel approach. • Used biomimicry to select a molecule to bind NO, similar to the human body. • Molecular orbital theory predicted the molecule-analyte oxidation behavior. • A thiol moiety was attached to an amine surface tether on the diamond surface. • XPS analysis verified each surface functionalization step. - Abstract: The surface of conducting diamond was functionalized with a terminal thiol group that is capable of binding and detecting nitrogen–oxygen species. The functionalization process employed multiple steps starting with doped diamond films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by hydrogen termination and photochemical attachment of a chemically protected amine alkene. The surface tether was deprotected to reveal the amine functionality, which enabled the tether to be extended with surface chemistry to add a terminal thiol moiety for electrochemical sensing applications. Each step of the process was validated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis

  17. Technoeconomic Modeling of Battery Energy Storage in SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiOrio, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Janzou, Steven [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Detailed comprehensive lead-acid and lithium-ion battery models have been integrated with photovoltaic models in an effort to allow System Advisor Model (SAM) to offer the ability to predict the performance and economic benefit of behind the meter storage. In a system with storage, excess PV energy can be saved until later in the day when PV production has fallen, or until times of peak demand when it is more valuable. Complex dispatch strategies can be developed to leverage storage to reduce energy consumption or power demand based on the utility rate structure. This document describes the details of the battery performance and economic models in SAM.

  18. Receptors of mammalian trace amines

    OpenAIRE

    Lewin, Anita H.

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of a family of G-protein coupled receptors, some of which bind and are activated by biogenic trace amines, has prompted speculation as to the physiological role of these receptors. Observations associated with the distribution of these trace amine associated receptors (TAARs) suggest that they may be involved in depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, eating disorders, migraine headaches, and Parkinson's disease. Preliminary in vitro data, obtained using cloned rec...

  19. Biogenic amines in dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Linares, Daniel M.; Martín, M. Cruz; Ladero Losada, Víctor Manuel; Álvarez González, Miguel Ángel; Fernández García, María

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BA) are organic, basic, nitrogenous compounds with biological activity, mainly formed by the decarboxylation of amino acids. BA are present in a wide range of foods, including dairy products, and can accumulate in high concentrations. In some cheeses more than 1000 mg of BA have been detected per kilogram of cheese. The consumption of food containing large amounts of these amines can have toxicological consequences. Although there is no specific legislation regarding the BA c...

  20. Amine-Amine Exchange in Aminium-Methanesulfonate Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Matthew L.; Varner, Mychel E.; Perraud, Veronique M.; Ezell, Michael J.; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Gerber, Robert B.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2014-12-18

    Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and have been shown to impact the Earth’s climate, reduce visibility, and adversely affect human health. Modeling the evolution of aerosol systems requires an understanding of the species and mechanisms involved in particle growth, including the complex interactions between particle- and gas-phase species. Here we report studies of displacement of amines (methylamine, dimethylamine or trimethylamine) in methanesulfonate salt particles by exposure to a different gas-phase amine, using a single particle mass spectrometer, SPLAT II. The variation of the displacement with the nature of the amine suggests that behavior is dependent on water in or on the particles. Small clusters of methanesulfonic acid with amines are used as a model in quantum chemical calculations to identify key structural elements that are expected to influence water uptake, and hence the efficiency of displacement by gas-phase molecules in the aminium salts. Such molecular-level understanding of the processes affecting the ability of gas-phase amines to displace particle-phase aminium species is important for modeling the growth of particles and their impacts in the atmosphere.

  1. Information System through ANIS at CeSAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, C.; Agneray, F.; Gimenez, S.

    2015-09-01

    ANIS (AstroNomical Information System) is a web generic tool developed at CeSAM to facilitate and standardize the implementation of astronomical data of various kinds through private and/or public dedicated Information Systems. The architecture of ANIS is composed of a database server which contains the project data, a web user interface template which provides high level services (search, extract and display imaging and spectroscopic data using a combination of criteria, an object list, a sql query module or a cone search interfaces), a framework composed of several packages, and a metadata database managed by a web administration entity. The process to implement a new ANIS instance at CeSAM is easy and fast : the scientific project has to submit data or a data secure access, the CeSAM team installs the new instance (web interface template and the metadata database), and the project administrator can configure the instance with the web ANIS-administration entity. Currently, the CeSAM offers through ANIS a web access to VO compliant Information Systems for different projects (HeDaM, HST-COSMOS, CFHTLS-ZPhots, ExoDAT,...).

  2. ISO19770-1:2012 SAM process guidance

    CERN Document Server

    Canavan, Rory

    2012-01-01

    The pocket guide offers a concise summary of the principles of software asset management as conveyed by ISO 19770-1: 2012, and provides advice and guidance on how to kick-start your own SAM programme - something the Standard alone doesn't offer.

  3. GoSam @ LHC: algorithms and applications to Higgs production

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, G; Greiner, N; Heinrich, G; Luisoni, G; Mastrolia, P; Mirabella, E; Ossola, G; Peraro, T; Reichel, J; Schlenk, J; von Soden-Fraunhofen, J F; Tramontano, F

    2013-01-01

    We elaborate on GoSam, a code-writer for automated one-loop calculations. After recalling its main features, we present a selection of phenomenological results recently obtained, giving relevance at the evaluation of NLO QCD corrections to the production of a Higgs boson in association with jets and heavy quarks.

  4. Role of Sam68 in Post-Transcriptional Gene Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Sánchez-Jiménez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The STAR family of proteins links signaling pathways to various aspects of post-transcriptional regulation and processing of RNAs. Sam68 belongs to this class of heteronuclear ribonucleoprotein particle K (hnRNP K homology (KH single domain-containing family of RNA-binding proteins that also contains some domains predicted to bind critical components in signal transduction pathways. In response to phosphorylation and other post-transcriptional modifications, Sam68 has been shown to have the ability to link signal transduction pathways to downstream effects regulating RNA metabolism, including transcription, alternative splicing or RNA transport. In addition to its function as a docking protein in some signaling pathways, this prototypic STAR protein has been identified to have a nuclear localization and to take part in the formation of both nuclear and cytosolic multi-molecular complexes such as Sam68 nuclear bodies and stress granules. Coupling with other proteins and RNA targets, Sam68 may play a role in the regulation of differential expression and mRNA processing and translation according to internal and external signals, thus mediating important physiological functions, such as cell death, proliferation or cell differentiation.

  5. Ensuring GRID resource availability with the SAM framework in LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Closier, J; Santinelli, R

    2008-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has chosen to use the SAM framework (Service Availability Monitoring Environment from EGEE-II) [1] make extensive tests of the LHCb environment at all the accessible grid resources. The availability and the proper definition of the local Computing and Storage Elements, user interfaces as well as the WLCG software environment are checked. The SAM framework is also used to pre-install the LHCb applications in the shared software area provided by each site. The deployment of the LHCb applications is based on a python tool developed inside the experiment. It is used for software management including incremental installation of interdependent packages and clean package removal. After the application software is installed a validation test of the whole MC chain is run. According to the results of the experiment specific SAM tests, the sites are (re)integrated into the LHCb production system managed by DIRAC [2]. The possibility of automated dynamic site certification using the SAM test suite is ...

  6. Nuclear data treatment for SAM-CE Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment of nuclear data by the SAM-CE Monte Carlo code system is presented. The retrieval of neutron, gamma production, and photon data from the ENDF/B fils is described. Integral cross sections as well as differential data are utilized in the Monte Carlo calculations, and the processing procedures for the requisite data are summarized

  7. Dynamics within alkylsiloxane SAMs studied by sensitive dielectric spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Mary; Stevens, Derrick; Bochinski, Jason; Clarke, Laura

    2009-03-01

    Self assembled monolayers (SAMs) are a ubiquitous tool in modern research and their static structure has been extensively studied. Fewer investigations have addressed dynamics within these systems; however, such motions within SAMs will affect surface properties such as friction and blocking ability (permeability). In this study, sensitive, dielectric spectroscopy over a broad temperature range (4-400 K) has been employed to study relaxations within planar alkylsiloxane SAMs[1] . Highly disordered SAMs of varying density were grown by vapor deposition. Two dielectric relaxations were observed. The first, a polyethylene-like relaxation similar to that previously reported in phase-segregated alkyl side-chain polymers, is observed for all films with alkyl chains containing four or more carbons. This is an interacting or glassy relaxation. The second motion, which is observable only at high film densities, is a local mode, which follows an Arrhenius dependence on temperature, and has been previously assigned to a sub-chain rotation. [1] M.C. Scott, D.R. Stevens, J.R. Bochinski, L.I. Clarke, ACS Nano. DOI: 10.1021/nn800543j.

  8. Fabrication of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and inorganic micropattern on flexible polymer substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Junhui; Zhu, Peixin; Masuda, Yoshitake; Koumoto, Kunihito

    2004-04-13

    By grafting (aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) as the buffer layer on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) surface, the SAMs ofoctadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS), phenyltrichlorosilane (PTCS), vinyltrichlorosilane (VTCS), andp-tolyltrichlorosilane (TTCS) were fabricated on the flexible polymer substrate. The properties of SAMs were accurately controlled by adjusting the immersing time of substrates in the solutions and the concentration of the solutions. The SAMs acted as templates, and TiO2 micropattern was successfully deposited on OTS, TTCS, and PTCS SAMs. PMID:15875858

  9. Selective Plasma Deposition of Fluorocarbon Films on SAMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Mark M., III; Walsh, Kevin M.; Cohn, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    A dry plasma process has been demonstrated to be useful for the selective modification of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiolates. These SAMs are used, during the fabrication of semiconductor electronic devices, as etch masks on gold layers that are destined to be patterned and incorporated into the devices. The selective modification involves the formation of fluorocarbon films that render the SAMs more effective in protecting the masked areas of the gold against etching by a potassium iodide (KI) solution. This modification can be utilized, not only in the fabrication of single electronic devices but also in the fabrication of integrated circuits, microelectromechanical systems, and circuit boards. In the steps that precede the dry plasma process, a silicon mold in the desired pattern is fabricated by standard photolithographic techniques. A stamp is then made by casting polydimethylsiloxane (commonly known as silicone rubber) in the mold. The stamp is coated with an alkanethiol solution, then the stamp is pressed on the gold layer of a device to be fabricated in order to deposit the alkanethiol to form an alkanethiolate SAM in the desired pattern (see figure). Next, the workpiece is exposed to a radio-frequency plasma generated from a mixture of CF4 and H2 gases. After this plasma treatment, the SAM is found to be modified, while the exposed areas of gold remain unchanged. This dry plasma process offers the potential for forming masks superior to those formed in a prior wet etching process. Among the advantages over the wet etching process are greater selectivity, fewer pin holes in the masks, and less nonuniformity of the masks. The fluorocarbon films formed in this way may also be useful as intermediate layers for subsequent fabrication steps and as dielectric layers to be incorporated into finished products.

  10. Anomalous length dependence of conductance of aromatic nanoribbons with amine anchoring groups

    KAUST Repository

    Bilić, Ante

    2012-09-06

    Two sets of aromatic nanoribbons, based around a common hexagonal scaffolding, with single and dual terminal amine groups have been considered as potential molecular wires in a junction formed by gold leads. Charge transport through the two-terminal device has been modeled using density functional theory (with and without self-interaction correction) and the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function method. The effects of wire length, multiple terminal contacts, and pathways across the junction have been investigated. For nanoribbons with the oligopyrene motif and conventional single amine terminal groups, an increase in the wire length causes an exponential drop in the conductance. In contrast, for the nanoribbons with the oligoperylene motif and dual amine anchoring groups the predicted conductance rises with the wire length over the whole range of investigated lengths. Only when the effects of self-interaction correction are taken into account, the conductance of the oligoperylene ribbons exhibits saturation for longer members of the series. The oligoperylene nanoribbons, with dual amine groups at both terminals, show the potential to fully harness the highly conjugated system of π molecular orbitals across the junction. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  11. Amine Swingbed Payload Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayley, Elizabeth; Curley, Su; Walsh, Mary

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has been designed as a laboratory for demonstrating technologies in a microgravity environment, benefitting exploration programs by reducing the overall risk of implementing such technologies in new spacecraft. At the beginning of fiscal year 2010, the ISS program manager requested that the amine-based, pressure-swing carbon dioxide and humidity absorption technology (designed by Hamilton Sundstrand, baselined for the ORION Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, and tested at the Johnson Space Center in relevant environments, including with humans, since 2005) be developed into a payload for ISS Utilization. In addition to evaluating the amine technology in a flight environment before the first launch of the ORION vehicle, the ISS program wanted to determine the capability of the amine technology to remove carbon dioxide from the ISS cabin environment at the metabolic rate of the full 6-person crew. Because the amine technology vents the absorbed carbon dioxide and water vapor to space vacuum (open loop), additional hardware needed to be developed to minimize the amount of air and water resources lost overboard. Additionally, the payload system would be launched on two separate Space Shuttle flights, with the heart of the payload the swingbed unit itself launching a full year before the remainder of the payload. This paper discusses the project management and challenges of developing the amine swingbed payload in order to accomplish the technology objectives of both the open-loop ORION application as well as the closed-loop ISS application.

  12. Amine Swingbed Payload Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsch, Mary; Curley, Su

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has been designed as a laboratory for demonstrating technologies in a microgravity environment, benefitting exploration programs by reducing the overall risk of implementing such technologies in new spacecraft. At the beginning of fiscal year 2010, the ISS program manager requested that the amine-based, pressure-swing carbon dioxide and humidity absorption technology (designed by Hamilton Sundstrand, baselined for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, and tested at the Johnson Space Center in relevant environments, including with humans, since 2005) be developed into a payload for ISS Utilization. In addition to evaluating the amine technology in a flight environment before the first launch of the Orion vehicle, the ISS program wanted to determine the capability of the amine technology to remove carbon dioxide from the ISS cabin environment at the metabolic rate of the full 6 ]person crew. Because the amine technology vents the absorbed carbon dioxide and water vapor to space vacuum (open loop), additional hardware needed to be developed to minimize the amount of air and water resources lost overboard. Additionally, the payload system would be launched on two separate Space Shuttle flights, with the heart of the payload-the swingbed unit itself-launching a full year before the remainder of the payload. This paper discusses the project management and challenges of developing the amine swingbed payload in order to accomplish the technology objectives of both the open -loop Orion application as well as the closed-loop ISS application.

  13. Amination of ω-Functionalized Aliphatic Primary Alcohols by a Biocatalytic Oxidation–Transamination Cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickl, Mathias; Fuchs, Michael; Glueck, Silvia M; Faber, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Amination of non-activated aliphatic fatty alcohols to the corresponding primary amines was achieved through a five-enzyme cascade reaction by coupling a long-chain alcohol oxidase from Aspergillus fumigatus (LCAO_Af) with a ω-transaminase from Chromobacterium violaceum (ω-TA_Cv). The alcohol was oxidized at the expense of molecular oxygen to yield the corresponding aldehyde, which was subsequently aminated by the PLP-dependent ω-TA to yield the final primary amine product. The overall cascade was optimized with respect to pH, O2 pressure, substrate concentration, decomposition of H2O2 (derived from alcohol oxidation), NADH regeneration, and biocatalyst ratio. The substrate scope of this concept was investigated under optimized conditions by using terminally functionalized C4–C11 fatty primary alcohols bearing halogen, alkyne, amino, hydroxy, thiol, and nitrile groups. PMID:26583050

  14. [Preliminary study on autoregulation of samR involved in development and differentiation of Streptomyces ansochromogenes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-ling; Yang, Hai-hua; Tan, Hua-rong

    2005-02-01

    The previous result showed that samR plays an important role in the development progress of Streptomyces ansochromogenes. It was reported that the differentiation progress of S. ansochromogenes was accelerated by a recombinant plasmid containing an extra copy of samR gene. However, the differentiation progress of S. ansochromogenes was not further accelerated by a multicopy plasmid containing samR gene. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) demonstrated that SamR binds to its own promoter region specifically. All these results hint that samR is an autoregulatory gene in Streptomyces ansochromogenes. PMID:15847153

  15. Bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Arora

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic amines are an important group of industrial chemicals, which are widely used for manufacturing of dyes, pesticides, drugs, pigments, and other industrial products. These compounds have been considered highly toxic to human beings due to their carcinogenic nature. Three groups of aromatic amines have been recognized: monocyclic, polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic amines. Bacterial degradation of several monocyclic aromatic compounds has been studied in a variety of bacteria, which utilizes monocyclic aromatic amines as their sole source of carbon and energy. Several degradation pathways have been proposed and the related enzymes and genes have also been characterized. Many reviews have been reviewed toxicity of monocyclic aromatic amines; however, there is lack of review on biodegradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. The aim of this review is to summarize bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. This review will increase our current understanding of biochemical and molecular basis of bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of indium sulfide thin films deposited on SAMs modified substrates surfaces by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to explore the optoelectronic properties of nanostructured indium sulfide (In2S3) thin films for a wide range of applications, the In2S3 thin films were successfully deposited on the APTS layers (-NH2-terminated) modified ITO glass substrates using the chemical bath deposition technique. The surface morphology, structure and composition of the resultant In2S3 thin films were characterized by FESEM, XRD, and XPS, respectively. Also, the correlations between the optical properties, photocurrent response and the thickness of thin films were established. According to the different deposition mechanisms on the varying SAMs terminational groups, the positive and negative micropatterned In2S3 thin films were successfully fabricated on modified Si substrates surface combining with the ultraviolet lithography process. This offers an attractive opportunity to fabricate patterned In2S3 thin films for controlling the spatial positioning of functional materials in microsystems.

  17. Supported Gold Nanoparticles for Efficient α-Oxygenation of Secondary and Tertiary Amines into Amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiongjie; Kataoka, Kengo; Yatabe, Takafumi; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2016-06-13

    Although the α-oxygenation of amines is a highly attractive method for the synthesis of amides, efficient catalysts suited to a wide range of secondary and tertiary alkyl amines using O2 as the terminal oxidant have no precedent. This report describes a novel, green α-oxygenation of a wide range of linear and cyclic secondary and tertiary amines mediated by gold nanoparticles supported on alumina (Au/Al2 O3 ). The observed catalysis was truly heterogeneous, and the catalyst could be reused. The present α-oxygenation utilizes O2 as the terminal oxidant and water as the oxygen atom source of amides. The method generates water as the only theoretical by-product, which highlights the environmentally benign nature of the present reaction. Additionally, the present α-oxygenation provides a convenient method for the synthesis of (18) O-labeled amides using H2 (18) O as the oxygen source. PMID:27151621

  18. Preparation and reactivity of carboxylic acid-terminated boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedziolka-Joensson, Joanna [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley, BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, UMR 8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Boland, Susan; Leech, Donal [School of Chemistry, National University of Irland, Galway (Ireland); Boukherroub, Rabah [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley, BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, UMR 8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Szunerits, Sabine, E-mail: sabine.szunerits@iri.univ-lille1.f [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley, BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, UMR 8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports on the formation of carboxy-terminated boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. The carboxylic acid termination was prepared in a controlled way by reacting photochemically oxidized BDD with succinic anhydride. The resulting interface was readily employed for the linking of an amine-terminated ligand such as an osmium complex bearing an amine terminal group. The interfaces were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Contact angle measurements were used to follow the changes in surface wetting properties due to surface functionalization. The chemical reactivity of the carboxyl-terminated BDD was investigated by covalent coupling of the acid groups to an amine-terminated osmium complex.

  19. Drakon-terminal sdelajet aeroport Pekina samõm bolshim na Zemlje

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Pekingisse rajatavast lennujaama terminalist. Kavandas briti arhitektuuribüroo Foster and Partners. Projekti tutvustab arhitekt Norman Foster. Projektiga töötasid ka hollandi planeerijad NACO B.U ja ameerika inseneribüroo ARUP

  20. TRX and UO2 criticality benchmarks with SAM-CE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of thermal reactor benchmark calculations with SAM-CE which have been conducted at both MAGI and at BNL are described. Their purpose was both validation of the SAM-CE reactor eigenvalue capability developed by MAGI and a substantial contribution to the data testing of both ENDF/B-IV and ENDF/B-V libraries. This experience also resulted in increased calculational efficiency of the code and an example is given. The benchmark analysis included the TRX-1 infinite cell using both ENDF/B-IV and ENDF/B-V cross section sets and calculations using ENDF/B-IV of the TRX-1 full core and TRX-2 cell. BAPL-UO2-1 calculations were conducted for the cell using both ENDF/B-IV and ENDF/B-V and for the full core with ENDF/B-V

  1. Technical Manual for the SAM Biomass Power Generation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgenson, J.; Gilman, P.; Dobos, A.

    2011-09-01

    This technical manual provides context for the implementation of the biomass electric power generation performance model in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) System Advisor Model (SAM). Additionally, the report details the engineering and scientific principles behind the underlying calculations in the model. The framework established in this manual is designed to give users a complete understanding of behind-the-scenes calculations and the results generated.

  2. The ALICE Glance Shift Accounting Management System (SAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Silva, H.; Abreu Da Silva, I.; Ronchetti, F.; Telesca, A.; Maidantchik, C.

    2015-12-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is an experiment at the CERN LHC (Large Hadron Collider) studying the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma. The experiment operation requires a 24 hours a day and 7 days a week shift crew at the experimental site, composed by the ALICE collaboration members. Shift duties are calculated for each institute according to their correlated members. In order to ensure the full coverage of the experiment operation as well as its good quality, the ALICE Shift Accounting Management System (SAMS) is used to manage the shift bookings as well as the needed training. ALICE SAMS is the result of a joint effort between the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) and the ALICE Collaboration. The Glance technology, developed by the UFRJ and the ATLAS experiment, sits at the basis of the system as an intermediate layer isolating the particularities of the databases. In this paper, we describe the ALICE SAMS development process and functionalities. The database has been modelled according to the collaboration needs and is fully integrated with the ALICE Collaboration repository to access members information and respectively roles and activities. Run, period and training coordinators can manage their subsystem operation and ensure an efficient personnel management. Members of the ALICE collaboration can book shifts and on-call according to pre-defined rights. ALICE SAMS features a user profile containing all the statistics and user contact information as well as the Institutes profile. Both the user and institute profiles are public (within the scope of the collaboration) and show the credit balance in real time. A shift calendar allows the Run Coordinator to plan data taking periods in terms of which subsystems shifts are enabled or disabled and on-call responsible people and slots. An overview display presents the shift crew present in the control room and allows the Run Coordination team to confirm the presence

  3. Advances in heterocyclic ketene aminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of the reactions of heterocyclic ketene aminals are reviewed with the emphases on regioselective alkylation, acylation and glycosylation reactions, and on the aza-ene reactions with α,β-unsaturated compounds, azo and carbonyl compounds. Reactions with 1,3-dipoles and other reagents to synthesize fused heterocycles are also discussed.

  4. Genetic characterization of senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, K

    1997-01-01

    The Senescence-Accelerated Mouse (SAM) strains are unique and appropriate models for genetic studies on aging because the SAMP strains have an "accelerated senescence" phenotype for which the SAMR strains are controls, and each SAMP strain has a strain-specific age-associated disorder. Furthermore, because they have gone through sufficient generations of sister-brother mating, they can be considered inbred strains, which can be analyzed genetically. There are now 11 SAMP strains and 3 SAMR strains descended from the progenitor litters. Analysis with the Gompertz function shows that the SAMP strains have the same initial mortality rate (IMR) as the SAMR strains but a shorter mortality rate doubling time (MRDT), presumably due to genes that accelerated the rate of senescence in the SAMP strains. This accelerated senescence may also occur in cultured fibroblast-like cells. We performed molecular genetic characterization of all the SAM strains to acquire a base of genetic information from which we could develop hypotheses on the mechanism of development of SAM strains and genetic factors that contribute to accelerated senescence. PMID:9088910

  5. The SAMS: Smartphone Addiction Management System and verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heyoung; Ahn, Heejune; Choi, Samwook; Choi, Wanbok

    2014-01-01

    While the popularity of smartphones has given enormous convenience to our lives, their pathological use has created a new mental health concern among the community. Hence, intensive research is being conducted on the etiology and treatment of the condition. However, the traditional clinical approach based surveys and interviews has serious limitations: health professionals cannot perform continual assessment and intervention for the affected group and the subjectivity of assessment is questionable. To cope with these limitations, a comprehensive ICT (Information and Communications Technology) system called SAMS (Smartphone Addiction Management System) is developed for objective assessment and intervention. The SAMS system consists of an Android smartphone application and a web application server. The SAMS client monitors the user's application usage together with GPS location and Internet access location, and transmits the data to the SAMS server. The SAMS server stores the usage data and performs key statistical data analysis and usage intervention according to the clinicians' decision. To verify the reliability and efficacy of the developed system, a comparison study with survey-based screening with the K-SAS (Korean Smartphone Addiction Scale) as well as self-field trials is performed. The comparison study is done using usage data from 14 users who are 19 to 50 year old adults that left at least 1 week usage logs and completed the survey questionnaires. The field trial fully verified the accuracy of the time, location, and Internet access information in the usage measurement and the reliability of the system operation over more than 2 weeks. The comparison study showed that daily use count has a strong correlation with K-SAS scores, whereas daily use times do not strongly correlate for potentially addicted users. The correlation coefficients of count and times with total K-SAS score are CC = 0.62 and CC =0.07, respectively, and the t-test analysis for the

  6. Synthesis and characterization of aminated lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hong; Sun, Gang; Zhao, Tao

    2013-08-01

    Amination of lignin can bring reactive amino groups onto the natural polymer and enable it to be employed in engineering materials. The amination reaction was successfully implemented after some of the hydroxyl groups on lignin were epoxidized. The resulted products showed a great quantity of primary amine group and secondary amine group which can be used as curing agents of epoxy resin. The results revealed that several factors including reaction temperature and time, as well as ratios of compounds, could influence the epoxidation and amination reactions. The resulted products were characterized by FT-IR spectra, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, element analysis, XPS and thermogravimetry analysis. PMID:23618954

  7. The Improvement of SAM Accumulation by Integrating the Endogenous Methionine Adenosyltransferase Gene SAM2 in Genome of the Industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weijun; Shi, Feng; Hang, Baojian; Huang, Lei; Cai, Jin; Xu, Zhinan

    2016-03-01

    S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) plays important roles in trans-methylation, trans-sulfuration, and polyamine synthesis in all living cells, and it is also an effective cure for liver disease, depressive syndromes, and osteoarthritis. The increased demands of SAM in pharmaceuticals industry have aroused lots of attempts to improve its production. In this study, a multiple-copy integrative plasmid pYMIKP-SAM2 was introduced into the chromosome of wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain ZJU001 to construct the recombined strain R1-ZJU001. Further studies showed that the recombinant yeast exhibited higher enzymatic activity of methionine adenosyltransferase and improved its SAM biosynthesis. With a three-phase fed-batch strategy in 15-liter bench-top fermentor, 8.81 g/L SAM was achieved after 52 h cultivation of R1-ZJU001, about 27.1 % increase over its parent strain ZJU001, whereas the SAM content was also improved from 64.6 mg/g DCW to 91.0 mg/g DCW. Our results shall provide insights into the metabolic engineering of SAM pathway in yeast for improved productivity of SAM and subsequent industrial applications. PMID:26728652

  8. Age-Related Changes in Bone Mass in the Senescence-Accelerated Mouse (SAM): SAM-R/3 and SAM-P/6 as New Murine Models for Senile Osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushita, Mutsumi; Tsuboyama, Tadao; Kasai, Ryuichi; Okumura, Hideo; Yamamuro, Takao; HIGUCHI, Keiichi; Higuchi, Kayoko; Kohno, Atsuko; Yonezu, Tomonori; Utani, Atsushi; Umezawa, Makiko; TAKEDA, Toshio

    1986-01-01

    Age-related changes of the femoral bone mass in several strains of the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) were investigated. Microdensitometrically, all strains exhibited essentially the same patterns of age changes, that is, bone mass corrected by the diameter of the shaft reached the peak value when the mice were 4 or 5 months of age and then fell linearly with age up to over 20 months of age. Two strains, SAM-R/3 and SAM-P/6, which originated from the same ancestry on pedigree, had a signi...

  9. Analysis of heterocyclic aromatic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murkovic, M

    2007-09-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines are formed in protein and amino acid-rich foods at temperatures above 150 degrees C. Of more than twenty heterocyclic aromatic amines identified ten have been shown to have carcinogenic potential. As nutritional hazards, their reliable determination in prepared food, their uptake and elimination in living organisms, including humans, and assessment of associated risks are important food-safety issues. The concentration in foods is normally in the low ng g(-1) range, which poses a challenge to the analytical chemist. Because of the complex nature of food matrixes, clean-up and enrichment of the extracts are also complex, usually involving both cation-exchange (propylsulfonic acid silica gel, PRS) and reversed-phase purification. The application of novel solid-phase extraction cartridges with a wettable apolar phase combined with cation-exchange characteristics simplified this process--both the polar and apolar heterocyclic aromatic amines were recovered in one fraction. Copper phthalocyanine trisulfonate bonded to cotton ("blue cotton") or rayon, and molecular imprinted polymers have also been successfully used for one-step sample clean-up. For analysis of the heterocyclic aromatic amines, liquid chromatography with base-deactivated reversed-phase columns has been used, and, recently, semi-micro and capillary columns have been introduced. The photometric, fluorimetric, or electrochemical detectors used previously have been replaced by mass spectrometers. Increased specificity and sub-ppb sensitivities have been achieved by the use of the selected-reaction-monitoring mode of detection of advanced MS instrumentation, for example the triple quadrupole and Q-TOF instrument combination. Gas chromatography, also with mass-selective detection, has been used for specific applications; the extra derivatization step needed for volatilization has been balanced by the higher chromatographic resolution. PMID:17546447

  10. Investment and Saving in Russian Macroeconomy. Compilation and Analyses of an aggregated SAM for Russia, 1995

    OpenAIRE

    Yasushi Nakamura

    1998-01-01

    Assessing investment activity is a key to understanding the present Russian economy; the Russian official national accounts, however, do not give very much information on it because of their large statistical discrepancies. Using a matrix balancing method, we construct an aggregated Social Accounting Matrix (SAM), which integrates a Russian Flow of Funds table into the Russian national accounts and contains no discrepancies. Comparing the Russian SAM with Japanese and US SAMs, we find some ch...

  11. Constructing a SAM for Egypt (2008/09). Introducing Water and Irrigation Seasonality

    OpenAIRE

    OSMAN Rehab; FERRARI EMANUELE; McDonald, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Analysing agricultural and irrigation policy for Egypt within a CGE modelling frameworkhas been constrained by lack of data. The available Egyptian SAMs do not provide adequate information on seasonal agricultural and irrigation activities. This paper describes the construction process for a SAM for Egypt (2008/2009). The SAM introduces irrigation water as a separate production factor. Furthermore, it provides detailed representation for the agricultural activities and factors across differen...

  12. Utility of SAM68 in the progression and prognosis for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is often lethal and non-MIBC (NMIBC) can recur and progress, yet prognostic markers are currently inadequate. SAM68, a member of RNA-binding proteins, has been reported to contribute to progression of other cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential utility of SAM68 in the progression and prognosis of bladder cancer. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry were utilized to examine the expression of SAM68 in ten pairs of MIBC and adjacent normal bladder urothelium, and eight pairs of MIBC and non-MIBC (NMIBC) tissues from the same patient. Moreover, SAM68 protein expression level and localization were examined by immunohistochemistry in 129 clinicopathologically characterized MIBC samples. Prognostic associations were determined by multivariable analysis incorporating standard prognostic factors. SAM68 expression was elevated in MIBC tissues compared with adjacent normal bladder urothelium, and was increased at both transcriptional and translational levels in MIBC tissues compared with NMIBC tissues of the same patient. For MIBC, high expression and nucleus-cytoplasm co-expression of SAM68 were associated with higher T-stage, higher N-stage and worse recurrence-free survival. Five-year recurrence-free survival was 80% and 52.9% for MIBC patients with low and high SAM68 expression, respectively (p = 0.001). SAM68 nucleus-cytoplasm co-expression associated with worse 5-year recurrence-free survival rate (49.2%) than SAM68 expression confined to the nucleus (82.5%) or cytoplasm (75.5%) alone. On multivariable analysis SAM68 expression level, SAM68 nucleus-cytoplasm co-expression, T-stage, and N-stage were all independent prognostic factors for recurrence-free survival of MIBC patients. SAM68 expression is increased in MIBC when compared to normal urothelium and NMIBC, and appears to be a potentially useful prognostic marker for MIBC

  13. SAMS: The synchronization and monitoring system for ATF [Advanced Toroidal Facility] data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SAMS performs much of the synchronization of the distributed data acquisition system for the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). SAMS is responsible for propagating shot information and managing te data system directories and logical names. This paper describes how SAMS communicates with other processes, both within the VAX cluster that supports most of the ATF data acquisition and on VAXes that are connected to the cluster via DECnet. 3 refs

  14. Electronic patient self-assessment and management (SAM): A novel framework for cancer survivorship

    OpenAIRE

    Tighe Foss; Carroll Peter R; Cooperberg Matthew R; Basch Ethan; Salz Talya; Vickers Andrew J; Eastham James; Rosen Raymond C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background We propose a novel framework for management of cancer survivorship: electronic patient Self-Assessment and Management (SAM). SAM is a framework for transfer of information to and from patients in such a way as to increase both the patient's and the health care provider's understanding of the patient's progress, and to help ensure that patient care follows best practice. Methods Patients who participate in the SAM system are contacted by email at regular intervals and asked...

  15. The nuclear protein Sam68 is cleaved by the FMDV 3C protease redistributing Sam68 to the cytoplasm during FMDV infection of host cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picornavirus infection can lead to disruption of nuclear pore traffic, shut-off of cell translation machinery, and cleavage of proteins involved in cellular signal transduction and the innate response to infection. Here, we demonstrated that the FMDV 3Cpro induced the cleavage of nuclear RNA-binding protein Sam68 C-terminus containing the nuclear localization sequence (NLS). Consequently, it stimulated the redistribution of Sam68 to the cytoplasm. The siRNA knockdown of Sam68 resulted in a 1000-fold reduction in viral titers, which prompted us to study the effect of Sam68 on FMDV post-entry events. Interestingly, Sam68 interacts with the internal ribosomal entry site within the 5′ non-translated region of the FMDV genome, and Sam68 knockdown decreased FMDV IRES-driven activity in vitro suggesting that it could modulate translation of the viral genome. The results uncover a novel role for Sam68 in the context of picornaviruses and the proteolysis of a new cellular target of the FMDV 3Cpro.

  16. The nuclear protein Sam68 is cleaved by the FMDV 3C protease redistributing Sam68 to the cytoplasm during FMDV infection of host cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Paul; Schafer, Elizabeth A.; Rieder, Elizabeth, E-mail: elizabeth.rieder@ars.usda.gov

    2012-03-30

    Picornavirus infection can lead to disruption of nuclear pore traffic, shut-off of cell translation machinery, and cleavage of proteins involved in cellular signal transduction and the innate response to infection. Here, we demonstrated that the FMDV 3C{sup pro} induced the cleavage of nuclear RNA-binding protein Sam68 C-terminus containing the nuclear localization sequence (NLS). Consequently, it stimulated the redistribution of Sam68 to the cytoplasm. The siRNA knockdown of Sam68 resulted in a 1000-fold reduction in viral titers, which prompted us to study the effect of Sam68 on FMDV post-entry events. Interestingly, Sam68 interacts with the internal ribosomal entry site within the 5 Prime non-translated region of the FMDV genome, and Sam68 knockdown decreased FMDV IRES-driven activity in vitro suggesting that it could modulate translation of the viral genome. The results uncover a novel role for Sam68 in the context of picornaviruses and the proteolysis of a new cellular target of the FMDV 3C{sup pro}.

  17. Combined heterogeneous metal/chiral amine: multiple relay catalysis for versatile eco-friendly synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiana, Luca; Jiang, Yan; Palo-Nieto, Carlos; Afewerki, Samson; Incerti-Pradillos, Celia A; Verho, Oscar; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Johnston, Eric V; Córdova, Armando

    2014-03-24

    Herein is described a versatile and broad synergistic strategy for expansion of chemical space and the synthesis of valuable molecules (e.g. carbocycles and heterocycles), with up to three quaternary stereocenters, in a highly enantioselective fashion from simple alcohols (31 examples, 95:5 to >99.5:0.5 e.r.) using integrated heterogeneous metal/chiral amine multiple relay catalysis and air/O₂ as the terminal oxidant. A novel highly 1,4-selective heterogeneous metal/amine co-catalyzed hydrogenation of enals was also added to the relay catalysis sequences. PMID:24677482

  18. Workshop proceedings of ISAMM 2009 - Current status and insights of SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    During the first and second sessions of 'Current Status and Insights of SAM', 11 papers from regulatory bodies, TSOs, several utilities and national research institutes were presented to outline the status of implementation of SAM programmes in countries like Canada, Germany, Japan, France, United States of America, Republic of Korea, Switzerland, Finland, and Hungary. Some of the papers as well described the expansion of the SAM programmes to low power and shutdown states. Finally one paper described the development of technical bases for SAM programmes in new generation III reactors based on the US process of reviewing design certification applications. (author)

  19. Sam68 is cleaved by caspases under apoptotic cell death induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RNA-binding protein Sam68, a mitotic substrate of tyrosine kinases, has been reported to participate in the cell cycle, apoptosis, and signaling. In particular, overexpression of Sam68 protein is known to suppress cell growth and cell cycle progression in NIH3T3 cells. Although Sam68 is involved in many cellular activities, the function of Sam68, especially in response to apoptotic stimulation, is not well understood. In this study, we found that Sam68 protein is cleaved in immune cells undergoing apoptosis induced by γ-radiation. Moreover, we found that Sam68 cleavage was induced by apoptotic stimuli containing γ-radiation in a caspase-dependent manner. In particular, we showed that activated casepase-3, 7, 8 and 9 can directly cleave Sam68 protein through in vitro protease cleavage assay. Finally, we found that the knockdown of Sam68 attenuated γ-radiation-induced cell death and growth suppression. Conclusively, the cleavage of Sam68 is a new indicator for the cell damaging effects of ionizing radiation. (author)

  20. iSAM2: Incremental Smoothing and Mapping with Fluid Relinearization and Incremental Variable Reordering

    OpenAIRE

    Kaess, Michael; Johannsson, Hordur; Roberts, Richard; Ila, Viorela; Leonard, John Joseph; Dellaert, Frank

    2011-01-01

    We present iSAM2, a fully incremental, graph-based version of incremental smoothing and mapping (iSAM). iSAM2 is based on a novel graphical model-based interpretation of incremental sparse matrix factorization methods, afforded by the recently introduced Bayes tree data structure. The original iSAM algorithm incrementally maintains the square root information matrix by applying matrix factorization updates. We analyze the matrix updates as simple editing operations on the Bayes tree and the c...

  1. Biogenic amines in seafood: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biji, K B; Ravishankar, C N; Venkateswarlu, R; Mohan, C O; Gopal, T K Srinivasa

    2016-05-01

    The biogenic amines are low molecular weight organic bases present normally in the body with biological activity influencing important physiological functions. The physiological functions of these molecules are achieved by very low concentrations in the tissues. However, significantly high amounts of biogenic amines are produced during processing and storage of seafood as a result of microbial contamination and inadequate storage conditions. Microorganisms having decarboxylase enzyme activity convert amino acids to their respective biogenic amines. Biogenic amines in seafood have been implicated as a major causative agent of food borne illness, where intoxication results from the ingestion of foods containing higher amount of biogenic amines. Hence its identification, quantitation and awareness of this food borne toxin are important in relation to food safety and spoilage. The aim of this paper is to review the basic concepts of seafood quality and safety in relation to biogenic amines along with its control measures and future areas for research. PMID:27407186

  2. Film-forming amines in shell boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topp, Holger [Astrium RST Rostock GmbH, Rostock (Germany); Hater, Wolfgang [BK Giulini, Ludwigshafen (Germany); BKG Water Solutions, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Bache, Andre de [BK Giulini, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Kolk, Christian zum [BKG Water Solutions, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Studies were conducted with the aim of providing answers to important questions concerning the use of film-forming amines in steam generators. Tests were carried out in test steam generators under controlled conditions to study the three following application areas: the influence of film-forming amines on boiling behavior and heat transfer, the influence of film-forming amines on oxidic protective film formation, and the influence of film-forming amines on critical operating conditions. In the experiments water treatment with trisodium phosphate (which is normally used with shell boilers) was compared with treatment with film-forming amines. In all three areas the treatment with film-forming amines achieved comparable or better results than the treatment with trisodium phosphate. (orig.)

  3. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

    OpenAIRE

    Attila Kántor; Miroslava Kačániová; Vendula Pachlová

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine). The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD), ...

  4. Terminal Ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the important issues of terminal ballistics in a comprehensive way combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. The first chapter reviews the experimental equipment which are used for ballistic tests and the diagnostics for material characterization under impulsive loading conditions. The second chapter covers essential features of the codes which are used for terminal ballistics such as the Euler vs. Lagrange schemes and meshing techniques, as well as the most popular material models. The third chapter, devoted to the penetration mechanics of rigid penetrators, brings the update of modeling in this field. The fourth chapter deals with plate perforation and the fifth chapter deals with the penetration mechanics of shaped charge jets and eroding long rods. The last two chapters discuss several techniques for the disruption and defeating of the main threats in armor design. Throughout the book the authors demonstrate the advantages of numerical simulations in unde...

  5. de regresión OLS y SAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Vilalta y Perdomo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es demostrar que debido a que algunos fenómenos sociales presentan variación espacial, la modelación de los mismos tiene implicaciones metodológicas importantes, y por lo tanto es recomendable utilizar una técnica de regresión que incorpore la espacialidad de los datos en su diseño. Se siguen dos procedimientos generales: primero se calcula el coeficiente de autocorrelación I de Moran para demostrar la espacialidad del comportamiento electoral en el México urbano entre 1994 y 2000; después se comparan dos técnicas de regresión, ols y sam. De la comparación se concluye que la técnica sam es más robusta que la ols con base en que la primera obtiene coeficientes de regresión más precisos y detecta efectos regionales estadísticamente significativos aun en la presencia de modelos con problemas de heterodasticidad.

  6. Redox regulation in shoot growth, SAM maintenance and flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippers, Jos Hm; Foyer, Christine H; van Dongen, Joost T

    2016-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and associated reduction/oxidation (redox) controls involving glutathione, glutaredoxins and thioredoxins play key roles in the regulation of plant growth and development. While many questions remain concerning redox functions in the shoot apical meristem (SAM), accumulating evidence suggests that redox master switches integrate major hormone signals and transcriptional networks in the SAM, and so regulate organ growth, polarity and floral development. Auxin-induced activation of plasma-membrane located NADPH-oxidases and mitochondrial respiratory bioenergetics are likely regulators of the ROS bursts that drive the cell cycle in proliferating regions, with other hormones such as jasmonic acid playing propagating or antagonistic roles in gene regulation. Moreover, the activation of oxygen production by photosynthesis and oxygen-dependent N-end rule controls are linked to the transition from cell proliferation to cell expansion and differentiation. While much remains to be understood, the nexus of available redox controls provides a key underpinning mechanism linking hormonal controls, energy metabolism and bioenergetics to plant growth and development. PMID:26799134

  7. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  8. A ruthenium racemisation catalyst for the synthesis of primary amines from secondary amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingen, Dennis; Altıntaş, Çiğdem; Rudolf Schaller, Max; Vogt, Dieter

    2016-08-01

    A Ru-based half sandwich complex used in amine and alcohol racemization reactions was found to be active in the splitting of secondary amines to primary amines using NH3. Conversions up to 80% along with very high selectivities were achieved. However, after about 80% conversion the catalyst lost activity. Similar to Shvo's catalyst, the complex might deactivate under the influence of ammonia. It was revealed that not NH3 but mainly the primary amine is responsible for the deactivation. PMID:27321431

  9. Status of the implementation of SAM measures. Why now?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of having accident sequences leading to extensive core degradation or even containment failure has been recognized at the beginning of the development of nuclear programs. However, though the results reported in the WASH 1400 study clearly showed that the expected Core Melt Frequency (CMF) or Large Early Release Frequency (LERF) were much higher than originally anticipated, they were deemed sufficiently low to justify limiting Severe accident concerns to better understanding of some relevant physical phenomena. Little attention was given to possible hardware modifications or implementation of countermeasures allowing to mitigate the consequences of core-melt sequences until the TMI-2 accident. Thereafter all western countries relying on nuclear energy for part of their electricity generation started developing national programs to address severe accident issues. However, because regulatory frames or perceived threats to communities, as well as the kind of relationship existing between Safety Authorities and Utilities could differ from country to country, the adopted approaches were not uniform across the board. In particular, provisions adopted or contemplated for the management of Severe Accidents could be country or plant specific. In 1986, the Chernobyl accident gave a new impetus to Severe Accident activities and re-emphasized the need for maintaining containment integrity in case of accidents involving extended core degradation. However, though these activities were developed in a very coordinated way in each country, it seemed difficult to obtain a broad overview of international activities, in particular in the field of Severe Accident Management (SAM). In 1989, a CSNI Senior Group of Experts on Severe Accident Management (SESAM) was set up to fill this gap and provide advice to CSNI on how to coordinate and disseminate the SAM related activities carried out under the Principal Working Groups. In this regard, SESAM organized a Specialist

  10. PENENTUAN KANDUNGAN LOGAM Pb DAN Cr PADA AIR DAN SEDIMEN DI SUNGAI AO DESA SAM SAM KABUPATEN TABANAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI PUTU DIANTARIANI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on the heavy metal content, Pb and Cr in water and sediment of Ao River in Sam SamVillage, Tabanan Regency have been carried out. Sample of water taken at 8 location per week during 4weeks, while sample of sediment only taken once at 8 location. Determination of metal content of Pb and Crconducted using destruction method with mixture of HNO3 dan HCl (3:1 and analysed with AbsorptionAtomic Spectrophotometer.The result showed that mean metal content of Pb and Cr in water of Ao river at the location aftertextile industry (location 5 until 8 from four times intake of samples have passed enabled boundarythreshold that is 0,03 mg/L for Pb and 0,05 mg/L for Cr. Mean Pb content in sediment at location 1, 2, 3, 4and 5 still under natural content while location 6, 7 and 8 over the natural boundary threshold. Meanwhile forthe Cr metal only at location 8 over the natural boundary threshold. The highest metal content of Pb and Cr insediment and water found at location 8 that is each of 0,496 mg/L and 0,213 mg/L for Pb and Cr in water and141,844 mg/Kg and 33,489 mg/Kg for Pb and Cr in sediment respectively.

  11. Chan-Evans-Lam Amination of Boronic Acid Pinacol (BPin) Esters: Overcoming the Aryl Amine Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantourout, Julien C; Law, Robert P; Isidro-Llobet, Albert; Atkinson, Stephen J; Watson, Allan J B

    2016-05-01

    The Chan-Evans-Lam reaction is a valuable C-N bond forming process. However, aryl boronic acid pinacol (BPin) ester reagents can be difficult coupling partners that often deliver low yields, in particular in reactions with aryl amines. Herein, we report effective reaction conditions for the Chan-Evans-Lam amination of aryl BPin with alkyl and aryl amines. A mixed MeCN/EtOH solvent system was found to enable effective C-N bond formation using aryl amines while EtOH is not required for the coupling of alkyl amines. PMID:27045570

  12. Amine degradation and associated problems in the gas treating unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumeister, E.R. [Dow Chemical Co. (United States); Souza, R.C.O [Dow Brasil S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Amine degradation and associated problems in the amine gas treating unit cannot be completely avoided or eliminated. They can be cost effectively mitigated using a thorough amine management program. Economic and performance benefits realized from an amine management program include several improvements and performance index. Better yields, lower costs, and fewer environmental concerns are some of the additional advantages of using a comprehensive amine management system to help run the amine gas treating unit. (author)

  13. Speaking Personally--with Amin Qazi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an interview with Amin Quazi, the founding chief executive officer of Unizin, a university-owned consortium focused on the emerging digital teaching and learning ecosystem. Amin has a bachelor's degree in chemical engineering from The University of Iowa and a master's degree in business administration from the Carlson School…

  14. Radical SAM catalysis via an organometallic intermediate with an Fe-[5'-C]-deoxyadenosyl bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horitani, Masaki; Shisler, Krista; Broderick, William E; Hutcheson, Rachel U; Duschene, Kaitlin S; Marts, Amy R; Hoffman, Brian M; Broderick, Joan B

    2016-05-13

    Radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes use a [4Fe-4S] cluster to cleave SAM to initiate diverse radical reactions. These reactions are thought to involve the 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical intermediate, which has not yet been detected. We used rapid freeze-quenching to trap a catalytically competent intermediate in the reaction catalyzed by the radical SAM enzyme pyruvate formate-lyase activating enzyme. Characterization of the intermediate by electron paramagnetic resonance and (13)C, (57)Fe electron nuclear double-resonance spectroscopies reveals that it contains an organometallic center in which the 5' carbon of a SAM-derived deoxyadenosyl moiety forms a bond with the unique iron site of the [4Fe-4S] cluster. Discovery of this intermediate extends the list of enzymatic bioorganometallic centers to the radical SAM enzymes, the largest enzyme superfamily known, and reveals intriguing parallels to B12 radical enzymes. PMID:27174986

  15. SAM: Support Vector Machine Based Active Queue Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent years have seen an increasing interest in the design of AQM (Active Queue Management) controllers. The purpose of these controllers is to manage the network congestion under varying loads, link delays and bandwidth. In this paper, a new AQM controller is proposed which is trained by using the SVM (Support Vector Machine) with the RBF (Radial Basis Function) kernal. The proposed controller is called the support vector based AQM (SAM) controller. The performance of the proposed controller has been compared with three conventional AQM controllers, namely the Random Early Detection, Blue and Proportional Plus Integral Controller. The preliminary simulation studies show that the performance of the proposed controller is comparable to the conventional controllers. However, the proposed controller is more efficient in controlling the queue size than the conventional controllers. (author)

  16. Photon multiplication in wide-gap BAM and SAM aluminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushchik, Aleksandr; Lushchik, Cheslav; Feldbach, Eduard; Kudryavtseva, Irina; Liblik, Peeter; Maaroos, Aarne; Nagirnyi, Vitali; Savikhin, Fjodor; Vasil'chenko, Eugeni

    2005-08-01

    Processes of various intrinsic and impurity luminescence excitation by 4-32 eV photons or 18 and 300 keV electrons have been studied in pure and doped BaMgAl10O17 (BAM) and SrMgAl10O17 (SAM) phosphors at 6-300 K. In BAM:Eu (l0%), the quantum yield of Eu2+ center emission is QY = 1 in the region of exciting photon energies of hνec = 7-12 eV, the value of QY reaches 2 at 14-21 eV and sharply increases at hνec = 22-32 eV, where secondary electron-hole pairs are created by hot conduction electrons. The processes connected with the rise of QY for various types of emission in the region of 14-21 eV have been thoroughly studied for BAM and SAM phosphors. It has been suggested that such exciting photons cause the ionization of oxygen ions and form hot valence holes, the energy of which is partially used for the excitation of Eu2+ ions (4f7→4f65d1 transitions) due to nonradiative Auger transitions. The intensity of the Eu2+ emission increases after a single nanosecond electron pulse with a rise time of 50-150 ns. This rise is connected with the energy transfer from spinel blocks to Eu2+ ions located at cation planes of the β-alumina-type materials.

  17. Surveillance and Measurement System (SAMS). Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs) to identify and demonstrate technologies that will be safer and more cost-effective. At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects as well as others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased cost of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) LSDDP generated a list of need statements defining specific needs or problems where improved technologies could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. Advances in characterization technologies are continuously being sought to decrease the cost of sampling and increase the speed of obtaining results. Currently it can take as long as 90 days to receive isotopic analysis of radioactive samples from laboratories on soil, liquid, and paint samples. The cost to analyze these types of samples for radionuclides is about $150 per sample. This demonstration investigated the feasibility of using the Surveillance and Measurement System (SAMS) (innovative technology) to make in situ isotopic radiation measurements in paint and soil. Sample collection and on-site laboratory analysis (baseline technology) is currently being used on D and D sampling activities. Benefits expected from using the innovative technology include: Significant decrease in time to receive results on radiological samples; Decrease in cost associated with sample collection, preparation, analysis, and disposal; Equivalent data quality to laboratory analysis; and Fewer

  18. Economic Analysis Case Studies of Battery Energy Storage with SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiOrio, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Janzou, Steven [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Interest in energy storage has continued to increase as states like California have introduced mandates and subsidies to spur adoption. This energy storage includes customer sited behind-the-meter storage coupled with photovoltaics (PV). This paper presents case study results from California and Tennessee, which were performed to assess the economic benefit of customer-installed systems. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued.

  19. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)], E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Mozo, Ismael; Garcia de la Fuente, Isaias; Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Riesco, Nicolas [Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE113TU Leicestershire (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-30

    Mixtures with dimethyl or trimethylpyridines and alkane, aromatic compound or 1-alkanol have been examined using different theories: DISQUAC, Flory, the concentration-concentration structure factor, S{sub CC}(0), or the Kirkwood-Buff formalism. DISQUAC represents fairly well the available experimental data, and improves theoretical calculations from Dortmund UNIFAC. Two important effects have been investigated: (i) the effect of increasing the number of methyl groups attached to the aromatic ring of the amine; (ii) the effect of modifying the position of the methyl groups in this ring. The molar excess enthalpy, H{sup E}, and the molar excess volume, V{sup E}, decrease in systems with alkane or methanol as follows: pyridine > 3-methylpyridine > 3,5-dimethylpyridine and pyridine > 2-methylpyridine > 2,4-dimethylpyridine > 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine, which has been attributed to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions in the same sequences. This is in agreement with the relative variation of the effective dipole moment, {mu}-bar, and of the differences between the boiling temperature of a pyridine base and that of the homomorphic alkane. For heptane solutions, the observed H{sup E} variation, H{sup E} (3,5-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,4-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,6-dimethylpyridine), is explained similarly. Calculations on the basis of the Flory model confirm that orientational effects become weaker in systems with alkane in the order: pyridine > methylpyridine > dimethylpyridine > trimethylpyridine. S{sub CC}(0) calculations show that steric effects increase with the number of CH{sub 3}- groups in the pyridine base, and that the steric effects exerted by methyl groups in positions 2 and 6 are higher than when they are placed in positions 3 and 5. The hydrogen bond energy in methanol mixtures is independent of the pyridine base, and it is estimated to be -35.2 kJ mol{sup -1}. Heterocoordination in these solutions is due in part to size effects. Their

  20. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixtures with dimethyl or trimethylpyridines and alkane, aromatic compound or 1-alkanol have been examined using different theories: DISQUAC, Flory, the concentration-concentration structure factor, SCC(0), or the Kirkwood-Buff formalism. DISQUAC represents fairly well the available experimental data, and improves theoretical calculations from Dortmund UNIFAC. Two important effects have been investigated: (i) the effect of increasing the number of methyl groups attached to the aromatic ring of the amine; (ii) the effect of modifying the position of the methyl groups in this ring. The molar excess enthalpy, HE, and the molar excess volume, VE, decrease in systems with alkane or methanol as follows: pyridine > 3-methylpyridine > 3,5-dimethylpyridine and pyridine > 2-methylpyridine > 2,4-dimethylpyridine > 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine, which has been attributed to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions in the same sequences. This is in agreement with the relative variation of the effective dipole moment, μ-bar, and of the differences between the boiling temperature of a pyridine base and that of the homomorphic alkane. For heptane solutions, the observed HE variation, HE (3,5-dimethylpyridine) > HE (2,4-dimethylpyridine) > HE (2,6-dimethylpyridine), is explained similarly. Calculations on the basis of the Flory model confirm that orientational effects become weaker in systems with alkane in the order: pyridine > methylpyridine > dimethylpyridine > trimethylpyridine. SCC(0) calculations show that steric effects increase with the number of CH3- groups in the pyridine base, and that the steric effects exerted by methyl groups in positions 2 and 6 are higher than when they are placed in positions 3 and 5. The hydrogen bond energy in methanol mixtures is independent of the pyridine base, and it is estimated to be -35.2 kJ mol-1. Heterocoordination in these solutions is due in part to size effects. Their structure is nearly random. The values of the local mole fractions

  1. Terminal ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.

  2. Quantifying amine permeation sources with acid neutralization: calibrations and amines measured in coastal and continental atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Freshour

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An acid titration method for quantifying amine permeation rates was used to calibrate an Ambient pressure Proton transfer Mass Spectrometer (AmPMS that monitors ambient amine compounds. The method involves capturing amines entrained in a N2 flow by bubbling it through an acidified solution (~ 10−5 M HCl, and the amines are quantified via changes in solution pH with time. Home-made permeation tubes had permeation rates (typically tens of pmol s−1 that depended on the type of amine and tubing and on temperature. Calibrations of AmPMS yielded sensitivities for ammonia, methyl amine, dimethyl amine, and trimethyl amine that are close to the sensitivity assuming a gas-kinetic, ion-molecule rate coefficient. The permeation tubes were also designed to deliver a reproducible amount of amine to a flow reactor where nucleation with sulfuric acid was studied. The high proton affinity compound dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, linked to oceanic environments, was also studied and AmPMS is highly sensitive to it. AmPMS was deployed recently in two field campaigns and mixing ratios are reported for ammonia, alkyl amines, and DMSO and correlations between these species and with particle formation events are discussed.

  3. biogenic aerosol precursors: volatile amines from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Uwe; Sintermann, Jörg; Spirig, Christoph; Ammann, Christof; Neftel, Albrecht

    2010-05-01

    Information on the occurrence of volatile biogenic amines in the atmosphere is marginal. This group of N-bearing organic compounds are assumed to be a small, though significant component of the atmospheric N-cycle, but are not accounted for in global assessments due to the scarceness of available data. There is increasing evidence for an important role of biogenic amines in the formation of new particulate matter, as well as for aerosol secondary growth. Volatile amines are ubiquitously formed by biodegradation of organic matter, and agriculture is assumed to dominantly contribute to their atmospheric burden. Here we show that the mixing ratios of volatile amines within livestock buildings scale about 2 orders of magnitude lower than NH3, confirming the few literature data available (e.g., Schade and Crutzen, J. Atm. Chem. 22, 319-346, 1995). Flux measurements after manure application in the field, mixing ratios in the headspace of manure storage pools, and concentrations in distilled manure all indicate major depletion of amines relative to NH3 during manure processing. We conclude that the agricultural source distribution of NH3 and amines is not similar. While for NH3 the spreading of manure in the field dominates agricultural emissions, the direct release from livestock buildings dominates the budget of volatile biogenic amines.

  4. Dielectric properties of supramolecular ionic structures obtained from multifunctional carboxylic acids and amines

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Lidia; Yu, Liyun; Hvilsted, Søren; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2014-01-01

    The dielectric properties of several supramolecular ionic polymers and networks, linked by the ammonium salts of hexamethylene diamine (HMDA), tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TAEA), poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers and two short bis carboxymethyl ether-terminated poly(ethylene glycol)s (DiCOOH-PEG), are reported in this paper. All supramolecular ionic polymers and networks exhibit very high relative dielectric permittivities ( 3 0 )( 10 2 – 10 6 ) at low frequencies, and signi fi cantly lower ...

  5. The nuclear protein Sam68 is recruited to the cytoplasmic stress granules during enterovirus 71 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Chen, Ning; Li, Pengfei; Pan, Ziye; Ding, Yun; Zou, Dehua; Li, Liyang; Xiao, Lijie; Shen, Binglei; Liu, Shuxia; Cao, Hongwei; Cui, Yudong

    2016-07-01

    Our previous study found that the nuclear protein, 68-kDa Src-associated in mitosis protein (Sam68), is translocated to the cytoplasm and forms punctate pattern during enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection [Virus Research, 180 (2014), 1-11]. However, the exact function of this punctate pattern in cytoplasm during EV71 infection remains unknown. In this study, we firstly have examined this punctate pattern of Sam68 re-localization in the cytoplasm, and observed the obvious recruitments of Sam68 to the EV71-induced stress granules (SGs). Sam68, belongs to the KH domain family of RNA binding proteins (RBPs), was then confirmed that its KH domain was essential for this recruitment. Nevertheless, Knockdown of Sam68 expression using ShRNA had no effects on SGs assembly, indicating that Sam68 is not a constitutive component of the SGs during EV71 infection. Lastly, we investigated the importance of microtubulin transport to SGs aggregation, and revealed that microtubule depolymerization inhibited SGs formation, suggesting that EV71-induced SGs move throughout the cytoplasm in a microtubule-dependent manner. Taken together, these results illuminated that EV71 infections can induce SGs formation, and Sam68, as a SGs component, migrates alone with SGs dependent on intact microtubule upon the viral infections. These findings may provide novel underlying mechanism for delineating the role of SGs during EV71 infection. PMID:27057671

  6. Biogenic amines and radiosensitivity of solitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different stability of cells to ionizing radiation is considered from a position of the ''elevated biochemical radioresistance background'' concept. Experimental evidence presented indicates an important role of endogenic amines (serotonin and histamine) possessing radioprotector properties in the cell radioresistance formation. The concept about their effect as being solely a result of circulatory hypoxia is critically discussed. The experimental results favor the existence of a ''cellular'' component, along with the ''hypoxic'' one, in the mechanism of action of biogenic amines. These compounds can affect the initial stages of peroxide oxidation of lipids, thereby favoring a less intensive oxidation induced by radiation. Biogenic amines can also exert influence on the cyclic nucleotide system

  7. A New Structural Form in the SAM/Metal-Dependent O;#8209;Methyltransferase Family: MycE from the Mycinamicin Biosynthetic Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akey, David L.; Li, Shengying; Konwerski, Jamie R.; Confer, Laura A.; Bernard, Steffen M.; Anzai, Yojiro; Kato, Fumio; Sherman, David H.; Smith, Janet L. (Michigan); (Toho)

    2012-08-01

    O-linked methylation of sugar substituents is a common modification in the biosynthesis of many natural products and is catalyzed by multiple families of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM or AdoMet)-dependent methyltransferases (MTs). Mycinamicins, potent antibiotics from Micromonospora griseorubida, can be methylated at two positions on a 6-deoxyallose substituent. The first methylation is catalyzed by MycE, a SAM- and metal-dependent MT. Crystal structures were determined for MycE bound to the product S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (AdoHcy) and magnesium, both with and without the natural substrate mycinamicin VI. This represents the first structure of a natural product sugar MT in complex with its natural substrate. MycE is a tetramer of a two-domain polypeptide, comprising a C-terminal catalytic MT domain and an N-terminal auxiliary domain, which is important for quaternary assembly and for substrate binding. The symmetric MycE tetramer has a novel MT organization in which each of the four active sites is formed at the junction of three monomers within the tetramer. The active-site structure supports a mechanism in which a conserved histidine acts as a general base, and the metal ion helps to position the methyl acceptor and to stabilize a hydroxylate intermediate. A conserved tyrosine is suggested to support activity through interactions with the transferred methyl group from the SAM methyl donor. The structure of the free enzyme reveals a dramatic order-disorder transition in the active site relative to the S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine complexes, suggesting a mechanism for product/substrate exchange through concerted movement of five loops and the polypeptide C-terminus.

  8. Graphite Oxide and Aromatic Amines : Size Matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyrou, Konstantinos; Calvaresi, Matteo; Diamanti, Evmorfi A. K.; Tsoufis, Theodoros; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies are performed in order to illuminate, for first time, the intercalation mechanism of polycyclic aromatic molecules into graphite oxide. Two representative molecules of this family, aniline and naphthalene amine are investigated. After intercalation, aniline molec

  9. Aromatic amines sources, environmental impact and remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Luciana; Mondal, P. K.; Alves, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic amines are widely used industrial chemicals as their major sources in the environment include several chemical industry sectors such as oil refining, synthetic polymers, dyes, adhesives, rubbers, perfume, pharmaceuticals, pesticides and explosives. They result also from diesel exhaust, combustion of wood chips and rubber and tobacco smoke. Some types of aromatic amines are generated during cooking, special grilled meat and fish, as well. The intensive use and production of these comp...

  10. Biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood

    OpenAIRE

    Pierina eVisciano; Maria eSchirone; Rosanna eTofalo; Giovanna eSuzzi

    2012-01-01

    The presence of biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of biogenic amines in raw seafood. On the other hand, some foo...

  11. Fabrication and characterization of indium sulfide thin films deposited on SAMs modified substrates surfaces by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng Xu [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, 730050 (China); Lu Yongjuan; Zhang Xiaoliang [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 10049 (China); Yang Baoping [College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, 730050 (China); Yi Gewen [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Jia Junhong, E-mail: jhjia@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China)

    2011-11-01

    In an effort to explore the optoelectronic properties of nanostructured indium sulfide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films for a wide range of applications, the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were successfully deposited on the APTS layers (-NH{sub 2}-terminated) modified ITO glass substrates using the chemical bath deposition technique. The surface morphology, structure and composition of the resultant In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were characterized by FESEM, XRD, and XPS, respectively. Also, the correlations between the optical properties, photocurrent response and the thickness of thin films were established. According to the different deposition mechanisms on the varying SAMs terminational groups, the positive and negative micropatterned In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were successfully fabricated on modified Si substrates surface combining with the ultraviolet lithography process. This offers an attractive opportunity to fabricate patterned In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films for controlling the spatial positioning of functional materials in microsystems.

  12. Must, valge + hall : Sam Wagstaffi ja Robert Mapplethorpe'i portree / Madis Palm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palm, Madis

    2008-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilm "Black, White & Gray: Sam Wagstaff and Robert Mapplethorpe" : autor ja režissöör James Crump : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2007. Filmi näidati filminädala "Art in America" raames Tallinnas

  13. Investigation of Self Assembled Monolayers (SAM) Applied on Si(100) Surfaces by Atomic Force Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniaturization of analytical instrumentation in a molecular and nanometer level has technologically significant. The fabrication of nanopatterns with high resolution SPM nanolithograpy may be applied on atomically flat surfaces. Self Assembled-Monolayers (SAMs) are well-ordered two dimensional molecular assemblies formed by a strong adsorption of an active surfactant on a solid surface. In this study, SAM organic thin film method is applied on silicon surfaces. We used various cleaning procedures such as chemical cleaning, ion beam treatment, on p-type Si(1OO) surfaces. SAMs films were produced from bipolar amphiphiles, Octadecylamine ODA-HCl, 1,12-diaminododecane (DAD) and n-tridecylamine (TDA) molecules on Si wafers. Contact mode scanning method and roughness analysis on the scan images were utilized on the SAM coated and uncoated surfaces by Atomic Force Microscopy

  14. SAmBA: an interactive software for optimizing the design of biological macromolecules crystallization experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audic, S; Lopez, F; Claverie, J M; Poirot, O; Abergel, C

    1997-10-01

    SAmBA is a new software for the design of minimal experimental protocols using the notion of orthogonal arrays of strength 2. The main application of SAmBA is the search of protein crystallization conditions. Given a user input defining the relevant effectors/variables (e.g., pH, temperature, salts) and states (e.g., pH: 5, 6, 7 and 8), this software proposes an optimal set of experiments in which all tested variables and the pairwise interactions between them are symmetrically sampled. No a priori restrictions on the number and range of experimental variables is imposed. SAmBA consists of two complementary programs, SAm and BA, using a simulated annealing approach and a backtracking algorithm, respectively. The software is freely available as C code or as an interactive JAVA applet at http:/(/)igs-server.cnrs-mrs.fr. PMID:9329089

  15. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) - Smoking Attributable Mortality (SAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking attributable mortality (SAM) is the number of deaths caused by cigarette...

  16. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) - Smoking-Attributable Mortality (SAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking-attributable mortality (SAM) is the number of deaths caused by cigarette...

  17. Self-organizing map (SOM) of space acceleration measurement system (SAMS) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, A.; Smith, A. D.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, space acceleration measurement system (SAMS) data have been classified using self-organizing map (SOM) networks without any supervision; i.e., no a priori knowledge is assumed regarding input patterns belonging to a certain class. Input patterns are created on the basis of power spectral densities of SAMS data. Results for SAMS data from STS-50 and STS-57 missions are presented. Following issues are discussed in details: impact of number of neurons, global ordering of SOM weight vectors, effectiveness of a SOM in data classification, and effects of shifting time windows in the generation of input patterns. The concept of 'cascade of SOM networks' is also developed and tested. It has been found that a SOM network can successfully classify SAMS data obtained during STS-50 and STS-57 missions.

  18. Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee Wilderness: A report on wilderness character monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides a detailed summary of the baseline wilderness character assessment completed for the Sam D. Hamilton Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge...

  19. Identification of trans-acting factors regulating SamDC expression in Oryza sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Supratim, E-mail: supratim_genetics@yahoo.co.in [Department of Crop Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Division of Plant Biology, Bose Institute, Kolkata (India); Roychoudhury, Aryadeep [Post Graduate Department of Biotechnology, St. Xavier' s College (Autonomous), 30, Mother Teresa Sarani, Kolkata - 700016, West Bengal (India); Sengupta, Dibyendu N. [Division of Plant Biology, Bose Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Identification of cis elements responsible for SamDC expression by in silico analysis. • qPCR analysis of SamDC expression to abiotic and biotic stress treatments. • Detection of SamDC regulators using identified cis-elements as probe by EMSA. • Southwestern Blot analysis to predict the size of the trans-acting factors. - Abstract: Abiotic stress affects the growth and productivity of crop plants; to cope with the adverse environmental conditions, plants have developed efficient defense machinery comprising of antioxidants like phenolics and flavonoids, and osmolytes like polyamines. SamDC is a key enzyme in the polyamine biosynthesis pathway in plants. In our present communication we have done in silico analysis of the promoter region of SamDC to look for the presence of different cis-regulatory elements contributing to its expression. Based on the presence of different cis-regulatory elements we completed comparative analysis of SamDC gene expression in rice lamina of IR-29 and Nonabokra by qPCR in response to the abiotic stress treatments of salinity, drought, cold and the biotic stress treatments of ABA and light. Additionally, to explore the role of the cis-regulatory elements in regulating the expression of SamDC gene in plants we comparatively analyzed the binding of rice nuclear proteins prepared from IR-29 and Nonabokra undergoing various stress treatments. The intensity of the complex formed was low and inducible in IR-29 in contrast to Nonabokra. Southwestern blot analysis helped in predicting the size of the trans-acting factors binding to these cis-elements. To our knowledge this is the first report on the comprehensive analysis of SamDC gene expression in rice and identification of the trans-acting factors regulating its expression.

  20. The Combustion Experiment on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument Suite on the Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J. C.; Malespin, C. A.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Graham, H. V.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Brunner, A. E.; Freissinet, C.; Franz, H. B.; Fuentes, J.; Glavin, D. P.; Leshin, L. A.; Mahaffy, P. R.; McAdam, A. C.; Ming, D. W.; Navvaro-Gonzales, R.; Niles, P. B.; Steele, A.

    2014-01-01

    The combustion experiment on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite on Curiosity will heat a sample of Mars regolith in the presence of oxygen and measure composition of the evolved gases using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) and tunable laser spectrometry (TLS). QMS will enable detection of combustion products such as CO, CO2, NO, and other oxidized species, while TLS will enable precise measurements of the abundance and carbon isotopic composition (delta(sup 13)C) of the evolved CO2 and hydrogen isotopic composition (deltaD) of H2O. SAM will perform a two-step combustion to isolate combustible materials below approx.550 C and above approx.550 C. The combustion experiment on SAM, if properly designed and executed, has the potential to answer multiple questions regarding the origins of volatiles seen thus far in SAM evolved gas analysis (EGA) on Mars. Constraints imposed by SAM and MSL time and power resources, as well as SAM consumables (oxygen gas), will limit the number of SAM combustion experiments, so it is imperative to design an experiment targeting the most pressing science questions. Low temperature combustion experiments will primarily target the quantification of carbon (and nitrogen) contributed by SAM wet chemistry reagants MTBSTFA (N-Methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide) and DMF (Dimethylformamide), which have been identified in the background of blank and sample runs and may adsorb to the sample while the cup is in the Sample Manipulation System (SMS). In addition, differences between the sample and "blank" may yield information regarding abundance and delta(sup 13)C of bulk (both organic and inorganic) martian carbon. High temperature combustion experiments primarily aim to detect refractory organic matter, if present in Cumberland fines, as well as address the question of quantification and deltaD value of water evolution associated with hydroxyl hydrogen in clay minerals.

  1. Aging, Terminal Decline, and Terminal Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, Erdman; Cleveland, William

    1976-01-01

    Data from a 20-year longitudinal study of persons over 60 were analyzed by step-wise multiple regression to test for declines in function with age, for terminal decline (linear relationship to time before death), and for terminal drop (curvilinear relationship to time before death). There were no substantial terminal drop effects. (Author)

  2. Synthesis of Indole-2-carboxylate Derivatives via Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Amination of Aryl C-H Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clagg, Kyle; Hou, Haiyun; Weinstein, Adam B; Russell, David; Stahl, Shannon S; Koenig, Stefan G

    2016-08-01

    A direct oxidative C-H amination affording 1-acetyl indolecarboxylates starting from 2-acetamido-3-arylacrylates has been achieved. Indole-2-carboxylates can be targeted with a straightforward deacetylation of the initial reaction products. The C-H amination reaction is carried out using a catalytic Pd(II) source with oxygen as the terminal oxidant. The scope and application of this chemistry is demonstrated with good to high yields for numerous electron-rich and electron-poor substrates. Further reaction of selected products via Suzuki arylation and deacetylation provides access to highly functionalized indole structures. PMID:27404018

  3. Two-photon photoemission from ex-situ prepared butanethiol SAMs on Au (111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The occupied and unoccupied electronic structure of butanethiolate SAMs deposited from liquid phase has been studied by two-photon photoelectron spectroscopy. Next to an adsorbate resonance we identify an interface state as well as indications for the formation of image potential states. Highlights: → 2PPE study of liquid phase prepared alkanethiolate SAMs. → 2PPE fingerprint of sulfur gold bond identified. → Indication for the formation of image potential states at ex-situ prepared SAMs. - Abstract: Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of butanethiol on a Au (111) single crystalline surface in the px√(3) lying-down phase prepared by deposition from solution were studied with two-photon photoemission (2PPE) spectroscopy. The spectra reveal clear signatures of two unoccupied resonance states at energies E - EF = 3.7 eV and 3.9 eV. The low-energy state is assigned to the characteristic σ*-resonance associated with the Au-S bond of the thiolate. The energy of the other resonance state agrees well with an interface state reported before for different alkanethiol SAMs on Au (111) in a standing-up phase. Furthermore the 2PPE data provide indications that the high quality of the ex-situ prepared SAMs support the formation of image potential states.

  4. Fabrication and Surface Properties of Composite Films of SAM/Pt/ZnO/SiO 2

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Ke Xin

    2008-12-16

    Through synthetic architecture and functionalization with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), complex nanocomposite films of SAM/Pt/ZnO/SiO2 have been facilely prepared in this work. The nanostructured films are highly uniform and porous, showing a wide range of tunable wettabilities from superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity (water contact angles: 0° to 170°). Our approach offers synthetic flexibility in controlling film architecture, surface topography, coating texture, crystallite size, and chemical composition of modifiers (e.g., SAMs derived from alkanethiols). For example, wettability properties of the nanocomposite films can be finely tuned with both inorganic phase (i.e., ZnO/SiO2 and Pt/ZnO/SiO2) and organic phase (i.e., SAMs on Pt/ZnO/SiO2). Due to the presence of catalytic components Pt/ZnO within the nanocomposites, surface reactions of the organic modifiers can further take place at room temperature and elevated temperatures, which provides a means for SAM formation and elimination. Because the Pt/ZnO forms an excellent pair of metal-semiconductors for photocatalysis, the anchored SAMs can also be modified or depleted by UV irradiation (i.e., the films possess self-cleaning ability). Potential applications of these nanocomposite films have been addressed. Our durability tests also confirm that the films are thermally stable and structurally robust in modification- regeneration cycles. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  5. Electronic patient self-assessment and management (SAM: a novel framework for cancer survivorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tighe Foss

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We propose a novel framework for management of cancer survivorship: electronic patient Self-Assessment and Management (SAM. SAM is a framework for transfer of information to and from patients in such a way as to increase both the patient's and the health care provider's understanding of the patient's progress, and to help ensure that patient care follows best practice. Methods Patients who participate in the SAM system are contacted by email at regular intervals and asked to complete validated questionnaires online. Patient responses on these questionnaires are then analyzed in order to provide patients with real-time, online information about their progress and to provide them with tailored and standardized medical advice. Patient-level data from the questionnaires are ported in real time to the patient's health care provider to be uploaded to clinic notes. An initial version of SAM has been developed at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC and the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF for aiding the clinical management of patients after surgery for prostate cancer. Results Pilot testing at MSKCC and UCSF suggests that implementation of SAM systems are feasible, with no major problems with compliance (> 70% response rate or security. Conclusion SAM is a conceptually simple framework for passing information to and from patients in such a way as to increase both the patient's and the health care provider's understanding of the patient's progress, and to help ensure that patient care follows best practice.

  6. Genetic typing of the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) strains with microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, C; Higuchi, K; Shimizu, M; Matsushita, T; Kogishi, K; Wang, J; Chiba, T; Festing, M F; Hosokawa, M

    1999-03-01

    The Senescence-Accelerated Mouse (SAM) strains constitute a murine model of accelerated senescence originating from the ancestral AKR/J strains and consist of nine senescence-prone (SAMP) strains and four senescence-resistant (SAMR) strains. The chromosomes (Chrs) of the SAM strains were typed with 581 microsatellite markers amplified by PCR, and the fundamental genetic information of the SAM strains was obtained. One-third of the examined markers displayed polymorphism among the strains, and only two alleles were detected in almost all loci among the SAM and AKR/J strains. However, in 12 loci (5.6% of total 215 polymorphic markers), the third allele was detected among the SAM strains. The genetic typing and developmental history suggested that the SAM strains were related inbred strains developed by the accidental crossing between the AKR/J strain and other unknown strain(s). Comparison of the distribution of the loci in the SAMP and the SAMR series revealed notable differences in the four regions on Chrs 4, 14, 16, and 17. This indicated that some of these chromosomal sites might contain the genes responsible for accelerated senescence in the SAMP series. PMID:10051317

  7. Accurate determination of aldehydes in amine catalysts or amines by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Bhajendra N

    2014-01-31

    Carbonyl compounds, specifically aldehydes, present in amine catalysts or amines are determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using ultraviolet detection of their corresponding 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones. The primary focus has been to establish optimum conditions for determining aldehydes accurately because these add exposure concerns when the amine catalysts are used to manufacture polyurethane products. Concentrations of aldehydes determined by this method are found to vary with the pH of the aqueous amine solution and the derivatization time, the latter being problematic when the derivatization reaction proceeds slowly and not to completion in neutral and basic media. Accurate determination of aldehydes in amines through derivatization can be carried out at an effective solution pH of about 2 and with derivatization time of 20min. Hydrochloric acid has been used for neutralization of an amine. For complete derivatization, it is essential to protonate all nitrogen atoms in the amine. An approach for the determination of an adequate amount of acid needed for complete derivatization has been described. Several 0.2M buffer solutions varying in pH from 4 to 8 have also been used to make amine solutions for carrying out derivatization of aldehydes. These solutions have effective pHs of 10 or higher and provide much lower aldehyde concentrations compared to their true values. Mechanisms for the formation of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones in both acidic and basic media are discussed. PMID:24411140

  8. Synthesis of Bis(hydroxylmethylfurfuryl)amine Monomers from 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhanwei; Yan, Peifang; Liu, Kairui; Wan, Lu; Xu, Wenjuan; Li, Huixiang; Liu, Xiumei; Zhang, Z Conrad

    2016-06-01

    We report the synthesis of bis(hydroxylmethylfurfuryl)amine (BHMFA) from 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) by reacting 5-HMF with primary amines in the presence of homogeneous Ru(II) catalysts having sterically strained ligands. BHMFA is a group of furan-based monomers that offer great potential to form functional biopolymers with tunable properties. A range of primary amines, such as aliphatic and benzyl amines, are readily converted with 5-HMF to form the corresponding BHMFA in good yields. The reaction proceeds through reductive amination of 5-HMF with primary amine to form secondary amine, followed by reductive amination of 5-HMF with in situ generated secondary amine to produce BHMFA. PMID:27151257

  9. CCN activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical. The particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA and butylamine (BA reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ ≤ 0.25. Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3, contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA aerosol. TMA + N2O5 form semi-volatile organics in low RH conditions that have κ ~ 0.20, indicative of slightly soluble organic material. As RH increases, several inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR ideal mixing rules. Higher CCN activity (κ > 0.3 was also observed for humid BA+N2O5 aerosols compared with dry aerosol (κ ~ 0.2, as a result of the formation of inorganic salts such as NH4NO3 and butylamine nitrate (C4H11N · HNO3. Compared with TMA, BA+N2O5 reactions produce more volatile aerosols. The BA+N2O5 aerosol products under humid experiments were found to be very sensitive to the temperature within the stream-wise continuous flow thermal gradient CCN counter. The CCN counter, when set above a 21 °C temperature difference, evaporates BA+N2O5 aerosol formed at RH ≥ 30%; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 and is dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss settings. The aerosol behaves non-ideally, hence simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems κ ranges from 0.2 < κ < 0.7. This work indicates that

  10. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD, DAD detectors and Extend-C18 LC column (50 mm x 3.0 mm ID, 1.8 μm particle size. In this study the highest level of biogenic amine in all wine samples represent tryptamine (TRM with the highest content 170.9±5.3 mg/L in Pinot Blanc wine. Phenylalanine (PHE cadaverine (CAD, histamine (HIS and spermidine (SPD were not detected in all wines; mainly SPD was not detected in 16 wines, HIS not detected in 14 wines, PHE and CAD not detected in 2 wines. Tyramine (TYR, spermine (SPN and putrescine (PUT were detected in all wines, but PUT and SPN in very low concentration. The worst wine samples with high biogenic amine content were Saint Laurent (BF, Pinot Blanc (S and Pinot Noir (AF.

  11. A survey of biogenic amines in vinegars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, J L; Callejón, R M; Morales, M L; García-Parrilla, M C

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports the determination of biogenic amines by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fluorescence detection after derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) in balsamic, apple, and red, white, and Sherry wine vinegars. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) with mixed-mode resins method was used before analysis. The method was successfully validated obtaining adequate values of selectivity, response linearity, precision, accuracy, and low detection and quantification limits. The total content of biogenic amines in vinegars ranged from 23.35 to 1445.2 μg/L, being lower than those reported in wines. Putrescine was the amine that showed the highest concentrations in most samples. Methylamine and phenylethylamine were not determined in any vinegar. Balsamic and "Pedro Ximénez" Sherry vinegars reached the highest amounts of biogenic amines, while apple, white and Sherry wine vinegars had the lowest concentrations. Principal component analysis using the biogenic amines as variables, allowed to separate the different kind of vinegars, excepting red vinegars. PMID:23871015

  12. Biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierina eVisciano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of biogenic amines in raw seafood. On the other hand, some food technological treatments such as salting, ripening, fermentation or marination can increase the levels of biogenic amines in processed seafood. The consumption of high amount of biogenic amines, above all histamine, can result in food borne poisoning which is a worldwide problem. The European Regulation established as maximum limits for histamine, in fishery products from fish species associated with high histidine amounts, values ranging from 100 to 200 mg/kg, while for products which have undergone enzyme maturation treatment in brine, the aforementioned limits rise to 200 and 400 mg/kg. Preventive measures and emerging methods aiming at controlling the production of biogenic amines are also reported for potential application in seafood industries.

  13. Analysis of a regional change in the sign of the SAM-temperature relationship in Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Gareth J. [British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Di Battista, Stefano [Meteogiornale, Milan (Italy); Naik, Sushant S.; Thamban, Meloth [National Center for Antarctic and Ocean Research, Goa (India)

    2011-01-15

    This study examines regional atmospheric circulation changes associated with a reversal in the sign of the relationship between the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and near-surface temperatures at Halley station, East Antarctica, during the 1980s. We show that the key factor affecting the regional SAM-temperature relationship (STR) is the relative magnitude of two climatological low pressure centres to the west and east of the area, which determines the source region of air masses advected into the locality. The principal difference affecting the STR is shown to be a trend towards a significantly weaker climatological low (higher pressure) at {proportional_to}20 E during a positive phase of the SAM. Specifically, it is variations in the phase and magnitude of the wave number three patterns of atmospheric circulation, the non-annular component of the SAM, which are the principal factors governing the regional STR. A similar reversal is observed in the sign of the correlation between the SAM and oxygen-isotope values from an ice core located some 1,200 km east of Halley. This relationship is examined throughout the 20th Century, by comparing the isotope data to SAM reconstructions, and demonstrates marked decadal variability. Thus, these data suggest that switches in the STR are more likely to reflect natural variability in the long-wave patterns over the Southern Ocean rather than the influence of an anthropogenic forcing. This finding is important when considering the potential utility of Antarctic isotope data as a proxy for the SAM. (orig.)

  14. SAM 2008 para Chile. Una Presentación Matricial de la Compilación de Referencia 2008

    OpenAIRE

    José Venegas M.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this working paper is presents the Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) 2008, based on official Chilean national accounts published in 2011 and 2012. Besides, this work allows three complementary objectives, did not found in most of the SAMs publications: a) including non financial and financial stocks measurements; b) establishing the SAM as a map of economic data system, giving the keys to insert balance of payments, public finance statistics, monetary and financial statisti...

  15. SAM Sample preparation and its impact on the detection of organic compounds on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Arnaud; Szopa, Cyril; Coll, Patrice; Freissinet, Caroline; Glavin, Daniel; Belmahdi, Imene; François, Pascaline; Millan, Maeva; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; navarro, Rafael; Stern, Jennifer; Pinnick, Veronica; Coscia, David; Teinturier, Samuel; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Mahaffy, Paul

    2014-05-01

    The wet chemistry experiments on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) [1] experiment in the Curiosity rover of the Mars Science Laboratory mission supports extraction of polar organic compounds from solid samples that improves their detection either by increasing the release of chemical species from solid sample matrices, or by changing their chemical structure to make compounds more amenable to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). The wet chemistry approach provides an alternative to the nominal inert-thermal desorption/pyrolysis analytical protocol used by SAM [1] that is more aptly suited for polar components. SAM, includes two different wet chemistry experiments: MTBSTFA derivatization [2-3] and TMAH thermochemolysis [4]. Here we report on the nature of the MTBSTFA derivatization experiment on SAM, the detection of MTBSTFA products in the SAM evolved gas analysis and GCMS experiments, and the implications of this detection. Solid sample were heated up to approximately 840°C at a rate of 35°C/min under He flow. For GC analyses, the majority of the gas released was trapped on a hydrocarbon trap (Tenax®) over a specific temperature range. Adsorbed volatiles on the GC injection trap (IT) were then released into the GC column (CLP-MXT 30m x 0.25mm x 0.25µm) by rapidly heating the IT to 300°C. Then, in order better understand the part of compounds detected coming from internal reaction we have performed several lab experiments to mimic the SAM device. We have investigated the thermal degradation of Tenax®, and possible interaction with MTBSTFA and perchlorate in the SAM trap (Tenax®) to better constrain interpretations of SAM results on Mars. References: [1] Mahaffy, P. et al. (2012) Space Sci Rev, 170, 401-478. [2] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [3] Stalport, F. et al. (2012) Planet. Space Sci. 67: 1-13 [4] Geffroy-Rodier, C. et al. (2009) JAAP, 85, 454-459. Acknowledgements: SAM-GC team acknowledges support from the French Space Agency

  16. Total synthesis of palau'amine

    OpenAIRE

    Namba, Kosuke; Takeuchi, Kohei; Kaihara, Yukari; Oda, Masataka; Nakayama, Akira; Nakayama, Atsushi; YOSHIDA, Masahiro; Tanino, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    Palau'amine has received a great deal of attention in the past two decades as an attractive synthetic target by virtue of its intriguing molecular architecture and significant immunosuppressive activity. Here we report the total synthesis of palau'amine characterized by the construction of an ABDE tetracyclic ring core including a trans-bicylo[3.3.0]octane skeleton at a middle stage of total synthesis. The ABDE tetracyclic ring core is constructed by a cascade reaction of a cleavage of the N–...

  17. SUICIDAL IDEATION AND BIOGENIC AMINES IN DEPRESSION*

    OpenAIRE

    Palaniappan, V.; V. Ramachandran; Somasundaram, O.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY This report is based on the study of 40 depressives in an attempt to explore the possible association between the suicidal ideas and the biogenic amines. The severity of suicidal ideas was measured on Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale and their amine metabolites were measured (MHFG, HVA and 5 HIAA) in urine and C.S.F. It was observed that the level of 5 HIAA, and Serotonin (5 HT) was more related to suicidal ideas and was inversely related. The probable associations between these are d...

  18. Corrosion inhibition of brass by aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliphatic amines hexylamine (HCA), octylamine (OCA) and decylamine (DCA) have been used as corrosion inhibitors for (70/30) brass in 0.I M HCIO4. The inhibitor efficiency (%P) calculated using weight loss, Tafel extrapolation, linear polarization and impedance methods was found to be in the order DCA> OCA> HCA. These adsorb on brass surface following bockris-swinkels' isotherm. DCA, OCA and HCA displaced 4, 3 and 2 molecules of water from interface respectively. Displacement of water molecules brought a great reorganization of double layer at the interface. These amines during corrosion form complexes with dissolved zinc and copper ions.(Author)

  19. Application of the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) model to dithiophosphate and dithiocarbamate engine wear inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.; Jiang, S.; Cagin, T.; Yamaguchi, E.S.; Frazier, R.; Ho, A.; Tang, Y.; Goddard, W.A. III

    2000-03-23

    In previous studies of dithiophosphate [TP=S{sub 2}P(OR){sub 2}] wear inhibitors bound to an oxidized iron surface, it was found that the cohesive energy of the self-assembled monolayers (SAM) for DTP molecules with various organic R groups correlate with the wear inhibition observed in full engine experiments. In this paper the calculations are expanded to consider dynamics at 500 K and the SAM model is used to predict new candidates for wear inhibitors. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show that the SAM has one DTP per two surface Fe sites of iron oxide. At this coverage the cohesive energy of the SAM at 500 K is in the sequence 2-alkyl > 1-alkyl > aryl, which again correlates with wear inhibitor performance in engine wear tests. Dithiocarbamates are selected as the best candidate to supplement DTP.A number of possible alkyl substitutions for DTC were considered. The SAM model suggests that iC{sub 5} and nC{sub 3} are the best candidates, followed closely by iC{sub 3}.

  20. Carbon-sulfur bond-forming reaction catalysed by the radical SAM enzyme HydE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohac, Roman; Amara, Patricia; Benjdia, Alhosna; Martin, Lydie; Ruffié, Pauline; Favier, Adrien; Berteau, Olivier; Mouesca, Jean-Marie; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan C; Nicolet, Yvain

    2016-05-01

    Carbon-sulfur bond formation at aliphatic positions is a challenging reaction that is performed efficiently by radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) enzymes. Here we report that 1,3-thiazolidines can act as ligands and substrates for the radical SAM enzyme HydE, which is involved in the assembly of the active site of [FeFe]-hydrogenase. Using X-ray crystallography, in vitro assays and NMR spectroscopy we identified a radical-based reaction mechanism that is best described as the formation of a C-centred radical that concomitantly attacks the sulfur atom of a thioether. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a radical SAM enzyme that reacts directly on a sulfur atom instead of abstracting a hydrogen atom. Using theoretical calculations based on our high-resolution structures we followed the evolution of the electronic structure from SAM through to the formation of S-adenosyl-L-cysteine. Our results suggest that, at least in this case, the widely proposed and highly reactive 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical species that triggers the reaction in radical SAM enzymes is not an isolable intermediate. PMID:27102684

  1. Carbon–sulfur bond-forming reaction catalysed by the radical SAM enzyme HydE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohac, Roman; Amara, Patricia; Benjdia, Alhosna; Martin, Lydie; Ruffié, Pauline; Favier, Adrien; Berteau, Olivier; Mouesca, Jean-Marie; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan C.; Nicolet, Yvain

    2016-05-01

    Carbon–sulfur bond formation at aliphatic positions is a challenging reaction that is performed efficiently by radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) enzymes. Here we report that 1,3-thiazolidines can act as ligands and substrates for the radical SAM enzyme HydE, which is involved in the assembly of the active site of [FeFe]-hydrogenase. Using X-ray crystallography, in vitro assays and NMR spectroscopy we identified a radical-based reaction mechanism that is best described as the formation of a C-centred radical that concomitantly attacks the sulfur atom of a thioether. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a radical SAM enzyme that reacts directly on a sulfur atom instead of abstracting a hydrogen atom. Using theoretical calculations based on our high-resolution structures we followed the evolution of the electronic structure from SAM through to the formation of S-adenosyl-L-cysteine. Our results suggest that, at least in this case, the widely proposed and highly reactive 5‧-deoxyadenosyl radical species that triggers the reaction in radical SAM enzymes is not an isolable intermediate.

  2. Senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM): a novel murine model of senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, T; Hosokawa, M; Higuchi, K

    1997-01-01

    The Senescence-Accelerated Mouse (SAM) has been under development by our research team at Kyoto University since 1970 through the selective inbreeding of the AKR/J strain of mice donated by the Jackson Laboratory in 1968, based on a graded score for senescence, life span, and pathologic phenotype. At present, there are 12 lines of SAM: nine senescence-prone inbred strains (SAMP) including SAMP1, SAMP2, SAMP3, SAMP6, SAMP7, SAMP8, SAMP9, SAMP10, and SAMP11; and three senescence-resistant inbred strains (SAMR) including SAMR1, SAMR4, and SAMR5. Data from survival curves, Gompertzian function, and grading score of senescence, together with growth patterns of body weight of these SAMP and SAMR, revealed that the characteristic feature of aging common to all SAMP mice is "accelerated senescence;" early onset and irreversible advance of senescence manifested by several signs and gross lesions such as the loss of normal behavior, various skin lesions, increased lordokyphosis, etc., after a period of normal development. In the course of SAM development, it became evident that SAMP strains manifest various pathologic phenotypes that are characteristic enough to differentiate the SAM strains. The genetic background and significance of SAM development are discussed. PMID:9088907

  3. A molecular probe for the optical detection of biogenic amines

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Boram; Scopelliti, Rosario; Severin, Kay

    2011-01-01

    A coumarin derivative was employed for the detection of biogenic amines in buffered aqueous solution by UV-Vis or fluorescence spectroscopy. Incorporated in a polymeric matrix, the dye can also be used for the optical detection of gaseous amines.

  4. Enantioselective catalytic syntheses of alpha-branched chiral amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brase, S.; Baumann, T.; Dahmen, S.;

    2007-01-01

    Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials.......Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials....

  5. Spatially defined silver mirror reaction on a micropatterned aldehyde-terminated self-assembled monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple microfabrication technique for silver (Ag) based on spatially defined silver mirror reaction using a photolithographically micropatterned aldehyde (CHO)-terminated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) is proposed. First, both a Si substrate covered with native oxide and a quartz glass plate were exposed to a vapor of triethoxysilylundecanal (TESUD) diluted with absolute toluene for 3 h at 403 K. This vapor phase treatment produced a 1.2-nm-thick TESUD-SAM with a flat, homogeneous surface. Several samples were then photolithographically micropatterned using an excimer lamp radiating 172 nm vacuum ultraviolet light, and subsequently employed as templates for area-selective electroless Ag plating. Optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed that Ag metal was preferentially deposited on the CHO-terminated regions, resulting in the formation of well-ordered Ag microstructures composed of rectangular 5 μm x 25 μm features. The CHO terminal groups of the TESUD-SAM were found to be effective in reducing Ag ionic species at the solid/liquid interface

  6. Amine synthesis using tandem aza-witting/imine reduction reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Qi; 孟琪

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, both secondary and tertiary amines are playing vital roles in modern chemical industry as well as pharmaceutical industry. Various synthetic methods of amines have also been reported due to their promising applications. In this thesis, a simple and widely applicable one-pot aza-Wittig/reduction method is reported for synthesizing both secondary and tertiary amines. Firstly, we focused on tandem aza-Wittig/reduction reactions for synthesizing secondary amines. We noticed that an a...

  7. Factors influencing biogenic amines accumulation in dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel M. eLinares; Beatriz edel Río; Victor eLadero; Noelia eMartínez; María eFernández; María Cruz eMartín; Miguel A. eAlvarez

    2012-01-01

    Fermented foods are within the food products more often complained of having caused biogenic amines poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain significant levels of biogenic amines, specially tyramine, histamine and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report about cheese elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting biogenic amine...

  8. Reductive amination with zinc powder in aqueous media

    OpenAIRE

    Giovenzana, Giovanni B.; Daniela Imperio; Andrea Penoni; Giovanni Palmisano

    2011-01-01

    Zinc powder in aqueous alkaline media was employed to perform reductive amination of aldehydes with primary amines. The corresponding secondary amines were obtained in good yields along with minor amounts of hydrodimerization byproducts. The protocol is a green alternative to the use of complex hydrides in chlorinated or highly flammable solvents.

  9. Reductive amination with zinc powder in aqueous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni B. Giovenzana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Zinc powder in aqueous alkaline media was employed to perform reductive amination of aldehydes with primary amines. The corresponding secondary amines were obtained in good yields along with minor amounts of hydrodimerization byproducts. The protocol is a green alternative to the use of complex hydrides in chlorinated or highly flammable solvents.

  10. 40 CFR 721.9490 - Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coco alklydimethyl amine salts... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9490 Coco alklydimethyl amine salts (generic). (a) Chemical substances... coco alkyldimethyl amine salts (PMNs P-98-412/414/415/416/417) are subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10046 - Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10046 Polyaromatic amine phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... amine phosphate (PMN P-02-747) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  12. Major Volatiles from MSL SAM Evolved Gas Analyses: Yellowknife Bay Through Lower Mount Sharp

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, A. C.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Sutter, B.; Franz, H. B.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Niles, P. B.; Stern, J. C.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Atreya, S. K.; Bish, D. L.; Blake, D. F.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; McKay, C. P.; Wilhelm, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) and Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) analysed several subsamples of Sharp. Another was drilled from the Confidence Hills ("CH") site on a sandstone of the Murray Formation at the base of Mt. Sharp (Pahrump Hills). Outcrops are sedimentary rocks that are largely of fluvial or lacustrine origin, with minor aeolian deposits.. SAM's evolved gas analysis (EGA) mass spectrometry detected H2O, CO2, O2, H2, SO2, H2S, HCl, NO, and other trace gases, including organic fragments. The identity and evolution temperature (T) of evolved gases can support CheMin mineral detection and place constraints on trace volatile-bearing phases or phases difficult to characterize with XRD (e.g., X-ray amorphous phases). They can also give constraints on sample organic chemistry. Here, we discuss trends in major evolved volatiles from SAM EGA analyses to date.

  13. Detection of Organics at Mars: How Wet Chemistry Onboard SAM Helps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, A.; Freissinet, Caroline; Szopa, C.; Glavin, D.; Coll, P.; Cabane, M.; Eigenbrode, J.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Coscia, D.; Teinturier, S.; Mahaffy, P.

    2013-01-01

    For the first time in the history of space exploration, a mission of interest to astrobiology could be able to analyze refractory organic compounds in the soil of Mars. Wet chemistry experiment allow organic components to be altered in such a way that improves there detection either by releasing the compounds from sample matricies or by changing the chemical structure to be amenable to analytical conditions. The latter is particular important when polar compounds are present. Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM), on the Curiosity rover of the Mars Science Laboratory mission, has onboard two wet chemistry experiments: derivatization and thermochemolysis. Here we report on the nature of the MTBSTFA derivatization experiment on SAM, the detection of MTBSTFA in initial SAM results, and the implications of this detection.

  14. Senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM): a biogerontological resource in aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, T

    1999-01-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM), consisting of 14 senescence-prone inbred strains (SAMP) and 4 senescence-resistant inbred strains (SAMR) has been under development since 1970 through the selective inbreeding of AKR/J strain mice donated by the Jackson laboratory in 1968, based on the data of the grading score of senescence, life span, and pathologic phenotypes. The characteristic feature of aging common to all SAMP and SAMR mice is accelerated senescence and normal aging, respectively. Furthermore, SAMP and SAMR strains manifest various pathobiological phenotypes which include such neurobiological phenotypes as deficits in learning and memory, emotional disorders, abnormal circadian rhythms, brain atrophy, hearing impairment, etc., and are often characteristic enough to differentiate the strains. Various efforts are currently being made using the SAM model to clarify the underlying mechanisms in accelerated senescence as well as the etiopathogenic mechanisms in age-associated pathobiologies. Genetic background and significance of SAM development are discussed. PMID:10537019

  15. New adducts of Lapachol with primary amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Mirelly D.F.; Litivack-Junior, Jose T.; Antunes, Roberto V.; Silva, Tania M.S.; Camara, Celso A., E-mail: ccelso@dq.ufrpe.b [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    New adducts of lapachol with neat primary aliphatic amines were obtained in a solvent-free reaction in good to reasonable yields (52 to 88%), at room temperature. The new compounds containing a phenazine moiety were obtained from suitable functionalized aminoalkyl compounds, including ethanolamine, 3-propanolamine, 2-methoxy-ethylamine, 3-methoxy-propylamine, n-butylamine and 2-phenetylamine. (author)

  16. Formation of carboxy- and amide-terminated alkyl monolayers on silicon(111) investigated by ATR-FTIR, XPS, and X-ray scattering: Construction of photoswitchable surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rück-Braun, Karola; Petersen, Michael Åxman; Michalik, Fabian;

    2013-01-01

    -FTIR and XPS studies of the fulgimide samples revealed closely covered amide-terminated SAMs. Reversible photoswitching of the headgroup was read out by applying XPS, ATR-FTIR, and difference absorption spectra in the mid-IR. In XPS, we observed a reversible breathing of the amide/imide C1s and N1s signals...

  17. Searching for Reduced Carbon on the Surface of Mars: The SAM Combustion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J. C.; Malespin, C. A.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Webster, C. R.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Brunner, A. E.; Freissinet, C.; Franz, H. B.; Glavin, D. P.; Graham, H. V.; McAdam, A. C.; Ming, D. W.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Niles, P. B.; Steele, A.; Sutter, B.; Trainer, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    The search for reduced carbon has been a major focus of past and present missions to Mars. Thermal evolved gas analysis was used by the Viking and Phoenix landers and is currently in use by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) to characterize volatiles evolved from solid samples, including those associated with reduced organic species. SAM has the additional capability to perform a combustion experiment, in which a sample of Mars regolith is heated in the presence of oxygen and the composition of the evolved gases is measured using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) and tunable laser spectrometry (TLS) [1]. Organics detection on the Martian surface has been complicated by oxidation and destruction during heating by soil oxidants [2], including oxychlorine compounds, and terrestrial organics in the SAM background contributed by one of the SAM wet chemistry reagents MTBSTFA (N-Methyl-N-tertbutyldimethylsilyl- trifluoroacetamide) [3,4]. Thermal Evolved Gas Analysis (TEGA) results from Phoenix show a mid temperature CO2 release between 400 C - 680 C speculated to be carbonate, CO2 adsorbed to grains, or combustion of organics by soil oxidants [5]. Low temperature CO2 evolutions (approx. 200 C - 400 C) were also present at all three sites in Gale Crater where SAM Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA) was performed, and potential sources include combustion of terrestrial organics from SAM, as well as combustion and/or decarboxylation either indigenous martian or exogenous organic carbon [4,6]. By performing an experiment to intentionally combust all reduced materials in the sample, we hope to compare the bulk abundance of CO2 and other oxidized species evolved by combustion to that evolved during an EGA experiment to estimate how much CO2 could be contributed by reduced carbon sources. In addition, C, O, and H isotopic compositions of CO2 and H2O measured by TLS can contribute information regarding the potential sources of these

  18. Data handling with SAM and art at the NOνA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurisano, A.; Backhouse, C.; Davies, G. S.; Illingworth, R.; Mayer, N.; Mengel, M.; Norman, A.; Rocco, D.; Zirnstein, J.

    2015-12-01

    During operations, NOvA produces between 5,000 and 7,000 raw files per day with peaks in excess of 12,000. These files must be processed in several stages to produce fully calibrated and reconstructed analysis files. In addition, many simulated neutrino interactions must be produced and processed through the same stages as data. To accommodate the large volume of data and Monte Carlo, production must be possible both on the Fermilab grid and on off-site farms, such as the ones accessible through the Open Science Grid. To handle the challenge of cataloging these files and to facilitate their off-line processing, we have adopted the SAM system developed at Fermilab. SAM indexes files according to metadata, keeps track of each file's physical locations, provides dataset management facilities, and facilitates data transfer to off-site grids. To integrate SAM with Fermilab's art software framework and the NOvA production workflow, we have developed methods to embed metadata into our configuration files, art files, and standalone ROOT files. A module in the art framework propagates the embedded information from configuration files into art files, and from input art files to output art files, allowing us to maintain a complete processing history within our files. Embedding metadata in configuration files also allows configuration files indexed in SAM to be used as inputs to Monte Carlo production jobs. Further, SAM keeps track of the input files used to create each output file. Parentage information enables the construction of self-draining datasets which have become the primary production paradigm used at NOvA. In this paper we will present an overview of SAM at NOvA and how it has transformed the file production framework used by the experiment.

  19. Systematic Analysis Method of Shear-Wave Splitting:SAM Software System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yuan; Liu Xiqiang; Liang Wei; Hao Ping

    2004-01-01

    In order to make a more effective use of the data from regional digital seismograph networks and to promote the study on shear wave splitting and its application to earthquake stressforecasting, SAM software system, i.e., the software on systematic analysis method of shear wave splitting has been developed. This paper introduces the design aims, system structure,function and characteristics about the SAM software system and shows some graphical interfaces of data input and result output. Lastly, it discusses preliminarily the study of shear wave splitting and its application to earthquake forecasting.

  20. GoSam. A program for automated one-loop calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program package GoSam is presented which aims at the automated calculation of one-loop amplitudes for multi-particle processes. The amplitudes are generated in terms of Feynman diagrams and can be reduced using either D-dimensional integrand-level decomposition or tensor reduction, or a combination of both. GoSam can be used to calculate one-loop corrections to both QCD and electroweak theory, and model files for theories Beyond the Standard Model can be linked as well. A standard interface to programs calculating real radiation is also included. The flexibility of the program is demonstrated by various examples. (orig.)

  1. Damage Simulation Analysis of Discrete Rods to SAM based on FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At present ship to air missile is the main force of anti-missile. The warhead damage element’ impact and penetration effect are the main factors for damaging supersonic anti-ship missile (SAM. In this paper, the damage mechanism of the anti-ship missile is studied. Dynamic initial velocity of damage elements is modeled and simulated. The four important parts of SAM with typical material are modeled and simulated based on finite element analysis (FEA. It’s useful to the study of the further model of vulnerability analysis of whole anti-ship missiles.

  2. GoSam. A program for automated one-loop calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Greiner, N.; Heinrich, G.; Reiter, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Luisoni, G. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Mastrolia, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Ossola, G. [City Univ. of New York, NY (United States). New York City College of Technology; Tramontano, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-11-15

    The program package GoSam is presented which aims at the automated calculation of one-loop amplitudes for multi-particle processes. The amplitudes are generated in terms of Feynman diagrams and can be reduced using either D-dimensional integrand-level decomposition or tensor reduction, or a combination of both. GoSam can be used to calculate one-loop corrections to both QCD and electroweak theory, and model files for theories Beyond the Standard Model can be linked as well. A standard interface to programs calculating real radiation is also included. The flexibility of the program is demonstrated by various examples. (orig.)

  3. Immobilisering av extremitetsfrakturer inom ambulanssjukvård : Ett pilotprojekt med SAM-splint

    OpenAIRE

    Edin, Åsa; Danér, Kathrina

    2010-01-01

    Within the ambulance care in Uppsala County a vacuum splint is used to immobilize fractures on extremities. The research available on which method of immobilizing to prefer during pre-hospital treatment is limited.   The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the perceptions of the ambulance personal in Uppsala County on the issue of usability of SAM-splint and vacuum splint when immobilizing extremities. The project was also aimed at researching if SAM-splint could be seen as an alternat...

  4. Unsupervised classification of Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) data using ART2-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. D.; Sinha, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) has been developed by NASA to monitor the microgravity acceleration environment aboard the space shuttle. The amount of data collected by a SAMS unit during a shuttle mission is in the several gigabytes range. Adaptive Resonance Theory 2-A (ART2-A), an unsupervised neural network, has been used to cluster these data and to develop cause and effect relationships among disturbances and the acceleration environment. Using input patterns formed on the basis of power spectral densities (psd), data collected from two missions, STS-050 and STS-057, have been clustered.

  5. ksoa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. ksun Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kavl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  1. klmt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. ktmb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. korf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. krdg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kcsm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kdmn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kmer Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This Excel 2010 file includes all terminated HUD Multifamily insured mortgages. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the time the mortgage was terminated. The...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  18. kavp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kvis Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. koxr Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. koma Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. knew Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. ksez Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. kphf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. papg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. ksck Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kstj Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. khie Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. pasn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kipt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. khlg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. krut Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kpie Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. pkmj Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. ksff Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. Thioether bond formation by SPASM domain radical SAM enzymes: Cα H-atom abstraction in subtilosin A biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjdia, Alhosna; Guillot, Alain; Lefranc, Benjamin; Vaudry, Hubert; Leprince, Jérôme; Berteau, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    AlbA is a radical SAM enzyme catalyzing the formation of three unusual thioether bonds in the antibiotic subtilosin A. We demonstrate here that AlbA catalyzes direct Cα H-atom abstraction and likely contains three essential [4Fe-4S] centers. This leads us to propose novel mechanistic perspectives for thioether bond catalysis by radical SAM enzymes. PMID:27087315

  17. Analysis of the interactions between host factor Sam68 and viral elements during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nuclear protein Src-associated protein of 68 kDa in mitosis (Sam68) is known to bind RNA and be involved in cellular processes triggered in response to environmental stresses, including virus infection. Interestingly, Sam68, is a multi-functional protein implicated in the life cycle of retroviru...

  18. Role of Amine Functionality for CO2 Chemisorption on Silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Maximilian W; Jelic, Jelena; Berger, Edith; Reuter, Karsten; Jentys, Andreas; Lercher, Johannes A

    2016-03-01

    The mechanism of CO2 adsorption on primary, secondary, and bibasic aminosilanes synthetically functionalized in porous SiO2 was qualitatively and quantitatively investigated by a combination of IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and quantum mechanical modeling. The mode of CO2 adsorption depends particularly on the nature of the amine group and the spacing between the aminosilanes. Primary amines bonded CO2 preferentially through the formation of intermolecular ammonium carbamates, whereas CO2 was predominantly stabilized as carbamic acid, when interacting with secondary amines. Ammonium carbamate formation requires the transfer of the carbamic acid proton to a second primary amine group to form the ammonium ion and hence two (primary) amine groups are required to bind one CO2 molecule. The higher base strength of secondary amines enables the stabilization of carbamic acid, which is thereby hindered to interact further with nearby amine functions, because their association with Si-OH groups (either protonation or hydrogen bonding) does not allow further stabilization of carbamic acid as carbamate. Steric hindrance of the formation of intermolecular ammonium carbamates leads to higher uptake capacities for secondary amines functionalized in porous SiO2 at higher amine densities. In aminosilanes possessing a primary and a secondary amine group, the secondary amine group tends to be protonated by Si-OH groups and therefore does not substantially interact with CO2. PMID:26700549

  19. Metal-Free Oxidation of Primary Amines to Nitriles through Coupled Catalytic Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kyle M; Bobbitt, James M; Eldirany, Sherif A; Kissane, Liam E; Sheridan, Rose K; Stempel, Zachary D; Sternberg, Francis H; Bailey, William F

    2016-04-01

    Synergism among several intertwined catalytic cycles allows for selective, room temperature oxidation of primary amines to the corresponding nitriles in 85-98 % isolated yield. This metal-free, scalable, operationally simple method employs a catalytic quantity of 4-acetamido-TEMPO (ACT; TEMPO=2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine N-oxide) radical and the inexpensive, environmentally benign triple salt oxone as the terminal oxidant under mild conditions. Simple filtration of the reaction mixture through silica gel affords pure nitrile products. PMID:26868873

  20. A SAM Based Global CGE Model using GTAP Data January 2005

    OpenAIRE

    McDONALD, S; S. Robinson; Thierfelder, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a technical description of a global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that is calibrated from a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) representation of the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) database. A distinctive feature of the model is the treatment of nominal and real exchange rates and hence the specification of multiple numéraire.

  1. Workshop proceedings of ISAMM 2009 - Decision-making, tools, training, risk targets and entrance to SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    Five papers were presented during Session 6. These papers covered a broad range of topics including: (i) Transition criteria used for moving from emergency procedures to severe accident procedures; (ii) An accident diagnosis and emergency response decision-making tool; (iii) Views on the use of risk targets and safety goals in view of IAEA recommendations; (iv) Development, validation and training of SAM. (author)

  2. The formation of ACC and competition between polyamines and ethylene for SAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethylene biosynthesis involves the conversion of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) by ACC synthase (ACS). ACC is then converted to ethylene. The genes that encode enzymes in this pathway all belong to a family of genes. Differential transcriptional regulation ...

  3. Molten Salt Power Tower Cost Model for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Heath, G. A.

    2013-02-01

    This report describes a component-based cost model developed for molten-salt power tower solar power plants. The cost model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), using data from several prior studies, including a contracted analysis from WorleyParsons Group, which is included herein as an Appendix. The WorleyParsons' analysis also estimated material composition and mass for the plant to facilitate a life cycle analysis of the molten salt power tower technology. Details of the life cycle assessment have been published elsewhere. The cost model provides a reference plant that interfaces with NREL's System Advisor Model or SAM. The reference plant assumes a nominal 100-MWe (net) power tower running with a nitrate salt heat transfer fluid (HTF). Thermal energy storage is provided by direct storage of the HTF in a two-tank system. The design assumes dry-cooling. The model includes a spreadsheet that interfaces with SAM via the Excel Exchange option in SAM. The spreadsheet allows users to estimate the costs of different-size plants and to take into account changes in commodity prices. This report and the accompanying Excel spreadsheet can be downloaded at https://sam.nrel.gov/cost.

  4. Molecular junctions based on SAMs of cruciform oligo(phenylene ethynylene)s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Zhongming; Li, Tao; Jennum, Karsten Stein;

    2012-01-01

    Cruciform oligo(phenylene ethynylene)s (OPEs) with an extended tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) donor moiety (OPE5-TTF and OPE3-TTF) and their simple analogues (OPE5-S and OPE3) without conjugated substituents were used to form high quality self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on ultra-flat gold substrates...

  5. Making Time for Instructional Leadership. Volume 1: The Evolution of the SAM Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Ellen; Grissom, Jason A.; Neumerski, Christine M.; Murphy, Joseph; Blissett, Richard; Porter, Andy

    2015-01-01

    This three-volume report describes the "SAM (School Administration Manager) process," an approach that about 700 schools around the nation are using to direct more of principals' time and effort to improve teaching and learning in classrooms. Research has shown that a principal's instructional leadership is second only to teaching among…

  6. [Anti-aging studies on the senescence accelerated mouse (SAM) strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryoya

    2010-01-01

    Senescence accelerated mouse (SAM), a murine model of accelerated senescence, was established by Toshio Takeda and colleagues. SAM consists of series of SAMP (prone) and SAMR (resistant) lines. All SAMP lines (from SAMP1 to SAMP11) are characterized by accelerated accumulation of senile features, earlier onset and faster progress of age-associated pathological phenotypes, such as amyloidosis, impaired immune response, senile osteoporosis and deficits in learning and memory. These SAMP lines are useful for evaluation of putative anti-aging therapies. For example, SAMP1 line is used to study the anti-aging effect of the antioxidant containing foods and various anti-oxidants, such as coenzyme Q10, vitamin C, lycopene. SAMP8 line exhibiting an early onset of impaired learning and memory is often used for test strategies for therapeutic intervention of dementia of early onset. SAMP6 is used as an animal model for developing new strategies for the treatment of osteoporosis in humans. Various lines of SAM (P1, P6, P8, P10 and R1) are now commercially available for research. In this review, I will briefly introduce various usages of SAM in anti-aging research. PMID:20046059

  7. Organizational Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2011-01-01

    organizational termination in order to improve our understanding of the management of termination. The impact of these termination dimensions on the percentage of unwanted customers is developed and tested using PLS on data gathered from a cross-sectional survey of more than 800 sales representatives. We find...... relationship termination are found to significantly affect a firm's relationship termination competence. The findings suggest that managers should regard termination as a legitimate option in customer relationship management. In order to decrease the number of unwanted customers, managers must accept......Most firms are involved in a number of customer relationships that drain the firm's resources. However, many firms are hesitant to address this problem. This paper investigates customer relationship termination at the organizational level. We develop and analyze the organizational dimensions of...

  8. Deuterium exchange between hydrofluorocarbons and amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention consists of a process for obtaining a compound enriched in deuterium which comprises the known method of exposing a gaseous hydrofluorocarbon to infrared laser radiation of a predetermined frequency to selectively cause a chemical reaction involving hydrofluorocarbon molecules containing deuterium without substantially affecting hydrofluorocarbon molecules not containing deuterium, thereby producing, as reaction products, a compound enriched in deuterium and hydrofluorocarbon depleted in deuterium; combined with a new method, which comprises enriching the deuterium content of the depleted hydrofluorocarbon by contacting the depleted hydrofluorocarbon with an alkali metal amide and an amine having a concentration of deuterium at least that which will yield an increase in deuterium concentration of the hydrofluorocarbon upon equilibration, whereby the amine becomes depleted in deuterium

  9. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing amines: XIII. Application of the ERAS model to cyclic amine + alkane mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Juan Antonio, E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Sanz, Luis Felipe; García De La Fuente, Isaías; Cobos, José Carlos

    2013-12-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Primary or secondary cyclic amine + alkane mixtures are investigated using ERAS. • ERAS parameters are given. Relatively high X{sub AB} values remark the importance of physical interactions. • ERAS parameters are consistent with those of primary or secondary (linear or aromatic) amines. • H{sub m}{sup E}, V{sub m}{sup E}, and C{sub pm}{sup E} data reveal the existence of physical interactions and structural effects. • ERAS correctly describes H{sub m}{sup E}, V{sub m}{sup E}, C{sub pm}{sup E}, G{sub m}{sup E} and the enthalpy of vaporization of pure amines. - Abstract: Primary or secondary cyclic amine + alkane mixtures have been investigated in the framework of the ERAS (Extended Real Associated Solution) model. The corresponding ERAS parameters are reported. All the amines considered have the same equilibrium constant (K{sub A} = 0.75). Cyclopropylamine, cyclopentylamine, cyclohexylamine and pyrrolidine are characterized by the same enthalpy of self-association (Δh{sub A}{sup *}=−15 kJ mol{sup −1}). Piperidine and hexamethyleneimine show a less negative Δh{sub A}{sup *} value (−13 kJ mol{sup −1}). Experimental data on excess enthalpies, H{sub m}{sup E}, volumes, V{sub m}{sup E}, and isobaric heat capacities, C{sub pm}{sup E}, reveal the existence of physical interactions and structural effects in the studied solutions. The latter lead to values of self-association of pure amines, Δv{sub A}{sup *}, which may depend on the solvent in systems with a given amine. Although the model overestimates the Δh{sub A}{sup *} values, the relatively high values of the physical parameters X{sub AB} remark the importance of physical interactions. ERAS describes correctly the excess functions H{sub m}{sup E}, V{sub m}{sup E}, C{sub pm}{sup E} and G{sub m}{sup E} (molar Gibbs energy), and the enthalpy of vaporization of pure amines. Nevertheless, discrepancies with experimental data are found for the concentration

  10. Biogenic Amines in Raw and Processed Seafood

    OpenAIRE

    Visciano, Pierina; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The presence of biogenic amines (BAs) in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of BAs in raw seafood. On the other hand, some food techn...

  11. Standardized added metabolic activity (SAM): a partial volume independent marker of total lesion glycolysis in liver metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standardized added metabolic activity (SAM) is a new marker of total lesion glycolysis that avoids partial volume effect (PVE) and thresholding. SAM is calculated by drawing a volume of interest (VOI1) around the tumour and a larger VOI (VOI2) around VOI1. Subtracting the background activity in VOI2-VOI1 from VOI1 yields SAM. If VOI1 is set at a reasonable distance from the tumour, PVE are avoided. Phantom and initial clinical validation data are presented. Spheres of a Jaszczak phantom were filled with a 5.4, 3.64 and 2.0 times higher concentration relative to background activity and positron emission tomography (PET) data were acquired during 10 min. SAM of all spheres was expressed as a percentage of the expected value (the actual activity ratio minus 1). In 15 patients a 10-min list-mode acquisition PET study centred on their primary squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) was performed and images of 1-10 min reconstructed. SAM1-9min values of PSCC were expressed as a percentage of SAM10min. Nineteen patients suffering from liver metastases treated with chemotherapy underwent PET/CT prior to (scan 1) and after 3-6 cycles of chemotherapy (scan 2). SAM and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the liver lesions on scan 1 (SAM1 and SUVmax1) and the percentage reduction between both ΔSAM and ΔSUVmax were related to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) response. For the phantom acquisitions, the mean normalized SAM/sphere volume calculated was 94.9 % (SD 5.9 %) of the expected value. In the PSCC patients, the mean difference between SAM1min and SAM10min was only 4 % (SD 5 %). SUVmax1min and SUVmax10min proved to be not significantly different, but the variability was slightly larger than that of SAM (SD 6.4 %). SAM1 and ΔSAM values for responders versus non-responders were, respectively, 57 (SD 119) versus 297 (SD 625) for SAM1 (p = 0.2) and 99 % (SD 3 %) versus 32 % (SD 44 %) for ΔSAM (p = 0.001). SUVmax1 and ΔSUVmax values in responders

  12. Standardized added metabolic activity (SAM): a partial volume independent marker of total lesion glycolysis in liver metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens, Jeroen; Dobbeleir, Andre; Ham, Hamphrey; Asseler, Yves d' ; Goethals, Ingeborg; Wiele, Christophe van de [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2012-09-15

    The standardized added metabolic activity (SAM) is a new marker of total lesion glycolysis that avoids partial volume effect (PVE) and thresholding. SAM is calculated by drawing a volume of interest (VOI{sub 1}) around the tumour and a larger VOI (VOI{sub 2}) around VOI{sub 1}. Subtracting the background activity in VOI{sub 2}-VOI{sub 1} from VOI{sub 1} yields SAM. If VOI{sub 1} is set at a reasonable distance from the tumour, PVE are avoided. Phantom and initial clinical validation data are presented. Spheres of a Jaszczak phantom were filled with a 5.4, 3.64 and 2.0 times higher concentration relative to background activity and positron emission tomography (PET) data were acquired during 10 min. SAM of all spheres was expressed as a percentage of the expected value (the actual activity ratio minus 1). In 15 patients a 10-min list-mode acquisition PET study centred on their primary squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) was performed and images of 1-10 min reconstructed. SAM1-9min values of PSCC were expressed as a percentage of SAM10min. Nineteen patients suffering from liver metastases treated with chemotherapy underwent PET/CT prior to (scan 1) and after 3-6 cycles of chemotherapy (scan 2). SAM and maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) of the liver lesions on scan 1 (SAM1 and SUV{sub max}1) and the percentage reduction between both {Delta}SAM and {Delta}SUV{sub max} were related to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) response. For the phantom acquisitions, the mean normalized SAM/sphere volume calculated was 94.9 % (SD 5.9 %) of the expected value. In the PSCC patients, the mean difference between SAM1min and SAM10min was only 4 % (SD 5 %). SUV{sub max}1min and SUV{sub max}10min proved to be not significantly different, but the variability was slightly larger than that of SAM (SD 6.4 %). SAM1 and {Delta}SAM values for responders versus non-responders were, respectively, 57 (SD 119) versus 297 (SD 625) for SAM1 (p = 0.2) and 99 % (SD 3

  13. Chemical and Biological Reduction of the Radical SAM Enzyme CPH4 Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruender, Nathan A; Young, Anthony P; Bandarian, Vahe

    2015-05-12

    The radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) superfamily is a large and growing group of enzymes that conduct complex radical-mediated transformations. A one-electron reduction of SAM via the +1 state of the cubane [4Fe-4S] cluster generates a 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical, which initiates turnover. The [4Fe-4S] cluster must be reduced from its resting +2 state to the catalytically active +1 oxidation state by an electron. In practice, dithionite or the Escherichia coli flavodoxin (EcFldA)/ferredoxin (flavodoxin):NADP(+) oxidoreductase (Fpr)/NADPH system is used. Herein, we present a systematic investigation of the reductive activation of the radical SAM enzyme CDG synthase (BsQueE) from Bacillus subtilis comparing biological and chemical reductants. These data show that either of the flavodoxin homologues encoded by the B. subtilis genome, BsYkuN or BsYkuP, as well as a series of small molecule redox mediators, supports BsQueE activity. With dithionite as a reductant, the activity of BsQueE is ~75-fold greater in the presence of BsYkuN and BsYkuP compared to that in the presence of dithionite alone. By contrast, EcFldA supports turnover to ~10-fold greater levels than dithionite alone under the same conditions. Comparing the ratio of the rate of turnover to the apparent binding constant for the flavodoxin homologues reveals 10- and 240-fold preferences for BsYkuN over BsYkuP and EcFldA, respectively. The differential activation of the enzyme cannot be explained by the abortive cleavage of SAM. We conclude from these observations that the differential activation of BsQueE by Fld homologues may reside in the details of the interaction between the flavodoxin and the radical SAM enzyme. PMID:25933252

  14. Amino-terminated diamond surfaces: Photoelectron emission and photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Di; Bandy, Jason A.; Li, Shuo; Hamers, Robert J.

    2016-08-01

    We report a new approach to making stable negative electron-affinity diamond surfaces by terminating diamond with amino groups (also known as amine groups, -NH2). Previous studies have shown that negative electron affinity can be induced by terminating diamond surfaces with hydrogen, creating a surface dipole favorable toward electron emission. Here, we demonstrate that covalent tethering of positive charges in the form of protonated amino groups, -NH3+, also leads to negative electron affinity (NEA) and facile electron emission into vacuum and into water. Amino-terminated diamond was prepared using a very mild plasma discharge. Valence-band photoemission studies of the amino-terminated diamond samples show a characteristic "NEA" peak, demonstrating that the amino-terminated surface has NEA. Diamond's ability to emit electrons into water was evaluated using photochemical conversion of N2 to NH3. Time-resolved surface photovoltage studies were used to characterize charge separation at the diamond interface, and Mott-Schottky measurements were performed to characterize band-bending at the diamond-water interface. XPS studies show that the amino-terminated surfaces provide increased chemical resistance to oxidation compared with H-terminated diamond when illuminated with ultraviolet light.

  15. Rett syndrome - Stimulation of endogenous biogenic amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelligra, R.; Norton, R. D.; Wilkinson, R.; Leon, H. A.; Matson, W. R.

    1992-01-01

    Transient hypercapnic hyperoxemia was induced in two Rett syndrome children by the administration of a gaseous mixture of 80 percent O2 and 20 percent CO2. Time course studies of neurotransmitters and their metabolites showed an immediate and marked increase in central biogenic amine turnover following inhalation of the gas mixture. The increased turnover of biogenic amines was associated with improved clinical changes. This suggests a coupled relationship and provides further support for an etiological role of neurotransmitter dysfunction in Rett syndrome. In a complementary study, elevation of pulmonary CO2 by application of a simple rebreathing device resulted in improvement of abnormal blood gases and elimination of the Cheyne-Stokes-like respiratory pattern of the Rett syndrome. Near normalization of the EEG occurred when a normal respiratory pattern was imposed by means of a respirator. Taken together, these results lead to the preliminary conclusion that cerebral hypoxemia secondary to abnormal respiratory function may contribute to diminished production of biogenic amines in Rett syndrome.

  16. Renalase Prevents AKI Independent of Amine Oxidase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Velazquez, Heino; Moeckel, Gilbert; Chang, John; Ham, Ahrom; Lee, H. Thomas; Safirstein, Robert

    2014-01-01

    AKI is characterized by increased catecholamine levels and hypertension. Renalase, a secretory flavoprotein that oxidizes catecholamines, attenuates ischemic injury and the associated increase in catecholamine levels in mice. However, whether the amine oxidase activity of renalase is involved in preventing ischemic injury is debated. In this study, recombinant renalase protected human proximal tubular (HK-2) cells against cisplatin- and hydrogen peroxide–induced necrosis. Similarly, genetic depletion of renalase in mice (renalase knockout) exacerbated kidney injury in animals subjected to cisplatin-induced AKI. Interestingly, compared with the intact renalase protein, a 20–amino acid peptide (RP-220), which is conserved in all known renalase isoforms, but lacks detectable oxidase activity, was equally effective at protecting HK-2 cells against toxic injury and preventing ischemic injury in wild-type mice. Furthermore, in vitro treatment with RP-220 or recombinant renalase rapidly activated Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and downregulated c-Jun N-terminal kinase. In summary, renalase promotes cell survival and protects against renal injury in mice through the activation of intracellular signaling cascades, independent of its ability to metabolize catecholamines, and we have identified the region of renalase required for these effects. Renalase and related peptides show potential as therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of AKI. PMID:24511138

  17. Enhanced mercury ion adsorption by amine-modified activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Jianzhong [Center of Environmental Sciences, Lincoln University of Missouri, Jefferson City, MO 65102 (United States); Yang, John, E-mail: yangj@lincolnu.edu [Center of Environmental Sciences, Lincoln University of Missouri, Jefferson City, MO 65102 (United States); Deng Baolin [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2009-07-30

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic metals found in water and sediments. In an effort to develop an effective adsorbent for aqueous Hg removal, activated carbon (AC) was modified with an amino-terminated organosilicon (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, APTES). Surface properties of the APTES-modified AC (MAC) were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with the energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and potentiometry. The impacts of solvent, APTES concentration, reactive time and temperature on the surface modification were evaluated. The aqueous Hg adsorptive kinetics and capacity were also determined. Results demonstrated that the strong Hg-binding amine ligands were effectively introduced onto the AC surfaces through the silanol reaction between carbon surface functional groups (-COOH, -COH) and APTES molecules. The modification lowered the pH at the point of zero charge (pH{sub pzc}) to 4.54 from 9.6, favoring cation adsorption. MAC presented a faster rate of the Hg (II) adsorption and more than double adsorptive capacity as compared with AC.

  18. Mixed azide-terminated monolayers: a platform for modifying electrode surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collman, James P; Devaraj, Neal K; Eberspacher, Todd P A; Chidsey, Christopher E D

    2006-03-14

    We have prepared and characterized mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAM) on gold electrodes from azido alkane thiols and various omega-functionalized alkane thiols. In the presence of copper(I) catalysts, these azide-modified surfaces are shown to react rapidly and quantitatively with terminal acetylenes forming 1,2,3-triazoles, via "click" chemistry. The initial azide substituents can be identified and monitored using both grazing-angle infrared (IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectrosopies. Acetylenes possessing redox-active ferrocene substituents react with the azide-terminated mixed SAMs and electrochemical measurements of the ferrocene-modified SAM electrodes have been used to quantify the redox centers attached to these platforms. Time-resolved electrochemical measurements have enabled us to follow the formation of these ferrocene centers and thus to measure the rate of the surface "click" reaction. Under optimal conditions this well-behaved second-order reaction takes place with a rate constant of 1 x 10(3) M(-)(1) s(-)(1). Typical reaction times of several minutes were realized using micromolar concentrations of acetylene. These techniques have been used to construct well-characterized, covalently modified monolayers that can be employed as functional electrode surfaces. PMID:16519441

  19. Dielectric properties of supramolecular ionic structures obtained from multifunctional carboxylic acids and amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Lidia; Yu, Liyun; Hvilsted, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    The dielectric properties of several supramolecular ionic polymers and networks, linked by the ammonium salts of hexamethylene diamine (HMDA), tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TAEA), poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers and two short bis carboxymethyl ether-terminated poly(ethylene glycol)s (Di......COOH-PEG), are reported in this paper. All supramolecular ionic polymers and networks exhibit very high relative dielectric permittivities ( 3 0 )( 10 2 – 10 6 ) at low frequencies, and signi fi cantly lower values (from 1 up to 26) at high frequencies. Additionally, the dielectric properties of supramolecular......2000), are investigated. Here the relative dielectric permittivities of the supramolecular ionic structures formed with the multifunctional carboxylic acids were lower than those from the supramolecular ionic structures formed with the two carboxymethyl ether-terminated poly(ethylene glycol)s....

  20. Transition from a Metal-Localized Mixed-Valence Compound to a Fully Delocalized and Bridge-Biased Electrophore in a Ruthenium-Amine-Ruthenium Tricenter System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian-Hong; Shao, Jiang-Yang; He, Yan-Qin; Wu, Si-Hai; Yao, Jiannian; Zhong, Yu-Wu

    2016-07-18

    A series of cyclometalated diruthenium complexes with a redox-active amine bridge were synthesized. Depending on the terminal ligands of the ruthenium components and the substituent on the amine unit, the one-electron-oxidized state can be either in the form of a weakly or strongly coupled mixed-valence diruthenium complex, a fully charge-delocalized three-center system, or a bridge-biased electrophore. This transition among different electronic forms was supported by electrochemistry, near-infrared absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, and density functional theory analysis. PMID:27246707

  1. [Bis(3-amino­prop­yl)amine-κ3 N,N′,N′′]bis­(thio­cyanato-κN)cobalt(II)

    OpenAIRE

    Boeckmann, Jan; Näther, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Co(NCS)2(C6H17N3)], consists of one Co2+ cation, two thio­cyanate anions and one bis­(3-amino­prop­yl)amine ligand, all in general positions. The cobalt cation is coordinated by five N atoms of two terminal N-bonded thio­cyanate anions and one bis­(3-amino­prop­yl)amine ligand, defining a slightly distorted square-pyramidal coordination polyhedron. The mol­ecules are held together in the crystal by weak N—H⋯S inter­actions.

  2. [Bis(3-aminopropyl)amine-κ3N,N′,N′′]bis(thiocyanato-κN)cobalt(II)

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Boeckmann; Christian Näther

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Co(NCS)2(C6H17N3)], consists of one Co2+ cation, two thiocyanate anions and one bis(3-aminopropyl)amine ligand, all in general positions. The cobalt cation is coordinated by five N atoms of two terminal N-bonded thiocyanate anions and one bis(3-aminopropyl)amine ligand, defining a slightly distorted square-pyramidal coordination polyhedron. The molecules are held together in the crystal by weak N—H...S interactions.

  3. Terminal automation system maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffelt, D.; Hewitt, J. [Engineered Systems Inc., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Nothing has improved petroleum product loading in recent years more than terminal automation systems. The presence of terminal automation systems (TAS) at loading racks has increased operational efficiency and safety and enhanced their accounting and management capabilities. However, like all finite systems, they occasionally malfunction or fail. Proper servicing and maintenance can minimize this. And in the unlikely event a TAS breakdown does occur, prompt and effective troubleshooting can reduce its impact on terminal productivity. To accommodate around-the-clock loading at racks, increasingly unattended by terminal personnel, TAS maintenance, servicing and troubleshooting has become increasingly demanding. It has also become increasingly important. After 15 years of trial and error at petroleum and petrochemical storage and transfer terminals, a number of successful troubleshooting programs have been developed. These include 24-hour {open_quotes}help hotlines,{close_quotes} internal (terminal company) and external (supplier) support staff, and {open_quotes}layered{close_quotes} support. These programs are described.

  4. Sam68/KHDRBS1 is critical for colon tumorigenesis by regulating genotoxic stress-induced NF-κB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kai; Sun, Xin; Wier, Eric M; Hodgson, Andrea; Liu, Yue; Sears, Cynthia L; Wan, Fengyi

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-mediated transcription is an important mediator for cellular responses to DNA damage. Genotoxic agents trigger a 'nuclear-to-cytoplasmic' NF-κB activation signaling pathway; however, the early nuclear signaling cascade linking DNA damage and NF-κB activation is poorly understood. Here we report that Src-associated-substrate-during-mitosis-of-68kDa/KH domain containing, RNA binding, signal transduction associated 1 (Sam68/KHDRBS1) is a key NF-κB regulator in genotoxic stress-initiated signaling pathway. Sam68 deficiency abolishes DNA damage-stimulated polymers of ADP-ribose (PAR) production and the PAR-dependent NF-κB transactivation of anti-apoptotic genes. Sam68 deleted cells are hypersensitive to genotoxicity caused by DNA damaging agents. Upregulated Sam68 coincides with elevated PAR production and NF-κB-mediated anti-apoptotic transcription in human and mouse colon cancer. Knockdown of Sam68 sensitizes human colon cancer cells to genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis and genetic deletion of Sam68 dampens colon tumor burden in mice. Together our data reveal a novel function of Sam68 in the genotoxic stress-initiated nuclear signaling, which is crucial for colon tumorigenesis. PMID:27458801

  5. Analogue Experiments Identify Possible Precursor Compounds for Chlorohydrocarbons Detected in SAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K.; Summons, R. E.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Martin, M. G.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    Since landing at Gale Crater on August 6, 2012, the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite, aboard the Curiosity Rover, has conducted multiple analyses of scooped and drilled samples and has identified a suite of chlorohydrocarbons including chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, chloromethylpropene, and chlorobenzene (Glavin et al., 2013; Leshin et al., 2013). These compounds were identified after samples were pyrolysed at temperatures up to ~835°C through a combination of Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA) and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). Since these chlorinated species were well above the background levels determined by empty cup blanks analyzed prior to solid sample analyses, thermal degradation of oxychlorine phases, such as perchlorate, present in the Martian soil, are the most likely source of chlorine needed to generate these chlorohydrocarbons. Laboratory analogue experiments show that terrestrial organics internal to SAM, such as N-methyl-N(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA), a derivatization agent, can react with perchlorates to produce all of the chlorohydrocarbons detected by SAM. However, in pyrolysis-trap-GCMS laboratory experiments with MTBSTFA, C4 compounds are the predominant chlorohydrocarbon observed, whereas on SAM the C1 chlorohydrocarbons dominate (Glavin et al., 2013). This, in addition to the previous identification of chloromethane and dichloromethane by the 1976 Viking missions (Biemann et al., 1977), suggest that there could be another, possibly Martian, source of organic carbon contributing to the formation of the C1 chlorohydrocarbons, or other components of the solid samples analyzed by SAM are having a catalytic effect on chlorohydrocarbon generation. Laboratory analogue experiments investigated a suite of organic compounds that have the potential to accumulate on Mars (Benner et al., 2000) and thus serve as sources of carbon for the formation of chlorohydrocarbons detected by the SAM and

  6. Il termine "mafia"

    OpenAIRE

    Fioretti, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    Data la confusione venutasi a creare nel corso della storia passata e recente, si propone uno studio incentrato sulla questione relativa al termine "mafia". Contrariamente a quanto si potrebbe immaginare, "mafia" oggi è un termine polisemico che non significa solo criminalità organizzata o stragi ma anche lealtà, giustizia, coraggio, potere, intrigo. Compito di questo breve saggio è di capire quali sono gli eventi che hanno contribuito a fare di "mafia" un termine polisemico. In questo senso,...

  7. Terminal Antenna Design

    OpenAIRE

    Skrivervik, A. K.; Zurcher, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces first some general considerations about antenna miniaturization and multi-band terminal antenna design. These general design principles are then illustrated on some practical applications.

  8. Biogenic amine metabolism in juvenile neurocardiogenic syncope with dysautonomia

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Ian J.; Lankford, Jeremy E; Hashmi, Syed Shahrukh; Numan, Mohammed T

    2014-01-01

    Objective Biogenic amine brain levels and their cerebral metabolism are frequently studied by quantitation of biogenic amine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compared to age-matched controls. There is a paucity of studies in adolescents and young adults investigating the potential role of disordered cerebral biogenic amine metabolism in young patients who have dysautonomia based on abnormal head-up tilt table (HUTT). Methods In a cohort of juvenile patients with neurocardiogenic synco...

  9. Characterization of a novel amine transaminase from Halomonas elongata

    OpenAIRE

    Cerioli, Lorenzo; Planchestainer, Matteo; Cassidy, Jennifer; Tessaro, Davide; Paradisi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Chiral amines are indispensable building blocks in the production of biologically active compounds. They are fundamental for the pharmaceutical industry, both as active molecules themselves and as chiral auxiliaries in asymmetric synthesis; however, the available synthetic strategies often present disadvantages. ω-Transaminases (ω-TAs) appear as an attractive alternative by driving the stereoselective amination of prochiral ketones. HEWT is a novel amine transaminase from the moderate halophi...

  10. Standardized added metabolic activity (SAM) IN {sup 18}F-FDG PET assessment of treatment response in colorectal liver metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens, Jeroen; Goethals, I.; Wiele, C.V. de [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Bruyne, S. de [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Damme, N. van; Ceelen, W. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Ghent (Belgium); Smeets, P. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium); Troisi, R. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of General and Hepato-Biliary Surgery, Liver Transplantation Service, Ghent (Belgium); Laurent, S.; Geboes, K. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Ghent (Belgium); Peeters, M. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Ghent (Belgium); Antwerp University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Edegem (Belgium)

    2013-08-15

    Standardized added metabolic activity (SAM) is a PET parameter for assessing the total metabolic load of malignant processes, avoiding partial volume effects and lesion segmentation. The potential role of this parameter in the assessment of response to chemotherapy and bevacizumab was tested in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with potentially resectable liver metastases (mCRC). {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was performed in 18 mCRC patients with liver metastases before treatment and after five cycles of FOLFOX/FOLFIRI and bevacizumab. Of the 18 patients, 16 subsequently underwent resection of liver metastases. Baseline and follow-up SUV{sub max}, and SAM as well as reduction in SUV{sub max} ({nabla}SUV{sub max}) and SAM ({nabla}SAM) of all liver metastases were correlated with morphological response, and progression-free and overall survival (PFS and OS). A significant reduction in metabolic activity of the liver metastases was seen after chemotherapy with a median {nabla}SUV{sub max} of 25.3 % and {nabla}SAM of 94.5 % (p = 0.033 and 0.003). Median baseline SUV{sub max} and SAM values were significantly different between morphological responders and nonresponders (3.8 vs. 7.2, p = 0.021; and 34 vs. 211, p = 0.002, respectively), but neither baseline PET parameters nor morphological response was correlated with PFS or OS. Follow-up SUV{sub max} and SAM as well as {nabla}SAM were found to be prognostic factors. The median PFS and OS in the patient group with a high follow-up SUV{sub max} were 10.4 months and 32 months, compared to a median PFS of 14.7 months and a median OS which had not been reached in the group with a low follow-up SUV{sub max} (p = 0.01 and 0.003, respectively). The patient group with a high follow-up SAM and a low {nabla}SAM had a median PFS and OS of 9.4 months and 32 months, whereas the other group had a median PFS of 14.7 months and a median OS which had not been reached (p = 0.002 for both PFS and OS). {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging is a useful

  11. Analysis of the interaction between host factor Sam68 and viral elements during foot-and-mouth disease virus infections

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Devendra K.; Lawrence, Paul; Kloc, Anna; Schafer, Elizabeth; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background The nuclear protein Src-associated protein of 68 kDa in mitosis (Sam68) is known to bind RNA and be involved in cellular processes triggered in response to environmental stresses, including virus infection. Interestingly, Sam68 is a multi-functional protein implicated in the life cycle of retroviruses and picornaviruses and is also considered a marker of virus-induced stress granules (SGs). Recently, we demonstrated the partial redistribution of Sam68 to the cytoplasm in FMDV infec...

  12. Evolved Gas Analyses of Sedimentary Materials in Gale Crater, Mars: Results of the Curiosity Rover's Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument from Yellowknife Bay to the Stimson Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, B.; McAdam, A. C.; Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Stern, J. C.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Archer, P. D.

    2016-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument aboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover has analyzed 10 samples from Gale Crater. All SAM evolved gas analyses have yielded a multitude of volatiles (e.g, H2O, SO2, H2S, CO2, CO, NO, O2, HC1). The objectives of this work are to 1) Characterize the evolved H2O, SO2, CO2, and O2 gas traces of sediments analyzed by SAM through sol 1178, 2) Constrain sediment mineralogy/composition based on SAM evolved gas analysis (SAM-EGA), and 3) Discuss the implications of these results releative to understanding the geochemical history of Gale Crater.

  13. A regenerable solid amine CO2 concentrator for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, A. M.; Cusick, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    A regenerable solid amine CO2 control system, which employs water vapor for desorption, is being developed for potential use on long duration space missions. During cyclic operation, CO2 is first absorbed from the cabin atmosphere onto the granular amine. Steam is then used to heat the solid amine bed and desorb the CO2. This paper describes the solid amine system operation and application to the Shuttle Orbiter, Manned Space Platform (MSP) and Space Operations Center (SOC). The importance and interplay of system performance parameters are presented together with supporting data and design characteristics.

  14. Water-COOH Composite Structure with Enhanced Hydrophobicity Formed by Water Molecules Embedded into Carboxyl-Terminated Self-Assembled Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pan; Tu, Yusong; Yang, Jinrong; Wang, Chunlei; Sheng, Nan; Fang, Haiping

    2015-10-30

    By combining molecular dynamics simulations and quantum mechanics calculations, we show the formation of a composite structure composed of embedded water molecules and the COOH matrix on carboxyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers (COOH SAMs) with appropriate packing densities. This composite structure with an integrated hydrogen bond network inside reduces the hydrogen bonds with the water above. This explains the seeming contradiction on the stability of the surface water on COOH SAMs observed in experiments. The existence of the composite structure at appropriate packing densities results in the two-step distribution of contact angles of water droplets on COOH SAMs, around 0° and 35°, which compares favorably to the experimental measurements of contact angles collected from forty research articles over the past 25 years. These findings provide a molecular-level understanding of water on surfaces (including surfaces on biomolecules) with hydrophilic functional groups. PMID:26565476

  15. Aplicação de SAM em liga de alumínio AA 2024-T3 com desengraxe alcalino Application of SAM in AA 2024-T3 aluminum alloy with alkaline degrease

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Viomar; André Lazarin Gallina; Isolda Costa; Maico Taras da Cunha; Paulo Rogério Pinto Rodrigues; Everson do Prado Banckzek

    2012-01-01

    As moléculas auto-organizáveis (SAM - Self Assembly Monolayer) são inibidoras de corrosão, devido à capacidade de se organizarem sobre superfícies formando filmes finos. A SAM apresenta elevada afinidade pelo óxido formado sobre o alumínio, porém as interações entre a camada de óxido e as SAM nem sempre são satisfatórias, pois o óxido formado na superfície apresenta heterogeneidades, que interferem na formação do filme de SAM. O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar a proteção à corrosão do alu...

  16. A Novel Palladium-catalyzed Amination of Aryl Halides with Amines Using rac-P-Phos as the Ligand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN, Huansheng; WANG, Quanrui; TAO, Fenggang

    2009-01-01

    An efficient palladium-catalyzed amination of aryl halides with amines, using rac-P-Phos as the ancillary ligand and Pd(OAc)2 as the palladium source is developed. The ligand and all of the synthetic intermediates are stable to air and moisture, allowing the easy handling. The catalyst system performed well for a large number of different substrate combinations in 80-110 ℃ to furnish aromatic amines in high yields.

  17. Arrays of high quality SAM-based junctions and their application in molecular diode based logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Albert; Suchand Sangeeth, C. S.; Wang, Lejia; Yuan, Li; Jiang, Li; Nijhuis, Christian A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes a method to fabricate a microfluidic top-electrode that can be utilized to generate arrays of self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based junctions. The top-electrodes consist of a liquid-metal of GaOx/EGaIn mechanically stabilized in microchannels and through-holes in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS); these top-electrodes form molecular junctions by directly placing them onto the SAM supported by template-stripped (TS) Ag or Au bottom-electrodes. Unlike conventional techniques to form multiple junctions, our method does not require lithography to pattern the bottom-electrode and is compatible with TS bottom-electrodes, which are ultra-flat with large grains, free from potential contamination of photoresist residues, and do not have electrode-edges where the molecules are unable to pack well. We formed tunneling junctions with n-alkanethiolate SAMs in yields of ~80%, with good reproducibility and electrical stability. Temperature dependent J(V) measurements indicated that the mechanism of charge transport across the junction is coherent tunneling. To demonstrate the usefulness of these junctions, we formed molecular diodes based on SAMs with Fc head groups. These junctions rectify currents with a rectification ratio R of 45. These molecular diodes were incorporated in simple electronic circuitry to demonstrate molecular diode-based Boolean logic.This paper describes a method to fabricate a microfluidic top-electrode that can be utilized to generate arrays of self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based junctions. The top-electrodes consist of a liquid-metal of GaOx/EGaIn mechanically stabilized in microchannels and through-holes in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS); these top-electrodes form molecular junctions by directly placing them onto the SAM supported by template-stripped (TS) Ag or Au bottom-electrodes. Unlike conventional techniques to form multiple junctions, our method does not require lithography to pattern the bottom-electrode and is compatible with TS

  18. Parabolic Trough Reference Plant for Cost Modeling with the Solar Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C.

    2010-07-01

    This report describes a component-based cost model developed for parabolic trough solar power plants. The cost model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), assisted by WorleyParsons Group Inc., for use with NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM). This report includes an overview and explanation of the model, two summary contract reports from WorleyParsons, and an Excel spreadsheet for use with SAM. The cost study uses a reference plant with a 100-MWe capacity and six hours of thermal energy storage. Wet-cooling and dry-cooling configurations are considered. The spreadsheet includes capital and operating cost by component to allow users to estimate the impact of changes in component costs.

  19. ISOE EG-SAM interim report - Report on behalf of the Sub expert Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During its November 2012 meeting, the expert group decided to develop an interim (preliminary) report before the end of 2013 (with a general perspective and discussion of specific severe accident management worker dose issues), and to finalize the report by organizing the international workshop of 2014 to address national experiences, which will be incorporated to the report. The work of the EG-SAM focuses on radiation protection management and organization, radiation protection training and exercises related to severe accident management, facility configuration and readiness, worker protection, radioactive materials, contamination controls and logistics and key lessons learned especially from the TMI, Chernobyl and Fukushima Dai-ichi accidents. This interim report was completed through intensive work of all Group members nominated by the ISOE, and was accomplished during EG-SAM meetings through 2012-2013. This document gathers the different presentations given by the sub expert groups in charge of each chapter of the report

  20. Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Bzdek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of charged species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS. Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid neutralization is cluster size-dependent. With increasing cluster size (and, therefore, a decreasing role of charge, both positively- and negatively-charged cluster compositions converge toward ammonium bisulfate. The reactivity of negatively-charged sulfuric acid-ammonia clusters with dimethylamine and ammonia is also investigated by FTICR-MS. Two series of negatively-charged clusters are investigated: [(HSO4(H2SO4x] and [(NH4x(HSO4x+1(H2SO43]. Dimethylamine substitution for ammonia in [(NH4 x(HSO4 x+1(H2SO43] clusters is nearly collision-limited, and subsequent addition of dimethylamine to neutralize H2SO4 to bisulfate is within one order of magnitude of the substitution rate. Dimethylamine addition to [(HSO4 (H2SO4 x] clusters is either not observed or very slow. The results of this study indicate that amine chemistry will be evident and important only in large ambient negative ions (>m/z 400, whereas amine chemistry may be evident in small ambient positive ions. Addition of ammonia to unneutralized clusters occurs at a rate that is ~2–3 orders of magnitude slower than incorporation of dimethylamine either by substitution or addition

  1. The touch terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Touch Terminal' is a microprocessor based intelligent terminal specially geared to the control of complex processes. It would be ideally suited to the control of a high energy physics experiment. It incorporates three of the features which have made the SPS control system a successful and widely acclaimed means of accelerator control. These are a 'touch panel' with computer writable legends, a full graphics display screen, and a high level interpretive programming language. It can be used in two modes. Firstly as a peripheral to any host computer, so providing the host with touch panel and display facilities at minimum overhead. Secondly it can be used as a stand alone system with its own high level NODAL language. The terminal is compact and uses an internal 11 slot CAMAC bus. This enables the power of the terminal to be increased by adding appropriate CAMAC modules. A CAMAC controller using a powerful microprocessor provides the intelligence for the terminal operation. (orig.)

  2. The Multiple Facets of Iodine(III) Compounds in an Unprecedented Catalytic Auto-amination for Chiral Amine Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendia, Julien; Grelier, Gwendal; Darses, Benjamin; Jarvis, Amanda G; Taran, Frédéric; Dauban, Philippe

    2016-06-20

    Iodine(III) reagents are used in catalytic one-pot reactions, first as both oxidants and substrates, then as cross-coupling partners, to afford chiral polyfunctionalized amines. The strategy relies on an initial catalytic auto C(sp(3) )-H amination of the iodine(III) oxidant, which delivers an amine-derived iodine(I) product that is subsequently used in palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings to afford a variety of useful building blocks with high yields and excellent stereoselectivities. This study demonstrates the concept of self-amination of the hypervalent iodine reagents, which increases the value of the aryl moiety. PMID:27158802

  3. Should India Use Commercially Produced Ready To Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF For Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    radha holla

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, nearly 20 million children under five suffer from Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM, a condition which contributes to one million child deaths annually. In India 48% of children under five years of age are stunted and 43 percent are underweight; almost 8 million suffer from SAM. Malnutrition is not a new problem in India, nor is SAM. Several hospitals and non-government organizations are engaged in community-based management of malnutrition using locally produced/procured and locally processed foods along with intensive nutrition education. These programs enable parents to meet the nutritional requirements of their children with foods that are available at low cost. The Supreme Court of India has also directed the government to universalize the Integrated Child Development Scheme and provide one hot cooked meal to children under six years of age to supplement their nutrition. The blame for the increasing number of severely malnourish children can be laid at the door of policies that have destroyed poor people’s access to food. Nonetheless, there is urgent need to ensure that these children do not die; that they recover and maintain a healthy nutritional status. The current thinking – that a centrally produced and processed Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food (RUTF should supplant the locally prepared indigenous foods in treatment of SAM – ignores the multiple causes of malnutrition and destroys the diversity of potential solutions based on locally available foods. This position paper has been drafted by Dr. Vandana Prasad, Radha Holla and Dr. Arun Gupta, members of the Working Group for Children Under Six – a joint effort of Jan Swasthya Abhiyan (People’s Health Movement – India and the Right to Food Campaign which been advocating for the last three years with the Indian government for decentralized and community-based strategies to combat and prevent malnutrition in children.

  4. Parabolic Trough Collector Cost Update for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report updates the baseline cost for parabolic trough solar fields in the United States within NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM). SAM, available at no cost at https://sam.nrel.gov/, is a performance and financial model designed to facilitate decision making for people involved in the renewable energy industry. SAM is the primary tool used by NREL and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for estimating the performance and cost of concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies and projects. The study performed a bottom-up build and cost estimate for two state-of-the-art parabolic trough designs -- the SkyTrough and the Ultimate Trough. The SkyTrough analysis estimated the potential installed cost for a solar field of 1500 SCAs as $170/m2 +/- $6/m2. The investigation found that SkyTrough installed costs were sensitive to factors such as raw aluminum alloy cost and production volume. For example, in the case of the SkyTrough, the installed cost would rise to nearly $210/m2 if the aluminum alloy cost was $1.70/lb instead of $1.03/lb. Accordingly, one must be aware of fluctuations in the relevant commodities markets to track system cost over time. The estimated installed cost for the Ultimate Trough was only slightly higher at $178/m2, which includes an assembly facility of $11.6 million amortized over the required production volume. Considering the size and overall cost of a 700 SCA Ultimate Trough solar field, two parallel production lines in a fully covered assembly facility, each with the specific torque box, module and mirror jigs, would be justified for a full CSP plant.

  5. Review of current Severe Accident Management (SAM) approaches for Nuclear Power Plants in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    HERMSMEYER Stephan; Iglesias, R.; Herranz, L; REER B.; SONNENKALB M; NOWACK H.; Stefanova, A.; Raimond, E.; CHATELARD P.; FOUCHER Laurent; BARNAK M.; MATEJOVIC P; PASCAL GHISLAIN; VELA GARCIA MONICA; SANGIORGI MARCO

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima accidents highlighted that both the in-depth understanding of such sequences and the development or improvement of adequate Severe Accident Management (SAM) measures are essential in order to further increase the safety of the nuclear power plants operated in Europe. To support this effort, the CESAM (Code for European Severe Accident Management) R&D project, coordinated by GRS, started in April 2013 for 4 years in the 7th EC Framework Programme of research and development of th...

  6. Radical SAM enzymes in the biosynthesis of sugar-containing natural products☆

    OpenAIRE

    Ruszczycky, Mark W.; Ogasawara, Yasushi; Liu, Hung-wen

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrates play a key role in the biological activity of numerous natural products. In many instances their biosynthesis requires radical mediated rearrangements, some of which are catalyzed by radical SAM enzymes. BtrN is one such enzyme responsible for the dehydrogenation of a secondary alcohol in the biosynthesis of 2-deoxystreptamine. DesII is another example that catalyzes a deamination reaction necessary for the net C4 deoxygenation of a glucose derivative en route to desosamine form...

  7. A Model of the Safe Asset Mechanism (SAM): Safety Traps and Economic Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero, Ricardo J; Emmanuel Farhi

    2013-01-01

    The global economy has a chronic shortage of safe assets which lies behind many recent macroeconomic imbalances. This paper provides a simple model of the Safe Asset Mechanism (SAM), its recessionary safety traps, and its policy antidotes. Safety traps share many common features with conventional liquidity traps, but also exhibit important differences, in particular with respect to their reaction to policy packages. In general, policy-puts (such as QE1, LTRO, fiscal policy, etc.) that support...

  8. STUDY OF ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY FOR COPPER NANOPARTICLES WITH VAPOR-DEPOSITED SAMs

    OpenAIRE

    GYE-YOUNG LEE; MI-RYN SEONG; JINHYEONG KWON; DONG-KWON KIM; CAROLINE SUNYONG LEE; GI-RA YI; YOUNG-SEOK KIM

    2009-01-01

    A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of octanethiol was vapor-deposited onto the surface of copper (Cu) nanoparticles as a means of preventing oxidation. The presence of octanethiol on the surface of Cu nanoparticles was verified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The electrical resistance of copper nanoparticles with deposition of a 12-nm thickness of octanethiol on the surface was found to be 100 times greater than that of uncoated powders, indic...

  9. Linear SAM models for inequality changes analysis: an application to the Extremadurian economy

    OpenAIRE

    de Miguel, Francisco Javier; Perez-Mayo, Jesus

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Social accounting matrices are adequate databases for the economic modelling. These matrices emphasize the role of households in the economy, and so, they usually disaggregate the household sector into several groups. This disaggregation allows social accounting matrices to be used for diverse income distribution analysis. The objective of this work is to use the linear SAM models to study how inequality is modified by several exogenous injections of income. The set of ...

  10. A quantitative analysis of Zimbabwe's land reform policy: An application of Zimbabwe SAM multipliers

    OpenAIRE

    Juana, James S.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to quantitatively investigate the economy-wide impact of land reform policies in Zimbabwe. Land reforms came with the realm of independence in Zimbabwe. Four models were used to implement the reform policies. The paper uses the updated 1991 Social Accounting Matrix for Zimbabwe and the Central Statistics Office's household data on resettled families in Zimbabwe. The paper computes the sectoral SAM multipliers and then uses household data on resettled families to simula...

  11. Chemoselective Reductive Amination of Carbonyl Compounds for the Synthesis of Tertiary Amines Using SnCl2·2H2O/PMHS/MeOH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayal, Onkar S; Bhatt, Vinod; Sharma, Sushila; Kumar, Neeraj

    2015-06-01

    Stannous chloride catalyzed chemoselective reductive amination of a variety of carbonyl compounds with aromatic amines has been developed for the synthesis of a diverse range of tertiary amines using inexpensive polymethylhydrosiloxane as reducing agent in methanol. The present method is also applicable for the synthesis of secondary amines including heterocyclic ones. PMID:25938581

  12. Conformational heterogeneity of the SAM-I riboswitch transcriptional ON state: a chaperone-like role for S-adenosyl methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Kim, Joohyun; Jha, Shantenu; Aboul-Ela, Fareed

    2012-05-18

    Riboswitches are promising targets for the design of novel antibiotics and engineering of portable genetic regulatory elements. There is evidence that variability in riboswitch properties allows tuning of expression for genes involved in different stages of biosynthetic pathways by mechanisms that are not currently understood. Here, we explore the mechanism for tuning of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-I riboswitch folding. Most SAM-I riboswitches function at the transcriptional level by sensing the cognate ligand SAM. SAM-I riboswitches orchestrate the biosynthetic pathways of cysteine, methionine, SAM, and so forth. We use base-pair probability predictions to examine the secondary-structure folding landscape of several SAM-I riboswitch sequences. We predict different folding behaviors for different SAM-I riboswitch sequences. We identify several "decoy" base-pairing interactions involving 5' riboswitch residues that can compete with the formation of a P1 helix, a component of the ligand-bound "transcription OFF" state, in the absence of SAM. We hypothesize that blockage of these interactions through SAM contacts contributes to stabilization of the OFF state in the presence of ligand. We also probe folding patterns for a SAM-I riboswitch RNA using constructs with different 3' truncation points experimentally. Folding was monitored through fluorescence, susceptibility to base-catalyzed cleavage, nuclear magnetic resonance, and indirectly through SAM binding. We identify key decision windows at which SAM can affect the folding pathway towards the OFF state. The presence of decoy conformations and differential sensitivities to SAM at different transcript lengths is crucial for SAM-I riboswitches to modulate gene expression in the context of global cellular metabolism. PMID:22425639

  13. Trace Amines and the Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1: Pharmacology, Neurochemistry and Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue ePei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines are a collection of endogenous molecules that play pivotal roles as neurotransmitters and hormones. In addition to the classical biogenic amines resulting from decarboxylation of aromatic acids, including dopamine (DA, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin (5-HT and histamine, other biogenic amines, present at much lower concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS, and hence referred to as trace amines (TAs, are now recognized to play significant neurophysiological and behavioural functions. At the turn of the century, the discovery of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1, a phylogenetically conserved G protein-coupled receptor that is responsive to both TAs, such as β-phenylethylamine, octopamine and tyramine, and structurally-related amphetamines, unveiled mechanisms of action for TAs other than interference with aminergic pathways, laying the foundations for deciphering the functional significance of TAs and its mammalian CNS receptor, TAAR1. Although its molecular interactions and downstream targets have not been fully elucidated, TAAR1 activation triggers accumulation of intracellular cAMP, modulates PKA and PKC signalling and interferes with the β-arrestin2-dependent pathway via G protein-independent mechanisms. TAAR1 is uniquely positioned to exert direct control over DA and 5-HT neuronal firing and release, which has profound implications for understanding the pathophysiology of, and therefore designing more efficacious therapeutic interventions for, a range of neuropsychiatric disorders that involve aminergic dysregulation, including Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, mood disorders and addiction. Indeed, the recent development of novel pharmacological tools targeting TAAR1 has uncovered the remarkable potential of TAAR1-based medications as new generation pharmacotherapies in neuropsychiatry. This review summarizes recent developments in the study of TAs and TAAR1, their intricate neurochemistry and

  14. Trace Amines and the Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1: Pharmacology, Neurochemistry, and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yue; Asif-Malik, Aman; Canales, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines are a collection of endogenous molecules that play pivotal roles as neurotransmitters and hormones. In addition to the "classical" biogenic amines resulting from decarboxylation of aromatic acids, including dopamine (DA), norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin (5-HT), and histamine, other biogenic amines, present at much lower concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS), and hence referred to as "trace" amines (TAs), are now recognized to play significant neurophysiological and behavioral functions. At the turn of the century, the discovery of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), a phylogenetically conserved G protein-coupled receptor that is responsive to both TAs, such as β-phenylethylamine, octopamine, and tyramine, and structurally-related amphetamines, unveiled mechanisms of action for TAs other than interference with aminergic pathways, laying the foundations for deciphering the functional significance of TAs and its mammalian CNS receptor, TAAR1. Although, its molecular interactions and downstream targets have not been fully elucidated, TAAR1 activation triggers accumulation of intracellular cAMP, modulates PKA and PKC signaling and interferes with the β-arrestin2-dependent pathway via G protein-independent mechanisms. TAAR1 is uniquely positioned to exert direct control over DA and 5-HT neuronal firing and release, which has profound implications for understanding the pathophysiology of, and therefore designing more efficacious therapeutic interventions for, a range of neuropsychiatric disorders that involve aminergic dysregulation, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, mood disorders, and addiction. Indeed, the recent development of novel pharmacological tools targeting TAAR1 has uncovered the remarkable potential of TAAR1-based medications as new generation pharmacotherapies in neuropsychiatry. This review summarizes recent developments in the study of TAs and TAAR1, their intricate neurochemistry and

  15. One-pot synthesis of hyperbranched poly(amido amine) clicked with a sugar shell via Michael addition polymerization and thiol click reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the production of glycopolymers via a simple and flexible method.A novel glycopolymer with a hyperbranched poly(amido amine) core and a sugar shell (HPAA-GLc) was synthesized by using thiol-ene click reaction via facile one-pot method.Hyperbranched poly(amido amine) with vinyl terminals was first synthesized by Michael addition polymerization of N,N’-methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) with 1-(2-aminoethyl) piperazine (AEPZ).Subsequently,thiol-ene click reaction between vinyl units of hyperbranched poly(amido amine) and thio-glucose was performed in situ.Based on the NMR result,all the vinyl groups reacted with thiol-glucose in 120 min.Strong photoluminescence emission was observed from the aqueous solution of HPAA-GLc.

  16. Integration, Validation, and Application of a PV Snow Coverage Model in SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryberg, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Freeman, Janine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Due to the increasing deployment of PV systems in snowy climates, there is significant interest in a method capable of estimating PV losses resulting from snow coverage that has been verified for a wide variety of system designs and locations. A scattering of independent snow coverage models have been developed over the last 15 years; however, there has been very little effort spent on verifying these models beyond the system design and location on which they were based. Moreover, none of the major PV modeling software products have incorporated any of these models into their workflow. In response to this deficiency, we have integrated the methodology of the snow model developed in the paper by Marion et al. [1] into the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) System Advisor Model (SAM). In this work we describe how the snow model is implemented in SAM and discuss our demonstration of the model's effectiveness at reducing error in annual estimations for two PV arrays. Following this, we use this new functionality in conjunction with a long term historical dataset to estimate average snow losses across the United States for a typical PV system design. The open availability of the snow loss estimation capability in SAM to the PV modeling community, coupled with our results of the nation-wide study, will better equip the industry to accurately estimate PV energy production in areas affected by snowfall.

  17. International ISOE Workshop - Direction Forward for the Finalization of the EG-SAM Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the ISOE Expert Group on Occupational Radiation Protection in Severe Accident Management and Post-accident Recovery (EG-SAM) is to develop a report on best radiation protection management procedures for proper radiation protection job coverage during severe accident initial response and recovery efforts to identify good radiation protection practices and to organise and communicate radiation protection lessons learned from previous reactor accidents. The outcome of the work will be a new ISOE publication on Occupational Radiation Protection in severe accident management that will find broad use within the NPP radiation protection community. The EG-SAM has finalized an interim report which was presented at the Washington workshop. The interim report covered the following topics: RP Management and Organisation; RP Training and Exercises related to Severe Accident Management; Facility Configuration and Readiness; Overall Approach for Worker Protection; Monitoring and Managing the Radioactive Releases and Contamination; Key Lessons Learned from Past Accidents; Conclusions. Utilities and Regulatory Authorities have identified the factors and aspects which play key roles in achieving good practices on occupational radiation protection in severe accident management and post-accident recovery: knowledge, experience, technology, regulatory requirements and guidance, worker involvement, information exchange, training aspects, etc. They have analysed and quantified their impact on worker doses, and submitted recommendations for further work. The next step will be a final meeting of the EG-SAM for the finalization of the report with workshop inputs before its submission for approval

  18. Technical report: Reliability and validity of the iSAM 9000 isokinetic dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orri, Julia C; Darden, Gibson F

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the mechanical reliability and validity of the INRTEK iSAM 9000 isokinetic dynamometer, and compared the obtained torque values of the prototype device with those from a traditional device. Sixty volunteers (40 men and 20 women) were tested at 60 degrees per second for shoulder, knee, and trunk flexion, and extension on both the Cybex 6000 and a new isokinetic dynamometer (iSAM 9000). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and standard errors of measurement (SEM) revealed a high level of reproducibility and precision in the device's torque measurements (ICC range = 0.94-0.98; SEM range = 5.2-29.7). Pearson r values revealed very high relationships between the two instruments (set 1: r = 0.84-0.93; set 2: r = 0.87-0.93; P iSAM 9000 compared to the Cybex 6000 (P < 0.05). The strong ICCs and small SEMs support the device's mechanical reliability and validity. The high correlation coefficients between the prototype dynamometer and the Cybex 6000 support the new device's validity in the measurement of isokinetic torque. The findings of this study will be used to refine the next generation of the INRTEK isokinetic device with respect to test protocols and the reliability of measuring human muscle performance. PMID:18296991

  19. Background and Artifacts Generated by the by the Sample Preparation Experiment on SAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmahdi, Imene; Buch, Arnaud; Szopa, Cyril; Freissinet, Caroline; Glavin, Daniel; Coll, Patrice; Cabane, Michel; Millan, Maeva; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Stern, Jennifer; Coscia, David; Bonnet, Jean-Yves; Teinturier, Samuel; Morisson, Marietta; Stambouli, Moncef; Dequaire, Tristan; Mahaffy, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) is one of the instruments of the Mars Science Laboratory mission. Three analytical devices composed the SAM experiment: the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS), the Gas Chromatography (GC) and the Mass Spectrometer (MS). To adapt the nature of a sample to the analytical devices used, a sample preparation and gas processing system implemented with (a) a pyrolysis system, (b) wet chemistry: MTBSTFA and TMAH (c) the hydrocarbon trap (silica beads, Tenax® TA and Carbosieve G) and the injection trap (Tenax® GR composed of Tenax® TA and 30% of graphite) are employed to concentrate volatiles released from the sample prior to GC-MS analysis. Our study investigates several propositions for chlorinated hydrocarbon formation detected in the SAM background by looking for: (a) all products coming from the interaction of Tenax® and perchlorates present on Mars, (b) also between some soil sample and perchlorates and (c) sources of chlorinated hydrocarbon precursors. Here we report on the detection of chlorohydrocarbon compounds and their potential origin.

  20. Evidence for Perchlorates and the Origin of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Detected by SAM at the Rocknest Aeolian Deposit in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Freissinet, Caroline; Miller, Kristen E.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Brunner, Anna E.; Buch, Arnaud; Sutter, Brad; Archer, P. Douglas, Jr.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Cabane, Michel; Coll, Patrice; Conrad, Pamela G.; Coscia, David; Dworkin, Jason P.; Franz, Heather B.; Grotzinger, John P.; Leshin, Laurie A.; Martin, Mildred G.; McKay, Christopher; Ming, Douglas W.; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Pavlov, Alexander; Steele, Andrew; Summons, Roger E.; Szopa, Cyril; Teinturier, Samuel; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    A single scoop of the Rocknest aeolian deposit was sieved (less than 150 micrometers), and four separate sample portions, each with a mass of approximately 50 mg, were delivered to individual cups inside the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument by the Mars Science Laboratory rover's sample acquisition system. The samples were analyzed separately by the SAM pyrolysis evolved gas and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer analysis modes. Several chlorinated hydrocarbons including chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, a chloromethylpropene, and chlorobenzene were identified by SAM above background levels with abundances of approximately 0.01 to 2.3 nmol. The evolution of the chloromethanes observed during pyrolysis is coincident with the increase in O2 released from the Rocknest sample and the decomposition of a product of N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA), a chemical whose vapors were released from a derivatization cup inside SAM. The best candidate for the oxychlorine compounds in Rocknest is a hydrated calcium perchlorate (Ca(ClO4)2·nH2O), based on the temperature release of O2 that correlates with the release of the chlorinated hydrocarbons measured by SAM, although other chlorine-bearing phases are being considered. Laboratory analog experiments suggest that the reaction of Martian chlorine from perchlorate decomposition with terrestrial organic carbon from MTBSTFA during pyrolysis can explain the presence of three chloromethanes and a chloromethylpropene detected by SAM. Chlorobenzene may be attributed to reactions of Martian chlorine released during pyrolysis with terrestrial benzene or toluene derived from 2,6-diphenylphenylene oxide (Tenax) on the SAM hydrocarbon trap. At this time we do not have definitive evidence to support a nonterrestrial carbon source for these chlorinated hydrocarbons, nor do we exclude the possibility that future SAM analyses will reveal the presence of organic compounds native to the