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Sample records for amine oxime leucocyte

  1. Contribution of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime labelled leucocyte scintigraphy to the diagnosis of diabetic foot infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, A.; Moisan, A.; Garin, E.; Bourguet, P.; Hennion, F.; Poirier, J.Y.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted a prospective study in order to evaluate the contribution of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) labelled leucocyte scintigraphy to the diagnosis and follow-up of osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot. The study was conducted between October 1992 and November 1996 and included 42 patients (30 men and 12 women; mean age 63 years) with diabetes mellitus (type 1, n = 22, type 2, n = 20) who had a total of 56 diabetic foot ulcers. The initial exploration included standard radiography, three-phase bone scintigraphy and 99m Tc-HMPAO labelled leucocyte scintigraphy (HMPAO-LS), performed within a 3-day interval. For the 56 ulceration sites, 26 cases of osteomyelitis were diagnosed: ten on the basis of radiographic and histological/bacteriological criteria after bone biopsy, 11 after radiographic follow-up and five on the basis of biopsy results alone. No osteomyelitis was present at 30 sites, there were seven cases of cellulitis. The sensitivity and specificity of 99m Tc-HMPAO-LS were 88.4% and 96.6% respectively (23 true-positives, 29 true-negatives, one false-positive, three false-negatives). The accuracy of radiography, 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate and HMPAO-LS was 69.6%, 62.5%, and 92.9%, respectively. Follow-up scintigraphy (n = 14) 4 months after initial diagnosis and 1 month after antibiotic withdrawal confirmed cure of osteomyelitis despite the absence of complete clinical regression of the ulcers. In conclusion, 99m Tc-HMPAO labelled leucocyte scintigraphy was found to be an excellent method for the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot. It can contribute to follow-up, particularly when clinical regression of perforating ulcers is incomplete and cure of osteomyelitis must be confirmed in order that antibiotic treatment may be discontinued. (orig.)

  2. Contribution of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime labelled leucocyte scintigraphy to the diagnosis of diabetic foot infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devillers, A.; Moisan, A.; Garin, E.; Bourguet, P. [CRLCC Eugene Marquis, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Rennes (France); Hennion, F.; Poirier, J.Y. [CHRU Pontchaillou, Service d`Endocrinologie, Rennes (France)

    1998-02-01

    We conducted a prospective study in order to evaluate the contribution of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) labelled leucocyte scintigraphy to the diagnosis and follow-up of osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot. The study was conducted between October 1992 and November 1996 and included 42 patients (30 men and 12 women; mean age 63 years) with diabetes mellitus (type 1, n = 22, type 2, n = 20) who had a total of 56 diabetic foot ulcers. The initial exploration included standard radiography, three-phase bone scintigraphy and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO labelled leucocyte scintigraphy (HMPAO-LS), performed within a 3-day interval. For the 56 ulceration sites, 26 cases of osteomyelitis were diagnosed: ten on the basis of radiographic and histological/bacteriological criteria after bone biopsy, 11 after radiographic follow-up and five on the basis of biopsy results alone. No osteomyelitis was present at 30 sites, there were seven cases of cellulitis. The sensitivity and specificity of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-LS were 88.4% and 96.6% respectively (23 true-positives, 29 true-negatives, one false-positive, three false-negatives). The accuracy of radiography, {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate and HMPAO-LS was 69.6%, 62.5%, and 92.9%, respectively. Follow-up scintigraphy (n = 14) 4 months after initial diagnosis and 1 month after antibiotic withdrawal confirmed cure of osteomyelitis despite the absence of complete clinical regression of the ulcers. In conclusion, {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO labelled leucocyte scintigraphy was found to be an excellent method for the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot. It can contribute to follow-up, particularly when clinical regression of perforating ulcers is incomplete and cure of osteomyelitis must be confirmed in order that antibiotic treatment may be discontinued. (orig.) With 5 figs., 3 tabs., 28 refs.

  3. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime leucocyte scintigraphy for the diagnosis of bone and joint infections: a retrospective study in 116 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, A.; Moisan, A.; Jean, S.; Arvieux, C.; Bourguet, P.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime leucocyte scintigraphy (HMPAO-LS) by means of a retrospective review of 116 patients divided into three groups of bone and joint infection. One hundred and thirty-one LS examinations were performed, and 143 sites analysed. The final diagnosis of infection was based on surgical, histological and bacteriological data and follow-up. Ninety-four suspected localizations were examined in group 1, which included 74 patients with an infection suspected to involve orthopaedic implants. In this group, there were 38 true-positives, 1 false-negative, 49 true-negatives and 6 false-positives. Surgical confirmation was obtained in 34 cases. In group 2 (24 patients with suspected osteomyelitis), there were 27 localizations of which 14 were true-positives and 13 were true-negatives (including seven surgical confirmations). In group 3 (18 patients suspected of septic arthritis) there were eight true-positives, two false-negatives, ten true-negatives and two false-positives. Overall sensitivity of 99m Tc-HMPAO-LS for the detection of bone and joint infection was 95%, with a specificity of 90% (group 1: sensitivity 97%, specificity 89%; group 2: 100% and 100%; group 3: 80% and 83%). It may be concluded that HMPAO-LS is an effective tool for the diagnosis of both bone infection involving implants and chronic osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  4. A neutral lipophilic complex of sup(99m)Tc with a multidentate amine oxime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troutner, D.E.; Volkert, W.A.; Hoffman, T.J.; Holmes, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Propylene amine oxime, 3,3'-(1,3-propanediyldiimino)bis(3-methyl-2-butanone)dioxime, (PnAO) forms a neutral lipophilic complex with sup(99m)Tc in >95% yield at room temperature at pH 5-10. The complex can be prepared with generator produced sup(99m)Tc using 10 -5 M SnC 4 H 4 O 6 as the reducing agent at ligand concentrations as low as 3 x 10 -5 M. It is stable in saline solutions for as long as 24 h. [Sup(99m)Tc]PnAO may be useful as an imaging agent which passively diffuses across the blood brain barrier. (author)

  5. A comparative technetium 99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime SPET study in different types of dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habert, M O; Piketty, M L; Askienazy, S [Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, 75 - Paris (France). Dept. de Medecine Nucleaire; Spampinato, U; Mas, J L; Recondo, J de; Rondot, P [Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, 75 - Paris (France). Dept. de Neurologie; Bourdel, M C [Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, 75 - Paris (France). Dept. de Psychiatrie

    1991-01-01

    Regional cerebral perfusion was evaluated by single photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium 99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) as a tracer, in 13 control subjects and 44 age-matched patients suffering from dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT, n=19) presumed Pick's disease (n=5), idiopathic Parkinson's disease with dementia (DPD, n=15) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, n=5), HMPAO uptake was measured in the superior frontal, inferior frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortices, and the perfusion values were expressed as cortical/cerebellar activity ratios. As compared with controls, tracer uptake ratios in the DAT group were signficantly reduced over all cortical regions, with the largest defects in the parieto-temporal and superior frontal cortices. A marked hypoperfusion affecting the superior and inferior frontal cortices was found in Pick's diesease, whereas a mild but significant hypoperfusion was observed only in the superior frontal cortex of patients with PSP. In the DPD group, HMPAO uptake was significantly reduced in the parietal, temporal and occipital cortices, but not in the frontal cortex. These results show that DAT and DPD share the opposite anteroposterior HMPAO uptake defect as compared with the Pick's and PSP groups. (orig.).

  6. A comparative technetium 99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime SPET study in different types of dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habert, M.O.; Piketty, M.L.; Askienazy, S. (Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, 75 - Paris (France). Dept. de Medecine Nucleaire); Spampinato, U.; Mas, J.L.; Recondo, J. de; Rondot, P. (Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, 75 - Paris (France). Dept. de Neurologie); Bourdel, M.C. (Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, 75 - Paris (France). Dept. de Psychiatrie)

    1991-01-01

    Regional cerebral perfusion was evaluated by single photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium 99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) as a tracer, in 13 control subjects and 44 age-matched patients suffering from dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT, n=19) presumed Pick's disease (n=5), idiopathic Parkinson's disease with dementia (DPD, n=15) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, n=5), HMPAO uptake was measured in the superior frontal, inferior frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortices, and the perfusion values were expressed as cortical/cerebellar activity ratios. As compared with controls, tracer uptake ratios in the DAT group were signficantly reduced over all cortical regions, with the largest defects in the parieto-temporal and superior frontal cortices. A marked hypoperfusion affecting the superior and inferior frontal cortices was found in Pick's diesease, whereas a mild but significant hypoperfusion was observed only in the superior frontal cortex of patients with PSP. In the DPD group, HMPAO uptake was significantly reduced in the parietal, temporal and occipital cortices, but not in the frontal cortex. These results show that DAT and DPD share the opposite anteroposterior HMPAO uptake defect as compared with the Pick's and PSP groups. (orig.).

  7. Oxidation of primary amines to oximes with molecular oxygen using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and WO3/Al2O3 as catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ken; Watanabe, Tomonari; Murahashi, Shun-Ichi

    2013-03-15

    The oxidative transformation of primary amines to their corresponding oximes proceeds with high efficiency under molecular oxygen diluted with molecular nitrogen (O2/N2 = 7/93 v/v, 5 MPa) in the presence of the catalysts 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and tungusten oxide/alumina (WO3/Al2O3). The method is environmentally benign, because the reaction requires only molecular oxygen as the terminal oxidant and gives water as a side product. Various alicyclic amines and aliphatic amines can be converted to their corresponding oximes in excellent yields. It is noteworthy that the oxidative transformation of primary amines proceeds chemoselectively in the presence of other functional groups. The key step of the present oxidation is a fast electron transfer from the primary amine to DPPH followed by proton transfer to give the α-aminoalkyl radical intermediate, which undergoes reaction with molecular oxygen and hydrogen abstraction to give α-aminoalkyl hydroperoxide. Subsequent reaction of the peroxide with WO3/Al2O3 gives oximes. The aerobic oxidation of secondary amines gives the corresponding nitrones. Aerobic oxidative transformation of cyclohexylamines to cyclohexanone oximes is important as a method for industrial production of ε-caprolactam, a raw material for Nylon 6.

  8. Evaluation of technetium 99m cyclobutylpropylene amine oxime as a potential brain perfusion imaging agent for SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacciottini, L.; Pupi, A.; Formiconi, A.R.; De Cristofaro, M.T.R.; Petti, A.R.M.; Meldolesi, U.

    1990-01-01

    99m Tc-labelled d,l-cyclobutylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-CBPAO) has been developed as a brain imaging agent for single photon emission tomography (SPET). 99m Tc-CBPAO can be prepared using a simple labelling procedure suitable for routine clinical use. It has a high in vitro stability, as has been demonstrated by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPCL) analysis. This shows that 3 h after labelling, less than 5% of the primary lipophilic complex which is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) converts to a secondary hydrophilic complex. Brain uptake (% dose/g wet tissue) of 99m Tc-CBPAO, determined at 5 and 30 min after injection in two groups of six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, was found to be 0.74±0.06 and 0.73±0.13 (mean±SD), respectively. These values are not significantly different from those obtained repeating the experiment with 99m Tc-labelled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) (0.72±0.15 at 5 min and 0.88±0.24 at 30 min after injection). Since the rat brain uptake of 99m Tc-CBPAO remained unchanged for a period of time suitable for tomographic study, the comparison of the two tracers was extended to two groups of ten patients. The latter were affected by neurological and psychiatric disorders and were studied with SPET. Human brain uptake (% dose/cc cortical grey matter) of 99m Tc-CBPAO and 99m Tc-HMPAO were 3.04±0.57 and 4.22±0.46 (mean x 10 -3 ±SD x 10 -3 ), respectively, with a 32% significant difference. In two other groups of five patients, the first transit time-activity curves of the two tracers were compared. From the analysis of these curves we suggest that 99m Tc-CBPAO has a higher binding effect on blood components and/or a higher degradation rate in blood than that of 99m Tc-HMPAO. This may account for the reduced human brain uptake. In conclusion, SPET images of 99m Tc-CBPAO reflect blood perfusion, and they have a good diagnostic quality. The main advantage of 99m Tc-CBPAO is its in vitro stability

  9. Brain single-photon emission tomography with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime in adolscents with intial-stage schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, J.F.; Galiano, M.C.; Torres, L.A.; Hernandez, M.C.; Sosa, F.; Perera, A.; Perez, M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to search for regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormalities in adolescents with initial-stage schizophrenia by means of brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO). SPET studies were performed on a homogeneous sample of 15 carefully selected adolescents with a recent diagnosis of schizophrenia, and without previous electroconvulsive or antipsychotic drug treatment. Computed tomography (CT) and electro-encephalographic (EEG) studies were performed in all patients. Qualitative and semiquantitative analysis of 99m Tc-HMPAO SPET studies showed an impaired rCBF in 12 patients (80%). The most common pattern was a decreased uptake of 99m Tc-HMPAO in the frontal lobes, usually in the left hemisphere. Conventional and quantitative EEG was positive in 12 (80%) and 15 (100%) patients, respectively. CT findings were positive in two patients (13%). There was a high level of concordance between SPET and EEG results and between SPET and clinical features (P > 0.05). This study suggests that previously untreated patients in the first stages of schizophrenia present functional abnormalities that are revealed by brain SPET. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of dysthymic disorder with technetium-99 m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain single-photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarikaya, A.; Cermik, T.F. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Trakya University, Faculty of Medicine, Edirne (Turkey); Karasin, E.; Abay, E. [Department of Psychiatry, Trakya University, Faculty of Medicine, Edirne (Turkey); Berkarda, S.

    1999-03-01

    Dysthymic disorder is a chronic disorder characterised by the presence of a depressed mood and is classified as a distinct category in DSM-IV, separately from major depression. Although brain imaging studies have been performed in major depressive disease, there have to date been no reports of such studies in dysthymic disorder. In this study 36 patients with dysthymic disorder were compared with 16 normal subjects using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain single-photon emission tomography. A relative blood flow ratio was calculated for each region of interest using the average tissue activity in the region divided by activity in the cerebellum. There were significant differences in the bilateral inferior frontal, bilateral parietal, right superior frontal and left posterior temporal regions in the patients with dysthymic disorder compared with the healthy controls. These findings support the hypothesis that the biological bases for dysthymic disorder and major depression are similar. Recognition of these regional abnormalities may have clinical utility in both the diagnosis and the treatment of dysthymic disorder. Further studies are needed to confirm our results and to assess the influence of treatment in patients with dysthymic disorder. (orig.) With 1 fig., 1 tab., 26 refs.

  11. Evaluation of dysthymic disorder with technetium-99 m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain single-photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarikaya, A.; Cermik, T.F.; Karasin, E.; Abay, E.; Berkarda, S.

    1999-01-01

    Dysthymic disorder is a chronic disorder characterised by the presence of a depressed mood and is classified as a distinct category in DSM-IV, separately from major depression. Although brain imaging studies have been performed in major depressive disease, there have to date been no reports of such studies in dysthymic disorder. In this study 36 patients with dysthymic disorder were compared with 16 normal subjects using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain single-photon emission tomography. A relative blood flow ratio was calculated for each region of interest using the average tissue activity in the region divided by activity in the cerebellum. There were significant differences in the bilateral inferior frontal, bilateral parietal, right superior frontal and left posterior temporal regions in the patients with dysthymic disorder compared with the healthy controls. These findings support the hypothesis that the biological bases for dysthymic disorder and major depression are similar. Recognition of these regional abnormalities may have clinical utility in both the diagnosis and the treatment of dysthymic disorder. Further studies are needed to confirm our results and to assess the influence of treatment in patients with dysthymic disorder. (orig.)

  12. Application of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single-photon emission tomography to neurologic prognosis in patients undergoing urgent carotid surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvera, I.Y.; Cherniavsky, A.M.; Ussov, W.Yu.; Plotnikov, M.P.; Sokolov, A.A.; Shipulin, V.M.; Chernov, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    In this study we aimed to work out a quantitative prognostic index for preoperative assessment of brain technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) single-photon emission tomography (SPET) in patients referred for urgent carotid endarterectomy due to acute abstructive disease of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and neurological deficit. To this end we compared data from preoperative SPET studies with the postinterventional changes in neurological status in 20 patients (17 males, three females; mean age 53 years, SD 4 years) with acute ischaemic cerebral disorders induced by obstruction of the ICA. Carotid obstruction was diagnosed by ultrasound B-mode study. All patients underwent urgent carotid endarterectomy from the ICA. Patients were divided into two groups in accordance with the results of postoperative follow-up: group A comprised patients with significant (more than 3 points) postoperative improvement in neurological condition as quantified by the Canadian Neurological Scale (11 patients); group B consisted of patients with minimal improvement or deterioration (nine, three of whom died). All patients were studied preoperatively by 99m Tc-HMPAO SPET. The volume of nonperfused tissue (VS, cm 3 ) was quantified using the Mountz technique. Hypoperfused volume (V hypoperf , cm 3 ) in the affected hemisphere was calculated as the total volume of voxels with 99m Tc-HMPAO uptake hypoperf ). Patients with preoperative PF values 8.90 comprised patients who demonstrated minimal improvement or deterioration. PF values in the range 8.20-8.90 carried an indefinite prognosis. (orig.)

  13. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single photon emission tomography of the brain in early Parkinson's disease: correlation with dementia and lateralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuujiun; Lin Kerneng; Shan Dinge; Liao Kwankum; Fuh Jongling; Lee Liangshong; Liu Renshyan; Liu Hsiuchih

    1993-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was assessed in 19 patients with early idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and 12 control subjects of similar age by single-photon emission tomography using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO). Of the patients with PD, seven were mildly demented and 15 presented with hemiparkinsonism. Mean HMPAO cortical or basal ganglia/cerebellum activity ratios were calculated. Mean cortical and regional uptake ratios in non-demented PD patients were not significantly different from values in the controls. In contrast, besides generalized cortical hypoperfusion, demented PD patients had significantly lower HMPAO uptake in the frontal and basal ganglia regions than non-demented patients. These observations support the hypothesis of impaired neuronal activity in both cortical and subcortical regions of the brain in demented PD patients. In hemiparkinsonian patients, the only asymmetrical finding was a relative hypoperfusion in the contralateral parietal region. This may be due to deafferentation of the thalamoparietal pathways. The lack of asymmetrical uptake in basal ganglia in our PD patients may be explained by their staging at the time of the investigation (stage I and II, Hoehn and Yahr scale). (orig.)

  14. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single photon emission tomography of the brain in early Parkinson's disease: correlation with dementia and lateralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shuujiun; Lin Kerneng; Shan Dinge; Liao Kwankum; Fuh Jongling; Lee Liangshong (National Yang-Ming Medical Coll., Taipei (Taiwan)); Liu Renshyan (Veterans General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Liu Hsiuchih (Veterans General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan). Neurological Inst.)

    1993-04-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was assessed in 19 patients with early idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and 12 control subjects of similar age by single-photon emission tomography using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO). Of the patients with PD, seven were mildly demented and 15 presented with hemiparkinsonism. Mean HMPAO cortical or basal ganglia/cerebellum activity ratios were calculated. Mean cortical and regional uptake ratios in non-demented PD patients were not significantly different from values in the controls. In contrast, besides generalized cortical hypoperfusion, demented PD patients had significantly lower HMPAO uptake in the frontal and basal ganglia regions than non-demented patients. These observations support the hypothesis of impaired neuronal activity in both cortical and subcortical regions of the brain in demented PD patients. In hemiparkinsonian patients, the only asymmetrical finding was a relative hypoperfusion in the contralateral parietal region. This may be due to deafferentation of the thalamoparietal pathways. The lack of asymmetrical uptake in basal ganglia in our PD patients may be explained by their staging at the time of the investigation (stage I and II, Hoehn and Yahr scale). (orig.).

  15. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single photon emission tomography of the brain in early Parkinson's disease: correlation with dementia and lateralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuujiun, Wang; Kerneng, Lin; Dinge, Shan; Kwankum, Liao; Jongling, Fuh; Liangshong, Lee [National Yang-Ming Medical Coll., Taipei (Taiwan); Renshyan, Liu [Veterans General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Hsiuchih, Liu [Veterans General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan). Neurological Inst.

    1993-04-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was assessed in 19 patients with early idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and 12 control subjects of similar age by single-photon emission tomography using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO). Of the patients with PD, seven were mildly demented and 15 presented with hemiparkinsonism. Mean HMPAO cortical or basal ganglia/cerebellum activity ratios were calculated. Mean cortical and regional uptake ratios in non-demented PD patients were not significantly different from values in the controls. In contrast, besides generalized cortical hypoperfusion, demented PD patients had significantly lower HMPAO uptake in the frontal and basal ganglia regions than non-demented patients. These observations support the hypothesis of impaired neuronal activity in both cortical and subcortical regions of the brain in demented PD patients. In hemiparkinsonian patients, the only asymmetrical finding was a relative hypoperfusion in the contralateral parietal region. This may be due to deafferentation of the thalamoparietal pathways. The lack of asymmetrical uptake in basal ganglia in our PD patients may be explained by their staging at the time of the investigation (stage I and II, Hoehn and Yahr scale). (orig.).

  16. Reliability of low-frequency auditory stimulation studies associated with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single-photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Saco, Y.; Turzo, A.; Guias, B.; Morin, P.P. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 29 - Brest (France). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Jezequel, J. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 29 - Brest (France). Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology); Robier, A. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 37 - Tours (France). Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology); Baulieu, J.L. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 37 - Tours (France). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1993-05-01

    Development of auditory stimulation tests associated with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) shows evidence of variations in perfusion related to the stimuli. Three brain SPET examinations with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime were performed on eight right-handed adults with normal hearing, the first one without stimulation and the other two associated with a 500-Hz/30-dB stimulation of the right ear. Temporal regions of interest covering auditory areas, as well as parietal ones (internal control), were drawn on three successive coronal slices. A cortico-cerebellar index R was calculated, and the variation in activity was defined for each subject using the ratio R[sub poststimulation] - R[sub prestimulation]/R[sub prest]u[sub mulation]. A significant increase in the temporal cortex count occurred in all subjects. This increase was bilateral, except for one subject in whom it was not significant on the right side. This result recurred during the second stimulation study. Overall the response of the left temporal cortex was stronger, although the asymmetry was not significant. The asymmetry repeated itself after each stimulation. The perfursion response is globally reliable in our study. We must ascertainhow sensitive this test is with regard to deaf adults and adults with normal hearing before extending its use to children. (orig.).

  17. Reliability of low-frequency auditory stimulation studies associated with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single-photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Saco, Y.; Turzo, A.; Guias, B.; Morin, P.P.; Jezequel, J.; Robier, A.; Baulieu, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Development of auditory stimulation tests associated with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) shows evidence of variations in perfusion related to the stimuli. Three brain SPET examinations with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime were performed on eight right-handed adults with normal hearing, the first one without stimulation and the other two associated with a 500-Hz/30-dB stimulation of the right ear. Temporal regions of interest covering auditory areas, as well as parietal ones (internal control), were drawn on three successive coronal slices. A cortico-cerebellar index R was calculated, and the variation in activity was defined for each subject using the ratio R poststimulation - R prestimulation /R prest u mulation . A significant increase in the temporal cortex count occurred in all subjects. This increase was bilateral, except for one subject in whom it was not significant on the right side. This result recurred during the second stimulation study. Overall the response of the left temporal cortex was stronger, although the asymmetry was not significant. The asymmetry repeated itself after each stimulation. The perfursion response is globally reliable in our study. We must ascertainhow sensitive this test is with regard to deaf adults and adults with normal hearing before extending its use to children. (orig.)

  18. Cortical perfusion response to an electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve in profoundly deaf patients: Study with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Scao, Y.; Robier, A.; Beuter, P.; Baulieu, J.L.; Pourcelot, L.

    1992-01-01

    Brain activation procedures associated with single photon emission tomography (SPET) have recently been developed in healthy controls and diseased patients in order to help in their diagnosis and treatment. We investigated the effects of a promontory test (PT) on the cerebral distribution of technetium-99m hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) in 7 profoundly deaf patients, 6 PT+ and PT-. The count variation in the temporal lobe was calculated on 6 coronal slices using the ratio (R stimulation -R deprivation )/R deprivation where R=counts in the temporal lobe was observed in all patients and was higher in all patients with PT+ than in the patient with PT-. The problems of head positioning and resolution of the system were taken into account, and we considered that the maximal count increment was related to the auditory cortex response to the stimulus. Further clinical investigations with high-resolution systems have to be performed in order to validate this presurgery test in cochlear implant assessment. (orig.)

  19. Cortical perfusion response to an electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve in profoundly deaf patients: Study with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Scao, Y.; Robier, A.; Beuter, P. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 37 - Tours (France). Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology); Baulieu, J.L.; Pourcelot, L. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 37 - Tours (France). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1992-04-01

    Brain activation procedures associated with single photon emission tomography (SPET) have recently been developed in healthy controls and diseased patients in order to help in their diagnosis and treatment. We investigated the effects of a promontory test (PT) on the cerebral distribution of technetium-99m hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) in 7 profoundly deaf patients, 6 PT+ and PT-. The count variation in the temporal lobe was calculated on 6 coronal slices using the ratio (R{sub stimulation}-R{sub deprivation})/R{sub deprivation} where R=counts in the temporal lobe was observed in all patients and was higher in all patients with PT+ than in the patient with PT-. The problems of head positioning and resolution of the system were taken into account, and we considered that the maximal count increment was related to the auditory cortex response to the stimulus. Further clinical investigations with high-resolution systems have to be performed in order to validate this presurgery test in cochlear implant assessment. (orig.).

  20. Cortical perfusion response to an electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve in profoundly deaf patients: study with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single photon emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Scao, Y; Robier, A; Baulieu, J L; Beutter, P; Pourcelot, L

    1992-01-01

    Brain activation procedures associated with single photon emission tomography (SPET) have recently been developed in healthy controls and diseased patients in order to help in their diagnosis and treatment. We investigated the effects of a promontory test (PT) on the cerebral distribution of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) in 7 profoundly deaf patients, 6 PT+ and one PT-. The count variation in the temporal lobe was calculated on 6 coronal slices using the ratio (Rstimulation-Rdeprivation)/Rdeprivation where R = counts in the temporal lobe/whole-brain count. A count increase in the temporal lobe was observed in all patients and was higher in all patients with PT+ than in the patient with PT-. The problems of head positioning and resolution of the system were taken into account, and we considered that the maximal count increment was related to the auditory cortex response to the stimulus. Further clinical investigations with high-resolution systems have to be performed in order to validate this presurgery test in cochlear implant assessment.

  1. Diagnosis of pyogenic pelvic inflammatory diseases by {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachinsky, I.; Boguslavsky, L.; Golan, H.; Lantsberg, S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev (Israel); Goldstein, D.; Pak, I.; Katz, M. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2000-12-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is one of the major health problems of women of child-bearing age. Among the most serious complications of PID is the formation of a tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA). Early diagnosis of this condition may prevent serious surgical complications such as peritonitis and sepsis, which may be fatal. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) leucocyte scintigraphy in the diagnosis of TOA. Twenty women with high clinical suspicion of TOA underwent {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy. The labelling of leucocytes with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO was performed according to a standard protocol. Scans were obtained at 1, 3 and 24 h following the injection of the labelled leucocytes. In eight cases the early and/or late scan was positive, in 11 cases it was negative, and in one case of ovarian cyst torsion, confirmed by laparoscopy, it showed slight uptake in the capsule of the cyst (false-positive). The sensitivity of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy was 100%, specificity 91.6%, positive predictive value 89%, negative predictive value 100% and overall accuracy 95%. It is concluded that leucocyte scintigraphy is a non-invasive, safe, physiological and accurate procedure for the diagnosis of TOA. The 24-h scan is crucial, since in some cases the abscess was not clearly visualized on the early scan. Leucocyte scintigraphy may reduce the need for CT, diagnostic laparoscopy and unnecessary invasive surgical procedures. (orig.)

  2. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single-photon emission tomography of regional cerebral blood flow in insulin-dependent diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keymeulen, B. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Academic Hospital VUB, Brussels (Belgium); Metz, K. de [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Hospital VUB, Brussels (Belgium); Cluydts, R. [Dept. of Psychology, Academic Hospital VUB, Brussels (Belgium); Bossuyt, A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Hospital VUB, Brussels (Belgium); Somers, G.

    1996-02-01

    The study was performed to investigate subclinical abnormalities in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and to correlate them with patients` characteristics. After intravenous injection of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO), tracer uptake of the prefrontal, frontal and parieto-occipital zones was measured with a triple-head single-photon emission tomography (SPET) camera system in 35 IDDM patients outside an episode of hypolycaemia. Tracer uptake values in 16 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers served as reference values. Compared with healthy subjects, increased tracer uptake of both prefrontal regions and the left frontal region could be shown in diabetes. Tracer uptake was negatively correlated with the duration of diabetes in all investigated regions. In diabetic patients with a disease duration of more than 5 years (n=26), stepwise regression analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between their HbA1c levels and tracer uptake. Long-term diabetic patients with reduced (pre)frontal tracer uptake (n=8) had lower HbA1c levels than those without (8.4%{+-}0.2% vs 9.3%{+-}0.3%, P<0.05) and tended to have more frequently a history of hypoglycaemic coma (6/8 v 6/18, P=0.06). It can be concluded that duration of diabetes contributes to subclinical changes in basal rCBF in IDDM as detected with HMPAO SPET of the brain. The positive correlation between the presence of regional hypoperfusion and lower HbA1c levels in long-term diabetic patients may be interpreted in the light of presumed higher incidence of hypoglycaemia as metabolic control improves. (orig.)

  3. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single-photon emission tomography of regional cerebral blood flow in insulin-dependent diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keymeulen, B.; Metz, K. de; Cluydts, R.; Bossuyt, A.; Somers, G.

    1996-01-01

    The study was performed to investigate subclinical abnormalities in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and to correlate them with patients' characteristics. After intravenous injection of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO), tracer uptake of the prefrontal, frontal and parieto-occipital zones was measured with a triple-head single-photon emission tomography (SPET) camera system in 35 IDDM patients outside an episode of hypolycaemia. Tracer uptake values in 16 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers served as reference values. Compared with healthy subjects, increased tracer uptake of both prefrontal regions and the left frontal region could be shown in diabetes. Tracer uptake was negatively correlated with the duration of diabetes in all investigated regions. In diabetic patients with a disease duration of more than 5 years (n=26), stepwise regression analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between their HbA1c levels and tracer uptake. Long-term diabetic patients with reduced (pre)frontal tracer uptake (n=8) had lower HbA1c levels than those without (8.4%±0.2% vs 9.3%±0.3%, P<0.05) and tended to have more frequently a history of hypoglycaemic coma (6/8 v 6/18, P=0.06). It can be concluded that duration of diabetes contributes to subclinical changes in basal rCBF in IDDM as detected with HMPAO SPET of the brain. The positive correlation between the presence of regional hypoperfusion and lower HbA1c levels in long-term diabetic patients may be interpreted in the light of presumed higher incidence of hypoglycaemia as metabolic control improves. (orig.)

  4. Parameters influencing SPET regional brain uptake of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime measured by calibrated point sources as an external standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, R.A.; Dobbeleir, A.; Maes, M.; Pickut, B.A.; Vervaet, A.; Deyn, P.P. de

    1994-01-01

    Using calibrated point sources as an external standard to convert SPET brain counts into absolute values of regional brain uptake (rBU) of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO), the relative contribution of different parameters to interindividual variability of cerebellar rBU was examined in 33 healthy volunteers. Stepwise regression analysis identified body surface as the most important factor underlying interindividual variability, when compared with brain volume. In the normal volunteer population presented, age decrement of rBU corrected for body surface and brain volume equalled 60.5-0.20xage. Based on the data of eight normal volunteers, including four test-retest studies with heart rate (HR) differences greater than 5 units and four test-stress studies with doubling of heart rate after bicycle exercise, influence of heart rate may be expressed by the equation ΔrBU = 0.35 ΔHR. Clinically, estimation of the relative influence of different factors allows normalization and extension of the applicability of the rBU quantification method used from longitudinal studies to group comparisons. Interestingly, results of the Daily Stress Inventory Scale and a subjective rating scale suggest the absence of a significant influence of minor stress on rBU. When using one vial per patient, chromatography may be omitted in clinical routine practice and lipophilicity may be estimated as 90% of the injected dose, if administered within 10 min after preparation. Finally, sensitivity of the quantification method was tested in eight volunteers using acetazolamide brain activation and showed a mean increase in cerebellar rBU of 30.2%, varying between 14.1% and 75.9%. (orig./MG)

  5. A technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain single-photon emission tomography study in adolescent patients with major depressive disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutus, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erciyes University School of Medicine, Kayseri (Turkey); Kibar, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cukurova University School of Medicine, Kayseri (Turkey); Sofuoglu, S.; Basturk, M.; Goenuel, A.S. [Department of Psychiatry, Erciyes University School of Medicine, Kayseri (Turkey)

    1998-06-01

    We have not encountered any brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) study performed in adolescent depressed patients in the literature. Therefore, we used technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) brain SPET in adolescent patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) to examine the possible changes in cerebral perfusion and the possible association between perfusion indices and clinical variables. Fourteen adolescent out-patients (nine females, five males; mean{+-}SD age: 13.11{+-}1.43 years; range: 11-15 years) fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for MDD and 11 age-matched healthy control subjects (six females, five males; mean{+-}SD age: 13.80{+-}1.60 years; range: 12-15 years) were included in the study. {sup 99}Tc-HMPAO brain SPET was performed twice in the patient group and once in the control group. The first SPET investigation was performed under non-medicated conditions and the second was performed after depressive symptoms had subsided. A relative perfusion index (PI) was calculated as the ratio of regional cortical activity to the whole brain activity. We found significant differences between the PI values of the untreated depressed patients and those of the controls, indicating relatively reduced perfusion in the left anterofrontal and left temporal cortical areas. No significant differences in regional PI values were found between the remitted depressed patients and the controls. Our study suggests that adolescent patients with MDD may have regional cerebral blood flow deficits in frontal regions and a greater anterofrontal right-left perfusion asymmetry compared with normal subjects. The fact that these abnormalities in perfusion indices have a trend toward normal values with symptomatic improvement suggests that they may be state-dependent markers for adolescent MDD. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 37 refs.

  6. A technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain single-photon emission tomography study in adolescent patients with major depressive disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutus, A.; Kibar, M.; Sofuoglu, S.; Basturk, M.; Goenuel, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    We have not encountered any brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) study performed in adolescent depressed patients in the literature. Therefore, we used technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) brain SPET in adolescent patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) to examine the possible changes in cerebral perfusion and the possible association between perfusion indices and clinical variables. Fourteen adolescent out-patients (nine females, five males; mean±SD age: 13.11±1.43 years; range: 11-15 years) fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for MDD and 11 age-matched healthy control subjects (six females, five males; mean±SD age: 13.80±1.60 years; range: 12-15 years) were included in the study. 99 Tc-HMPAO brain SPET was performed twice in the patient group and once in the control group. The first SPET investigation was performed under non-medicated conditions and the second was performed after depressive symptoms had subsided. A relative perfusion index (PI) was calculated as the ratio of regional cortical activity to the whole brain activity. We found significant differences between the PI values of the untreated depressed patients and those of the controls, indicating relatively reduced perfusion in the left anterofrontal and left temporal cortical areas. No significant differences in regional PI values were found between the remitted depressed patients and the controls. Our study suggests that adolescent patients with MDD may have regional cerebral blood flow deficits in frontal regions and a greater anterofrontal right-left perfusion asymmetry compared with normal subjects. The fact that these abnormalities in perfusion indices have a trend toward normal values with symptomatic improvement suggests that they may be state-dependent markers for adolescent MDD. (orig.)

  7. Improving the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children with atypical clinical findings using the technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime-labelled white-blood-cell abdomen scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Dahchin; Shiau Yuchien; Wang Jhijoung; Ho Shungtai; Kao Chiahung

    2002-01-01

    Heading AbstractBackground. Diagnosing acute appendicitis in children with equivocal signs and symptoms may be difficult. The usual approach is hospital observation and frequent re-examination. However, many surgeons are reluctant to delay surgery because of the risk of perforation and a negative laparotomy.Objective. To assess and compare the value of the technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO)-labelled white-blood-cell (WBC) abdomen scan in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children with atypical clinical presentation.Patients and methods. Fifty children with acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain and possible acute appendicitis, but atypical findings were included. After IV injection of 99m Tc-HMPAO-labelled WBCs, serial anterior abdomen scans were obtained using a gamma camera.Results. Thirty-three children underwent surgery, while 17 children were managed conservatively and were followed up for at least 1 month. Four children had false-positive results and one child had a false-negative scan result. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the scan to diagnose acute appendicitis in children with atypical findings was 96.7, 80.0, 90.0, 87.8 and 94.1%, respectively.Conclusions. The 99m Tc-HMPAO WBC abdomen scan is a potential tool for diagnosing acute appendicitis in children with atypical clinical findings. The high sensitivity and negative predictive value allows early discharge from the emergency department to avoid costly observation in hospital and potentially unnecessary surgery in those patients with negative scans. (orig.)

  8. Development of lyophilized kit of Tin-Glucoheptonate for in vitro labeling of leucocytes with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Rosemeire Fagundes

    2007-01-01

    The study and localization of inflammatory and infection process in Nuclear Medicine represents a relevant tool in diagnostic procedures. In same cases, the diagnostic is easy and based on anamnesis and clinical observation; in other cases, the patients are asymptomatic or present non specific symptoms that difficult the diagnostic. The early diagnostic of inflammatory or infectious process allow the early introduction of therapy and prevents complications. Farther, the differentiation between inflammation and infection is of extreme importance as well as the localization of the focus. The use of labeled leucocytes, studied and applied in much pathologies, is the method of choice for the visualization of inflammation and infection. The scintigraphy using labeled leucocytes was introduced at 1976 by McAffe and Thakur and since of this is used in the diagnostic of different pathologies related to leucocyte infiltration like intestinal inflammatory disease, bone or prosthetic-vascular infections. The in vitro labeling of leucocytes with 111 In was performed using oxime or tropolone as ligand and with 99m Tc using hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) as ligand, resulting in a lipophilic complex. The 99m Tc-HMPAG complex was preferably employed in many indications and countries do to the ideal physical properties of 99m Tc that results in low dose to the patient. However, the labeling employing the HMPAO complex results in some disadvantages like the low stability of the complex, and some requirements related to the 99m Tc elution (like the time pos elution), beyond the high cost of the compound that is imported. The aim of this work was the development of a tin-glucoheptonate lyophilized kit for in vitro leucocytes labeling with 99m Tc using the pre-stannization method. The optimization of the labeling technique was developed using leucocytes isolated from total blood and employing different volumes of the tinglucoheptonate reagent and different incubation times at

  9. The use of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime labelled granulocytes with single-photon emission tomography imaging in the detection and follow-up of recurrence of infective endocarditis complicating transvenous endocardial pacemaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramackers, J.M.; Kotzki, P.O.; Couret, I.; Messner-Pellenc, P.; Davy, J.M.; Rossi, M.

    1995-01-01

    In this case report we present a patient with a recurrence of subacute bacterial infectious endocarditis (IE) complicating a transvenous endocardial pacemaker. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) labelled granulocytes were used for diagnosis and follow-up under medical treatment only, since surgical removal of the pacemaker lead was ruled out because of the general condition of the patient. Single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging displayed the active lesion previously suspected on echography. At the end of antibiotic therapy, SPET indicated a favourable disease outcome whereas echocardiographic abnormalities remained nearly unchanged. The medical treatment had eradicated the IE, and the patient did well for more than 1 year thereafter. (orig.)

  10. The use of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime labelled granulocytes with single-photon emission tomography imaging in the detection and follow-up of recurrence of infective endocarditis complicating transvenous endocardial pacemaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramackers, J M [Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU E. Herriot, Lyon (France); Kotzki, P O [Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Lapeyronie et A. de Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Couret, I [Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Lapeyronie et A. de Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Messner-Pellenc, P [Department of Cardiology, CHU Lapeyronie et A. Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Davy, J M [Department of Cardiology, CHU Lapeyronie et A. Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Rossi, M [Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Lapeyronie et A. de Villeneuve, Montpellier (France)

    1995-11-01

    In this case report we present a patient with a recurrence of subacute bacterial infectious endocarditis (IE) complicating a transvenous endocardial pacemaker. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) labelled granulocytes were used for diagnosis and follow-up under medical treatment only, since surgical removal of the pacemaker lead was ruled out because of the general condition of the patient. Single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging displayed the active lesion previously suspected on echography. At the end of antibiotic therapy, SPET indicated a favourable disease outcome whereas echocardiographic abnormalities remained nearly unchanged. The medical treatment had eradicated the IE, and the patient did well for more than 1 year thereafter. (orig.)

  11. Normal regional distribution of cerebral blood flow in dogs: comparison between (99m) Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer and (99m) Tc- hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single photon emission computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, Antita; Polis, Ingeborgh; Waelbers, Tim; Vandermeulen, Eva; Dobbeleir, André; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2013-01-01

    Functional imaging provides important insights into canine brain pathologies such as behavioral problems. Two (99m) Tc-labeled single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cerebral blood flow tracers-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) and hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO)-are commonly used in human medicine and have been used previously in dogs but intrasubject comparison of both tracers in dogs is lacking. Therefore, this study investigated whether regional distribution differences between both tracers occur in dogs as is reported in humans. Eight beagles underwent two SPECT examinations first with (99m) Tc-ECD and followed by (99m) Tc-HMPAO. SPECT scanning was performed with a triple head gamma camera equipped with ultrahigh resolution parallel hole collimators. Images were reconstructed using filtered backprojection with a Butterworth filter. Emission data were fitted to a template permitting semiquantification using predefined regions or volumes of interest (VOIs). For each VOI, perfusion indices were calculated by normalizing the regional counts per voxel to total brain counts per voxel. The obtained perfusion indices for each region for both tracers were compared with a paired Student's T-test. Significant (P < 0.05) regional differences were seen in the subcortical region and the cerebellum. Both tracers can be used to visualize regional cerebral blood flow in dogs, however, due to the observed regional differences, they are not entirely interchangeable. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  12. SPECT with [99mTc]-d,l-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime (HM-PAO) compared with regional cerebral blood flow measured by PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yonekura, Y; Nishizawa, S; Mukai, Thomas Søgaard

    1988-01-01

    In order to validate the use of technetium-99m-d,l-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) as a flow tracer, a total of 21 cases were studied with single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and compared to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured by position emission tomography...... (PET) using the oxygen-15 CO2 inhalation technique. Although HM-PAO SPECT and rCBF PET images showed a similar distribution pattern the HM-PAO SPECT image showed less contrast between high and low activity flow regions than the rCBF image and a nonlinear relationship between HM-PAO activity and r......CBF was shown. Based on the assumption of flow-dependent backdiffusion of HM-PAO from the brain, we applied a "linearization algorithm" to correct the HM-PAO SPECT images. The corrected HM-PAO SPECT images revealed a good linear correlation with rCBF (r = 0.901, p less than 0.001). The results indicated HM-PAO...

  13. Development of lyophilized kit of Tin-Glucoheptonate for in vitro labeling of leucocytes with {sup 99m}Tc; Desenvolvimento de reagente liofilizado de glucoheptonato-estanho para marcacao de leucocitos com Tecnecio-99m in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Rosemeire Fagundes

    2007-07-01

    The study and localization of inflammatory and infection process in Nuclear Medicine represents a relevant tool in diagnostic procedures. In same cases, the diagnostic is easy and based on anamnesis and clinical observation; in other cases, the patients are asymptomatic or present non specific symptoms that difficult the diagnostic. The early diagnostic of inflammatory or infectious process allow the early introduction of therapy and prevents complications. Farther, the differentiation between inflammation and infection is of extreme importance as well as the localization of the focus. The use of labeled leucocytes, studied and applied in much pathologies, is the method of choice for the visualization of inflammation and infection. The scintigraphy using labeled leucocytes was introduced at 1976 by McAffe and Thakur and since of this is used in the diagnostic of different pathologies related to leucocyte infiltration like intestinal inflammatory disease, bone or prosthetic-vascular infections. The in vitro labeling of leucocytes with {sup 111}In was performed using oxime or tropolone as ligand and with {sup 99m}Tc using hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) as ligand, resulting in a lipophilic complex. The {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAG complex was preferably employed in many indications and countries do to the ideal physical properties of {sup 99m}Tc that results in low dose to the patient. However, the labeling employing the HMPAO complex results in some disadvantages like the low stability of the complex, and some requirements related to the {sup 99m}Tc elution (like the time pos elution), beyond the high cost of the compound that is imported. The aim of this work was the development of a tin-glucoheptonate lyophilized kit for in vitro leucocytes labeling with {sup 99m}Tc using the pre-stannization method. The optimization of the labeling technique was developed using leucocytes isolated from total blood and employing different volumes of the tinglucoheptonate reagent and

  14. Clinical significance of abdominal scintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocytes in patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Farto, J.C.; Almoguera Arias, I.; Ortega Valle, A.; Perez Vazquez, J.M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Lopez Longo, F.J.; Gonzalez Fernandez, C.M.; Monteagudo Saez, I.; Bascones, M.; Carreno Perez, L. [Department of Rheumatology, ' ' Hospital Universitario Gregorio Maranon' ' , Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-12-01

    Abdominal scintigraphy shows silent gut inflammation in patients with spondyloarthropathies (Sp) without clinical evidence of gut inflammation. Abdominal scintigraphy images are different than those obtained in patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease and are not related to the anti-inflammatory drugs administered. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical associations of findings on abdominal scintigraphy in patients with Sp. A total of 204 Sp patients (European Spondylarthropathy Study Group 1991 criteria) and 54 non-Sp controls receiving non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were studied. Abdominal scintigraphy images were obtained at 30 and 120 min after injection of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO)-labelled leucocytes. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scans were positive in 104 Sp patients (50.9%) and in six non-Sp controls (2.9%) (P<0.001; OR=8.32; 95% CI=3.23-22.67). Silent gut inflammation was not associated with any of the following: age of onset, duration of evolution, sex, family history of Sp or psoriasis, articular manifestations, extra-articular manifestations, radiological findings or HLA-B27 positivity. Positive abdominal scintigraphy was associated with active disease (P<0.0001; OR=52.7; 95% CI=19-145.6) and an increase in the C-reactive protein (P<0.005; OR=3.4; 95% CI=1.5-7.4). It is concluded that (a) abdominal scintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocytes is of value in detecting the silent gut inflammation in Sp patients, and (b) silent gut inflammation is related to the clinical activity, but is not associated with any particular type of illness or with HLA-B27. (orig.)

  15. Abdominal scintigraphy using 99mTc-HMPAO-labelled leucocytes in patients with seronegative spondylarthropathies without clinical evidence of inflammatory bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.C.; Lopez-Longo, F.J.; Lampreave, J.L.; Gonzalez, C.M.; Vegazo, O.; Carreno, L.; Almoguera, I.

    1996-01-01

    Abdominal scintigraphy with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO)-labelled leucocytes is an excellent tool for evaluating disease extent and activity of intestinal lesions in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In some cases of seronegative spondylarthropathies (SSp), IBD may remain subclinical. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of positive abdominal scintigraphy in patients with SSp and without clinical symptoms or signs of IBD. To this end we studied 32 patients with active SSp (European Spondylarthropathy Study Group 1991 criteria) without clinical evidence of IBD (eight had ankylosing spondylitis, four psoriatic arthritis, three reactive arthritis an 17 undifferentiated SSp) and 11 controls without SSp. All SSp and control patients received similar doses of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Abdominal scintigraphic images were obtained at 30 and 120 min after re-injection of 99m Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocytes. The 99m Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scan was positive in 17 patients with SSp (53.1%) (six with ankylosing spondylitis, three with psoriatic arthritis, two with reactive arthritis and six with undifferentiated SSp). Fourteen patients scored from 2 to 4 on the intensity of uptake scale. The colon and terminal ileum were predominantly involved. Axial involvement was more frequent in patients with a positive scan than in patients with negative results (P 99m Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scan shows increased uptake among patients with SSp without evidence of IBD. These findings provide new evidence linking SSp with intestinal inflammation and suggest that in some cases a bowel-related process could contribute to the development of SSp. Long-term follow-up studies with more patients are necessary to evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of these results. (orig.). With 3 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Donor leucocyte imaging in patients with AIDS: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Doherty, M.J.; Kent and Canterbury Hospital; Revell, P.; Page, C.J.; Nunan, T.O.; Lee, S.; Mountford, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Four patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and fever were investigated using donor leucocyte scans. The lung/liver and lung/spleen uptake ratios in these patients were compared with the uptake ratios in donor leucocyte scans in seven neutropenic (non-AIDS) patients and five patients who had autologous leucocyte scans performed over the same time period. All scans used indium oxine In 111 labelled leucocytes except that for one AIDS patient which used technetium hexamethyl-propylene amine oxide Tc99m labelled donor leucocytes. There were no adverse reactions to the donor cell infusions. Two patients had repeat studies 8 weeks apart (from different donors) without ill effect. There were no differences in the 111 In uptake ratios between the three groups. There were three positive studies in the patients with AIDS, and these elucidated the cause of the pyrexia in all three. The negative case is more difficult to confirm, but the clinical course and the absence of focal disease on post-mortem have been taken to support the scan findings. There was no difference in the acceptibility of the technique or the distribution of the labelled leucocytes between the AIDS and non-AIDS patients. Donor leucocyte imaging of patients with AIDS is probably more effective and considerably less hazardous for technical staff than autologous leucocyte methods. This study demonstrates that the technique can be applied successfully to patients with AIDS. (orig.)

  17. Fluoren-9-one oxime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Bugenhagen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecule, C13H9NO, the fluorene system and the oxime group non-H atoms are essentially coplanar, with a maximum deviation from the fluorene mean plane of 0.079 (2 Å for the oxime O atom. A short intramolecular C—H...O generates an S(6 ring. In the crystal, molecules related by a twofold screw axis are connected by O—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming [100] chains Within these chains, molecules related by a unit translation along [100] show π–π stacking interactions between their fluorene ring systems with an interplanar distance of 3.347 (2 Å. The dihedral angle between the fluorene units of adjacent molecules along the helix is 88.40 (2°. There is a short C—H...π contact between the fluorene groups belonging to neighbouring chains.

  18. Gamma irradiation of cholestenone oximes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenseren, Envare.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation of cholest-4-en-3-one and cholest-5-en-3-one oximes with cobalt-60 gamma-rays in different solvents at different doses gave a mixture of products from which ketones corresponding to the starting oximes, Beckmann type rearrangement products, and some other radiolysis products have been isolated and identified

  19. Efficacious Oxime for Organophosphorus Poisoning: A Minireview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Abstract. Oximes are well known as acetylcholinesterase reactivators and are used in ... activity against structurally different kinds of organophosphorus ... serious threat with regard to occupational .... choose an oxime for unknown OPC exposure. Secondly, there is a lack of .... oximes, and hence cannot pass the blood.

  20. Efficacious Oxime for Organophosphorus Poisoning: A Minireview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oximes are well known as acetylcholinesterase reactivators and are used in organophosphorus poisoning to reactivate inhibited acetylcholinesterase. Therapeutically available oximes, namely, pralidoxime (2-PAM), obidoxime, trimedoxime and Hagedorn oxime (HI-6), have no broad-spectrum activity against structurally ...

  1. The use of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime labelled white blood cells to detect subclinical inflammation of the heart after cardiopulmonary bypass in children with congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao Chiahung; Wang Yenliang; Wang Shyhjen; Hsieh Kaisheng

    1992-01-01

    Ten children (6 boys and 4 girls, aged 1-9 years old) underwent operations with a cardiopulmonary bypass, and the technetium-99m hexamehtylpropylene amine oxine ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) labelled white blood cell (WBC) heart scans were used to detect postoperative leukocyte infiltration in the hearts. The results showed that 80% (8/10) of the cases had subclinical inflammation in the hearts (grading of WBC scans ≥score 2), and a positive correlation (R=0.77) was noted between the severity of the inflammation (grading of the WBC scans) and the duration of the cardiopulmonary bypass in the operations. Another control group (9 boys and 2 girls, aged 2-13 years old) underwent operations without a cardiopulmonary bypass, and subclinical inflammation of hearts was demonstrated in only 1 case (9%) by the 99m Tc-HMPAO labelled WBC scans (grading of WBC scans 99m Tc-HMPAO labelled WBC heart scans may provide non-invasive and directly discernible evidence of subclinical inflammation in the heart due to a transient ischaemic state during a cardiopulmonary bypass, even if the clinical symptoms and signs of carditis are not apparent. (orig.)

  2. The use of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime labelled white blood cells to detect subclinical inflammation of the heart after cardiopulmonary bypass in children with congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao Chiahung; Wang Yenliang; Wang Shyhjen (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Hsieh Kaisheng (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan). Dept. of Pediatrics)

    1992-11-01

    Ten children (6 boys and 4 girls, aged 1-9 years old) underwent operations with a cardiopulmonary bypass, and the technetium-99m hexamehtylpropylene amine oxine ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) labelled white blood cell (WBC) heart scans were used to detect postoperative leukocyte infiltration in the hearts. The results showed that 80% (8/10) of the cases had subclinical inflammation in the hearts (grading of WBC scans {>=}score 2), and a positive correlation (R=0.77) was noted between the severity of the inflammation (grading of the WBC scans) and the duration of the cardiopulmonary bypass in the operations. Another control group (9 boys and 2 girls, aged 2-13 years old) underwent operations without a cardiopulmonary bypass, and subclinical inflammation of hearts was demonstrated in only 1 case (9%) by the {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO labelled WBC scans (grading of WBC scans

  3. 99Tcsup(m)-HMPAO labelled leucocytes: comparison with 111In-tropolonate labelled granulocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, A.M.; Roddie, M.E.; Zacharopoulos, G.P.; George, P.; Stuttle, A.W.J.; Lavender, J.P.; Danpure, H.J.; Osman, S.

    1988-01-01

    The lipophilic complex, 99 Tcsup(m)-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) is an efficient leucocyte label, and labels granulocytes with more stability than mononuclear leucocytes. The recovery of 99 Tcsup(m)-HMPAO granulocytes was similar to 111 In-labelled granulocytes isolated and labelled in plasma using tropolone. The Tsub(1/2) of 99 Tcsup(m)-HMPAO labelled granulocytes in blood was less than that of 111 In-labelled granulocytes. The initial biodistribution of 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled leucocytes was similar to 111 In-labelled granulocytes, with a rapid initial lung transit, prominent splenic activity, bone marrow activity and minimal hepatic activity, although, unlike 111 In, 99 Tcsup(m) activity was also seen in urine, occasionally in the gallbladder, and, from about 4 h, consistently in the colon. Bone marrow activity was particularly prominent with 99 Tcsup(m). About 6% of 99 Tcsup(m) was excreted in the faeces up to 48 h after injection, and about 17% in urine up to 24 h. The time-activity curves of reticuloendothelial activity up to 24 h were broadly similar for the two labelled cell preparations. Clinical information given by the two agents was similar in 27 of 30 patients who received both. We conclude that with respect to granulocyte kinetics and clinical data, 99 Tcsup(m)-HMPAO labelled leucocytes are comparable with 111 In-tropolonate labelled granulocytes. (author)

  4. Centrally Acting Oximes in Reactivation of Tabun-Phosphoramidated AChE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Zrinka; Maček, Nikolina; Sit, Rakesh K.; Radić, Zoran; Fokin, Valery V.; Sharpless, K. Barry; Taylor, Palmer

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphates (OP) inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE, E.C.3.1.1.7), both in peripheral tissues and central nervous system (CNS), causing adverse and sometimes fatal effects due to the accumulation of neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). The currently used therapy, focusing on the reactivation of inhibited AChE, is limited to peripheral tissues because commonly used quaternary pyridinium oxime reactivators do not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) at therapeutically relevant levels. A directed library of thirty uncharged oximes that contain tertiary amine or imidazole protonable functional groups that should cross the BBB as unionized species was tested as tabun-hAChE conjugate reactivators along with three reference oximes: DAM (diacetylmonoxime), MINA (monoisonitrosoacetone), and 2-PAM. The oxime RS150D [N-((1-(3-(2-((hydroxyimino)methyl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl)benzamide] was highlighted as the most promising reactivator of the tabun-hAChE conjugate. We also observed that oximes RS194B [N-(2-(azepan-1-yl)ethyl)-2-(hydroxyimino)acetamide] and RS41A [2-(hydroxyimino)-N-(2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)ethyl)acetamide], which emerged as lead uncharged reactivators of phosphylated hAChE with other OPs (sarin, cyclosarin and VX), exhibited only moderate reactivation potency for tabun inhibited hAChE. This implies that geometry of oxime access to the phosphorus atom conjugated to the active serine is an important criterion for efficient reactivation, along with the chemical nature of the conjugated moiety: phosphorate, phosphonate, or phosphoramidate. Moreover, modification of the active center through mutagenesis enhances the rates of reactivation. The phosphoramidated-hAChE choline-binding site mutant Y337A showed three-times enhanced reactivation capacity with non-triazole imidazole containing aldoximes (RS113B, RS113A and RS115A) and acetamide derivative (RS194B) than with 2PAM. PMID:22960624

  5. Radioisotope methods for leucocyte labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinova, I.; Kovacheva, S.

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the labelling methods with the following tracers: 3 H-thymidine, 32 P-DP, 111 In (oxine, tropolon, acetylacetone, MERC), 99m Tc (reduced 99m Tc, lypophyl 99m Tc-complexes and 99m Tc-colloids). The main diagnosis areas are mentioned: abdominal abscesses and inflammations, inflammation foci of skeleton or of implanted prosthesis; acute myocardial infarction, bacterial endocarditis, rejection of kydney transplantations or vascular grafts. It is concluded that labelled leucocytes are very reliable for noninvasive diagnosis of inflammation foci with unclear localization

  6. Radioisotope methods for leucocyte labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostadinova, I; Kovacheva, S [Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Katedra po Rentgenologiya i Radiologiya

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the labelling methods with the following tracers: {sup 3}H-thymidine, {sup 32}P-DP, {sup 111}In (oxine, tropolon, acetylacetone, MERC), {sup 99m}Tc (reduced {sup 99m}Tc, lypophyl {sup 99m}Tc-complexes and {sup 99m}Tc-colloids). The main diagnosis areas are mentioned: abdominal abscesses and inflammations, inflammation foci of skeleton or of implanted prosthesis; acute myocardial infarction, bacterial endocarditis, rejection of kydney transplantations or vascular grafts. It is concluded that labelled leucocytes are very reliable for noninvasive diagnosis of inflammation foci with unclear localization.

  7. /sup 99/Tcsup(m)-HMPAO labelled leucocytes: comparison with /sup 111/In-tropolonate labelled granulocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, A.M.; Roddie, M.E.; Zacharopoulos, G.P.; George, P.; Stuttle, A.W.J.; Lavender, J.P.; Danpure, H.J.; Osman, S.

    1988-06-01

    The lipophilic complex, /sup 99/Tcsup(m)-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) is an efficient leucocyte label, and labels granulocytes with more stability than mononuclear leucocytes. The recovery of /sup 99/Tcsup(m)-HMPAO granulocytes was similar to /sup 111/In-labelled granulocytes isolated and labelled in plasma using tropolone. The Tsub(1/2) of /sup 99/Tcsup(m)-HMPAO labelled granulocytes in blood was less than that of /sup 111/In-labelled granulocytes. The initial biodistribution of /sup 99/Tcsup(m)-labelled leucocytes was similar to /sup 111/In-labelled granulocytes, with a rapid initial lung transit, prominent splenic activity, bone marrow activity and minimal hepatic activity, although, unlike /sup 111/In, /sup 99/Tcsup(m) activity was also seen in urine, occasionally in the gallbladder, and, from about 4 h, consistently in the colon. Bone marrow activity was particularly prominent with /sup 99/Tcsup(m). About 6% of /sup 99/Tcsup(m) was excreted in the faeces up to 48 h after injection, and about 17% in urine up to 24 h. The time-activity curves of reticuloendothelial activity up to 24 h were broadly similar for the two labelled cell preparations. Clinical information given by the two agents was similar in 27 of 30 patients who received both. We conclude that with respect to granulocyte kinetics and clinical data, /sup 99/Tcsup(m)-HMPAO labelled leucocytes are comparable with /sup 111/In-tropolonate labelled granulocytes.

  8. Simple, Efficient and Green Synthesis of Oximes under Ultrasound ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan 65174, Iran. ... The condensation of aldehydes and ketones with hydroxylamine hydrochloride gives oximes in 81–95 ... Oximes are important in organic synthesis not only for protec-.

  9. Differential centrifugation of leucocytes and platelets applied to 111In-leucocyte labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Platelet contamination of 111 In-leucocytes can be minimized by centrifugation of leucocyte-rich plasma before labelling. The differential recovery of leucocytes and platelets from centrifugation depends on various biological and physical factors. Experimental measurements have been made of the effect of some of these factors. The ratio of leucocyte-to-platelet recovery was increased by using more than one centrifugation, and by using a low relative centrifugal force (RCF). To extend the study, a method of calculating cell recovery from centrifugation was developed, based on the experimental results. Calculations indicated that this ratio was at a maximum at around 85g RCF, and was least affected by changes in the suspension medium viscosity. At 85g, leucocyte recovery was incomplete, but calculations indicated that there was a preferential recovery of granulocytes which was subsequently verified by experiment. (author)

  10. A Highly Efficient Catalyst for Oxime Ligation and Hydrazone-Oxime Exchange Suitable for Bioconjugation

    OpenAIRE

    Rashidian, Mohammad; Mahmoodi, Mohammad M.; Shah, Rachit; Dozier, Jonathan K.; Wagner, Carston R.; Distefano, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Imine-based reactions are useful for a wide range of bioconjugation applications. Although aniline is known to catalyze the oxime ligation reaction under physiological conditions, it suffers from slow reaction kinetics, specifically when a ketone is being used or when hydrazone-oxime exchange is performed. Here, we report on the discovery of a new catalyst that is up to 15 times more efficient than aniline. That catalyst, m-phenylenediamine (mPDA), was initially used to analyze the kinetics o...

  11. Organic Process Technology Valuation: Cyclohexanone Oxime Syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kevin C.; Breen, Maureen P.

    2010-01-01

    Three contemporary processes for cyclohexanone oxime synthesis are evaluated in a case study. The case study introduces organic chemistry students to basic cost accounting to determine the most economical technology. Technical and financial aspects of these processes are evaluated with problem-based exercises that may be completed by students…

  12. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ritwika; Hazari, Arijit Singha; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar; Maiti, Debabrata

    2018-01-18

    Amine oxidation is one of the fundamental reactions in organic synthesis as it leads to a variety of value-added products such as oximes, nitriles, imines, and amides among many others. These products comprise the key N-containing building blocks in the modern chemical industry, and such transformations, when achieved in the presence of molecular oxygen without using stoichiometric oxidants, are much preferred as they circumvent the production of unwanted wastes. In parallel, the versatility of ruthenium catalysts in various oxidative transformations is well-documented. Herein, this review focuses on aerobic oxidation of amines specifically by using ruthenium catalysts and highlights the major achievements in this direction and challenges that still need to be addressed. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Native and tabun-inhibited cholinesterase interactions with oximes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarik, Z.; Katalinic, M.; Sinko, G.

    2009-01-01

    The phosphorylation of the serine hydroxyl group in the active site of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inactivates this essential enzyme in neurotransmission. Its related enzyme butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) also interacts with organophosphorus compounds (OP) scavenging anti-cholinesterase agents and protects synaptic AChE from inhibition. Oximes are reactivators of AChE phosphorylated by OP including insecticides and nerve agents. The effectiveness of oxime-assisted reactivation is primarily attributed to the nucleophilic displacement rate of organophosphate, but efficiency varies with the structure of the bound organophosphate, the structure of the oxime as well as rates of several other cholinesterase's reactions. Besides reactivating cholinesterases, oximes also reversibly inhibit both cholinesterases and protect them from phosphorylation by OP. We tested oximes varying in the type of ring (pyridinium and/or imidazolium), the length and type of the linker between rings, and in the position of the oxime group on the ring to find more effective oximes to reactivate tabun-inhibited human erythrocyte AChE and plasma BChE. Herein we bring an overview of in vitro interactions of native and tabun-inhibited AChE and BChE with oximes together with conformational analysis of the oximes relating molecular properties to their reactivation potency.(author)

  14. 21 CFR 524.1446 - Milbemycin oxime solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milbemycin oxime solution. 524.1446 Section 524...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1446 Milbemycin oxime solution. (a) Specifications. Each tube contains 0.25 milliliter of a 0.1 percent solution...

  15. Binding of reactive organophosphate by oximes via hydrogen bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this contribution, the ability of simple oximes to bind a well-known nerve agent simulant (dimethylmethylphosphonate, DMMP) via hydrogen bond is reported. UV/Vis measurements indicate the formation of 1:1 complexes. 1H-, 31P-NMR titrations and T-ROESY experiments confirm that oximes bind the organophosphate ...

  16. Less common patterns of reduction of some oximes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Celik, H.; Ludvík, Jiří; Zuman, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 5 (2007), s. 1990-2000 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05ME785 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : polarography * benzaldehyde oximes * acetophenone oximes * isomeric monoximes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.848, year: 2007

  17. Refinement of Structural Leads for Centrally Acting Oxime Reactivators of Phosphylated Cholinesterases*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić, Zoran; Sit, Rakesh K.; Kovarik, Zrinka; Berend, Suzana; Garcia, Edzna; Zhang, Limin; Amitai, Gabriel; Green, Carol; Radić, Božica; Fokin, Valery V.; Sharpless, K. Barry; Taylor, Palmer

    2012-01-01

    We present a systematic structural optimization of uncharged but ionizable N-substituted 2-hydroxyiminoacetamido alkylamine reactivators of phosphylated human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) intended to catalyze the hydrolysis of organophosphate (OP)-inhibited hAChE in the CNS. Starting with the initial lead oxime RS41A identified in our earlier study and extending to the azepine analog RS194B, reactivation rates for OP-hAChE conjugates formed by sarin, cyclosarin, VX, paraoxon, and tabun are enhanced severalfold in vitro. To analyze the mechanism of intrinsic reactivation of the OP-AChE conjugate and penetration of the blood-brain barrier, the pH dependence of the oxime and amine ionizing groups of the compounds and their nucleophilic potential were examined by UV-visible spectroscopy, 1H NMR, and oximolysis rates for acetylthiocholine and phosphoester hydrolysis. Oximolysis rates were compared in solution and on AChE conjugates and analyzed in terms of the ionization states for reactivation of the OP-conjugated AChE. In addition, toxicity and pharmacokinetic studies in mice show significantly improved CNS penetration and retention for RS194B when compared with RS41A. The enhanced intrinsic reactivity against the OP-AChE target combined with favorable pharmacokinetic properties resulted in great improvement of antidotal properties of RS194B compared with RS41A and the standard peripherally active oxime, 2-pyridinealdoxime methiodide. Improvement was particularly noticeable when pretreatment of mice with RS194B before OP exposure was combined with RS194B reactivation therapy after the OP insult. PMID:22343626

  18. A Structure-Activity Analysis of the Variation in Oxime Efficacy Against Nerve Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    cyclosarin. Analysis of in vivo oxime protection was conducted with oxime protective ratios (PR) from guinea pigs receiving oxime and atropine therapy ...in our study confirmed previous assessments that oxime protection varies drama - tically against different military nerve agents (Aas, 2003; Dawson... therapy ofacutepoisonings inducedbyanti-cholinesterase neuroparalytic substances. In:Monov, A., Dishovsky, C. (Eds.), Medical Aspects of Chemical and

  19. Indium 111 leucocyte scintigraphy in abdominal sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, A.A.; McKillop, J.H.; Gray, H.W.; Cuthbert, G.F.; Neilson, W.; Anderson, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the clinical utility of indium 111 autologous leucocyte scintigraphy retrospectively in 45 patients presenting with suspected intra-abdominal sepsis. The sensitivity was 95% (21/22) and the specificity was 91% (21/23). Some 34 of the studies (17 positive and 17 negative) were considered helpful in furthering patient management (76%) and 8, unhelpful (18%). In 3, the study results were misleading and led to inappropriate treatment. Indium 111 scintigraphy, whether positive or negative, provides information in patients with suspected intra-abdominal sepsis upon which therapeutic decisions can be based. (orig.)

  20. Regulation of leucocyte homeostasis in the circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiermann, Christoph; Frenette, Paul S; Hidalgo, Andrés

    2015-08-01

    The functions of blood cells extend well beyond the immune functions of leucocytes or the respiratory and hemostatic functions of erythrocytes and platelets. Seen as a whole, the bloodstream is in charge of nurturing and protecting all organs by carrying a mixture of cell populations in transit from one organ to another. To optimize these functions, evolution has provided blood and the vascular system that carries it with various mechanisms that ensure the appropriate influx and egress of cells into and from the circulation where and when needed. How this homeostatic control of blood is achieved has been the object of study for over a century, and although the major mechanisms that govern it are now fairly well understood, several new concepts and mediators have recently emerged that emphasize the dynamism of this liquid tissue. Here we review old and new concepts that relate to the maintenance and regulation of leucocyte homeostasis in blood and briefly discuss the mechanisms for platelets and red blood cells. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Peripheral Blood Leucocyte Apoptosis in Two Dogs Infected with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood leucocyte apoptosis in the trypanosome-infected natural hosts is yet to be documented and recognized as a feature of trypanosomiasis. We provide evidence of marked peripheral blood leucocyte apoptosis in two cases of dogs severely infected with Trypanosoma congolense. It is expected that this case report will ...

  2. Development of new Czech autoinjector with oxime HI-6 DMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuca, K; Jun, D.; Kassa, J.; Marek, J.; Stodulka, P.; Musilek, K.; Dolezal, D.; Povraznik, J.

    2009-01-01

    Oxime HI-6 (1-(2-(hydroxyiminomethyl)pyridinium) -3-(4-carbamoylpyridinium)-2-oxapropane) is considered to be currently the most universal oxime for the potential use as antidote against nerve agents (sarin, cyclosarin, VX, etc.). None of other commercially available oximes (pralidoxime, obidoxime, trimedoxime, MMB4) has broader antidotal effect. Due to this, development of the appropriate salt of this oxime together with its application form (eg. autoinjector) was the main aim of our departments and several private Czech companies (VAKOS XT as., Decomkov Praha sro., ChemProtect as.). In our contribution, we would like to summarize all the steps which were already done. We would like to thank to the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic for the Project No. FIIM2/104.(author)

  3. Deprotection of oximes using urea nitrate under microwave irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A new mild and efficient method for the cleavage of oximes to carbonyl compounds using readily available urea nitrate in acetonitrile-water (95 : 5), under microwave irradiation within 2 min, in good yields is reported.

  4. Validity of total leucocytes count and neutrophil count (differential leucocytes) in diagnosing suspected acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.W.; Abid, I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of Total Leucocytes Count (TLC) with Neutrophil count; Differential Leucocytes Count (DLC) in diagnosing cases of suspected acute appendicitis. Study design: Validation study. Place and duration of the study: Department of Surgery, Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Rawalpindi, from April 2008 to October 2008. Method: A total of 100 patients of Pain right iliac fossae who underwent appendicectomy were included. Detailed history of all the patients was taken for pain in right lower abdomen, its severity, its nature, relieving or provoking factors. Clinical examination was done in detail. Total and Differential Leucocytes Count was done. Every patient's appendix was examined grossly after appendicectomy for evidence of appendicitis. Diagnostic measures of TLC and DLC were calculated by standard formulas. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of TLC is 86.9% and 81.25% respectively and that of DLC is 82% and 68.75% respectively. Accuracy was 86% for TLC and 80% for DLC. Conclusion: TLC is more sensitive, specific and accurate test as compared to DLC and it should be used as diagnostic aid for suspected acute appendicitis cases. (author)

  5. Vitamin C in plasma and leucocytes in relation to periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzmanova, D.; Jansen, I.D.C.; Schoenmaker, T.; Nazmi, K.; Teeuw, W.J.; Bizzarro, S.; Loos, B.G.; van der Velden, U.

    2012-01-01

    Aim To test the hypothesis that vitamin C concentrations in plasma, polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leucocytes (PMNs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are lower in periodontitis patients compared with healthy controls. Methods Twenty-one untreated periodontal patients and 21 healthy

  6. 99Tcm-labelled leucocyte imaging in active rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Janabi, M.A.; Jones, A.K.P.; Solanki, K.; Sobnack, R.; Bomanji, J.; Al-Nahhas, A.A.; Britton, K.E.; Huskisson, E.C.; Doyle, D.V.

    1988-01-01

    A simplified technique of labelling leucocytes with technetium-99m is described and applied to patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. The clinically active and less active knees in seven patients were imaged and the uptake of labelled leucocytes was measured. The measurements were repeated after local steroid injection into nine painful knees. A 50-80% reduction in leucocyte uptake localized to the region of the synovium was demonstrated in the eight knees which showed clinical responses and a rise of 8% in the non-responder. There was a variable response in the knees that were not injected. 99 Tc m leucocyte imaging in rheumatoid arthritis is able to assess objectively joint inflammation and its response to treatment. (author)

  7. A structure-activity analysis of the variation in oxime efficacy against nerve agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, Donald M.; Koplovitz, Irwin; Worek, Franz; Sweeney, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    A structure-activity analysis was used to evaluate the variation in oxime efficacy of 2-PAM, obidoxime, HI-6 and ICD585 against nerve agents. In vivo oxime protection and in vitro oxime reactivation were used as indicators of oxime efficacy against VX, sarin, VR and cyclosarin. Analysis of in vivo oxime protection was conducted with oxime protective ratios (PR) from guinea pigs receiving oxime and atropine therapy after sc administration of nerve agent. Analysis of in vitro reactivation was conducted with second-order rate contants (k r2 ) for oxime reactivation of agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from guinea pig erythrocytes. In vivo oxime PR and in vitro k r2 decreased as the volume of the alkylmethylphosphonate moiety of nerve agents increased from VX to cyclosarin. This effect was greater with 2-PAM and obidoxime (> 14-fold decrease in PR) than with HI-6 and ICD585 ( r2 as the volume of the agent moiety conjugated to AChE increased was consistent with a steric hindrance mechanism. Linear regression of log (PR-1) against log (k r2 · [oxime dose]) produced two offset parallel regression lines that delineated a significant difference between the coupling of oxime reactivation and oxime protection for HI-6 and ICD585 compared to 2-PAM and obidoxime. HI-6 and ICD585 appeared to be 6.8-fold more effective than 2-PAM and obidoxime at coupling oxime reactivation to oxime protection, which suggested that the isonicotinamide group that is common to both of these oximes, but absent from 2-PAM and obidoxime, is important for oxime efficacy

  8. Studies on the polymerization of acrolein oxime, 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Seizo; Tamai, Harumi; Ota, Tadatoshi; Torii, Munetomo; Tanaka, Masami.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation-induced polymerization and copolymerization of acrolein oxime are investigated in different solvents and at a wide range of temperature for obtaining information on the reaction mechanism. Acrolein oxime is polymerized ionically, irrespective of dryness of the sample. Arrhenius plots for the polymerization rate, which do not yield a linear relation, can be adequately approximated by two straight lines. An anionic mechanism is operative above the room temperature, while a cationic mechanism predominates below -23 0 C. The reaction in the intermediate temperature range proceeds by a competitive mechanism, and the rate of the anionic and cationic polymerizations becomes equal at the temperature near -5 0 C. The reaction rate is proportional to the square root of dose rate at room temperature and -23 0 C. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that the polymerization of acrolein oxime by γ-irradiation proceeds by free-ionic mechanisms. (author)

  9. α-Diazo oxime ethers for N-heterocycle synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Subin; Ha, Sujin; Park, Cheol-Min

    2017-06-01

    This Feature Article introduces the preparation and synthetic utility of α-diazo oxime ethers. α-Oximino carbenes are useful synthons for N-heterocycles, and can be easily prepared from α-diazo oxime ethers as precursors. We begin with the preparation of α-diazo oxime ethers and their application in [3+2] cycloaddition. It turns out that the nature of metals bound to carbenes plays a crucial role in modulating the reactivity of α-oximino carbenes, in which copper carbenes smoothly react with enamines, whereas the less reactive enol ethers and nitriles require gold carbenes. In Section 3.2, a discussion on N-O and C-H bond activation is presented. Carbenes derived from diazo oxime ethers show unique reactivity towards N-O and C-H bond activation, in which the proximity of the two functionalities, carbene and oxime ether, dictates the preferred reaction pathways toward pyridines, pyrroles, and 2H-azirines. In Section 3.3, the development of tandem reactions based on α-diazo oxime ethers is discussed. The nature of carbenes in which whether free carbenes or metal complexes are involved dissects the pathway and forms different types of 2H-azirines. The 2H-azirine formation turned out to be an excellent platform for the tandem synthesis of N-heterocycles including pyrroles and pyridines. In the last section, we describe the electrophilic activation of 2H-azirines with vinyl carbenes and oximino carbenes. The resulting azirinium species undergo rapid ring expansion rearrangements to form pyridines and pyrazines.

  10. The Preparation and Intramolecular Radical Cyclisation Reactions of Chiral Oxime Ethers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Booth Susan E.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiral oxime ether 2 and Oxime ester 4 have been prepared by alkylation and esterification of the oxime 1. Racemic hydroxylamine 6 and chiral hydroxylamine 10 have been synthesised from N-hydroxysuccinimide and the corresponding alcohol in the presence of diethylazodicarboxylate, the two products were converted into the oxime ethers 7 and 11 respectively. The intramolecular radical cyclisation reactions of these oxime ethers and esters has been studied, successful reaction was observed to produce alkyl hydroxylamines 3, 8 and 12.

  11. Adsorption equilibrium of uranium from seawater on chelating resin containing amide oxime group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Takahiro; Saito, Kyoichi; Furusaki, Shintaro; Sugo, Takanobu; Okamoto, Jiro.

    1987-01-01

    Chelating resins containing amide oxime group were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization. The amount of the amide oxime groups was controlled below about 0.1 mol per kg of base polymer. The adsorption equilibrium of uranium from seawater on this resin was investigated. It was suggested that two neighboring amide oxime groups on the grafted chain captured one uranyl ion, and that single amide oxime ligand had little capacity for the adsorption of uranium. The adsorption equilibrium was correlated by a Langmuir-type equation. The content of neighboring amide oxime groups was 0.406 x 10 -3 mol per kg of base polymer, which corresponded to 0.39 % of the total amount of amide oxime groups. The apparent stoichiometric stability constant for the complex of uranyl ion with the neighboring amide oxime groups in seawater was calculated to be 10 -21.7 . (author)

  12. Diprotonated hydrazones and oximes as reactive intermediates in electrochemical reductions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baymak, M. S.; Celik, H.; Ludvík, Jiří; Lund, H.; Zuman, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 26 (2004), s. 5113-5115 ISSN 0040-4039 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/01/1093; GA AV ČR IAA4040304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : hydrazones * oximes * diprotonation Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.484, year: 2004

  13. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of new oxime carbamates of 3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. S-alkylation of 3-aryl-2-thioquinazolin-4(3H)-one (1) with chloroacetone gave 2-(propanonyl thio)-3-arylquinazol-4(3H)ones (2). Further, the treatment of compound (2) with hydroxylamine hydrochloride gave the corresponding oximes (3) which on reaction with phenyl isocyanate in THF yielded corresponding.

  14. Binding of Reactive Organophosphate by Oximes via Hydrogen Bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Giuseppe Trusso

    Stoichiometries of the complexes were investigated by the Job plot method using spectrophotometric measurements. The samples were prepared by mixing equimolecular stock solutions (3.7 x 10. -3. M) in dry CH3CN of the appropriate oxime and DMMP to cover the whole range of molar fractions keeping constant the total ...

  15. Leucocyte esterase in the rapid diagnosis of paediatric septic arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, E G

    2013-02-01

    Septic arthritis may affect any age group but is more common in the paediatric population. Infection is generally bacterial in nature. Prompt diagnosis is crucial, as delayed treatment is associated with lifelong joint dysfunction. A clinical history and application of Kocher\\'s criteria may indicate that there is a septic arthritis. However, definitive diagnosis is made on culture of septic synovial fluid. The culture process can take over 24h for the initial culture to yield bacterial colonies. Leucocyte esterase is released by leucocytes at the site of an infection. We hypothesise that leucocyte esterase can be utilized in the rapid diagnosis of septic arthritis and shorten the time to decisive treatment whilst simultaneously decreasing unnecessary treatment of non-septic joints.

  16. A comparison of the neuroprotective efficacy of individual oxime (HI-6) and combinations of oximes (HI-6+trimedoxime, HI-6+K203) in soman-poisoned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Tesarova, Sandra

    2011-07-01

    The ability of two combinations of oximes (HI-6+trimedoxime, HI-6+K203) to reduce soman-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was compared with the neuroprotective efficacy of the oxime HI-6 alone, using a functional observational battery. Soman-induced neurotoxicity and the neuroprotective effects of HI-6 alone and HI-6 combined with trimedoxime or K203 in rats poisoned with soman at a sublethal dose (90 μg/kg intramuscularly, i.m.; 80% of LD₅₀ value) were monitored by the functional observational battery at 24 hours following soman administration. The results indicate that both tested oxime mixtures combined with atropine were able to allow soman-poisoned rats to survive 24 hours following soman challenge, while 4 nontreated soman-poisoned rats and 1 soman-poisoned rat treated with oxime HI-6 alone combined with atropine died within 24 hours following soman poisoning. While the oxime HI-6 alone combined with atropine treatment was able to eliminate a few soman-induced neurotoxic signs and symptoms, both oxime mixtures showed higher neuroprotective efficacy in soman-poisoned rats. Especially, the combination of HI-6 with trimedoxime was able to eliminate most soman-induced neurotoxic signs and symptoms and markedly reduce acute neurotoxicity of soman in rats. Thus, both tested mixtures of oximes combined with atropine were able to increase the neuroprotective effectiveness of antidotal treatment of acute soman poisonings, compared to the individual oxime.

  17. Comparison of Effects of Running and Playing Exercises on Differential Leucocyte Count in Young Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenikli, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present research are to test the effects of running and playing exercises on leucocyte and differential leucocyte accounts, and to test the possible differences between running and playing exercises in terms of leucocyte accounts. They were thirty two male young soccer players. Participants arrived at the laboratory after a 12-hour…

  18. Scintigraphic evaluation of brain death with 99mTc-d,l-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehara, Yasuo; Isoda, Haruo; Sakai, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Tokutaro; Sato, Haruhiko; Yamamoto, Takamichi; Takahashi, Motoichiro; Kaneko, Masao.

    1989-01-01

    Lately, the criteria of brain death is being discussed. Cerebral scintigram, especially scintigraphic evaluation of brain death by dynamic study, has been previously reported. Cerebral imaging using radiolabeled amines such as 123 I-IMP N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamin (IMP) or 99m Tc d, l-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) offers a significant information of brain death by the finding of 'non visualized brain'. However, the dynamic scintigram acquired during the bolus injection of 99m Tc-HMPAO provides an additional information of brain death by classical 'hot nose sign'. 99m Tc-HMPAO is able to be administered relatively in a large amount of dose. This cerebral perfusion tracer is lipophilic and remains in the central nervous system, which characterize its role as a reliable indicator of cerebral blood flow. As a result, this compound became suitable for the non-invasive study of brain circulation when the diagnosis of brain death is uncertain. We report a case of brain death in which diagnosis was made by the classical 'hot nose sign' in dynamic scintigraphy performed when 99 mTc-HMPAO was injected as well as the SPECT which showed a lack of cerebral visualization at the equilibrium state. As far as we are informed, this additional procedure used in the diagnosis of brain death has not reported before. The importance of performing a dynamic scintigram at the administration of 99m Tc-HMPAO is also discussed in this report. (author)

  19. Leucocyte Response In Nigerian Indigenous Dogs With Surgically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... such as cardiopulmonary and coronary artery bypass are known to trigger an inflammatory response, leading to the activation of leucocytes, platelets and endothelial cells (Asimakopoulos and Taylor, 1998; Asimakopoulos et al., 2000; Ngaage, 2003).Major surgeries reportedly also produce PMNL (neutrophil) dysfunction ...

  20. Labelling of leucocytes with 18 F-FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomas, M.B.; Tronco, G.G.; Palestro, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To investigate the effect of blood glucose levels on in-vitro 18 F-FDG labeling of autologous leucocytes. Methods: Seventeen volunteers, 11 men and 6 women, 20 - 54 years old, participated in this study. Using standard techniques, a mixed leucocyte suspension was prepared from 40 ml of blood withdrawn from each volunteer. Blood glucose levels were also measured for each blood sample. After resuspension in 3 ml heparinized saline, the leucocytes were incubated with 11.03 (± 4.48) mCi 18 F-FDG for 30 minutes at 370 C. The labeled cell suspension was then centrifuged for 5 min (150 g). Activity in the cell pellet and supernatant were measured and labelling efficiency calculated. Results: Blood glucose levels ranged from 80 to 178 mg% with a mean of 113 mg%. The overall labelling efficiency was 61.2% (±7.3%). The mean labelling efficiency for blood glucose levels 100 mg%. There is no statistically significant difference between the labeling efficiencies obtained at blood glucose levels 100 mg% (p =0.72). Blood Glucose Level (mg%) Labelling Efficiency (%) 100 61. Conclusion: In summary, no correlation between blood glucose levels and labeling efficiency was observed. Blood glucose levels up to 178 mg% do not affect 18 F-FDG in-vitro labelling of autologous leucocytes. (author)

  1. Leucocyte Function in Protein Deficiency States | Wolfsdorf | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No difference in leucocyte counts could be demonstrated between the groups; however, both groups of malnourished patients (groups ll and lll) had elevated NBT levels, although no difference could be detected between those malnourished infants with and without clinical or laboratory evidence of infection, or both.

  2. Low leucocyte myeloperoxidase activity in patients with multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramsaransing, G; Teelken, A; Prokopenko, VM; Arutjunyan, AV; De Keyser, J

    The gene for myeloperoxidase (MPO) has been implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS). By measuring H2O2 dependent oxidation of 3,3'5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine with spectrophotometry the authors investigated MPO activity in peripheral blood leucocytes from 42 patients with MS (12 with secondary

  3. Reaction of the oximes of aliphatic aldehydes and ketones with alkoxyethenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronkov, M.G.; Keiko, N.A.; Shuvashev, Yu.A.; Kalikhman, I.D.; Keiko, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    In the reaction of acetone oxime with alkyl vinyl ethers in the presence of zinc chloride variable amounts of acetone 0,0'-(2-propylidene)dioxime, acetaldehyde dialkyl acetal, acetaldehyde 0-(1-alkoxyethyl)oxide, and acetone 0-(1-alkoxy-1-methylethyl)oxime, depending on the reaction conditions, are formed in addition to acetone 0-(1-alkoxyethyl)oxime (the initial addition product). In the reaction of acetaldehyde oxime with alkyl vinyl ethers in the presence of zinc chloride acetaldehyde oxime with alkyl vinyl ethers in the presence of zinc chloride acetaldehyde dialkyl acetal was isolated in addition to acetaldehyde 0-(1-alkoxyethyl)oxime. A mechanism for the formation of the obtained compounds is proposed

  4. Chromatographic analysis of toxic phosphylated oximes (POX): a brief overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christian; Worek, Franz; John, Harald

    2010-10-01

    Poisoning with organophosphorus compounds (OP), e.g. pesticides and nerve agents, causes inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by phosphylation of the active site serine residue. Consequently, accumulation of stimulating acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft induces cholinergic crisis which ultimately may lead to death. For standard causal therapy, enzyme reactivators are administered representing oxime derivatives of quarternary pyridinium compounds, e.g. pralidoxime (2-PAM), obidoxime and HI 6. The mechanism of action includes removal of the phosphyl moiety by a nucleophilic attack of the oximate molecule substituting the enzyme and forming a phosphylated oxime (POX). POX is produced in stoichiometric amounts of reactivated enzyme and exhibits a significantly enhanced toxicity (inhibition rate constant) when compared to the parent OP. However, stability of POX under physiological conditions appears to be highly limited. Nevertheless, the presence of POX reveals a potential critical issue for both therapeutic efficacy in vivo and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modelling based on cholinesterase activity data. Detailed characterization represents an important need for elaboration of the entire oxime pharmacology.Nevertheless, reports on POX toxicity and analysis are quite rare and may therefore be indicative of the challenge of POX analysis. This review provides a concise overview of chromatographic approaches applied to POX separation. Chromatography represents the key technology for POX purification and quantification in kinetic in vitro studies using buffers and biological fluids. Applications based on reversed-phase chromatography (RPC), ion pair chromatography (IPC) and an affinity approach as well as thin layer chromatography (TLC) are discussed and novel applications and data are presented. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Amines, Astrocytes and Arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Bazargani, N.; Attwell, D.

    2017-01-01

    Amine neurotransmitters, such as noradrenaline, mediate arousal, attention, and reward in the CNS. New data suggest that, from flies to mammals, a major mechanism for amine transmitter action is to raise astrocyte [Ca2+]i and release gliotransmitters that modulate neuronal activity and behavior.

  6. Stabilization of Tc-99m D,L-HMPAO preparations as a leucocyte labelling agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.H.; Huang, W.T.; Tsai, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    An attempt was made to use stabilized Tc-99m D,L-HMPAO (S-HMPAO) to label leucocytes. The radiochemical purity of Tc-99m D,L-HMPAO, labelling efficiency of leucocytes, cell viability of labelled leucocytes, and stability of S-HMPAO labelled leucocytes were calculated. In comparison with commercial Tc-99m D,L-HMPAO (C-HMPAO) without stabilization, immediately, at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h after HMPAO preparation, the radiochemical purity of S-HMPAO and the labelling efficiencies of S-HMPAO labelled leucocytes were higher. S-HMPAO is more stable than C-HMPAO and can provide higher leucocyte labelling efficiency. S-HMPAO, therefore, has the potential to replace C-HMPAO as a leucocyte-labelling agent

  7. Synthesis, spectra and X-ray crystallography of dipyridin-2-ylmethanone oxime and its CuX2(oxime)2 complexes: Thermal, Hirshfeld surface and DFT analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warad, Ismail; Abdoh, Muneer; Al Ali, Anas; Shivalingegowda, Naveen; Kumara, Karthik; Zarrouk, Abdelkader; Lokanath, Neartur Krishnappagowda

    2018-02-01

    Dipyridin-2-ylmethanone oxime (C11H9N3O), was prepared using di-2-pyridyl ketone. The oxime ligand and its neutral CuX2 (oxime)2 (X = Cl or Br) complexes have been identified with the aid of several spectroscopic techniques such as: IR, EI-MS, EA, UV-visible, TG, 1H-NMR and finally the structure of the free oxime ligand was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. The oxime crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c, with cell parameters a = 8.8811 (8) Å, b = 10.6362 (8) Å, c = 11.2050 (8) Å, β = 109.085 (4) º, V = 1000.26 (14) Å3 and Z = 4. The molecular conformation is stabilized by a strong intramolecular Osbnd H⋯N hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl group of the oxime moiety and the nitrogen of the pyridine ring. Since the oxime structure was solved by XRD, the ligand structure parameters like bond length and angles were compared to the DFT computed one, the UV-visible to TD-SCF and Hirshfeld surface to MEP analysis.

  8. Leucocytes labelled with In-111-oxine in acute inflammatory processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, R.; Lomena, F.; Fernandez, R.M.; Del Rio, L.; Piera, C.; Vida, F.; Setoain, J.

    1982-01-01

    We used autologous leucocytes labelled with In-111-Oxine to diagnose inflammatory processes, located or scattered, in 60 patients. In 46 there was suspected located infection focus. Gammagraphy was abnormal in 38 cases (83%), 28 abdominally located (87%), 5 thorax located (71%) and 5 of several locations. In other 14 cases there was clinic suspicion of infection without located septic focus. In 5 of them gammagraphy was interpreted as positive but only in 3 patients it was found abdominal located abscess. The two other cases are considered as false positive ones. In the 9 remaining, with negative gammagraphy there was no clinic confirmation nor other diagnostic methods of abscess existence. In this paper we checked high sensitivity of leucocytes In-111-Oxine to diagnose and locate infectious focuses. In our casuistry there was only a false negative and two false positive ones

  9. Involvement of leucocyte/endothelial cell interactions in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Víctor, Víctor M; Rovira-Llopis, Susana; Saiz-Alarcón, Vanessa; Sangüesa, Maria C; Rojo-Bofill, Luis; Bañuls, Celia; de Pablo, Carmen; Álvarez, Ángeles; Rojo, Luis; Rocha, Milagros; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a common psychiatric disorder in adolescence and is related to cardiovascular complications. Our aim was to study the effect of anorexia nervosa on metabolic parameters, leucocyte-endothelium interactions, adhesion molecules and proinflammatory cytokines. This multicentre, cross-sectional, case-control study employed a population of 24 anorexic female patients and 36 controls. We evaluated anthropometric and metabolic parameters, interactions between leucocytes polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) including E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Anorexia nervosa was related to a decrease in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR, and an increase in HDL cholesterol. These effects disappeared after adjusting for BMI. Anorexia nervosa induced a decrease in PMN rolling velocity and an increase in PMN rolling flux and PMN adhesion. Increases in IL-6 and TNF-α and adhesion molecule VCAM-1 were also observed. This study supports the hypothesis of an association between anorexia nervosa, inflammation and the induction of leucocyte-endothelium interactions. These findings may explain, in part at least, the increased risk of vascular disease among patients with anorexia nervosa. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  10. Evaluation of oxime efficacy in nerve agent poisoning: Development of a kinetic-based dynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worek, Franz; Szinicz, Ladislaus; Eyer, Peter; Thiermann, Horst

    2005-01-01

    The widespread use of organophosphorus compounds (OP) as pesticides and the repeated misuse of highly toxic OP as chemical warfare agents (nerve agents) emphasize the necessity for the development of effective medical countermeasures. Standard treatment with atropine and the established acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivators, obidoxime and pralidoxime, is considered to be ineffective with certain nerve agents due to low oxime effectiveness. From obvious ethical reasons only animal experiments can be used to evaluate new oximes as nerve agent antidotes. However, the extrapolation of data from animal to humans is hampered by marked species differences. Since reactivation of OP-inhibited AChE is considered to be the main mechanism of action of oximes, human erythrocyte AChE can be exploited to test the efficacy of new oximes. By combining enzyme kinetics (inhibition, reactivation, aging) with OP toxicokinetics and oxime pharmacokinetics a dynamic in vitro model was developed which allows the calculation of AChE activities at different scenarios. This model was validated with data from pesticide-poisoned patients and simulations were performed for intravenous and percutaneous nerve agent exposure and intramuscular oxime treatment using published data. The model presented may serve as a tool for defining effective oxime concentrations and for optimizing oxime treatment. In addition, this model can be useful for the development of meaningful therapeutic animal models

  11. Oxime Ethers of (E)-11-Isonitrosostrychnine as Highly Potent Glycine Receptor Antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohsen, Amal M Y; Mandour, Yasmine M; Sarukhanyan, Edita

    2016-01-01

    of the crystal structure of the α3 glycine receptor indicated the same orientation of the strychnine core for all analogues. For the most potent oxime ethers, the ether substituent was accommodated in a lipophilic receptor binding pocket. The findings identify the oxime hydroxy group as a suitable attachment...

  12. 76 FR 12563 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Spinosad and Milbemycin Oxime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... spinosad and milbemycin oxime in dogs for the treatment and prevention of flea infestations and for the... and milbemycin oxime) Chewable Tablets in dogs for the treatment and prevention of flea infestations... Friday. Under section 512(c)(2)(F)(ii) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 360b(c)(2...

  13. Amine Functionalized Porous Network

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Guillerm, Vincent; Weselinski, Lukasz Jan; Alkordi, Mohamed H.; Mohideen, Mohamed Infas Haja; Belmabkhout, Youssef

    2015-01-01

    Amine groups can be introduced in porous materials by a direct (one pot) or post-synthetic modification (PSM) process on aldehyde groups, and the resulting porous materials have increased gas affinity.

  14. Amine Functionalized Porous Network

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-05-28

    Amine groups can be introduced in porous materials by a direct (one pot) or post-synthetic modification (PSM) process on aldehyde groups, and the resulting porous materials have increased gas affinity.

  15. A comprehensive evaluation of novel oximes in creation of butyrylcholinesterase-based nerve agent bioscavengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katalinić, Maja; Maček Hrvat, Nikolina; Baumann, Krešimir; Morasi Piperčić, Sara; Makarić, Sandro; Tomić, Srđanka; Jović, Ozren; Hrenar, Tomica; Miličević, Ante; Jelić, Dubravko; Žunec, Suzana; Primožič, Ines; Kovarik, Zrinka

    2016-01-01

    A well-considered treatment of acute nerve agents poisoning involves the exogenous administration of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC 3.1.1.8) as a stoichiometric bioscavenger efficient in preventing cholinergic crises caused by acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) inhibition. An additional improvement in medical countermeasures would be to use oximes that could reactivate BChE as well to upgrade bioscavenging from stoichiometric to oxime-assisted catalytic. Therefore, in this paper we investigated the potency of 39 imidazolium and benzimidazolium oximes (36 compounds synthesized for the first time) to be considered as the reactivators specifically designed for reactivation of phosphylated human BChE. Their efficiency in the reactivation of paraoxon-, VX-, and tabun-inhibited human BChE, as well as human AChE was tested and compared with the efficiencies of HI-6 and obidoxime, used in medical practice today. A comprehensive analysis was performed for the most promising oximes defining kinetic parameters of reactivation as well as interactions with uninhibited BChE. Furthermore, experimental data were compared with computational studies (docking, QSAR analysis) as a starting point in future oxime structure refinement. Considering the strict criteria set for in vivo applications, we determined the cytotoxicity of lead oximes on two cell lines. Among the tested oxime library, one imidazolium compound was selected for preliminary in vivo antidotal study in mice. The obtained protection in VX poisoning outlines its potential in development oxime-assisted OP-bioscavenging with BChE. - Highlights: • 36 new imidazolium and benzimidazolium oximes were designed and synthesized. • In vitro reactivation kinetics of phosphylated butyrylcholinesterase was studded. • The modes of actions were elucidated by QSAR and docking simulations. • Protection in VX poisoning was 6.3 × LD 50 in in vivo antidotal study in mice. • Imidazolium oxime-assisted catalysis is feasible

  16. A comprehensive evaluation of novel oximes in creation of butyrylcholinesterase-based nerve agent bioscavengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katalinić, Maja; Maček Hrvat, Nikolina [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, POB 291, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Baumann, Krešimir; Morasi Piperčić, Sara; Makarić, Sandro; Tomić, Srđanka; Jović, Ozren; Hrenar, Tomica [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Miličević, Ante [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, POB 291, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Jelić, Dubravko [Fidelta Ltd., HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Žunec, Suzana [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, POB 291, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Primožič, Ines, E-mail: ines.primozic@chem.pmf.hr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Kovarik, Zrinka, E-mail: zkovarik@imi.hr [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, POB 291, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2016-11-01

    A well-considered treatment of acute nerve agents poisoning involves the exogenous administration of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC 3.1.1.8) as a stoichiometric bioscavenger efficient in preventing cholinergic crises caused by acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) inhibition. An additional improvement in medical countermeasures would be to use oximes that could reactivate BChE as well to upgrade bioscavenging from stoichiometric to oxime-assisted catalytic. Therefore, in this paper we investigated the potency of 39 imidazolium and benzimidazolium oximes (36 compounds synthesized for the first time) to be considered as the reactivators specifically designed for reactivation of phosphylated human BChE. Their efficiency in the reactivation of paraoxon-, VX-, and tabun-inhibited human BChE, as well as human AChE was tested and compared with the efficiencies of HI-6 and obidoxime, used in medical practice today. A comprehensive analysis was performed for the most promising oximes defining kinetic parameters of reactivation as well as interactions with uninhibited BChE. Furthermore, experimental data were compared with computational studies (docking, QSAR analysis) as a starting point in future oxime structure refinement. Considering the strict criteria set for in vivo applications, we determined the cytotoxicity of lead oximes on two cell lines. Among the tested oxime library, one imidazolium compound was selected for preliminary in vivo antidotal study in mice. The obtained protection in VX poisoning outlines its potential in development oxime-assisted OP-bioscavenging with BChE. - Highlights: • 36 new imidazolium and benzimidazolium oximes were designed and synthesized. • In vitro reactivation kinetics of phosphylated butyrylcholinesterase was studded. • The modes of actions were elucidated by QSAR and docking simulations. • Protection in VX poisoning was 6.3 × LD{sub 50} in in vivo antidotal study in mice. • Imidazolium oxime-assisted catalysis is

  17. The Design, Synthesis and Screening of Potential Pyridinium Oxime Prodrugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    Our intent is to take advantage of this trapping mechanism using nucleophiles (X) such as SCN, SO3H, I, Br and OCN, which we hope will be as labile...pH 3.5-10.5. The advantage of the system stemmed from the fact that each pyridinium oxime regenerator has a discrete -max which is pH dependent. 2-PAM...with matching 3 cm guard columns. Normal phase analysis was performed "on an Alltech 0.5 x 25 cm silica gel 10 p column with 3 cm guard column and

  18. Studies on the polymerization of acrolein oxime, 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Tadatoshi; Mori, Yoshikazu; Tamai, Harumi; Masuda, Seizo; Tanaka, Masami.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation-induced polymerization of acrolein oxime was carried out at temperatures ranging from room temperature to -78 0 C, and the resulting low molecular products were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Acetaldoxime, propionaldoxime, propenylhydroxylamines, dioximes etc. were obtained. Initial processes of the polymerization are discussed on the basis of these reaction products. The present work offers further corroborating evidence for the already-described postulation that an anionic mechanism is operative above room temperature, and a cationic mechanism is predominant below -23 0 C. (author)

  19. Design and Biological Evaluation of Antifouling Dihydrostilbene Oxime Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Lindon W K; Cervin, Gunnar; Trepos, Rozenn; Labriere, Christophe; Hellio, Claire; Pavia, Henrik; Svenson, Johan

    2018-04-01

    By combining the recently reported repelling natural dihydrostilbene scaffold with an oxime moiety found in many marine antifoulants, a library of nine antifouling hybrid compounds was developed and biologically evaluated. The prepared compounds were shown to display a low antifouling effect against marine bacteria but a high potency against the attachment and growth of microalgae down to MIC values of 0.01 μg/mL for the most potent hybrid. The mode of action can be characterized as repelling via a reversible non-toxic biostatic mechanism. Barnacle cyprid larval settlement was also inhibited at low μg/mL concentrations with low levels or no toxicity observed. Several of the prepared compounds performed better than many reported antifouling marine natural products. While several of the prepared compounds are highly active as antifoulants, no apparent synergy is observed by incorporating the oxime functionality into the dihydrostilbene scaffold. This observation is discussed in light of recently reported literature data on related marine natural antifoulants and antifouling hybrids as a potentially general strategy for generation of improved antifoulants.

  20. Indium-111-labelled leucocytes for localisation of abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, A.W.; Thakur, M.L.; Arnot, R.N.; Lavender, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    Leucocytes from eight patients who were thought to have an abscess were labelled with indium-111 and reintroduced into the circulation. The distribution of radioactivity was followed by whole-body scanning and imaging with a gamma camera. Focal accumulations of radioactivity were observed in the lesion in the three patients with abscesses, in the lungs of a boy with bacterial endocarditis, in the knee of a woman with rheumatoid arthritis, and at the site of intramuscular injections in another patient. The use of radiolabelled cells for the detection of focal pathological processes would seem to be an important addition to conventional diagnostic methods. (author)

  1. Indium-111-labelled leucocytes for localisation of abscesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, A W; Thakur, M L; Arnot, R N; Lavender, J P [Royal Postgraduate Medical School, London (UK)

    1976-11-13

    Leucocytes from eight patients who were thought to have an abscess were labelled with indium-111 and reintroduced into the circulation. The distribution of radioactivity was followed by whole-body scanning and imaging with a gamma camera. Focal accumulations of radioactivity were observed in the lesion in the three patients with abscesses, in the lungs of a boy with bacterial endocarditis, in the knee of a woman with rheumatoid arthritis, and at the site of intramuscular injections in another patient. The use of radiolabelled cells for the detection of focal pathological processes would seem to be an important addition to conventional diagnostic methods.

  2. Functionalised Oximes: Emergent Precursors for Carbon-, Nitrogen- and Oxygen-Centred Radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Walton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxime derivatives are easily made, are non-hazardous and have long shelf lives. They contain weak N–O bonds that undergo homolytic scission, on appropriate thermal or photochemical stimulus, to initially release a pair of N- and O-centred radicals. This article reviews the use of these precursors for studying the structures, reactions and kinetics of the released radicals. Two classes have been exploited for radical generation; one comprises carbonyl oximes, principally oxime esters and amides, and the second comprises oxime ethers. Both classes release an iminyl radical together with an equal amount of a second oxygen-centred radical. The O-centred radicals derived from carbonyl oximes decarboxylate giving access to a variety of carbon-centred and nitrogen-centred species. Methods developed for homolytically dissociating the oxime derivatives include UV irradiation, conventional thermal and microwave heating. Photoredox catalytic methods succeed well with specially functionalised oximes and this aspect is also reviewed. Attention is also drawn to the key contributions made by EPR spectroscopy, aided by DFT computations, in elucidating the structures and dynamics of the transient intermediates.

  3. New Cinchona Oximes Evaluated as Reactivators of Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibited by Organophosphorus Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Katalinić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available For the last six decades, researchers have been focused on finding efficient reactivators of organophosphorus compound (OP-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE. In this study, we have focused our research on a new oxime scaffold based on the Cinchona structure since it was proven to fit the cholinesterases active site and reversibly inhibit their activity. Three Cinchona oximes (C1, C2, and C3, derivatives of the 9-oxocinchonidine, were synthesized and investigated in reactivation of various OP-inhibited AChE and BChE. As the results showed, the tested oximes were more efficient in the reactivation of BChE and they reactivated enzyme activity to up to 70% with reactivation rates similar to known pyridinium oximes used as antidotes in medical practice today. Furthermore, the oximes showed selectivity towards binding to the BChE active site and the determined enzyme-oxime dissociation constants supported work on the future development of inhibitors in other targeted studies (e.g., in treatment of neurodegenerative disease. Also, we monitored the cytotoxic effect of Cinchona oximes on two cell lines Hep G2 and SH-SY5Y to determine the possible limits for in vivo application. The cytotoxicity results support future studies of these compounds as long as their biological activity is targeted in the lower micromolar range.

  4. Recent advances in evaluation of oxime efficacy in nerve agent poisoning by in vitro analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worek, F.; Eyer, P.; Aurbek, N.; Szinicz, L.; Thiermann, H.

    2007-01-01

    The availability of highly toxic organophosphorus (OP) warfare agents (nerve agents) underlines the necessity for an effective medical treatment. Acute OP toxicity is primarily caused by inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Reactivators (oximes) of inhibited AChE are a mainstay of treatment, however, the commercially available compounds, obidoxime and pralidoxime, are considered to be rather ineffective against various nerve agents, e.g. soman and cyclosarin. This led to the synthesis and investigation of numerous oximes in the past decades. Reactivation of OP-inhibited AChE is considered to be the most important reaction of oximes. Clinical data from studies with pesticide-poisoned patients support the assumption that the various reactions between AChE, OP and oxime, i.e. inhibition, reactivation and aging, can be investigated in vitro with human AChE. In contrast to animal experiments such in vitro studies with human tissue enable the evaluation of oxime efficacy without being affected by species differences. In the past few years numerous in vitro studies were performed by different groups with a large number of oximes and methods were developed for extrapolating in vitro data to different scenarios of human nerve agent poisoning. The present status in the evaluation of new oximes as antidotes against nerve agent poisoning will be discussed

  5. Fluorinated Amine Stereotriads via Allene Amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Gerstner, Nels C; Oxtoby, Lucas J; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2017-06-16

    The incorporation of fluorine into organic scaffolds often improves the bioactivity of pharmaceutically relevant compounds. C-F/C-N/C-O stereotriad motifs are prevalent in antivirals, neuraminidase inhibitors, and modulators of androgen receptors, but are challenging to install. An oxidative allene amination strategy using Selectfluor rapidly delivers triply functionalized triads of the form C-F/C-N/C-O, exhibiting good scope and diastereoselectivity for all syn products. The resulting stereotriads are readily transformed into fluorinated pyrrolidines and protected α-, β-, and γ-amino acids.

  6. Automated processing of leucocyte-poor platelet concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandy, N P; Seghatchian, M J; Bessos, H

    1992-10-01

    In view of transfusion reactions and alloimmunization associated with leucocyte contamination of platelet concentrates (PC), there is a general move towards the production of leuco-poor PC. This goal is currently pursued by the production of various PC using buffy coat and apheresis techniques. Although there is no overall consensus on the meaning of 'leuco-poor', by assuming that this refers to a level of 5-50 x 10(7) leucocytes per PC, we were able to make comparisons with available systems used in Europe. In addition to platelet and white cell counts, other markers of PC quality were assessed in some cases. These included traditional markers (such as hypotonic stress response, pH, and lactate and beta-thromboglobulin levels) and newer markers (such as glycocalicin and plasma von Willebrand factor levels). Our preliminary results showed appreciable differences in platelet and white cell content of PC prepared by various types of apheresis equipment. Appreciable differences in the quality of stored PC were also observed between routine PC (non-leuco-poor and buffy coat and apheresed PC (leuco-poor).

  7. The effect of in vitro procedures on cyclic AMP accumulation in human leucocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben; Friis, U G; Rasmussen, A K

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various methodological procedures or protocols on cyclic AMP formation in human leucocytes. The data showed that: (1) ATP content and lactate production was unaffected by hypotonic lysis during leucocyte isolation; (2) there was a linear rela...

  8. The increase in leucocyte count during menstruation is a function of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Menstruation is an endocrine mediated physiologic cyclical bleeding per vagina in a non-pregnant woman of the reproductive age group. Blood is a good culture medium for bacteria and as such, menstruation can affect leucocytes count. This study is aimed at evaluating leucocytes count during menstruation. Fifty-eight ...

  9. Differential effect of extracellular calcium on the Na(+)-K+ pump activity in intact polymorphonuclear leucocytes and erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, R H; Knudsen, T; Johansen, Torben

    1991-01-01

    The effect of extracellular calcium on the Na(+)-K+ pump activity in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes and erythrocytes was studied and compared with the activity in mixed peritoneal leucocytes from rats. While there was maximal decrease in the pump activity (25-30%) of leucocytes from both rat ...

  10. Quantum Chemical and Physicochemical Studies of Oximes (Prophylactics against and Reactivators of Phosphorylated AChE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-25

    crystal structure of nicotinic acid ,. and we used the ether bridge from the crystal structure of dimethyl ether. We are investigating various rotamers...observations were made: - The titration curve (after the subtraction of the blank curve) shows only one titrable group, i.e. the oxime moiety. - The...subtraction of the blank curve, shows two titrable groups, i.e. the two oxime moieties. The results are as follows: Temperature Conditions PKa pK2

  11. Efficacy of the Tertiary Oxime Monoisonitrosoacetone (MINA) Against Lethal Sarin Intoxication in the Guinea Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Sarin 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Intoxication in the Guinea Pig 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Koplovitz, I and...efficacy of MINA as a treatment for lethal sarin (GB) intoxication in guinea pigs . Male animals were challenged subcutaneously (s.c.) with 2 LD50s...oximes that are readily able to enter the brain. 15. SUBJECT TERMS oximes, brain, sarin, reactivation, nerve agents, guinea pigs 16. SECURITY

  12. A comparison of the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of two novel bispyridinium oximes (K727, K733) with the oxime HI-6 and obidoxime in sarin-poisoned rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Sepsova, Vendula; Matouskova, Lenka; Horova, Anna; Musilek, Kamil

    2015-03-01

    The ability of two novel bispyridinium oximes K727 and K733 and currently available oximes (HI-6, obidoxime) to reactivate sarin-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and to reduce acute toxicity of sarin was evaluated. To investigate the reactivating efficacy of the oximes, the rats were administered intramuscularly with atropine and oximes in equitoxic doses corresponding to 5% of their LD50 values at 1 min after the intramuscular administration of sarin at a dose of 24 µg/kg (LD50). The activity of acetylcholinesterase was measured at 60 min after sarin poisoning. The LD50 value of sarin in non-treated and treated mice was assessed using probit-logarithmical analysis of death occurring within 24 h after intramuscular administration of sarin at five different doses. In vivo determined percentage of reactivation of sarin-inhibited rat blood, diaphragm and brain acetylcholinesterase showed that the potency of both novel oximes K727 and K733 to reactivate sarin-inhibited acetylcholinesterase roughly corresponds to the reactivating efficacy of obidoxime. On the other hand, the oxime HI-6 was found to be the most efficient reactivator of sarin-inhibited acetylcholinesterase. While the oxime HI-6 was able to reduce the acute toxicity of sarin >3 times, both novel oximes and obidoxime decreased the acute toxicity of sarin HI-6 and, therefore, they are not suitable for the replacement of the oxime HI-6 for the antidotal treatment of acute sarin poisoning.

  13. Characterization of particulate amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundel, L.A.; Chang, S.G.; Clemenson, M.S.; Markowitz, S.S.; Novakov, T.

    1979-01-01

    The reduced nitrogen compounds associated with ambient particulate matter are chemically characterized by means of ESCA and proton activation analysis. Ambient particulate samples collected on silver filters in Berkeley, California were washed with water and organic solvents, and ESCA and proton activation analysis were performed in order to determine the composition of various nitrogen compounds and the total nitrogen content. It is found that 85% of the amines originally present in ambient particulate matter can be removed by water extraction, whereas the ammonium and nitrate are completely removed. An observed increase in ammonium ion in the extract, compared with its concentration in the original sample, coupled with the commensurate decrease in amine concentration, is attributed to the hydrolysis of amide groups, which may cause analytical methods based on extraction to yield erroneous results

  14. Response of peripheral leucocytes to whole body irradiation and vitamin E treatment in white leghorn chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, K.; Malhotra, N.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation induced changes in peripheral blood leucocytes in 1 day old male white leghorn chicks were studied after whole body exposure to 2.25 Gy dose of gamma radiation at the rate of 0.50 Gy/sec with and without vitamin E. The changes in total leucocyte counts, lymphocytes and heterophils were observed at 1,3,5,7,14 and 28 days postirradiation. A pronounced leucocytopenia was noted in the initial post-irradiation period. The lymphocytes and heterophils showed a reciprocal relationship after radiation. With vitamin E treatment, considerable and faster recovery was noticed in the leucocytes after irradiation. (author). 16 refs., 3 figs

  15. Measurement of specific [3H]-ouabain binding to different types of human leucocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Arnold; Oh, V M; Taylor, John E.

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the specific binding of [3H]-ouabain to intact mononuclear leucocytes (82% lymphocytes) and polymorphonuclear leucocytes. In both types of cells [3H]-ouabain binding was saturable, confined to a single site of high affinity, slow to reach equilibrium, slow to reverse, temperature...... were expressed per square micron of cell surface area the difference between the two cell types was proportionately greater (83 and 186 sites per micron 2 respectively). We conclude that the [3H]-ouabain binding sites on mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leucocytes are similar in nature, but different...

  16. The economics of amine usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fountain, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The EPRI computer programm, 'Aminemod', a PWR chemistry model, has been used to compare the technical advantages of the 'advanced' amines, ethanolamine, 1,2 diaminoethane and 5 aminopentanol over morpholine in generating an elevated pH in the moisture separator and the economics of using these amines has been assessed by using an MS Excel spreadsheet in conjunction with Aminemod. The advanced amines are capable of achieving 1 pH unit above neutrality, the EPRI target for prevention of erosion-corrison, at acceptable cost and, compared with 'conventional' amines, at considerably reduced ionic load on the condensate polisher. The exercise demonstrates that it is essential to evaluate the effect of an amine dosing regime on the total operating cost and that it is not possible to prejudge the economic outcome on the basis of an amine's purchase price. (orig.)

  17. Comparison of oxime reactivation and aging of nerve agent-inhibited monkey and human acetylcholinesterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chunyuan; Tong, Min; Maxwell, Donald M; Saxena, Ashima

    2008-09-25

    Non-human primates are valuable animal models that are used for the evaluation of nerve agent toxicity as well as antidotes and results from animal experiments are extrapolated to humans. It has been demonstrated that the efficacy of an oxime primarily depends on its ability to reactivate nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). If the in vitro oxime reactivation of nerve agent-inhibited animal AChE is similar to that of human AChE, it is likely that the results of an in vivo animal study will reliably extrapolate to humans. Therefore, the goal of this study was to compare the aging and reactivation of human and different monkey (Rhesus, Cynomolgus, and African Green) AChEs inhibited by GF, GD, and VR. The oximes examined include the traditional oxime 2-PAM, two H-oximes HI-6 and HLo-7, and the new candidate oxime MMB4. Results indicate that oxime reactivation of all three monkey AChEs was very similar to human AChE. The maximum difference in the second-order reactivation rate constant between human and three monkey AChEs or between AChEs from different monkey species was 5-fold. Aging rate constants of GF-, GD-, and VR-inhibited monkey AChEs were very similar to human AChE except for GF-inhibited monkey AChEs, which aged 2-3 times faster than the human enzyme. The results of this study suggest that all three monkey species are suitable animal models for nerve agent antidote evaluation since monkey AChEs possess similar biochemical/pharmacological properties to human AChE.

  18. Fast and low-temperature sintering of silver complex using oximes as a potential reducing agent for solution-processible, highly conductive electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Ji Hoon; Park, Su Bin; Kim, Ji Man; Han, Dae Sang; Chae, Jangwoo; Kwak, Jeonghun

    2014-01-01

    Highly conductive, solution-processed silver thin-films were obtained at a low sintering temperature of 100 °C in a short sintering time of 10 min by introducing oximes as a potential reductant for silver complex. The thermal properties and reducibility of three kinds of oximes, acetone oxime, 2-butanone oxime, and one dimethylglyoxime, were investigated as a reducing agent, and we found that the thermal decomposition product of oximes (ketones) accelerated the conversion of silver complex into highly conductive silver at low sintering temperature in a short time. Using the acetone oxime, the silver thin-film exhibited the lowest surface resistance (0.91 Ω sq −1 ) compared to those sing other oximes. The silver thin-film also showed a high reflectance of 97.8%, which is comparable to evaporated silver films. We also demonstrated inkjet printed silver patterns with the oxime-added silver complex inks. (paper)

  19. Differential expression of PARP1 mRNA in leucocytes of patients ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P. 2011 Differential expression of PARP1 mRNA in leucocytes of patients with Down's syndrome. J. Genet. ... of Alzheimer disease at an earlier age than subjects with- ... family and personal informed consent. .... In effect, they report that.

  20. Isolation and labelling of human leucocytes with sup(99m)Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalbaek, H.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the leucocyte isolation procedure on cell labeling with sup(99m)Tc has been evaluated. Separation of leucocytes was performed by two procedures: (1) sedimentation on methyl cellulose, followed by discontinuous gradient centrifugation; (2) methyl cellulose sedimentation and hypotonic haemolysis of residual red blood cells. After washing the cells in saline and incubation with a stannous pyrophosphate agent, the leucocytes were labelled with 5-10 mCi sup(99m)Tc. Procedure 1 gave a higher purity but lower recovery of polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and a minor contamination of red blood cells. sup(99m)Tc labelling of cells was slightly more efficient with this method, probably due to the presence of red blood cells. Procedure 1 is recommended for in vitro studies on cell kinetics and procedure 2 is recommended for clinical use. (orig.)

  1. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes consume oxygen in sputum from chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolpen, Mette; Hansen, C. R.; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most severe complication for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This infection is characterised by endobronchial mucoid biofilms surrounded by numerous polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs). The mucoid phenotype offers protection...

  2. 86Rubidium uptake in mononuclear leucocytes from young subjects at increased risk of developing essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Johansen, Torben; Pedersen, K E

    1988-01-01

    This study was designed to assess any changes in mononuclear leucocytes from young men at increased risk of developing essential hypertension and to determine whether any changes found were associated with borderline hypertension and/or heredity. To this end we used mononuclear leucocytes......, and especially in those borderline hypertensives with at least one hypertensive parent. The latter group was also the group at greatest risk of developing essential hypertension....

  3. Radiation enteropathy and leucocyte-endothelial cell reactions in a refined small bowel model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Nadia

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leucocyte recruitment and inflammation are key features of high dose radiation-induced tissue injury. The inflammatory response in the gut may be more pronounced following radiotherapy due to its high bacterial load in comparison to the response in other organs. We designed a model to enable us to study the effects of radiation on leucocyte-endothelium interactions and on intestinal microflora in the murine ileum. This model enables us to study specifically the local effects of radiation therapy. Method A midline laparotomy was performed in male C57/Bl6 mice and a five-centimetre segment of ileum is irradiated using the chamber. Leucocyte responses (rolling and adhesion were then analysed in ileal venules 2 – 48 hours after high dose irradiation, made possible by an inverted approach using intravital fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, intestinal microflora, myeloperoxidase (MPO and cell histology were analysed. Results The highest and most reproducible increase in leucocyte rolling was exhibited 2 hours after high dose irradiation whereas leucocyte adhesion was greatest after 16 hours. Radiation reduced the intestinal microflora count compared to sham animals with a significant decrease in the aerobic count after 2 hours of radiation. Further, the total aerobic counts, Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacillus decreased significantly after 16 hours. In the radiation groups, the bacterial count showed a progressive increase from 2 to 24 hours after radiation. Conclusion This study presents a refinement of a previous method of examining mechanisms of radiation enteropathy, and a new approach at investigating radiation induced leucocyte responses in the ileal microcirculation. Radiation induced maximum leucocyte rolling at 2 hours and adhesion peaked at 16 hours. It also reduces the microflora count, which then starts to increase steadily afterwards. This model may be instrumental in developing strategies against pathological

  4. In vivo measurement of circulating leucocyte activation in patients following cardiopulmonary bypass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Hazel A. E-mail: hazel.jones@imperial.ac.uk; Choudhury, Marina; Harris, David N.F

    2004-10-01

    We have developed a simple technique to measure in vivo activation of circulating leucocytes and assessed it in 6 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Arterial, mixed venous, and jugular bulb blood samples were taken following i.v. [{sup 18}F]FDG, before and after CPB. [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake in leucocytes was measured by phosphor imaging of spun blood-filled capillary tubes. Leucocyte radioactivity was quantified ([(leucocytes-plasma)/plasma radioactivity] and normalised to leucocyte counts. [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake (mean{+-}SEM)) before CPB was undetectable, being -0.014{+-}0.007, -0.011{+-}0.003, -0.012{+-}0.006, -0.010{+-}0.005, whereas increased uptake was demonstrated following CPB, 0.006{+-}0.006, 0.009{+-}0.005, 0.021{+-}0.005, 0.034{+-}0.006, at 20, 40, 60, and 80 min, respectively. There was no significant difference in activation between sampling sites before or after CPB. This method gives a sensitive index of activation of circulating leucocytes in whole blood, enabling investigation of activation of circulating white cells without the influence of sample handling or the requirement for time-consuming cell separation procedures.

  5. Is there a role for Tc-99m HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy in patients with infective endocarditis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellmann, A.; Rubow, S.M.; Erlank, P.; Reuter, H.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Infective endocarditis is still an important disease in developing countries. Due to the difficult diagnosis, treatment is often delayed or inappropriate. A combination of clinical findings and echocardiography are used most often, but have a low sensitivity. As Tc-99m HMPAO labelled leucocyte scintigraphy is used routinely to evaluate patients with suspected infectious processes, it was postulated that this technique may also aid in the diagnosis of acute infective endocarditis in patients with rheumatic heart disease. Materials and Methods: Six patients who presented with clinical signs and symptoms of infective endocarditis, were referred for Tc-99m HMPAO labelled leucocyte scintigraphy. The white blood cells were labelled according to standard procedures. Whole body planar imaging, and single photon emission tomography of the chest area, with imaging at 30 minutes, 3 hours and 24 hours after the administration of the labelled leucocytes, were performed on all patients. Results: All the scintigrams were negative. No abnormal concentration of leucocytes could be detected in the region of the heart. This was in spite of clinical findings indicative of active infective endocarditis. Conclusion: Vegetations mainly consist of masses of clotted blood and blood cell debris, containing the causative organisms. Leucocytes do not play a major role in the pathologic process. Although only six patients were studied, it appears that Tc-99m HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy is of no value in the evaluation of patients with infective endocarditis. A study after the administration of radiolabelled antibiotics may be of greater value and should be considered in these patients

  6. Peripheral site ligand conjugation to a non-quaternary oxime enhances reactivation of nerve agent-inhibited human acetylcholinesterase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, M.C. de; Grol, M. van; Noort, D.

    2011-01-01

    Commonly employed pyridinium-oxime (charged) reactivators of nerve agent inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) do not readily pass the blood brain barrier (BBB) because of the presence of charge(s). Conversely, non-ionic oxime reactivators often suffer from a lack of reactivating potency due to a

  7. Leucocyte protein Trojan, a possible regulator of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Petar; Syrjänen, Riikka; Uchida, Tatsuya; Vainio, Olli

    2017-02-01

    Trojan is a leucocyte-specific protein, cloned from chicken embryonic thymocyte cDNA library. The molecule is a type I transmembrane protein with an extracellular CCP domain, followed by two FN3 domains. Its cytoplasmic tail is predicted to possess a MAPK docking and a PKA phosphorylation sites. Trojan has been proposed to have an anti-apoptotic role based on its differential expression on developing thymocyte subpopulations. Using a chicken cell line, our in vitro studies showed that upon apoptosis induction, Trojan expression rises dramatically on the surface of surviving cells and gradually decreases towards its normal levels as cells recover. When sorted based on their expression levels of Trojan, cells with high expression appeared less susceptible to apoptotic induction than those bearing no or low levels of Trojan on their surface. The mechanism by which the molecule exerts its function is yet to be discovered. We found that cells overexpressing Trojan from a cDNA plasmid show elevated steady-state levels of intracellular calcium, suggesting the molecule is able to transmit cytoplasmic signals. The mechanistic nature of Trojan-induced signalling is a target of future investigation. In this article, we conducted a series of experiments that suggest Trojan as an anti-apoptotic regulator. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Radiolabelling of autologous leucocytes: technique and clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobl-Jaeger, E.; Kolbe, H.; Ludwig, H.; Sinzinger, H.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma-camera imaging after injection of radiolabelled autologous leucocytes can be very helpful in the diagnosis, localization and further clinical treatment of inflammatory diseases. We present a technique allowing sterile separation of white blood cells and labelling with 99m Tc-phytate or -oxine and with 111 In-oxine, -oxine sulphate or -tropolone. The method is non-invasive and the radiation dose amounts to less than 80 mrad using 100 μCi 111 Indium. The use of radiolabelled granulocytes is of particular diagnostic value in patients with septicaemia of unknown origin. Whole body scanning allows not only visualization of enhanced splenic uptake in septicaemia, but also localization of an inflammatory process. Preferential indications for a diagnostic approach using radiolabelled granulocytes are inflammatory abdominal processes which cannot easily be documented by means of other non-invasive techniques, such as inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's diseases and ulcerative colitis), arthritic processes and abscesses of the liver and spleen, as well as subphrenic and retroperitoneal abscesses. Untreated osteomyelitis can be located with the help of labelled granulocytes, but in patients treated with antibiotics a false negative result is obtained in approximately 50 % of cases for as yet unknown reasons, even in the presence of a still active osteomyelitic process. (Authors)

  9. Pulmonary deposition and disappearance of aerosolised secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, J.; Camps, J.; Feitsma, H. I.; Hermans, J.; Dijkman, J. H.; Pauwels, E. K.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The neutrophil elastase inhibitor, secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), is a potential therapeutic tool in inflammatory lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis and pulmonary emphysema. The distribution and disappearance in the lung of aerosolised recombinant SLPI (rSLPI) was investigated in healthy humans and in patients with cystic fibrosis or alpha 1-antitrypsin-associated emphysema. METHODS--To distinguish aerosolised rSLPI from endogenous SLPI the recombinant inhibitor was radiolabelled with 99m-technetium (99mTc) pertechnetate. Distribution and disappearance of aerosolised 99mTc-rSLPI in the lungs were studied by gamma radiation imaging. RESULTS--The deposition of 99mTc-rSLPI in normal volunteers was homogeneous in all lung lobes, while in patients with cystic fibrosis or emphysema only well ventilated areas showed deposition of the aerosol. The disappearance rate of 99mTc-rSLPI was biexponential. The half life of the rapid phase was 0.2-2.8 hours, while that of the slow phase was more than 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS--Future aerosol therapy with rSLPI will be most beneficial for well ventilated lung tissue that needs protection against neutrophil derived elastase. It may be more difficult to neutralise the burden of elastase in poorly ventilated, highly inflamed areas as are seen in cystic fibrosis. Images PMID:7638807

  10. Dose response toxic effects of different oximes in vivo: pathohystological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacevic, V.

    2009-01-01

    The acute toxicity of oximes is crucial for the assessment of a dose applied as a treatment for organophosphorus intoxications. This is why we decided to investigate which morphological lesions could be produced in Wistar rats after treatment with increasing doses of HI-6, Obidoxime, K027, K048, and K075. In the first part of this study, tested oximes were preliminarily tested in order to obtain their LD50 values. Survival rates were monitored 24 hours after application of each oxime. In separate experiment animals were sacrificed 7 days after single im application of 0.1 LD50 and 0.5 LD50 of each oxime, and hearts, diaphragms and musculus popliteus were obtained for pathohistological analysis. Tissue damage score (TDS) was based on an estimation scale from 0 (no damage) to 5 (strong damage, massive necrotic fields). In rats treated with of 0.1 LD50 of HI-6 and K027 microscopic findings were similar to those evaluated in the control groups, only. More intensive alterations, but still mild and reversible degenerative and vascular changes, were established in tissue samples after treatment with 0.1 LD50 of Obidoxime, K048 and K075, but their values were also similar to the control group. Acute lesions were developed in tissue samples within 7 days following treatment with 0.5 LD50 of all oximes. The most severe tissue alterations were found in rats treated with 0.5 LD50 of K048 and K075 (p < 0.001 vs. control and HI-6). These observations of the earliest tissues events are helping to guide of applications of novel development oximes.(author)

  11. Cutaneous exposure to vesicant phosgene oxime: Acute effects on the skin and systemic toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Goswami, Dinesh G; Kant, Rama; Croutch, Claire R; Casillas, Robert P; Orlicky, David J; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Phosgene Oxime (CX), an urticant or nettle agent categorized as a vesicant, is a potential chemical warfare and terrorist weapon. Its exposure can result in widespread and devastating effects including high mortality due to its fast penetration and ability to cause immediate severe cutaneous injury. It is one of the least studied chemical warfare agents with no effective therapy available. Thus, our goal was to examine the acute effects of CX following its cutaneous exposure in SKH-1 hairless mice to help establish a relevant injury model. Results from our study show that topical cutaneous exposure to CX vapor causes blanching of exposed skin with an erythematous ring, necrosis, edema, mild urticaria and erythema within minutes after exposure out to 8 h post-exposure. These clinical skin manifestations were accompanied with increases in skin thickness, apoptotic cell death, mast cell degranulation, myeloperoxidase activity indicating neutrophil infiltration, p53 phosphorylation and accumulation, and an increase in COX-2 and TNFα levels. Topical CX-exposure also resulted in the dilatation of the peripheral vessels with a robust increase in RBCs in vessels of the liver, spleen, kidney, lungs and heart tissues. These events could cause a drop in blood pressure leading to shock, hypoxia and death. Together, this is the first report on effects of CX cutaneous exposure, which could help design further comprehensive studies evaluating the acute and chronic skin injuries from CX topical exposure and elucidate the related mechanism of action to aid in the identification of therapeutic targets and mitigation of injury. - Highlights: • Phosgene oxime cutaneous exposure causes skin blanching, edema and urticaria. • Penetration of phosgene oxime causes dilation of vasculature in internal organs. • Mast cells could play an important role in phosgene oxime-induced skin injury. • Phosgene oxime could induce low blood pressure and hypoxia leading to mortality. • Data is

  12. Cutaneous exposure to vesicant phosgene oxime: Acute effects on the skin and systemic toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera, E-mail: Neera.tewari-singh@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Goswami, Dinesh G; Kant, Rama [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Croutch, Claire R; Casillas, Robert P [MRIGlobal, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Orlicky, David J [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Phosgene Oxime (CX), an urticant or nettle agent categorized as a vesicant, is a potential chemical warfare and terrorist weapon. Its exposure can result in widespread and devastating effects including high mortality due to its fast penetration and ability to cause immediate severe cutaneous injury. It is one of the least studied chemical warfare agents with no effective therapy available. Thus, our goal was to examine the acute effects of CX following its cutaneous exposure in SKH-1 hairless mice to help establish a relevant injury model. Results from our study show that topical cutaneous exposure to CX vapor causes blanching of exposed skin with an erythematous ring, necrosis, edema, mild urticaria and erythema within minutes after exposure out to 8 h post-exposure. These clinical skin manifestations were accompanied with increases in skin thickness, apoptotic cell death, mast cell degranulation, myeloperoxidase activity indicating neutrophil infiltration, p53 phosphorylation and accumulation, and an increase in COX-2 and TNFα levels. Topical CX-exposure also resulted in the dilatation of the peripheral vessels with a robust increase in RBCs in vessels of the liver, spleen, kidney, lungs and heart tissues. These events could cause a drop in blood pressure leading to shock, hypoxia and death. Together, this is the first report on effects of CX cutaneous exposure, which could help design further comprehensive studies evaluating the acute and chronic skin injuries from CX topical exposure and elucidate the related mechanism of action to aid in the identification of therapeutic targets and mitigation of injury. - Highlights: • Phosgene oxime cutaneous exposure causes skin blanching, edema and urticaria. • Penetration of phosgene oxime causes dilation of vasculature in internal organs. • Mast cells could play an important role in phosgene oxime-induced skin injury. • Phosgene oxime could induce low blood pressure and hypoxia leading to mortality. • Data is

  13. Azobisisobutyronitrile initiated aerobic oxidative transformation of amines: coupling of primary amines and cyanation of tertiary amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lianghui; Wang, Zikuan; Fu, Xuefeng; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2012-11-16

    In the presence of a catalytic amount of radical initiator AIBN, primary amines are oxidatively coupled to imines and tertiary amines are cyanated to α-aminonitriles. These "metal-free" aerobic oxidative coupling reactions may find applications in a wide range of "green" oxidation chemistry.

  14. Theoretical NMR and conformational analysis of solvated oximes for organophosphates-inhibited acetylcholinesterase reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jorge Alberto Valle; Modesto-Costa, Lucas; de Koning, Martijn C.; Borges, Itamar; França, Tanos Celmar Costa

    2018-01-01

    In this work, quaternary and non-quaternary oximes designed to bind at the peripheral site of acetylcholinesterase previously inhibited by organophosphates were investigated theoretically. Some of those oximes have a large number of degrees of freedom, thus requiring an accurate method to obtain molecular geometries. For this reason, the density functional theory (DFT) was employed to refine their molecular geometries after conformational analysis and to compare their 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) theoretical signals in gas-phase and in solvent. A good agreement with experimental data was achieved and the same theoretical approach was employed to obtain the geometries in water environment for further studies.

  15. Selective Tandem Synthesis of Oximes from Benzylic Alcohols Catalyzed with 2, 3-Dichloro-5, 6-dicyanobenzoquinone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghapour, Ghasem; Mohamadian, Samaneh [Damghan University, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    In spite of many reports in the literature concerning with oxidation of benzylic alcohols to carbonyl compounds with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ) in stoichiometric amounts or even more, we surprisingly found that benzylic alcohols are directly oxidized to oximes using a catalytic amount of DDQ in the presence of hydroxylamine hydrochloride under solvent-free conditions. The present tandem catalytic method can be efficiently used for preparation of oximes in the presence of some other functional groups with excellent chemoselectivity

  16. The economics of amine usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fountain, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Research carried out over the past decade in the USA (funded by EPRI) and by the CEGB/Nuclear Electric in the UK has identified several thermally stable, low-toxicity 'advanced' amines with good high-temperature basicity and low steam-water distribution ratio. As a direct result of this work several US PWR stations are now evaluating monoethanolamine (ETA) and Nuclear Electric's Wylfa Power Station (magnox) now doses 5 aminopentanol (5AP) instead of AMP, which had successfully combated erosion-corrosion for the past nine years. It has recently been stated that the use of 5AP ''...could save Nuclear Electric up to 1.5M pounds per year''. To provide US power station chemists with a tool for tailoring amine dosage to their own plant requirements EPRI has developed a computer model, Aminmod, which can, with user-defined circuit parameters and amine feed concentrations, calculate amine concentrations and pH(t) values at various points around the circuit. To complement this model a user-friendly spreadsheet program is being developed which will work in conjunction with Aminmod, via active links, to calculate the total operating cost associated with the selected amine dosing regime and compare alternative scenarios. This paper discusses the relationship between the technical and economic aspects of choosing an amine dosing regime and draws on combined Aminmod/spreadsheet results to illustrate how differences in amine properties can influence the optimum economic solution for a typical PWR. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs., 5 refs

  17. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever. III. The leucocytic origin of endogenous pyrogen in acute inflammatory exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KING, M K; WOOD, W B

    1958-02-01

    The evolution of an acute inflammatory exudate produced in rabbits by the intraperitoneal injection of saline has been described. Evidence has been presented that polymorphonuclear leucocytes release endogenous pyrogen into the cell-free fluid of the exudate. Leucocytes from such exudates have also been shown to release pyrogen into the surrounding medium during incubation in vitro at 37 degrees C. The results of parallel cytological studies have provided evidence which suggests that the leucocytes give up their pyrogen while functionally intact. These observations add further support to the hypothesis that polymorphonuclear leucocytes play a significant role in the pathogenesis of fever.

  18. Oxidation of amines by flavoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2010-01-01

    Many flavoproteins catalyze the oxidation of primary and secondary amines, with the transfer of a hydride equivalent from a carbon-nitrogen bond to the flavin cofactor. Most of these amine oxidases can be classified into two structural families, the D-amino acid oxidase/sarcosine oxidase family and the monoamine oxidase family. This review discusses the present understanding of the mechanisms of amine and amino acid oxidation by flavoproteins, focusing on these two structural families. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Computer Aided Solution for Automatic Segmenting and Measurements of Blood Leucocytes Using Static Microscope Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhay, Enas; Mohammed, Mazin Abed; Ibrahim, Dheyaa Ahmed; Arunkumar, N; Venkatraman, V

    2018-02-17

    Blood leucocytes segmentation in medical images is viewed as difficult process due to the variability of blood cells concerning their shape and size and the difficulty towards determining location of Blood Leucocytes. Physical analysis of blood tests to recognize leukocytes is tedious, time-consuming and liable to error because of the various morphological components of the cells. Segmentation of medical imagery has been considered as a difficult task because of complexity of images, and also due to the non-availability of leucocytes models which entirely captures the probable shapes in each structures and also incorporate cell overlapping, the expansive variety of the blood cells concerning their shape and size, various elements influencing the outer appearance of the blood leucocytes, and low Static Microscope Image disparity from extra issues outcoming about because of noise. We suggest a strategy towards segmentation of blood leucocytes using static microscope images which is a resultant of three prevailing systems of computer vision fiction: enhancing the image, Support vector machine for segmenting the image, and filtering out non ROI (region of interest) on the basis of Local binary patterns and texture features. Every one of these strategies are modified for blood leucocytes division issue, in this manner the subsequent techniques are very vigorous when compared with its individual segments. Eventually, we assess framework based by compare the outcome and manual division. The findings outcome from this study have shown a new approach that automatically segments the blood leucocytes and identify it from a static microscope images. Initially, the method uses a trainable segmentation procedure and trained support vector machine classifier to accurately identify the position of the ROI. After that, filtering out non ROI have proposed based on histogram analysis to avoid the non ROI and chose the right object. Finally, identify the blood leucocytes type using

  20. Evaluation of droplet digital PCR for quantification of residual leucocytes in red blood cell concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doescher, A; Loges, U; Petershofen, E K; Müller, T H

    2017-11-01

    Enumeration of residual white blood cells in leucoreduced blood components is essential part of quality control. Digital PCR has substantially facilitated quantitative PCR and was thus evaluated for measurements of leucocytes. Target for quantification of leucocytes by digital droplet PCR was the blood group gene RHCE. The SPEF1 gene was added as internal control for the entire assay starting with automated DNA extraction. The sensitivity of the method was determined by serial dilutions of standard samples. Quality control samples were analysed within 24 h, 7 days and 6 months after collection. Routine samples from leucodepleted red blood cell concentrates (n = 150) were evaluated in parallel by flow-cytometry (LeucoCount) and by digital PCR. Digital PCR reliably detected at least 0·4 leucocytes per assay. The mean difference between PCR and flow-cytometric results from 150 units was -0·01 (±1·0). DNA samples were stable for up to at least six months. PCR measurement of leucocytes in samples from plasma and platelet concentrates also provided valid results in a pilot study. Droplet digital PCR to enumerate leucocytes offers an alternative for quality control of leucoreduced blood products. Sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility are comparable to flow-cytometry. The option to collect samples over an extended period of time and the automatization introduce attractive features for routine quality control. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  1. Amine synergism in uranium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinelli, G.; Abbruzzese, C.

    1977-01-01

    Commercial products based on C 8 to C 12 tertiary amine mixtures are now widely used in the solvent extraction of uranium from sulphuric pregnant solutions. The satisfactory results generally obtained have never required an analysis of the synergistic effects of amine combinations similar to that carried out for the organo-phosphorus compounds. In the research described the increase in the extraction power of an organic phase composed of an amine binary mixture was studied with regard to an aqueous solution from the sulphuric acid treatment of uranium ore. On the basis of the experimental results obtained, it is possible to select the best composition of the amine mixture to ensure a percentage increase in uranium recovery. Bearing in mind the tendency for the yellow-cake price to rise, the study is considered to be a useful contribution in the context of commercial products currently available on the market. (author)

  2. Two reduction waves of oximes and imine formation in acidic media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Celik, H.; Ludvík, Jiří; Zuman, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 26 (2006), s. 5845-5852 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05ME785 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : oximes * electroreduction * polarography Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.955, year: 2006

  3. Successful oxime therapy one hour after soman intoxication in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, O.L.; Kepner, L.A.

    1978-01-01

    The bisquarternary mono-oxime HI-6, and to a lesser extent HS-6, caused functional recovery of neuromuscular transmission in vivo and in vitro when given 60 min after soman, i.e. when the soman-cholinesterase (AChE) complex is said to be fully 'aged'. Atropinised rats, with the tracheas intubated,

  4. Body surface dosimetry following re-injection of 111In-leucocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford, P.J.; Coakley, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The dose to a young infant cared for by a parent re-injected with 111 In-leucocytes was estimated from the exposure of thermoluminescent dosimeters at five sites on the chest wall of eight patients. The UK Guidance Notes recommend that patients with a residual activity exceeding 20 MBq of 111 In should avoid non-essential contact with children. The results confirmed those of an earlier preliminary study which showed that re-injection of 20 MBq of 111 In-leucocytes to a parent could lead to a close contact dose greater than 1 mSv. It was concluded that the 111 In-leucocyte activity administered to a parent of a young infant should not exceed 10 MBq. (author)

  5. 111In autologous leucocytes in the diagnosis and assessment of inflammatory bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saverymuttu, S.H.; Peters, A.M.; Reavy, H.J.; Danpure, H.J.; Osman, S.; Chadwick, V.S.; Hodgson, H.J.; Lavender, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    111 In-labelled leucocytes were used to obtain gamma camera images of inflamed of bowel in a wide variety of inflammatory bowel disease. No false positive scans were observed in the irritable bowel syndrome and in bowel malignancy. All patients with moderate or severely active disease had positive scans. Faecal excretion of 111 Indium increased with disease severity. 111 In-tropolone labelling appeared to offer the advantage over 111 In-acac labelling in localising inflamed bowel earlier. In many cases the bowel was imaged within 40 min of re-injection of the leucocytes. 111 In-leucocyte scanning provides a novel approach to the problem of diagnosis and assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. It is non-invasive, requires no bowel preparation and thus is safe in the acutely sick patient where conventional radiological imaging methods may be hazardous. 111 Indium faecal excretion provides an objective assessment of disease activity which should prove useful in evaluating treatment regimes

  6. Chemoselective organocatalytic aerobic oxidation of primary amines to secondary imines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendlandt, Alison E; Stahl, Shannon S

    2012-06-01

    Biomimetic aerobic oxidation of primary benzylic amines has been achieved by using a quinone catalyst. Excellent selectivity is observed for primary, unbranched benzylic amines relative to secondary/tertiary amines, branched benzylic amines, and aliphatic amines. The exquisite selectivity for benzylic amines enables oxidative self-sorting within dynamic mixtures of amines and imines to afford high yields of cross-coupled imine products.

  7. Elastolytic activity of human blood monocytes characterized by a new monoclonal antibody against human leucocyte elastase. Relationship to rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H S; Christensen, L D

    1990-01-01

    The leucocyte elastase of human blood monocytes was investigated by applying a new monoclonal antibody which did not block the enzyme activity against elastin. In a fixed population of mononuclear cells (MNC) and using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), the human leucocyte elastase (HLE...

  8. A new prognostic index - leucocyte infiltration - in human cerebral infarcts by 99Tcm-HMPAO-labelled white blood cell brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.H.; Wang, P.Y.; Wang, Y.L.; Chang, L.; Wang, S.J.; Yeh, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-six patients with acute cerebral infarction were imaged by 99 Tc m -hexamethylpropylene-amine oxime (HMPAO)-labelled white blood cell brain (Tc-WBC) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The regions of interest were equally placed in the whole hemispheres of both sides with summation of all transaxial slices in the Tc-WBC SPECT. The asymmetric indices (AI) were calculated as 200 [|(right -left)|/(right + left)]. Grouping of patients with cerebral infarction was based on activities of daily living (ADL) at outcome. The results showed that the poor outcome patient group had a higher AI of Tc-WBC than that of the other patients (13.0 ± 3.0 S.E.M. versus 5.4 ± 1.0 S.E.M., and P < 0.05 by Wilcoxon rank sum test). In conclusion, the Tc-WBC SPECT may be considered as a new prognostic index to predict patient outcome in human cerebral ischaemic infarctions consistent with newly established ischaemic injury theories. (author)

  9. Amine Swingbed Payload Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsch, Mary; Curley, Su

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has been designed as a laboratory for demonstrating technologies in a microgravity environment, benefitting exploration programs by reducing the overall risk of implementing such technologies in new spacecraft. At the beginning of fiscal year 2010, the ISS program manager requested that the amine-based, pressure-swing carbon dioxide and humidity absorption technology (designed by Hamilton Sundstrand, baselined for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, and tested at the Johnson Space Center in relevant environments, including with humans, since 2005) be developed into a payload for ISS Utilization. In addition to evaluating the amine technology in a flight environment before the first launch of the Orion vehicle, the ISS program wanted to determine the capability of the amine technology to remove carbon dioxide from the ISS cabin environment at the metabolic rate of the full 6 ]person crew. Because the amine technology vents the absorbed carbon dioxide and water vapor to space vacuum (open loop), additional hardware needed to be developed to minimize the amount of air and water resources lost overboard. Additionally, the payload system would be launched on two separate Space Shuttle flights, with the heart of the payload-the swingbed unit itself-launching a full year before the remainder of the payload. This paper discusses the project management and challenges of developing the amine swingbed payload in order to accomplish the technology objectives of both the open -loop Orion application as well as the closed-loop ISS application.

  10. The Efficacy Of Milbemycin Oxime In The Treatment Of Naturally Acquired Infestations Of Sarcoptes Scabiei On Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Q; Guo S; Li J; Wang Y; Shen Z; Yanping Wang; Ying Z; Zhang Z; Fu S; Ma L; Yang L; Wang J; Duanhui Ma

    2013-01-01

    Milbemycin oxime tablets were evaluated for efficacy against sarcoptic mange mites in naturally infested dogs. Sixty-five dogs were allocated to two groups and were housed individually. Fifty of the dogs were treated orally with milbemycin oxime at the proposed dose. The other fifteen were treated orally with vehicle. Study day 0 was defined as the first day of treatment administration. Dogs were treated on days 0, 7 and 14, and efficacy was assessed by counting viable mites recovered from sk...

  11. DCAF4, a novel gene associated with leucocyte telomere length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangino, Massimo; Christiansen, Lene; Stone, Rivka

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leucocyte telomere length (LTL), which is fashioned by multiple genes, has been linked to a host of human diseases, including sporadic melanoma. A number of genes associated with LTL have already been identified through genome-wide association studies. The main aim of this study was t...

  12. Clinical application of 99mTc-HMPAO labeled leucocytes imaging in detecting bone joint infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Biao; Barthe, N.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.

    1995-01-01

    99m Tc-MDP scintigraphy and 99m Tc-HMPAO-leucocytes imaging were performed in twenty five patients with clinically suspected bone joint infection. All of the 25 cases were confirmed by surgery, microbiological and histologic examinations. Among them 21 cases were definitively diagnosed as infections, while 3 cases were non-infection. The results of 99m Tc-MDP scintigraphy showed that all of 25 cases demonstrated anomalous accumulation of radioactivity in the clinically suspected infections sites, while in 99m Tc-HMPAO-leucocytes imaging, concentrated radioactivity in proved infectious sites was observed in 19 cases, non-anomalous radioactivity found in 4 cases of non-infectious sites, but there were 2 cases false negative with long term antibiotics treatment, none of the case was false positive. Thereby a sensitivity of the labelled leucocytes imaging of 90.5%, a specificity of 100%, and a accuracy of about 92% were found. Present research work concluded that 99m Tc-HMPAO labelled leucocytes imaging provided a non-invasive, effective, and reliable diagnostic method in detecting patients with clinically suspected bone joint infection and afforded strong evidence for effective therapy

  13. The Fps/Fes kinase regulates leucocyte recruitment and extravasation during inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sean A; Mewburn, Jeffrey D; Truesdell, Peter; Greer, Peter A

    2007-12-01

    Fps/Fes and Fer comprise a distinct subfamily of cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinases, and have both been implicated in the regulation of innate immunity. Previous studies showed that Fps/Fes-knockout mice were hypersensitive to systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, and Fer-deficient mice displayed enhanced recruitment of leucocytes in response to localized LPS challenge. We show here for the first time, a role for Fps in the regulation of leucocyte recruitment to areas of inflammation. Using the cremaster muscle intravital microscopy model, we observed increased leucocyte adherence to venules, and increased rates and degrees of transendothelial migration in Fps/Fes-knockout mice relative to wild-type animals subsequent to localized LPS challenge. There was also a decreased vessel wall shear rate in the post-capillary venules of LPS-challenged Fps/Fes-knockout mice, and an increase in neutrophil migration into the peritoneal cavity subsequent to thioglycollate challenge. Using flow cytometry to quantify the expression of surface molecules, we observed prolonged expression of the selectin ligand PSGL-1 on peripheral blood neutrophils from Fps/Fes-knockout mice stimulated ex vivo with LPS. These observations provide important insights into the observed in vivo behaviour of leucocytes in LPS-challenged Fps/Fes-knockout mice and provide evidence that the Fps/Fes kinase plays an important role in the innate immune response.

  14. A rapid method for the preparation of 99Tcm hexametazime-labelled leucocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanki, K.K.; Mather, S.J.; Janabi, M.A.; Britton, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    99 Tc m (±)-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime (HMPAO) ( 99 Tc m Hexametazime) has been recently reported as an alternative for labelling leucocytes. This technique has been modified to give a simpler routine in-house labelling technique. It has three advantages: only about 20 ml of blood is required, the labelling time is just under 1 h and high yields of labelled leucocytes are obtained (mean of 500 MBq per injection dose). The properties of labelled leucocytes using this modified method are; 80% granulocyte-bound radioactivity, a rapid lung transit and a blood granulocyte recovery of 40% at 30 min similar to those described previously. The viability of the labelled leucocytes was tested and confirmed in vitro using a migration technique and in vivo by showing no lung retention on early imaging and high splenic uptake. A rapid in-process chromatography assessment procedure for regulating the protocol has been developed. Successful abscess imaging by 4 h has been achieved in 21 patients with normal results in another 22 patients without abscesses. This simpler method should encourage a more widespread application of scintigraphy using radiolabelled granulocytes. (author)

  15. Leucocyte depletion in a drowning victim during rewarming with extracorporeal circulation may limit pulmonary oedema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeijden, Wytze J.; de Vries, Hans; Kieboom, Joke; Waterbolk, Tjalling

    2006-01-01

    We report two drowning victims with hypothermic circulatory arrest who were resuscitated with the use of extracorporeal circulation (ECC). The first patient developed severe post-bypass pulmonary oedema and inspired us to use a leucocyte-depletion filter in the second patient to attenuate

  16. Leucocytes Mutation load Declines with Age in Carriers of the m.3243A>G Mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langdahl, Jakob Høgild; Larsen, Martin; Frost, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Carriers of the mitochondrial mutation m.3243A>G presents highly variable phenotypes including mitochondrial encephalomyopaty, lactoacidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). We conducted a follow-up study to evaluate changes in leucocyte heteroplasmy and the clinical phenotypes in m.3243A...

  17. Pulmonary dynamics of radiolabelled erythrocytes and leucocytes in early gram-negative sepsis in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, Sten; Wenyao, Shi; Lennquist, Sten

    1999-01-01

    objective: to study the pulmonary dynamic of erythrocytes and leucocytes in vivo in early experimental sepsis. design: open, experimental study. setting: academic research laboratory, Sweden. material: 10 adolescent, domestic pigs. interventions: technetium (Tc 99) labelling of erythrocytes (n=5) and indium (In 111) labelling of autologous leucocytes (n=10). sepsis was induced by endotoxin (n=4) or live Escherichia Coli (n=3), given intravenously. major outcome measures: regional pulmonary scintigraphy, central haemodynamics and gas exchange followed for 180 minutes. results: septic animals developed arterial hypoxia, pulmonary hypertension and systemic hypotension. They also had an early increase in mean (SD) regional pulmonary erythrocyte and leucocyte counts (+10.3(7.7%) and + 12.0 (3.5%) respectively) with simultaneous maximum 27-32 minutes after the start of the septic insult. Conclusions: The immediate sepsis-induced pulmonary accumulation of leucocytes as detected by external scintigraphy can be ascribed at least in part, to a simultaneous sepsis-induced increase in pulmonary blood volume. 3 figs., 1 tab., 19 refs

  18. Inhibition of the voltage-dependent chloride channel of Torpedo electric organ by diisopropylfluorophosphate and its reversal by oximes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abalis, I.M.; Chiang, P.K.; Wirtz, R.A.; Andre, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    Diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), a potent organophosphate inhibitor of cholinesterases, was found to inhibit the specific binding of [ 35 S]t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS), specific chloride channels ligand, to the electric organ membranes of Torpedo, with a Ki of 21 +/- 3 μM. The binding sites of [ 35 S]TBPS in the Torpedo membranes were found not to be GABA receptors or nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as previously described. Interestingly, a stimulation of the binding of [ 35 S]TBPS was observed in the presence of atropine and three oximes, monopyridinium oxime 2-PAM, bispyridinium bis-oxime TMB-4 and H-oxime HI-6. The maximal stimulation was 300-500% of control, after which, the stimulation was reversed at higher concentrations. The three oximes protected by more than 95% the inhibition by 1 mM DFP of the binding of [ 35 S]TBPS to the voltage-dependent chloride channel. However, atropine protected only 20% of the inhibited channel. These results, thus, suggest that the protection against the toxic effects of DFP or other anticholinesterase agents by the tested oximes may not be solely a result of the reactivation of cholinesterases but also the protection of the voltage-dependent chloride channel

  19. A Development of Rapid, Practical and Selective Process for Preparation of Z-Oximes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Ram; Sung, Gi Hyeon; Yoon, Yongjin; Kim, Jeumjong

    2013-01-01

    Oximes are important functional groups in organic chemistry due to their synthetic utility as protecting groups for carbonyl groups and their ability to form other functionalities, and their biological activity. Oximes are commonly prepared by condensing aldehydes and ketones with hydroxylamines. These reactions do not always go to completion and reaction times can be long, and therefore there has been interest in more convenient and efficient methods. To avoid the typical disadvantage, conversion of aldehydes and ketones to the corresponding oximes was accomplished by using various catalysts such as organic acid/bases, AcONa, alumina, TiO 2 /SO 4 silica gel, Oxone, NaOH, basic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydroxide, polyoxometalates, Na 2 SO 4 , and CuSO 4 /K 2 CO 3 under the solvent, the solvent-free or the microwave conditions. These are one and more drowbacks such as long reaction time, use of catalysts, inconvenients due to solid-sate reaction, low yields and limitaion of some carbonyl compounds. On the other hand, H. Sharghi, et al.,14 reported the catalysis of the stereoselectivity of CuSO 4 and K 2 CO 3 in the oximation of aldehydes and ketones under solvent-free conditions. Although this method show high selectivity, it is inconvenient for the large scale experiments and the industrial process due to the solvent-free condition. Therefore, we attempted to develop a more convenient and efficient solution method. According to the literatures, treatment of potassium carbonate with methanol generates slightly the potassium methoxide, which may be useful for forming the free NH 2 OH from its salts. We describe the oximation of aldehyde and ketone using NH 2 OH·HCl/K 2 CO 3 in methanol solvent. We selected oximation of acetophenone (1a) with hydroxylamine hydrochloride as a model and its behavior was investigated in seven solvents involving methanol (Table 1). As shown in the Entry 2 in Table 1, compound 1a was treated with hydroxylamine

  20. A Development of Rapid, Practical and Selective Process for Preparation of Z-Oximes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Ram; Sung, Gi Hyeon; Yoon, Yongjin [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeumjong [Electronic and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Oximes are important functional groups in organic chemistry due to their synthetic utility as protecting groups for carbonyl groups and their ability to form other functionalities, and their biological activity. Oximes are commonly prepared by condensing aldehydes and ketones with hydroxylamines. These reactions do not always go to completion and reaction times can be long, and therefore there has been interest in more convenient and efficient methods. To avoid the typical disadvantage, conversion of aldehydes and ketones to the corresponding oximes was accomplished by using various catalysts such as organic acid/bases, AcONa, alumina, TiO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} silica gel, Oxone, NaOH, basic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydroxide, polyoxometalates, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and CuSO{sub 4}/K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} under the solvent, the solvent-free or the microwave conditions. These are one and more drowbacks such as long reaction time, use of catalysts, inconvenients due to solid-sate reaction, low yields and limitaion of some carbonyl compounds. On the other hand, H. Sharghi, et al.,14 reported the catalysis of the stereoselectivity of CuSO{sub 4} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in the oximation of aldehydes and ketones under solvent-free conditions. Although this method show high selectivity, it is inconvenient for the large scale experiments and the industrial process due to the solvent-free condition. Therefore, we attempted to develop a more convenient and efficient solution method. According to the literatures, treatment of potassium carbonate with methanol generates slightly the potassium methoxide, which may be useful for forming the free NH{sub 2}OH from its salts. We describe the oximation of aldehyde and ketone using NH{sub 2}OH·HCl/K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in methanol solvent. We selected oximation of acetophenone (1a) with hydroxylamine hydrochloride as a model and its behavior was investigated in seven solvents involving methanol (Table 1). As shown in the Entry 2 in

  1. Bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Arora

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic amines are an important group of industrial chemicals, which are widely used for manufacturing of dyes, pesticides, drugs, pigments, and other industrial products. These compounds have been considered highly toxic to human beings due to their carcinogenic nature. Three groups of aromatic amines have been recognized: monocyclic, polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic amines. Bacterial degradation of several monocyclic aromatic compounds has been studied in a variety of bacteria, which utilizes monocyclic aromatic amines as their sole source of carbon and energy. Several degradation pathways have been proposed and the related enzymes and genes have also been characterized. Many reviews have been reviewed toxicity of monocyclic aromatic amines; however, there is lack of review on biodegradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. The aim of this review is to summarize bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. This review will increase our current understanding of biochemical and molecular basis of bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines.

  2. Sodium Perborate Oxidation of an Aromatic Amine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juestis, Laurence

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment involving the oxidation of aromatic primary amines to the corresponding azo compound; suggests procedures for studying factors that influence the yield of such a reaction, including the choice of solvent and the oxidant-amine ratio. (MLH)

  3. SYNTHESIS OF OXIMES WITH THE DOPED POTASSIUM FLUORIDE ANIMAL BONE MEAL AS A CATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. AIT TALEB

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The potassium fluoride doped Animal Bone Meal (KF/ABM was prepared and characterized using several techniques to identify the structural properties. After, it has been used as a new and eco-friendly catalyst for the preparation of from aldehydes and ketones oximes under solvent-free conditions. It is clearly shown that this reaction (using this catalyst can lead to the corresponding oximes in good yields (80 % to excellent yields (96 %. In the case of dissymmetric aldehydes and ketones, this catalyst can lead to a mixture of Z- and E- isomers (Z/E = 86/14–90/10. The remarkable advantages of this catalyst are high conversion, short reaction times, cleaner reaction profiles, reusability up to 8 times without significant loss of activity, and reduction in catalyst toxicity.

  4. Synthesis and Bioactivities of Novel Pyrazole Oxime Derivatives Containing a 5-Trifluoromethylpyridyl Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Dai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in order to find novel biologically active pyrazole oxime compounds, a series of pyrazole oxime derivatives containing a 5-trifluoromethylpyridyl moiety were synthesized. Preliminary bioassays indicated that most title compounds were found to display good to excellent acaricidal activity against Tetranychus cinnabarinus at a concentration of 200 μg/mL, and some designed compounds still showed excellent acaricidal activity against Tetranychus cinnabarinus at the concentration of 10 μg/mL, especially since the inhibition rates of compounds 8e, 8f, 8l, 8m, 8n, 8p, and 8q were all 100.00%. Interestingly, some target compounds exhibited moderate to good insecticidal activities against Plutella xylostella and Aphis craccivora at a concentration of 200 μg/mL; furthermore, compounds 8e and 8l possessed outstanding insecticidal activities against Plutella xylostella under the concentration of 50 μg/mL.

  5. t-3-Benzyl-r-2,c-6-diphenylpiperidin-4-one oxime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arulraj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C24H24N2O [systematic name: (E-3-benzyl-2,6-diphenylpiperidin-4-one oxime], the piperidine ring adopts a slightly distorted chair conformation and the phenyl rings and the benzyl group substituents are attached equatorially. The oxime group makes a dihedral angle of 42.88 (12° with the piperidine ring. The dihedral angle between the phenyl rings is 71.96 (8°. The benzyl ring makes dihedral angles of 63.01 (8 and 59.35 (8° with the two phenyl rings. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming C(7 chains along the c axis. The chains are linked by C—H...π interactions, forming slabs lying parallel to the bc plane.

  6. Differential pulse polarographic determination of molybdenum (VI) in phosphoric medium by benzoin alpha oxime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chergouche, S.

    1992-02-01

    The extraction of Molybdenum (VI) using both 4-Methylpentane-2-one (hexone) and chloroform dissolved Benzoin-alpha-oxime has been investigated in order to develop a simple and sensitive polarographic method allowing the analysis of Molybdenum (VI) contained in industrial phosphoric acid produced in ANNABA (Eastern Algeria). The investigation takes into account various parameters such as: The stirring time, solvent rate, the number of stages ... as well as the organic phase conditioning during the polarographic analysis

  7. Eco-friendly synthesis, physicochemical studies, biological assay and molecular docking of steroidal oxime-ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mahboob; Lee, Dong-Ung

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the synthesis of biologically active compounds; 7-(2′-aminoethoxyimino)-cholest-5-ene (4), a steroidal oxime-ether and its derivatives (5, 6) via a facile microwave assisted solvent free reaction methodology. This new synthetic, eco-friendly, sustainable protocol resulted in a remarkable improvement in the synthetic efficiency (85-93 % yield) and high purity using basic alumina. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial against six bacterial strains by disc diffusion method and antioxidant potential by DPPH assay. The binding capabilities of a compound 6 exhibiting good antibacterial potential were assessed on the basis of molecular docking studies and four types of three-dimensional molecular field descriptors. Moreover the structure-antimicrobial activity relationships were studied using some physicochemical and quantum-chemical parameters with GAMESS interface as well as WebMO Job Manager by using the basic level of theory. Hence, this synthetic approach is believed to provide a better scope for the synthesis of steroidal oxime-ether analogues and will be a more practical alternative to the presently existing procedures. Moreover, detailed in silico docking studies suggested the plausible mechanism of steroidal oxime-ethers as effective antimicrobial agents. PMID:27330525

  8. Selective and Efficient Solvent Extraction of Copper(II Ions from Chloride Solutions by Oxime Extractants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kaboli Tanha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxime extractants 3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methyl benzaldehyde oxime (HL1 and 3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methoxy benzaldehyde oxime (HL2 were synthesized and characterized by conventional spectroscopic methods. Suitable lipophilic nature of the prepared extractants allowed examining the ability of these molecules for extraction-separation of copper from its mixture with normally associated metal ions by performing competitive extraction experiments of Cu(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Zn(II, Cd(II and Pb(II ions from chloride solutions. Both ligands transfer selectively the copper ions into dichloromethane by a cation exchange mechanism. Conventional log-log analysis and isotherm curves showed that Cu(II ions are extracted as the complexes with 1:2 metal to ligand ratio by both extractants. Verification of the effect of the organic diluent used in the extraction of copper ions by HL1 and HL2 demonstrated that the extraction efficiency varies as: dichloromethane ~ dichloroethane > toluene > xylene > ethylacetate. Time dependency investigation of the extraction processes revealed that the kinetics of the extraction of copper by HL2 is more rapid than that of HL1. The application of the ligands for extraction-separation of copper ions from leach solutions of cobalt and nickel-cadmium filter-cakes of a zinc production plants was evaluated.

  9. Efficient Conversion of Oximes to the Corresponding Carbonyl Compounds with Tetrabutylammonium Chromate under Aprotic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourali, Ali Reza; Goli, Arezou

    2006-01-01

    The solubility in several solvents, mildness, simple work-up and absence of side reactions provide advantages of using TBAC in deoximation reactions. This is an efficient and selective method for homogeneous deoximation of structurally different compounds under the moderately acidic and aprotic conditions in high yields. Regeneration of ketones and aldehydes from their oximes has assumed added importance since the discovery of the Barton reaction in which oximes are produced at non-activated hydrocarbon sites. Also, their synthesis from non-carbonyl compounds, such as by nitrosation of an active methylene group, nitrosation of an α-halo carbonyl compound and condensation of a nitro-alkene with an aldehyde provides a valid alternative pathway to carbonyl compounds. Therefore, there has been a continued interest in the effective regeneration of carbonyl compounds from the corresponding oximes especially under mild conditions. Oxidative and reductive methods have been found to show advantages over the classical hydrolytic methods. Although many oxidizing agents have been used, only a limited number of methods are efficient because of the low solubility of these metallic reagents in most organic solvents

  10. Insights into the mechanism and catalysis of oxime coupling chemistry at physiological pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujiang; Gurav, Deepanjali; Oommen, Oommen P; Varghese, Oommen P

    2015-04-07

    The dynamic covalent-coupling reaction involving α-effect nucleophiles has revolutionized bioconjugation approaches, due to its ease and high efficiency. Key to its success is the discovery of aniline as a nucleophilic catalyst, which made this reaction feasible under physiological conditions. Aniline however, is not so effective for keto substrates. Here, we investigate the mechanism of aniline activation in the oxime reaction with aldehyde and keto substrates. We also present carboxylates as activating agents that can promote the oxime reaction with both aldehyde and keto substrates at physiological pH. This rate enhancement circumvents the influence of α-effect by forming H-bonds with the rate-limiting intermediate, which drives the reaction to completion. The combination of aniline and carboxylates had a synergistic effect, resulting in a ∼14-31-fold increase in reaction rate at pD 7.4 with keto substrates. The biocompatibility and efficiency of carboxylate as an activating agent is demonstrated by performing cell-surface oxime labeling at physiological pH using acetate, which showed promising results that were comparable with aniline. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Leucocyte count in young adults with first-ever ischaemic stroke: associated factors and association on prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikinheimo, Terttu; Putaala, Jukka; Haapaniemi, Elena; Kaste, Markku; Tatlisumak, Turgut

    2015-02-01

    Limited data exist on the associated factors and correlation of leucocyte count to outcome in young adults with first-ever ischaemic stroke. Our objectives were to investigate factors associated with elevated leucocyte count and whether there is correlation between leucocyte count and short- and long-term outcomes. Of our database of 1008 consecutive patients aged 15 to 49, we included those with leucocyte count measured within the first two days from stroke onset. Outcomes were three-month and long-term disability, death, and vascular events. Linear regression was used to explore baseline variables associated with leucocyte count. Logistic regression and Cox proportional models studied the association between leucocyte count and clinical outcomes. In our study cohort of 781 patients (61.7% males; mean age 41.4 years), mean leucocyte count was high: 8.8 ± 3.1 × 10(9) cells/L (Reference range: 3.4-8.2 × 10(9) cells/L). Higher leucocyte levels were associated with dyslipidaemia, smoking, peripheral arterial disease, stroke severity, and lesion size. After adjustment for age, gender, relevant risk factors, both continuous leucocyte count and the highest quartile of leucocyte count were independently associated with unfavourable three-month outcome. Regarding events in the long-term (follow-up 8.1 ± 4.2 years in survivors), no association between leucocyte count and the event risks appeared. Among young stroke patients, high leucocyte count was a common finding. It was associated with vascular disease and its risk factors as well as severity of stroke, but it was also independently associated with unfavourable three-month outcome in these patients. There was no association with the long-term outcome. [Correction added on 31 October 2013 after first online publication: In the Results section of the Abstract, the cohort of 797 patients in this study was corrected to 781 patients.]. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  12. Multiple QSAR models, pharmacophore pattern and molecular docking analysis for anticancer activity of α, β-unsaturated carbonyl-based compounds, oxime and oxime ether analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masand, Vijay H.; El-Sayed, Nahed N. E.; Bambole, Mukesh U.; Quazi, Syed A.

    2018-04-01

    Multiple discrete quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) models were constructed for the anticancer activity of α, β-unsaturated carbonyl-based compounds, oxime and oxime ether analogues with a variety of substituents like sbnd Br, sbnd OH, -OMe, etc. at different positions. A big pool of descriptors was considered for QSAR model building. Genetic algorithm (GA), available in QSARINS-Chem, was executed to choose optimum number and set of descriptors to create the multi-linear regression equations for a dataset of sixty-nine compounds. The newly developed five parametric models were subjected to exhaustive internal and external validation along with Y-scrambling using QSARINS-Chem, according to the OECD principles for QSAR model validation. The models were built using easily interpretable descriptors and accepted after confirming statistically robustness with high external predictive ability. The five parametric models were found to have R2 = 0.80 to 0.86, R2ex = 0.75 to 0.84, and CCCex = 0.85 to 0.90. The models indicate that frequency of nitrogen and oxygen atoms separated by five bonds from each other and internal electronic environment of the molecule have correlation with the anticancer activity.

  13. Impacts of Different Functional Groups on the Kinetic Rates of α-Amine Ketoximesilanes Hydrolysis in the Preparation of Room Temperature Vulcanized Silicone Rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huihui; Liu, Zihou; Liu, Qingyang; Bei, Yiling; Zhu, Qingzeng

    2018-05-13

    α-Amine ketoximesilanes are proven to be effective crosslinkers in the preparation of ketone-oxime one-component room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber without the use of toxic metal catalyst. This work aimed to investigate the hydrolysis kinetic of α-amine ketoximesilanes, which is vitally important for the preparation of RTV silicone rubber. Five kinds of α-amine ketoximesilanes, namely α-(N,N-diethyl)aminomethyltri(methylethylketoxime)silane (DEMOS), α-(N,N-di-n-butyl)aminomethyltri(methylethylketoxime)silane (DBMOS), α-(N-n-butyl)aminomethyltri(methylethylketoxime)silane (n-BMOS), α-(N-cyclohexyl)aminomethyltri(methylethylketoxime)silane (CMOS) and α-(β-aminomethyl)aminomethyltri(methylethylketoxime)silane (AEMOS), were successfully obtained and confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance ( ¹H NMR). Kinetics of hydrolysis reactions were measured by FT-IR and conductivity. Our results illustrated that the kinetic constant rates ranged from 12.2 × 10 −4 s −1 to 7.6 × 10 −4 s −1 , with the decreasing order of DEMOS > n-BMOS > DBMOS > CMOS > AEMOS at the given temperature and humidity. Better performances of thermal stability could be achieved when using the α-amine ketoximesilanes as crosslinkers in the preparation of RTV silicon rubber than that of RTV silicone rubber with the use of methyltri(methylethylketoxime)silane (MOS) as a crosslinker and organic tin as a catalyst.

  14. An Improved method for separation of leucocytes from peripheral blood of the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomana, Mitsuru; Parton, Angela; Barnes, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Cartilaginous fish, especially sharks, rays and skates (elasmobranchs) hold interest as comparative models in immunology because they are thought to be among the organisms most closely related to the ancestor animal that first developed acquired immunity. The aim of this study was to improve methods used for the purification of viable leucocytes from peripheral blood of elasmobranchs. Here we describe modifications of density gradient centrifugation and medium formulation that improve isolation and analysis of highly-purified leucocytes from peripheral blood of a model elasmobranch, Leucoraja erinacea, the little skate. These techniques contribute to the preparation of elasmobranch immune cells that can be reliably analyzed by a variety of means, including the study of immune function. PMID:18474431

  15. Leucocyte depletion attenuates the early increase in myocardial capillary permeability to small hydrophilic solutes following ischaemia and reperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Hansen, P R; Ali, S

    1993-01-01

    The aim was to assess the significance of polymorphonuclear leucocytes on the myocardial capillary permeability to a small hydrophilic indicator, on the vascular tone of the resistance vessels, and on contractile function following ischaemia and reperfusion.......The aim was to assess the significance of polymorphonuclear leucocytes on the myocardial capillary permeability to a small hydrophilic indicator, on the vascular tone of the resistance vessels, and on contractile function following ischaemia and reperfusion....

  16. Social and environmental factors modulate leucocyte profiles in free-living Greylag geese (Anser anser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didone Frigerio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Blood parameters such as haematocrit or leucocyte counts are indicators of immune status and health, which can be affected, in a complex way, by exogenous as well as endogenous factors. Additionally, social context is known to be among the most potent stressors in group living individuals, therefore potentially influencing haematological parameters. However, with few exceptions, this potential causal relationship received only moderate scientific attention. Methods In a free-living and individually marked population of the highly social and long-lived Greylag goose, Anser anser, we relate variation in haematocrit (HCT, heterophils to lymphocytes ratio (H/L and blood leucocyte counts to the following factors: intrinsic (sex, age, raising condition, i.e. goose- or hand-raised, social (pair-bond status, pair-bond duration and parental experience and environmental (biologically relevant periods, ambient temperature factors. Blood samples were collected repeatedly from a total of 105 focal birds during three biologically relevant seasons (winter flock, mating season, summer. Results We found significant relationships between haematological parameters and social as well as environmental factors. During the mating season, unpaired individuals had higher HCT compared to paired and family individuals and this pattern reversed in fall. Similarly, H/L ratio was positively related to pair-bond status in a seasonally dependent way, with highest values during mating and successful pairs had higher H/L ratio than unsuccessful ones. Also, absolute number of leucocytes tended to vary depending on raising condition in a seasonally dependent way. Discussion Haematology bears a great potential in ecological and behavioural studies on wild vertebrates. In sum, we found that HTC, H/L ratio and absolute number of leucocytes are modulated by social factors and conclude that they may be considered valid indicators of individual stress load.

  17. Effects of 131I therapy on blood borne leucocytes in hyperthyroid patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundell, G.

    1975-01-01

    The different types of circulating leucocytes were examined in 54 patients before and 2 to 4 months after 131 I therapy for hyperthyroidism. An absolute and differential percentage increase in the number of juvenile segmented neutrophils, eosinophilic and basophilic granulocytes was demonstrated in the patients free from signs of hyperthyroidism after therapy. This increase was statistically significant. No changes occurred in the 11 patients remaining hyperthyroid. (author)

  18. Calcein AM release-based cytotoxic cell assay for fish leucocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R; Densmore, Christine L; Ottinger, Christopher A

    2004-02-01

    A non-specific cytotoxic cell assay for fish is presented that is based on the release of the activated fluorochrome calcein AM from lysed carp epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells. To establish the suitability of treating EPC cells with calcein AM the uptake and spontaneous release of the calcein AM by the EPC cells was evaluated. Incubation of 5 microM calcein AM in culture medium with 1x10(5)EPC cells well(-1)for a minimum of 3 h provided sufficient labelling. Spontaneous release of fluorescence from the labelled EPC cells during 10 h of post labelling incubation ranged from 30 to 39% of the total observed fluorescence. Cytotoxic activity of trout leucocytes was evaluated at three leucocyte to target cell ratios (10:1, 2:1 and 1:1) following incubation (4, 6, 8, and 10 h) with calcein AM-labelled EPC cells at 15 degrees C. In some instances, the monoclonal antibody specific for the NCC surface receptor NCCRP-1 (MAb5C.6) was included in the cultures. The activity of NCC cells was significantly inhibited in the presence of 0.25 microg well(-1)of MAb5C.6 relative to no antibody (Pleucocyte to target cell ratios. Percent cytotoxic cell activity using calcein AM was similar to values reported for rainbow trout leucocytes using the 51Cr-release assay.

  19. Biogenic Amines in Insect Antennae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna I. Zhukovskaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect antenna is a multisensory organ, each modality of which can be modulated by biogenic amines. Octopamine (OA and its metabolic precursor tyramine (TA affect activity of antennal olfactory receptor neurons. There is some evidence that dopamine (DA modulates gustatory neurons. Serotonin can serve as a neurotransmitter in some afferent mechanosensory neurons and both as a neurotransmitter and neurohormone in efferent fibers targeted at the antennal vessel and mechanosensory organs. As a neurohormone, serotonin affects the generation of the transepithelial potential by sensillar accessory cells. Other possible targets of biogenic amines in insect antennae are hygro- and thermosensory neurons and epithelial cells. We suggest that the insect antenna is partially autonomous in the sense that biologically active substances entering its hemolymph may exert their effects and be cleared from this compartment without affecting other body parts.

  20. Indium-111 labelled leucocyte scintigraphy in the diagnosis of inflammatory disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roevekamp, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of indium-111 oxinate labelled autologous leucocytes in inflammatory disease. Chapter I provides an outline of the theoretical aspects of leucocyte labelling with indium-111 oxinate, as well as giving a description of the labelling method and scintigraphic technique and of the in-vitro and in-vivo studies performed to evaluate the method. In Chapter II details are given of the initial results obtained in a pilot study. A high false-negative rate led to modification of the labelling technique. The results obtained in patients suspected of intra-abdominal or retroperitoneal located inflammatory lesions are described in Chapter III. Chapter IV contains the description of an indium-111-leucocyte-99mTc-Sn-colloid computer-assisted subtraction technique for a better evaluation of patients suspected of an upper-abdominal inflammatory process. In Chapter V the study performed in patients after arterial reconstructive surgery is described, and the results obtained in patients suspected of an infected orthopaedic prosthesis are given in Chapter VI. Finally the characteristics of the different types of inflammatory responses is reviewed. (Auth.)

  1. Possibilities for prognostication of radiation injury in rats by leucocyte nucleic acid levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkova, M.; Pantev, T.

    1988-01-01

    The possibilities to prognosticate acute radiation injury by the changes in the amount of nucleic acids in the leucocytes was studied. Experiments were carried out on male Wistar albino rats, gamma-irradiated with nonlethal and sublethal doses of 0.5, 2 and 4 Gy and lethal dose of 8 Gy (LD 90/30 ). The nucleic acid content and the total leucocyte count were determined at definite intervals on days 1-30. The changes in the nucleic acids in nonlethally and sublethally irradiated animals had phase nature, with a clear-cut abortive increase in their amount on days 7-10. In lethally irradiated animals the phase character of the changes was lost and the abortive peak disappeared. By reducing the effectiveness of the lethal radiation dose survival of the population increased from 10-75% through physical and from 10-70% - through chemical protection. The nucleic acid dynamics showed features typical for an injury with possible survival - appearance of abortive peak and resumption of their normal values. It is assumed that determination of leucocyte nucleic acid content may be used for early prognostication of radiation injury, as it allows keen differentiation of the lethal from nonlethal outcome of radiation sickness. The absence of abortive peak (over 50%) by day 14 post-irradiation is a poor prognostic sign

  2. Clinical experience with 111In tropolonate leucocytes in the detection of occult infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wraight, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Over a period of 3 years, 275 scans were performed in 233 patients with suspected occult sepsis. A firm diagnosis was ultimately established in 160 cases. 81 sites of infection were correctly identified and there were 77 true negative studies. There were 4 false negative and 7 false positive studies, most of which were due to misinterpreting bowel activity as sepsis and vice versa. In 56 cases CT scans were performed within a few days of the leucocyte study. There was good agreement between the findings. Comparison was possible with ultrasound in 81 cases. In 15 of these ultrasound failed to detect infection in the abdomen which was demonstrated by 111 In leucocytes, suggesting that ultrasound is much less sensitive in this situation. The overall accuracy of 111 In leucocyte scanning in this series was 93,5%. The predictive value of a positive result was 92% and of a negative one 95%. The need for serial images to distinguish bowel activity (colitis or swallowed activity) from paracolic sepsis is emphasised. (orig.)

  3. Studies on the pathogensis of fever. IX. The production of endogenous pyrogen by polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAISER, H K; WOOD, W B

    1962-01-01

    Determination of the dose-response curve for rabbit leucocytic pyrogen reveals a hyperthermic "ceiling" at which there is a marked insensitivity to dosage. This finding has important implications in relation to the quantitative assay of leucocytic pyrogen. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes separated from normal rabbit blood possess the capacity to produce less than 5 per cent of the pyrogen generated by the same number of rabbit granulocytes collected from acute peritoneal exudates. Blood granulocytes, separated in the cold from the buffy coat, contain no detectable preformed pyrogen. The amount of preformed pyrogen within exudate granulocytes represents but a small fraction of the pyrogen which the cells are capable of generating when incubated in normal saline at 37 degrees C. It is suggested that the active pyrogen is formed from an inactive precursor within the cells. Under the conditions tested, cell fragments of rabbit granulocytes fail to produce endogenous pyrogen. The fact that the production of pyrogen is blocked at 4 degrees C is in keeping with the hypothesis that it involves metabolic reactions within the cell.

  4. Conversion of Natural Aldehydes from Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, and Lippia multiflora into Oximes: GC-MS and FT-IR Analysis †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor W. Ouédraogo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Three carbonyl-containing extracts of essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora (Myrtaceae, Cymbopogon citratus (Gramineae and Lippia multiflora (Verbenaceae were used for the preparation of oximes. The reaction mixtures were analyzed by GC-MS and different compounds were identified on the basis of their retention times and mass spectra. We observed quantitative conversion of aldehydes to their corresponding oximes with a purity of 95 to 99%. E and Z stereoisomers of the oximes were obtained and separated by GC-MS. During GC analysis, the high temperature in the injector was shown to cause partial dehydratation of oximes and the resulting nitriles were readily identified. Based on FT-IR spectroscopy, that revealed the high stability and low volatility of these compounds, the so-obtained oximes could be useful for future biological studies.

  5. FDG and FDG-labelled leucocyte PET/CT in the imaging of prosthetic joint infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksoy, Sabire Yilmaz; Asa, Sertac; Ozhan, Meftune; Sager, M.S.; Halac, Metin; Kabasakal, Levent; Soenmezoglu, Kerim; Kanmaz, Bedii [University of Istanbul, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Aksaray, Istanbul (Turkey); Ocak, Meltem [University of Istanbul, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istanbul (Turkey); Erkan, Melih Engin [Duzce University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Duzce (Turkey)

    2014-03-15

    The demand for arthroplasty is rapidly growing as a result of the ageing of the population. Although complications such as heterotrophic ossification, fracture and dislocation are relatively rare, differentiating aseptic loosening, the most common complication of arthroplasty from infection, is a major challenge for clinicians. Radionuclide imaging is currently the imaging modality of choice since it is not affected by orthopaedic hardware. Whereas FDG PET/CT imaging has been widely used in periprosthetic infection, it cannot discriminate aseptic from septic inflammation. In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of FDG PET/CT and FDG-labelled leucocyte PET/CT in the diagnosis of periprosthetic infection. Of 54 patients with painful joint arthroplasty who were imaged by FDG PET/CT for diagnosis of periprosthetic infection examined, 46 (36 women, 10 men; mean age 61.04 ± 12.2 years, range 32 - 89 years) with 54 painful joint prostheses (19 hip, 35 knee) with grade 2 (above liver uptake) FDG accumulation on FDG PET/CT were included in the study and these 46 patients also underwent FDG-labelled leucocyte PET/CT. Final diagnoses were made by histopathological-microbiological culture or clinical follow-up. The final diagnosis showed infection in 15 (28 %) and aseptic loosening in 39 (72 %) of the 54 prostheses. FDG PET/CT was found to have a positive predictive value of 28 % (15/54). Since patients with no FDG uptake on FDG PET/CT were excluded from the study, the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and accuracy could not be calculated. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of FDG-labelled leucocyte PET/CT were 93.3 % (14/15), 97.4 % (38/39), 93.3 % and 97.4 %, respectively. Since FDG is not specific to infection, the specificity of FDG PET/CT was very low. FDG-labelled leucocyte PET/CT with its high specificity may be a useful method and better than labelled leucocyte scintigraphy in periprosthetic infection

  6. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel 3-Caren-5-One Oxime Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel 3-caren-5-one oxime esters were designed and synthesized by multi-step reactions in an attempt to develop potent antifungal agents. Two E-Z stereoisomers of the intermediate 3-caren-5-one oxime were separated by column chromatography for the first time. The structures of all the intermediates and target compounds were confirmed by UV-Vis, FTIR, NMR, ESI-MS, and elemental analysis. The antifungal activity of the target compounds was preliminarily evaluated by the in vitro method against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, Physalospora piricola, Alternaria solani, Cercospora arachidicola, Gibberella zeae, Rhizoeotnia solani, Bipolaris maydis, and Colleterichum orbicalare at 50 µg/mL. The target compounds exhibited best antifungal activity against P. piricola, in which compounds (Z-4r (R = β-pyridyl, (Z-4q (R = α-thienyl, (E-4f′ (R = p-F Ph, (Z-4i (R = m-Me Ph, (Z-4j (R = p-Me Ph, and (Z-4p (R = α-furyl had inhibition rates of 97.1%, 87.4%, 87.4%, 85.0%, 81.9%, and 77.7%, respectively, showing better antifungal activity than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothanil. Also, compound (Z-4r (R = β-pyridyl displayed remarkable antifungal activity against all the tested fungi, with inhibition rates of 76.7%, 82.7%, 97.1%, 66.3%, 74.7%, 93.9%, 76.7% and 93.3%, respectively, showing better or comparable antifungal activity than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothanil. Besides, the E-Z isomers of the target oxime esters were found to show obvious differences in antifungal activity. These results provide an encouraging framework that could lead to the development of potent novel antifungal agents.

  7. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel 3-Caren-5-One Oxime Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Duan, Wen-Gui; Lin, Gui-Shan; Li, Kun; Hu, Qiong

    2017-09-12

    A series of novel 3-caren-5-one oxime esters were designed and synthesized by multi-step reactions in an attempt to develop potent antifungal agents. Two E - Z stereoisomers of the intermediate 3-caren-5-one oxime were separated by column chromatography for the first time. The structures of all the intermediates and target compounds were confirmed by UV-Vis, FTIR, NMR, ESI-MS, and elemental analysis. The antifungal activity of the target compounds was preliminarily evaluated by the in vitro method against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum , Physalospora piricola , Alternaria solani , Cercospora arachidicola , Gibberella zeae, Rhizoeotnia solani , Bipolaris maydis , and Colleterichum orbicalare at 50 µg/mL. The target compounds exhibited best antifungal activity against P. piricola , in which compounds ( Z )- 4r (R = β -pyridyl), ( Z )- 4q (R = α -thienyl), ( E )- 4f' (R = p -F Ph), ( Z )- 4i (R = m -Me Ph), ( Z )- 4j (R = p -Me Ph), and ( Z )- 4p (R = α -furyl) had inhibition rates of 97.1%, 87.4%, 87.4%, 85.0%, 81.9%, and 77.7%, respectively, showing better antifungal activity than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothanil. Also, compound ( Z )- 4r (R = β -pyridyl) displayed remarkable antifungal activity against all the tested fungi, with inhibition rates of 76.7%, 82.7%, 97.1%, 66.3%, 74.7%, 93.9%, 76.7% and 93.3%, respectively, showing better or comparable antifungal activity than that of the commercial fungicide chlorothanil. Besides, the E-Z isomers of the target oxime esters were found to show obvious differences in antifungal activity. These results provide an encouraging framework that could lead to the development of potent novel antifungal agents.

  8. Steric control of reactivity: formation of oximes, benzodiazepinone N-oxides and isoxazoloquinolinones

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Frances; Bourke, Sharon; Cunningham, Desmond; McArdle, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    Reaction of the alkenyl carbonyl compounds 1 with hydroxylamine can lead to the formation of the oximes 2, the benzodiazepinone N-oxides 3 or the isoxazoloquinolinones 5. The product(s) of reaction are shown to depend on the electronic nature of the terminal olefinic substituent R3 and the space filling capacity of the substituents R1, R2 and R4. When the olefinic centre is electron poor (R3 = CO2Et) ketocarbonyls convert exclusively to bicyclic nitrones 3 whereas aldehydes are more sensitive...

  9. Iridium-Catalyzed Condensation of Primary Amines To Form Secondary Amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentz-Petersen, Linda Luise Reeh; Jensen, Paw; Madsen, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Symmetric secondary amines are readily obtained by heating a neat primary amine with 0.5 mol% of bis(dichloro[eta(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl]iridium). The products are isolated by direct distillation in good yields.......Symmetric secondary amines are readily obtained by heating a neat primary amine with 0.5 mol% of bis(dichloro[eta(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl]iridium). The products are isolated by direct distillation in good yields....

  10. Novel bioreducible poly(amido amine)s for highly efficient gene delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, C.; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Lok, Martin C.; Jiang, Xulin; Hennink, Wim E.; Feijen, Jan; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.

    2007-01-01

    A series of novel bioreducible poly(amido amine)s containing multiple disulfide linkages (SS-PAAs) were synthesized and evaluated as nonviral gene vectors. These linear SS-PAAs could be easily obtained by Michael-type polyaddition of various primary amines to the disulfide-containing cystamine

  11. Assessment of correlation between leucocytes migration reaction and level of inhalation exposure to priority air contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Masnavieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays each forth person suffers from allergic diseases and allergic pathology prevalence is constantly growing. There are compounds in air which are generally toxic, or have sensitizing or allergenic effects on a body. For example, we can name formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide. Our research goal was to reveal a correlation between reaction of leucocytes migration inhibition to formaldehyde and level of inhalation exposure to the examined chemicals. We examined 410 teenag-ers who permanently lived in industrial cities in Irkutsk region. We studied individual load as per formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide. We estimated eosinophils content in nasal mucus and determined indexes of leucocytes migration inhibition to for-maldehyde. Index of formaldehyde effects danger was detected to exceed 1 in 54% teenagers. The greatest value of danger coefficient in terms of exposure to this substance was equal to 1.76. anger index in terms of exposure to nitrogen dioxide didn't exceed 0.7 in the examined teenagers. The obtained results prove that inhalation formaldehyde load influences teenag-ers from industrial centers as sensitization to this substance evolves in them. We found out that true inhibition reaction of leucocytes migration in a reaction with formaldehyde more frequently occurred in people with danger index in terms of ex-posure to this substance being lower than 1. We obtained models which described correlation between level of sensitization to formaldehyde and a number of eosinophils in nasal mucus and it allowed us to detect that sensitization depended on the examined contaminants content in the air. The sensitization to chemical air contaminants which we revealed in teenagers calls for necessary activities aimed at reducing risks of allergenic pathology evolvement in them.

  12. Increased glucocerebrosidase (GBA) 2 activity in GBA1 deficient mice brains and in Gaucher leucocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Derek G; Rahim, Ahad A; Waddington, Simon N; Karlsson, Stefan; Enquist, Ida; Bhatia, Kailash; Mehta, Atul; Vellodi, Ashok; Heales, Simon

    2013-09-01

    Lysosomal glucocerebrosidase (GBA1) deficiency is causative for Gaucher disease. Not all individuals with GBA1 mutations develop neurological involvement raising the possibility that other factors may provide compensatory protection. One factor may be the activity of the non-lysosomal β-glucosidase (GBA2) which exhibits catalytic activity towards glucosylceramide and is reported to be highly expressed in brain tissue. Here, we assessed brain GBA2 enzymatic activity in wild type, heterozygote and GBA1 deficient mice. Additionally, we determined activity in leucocytes obtained from 13 patients with Gaucher disease, 10 patients with enzymology consistent with heterozygote status and 19 controls. For wild type animals, GBA2 accounted for over 85 % of total brain GBA activity and was significantly elevated in GBA1 deficient mice when compared to heterozygote and wild types (GBA1 deficient; 92.4 ± 5.6, heterozygote; 71.5 ± 2.4, wild type 76.8 ± 5.1 nmol/h/mg protein). For the patient samples, five Gaucher patients had GBA2 leucocyte activities markedly greater than controls. No difference in GBA2 activity was apparent between the control and carrier groups. Undetectable GBA2 activity was identified in four leucocyte preparations; one in the control group, two in the carrier group and one from the Gaucher disease group. Work is now required to ascertain whether GBA2 activity is a disease modifying factor in Gaucher disease and to identify the mechanism(s) responsible for triggering increased GBA2 activity in GBA1 deficiency states.

  13. Leucocyte profile and offspring production of guinea pig (Cavia cobaya given Anredera cordifolia leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wijayanti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine leucocyte and offspring production of guinea pig (Cavia cobaya giving Anredera cordifolia leaf extract. Materials used were female 16 heads of guinea pig with body weight of 425g. The treatments were an extract of A. cordifolia leaf at doses of 0, 10, 50 and 90 mg/head, designated as T0, T1, T2 and T3, respectively. A. cordifolia leaf extract was administered orally from 10 days prepartum to 10 days postpartum. Blood was taken at 10 days prepartum and 10 days postpartum. Total birth of the offspring was observed. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and if there was effect of treatment, then continued with Duncan multiple range test and Chi-Square test for fetal production between the given A. cordifolia leaf extract and control. The result showed that there was no significant difference for 10 days prepartum after addition of A cordifolia leaf extract treatment. The postpartum treated showed a total 50 mg/head level increaed for monocytes than that of level 0, 10 and 90 mg/head. Ten days postpartum treatment showed the total increase for leucocyte and monocytes total were 50 and 90 mg/head, respectively compared to 10 mg/head level. Total lymphocyte of 90 mg/head increased compared to level 10 and 50 mg/head. The highest total neutrophil as found at level of 50 mg/head which increased compared to the level of 0 and 10 mg/head. ProvisioningA. cordifolialeaf extract at doses level of 50 and 90 mg/head could increase litter size (P<0.05; χ2=9.267 and decreased offspring mortality (P<0.05; χ2=6.4. In conclusion, by giving 50 mg/head A. cordifolia leaf extract could increase leucocyte profile and offspring production of guinea pig.

  14. Reprogramming neutral lipid metabolism in mouse dendritic leucocytes hosting live Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Lecoeur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: After loading with live Leishmania (L amazonensis amastigotes, mouse myeloid dendritic leucocytes/DLs are known to undergo reprogramming of their immune functions. In the study reported here, we investigated whether the presence of live L. amazonensis amastigotes in mouse bone marrow-derived DLs is able to trigger re-programming of DL lipid, and particularly neutral lipid metabolism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Affymetrix-based transcriptional profiles were determined in C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mouse bone marrow-derived DLs that had been sorted from cultures exposed or not to live L. amazonensis amastigotes. This showed that live amastigote-hosting DLs exhibited a coordinated increase in: (i long-chain fatty acids (LCFA and cholesterol uptake/transport, (ii LCFA and cholesterol (re-esterification to triacyl-sn-glycerol (TAG and cholesteryl esters (CE, respectively. As these neutral lipids are known to make up the lipid body (LB core, oleic acid was added to DL cultures and LB accumulation was compared in live amastigote-hosting versus amastigote-free DLs by epi-fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. This showed that LBs were both significantly larger and more numerous in live amastigote-hosting mouse dendritic leucocytes. Moreover, many of the larger LB showed intimate contact with the membrane of the parasitophorous vacuoles hosting the live L. amazonensis amastigotes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As leucocyte LBs are known to be more than simple neutral lipid repositories, we set about addressing two related questions. Could LBs provide lipids to live amastigotes hosted within the DL parasitophorous vacuole and also deliver? Could LBs impact either directly or indirectly on the persistence of L. amazonensis amastigotes in rodent skin?

  15. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.C.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Bottema, K.C.; Dubois, A.E.J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allerg*, intoler*, and

  16. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, SC; van Dusseldorp, M; Bottema, KC; Dubois, AEJ

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allergen intoler*, and

  17. Method for the production of primary amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldenius, Kai-Uwe; Ditrich, Klaus; Breurer, Michael; Navickas, Vaidotas; Janssen, Dick; Crismaru, Ciprian; Bartsch, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel enzymatically catalyzed method for the production of aliphatic primary amines, which method comprises the enzymatic oxidation of a primary aliphatic alcohol catalyzed by an alcohol dehydrogenase, amination of the resulting oxocompound catalyzed by a

  18. Sillica Gel-Amine from Geothermal Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muljani, S.; Pujiastuti, C.; Wicaksono, P.; Lutfianingrum, R.

    2018-01-01

    Silica Gel-Amine (SGA) has been made from geothermal sludge by grafting amine method. Sodium silicate solution is prepared by extracted geothermal sludge powder using sodium hidroxide solution then acidification in the range of pH 5 - 9 by using tartaric acid 1N. The grafting process uses 1 ml of ammonia solution and 10 ml of toluene at a rate of 0.1 ml min-1 accompanied by a reflux process. The amine grafting is done in two methods. The first method is grafting amine in silicate solution and the second method is grafting amine in washed gel. Product SGA was confirmed by FTIR, TGA-DTG and BET characterization. The results show that the pH affects the amount of amine that is grafted onto silica gel. Differences in grafting method affect the size of the pore and surface area. SGA product prepared by grafting washed gel at pH 8 have pore diameter of 12.06 nm, surface area of 173.44 m2g-1, and mass of decomposed amine compound 0.4 mg. In the presence of amine groups on the silica gel surface, these adsorbents may be able to selectively adsorb CO2 gas from natural gas.

  19. [Evaluation of the mutagenicity of detergents by tests on bacteria, plant cells and human leucocytes.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feretti, Donatella; Pedrazzani, Roberta; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zerbini, Ilaria; Gozio, Eleonora; Belotti, Caterina; Alias, Carlotta; Donato, Francesco; Gelatti, Umberto

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity of several traditional detergents and that of newer more biodegradable detergents, by using a bacterial test (Ames test), a plant cell test (Allium cepa micronuclei test) and a human leucocyte test (Comet test). All tests were conducted using a wide range of doses (1-2000 mg/l). None of the examined detergents induced mutations in S.typhimurium. One traditional detergent showed a genotoxic effect with the A. cepa test, while all newer detergents and one traditional detergent were shown by the Comet test to be capable of inducing DNA damage.

  20. Amine Measurements in Boreal Forest Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmilä, Marja; Hellén, Heidi; Makkonen, Ulla; Hakola, Hannele

    2015-04-01

    Amines are reactive, volatile bases in the air with a general formula of RNH2, R2NH or R3N. Especially small amines can stabilize sulphuric acid clusters and hence affect nucleation. Amines react rapidly with hydroxyl radical (OH˙) thus affecting oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. The amine concentrations are higher in forest air than in urban air (Hellén et al., 2014), but the sources are not known. In order to get more information concerning amine sources, we conducted a measurement campaign in a boreal forest. At SMEAR II station at Hyytiälä, Southern Finland (61°510'N, 24°170'E, 180 m a.s.l.) The measurements cover seven months, from June to December 2014. For sampling and measuring we used MARGA (The instrument for Measuring AeRosols and Gases in Ambient air) which is an on-line ion chromatograph (IC) connected to a sampling system. The IC component of the MARGA system was coupled to an electrospray ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS) to improve sensitivity of amine measurements. This new set-up enabled amine concentration measurements in ambient air both in aerosol and gas phases with a time resolution of only 1 hour. With MARGA-MS we analysed 7 different amines: monomethylamine (MMA), dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA), ethylamine (EA), diethylamine (DEA), propylamine (PA) and butylamine (BA). In preliminary data-analysis we found out, that in June and July most of the measured amines were in gas phase, and particle phase amine concentrations were mostly under detection limits (<1.7 pptv). In June the gaseous amine concentrations were higher than in July. The measured concentrations of gaseous amines followed temperature variation, which could indicate that amines are produced and emitted from the environment or re-emitted from the surfaces as temperature rises after deposition during night-time. All measured amines had similar diurnal variation with maxima during afternoon and minima during night. Results from other months will also

  1. Preparation of phenacylchloride, morpholinophenacyl and N-Piperidinophenacyl oximes and study of their complexation with Copper (II) and Cobalt (II) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Kamal Eldin Ahmed

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to prepare phenacyl chloride oxime and phenacyl of N-Piperidine and morpholine derivatives, and mainly to study their complexes with Cu(II) and Co(II) ions with objective ascertaining that one of these ligands can be used in quantitative extraction of these metal ions from the aqueous solution. Copper (II) salts form 1:1 complexes with the phenyacyl oximes of N-piperidine and morpholine and 1:2 complex with phenacyl chloride oxime. However, cobalt(II) salts form 1:2 complexes with phenacyl oxime of N-piperidine and morpholine but does not complex with phenacyl chloride oxime. The stoichiometry of these complexes were determined by UV/VIS spectrophotometry using the mole ratio, continuous variation and slope ratio methods.The stability constants of the five complexes were calculated from aberrances using Job's method. They showed that the copper (II) and cobalt (II) complexes with N-piperidinophenacy oxime are more stable than those with morpholinophenacyl oxime. Copper (II) complexes with any of these two ligands are more stable than those of cobalt (II). IR spectra of the complexes of copper (II) and cobalt (II) with phenacyl oxime of N-piperidine and morpholine show diminished peaks of hydrogen bonds between N and O atoms of the ligand. Specific extractabilities using amylalcohol of copper (II) complexes with the three ligands increase from PH4 to reach its maximum at PH8. The high value for N-piperidinophenacyl oxime ligand (96%-97%) indicates that, this ligand can be used as analytical reagent for the quantitative spectrophotometric determination of copper (II) salts in aqueous media. Cobalt (II) complexes were formed and extracted from solution only at PH6 (specific PH). The extractabilities ranging from 81.6-87.2% warrants the use of these ligands in quantitative spectrophotometric determination of cobalt (II).(Author)

  2. Efficacy of two anthelmintic treatments, spinosad/milbemycin oxime and ivermectin/praziquantel in dogs with natural Toxocara spp. infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia Cardenas, Rafael; Romero Núñez, Camilo; Miranda Contreras, Laura

    2017-11-30

    Toxocara canis is one of the most important zoonotic parasites of dogs. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of spinosad/milbemycin oxime and ivermectin/praziquantel in dogs naturally infected with Toxocara spp. We studied 200 dogs with a positive diagnosis of Toxocara spp. Through coproparasitoscopic analysis, two study groups of 100 dogs each were assigned: spinosad/milbemycin oxime at a dose of 30-60mg/kg and 0.75-1.0mg/kg, respectively, or ivermectin/praziquantel administered at a dose of 0.2mg/kg and 5mg/kg, respectively. Both groups received a single dose. Three stool samples, one at day 0 before treatment, and at 14 and 28days post-treatment were examined using concentration-flotation techniques. In both treatments, the number of Toxocara spp. eggs decreased; with spinosad/milbemycin oxime treatment, eggs decreased by 87% at 14days (P=0.008) and 94% at 28days after treatment, compared with 71% at day 14 and 88% at day 28 in dogs medicated with ivermectin/praziquantel. The spinosad/milbemycin oxime treated group showed a greater decrease in the number of Toxocara spp. positive dogs compared to the group receiving ivermectin/praziquantel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis of 2-hydroxy-3-(2-methyl-propenyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and related oxime derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia S. Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The condensation reaction of commercial 2-hydroxy-1 ,4-naphthoquinone 1 (lawsone with isobutyraldehyde 2 furnishs norlapachol 3 (2-hydroxy-3-(2-methyl-propenyl -1,4-naphthoquinone with yields ranging from 66 to 93% depending on the different conditions tested, and a reaction temperature factor determinant for the formation of the desired product. It was treated with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in alkaline (NaOH to provide the oxime 4 from regioselective modification of the carbonyl C-1 with 91% yield. The regioselectivity of the reaction can be explained by analyzing the different resonance structures which can be seen that the carbonyl C-4 is less electrophilic than C-1. In this work was also obtained the oxime 5, 6 and 7 from lapachol, αlpha and β-lapachone, respectively, in yields of 64-85%. The oximes of αlpha and β-norlapachone, 8 and 9 are in obtention. All the products were analyzed by IR and NMR, and were observed that oximes of lapachol and norlapachol are isolated as E/Z mixtures. Two-dimensional NOE-type experiments of the corresponding acylated derivative will be made to help identify the proportion of the mixture.

  4. Reaction of Non-Symmetric Schiff Base Metallo-Ligand Complexes Possessing an Oxime Function with Ln Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Costes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of non-symmetric Schiff base ligands possessing one oxime function that is associated to a second function such as pyrrole or phenol function is first described. These ligands, which possess inner N4 or N3O coordination sites, allow formation of cationic or neutral non-symmetric CuII or NiII metallo-ligand complexes under their mono- or di-deprotonated forms. In presence of Lanthanide ions the neutral complexes do not coordinate to the LnIII ions, the oxygen atom of the oxime function being only hydrogen-bonded to a water molecule that is linked to the LnIII ion. This surprising behavior allows for the isolation of LnIII ions by non-interacting metal complexes. Reaction of cationic NiII complexes possessing a protonated oxime function with LnIII ions leads to the formation of original and dianionic (Gd(NO352− entities that are well separated from each other. This work highlights the preparation of well isolated mononuclear LnIII entities into a matrix of diamagnetic metal complexes. These new complexes complete our previous work dealing with the complexing ability of the oxime function toward Lanthanide ions. It could open the way to the synthesis of new entities with interesting properties, such as single-ion magnets for example.

  5. Docking and molecular dynamics studies of peripheral site ligand–oximes as reactivators of sarin-inhibited human acetylcholinesterase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, J.S.F.D. de; Cuya Guizado, T.R.; Guimarães, A.P.; Ramalho, T.C.; Gonçalves, A.S.; Koning, M.C. de; França, T.C.C.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we performed docking and molecular dynamics simulations studies on two groups of long-tailored oximes designed as peripheral site binders of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and potential penetrators on the blood brain barrier. Our studies permitted to determine how the tails anchor

  6. The effect of the conditions of amidoximation on the adsorptive characteristics of amide oxime resin for uranium recovery from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Takahiro; Furusaki, Shintaro; Sugo, Takanobu; Okamoto, Jiro.

    1987-01-01

    A hollow-fiber type chelating resin containing the amide oxime group for the recovery of uranium from seawater was synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization. The effect of the conditions of amidoximation on the amount and/or distribution of the functional groups and on the durability to the recycle adsorption was investigated. The amount of adsorbed copper on the resin increased with the reaction time of the amidoximation, but that of adsorbed hydrochloric acid gradually decreased after reaching the maximum. From the results of elemental analysis, infrared adsorption spectra, visible light and ultraviolet adsorption spectra and the observation of coloration of the resin by alkaline treatment, the amidoximation was found to be a consecutive reaction. The results also suggested that, after the introduction of the amide oxime group, the acidic amide, hydroxamic acid and/or cyclic functional groups were formed. From the measurement of the distribution of adsorbed copper by X-ray microanalyzer, it was confirmed that the amidoximation occured uniformly across the resin. An experiment was carried out on the recycle adsorption of the amide oxime resin using natural seawater, and the sufficient durability was recognized for the case that the resin was taken out from the hydroxylamine solution at the time when the amount of adsorbed hydrochloric acid reached the maximum. In this case the resin contained the largest amount of the amide oxime group and least amount of the by-products formed from the secondary reactions. (author)

  7. Extraction of sulphates by long chain amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boirie, Ch.

    1959-05-01

    The extraction of sulphuric acid by long chain amines in organic solution has been studied with a view to determining the value of the stability constants of the amine sulphates and bi-sulphates formed. We have concentrated chiefly on uranium sulphate and thorium sulphate. The formulae of the complexes extractable with amines have been established, as well as the corresponding dissociation constants. We have observed that for uranium sulphate the formula of the complex depends only on the nature of the amine, whereas for thorium this formula varies with the amine structure. From the formulae determined and the value of the constants calculated, we have been able to establish the best conditions for uranium and thorium extraction and also for a separation of these two elements. Finally we propose an application of this study to the determination of uranium in ores, where the separation of uranium by this method is particularly easy and complete. (author) [fr

  8. Modulation of cytokine release by differentiated CACO-2 cells in a compartmentalized coculture model with mononuclear leucocytes and nonpathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Haller, D.; Brinz, S.

    2004-01-01

    To further investigate the interaction between human mononuclear leucocytes [peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)] and enterocytes, the effect of a confluent layer of differentiated CACO-2 cells on cytokine kinetics during challenge with bacteria in a compartmentalized coculture model...... cells when leucocytes were stimulated directly with bacteria. This suppression was not paralleled by changes in the production of IL-10, IL-6 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. When the bacteria were applied apically to the CACO-2 cell layer, the production of TNF-alpha, IL-12, IL-1beta, IL-8......, IL-6, IL-10, TGF-beta and interferon-gamma was pronouncedly lower as compared to the bacterial stimulation of leucocytes beneath the CACO-2 cells. In the latter experiments, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha were the cytokines being mostly induced by apical addition of E. coli. Quantitative mRNA expression...

  9. The predictive value of leucocyte progression for one-week mortality on acutely admitted medical patients to the emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Mikkel; Soltau, Matilde Røgilds

    2018-01-01

    female. Using logistic regression, we found significantly lower one-week mortality with falling leucocyte count progression, even when controlling for confounders. A decreasing leucocyte count had a sensitivity for one-week mortality of 65%, specificity of 62%, positive predictive value of 4......%, and negative predictive value of 99%. Difference in admission to the intensive care unit was non-significant between the three groups. Difference in length of stay was significant, but with one day difference, the clinical significance is questionable. CONCLUSION: Leucocyte count progression is not sensitive...... enough to predict one-week mortality, nor specific enough to discount it. It is important for physicians to be aware of this to avoid faulty assessments based on imprecise assumptions....

  10. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)], E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Mozo, Ismael; Garcia de la Fuente, Isaias; Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Riesco, Nicolas [Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE113TU Leicestershire (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-30

    Mixtures with dimethyl or trimethylpyridines and alkane, aromatic compound or 1-alkanol have been examined using different theories: DISQUAC, Flory, the concentration-concentration structure factor, S{sub CC}(0), or the Kirkwood-Buff formalism. DISQUAC represents fairly well the available experimental data, and improves theoretical calculations from Dortmund UNIFAC. Two important effects have been investigated: (i) the effect of increasing the number of methyl groups attached to the aromatic ring of the amine; (ii) the effect of modifying the position of the methyl groups in this ring. The molar excess enthalpy, H{sup E}, and the molar excess volume, V{sup E}, decrease in systems with alkane or methanol as follows: pyridine > 3-methylpyridine > 3,5-dimethylpyridine and pyridine > 2-methylpyridine > 2,4-dimethylpyridine > 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine, which has been attributed to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions in the same sequences. This is in agreement with the relative variation of the effective dipole moment, {mu}-bar, and of the differences between the boiling temperature of a pyridine base and that of the homomorphic alkane. For heptane solutions, the observed H{sup E} variation, H{sup E} (3,5-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,4-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,6-dimethylpyridine), is explained similarly. Calculations on the basis of the Flory model confirm that orientational effects become weaker in systems with alkane in the order: pyridine > methylpyridine > dimethylpyridine > trimethylpyridine. S{sub CC}(0) calculations show that steric effects increase with the number of CH{sub 3}- groups in the pyridine base, and that the steric effects exerted by methyl groups in positions 2 and 6 are higher than when they are placed in positions 3 and 5. The hydrogen bond energy in methanol mixtures is independent of the pyridine base, and it is estimated to be -35.2 kJ mol{sup -1}. Heterocoordination in these solutions is due in part to size effects. Their

  11. Autoradiography and density gradient separation of technetium-99m-Exametazime (HMPAO) labelled leucocytes reveals selectivity for eosinophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puncher, M.R.B. [Biological Lab., Univ. of Kent, Canterbury (United Kingdom); Blower, P.J. [Nuclear Medicine Dept., Kent and Canterbury Hospital (United Kingdom)

    1994-11-01

    Technetium-99m-Exametazime (HMPAO) is widely used for radiolabelling leucocytes for localization of infection. The subcellular distribution of radionuclide in the labelled cells and the distribution of radioactivity among the leucocyte population are incompletely understood. Frozen section autoradiography was used to determine quantitatively the distribution of {sup 99m}Tc in leucocytes labelled with {sup 99m}Tc-Exametazime. Sections of rapidly frozen suspensions of labelled leucocytes in plasma were autoradiographed on Ilford K2 emulsion and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Neutrophils, eosinophils and mononuclear cells were separated by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Cell nuclei were isolated by a rapid cell-breakage and fractionation method. In a typical experiment mean grain densities [grains/100 {mu}m{sup 2} (ESD)] over cells were: eosinophils 31.2 (18.4), neutrophils 3.5 (3.5), mononuclear cells 4.2 (5.1). Mean grain numbers per cell (ESD) were: eosinophils 13 (6.8), neutrophils 1.3 (1.3), mononuclear cells 1.1 (1.3). These findings were confirmed by separation of labelled leucocytes on discontinuous density gradients. In four separation experiments, the mean activity-per-cell ratio for eosinophils to neutrophils was 10.1 (4.8):1, and for eosinophils to mononuclear cells, 14.1 (6.7):1. The subcellular distribution of the label was investigated using image analysis of autoradiographs and cell fractionation. This revealed no selectivity for nuclear or extranuclear compartments. It may be concluded that {sup 99m}Tc-Exametazime has strong selectivity for eosinophils over other leucocytes but no selectivity for nuclear/cytoplasmic compartments. (orig.)

  12. Clinical experience with sup(99m)Tc-hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime for labelling leucocytes and imaging inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, A.M.; Danpure, H.J.; Osman, S.; Hawker, R.J.; Henderson, B.L.; Hodgson, H.J.; Kelly, J.D.; Neirinckx, R.D.; Lavender, J.P.

    1986-10-25

    Hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime (HMPAO) forms a lipid-soluble neutral complex with sup(99m)Tc which is rapidly incorporated into leucocytes in vitro. In six patients with suspected or known inflammatory disease, a 'mixed' leucocyte suspension isolated from 85 ml blood anticoagulated with acid-citrate-dextrose was labelled by sup(99m)Tc-HMPAO with a mean efficiency of 47% (SE2%), of which 78% (3) was taken up by granulocytes. Activity eluted more rapidly from other cell types in vitro than from granulocytes, which remained firmly labelled. Mean initial biodistribution of the label and granulocyte recovery in blood of 32% (8) at 30-40 min showed that the granulocytes were not significantly activated during labelling. All six patients were positive for inflammatory disease, as early as 30 min in five patients and at 3 h in the sixth; they all remained positive at 20-24 h. Four patients also received /sup 111/In-labelled 'pure' granulocytes. In terms of detail, the sup(99m)Tc images were comparable or superior to the /sup 111/In images.

  13. Visualization of inflammatory processes using 'in vitro' and in vivo' labelled leucocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinova, I.; Milanov, S.; Kovacheva, S.

    1993-01-01

    The labelled leucocytes have become a means of choice for the diagnosis of a variety of active inflammatory conditions. The aim of the study was to evaluate 'in vivo' and 'in vitro' methods for labelling of leucocytes. A total of 146 patients, suspected of having various inflammatory lesions were examined. In 95 of them 'in vitro' method with 99m Tc-HMPAO or 111 In-oxine was used, in 29 'in vivo' method with 99m Tc-MAB (BW 250/183) and in 22 both methods. The obtained results of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 87,3%, 96,5%, 89,5% for 'in vitro' method and 83,3%, 93,8%, 86,2% for 'in vivo' method. Taking into consideration the received data and comparable results, we think that in seriously ill patients and in cases of urgency, the use of easier 'in vivo' method is more suitable, while in chronic processes or in such with unclear localisation, 'in vitro' method is recommended, which sometimes gives images with better quality. (orig.) [de

  14. In vitro effects of virgin microplastics on fish head-kidney leucocyte activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Cristóbal; García Beltrán, José María; Esteban, María Angeles; Cuesta, Alberto

    2018-04-01

    Microplastics are well-documented pollutants in the marine environment that result from production or fragmentation of larger plastic items. The knowledge about the direct effects of microplastics on immunity, including fish, is still very limited. We investigated the in vitro effects of microplastics [polyvinylchloride (PVC) and polyethylene (PE)] on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) head-kidney leucocytes (HKLs). After 1 and 24 h of exposure of HKLs with 0 (control), 1, 10 and 100 mg mL -1 MPs in a rotatory system, cell viability, innate immune parameters (phagocytic, respiratory burst and peroxidase activities) and the expression of genes related to inflammation (il1b), oxidative stress (nrf2, prdx3), metabolism of xenobiotics (cyp1a1, mta) and cell apoptosis (casp3) were studied. Microplastics failed to affect the cell viability of HKLs. In addition, they provoke very few significant effects on the main cellular innate immune activities, as decrease on phagocytosis or increase in the respiratory burst of HKLs with the highest dose of microplastics tested. Furthermore, microplastics failed to affect the expression of the selected genes on sea bass or seabream, except the nrf2 which was up-regulated in seabream HKLs incubated with the highest doses. Present results seem to suggest that continue exposure of fish to PVC or PE microplastics could impair fish immune parameters probably due to the oxidative stress produced in the fish leucocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. X-ray-induced chromosome aberrations in the leucocytes of mouse and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, R.J.; Brewen, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    In earlier studies it was shown that the frequency of dicentrics induced by X-rays in human leucocytes was about twice that induced in mouse leucocytes. The frequencies of deletions were similar in both species. However, the mouse cultures were fixed at 60 h and the human cultures at 54 h. In both cases it was likely that some of the cells analysed were in their second post-treatment mitosis. Further studies were carried out using fixation times of 48 h for both mouse and human cultures (three different human donors were used). The same relationships held here, namely twice as many dicentrics in humans, and similar deletion frequencies in both. The aberration frequencies observed were corrected to take account of second-diversion cells by assuming that cells containing a dicentric without an accompanying fragment were in their second division. There were more such cells in mouse than in human cultures. Further to increase reliance on the conclusions, cultures were fixed at the earliest times that 300 cells per dose could be obtained - 36 h for the mouse, 42 h for the human. The frequencies of dicentrics were increased in both, and a relationship of about 2:1 for human to mouse was obtained. Deletion frequencies were similar in both. Since no dicentrics without fragments were obtained, it appeared that aberration frequencies in first-division cells only were being compared. (author)

  16. Increased leucocyte Na-K ATPase in obesity: reversal following weight loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turaihi, K.; Baron, D.N.; Dandona, P.

    1987-01-01

    Ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb influx and [ 3 H] ouabain binding capacity were investigated in the leucocytes of 17 obese patients and 15 control subjects. Both were significantly increased in the obese when compared with controls. Following dietary restriction and a 4% to 5% weight reduction in the obese over 2 weeks, [ 3 H] ouabain binding and ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb influx (a model for K+ influx) decreased to levels similar to those in controls. This shows that the number of Na-K ATPase sites on leucocyte membranes of the obese are significantly increased and that this is associated with accelerated 86 Rb transport. Since both of these indices decreased following 4% to 5% reduction in body weight while the patients were still obese, increased Na-K ATPase is neither a marker of nor cardinal to the pathogenesis of obesity. We conclude that (1) increase in Na-K ATPase units and 86 Rb influx are not characteristic of obesity itself and (2) dietary restriction over the short-term with limited weight reduction restores Na-K ATPase units and 86 Rb influx to normal

  17. In vitro phagocytosis of methicillin resistant and methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, N.; Tahir, R.; Abbas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a gram positive bacterium that causes a number of diseases such as abscesses, infective endocarditis, septic arthritis, etc. It is acquiring resistance against many antibiotics like methicillin; therefore its control is becoming increasingly difficult. Peripheral blood phagocytes particularly polymorphonuclear leucocytes play an important role in the protective mechanisms against these organisms. Phagocytes interact with bacteria and phagocytose these microorganisms to kill them. Phenotypically different isolates of Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) were collected from various hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. Fresh polymorphonuclaer leucocytes were obtained from healthy individuals by centrifugation using Ficol-Hypaque gradient combined with dextran sedimentation. Microbiological method was used for the determination of phagocytic index of phenotypic variants of Staphylococcus aureus. A significant difference was observed between the phagocytic index of both bacterial groups. MSSA group showed the Mean+-SD of 79.46%+-3.9 while MRSA group showed 72.35%+-2.5. Significant difference in phagocytic index indicates that it can be one of the mechanisms of MRSA to evade host immune system as compare to MSSA. (author)

  18. Increased leucocyte Na-K ATPase in obesity: reversal following weight loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turaihi, K.; Baron, D.N.; Dandona, P.

    1987-09-01

    Ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx and (/sup 3/H) ouabain binding capacity were investigated in the leucocytes of 17 obese patients and 15 control subjects. Both were significantly increased in the obese when compared with controls. Following dietary restriction and a 4% to 5% weight reduction in the obese over 2 weeks, (/sup 3/H) ouabain binding and ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx (a model for K+ influx) decreased to levels similar to those in controls. This shows that the number of Na-K ATPase sites on leucocyte membranes of the obese are significantly increased and that this is associated with accelerated /sup 86/Rb transport. Since both of these indices decreased following 4% to 5% reduction in body weight while the patients were still obese, increased Na-K ATPase is neither a marker of nor cardinal to the pathogenesis of obesity. We conclude that (1) increase in Na-K ATPase units and /sup 86/Rb influx are not characteristic of obesity itself and (2) dietary restriction over the short-term with limited weight reduction restores Na-K ATPase units and /sup 86/Rb influx to normal.

  19. The effect of serum from obese and normal weight men on glucose metabolism in leucocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myking, O.; Kjoesen, B.; Bassoee, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of pooled serum from either obese or normal weight males on glucose metabolism in human leucocytes has been studied. Leucocytes from normal weight males were incubated with 10-90% pooled serum and either [U- 14 C], or [1- 14 C]glucose. Compared to serum from the normal weight males, serum from the obese group had a more stimulating effect on the 14 CO 2 and [ 14 C]lactate production from [U- 14 C]glucose and on the 14 CO 2 production from [1- 14 C]glucose. The two serum pools had the same stimulating effect on the Embden-Meyerhof pathway as indicated by the formation of [ 14 C]lactate from [l- 14 C]glucose. Calculations revealed that the activity in the pentose phosphate pathway was stimulated more by serum from obese, than from normal weight males. It is a possibility that increased stimulation of the pentose phosphate pathway may contribute to the development of overweight. (author)

  20. The effect of thyroid antigens on the in vitro migration of leucocytes from patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Elizabeth A.; McLeman, Dena; Barnes, E. W.; Irvine, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    A total of fifty-two patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis were tested for delayed hypersensitivity to thyroid antigens using the leucocyte migration test. The percentage of patients showing abnormal migration in the presence of crude thyroid extract, thyroglobulin, thyroid mitochondria and thyroid microsomes was 75, 44, 54 and 34% respectively. Fifty-three control patients were studied concurrently with the same antigens and the percentage showing abnormal migration was 4, 6, 6 and 6% respectively. The antigenic activity of the mitochondrial fraction was not organ specific; both liver and kidney mitochondria interfered with the migration of leucocytes from patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis. PMID:4568149

  1. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever. IV. The site of action of leucocytic and circulating endogenous pyrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KING, M K; WOOD, W B

    1958-02-01

    By means of a method designed to compare the febrile responses produced by intracarotid and intravenous injections, the endogenous pyrogen, which is contained in leucocytic exudates and is present in the serum of rabbits 2 hours after intravenous injections of typhoid vaccine, has been shown to act directly upon the thermoregulatory centers of the brain. In contrast, the exogenous bacterial pyrogen present in serum obtained 5 minutes after vaccine injections was found to act by a different and less direct mechanism. These observations add strong support to the original hypothesis that endogenous pyrogen, presumably derived from polymorphonuclear leucocytes, is an essential factor in the pathogenesis of endotoxin fever.

  2. Tunable, chemoselective amination via silver catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoli, Jared W; Weatherly, Cale D; Alderson, Juliet M; Vo, Brian T; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2013-11-20

    Organic N-containing compounds, including amines, are essential components of many biologically and pharmaceutically important molecules. One strategy for introducing nitrogen into substrates with multiple reactive bonds is to insert a monovalent N fragment (nitrene or nitrenoid) into a C-H bond or add it directly to a C═C bond. However, it has been challenging to develop well-defined catalysts capable of promoting predictable and chemoselective aminations solely through reagent control. Herein, we report remarkable chemoselective aminations that employ a single metal (Ag) and a single ligand (phenanthroline) to promote either aziridination or C-H insertion by manipulating the coordination geometry of the active catalysts.

  3. Biogenic amines and radiosensitivity of solitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharenko, E.N.

    1978-01-01

    Different stability of cells to ionizing radiation is considered from a position of the ''elevated biochemical radioresistance background'' concept. Experimental evidence presented indicates an important role of endogenic amines (serotonin and histamine) possessing radioprotector properties in the cell radioresistance formation. The concept about their effect as being solely a result of circulatory hypoxia is critically discussed. The experimental results favor the existence of a ''cellular'' component, along with the ''hypoxic'' one, in the mechanism of action of biogenic amines. These compounds can affect the initial stages of peroxide oxidation of lipids, thereby favoring a less intensive oxidation induced by radiation. Biogenic amines can also exert influence on the cyclic nucleotide system

  4. 2-Hydro-4-n-But oxypropiophenone Oxime as a spectrophotometric reagent for Fe (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, K.; Desai, K.K.

    2006-01-01

    2-Hydro-4-n-But oxypropiophenone Oxime [Hipbone] has been synthesized and used for the spectrophotometric determination of Fe (III). The reagent gives purple coloured complex with Fe (III) in 50% alcoholic medium in pH range of 2.5-4.5. Beer's law is obeyed up to 23.1 ppm of Fe (III). Molar absorptivity and sandell's sensitivity at 500 nm of complex were found to be 7.062x 10 power2 lit.mol.cm and 0.079 ug of Fe (III)/cm respectively. Composition and stability constant have been determined. The reagent is successfully used for determination of Fe (III) in dolomite and in pharmaceutical sample. It is also used for the indirect determination of fluoride in tap water sample. (author)

  5. Surface Modification of Zinc with an Oxime for Corrosion Protection in Chloride Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesha Achary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface treatment of zinc was done with different concentrations of an oxime (2E-2-(hydroxylamino-1,2-diphenylethanol molecule by the immersion method. The electrochemical corrosion studies of surface-treated zinc specimens were performed in aqueous sodium chloride solution (1 M, pH 5.0 at different temperatures in order to study the corrosion mechanism. The recorded electrochemical data indicated a basic modification of the cathodic corrosion behavior of the treated zinc resulting in a decrease of the electron transfer rate. The zinc samples treated by immersion in the inhibiting organic solution presented good corrosion resistance. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, it was found that a protective film was formed on the surface of zinc.

  6. Efficacy of fenbendazole and milbemycin oxime for treating baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis) infected with Trichuris trichiura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Mason V; Wolf, Roman F; Carey, David W; Garrett, Jennifer Jane; Briscoe, Heather A

    2007-03-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of fenbendazole (FBZ) and milbemycin oxime (MO) in the treatment of baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis) with naturally acquired Trichuris trichiura infection by comparing fecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. We assigned 7 baboons, each singly housed and confirmed infected with T. trichiura, to treatment groups of FBZ (n=3) or MO (n=3), or as a control (n=1). All (100%) baboons that received FBZ stopped shedding T. trichiura eggs within 6 d of treatment, and fecal egg counts remained negative at 65 d after treatment. Although the number of T. trichiura eggs shed per gram of feces from 2 (67%) baboons decreased significantly after the second treatment with MO, this regimen never totally eliminated eggs of T. trichiura. The results of our study indicate that FBZ was more effective for treating baboons with T. trichiura than was MO.

  7. Separation of fission 99Mo by alpha-benzoin oxime precipitation in nitric medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaura, Mitiko; Freitas, Antonio A.; Egute, Nayara dos S.; Camilo, Ruth L.; Araujo, Izilda C.; Forbicini, Christina A.L.G. de O.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2009, the production of generators 99 Mo/ 99 mTc suffers a crisis of global supply due to technical problems of the two reactors which account for 64% of world production of fission 99 Mo. By the project of Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), the Brazilian government invests in the construction of the first multipurpose reactor suitable for the domestic production of 99 Mo from LEU targets in order to supply of fission 99 Mo in the coming decades. The IPEN started the research of the technology and production of fission 99 Mo from acid and alkaline dissolutions of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) targets as well as other used radioisotopes in nuclear medicine. This work is part of the research of the technology of the fission 99 Mo from acid dissolution of the LEU targets that is being developed at the IPEN. In this study the separation of the Mo by precipitation with alpha-benzoin oxime in nitric medium and the recovery by dissolution were investigated. The precipitation studies were performed by batch assays with nitric solution of Mo(VI), containing 99 Mo tracer, and uranyl ions. Influence of concentration of permanganate from 0.03 to 2.5%, dissolution temperature at 30 deg C and 150 deg C and the uranium concentration from 74 g.L -1 to 115 g.L -1 was studied. Results indicated that the precipitation of Mo with alpha-benzoin oxime from nitric medium is highly efficient, and its recovery by dissolution with basic solution of H 2 O 2 gave a high yield. (author)

  8. Synthesis of Imidazopyridines via Copper-Catalyzed, Formal Aza-[3 + 2] Cycloaddition Reaction of Pyridine Derivatives with α-Diazo Oxime Ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangjune; Kim, Hyunseok; Son, Jeong-Yu; Um, Kyusik; Lee, Sooho; Baek, Yonghyeon; Seo, Boram; Lee, Phil Ho

    2017-10-06

    The Cu-catalyzed, formal aza-[3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of pyridine derivatives with α-diazo oxime ethers in trifluoroethanol was used to synthesize imidazopyridines via the release of molecular nitrogen and elimination of alcohol. These methods enabled modular synthesis of a wide range of N-heterobicyclic compounds such as imidazopyridazines, imidazopyrimidines, and imidazopyrazines with an α-imino Cu-carbenoid generated from the α-diazo oxime ethers and copper.

  9. Catalytic activity of some oxime-based Pd(II-complexes in Suzuki coupling of aryl and heteroaryl bromides in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal M. Dawood

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic activity of four Pd(II-complexes of benzoazole-oximes was extensively studied in Suzuki–Miyaura C–C cross coupling reactions in water, as an eco-friendly green solvent, under both thermal heating as well as microwave irradiation conditions. The cross-coupling reactions included different activated and deactivated aryl- or heteroaryl-bromides with several arylboronic acids. The protected oxime-complexes were found to be more efficient than the free ones.

  10. Anodic selective functionalization of cyclic amine derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Onomura, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Anodic reactions are desirable methods from the viewpoint of Green Chemistry, since no toxic oxidants are necessary for the oxidation of organic molecules. This review introduces usefulness of anodic oxidation and successive reaction for selective functionalization of cyclic amine derivatives.

  11. Transition metals in the amination of chloroarenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdyuk, O V [Leibniz-Institut fuer Katalyse an der Universitaet Rostock (Germany); Abaev, Vladimir T [North-Ossetia State University, Vladikavkaz (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-30

    The review is devoted to the catalytic amination of chloroarenes and chlorohetarenes. Examples of the formation of the C-N bond in the presence of iron-, nickel- and copper-based catalytic systems are given.

  12. Selective N-alkylation of amines using nitriles under hydrogenation conditions: facile synthesis of secondary and tertiary amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, Takashi; Fujita, Yuki; Mizusaki, Tomoteru; Betsuin, Sae; Takamatsu, Haruki; Maegawa, Tomohiro; Monguchi, Yasunari; Sajiki, Hironao

    2012-01-14

    Nitriles were found to be highly effective alkylating reagents for the selective N-alkylation of amines under catalytic hydrogenation conditions. For the aromatic primary amines, the corresponding secondary amines were selectively obtained under Pd/C-catalyzed hydrogenation conditions. Although the use of electron poor aromatic amines or bulky nitriles showed a lower reactivity toward the reductive alkylation, the addition of NH(4)OAc enhanced the reactivity to give secondary aromatic amines in good to excellent yields. Under the same reaction conditions, aromatic nitro compounds instead of the aromatic primary amines could be directly transformed into secondary amines via a domino reaction involving the one-pot hydrogenation of the nitro group and the reductive alkylation of the amines. While aliphatic amines were effectively converted to the corresponding tertiary amines under Pd/C-catalyzed conditions, Rh/C was a highly effective catalyst for the N-monoalkylation of aliphatic primary amines without over-alkylation to the tertiary amines. Furthermore, the combination of the Rh/C-catalyzed N-monoalkylation of the aliphatic primary amines and additional Pd/C-catalyzed alkylation of the resulting secondary aliphatic amines could selectively prepare aliphatic tertiary amines possessing three different alkyl groups. According to the mechanistic studies, it seems reasonable to conclude that nitriles were reduced to aldimines before the nucleophilic attack of the amine during the first step of the reaction.

  13. Glycoconjugate Oxime Formation Catalyzed at Neutral pH: Mechanistic Insights and Applications of 1,4-Diaminobenzene as a Superior Catalyst for Complex Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Mads; Christensen, Niels Johan; Hjuler, Christian T; Jensen, Knud J; Thygesen, Mikkel B

    2018-04-18

    The reaction of unprotected carbohydrates with aminooxy reagents to provide oximes is a key method for the construction of glycoconjugates. Aniline and derivatives serve as organocatalysts for the formation of oximes from simple aldehydes, and we have previously reported that aniline also catalyzes the formation of oximes from the more complex aldehydes, carbohydrates. Here, we present a comprehensive study of the effect of aniline analogues on the formation of carbohydrate oximes and related glycoconjugates depending on organocatalyst structure, pH, nucleophile, and carbohydrate, covering more than 150 different reaction conditions. The observed superiority of the 1,4-diaminobenzene (PDA) catalyst at neutral pH is rationalized by NMR analyses and DFT studies of reaction intermediates. Carbohydrate oxime formation at pH 7 is demonstrated by the formation of a bioactive glycoconjugate from a labile, decorated octasaccharide originating from exopolysaccharides of the soil bacterium Mesorhizobium loti. This study of glycoconjugate formation includes the first direct comparison of aniline-catalyzed reaction rates and equilibrium constants for different classes of nucleophiles, including primary oxyamines, secondary N-alkyl oxyamines, as well as aryl and arylsulfonyl hydrazides. We identified 1,4-diaminobenzene as a superior catalyst for the construction of oxime-linked glycoconjugates under mild conditions.

  14. General Dialdehyde Click Chemistry for Amine Bioconjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahipanah, Sina; O'Brien, Paul J; Rogozhnikov, Dmitry; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2017-05-17

    The development of methods for conjugating a range of molecules to primary amine functional groups has revolutionized the fields of chemistry, biology, and material science. The primary amine is a key functional group and one of the most important nucleophiles and bases used in all of synthetic chemistry. Therefore, tremendous interest in the synthesis of molecules containing primary amines and strategies to devise chemical reactions to react with primary amines has been at the core of chemical research. In particular, primary amines are a ubiquitous functional group found in biological systems as free amino acids, as key side chain lysines in proteins, and in signaling molecules and metabolites and are also present in many natural product classes. Due to its abundance, the primary amine is the most convenient functional group handle in molecules for ligation to other molecules for a broad range of applications that impact all scientific fields. Because of the primary amine's central importance in synthetic chemistry, acid-base chemistry, redox chemistry, and biology, many methods have been developed to efficiently react with primary amines, including activated carboxylic acids, isothiocyanates, Michael addition type systems, and reaction with ketones or aldehydes followed by in situ reductive amination. Herein, we introduce a new traceless, high-yield, fast click-chemistry method based on the rapid and efficient trapping of amine groups via a functionalized dialdehyde group. The click reaction occurs in mild conditions in organic solvents or aqueous media and proceeds in high yield, and the starting dialdehyde reagent and resulting dialdehyde click conjugates are stable. Moreover, no catalyst or dialdehyde-activating group is required, and the only byproduct is water. The initial dialdehyde and the resulting conjugate are both straightforward to characterize, and the reaction proceeds with high atom economy. To demonstrate the broad scope of this new click

  15. Comparison of indium-111-oxine and indium-111-acetylacetone labelled leucocytes in the diagnosis of inflammatory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, A.M.; Karimjee, S.; Saverymuttu, S.H.; Lavender, J.P. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK))

    1982-11-01

    /sup 111/In leucocyte scanning in a series of 132 patients has shown this technique to be a reliable and accurate means of diagnosing sepsis. Labelling with /sup 111/In oxine and with /sup 111/In acetylacetone gave similar values of sensitivity and specificity, and higher than those of ultrasound.

  16. Sub-Microscopic Organization and Functional Properties of Cells Stored in a Bank for Frozen Leucocytes and Platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinograd-Finkel, F. R.; Terentieva, E. I.; Leontovich, V. A.; Skopina, S. B.; Abezgauz, N. N.; Totskaya, A. A. [Central Institute of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Moscow, USSR (Russian Federation)

    1969-07-15

    Massive transfusions of leucocyte mass containing young and stem cells in addition to adult cells are carried out successfully in the treatment of patients suffering from depressed haemopoiesis. To meet the needs of clinics a leucocyte mass bank-has been established and methods have been developed for the long-term storage of leucocyte mass by keeping it in the frozen state at -196 Degree-Sign C. Various carrier solutions containing cryoprotective substances (dimethylsulphoxide, glycerine, polyvinyl pyrrolidone) have been proposed. These make it possible to conserve from 70 to 90% of live cells for as long as two years or more. The viability of the frozen cells is proved by supravital staining and luminescent microscopy, and also by determining the extent to which their functional properties are preserved, the phagocytic activity of the granulocytes and the ability of the lymphocytes to produce young forms in tissue culture. It has also been observed that their glycolytic activity is preserved (up to 60%). All these data correlate with the data obtained by electron microscopy regarding the extent to which the sub-microscopic organization of frozen leucocytes is preserved. The bank is also used to store a frozen platelet mass, dimethylsulphoxide being used as the cryoprotective agent. The ultrastructure of the platelets and their functional properties (retractile activity) suffer least impairment. (author)

  17. Interactions of opsonized immune complexes with whole blood cells: binding to erythrocytes restricts complex uptake by leucocyte populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C H; Svehag, S E; Marquart, H V

    1994-01-01

    binding, the main contributors being B cells. E initially inhibited and then later enhanced the IC binding to lymphocytes, suggesting that E promote B cell uptake of C3d,g-covered IC via CR2. Our findings, that E can restrict the IC uptake by circulating leucocytes, and that an IC-induced degranulation...

  18. Role of IgG4 in histamine release from human basophil leucocytes. I. Sensitization of cells from normal donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L K; Stahl Skov, P; Mosbech, H

    1988-01-01

    Several conflicting reports on the ability of IgG4 to mediate type I allergic reactions have appeared lately. We have developed a model system for testing this possibility, using passive sensitization of basophil leucocytes from normal individuals. At first, the system was optimized with regard t...

  19. Sodium content and sodium efflux of mononuclear leucocytes from young subjects at increased risk of developing essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K E; Nielsen, J R; Klitgaard, N A

    1990-01-01

    Mononuclear leucocytes were used as a cellular model for the in vitro measurements of volume, sodium and potassium content, sodium efflux rate constants and absolute sodium efflux in order to assess any cellular changes in young men at increased risk of developing essential hypertension...

  20. Synthesis and bioelectrochemical behavior of aromatic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Muhammad; Akhter, Zareen; Ahmad, Iqbal; Ahmed, Safeer; Bolte, Michael; McKee, Vickie

    2017-12-01

    Four aromatic amines 1-amino-4-phenoxybenzene (A 1 ), 4-(4-aminophenyloxy) biphenyl (A 2 ), 1-(4-aminophenoxy) naphthalene (A 3 ) and 2-(4-aminophenoxy) naphthalene (A 4 ) were synthesized and characterized by elemental, spectroscopic (FTIR, NMR), mass spectrometric and single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The compounds crystallized in monoclinic crystal system with space group P2 1 . Intermolecular hydrogen bonds were observed between the amine group and amine/ether acceptors of neighboring molecules. Electrochemical investigations were done using cyclic voltammetry (CV), square wave voltammetry (SWV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). CV studies showed that oxidation of aromatic amines takes place at about 0.9 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and the electron transfer (ET) process has irreversible nature. After first scan reactive intermediate were generated electrochemically and some other cathodic and anodic peaks also appeared in the succeeding scans. DPV study revealed that ET process is accompanied by one electron. DNA binding study of aromatic amines was performed by CV and UV-visible spectroscopy. These investigations revealed groove binding mode of interaction of aromatic amines with DNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A short leucocyte telomere length is associated with development of insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhulst, Simon; Dalgård, Christine; Labat, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: A number of studies have shown that leucocyte telomere length (LTL) is inversely associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present longitudinal cohort study, utilising a twin design, was to assess whether shorter LTL predicts insulin resistance...... and insulin resistance over an average of 12 years were performed in a subset of the Registry consisting of 338 (184 monozygotic and 154 dizygotic) same-sex twin pairs. RESULTS: Age at baseline examination was 37.4 ± 9.6 (mean ± SD) years. Baseline insulin resistance was not associated with age......-dependent changes in LTL (attrition) over the follow-up period, whereas baseline LTL was associated with changes in insulin resistance during this period. The shorter the LTL at baseline, the more pronounced was the increase in insulin resistance over the follow-up period (p 

  2. Mini-review: Can non-human leucocyte antigen genes determine susceptibility to severe dengue syndromes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Dorothy; Ghosh, Aparna; Jit, Mark; Seneviratne, Suranjith L

    2017-09-01

    Dengue viral infections are endemic or epidemic in virtually all tropical countries. Among individuals infected with the dengue virus, severe dengue syndromes (i.e., dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndromes) tend to affect only some and this may be due to a combination of host genetic susceptibility and viral factors. In this review article we analyse and discuss the present knowledge of non-human leucocyte antigen host genetic susceptibility to severe dengue syndromes. The relevance of genetic polymorphisms in the pathways of antigen recognition, uptake, processing and presentation, activation of interferon α responses, mast cell and complement activation and T cell activation and dengue disease severity has been reviewed and analysed. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. 111Indium-labelled leucocyte scintigraphy in the diagnosis of inflammatory disease - first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovekamp, M.H.; Hardeman, M.R.; Schoot, J.B. van der; Belfer, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    In 61 patients, 66 scans were performed with 111 In-labelled autologous leucocytes to evaluate this method in the diagnosis of inflammatory disease. All scintigraphic results were compared with clinical, operative or postmortem findings. In the first 20 examinations in 19 patients, 2 scintigrams were true positive, 9 true negative and none false positive, whereas 9 scintigrams had to be considered as false negative. These false negative results were probably due to loss of viability of the labelled cells. A modified labelling technique, in which a much lower concentration of oxine was used, was employed for a further 46 examinations in 42 patients. Twenty-four scintigrams were true positive and 22 true negative, while no false positive or false negative results were observed. These results suggest that this modified technique is useful in the diagnosis of inflammatory disease. (author)

  4. Release of leukotriene C4 from human polymorphonuclear leucocytes as determined by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aehringhaus, U.; Woelbling, R.H.; Peskar, B.M.; Peskar, B.A.; Koenig, W.; Patrono, C.

    1982-01-01

    Rabbits were immunized with a conjugate of leukotriene (LT)C 4 and bovine serum albumin prepared by coupling the single free amino group of the hapten to the protein using gluteraldehyde. Binding of [ 3 H]LTC 4 to the antibodies obtained is inhibited by 50% with 1.5 ng LTC 4 . The relative cross-section of LTD 4 is 16% and of LTC 4 -methyl ester 3.6%. The validity of the radioimmunoassay was demonstrated by comparison with bioassay using the isolated guinea pig ileum. Using the radioimmunoassay it could be shown that endogenous LTC 4 is released in a dose-dependent manner by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes stimulated with the divalent cation ionophore A23187. (Auth.)

  5. Chromosomal break points in irradiated and ethyl methane sulphonate treated leucocytes of patients with Down syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeja, T.C.; Chandra, N.; Marimuthu, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    Frequencies of chromosomal damage in the peripheral leucocytes of patients with Down syndrome, on exposure to gamma rays (2Gy) or ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS, 1 x 10 -4 M), were assessed. Analysis of break points in the chromosomes of irradiated cells revealed a non-random occurrence. Six of the break points observed in EMS-treated cells were found to overlap with those recorded in irradiated cells. Thirteen break points observed were found to correlate with the location of cancer-specific break points and four of these coincided with the bands where oncogenes have been located. Two break points were localised to the same bands as that of known heritable fragile sites. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Reactivity of eleven anti-human leucocyte monoclonal antibodies with lymphocytes from several domestic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasted, Bent; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete; Larsen, Else Bang

    1988-01-01

    Nine commercially available monoclonal antibodies and two monoclonal antibodies from The American Type Culture Collection, raised against various human leucocyte surface antigens, were tested on lymphocytes from cow, sheep, goat, swine, horse, cat, dog, mink, and rabbit as well as man. Four...... antibodies bound to lymphocytes from some of the animals. These were the antibodies against CD8 and CD4 antigen, the antibody to C3b-receptor, and the antibody to the HLA-DR antigen. The CD8 antigen-reactive antibody reacted with lymphocytes from mink, cat, dog, and sheep, while the CD4 antigen......-reactive antibody reacted with lymphocytes from mink. The anti-C3b-R antibody reacted with lymphocytes from horse, swine, dog, and cat, and the anti-HLA-DR reacted with lymphocytes from cow, goat, sheep, horse, dog, cat, and mink....

  7. Enhancing amine terminals in an amine-deprived collagen matrix.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tiong, William H C

    2008-10-21

    Collagen, though widely used as a core biomaterial in many clinical applications, is often limited by its rapid degradability which prevents full exploitation of its potential in vivo. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer, a highly branched macromolecule, possesses versatile multiterminal amine surface groups that enable them to be tethered to collagen molecules and enhance their potential. In this study, we hypothesized that incorporation of PAMAM dendrimer in a collagen matrix through cross-linking will result in a durable, cross-linked collagen biomaterial with free -NH 2 groups available for further multi-biomolecular tethering. The aim of this study was to assess the physicochemical properties of a G1 PAMAM cross-linked collagen matrix and its cellular sustainability in vitro. Different amounts of G1 PAMAM dendrimer (5 or 10 mg) were integrated into bovine-derived collagen matrices through a cross-linking process, mediated by 5 or 25 mM 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) in 5 mM N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and 50 mM 2-morpholinoethane sulfonic acid buffer at pH 5.5. The physicochemical properties of resultant matrices were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), collagenase degradation assay, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and ninhydrin assay. Cellular sustainability of the matrices was assessed with Alamar Blue assay and SEM. There was no significant difference in cellular behavior between the treated and nontreated groups. However, the benefit of incorporating PAMAM in the cross-linking reaction was limited when higher concentrations of either agent were used. These results confirm the hypothesis that PAMAM dendrimer can be incorporated in the collagen cross-linking process in order to modulate the properties of the resulting cross-linked collagen biomaterial with free -NH 2 groups available for multi-biomolecular tethering.

  8. Phenotypic differences in leucocyte populations among healthy preterm and full-term newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinello, C; Silveira-Lessa, A L; Ceccon, M E J R; Cianciarullo, M A; Carneiro-Sampaio, M; Palmeira, P

    2014-07-01

    The immune system of neonates has been considered functionally immature, and due to their high susceptibility to infections, the aim of this study was to analyse the phenotypic differences in leucocyte populations in healthy preterm and full-term newborns. We evaluated the absolute numbers and frequencies of dendritic cells (DCs) and DC subsets, monocytes and T and B lymphocytes and subsets in the cord blood of healthy moderate and very preterm (Group 1), late preterm (Group 2) and full-term (Group 3) newborns and in healthy adults, as controls, by flow cytometry. The analyses revealed statistically higher absolute cell numbers in neonates compared with adults due to the characteristic leucocytosis of neonates. We observed a lower frequency of CD80(+) myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs in Group 1 and reduced expression of TLR-4 on myeloid DCs in all neonates compared with adults. TLR-2(+) monocytes were reduced in Group 1 compared with Groups 2 and 3, and TLR-4(+) monocytes were reduced in Groups 1 and 2 compared with Group 3. The frequencies and numbers of naïve CD4(+) T and CD19(+) B cells were higher in the three groups of neonates compared with adults, while CD4(+) effector and effector memory T cells and CD19(+) memory B cells were elevated in adults compared with neonates, as expected. Our study provides reference values for leucocytes in cord blood from term and preterm newborns, which may facilitate the identification of immunological deficiencies in protection against extracellular pathogens. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Assessment of the risk to patients from the labelling of leucocytes with indium-111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, A.A.; Lloyd, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    Indium-111 oxine is used in diagnostic nuclear medicine to label leucocytes. A typical procedure might be to label white cells in 50 ml of blood with about 500 μCi (∼ 20 MBq) of indium-111 and return them to the body. Both theoretical and experimental information from measurements of chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes show that the labelled cells receive doses of some tens of grays, mostly delivered within one to two weeks. Much of the dose is due to short range Auger electrons. The doses to organs of the body due to circulating labelled cells are much lower. The risk to the patient thus has two components, due to the low dose irradiation of body organs and the localized high dose to the labelled cells. The former is estimated using the concept of effective dose equivalent as recommended by ICRP. An effective dose equivalent of 2 x 10 -2 Sv x mCi -1 for the above procedure was calculated making use of recent data on the distribution of the label within the body. The resulting risk of inducing a fatal cancer is calculated as about 3 x 10 -4 mCi -1 . Attempts to evaluate the risk of leukemia and lymphatic cancer due to direct irradiation of labelled leucocytes are more difficult. If cellular doses are as high as 50 Gy, cell killing can be used to argue that the risk is much lower than the whole-body risk. For lower cellular doses an argument based on the fraction of cells irradiated is used and the risk due to the labelled cells appears to be two orders of magnitude lower than the whole-body risk. 30 references, 1 figure, 3 tables

  10. Electrochemical determination of 5-dodecylsalicylaldoxime and 2′-hydroxy-5′-nonylacetophenone oxime in commercial extractants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizalde María P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A differential pulse voltammetric method using a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE was optimized for the determination of 5-dodecylsalicylaldoxime in hydro-alcoholic solutions using factorial and central composite designs. The Taguchi design methodology was used to extend the formerly optimized method to the determination of 2′-hydroxy-5′-nonylacetophenone oxime. The method was successfully applied to quantify 5-dodecylsalicylaldoxime and 2′-hydroxy-5′-nonylacetophenone oxime in samples of commercial extractants over the concentration range 0.05–2.45 and 0.07–0.82 mg L-1, respectively, with detection limits of 0.034 and 0.019 mg L-1, respectively.

  11. Energetics of Ortho-7 (oxime drug translocation through the active-site gorge of tabun conjugated acetylcholinesterase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Sinha

    Full Text Available Oxime drugs translocate through the 20 Å active-site gorge of acetylcholinesterase in order to liberate the enzyme from organophosphorus compounds' (such as tabun conjugation. Here we report bidirectional steered molecular dynamics simulations of oxime drug (Ortho-7 translocation through the gorge of tabun intoxicated enzyme, in which time dependent external forces accelerate the translocation event. The simulations reveal the participation of drug-enzyme hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions and water bridges between them. Employing nonequilibrium theorems that recovers the free energy from irreversible work done, we reconstruct potential of mean force along the translocation pathway such that the desired quantity represents an unperturbed system. The potential locates the binding sites and barriers for the drug to translocate inside the gorge. Configurational entropic contribution of the protein-drug binding entity and the role of solvent translational mobility in the binding energetics is further assessed.

  12. Pyruvic Oxime Nitrification and Copper and Nickel Resistance by a Cupriavidus pauculus, an Active Heterotrophic Nitrifier-Denitrifier

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Miguel; Obrzydowski, Jennifer; Ayers, Mary; Virparia, Sonia; Wang, Meijing; Stefan, Kurtis; Linchangco, Richard; Castignetti, Domenic

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrophic nitrifiers synthesize nitrogenous gasses when nitrifying ammonium ion. A Cupriavidus pauculus, previously thought an Alcaligenes sp. and noted as an active heterotrophic nitrifier-denitrifier, was examined for its ability to produce nitrogen gas (N2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) while heterotrophically nitrifying the organic substrate pyruvic oxime [CH3–C(NOH)–COOH]. Neither N2 nor N2O were produced. Nucleotide and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the organism is a member of a g...

  13. In Vitro Ability of Currently Available Oximes to Reactivate Organophosphate Pesticide-Inhibited Human Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase

    OpenAIRE

    Kamil Musilek; Kamil Kuca; Daniel Jun; Lucie Musilova

    2011-01-01

    We have in vitro tested the ability of common, commercially available, cholinesterase reactivators (pralidoxime, obidoxime, methoxime, trimedoxime and HI-6) to reactivate human acetylcholinesterase (AChE), inhibited by five structurally different organophosphate pesticides and inhibitors (paraoxon, dichlorvos, DFP, leptophos-oxon and methamidophos). We also tested reactivation of human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) with the aim of finding a potent oxime, suitable to serve as a “pseudocatalytic...

  14. Cerebral uptake and retention of 99Tcsup(m)-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99Tcsup(m)-HM-PAO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.A.; Chaplin, S.B.; Royston, K.G.; Missouri Univ., Columbia

    1985-01-01

    A new radiopharmaceutical, 99 Tcsup(m)-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ( 99 Tcsup(m)-HM-PAO) is described. This agent displays considerable promise for imaging cerebral blood flow. In studies in rats and one human volunteer, 99 Tcsup(m)-HM-PAO demonstrates good brain uptake, prolonged retention of activity in the brain, and slow regional redistribution. These properties suggest that this new radiopharmaceutical is ideal for single photon emission tomographic (SPECT) imaging of cerebral blood flow. (author)

  15. Construction of New Potential Reactivators of Phosphonylated Acetylcholinesterase. Substitution of F for H in the Nucleus of Pyridinecarboxaldehyde Oximes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    essential to the content of the re- port and in all cases NMR data subjected to interpretation in this report have been entered in typography to...compared. In the Second Quarter reactions in the synthetic pathway to 3-F-2-PAM were scaled-up. Low yields were encountered for the specific nitration...oxime was synthetically achieved by way of the Markovac-Stevens-Ash-Hackley reaction , and the compound was characterized by its mass spectrum, NMR

  16. Bioreducible poly(amido amine)s for non-viral gene delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, C.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and development of bioreducible poly(amido amine)s as non-viral vectors for gene delivery in vitro and in vivo. The structural influences of these polymers on their physico-chemical properties and gene delivery properties, transfection capability and cytotoxicity in

  17. In Vitro Ability of Currently Available Oximes to Reactivate Organophosphate Pesticide-Inhibited Human Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Musilek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We have in vitro tested the ability of common, commercially available, cholinesterase reactivators (pralidoxime, obidoxime, methoxime, trimedoxime and HI-6 to reactivate human acetylcholinesterase (AChE, inhibited by five structurally different organophosphate pesticides and inhibitors (paraoxon, dichlorvos, DFP, leptophos-oxon and methamidophos. We also tested reactivation of human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE with the aim of finding a potent oxime, suitable to serve as a “pseudocatalytic” bioscavenger in combination with this enzyme. Such a combination could allow an increase of prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of the administered enzyme. According to our results, the best broad-spectrum AChE reactivators were trimedoxime and obidoxime in the case of paraoxon, leptophos-oxon, and methamidophos-inhibited AChE. Methamidophos and leptophos-oxon were quite easily reactivatable by all tested reactivators. In the case of methamidophos-inhibited AChE, the lower oxime concentration (10−5 M had higher reactivation ability than the 10−4 M concentration. Therefore, we evaluated the reactivation ability of obidoxime in a concentration range of 10−3–10−7 M. The reactivation of methamidophos-inhibited AChE with different obidoxime concentrations resulted in a bell shaped curve with maximum reactivation at 10−5 M. In the case of BChE, no reactivator exceeded 15% reactivation ability and therefore none of the oximes can be recommended as a candidate for “pseudocatalytic” bioscavengers with BChE.

  18. Inhibition, recovery and oxime-induced reactivation of muscle esterases following chlorpyrifos exposure in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collange, B.; Wheelock, C.E.; Rault, M.; Mazzia, C.; Capowiez, Y.; Sanchez-Hernandez, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of wildlife exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides generally involves the measurement of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition, and complementary biomarkers (or related endpoints) are rarely included. Herein, we investigated the time course inhibition and recovery of ChE and carboxylesterase (CE) activities in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris exposed to chlorpyrifos, and the ability of oximes to reactivate the phosphorylated ChE activity. Results indicated that these esterase activities are a suitable multibiomarker scheme for monitoring OP exposure due to their high sensitivity to OP inhibition and slow recovery to full activity levels following pesticide exposure. Moreover, oximes reactivated the inhibited ChE activity of the earthworms exposed to 12 and 48 mg kg -1 chlorpyrifos during the first week following pesticide exposure. This methodology is useful for providing evidence for OP-mediated ChE inhibition in individuals with a short history of OP exposure (≤1 week); resulting a valuable approach for assessing multiple OP exposure episodes in the field. - Esterase inhibition combined with oxime reactivation methods is a suitable approach for monitoring organophosphate contamination

  19. Inhibition, recovery and oxime-induced reactivation of muscle esterases following chlorpyrifos exposure in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collange, B. [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 Abeilles et Environnement, Site AGROPARC, F-84914, Avignon Cede 09 (France); Wheelock, C.E. [Division of Physiological Chemistry II, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77, Stockholm (Sweden); Rault, M.; Mazzia, C. [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 Abeilles et Environnement, Site AGROPARC, F-84914, Avignon Cede 09 (France); Capowiez, Y. [INRA, Unite PSH, Site AGROPARC, F-84914 Avignon Cedex 09 (France); Sanchez-Hernandez, J.C., E-mail: juancarlos.sanchez@uclm.e [Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Environmental Science, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III s/n, 45071, Toledo (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    Assessment of wildlife exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides generally involves the measurement of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition, and complementary biomarkers (or related endpoints) are rarely included. Herein, we investigated the time course inhibition and recovery of ChE and carboxylesterase (CE) activities in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris exposed to chlorpyrifos, and the ability of oximes to reactivate the phosphorylated ChE activity. Results indicated that these esterase activities are a suitable multibiomarker scheme for monitoring OP exposure due to their high sensitivity to OP inhibition and slow recovery to full activity levels following pesticide exposure. Moreover, oximes reactivated the inhibited ChE activity of the earthworms exposed to 12 and 48 mg kg{sup -1} chlorpyrifos during the first week following pesticide exposure. This methodology is useful for providing evidence for OP-mediated ChE inhibition in individuals with a short history of OP exposure (<=1 week); resulting a valuable approach for assessing multiple OP exposure episodes in the field. - Esterase inhibition combined with oxime reactivation methods is a suitable approach for monitoring organophosphate contamination

  20. Kinetic analysis of interactions of paraoxon and oximes with human, Rhesus monkey, swine, rabbit, rat and guinea pig acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Aurbek, Nadine; Wille, Timo; Eyer, Peter; Thiermann, Horst

    2011-01-15

    Previous in vitro studies showed marked species differences in the reactivating efficiency of oximes between human and animal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibited by organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. These findings provoked the present in vitro study which was designed to determine the inhibition, aging, spontaneous and oxime-induced reactivation kinetics of the pesticide paraoxon, serving as a model compound for diethyl-OP, and the oximes obidoxime, pralidoxime, HI 6 and MMB-4 with human, Rhesus monkey, swine, rabbit, rat and guinea pig erythrocyte AChE. Comparable results were obtained with human and monkey AChE. Differences between human, swine, rabbit, rat and guinea pig AChE were determined for the inhibition and reactivation kinetics. A six-fold difference of the inhibitory potency of paraoxon with human and guinea pig AChE was recorded while only moderate differences of the reactivation constants between human and animal AChE were determined. Obidoxime was by far the most effective reactivator with all tested species. Only minor species differences were found for the aging and spontaneous reactivation kinetics. The results of the present study underline the necessity to determine the inhibition, aging and reactivation kinetics in vitro as a basis for the development of meaningful therapeutic animal models, for the proper assessment of in vivo animal data and for the extrapolation of animal data to humans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Spectrophotometric determination of pKa's of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole and oxime derivatives in 95% acetonitrile-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathallah, M.F.; Khattab, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    1-hydroxybenzotriazole derivatives are used with carbodiimide as additives to generate active esters during peptide bond formation. They are also used as additives during the peptide bond formation. Dissociation constants of the 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt) and its derivatives, 1-hydroxy-6-chloro benzotriazole, 1-hydroxy-6-trifluoro methylbenzotriazole, 1-hydroxy-6-nitrobenzo-triazole were determined spectrophotometrically in 95% acetonitrile-water. In addition, 7-aza-1-hydroxybenzotriazole (7-HOAt) and 4-aza-1-hydroxybenzotriazole (4-HOAt) were also studied. Recently, oxyma was reported as a good replacement for the benzotriazole derivatives. As alcoholic components of active esters, the oximes seem to be good leaving groups. Therefore it was expected, that the strongly acidic and nucleophilic oximes, which possess electron-withdrawing groups in the molecule, are suitable as additives during the peptide bond formation. The dissociation constant of some oximes, such as diethyl 2-(hydroxyimino)malonate, ethyl 2-cyano-2-(hydroxyimino)acetate (oxyma), hydroxycarbonimidoyl dicyanide and N-hydroxypicolinimidoyl cyanide in 95% acetonitrile-water are reported. (author)

  2. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD, DAD detectors and Extend-C18 LC column (50 mm x 3.0 mm ID, 1.8 μm particle size. In this study the highest level of biogenic amine in all wine samples represent tryptamine (TRM with the highest content 170.9±5.3 mg/L in Pinot Blanc wine. Phenylalanine (PHE cadaverine (CAD, histamine (HIS and spermidine (SPD were not detected in all wines; mainly SPD was not detected in 16 wines, HIS not detected in 14 wines, PHE and CAD not detected in 2 wines. Tyramine (TYR, spermine (SPN and putrescine (PUT were detected in all wines, but PUT and SPN in very low concentration. The worst wine samples with high biogenic amine content were Saint Laurent (BF, Pinot Blanc (S and Pinot Noir (AF.

  3. Extraction of some acids using aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matutano, L.

    1964-06-01

    Hydrochloric, nitric, sulphuric, perchloric, phosphoric, acetic and formic acids in aqueous solution (0.05 to 10 M) are extracted by amberlite LA2 and trilaurylamine in solution, 5 per cent by volume, in kerosene and xylene respectively. The extraction process consists of: neutralization of the amine salt; a 'molecular extraction', i.e. an extraction using an excess of acid with respect to the stoichiometry of the amine salt. According to the behaviour of the acid during the extraction, three groups may be distinguished: completely dissociated acids, carboxylic acids, phosphoric acid. This classification is also valid for the extraction of the water which occurs simultaneously with that of the acid. An extraction mechanism is put forward for formic acid and the formation constant of its amine salt is calculated. (author) [fr

  4. A comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy of leading oxime therapies in guinea pigs exposed to organophosphorus chemical warfare agents or pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Christina M., E-mail: wilhelmc@battelle.org [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Snider, Thomas H., E-mail: snidert@battelle.org [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Babin, Michael C., E-mail: babinm@battelle.org [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Jett, David A., E-mail: jettd@ninds.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Platoff, Gennady E., E-mail: platoffg@niaid.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Yeung, David T., E-mail: dy70v@nih.gov [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The currently fielded pre-hospital therapeutic regimen for the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning in the United States (U.S.) is the administration of atropine in combination with an oxime antidote (2-PAM Cl) to reactivate inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Depending on clinical symptoms, an anticonvulsant, e.g., diazepam, may also be administered. Unfortunately, 2-PAM Cl does not offer sufficient protection across the range of OP threat agents, and there is some question as to whether it is the most effective oxime compound available. The objective of the present study is to identify an oxime antidote, under standardized and comparable conditions, that offers protection at the FDA approved human equivalent dose (HED) of 2-PAM Cl against tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), cyclosarin (GF), and VX, and the pesticides paraoxon, chlorpyrifos oxon, and phorate oxon. Male Hartley guinea pigs were subcutaneously challenged with a lethal level of OP and treated at approximately 1 min post challenge with atropine followed by equimolar oxime therapy (2-PAM Cl, HI-6 DMS, obidoxime Cl{sub 2}, TMB-4, MMB4-DMS, HLö-7 DMS, MINA, and RS194B) or therapeutic-index (TI) level therapy (HI-6 DMS, MMB4-DMS, MINA, and RS194B). Clinical signs of toxicity were observed for 24 h post challenge and blood cholinesterase [AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)] activity was analyzed utilizing a modified Ellman's method. When the oxime is standardized against the HED of 2-PAM Cl for guinea pigs, the evidence from clinical observations, lethality, quality of life (QOL) scores, and cholinesterase reactivation rates across all OPs indicated that MMB4 DMS and HLö-7 DMS were the two most consistently efficacious oximes. - Highlights: • First comprehensive evaluation of leading AChE oxime reactivators • All oximes are compared against current U.S. therapy 2-PAM Cl. • Relative therapeutic oxime efficacies against OP CWNA and pesticides • Contribution to more effective

  5. Base metal dehydrogenation of amine-boranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacquiere, Johanna Marie [Ottawa, CA; Keaton, Richard Jeffrey [Pearland, TX; Baker, Ralph Thomas [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-06-09

    A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane having the formula R.sup.1H.sub.2N--BH.sub.2R.sup.2 using base metal catalyst. The method generates hydrogen and produces at least one of a [R.sup.1HN--BHR.sup.2].sub.m oligomer and a [R.sup.1N--BR.sup.2].sub.n oligomer. The method of dehydrogenating amine-boranes may be used to generate H.sub.2 for portable power sources, such as, but not limited to, fuel cells.

  6. Catalyst for hydrogen-amine D exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtslander, W.J.; Johnson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    A process is claimed for deuterium isotopic enrichment (suitable for use in heavy water production) by amine-hydrogen exchange in which the exchange catalyst comprises a mixture of alkyl amides of two metals selected from the group consisting of the alkali metals. Catalyst mixtures comprising at least one of the alkali amides of lithium and potassium are preferred. At least one of the following benefits are obtained: decreased hydride formation, decreased thermal decomposition of alkyl amide, increased catalyst solubility in the amine phase, and increased exchange efficiency. 11 claims

  7. Corrosion inhibition of brass by aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, K. K.; Sheshadri, B. S; Ahmed, M. F.

    2005-01-01

    Aliphatic amines hexylamine (HCA), octylamine (OCA) and decylamine (DCA) have been used as corrosion inhibitors for (70/30) brass in 0.I M HCIO 4 . The inhibitor efficiency (%P) calculated using weight loss, Tafel extrapolation, linear polarization and impedance methods was found to be in the order DCA> OCA> HCA. These adsorb on brass surface following bockris-swinkels' isotherm. DCA, OCA and HCA displaced 4, 3 and 2 molecules of water from interface respectively. Displacement of water molecules brought a great reorganization of double layer at the interface. These amines during corrosion form complexes with dissolved zinc and copper ions.(Author)

  8. Extraction of uranyl sulfate with primary amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrnka, M.; Bizek, V.; Nekovar, P.; Cizevska, S.; Schroetterova, D.

    1984-01-01

    PRIMENE JM-T was used for extraction. Its composition was found to approach the general formula C 21 H 43 NH 2 . It was found that the extraction of uranyl sulfate is lower in case of a higher steady-state concentration of sulfuric acid in the aqueous phase. Extraction is accompanied with coextraction of water. The results obtained showed that uranyl sulfate passes into the organic phase by two mechanisms: extraction with amine sulfate and extraction with free amine. A mathematical description of the process was made based on the obtained results. (E.S.)

  9. Preservation of Bone-Marrow Cells, Leucocytes and Platelets at Low Temperatures. A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood-Smith, M. J. [Medical Research Council, Radiobiological Research Unit, Harwell, Berks. (United Kingdom)

    1969-07-15

    The basic principles of cryobiology are discussed and applications of these principles by numerous workers in attempts to preserve marrow cells, leucocytes and platelets at low temperatures are reviewed. It is concluded that: (1) Lymphocytes from animals and man can be stored for long periods of time at low temperatures when cooled slowly in 10-15% DMSO or glycerol and thawed rapidly. Recovery figures are high and function is intact and unaltered. DMSO is probably a better preservative than glycerol, and storage life at -196 Degree-Sign C is probably indefinite for all practical purposes. Other leucocytes can be stored with similar techniques but recoveries after freezing and thawing are probably lower than with lymphocytes. (2) Bone-marrow cells of several animals including mouse, rabbit and dog can be preserved at -196 Degree-Sign C, probably indefinitely, and similar procedures to those used for lymphocytes give the best results. The comprehensive studies of Lewis and Trobaugh indicate that under carefully controlled conditions 95% of the stem cells in mouse marrow are viable after freezing and thawing. Opinions are divided over the efficacy of the two preservatives, DMSO and glycerol, but in view of the well documented accounts of the lack of toxicity of glycerol it would seem advisable for the moment to use this agent with all human marrow samples. The usefulness of PVP as a preservative for marrow is still to be resolved. Human marrow after freezing and thawing probably behaves in a similar manner to mouse marrow both in vitro and in vivo. However, it would be wise to consider that there might be differences which could cause wrong assessments of freezing procedures. (3) Platelet preservation, clinically perhaps the most useful procedure discussed in this review, is still to a large extent in the experimental stage. Much work has been done but even the best methods available permit relatively low recoveries of viable platelets. Preservation of human platelets

  10. Randomised comparison of leucocyte-depleted versus buffy-coat-poor blood transfusion and complications after colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L S; Kissmeyer-Nielsen, P; Wolff, B

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allogeneic blood transfusion is associated with an increased frequency of postoperative infection. We studied whether such events can be avoided by the intraoperative and postoperative use of leucocyte-depleted blood. METHODS: 589 consecutive patients scheduled for elective colorectal...... surgery were randomised to receive buffy-coat poor (n = 299) or filtered leucocyte-depleted red-cells (n = 290) when transfusion was indicated. 260 patients actually received blood transfusion. Three patients were excluded from analysis. FINDINGS: The 142 patients randomised to and transfused with buffy......-coat-poor blood had a significantly higher frequency of wound infections and intra-abdominal abscesses than the 155 patients who were allocated to this group but who were not transfused. (12 vs 1%, p blood also had a significantly...

  11. Indirubin-3-Oxime Prevents H2O2-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis via Concurrently Inhibiting GSK3β and the ERK Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Zheng, Jiacheng; Lin, Jiajia; Jin, Linlu; Yu, Rui; Mak, Shinghung; Hu, Shengquan; Sun, Hongya; Wu, Xiang; Zhang, Zaijun; Lee, Mingyuen; Tsim, Wahkeung; Su, Wei; Zhou, Wenhua; Cui, Wei; Han, Yifan; Wang, Qinwen

    2017-05-01

    Oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis plays an important role in many neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we have shown that indirubin-3-oxime, a derivative of indirubin originally designed for leukemia therapy, could prevent hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced apoptosis in both SH-SY5Y cells and primary cerebellar granule neurons. H 2 O 2 exposure led to the increased activities of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in SH-SY5Y cells. Indirubin-3-oxime treatment significantly reversed the altered activity of both the PI3-K/Akt/GSK3β cascade and the ERK pathway induced by H 2 O 2 . In addition, both GSK3β and mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors significantly prevented H 2 O 2 -induced neuronal apoptosis. Moreover, specific inhibitors of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K) abolished the neuroprotective effects of indirubin-3-oxime against H 2 O 2 -induced neuronal apoptosis. These results strongly suggest that indirubin-3-oxime prevents H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis via concurrent inhibiting GSK3β and the ERK pathway in SH-SY5Y cells, providing support for the use of indirubin-3-oxime to treat neurodegenerative disorders caused or exacerbated by oxidative stress.

  12. Enantioselective catalytic syntheses of alpha-branched chiral amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brase, S.; Baumann, T.; Dahmen, S.

    2007-01-01

    Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials.......Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials....

  13. SEDIMENT-ASSOCIATED REACTIONS OF AROMATIC AMINES. 2. QSAR DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate of aromatic amines in soils and sediments is dominated by irreversible binding through nucleophilic addition and oxidative radical coupling. Despite the common occurrence of the aromatic amine functional group in organic chemicals, the molecular properties useful for pr...

  14. Up-regulation of leucocytes genes implicated in telomere dysfunction and cellular senescence correlates with depression and anxiety severity scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Raymond Teyssier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD is frequently associated with chronic medical illness responsible of increased disability and mortality. Inflammation and oxidative stress are considered to be the major mediators of the allostatic load, and has been shown to correlate with telomere erosion in the leucocytes of MDD patients, leading to the model of accelerated aging. However, the significance of telomere length as an exclusive biomarker of aging has been questioned on both methodological and biological grounds. Furthermore, telomeres significantly shorten only in patients with long lasting MDD. Sensitive and dynamic functional biomarkers of aging would be clinically useful to evaluate the somatic impact of MDD. METHODOLOGY: To address this issue we have measured in the blood leucocytes of MDD patients (N=17 and controls (N=16 the expression of two genes identified as robust biomarkers of human aging and telomere dysfunction: p16(INK4a and STMN1. We have also quantified the transcripts of genes involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage at telomeres (OGG1, telomere regulation and elongation (TERT, and in the response to biopsychological stress (FOS and DUSP1. RESULTS: The OGG1, p16(INK4a, and STMN1 gene were significantly up-regulated (25 to 100% in the leucocytes of MDD patients. Expression of p16(INK4a and STMN1 was directly correlated with anxiety scores in the depression group, and that of p16(INK4a, STMN and TERT with the depression and anxiety scores in the combined sample (MDD plus controls. Furthermore, we identified a unique correlative pattern of gene expression in the leucocytes of MDD subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of p16(INK4 and STMN1 is a promising biomarker for future epidemiological assessment of the somatic impact of depressive and anxious symptoms, at both clinical and subclinical level in both depressive patients and general population.

  15. New bis(dithiocarboxylato)nitridotechnetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for leucocyte labelling: In vitro and in vivo studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaimay, F.; Noiret, N.; Roucoux, A. E-mail: Alain.Roucoux@univ-Rennes1.Fr; Patin, H.; Bellande, E.; Pasqualini, R.; Moisan, A

    1997-07-01

    Dithiocarboxylate ligands were synthesized and characterized. New nitrido 99m-technetium complexes were obtained with these ligands and identified by thin layer chromatography. The nitrido complexes were tested in vitro in whole blood for leucocyte labelling and the design of the ligand was optimized. Best results were obtained with aliphatic linear ligands, containing 9 to 11 atoms of carbon. The in vivo experiment failed because an inflammated area could not be visualized by {gamma} imaging, the cell labelling mechanism being probably different.

  16. New bis(dithiocarboxylato)nitridotechnetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for leucocyte labelling: In vitro and in vivo studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaimay, F.; Noiret, N.; Roucoux, A.; Patin, H.; Bellande, E.; Pasqualini, R.; Moisan, A.

    1997-01-01

    Dithiocarboxylate ligands were synthesized and characterized. New nitrido 99m-technetium complexes were obtained with these ligands and identified by thin layer chromatography. The nitrido complexes were tested in vitro in whole blood for leucocyte labelling and the design of the ligand was optimized. Best results were obtained with aliphatic linear ligands, containing 9 to 11 atoms of carbon. The in vivo experiment failed because an inflammated area could not be visualized by γ imaging, the cell labelling mechanism being probably different

  17. Labelling of leucocytes with colloidal technetium-99m-SnF2: an investigation of the labelling process by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puncher, M.R.B.; Blower, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Autoradiography of smears and frozen sections of labelled cell suspensions was used to study the distribution of radioactivity in and among blood cells labelled in either whole blood or leucocyte-rich plasma (LRP) with technetium-99m-SnF 2 colloid. The tracer proved selective for neutrophils: the labelling probability (relative to that for erythrocytes) for each cell type in LRP (mean of five samples) was: neutrophils, 9.4; lymphocytes, 3.7; monocytes, 3.0; eosinophils 1.4; erythrocytes, 1.0. When labelling was carried out in whole blood (five samples), 74.5%±8.3% of the cell-bound radioactivity was bound to erythrocytes, 13.6%±6.5% to neutrophils, and 11.9%±2.1% to lymphocytes, whereas in LRP (in which the leucocytes were only slightly outnumbered by erythrocytes), 76.5%±14.9% of radioactivity was neutrophil bound. Labelled cells in smear autoradiographs exhibited two distinct silver grain patterns, ''diffuse'', consistent with an intracellular radioactive particle (in neutrophils), and ''focal'', consistent with a cell surface-adhering particle in direct contact with the emulsion (in other leucocyte types and erythrocytes). The phagocytic inhibitor cytochalasin B neither reduced the proportion of labelled neutrophils nor altered the labelling pattern. Neutrophils were able to scavenge radioactivity from the surface of erythrocytes. It is concluded that neutrophils bind 99m Tc-SnF 2 intracellularly by phagocytosis, with high affinity; other cells become labelled at the cell surface reversibly and with lower affinity. This selectivity is high enough to permit predominantly leucocyte labelling in LRP but not in whole blood. (orig.)

  18. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scintigraphy in the diagnosis of infection after total knee replacement arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dong Rib [College of Medicine, Kunkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Seung; Ryu, Jin Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Bin, Seong Il; Cho, Woo Shin; Lee, Hee Kyung [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scintigraphy for diagnosing prosthetic infection after total knee replacement arthroplasty without the aid of following bone marrow scintigraphy. The study subjects were 25 prostheses of 17 patients (one man and 16 women, mean age: 65 years) who had total knee replacement arthroplasty. After injection of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte, the whole body planar and knee SPECT images were obtained in all patients. The subjects were classified into three groups according to clinical suspicion of prosthetic infection: Group A (n=11) with high suspicion of infection; Group B (n=6) with equivocal suspicion of infection, and Group C (n=8) with asymptomatic contralateral prostheses. Final diagnosis of infection was based on surgical, histological and bacteriological data and clinical follow-up. Infection was confirmed in 13 prostheses (11 in Group A and 2 in Group B). All prostheses in Group A were true positive. There were two true positive, one false positive and three true negative in Group B, and six true negatives and two false positive in Group C. Overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for diagnosis of the infected knee prosthesis were 100%, 75% and 88%, respectively. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scintigraphy is a sensitive method for the diagnosis of infected knee prosthesis. However, false positive uptakes even in asymptomatic prosthesis suggest that bone marrow scintigraphy may be needed to achieve improved specificity.

  19. 99mTc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scintigraphy in the diagnosis of infection after total knee replacement arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dong Rib; Kim, Jae Seung; Ryu, Jin Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Bin, Seong Il; Cho, Woo Shin; Lee, Hee Kyung

    1999-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of 99m Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scintigraphy for diagnosing prosthetic infection after total knee replacement arthroplasty without the aid of following bone marrow scintigraphy. The study subjects were 25 prostheses of 17 patients (one man and 16 women, mean age: 65 years) who had total knee replacement arthroplasty. After injection of 99m Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte, the whole body planar and knee SPECT images were obtained in all patients. The subjects were classified into three groups according to clinical suspicion of prosthetic infection: Group A (n=11) with high suspicion of infection; Group B (n=6) with equivocal suspicion of infection, and Group C (n=8) with asymptomatic contralateral prostheses. Final diagnosis of infection was based on surgical, histological and bacteriological data and clinical follow-up. Infection was confirmed in 13 prostheses (11 in Group A and 2 in Group B). All prostheses in Group A were true positive. There were two true positive, one false positive and three true negative in Group B, and six true negatives and two false positive in Group C. Overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for diagnosis of the infected knee prosthesis were 100%, 75% and 88%, respectively. 99m Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scintigraphy is a sensitive method for the diagnosis of infected knee prosthesis. However, false positive uptakes even in asymptomatic prosthesis suggest that bone marrow scintigraphy may be needed to achieve improved specificity

  20. Reductive amination with zinc powder in aqueous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni B. Giovenzana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Zinc powder in aqueous alkaline media was employed to perform reductive amination of aldehydes with primary amines. The corresponding secondary amines were obtained in good yields along with minor amounts of hydrodimerization byproducts. The protocol is a green alternative to the use of complex hydrides in chlorinated or highly flammable solvents.

  1. Direct electrochemical imidation of aliphatic amines via anodic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Su, Ji-Hu; Wang, Sujing; Wan, Changfeng; Zha, Zhenggen; Du, Jiangfeng; Wang, Zhiyong

    2011-05-21

    Direct electrochemical synthesis of sulfonyl amidines from aliphatic amines and sulfonyl azides was realized with good to excellent yields. Traditional tertiary amine substrates were broadened to secondary and primary amines. The reaction intermediates were observed and a reaction mechanism was proposed and discussed. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  2. Nitric oxide production by nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) and clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria) peripheral blood leucocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Cathy J; Toranto, Jason D; Gilliland, C Taylor; Noyes, David R; Bodine, Ashby B; Luer, Carl A

    2006-01-01

    Reactive nitrogen intermediates, such as nitric oxide (NO), are important immunomodulators in vertebrate immune systems, but have yet to be identified as mediators of host defence in any member of class Chondrichthyes, the cartilaginous fishes. In the present study, production of NO by nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) stimulated with bacterial cell wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. PBL were cultured for 24 to 96 h following stimulation with LPS at concentrations ranging from 0 to 25 microg ml(-1), in both serum-supplemented and serum-free culture conditions. Production of NO was measured indirectly using the Griess reaction, with maximal NO production occurring after 72 h using 10% FBS and 10 microg LPS ml(-1). Application of these culture conditions to PBL from another cartilaginous fish (clearnose skate, Raja eglanteria) resulted in a similar NO response. Addition of a specific inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)lysine (L-NIL), resulted in a significant decrease in the production of NO by PBL from both species.

  3. /sup 111/In autologous leucocytes in the diagnosis and assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. [Tropolone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saverymuttu, S.H.; Peters, A.M.; Chadwick, V.S.; Hodgson, H.J.; Lavender, J.P. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK))

    1982-01-01

    Indium-111 autologous leukocyte scanning is now established as an effective method of localising sepsis (Ascher and others, 1980). In view of the extensive leucocyte infiltration of the intestinal wall in inflammatory bowel disease, the authors have prospectively studied the use of indium-111 labelled white cells in a variety of inflammatory bowel disorders. Leukocytes were labelled in 68 patients using /sup 111/In acetylacetonate and in 18 patients /sup 111/In tropolone. Crude mixed leukocytes preparations were used in 74 patients and pure neutrophil preparation used in 12 patients. Gamma scans over the abdomen were performed from 40 min later after re-injection of the labelled cells and assessed. /sup 111/In-tropolone labelling appeared to offer the advantage over /sup 111/In-acac labelling in localising inflamed bowel earlier. The technique of /sup 111/In-leukocyte scanning offers several advantages over the alternative technique of imaging diseased bowel using gallium-67 citrate. Indium-111 leukocyte scanning provides a novel approach to the problem of diagnosis and assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. It is non-invasive, requires no bowel preparation and this is safe in the acutely sick patient where conventional radiological imaging methods may be hazardous. /sup 111/In faecal excretion provides an objective assessment of disease activity which should prove useful in evaluating treatment regimes.

  4. Anti-inflammatory lipocortin 1 production by peripheral blood leucocytes in response to hydrocortisone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, N J; Godolphin, J L; Sharland, P R; Peers, S H; Sampson, M; Maddison, P J; Flower, R J

    1990-06-16

    The presence and amount of the anti-inflammatory protein lipocortin 1 was determined in plasma and peripheral blood leucocytes by a highly specific, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Within 120 min of a single intravenous dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, the intracellular concentrations of lipocortin 1 in peripheral monocytes in 7 of 8 healthy men increased by a median of 225% (range 129-507%) compared with pretreatment levels, and mononuclear cell-surface lipocortin increased by a median of 224% (range 76-483%). Placebo injections had no effect. There was no increase at any time in free plasma or polymorph-associated lipocortin. In 3 of 4 subjects, induction of lipocortin was also observed when whole unseparated blood was incubated in vitro after steroid administration, but cells which had first been isolated and purified were refractory to such induction. Thus rapid changes in the concentration of an active anti-inflammatory protein can occur in man after normal therapeutic doses of hydrocortisone.

  5. The Synthesis of Methyl Salicylate: Amine Diazotization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanger, Murray; McKee, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Notes that this experiment takes safety and noncarcinogenic reactants into account. Demonstrates the use of diazonium salts for the replacement of an aromatic amine group by a phenolic hydroxyl. Involves two pleasant-smelling organic compounds, methyl anthranilate (grape) and methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen). (MVL)

  6. Microbiological, physicochemical properties and biogenic amine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty three strained yoghurt samples were collected from local open markets in different provinces of Turkey (Afyon [AF], Aydın [AY], Burdur [B], Isparta [I] and Muğla [M]). Physicochemical and microbiological properties, as well as biogenic amine content, were examined in each of the samples. The dry matter (17.90 to ...

  7. Direct amination of secondary alcohols using Ammonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pingen, D.L.L.; Müller, C.; Vogt, D.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen shuttle: For the first time secondary alcohols and ammonia can be directly converted into primary amines with a selectivity of up to 99¿% by using a simple ruthenium/phosphine catalyst (see scheme; R1, R2= alkyl, aryl, alkenyl; M=[Ru3(CO)12]; and L=phosphine ligand).

  8. Direct Amination of alpha-Hydroxy Amides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandgude, Ajay L.; Dömling, Alexander

    A TiCl4-mediated reaction for the direct amination of alpha-hydroxy amides has been developed. This simple, general, additive/base/ligand-free reaction is mediated by economical TiCl4. The reaction runs under mild conditions. This highly efficient C-N bond formation protocol is valid for diverse

  9. Uranium diphosphonates templated by interlayer organic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Anna-Gay D.; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2013-01-01

    The hydrothermal treatment of uranium trioxide and methylenediphosphonic acid with a variety of amines (2,2-dipyridyl, triethylenediamine, ethylenediamine, and 1,10-phenanthroline) at 200 °C results in the crystallization of a series of layered uranium diphosphonate compounds, [C 10 H 9 N 2 ]{UO 2 (H 2 O)[CH 2 (PO 3 )(PO 3 H)]} (Ubip2), [C 6 H 14 N 2 ]{(UO 2 ) 2 [CH 2 (PO 3 )(PO 3 H)] 2 ·2H 2 O} (UDAB), [C 2 H 10 N 2 ] 2 {(UO 2 ) 2 (H 2 O) 2 [CH 2 (PO 3 ) 2 ] 2 ·0.5H 2 O} (Uethyl), and [C 12 H 9 N 2 ]{UO 2 (H 2 O)[CH 2 (PO 3 )(PO 3 H)]} (Uphen). The crystal structures of the compounds are based on UO 7 units linked by methylenediphosphonate molecules to form two-dimensional anionic sheets in Ubip2 and UDAB, and one-dimensional anionic chains in Uethyl and Uphen, which are charge balanced by protonated amine molecules. Interaction of the amine molecules with phosphonate oxygens and water molecules results in extensive hydrogen bonding in the interlayer. These amine molecules serve both as structure-directing agents and charge-balancing cations for the anionic uranium phosphonate sheets and chains in the formation of the different coordination geometries and topologies of each structure. Reported herein are the syntheses, structural and spectroscopic characterization of the synthesized compounds. - Graphical abstract: The Raman spectra of the synthesized compounds and an illustration of the stacking of the layers with the diprotonated triethylenediamine molecules in [C 6 H 14 N 2 ]{(UO 2 ) 2 [CH 2 (PO 3 )(PO 3 H)] 2 ·2H 2 O} UDAB. Solvent water molecules are removed for clarity. The corresponding Raman spectra for the complexes synthesized is also shown. The structure is constructed from UO 7 pentagonal bipyramids (yellow), oxygen=red, phosphorus=magenta, carbon=black, and nitrogen=blue. Highlights: ► Organic amines act both as charge-balancing and as structure-directing agents. ► Extensive hydrogen bonding interactions with solvent water molecules and amines

  10. Development and validation of a FIA/UV-vis method for pK(a) determination of oxime based acetylcholinesterase reactivators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Karel; Florianova, Veronika; Bucek, Pavel; Dohnal, Vlastimil; Kuca, Kamil; Musilek, Kamil

    2016-01-05

    Acetylcholinesterase reactivators (oximes) are compounds used for antidotal treatment in case of organophosphorus poisoning. The dissociation constants (pK(a1)) of ten standard or promising acetylcholinesterase reactivators were determined by ultraviolet absorption spectrometry. Two methods of spectra measurement (UV-vis spectrometry, FIA/UV-vis) were applied and compared. The soft and hard models for calculation of pK(a1) values were performed. The pK(a1) values were recommended in the range 7.00-8.35, where at least 10% of oximate anion is available for organophosphate reactivation. All tested oximes were found to have pK(a1) in this range. The FIA/UV-vis method provided rapid sample throughput, low sample consumption, high sensitivity and precision compared to standard UV-vis method. The hard calculation model was proposed as more accurate for pK(a1) calculation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Sophia C; van Dusseldorp, Marijke; Bottema, Kathelijne C; Dubois, Anthony E J

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allerg*, intoler*, and adverse. Additionally, the keywords histamine, tyramine, and phenylethylamine were combined with headache, migraine, urticaria, oral challenge, and oral provocation. Articles were also selected from references in relevant literature. Only oral challenge studies in susceptible patients were considered. Studies with positive results (ie, studies in which an effect was reported) were only eligible when a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design was used. Eligible positive result studies were further evaluated according to a number of scientific criteria. Studies with negative results (ie, studies in which no effect was reported) were examined for factors in their design or methods that could be responsible for a false-negative outcome. Results of methodologically weak or flawed studies were considered inconclusive. A total of 13 oral challenge studies (5 with positive results and 8 with negative results) were found. Three of them (all with positive results) were considered ineligible. By further evaluation of the 10 eligible studies, 6 were considered inconclusive. The 4 conclusive studies all reported negative results. One conclusive study showed no relation between biogenic amines in red wine and wine intolerance. Two conclusive studies found no effect of tyramine on migraine. One conclusive study demonstrated no relation between the amount of phenylethylamine in chocolate and headache attacks in individuals with headache. The current scientific literature shows no relation between the oral ingestion of biogenic amines and food intolerance reactions. There is therefore no scientific basis for dietary recommendations concerning biogenic amines in such patients.

  12. Increased rCBF in gray matter heterotopias detected by SPECT using 99mTc hexamethyl-propylenamine oxime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkes, H.; Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Berlin; Hosten, N.; Cordes, M.; Neumann, K.; Hansen, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Imaging findings of morphology and regional cerebral blood flow in two patients suffering from epileptic seizures are presented. CT and MRI revealed heterotopic gray matter as a probable structural correlate, causing the seizure disorder. 99m Tc hexamethyl-propylenamine oxime (HM-PAO) SPECT demonstrated focally increased regional cerebral blood flow in both patients in the areas of their heterotopic lesions. Heterotopic and orthotopic gray matter seem to have similar features in terms of regional perfusion. A focally increased brain perfusion in interictal epileptic patients may indicate an underlying migration anomaly. (orig.)

  13. In vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assessment of HI-6 dimethanesulfonate/oxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakab, Lauren; Bardot, Isabelle; Bardot, Sébastien; Simar, Sophie; Marzin, Daniel; Nesslany, Fabrice

    2014-03-01

    Organophosphate compounds, which induce organophosphate poisoning, were originally used as pesticides. But this type of product has also been used as warfare nerve agent like sarin, soman, Russian VX, or tabun. HI-6-dimethanesulfonate is a salt of the oxime HI-6 used in the treatment of nerve-agent poisoning. It is known to be the best re-activator component of inactivated acetyl cholinesterase. HI-6-dimethanesulfonate has shown a higher level of solubility with similar potency to reactivate acetyl cholinesterase and a similar pharmacokinetics profile compared with HI-6 dichloride. HI-6 dimethanesulfonate was tested for its mutagenic and genotoxic potential by use of the standard ICH S2R (1) battery for the evaluation of pharmaceuticals. HI-6-dimethanesulfonate was mutagenic in the Ames test only in the presence of metabolic activation. In the mutation assay at the Tk locus in L5178Y mouse-lymphoma cells, HI-6-dimethanesulfonate showed mutagenic activity both with and without metabolic activation, with a significant increase in small colonies. The effects were in favour of a clastogenic activity. It was concluded that the compound was mutagenic and possibly clastogenic in vitro. In contrast, the in vivo micronucleus test in rat bone-marrow did not demonstrate any genotoxic activity and the Comet assay performed in rat liver did not show any statistically or biologically significant increases in DNA strand-breaks. The results of both in vivo studies performed on two different organs with two endpoints are sufficient to conclude the absence of a genotoxic hazard in vivo and to consider that there is no genotoxic concern in humans for HI-6-dimethanesulfonate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An LC-MS method for determination of milbemycin oxime in dog plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qianqian; Li, Jichang; Shen, Zhiqiang; Guo, Shijin; Wang, Yubo; Li, Feng

    2014-10-01

    An HPLC-MS method has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of milbemycin oxime (MBO) in dog plasma. The developed method has been then applied in in vivo clinical studies to obtain pharmacokinetics of MBO in blood after its oral administration. Samples were extracted using solid-phase extraction (SPE). Sample proteins were precipitated with acetonitrile (ACN) and sodium chloride (NaCl) and then diluted with methanol and water. Calibration standards were prepared by using plasma matrix and following the same SPE procedure. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters C18 packed column (3.5 μm particles diameter; 3 × 100 mm) with a C18 guard column (3.5 μm particles diameter; 3 × 20 mm). The mobile phase was an 85:15 (v/v) mixed solution of ACN and 5 mM ammonium acetate. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 2.0-500 ng/mL with a limit of quantitation of 2.0 ng/mL. The oral administration of a pellet of 2.5 mg MBO produced blood concentrations ranging from 6.10 ± 0.92 to 78.81 ± 4.38 ng/mL within 6 h, with a terminal half-time of 11.66 ± 0.93 h. This study determined the suitability of the herein proposed method to investigate the pharmacokinetics of MBO after oral administration. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Extraction of sulphates by long chain amines; Extraction des sulfates par les amines a longues chaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boirie, Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-05-15

    The extraction of sulphuric acid by long chain amines in organic solution has been studied with a view to determining the value of the stability constants of the amine sulphates and bi-sulphates formed. We have concentrated chiefly on uranium sulphate and thorium sulphate. The formulae of the complexes extractable with amines have been established, as well as the corresponding dissociation constants. We have observed that for uranium sulphate the formula of the complex depends only on the nature of the amine, whereas for thorium this formula varies with the amine structure. From the formulae determined and the value of the constants calculated, we have been able to establish the best conditions for uranium and thorium extraction and also for a separation of these two elements. Finally we propose an application of this study to the determination of uranium in ores, where the separation of uranium by this method is particularly easy and complete. (author) [French] L'extraction de l'acide sulfurique par des amines a longues chaines en solution organique a ete etudiee en vue de la determination de la valeur des constantes de stabilite des sulfates et bisulfates d'amines formes. Parmi les sulfates, nous nous sommes particulierement interesses au sulfate d'uranium et au sulfate de thorium. Nous avons determine les formules des complexes extractibles avec les amines, ainsi que les constantes de dissociation correspondantes. Nous avons remarque que pour le sulfate d'uranium, la formule du complexe ne depend que de la nature de l'amine, alors que pour le thorium cette formule varie avec la structure de l'amine. Les formules determinees et la valeur des constantes calculees, nous ont permis de decrire les meilleures conditions d'extraction de l'uranium et du thorium ainsi que celles d'une separation de ces deux elements. Nous proposons enfin une application de cette etude au dosage de l'uranium dans les minerais, ou la separation de l'uranium par cette methode est

  16. Extraction of some acids using aliphatic amines; Extraction de quelques acides par des amines aliphatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matutano, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-06-01

    Hydrochloric, nitric, sulphuric, perchloric, phosphoric, acetic and formic acids in aqueous solution (0.05 to 10 M) are extracted by amberlite LA2 and trilaurylamine in solution, 5 per cent by volume, in kerosene and xylene respectively. The extraction process consists of: neutralization of the amine salt; a 'molecular extraction', i.e. an extraction using an excess of acid with respect to the stoichiometry of the amine salt. According to the behaviour of the acid during the extraction, three groups may be distinguished: completely dissociated acids, carboxylic acids, phosphoric acid. This classification is also valid for the extraction of the water which occurs simultaneously with that of the acid. An extraction mechanism is put forward for formic acid and the formation constant of its amine salt is calculated. (author) [French] Les acides chlorhydrique, nitrique, sulfurique, perchlorique, phosphorique, acetique et formique, en solution aqueuse - 0,05 a 10 M - sont extraits par l'amberlite LA2 et la trilaurylamine en solution, a 5 pour cent en volume, dans le kerosene et le xylene respectivement. L'extraction comprend: une neutralisation de l'amine par l'acide avec formation d'un sel d'amine; une 'extraction moleculaire', c'est-a-dire une extraction d'acide en exces par rapport a la stoechiometrie du sel d'amine. Suivant le comportement des acides au cours de l'extraction nous distinguons trois groupes: acides entierement dissocies, acides carboxyliques, acide phosphorique. Cette classification est egalement valable pour l'extraction de l'eau qui est simultanee a celle de l'acide. Un mecanisme d'extraction pour l'acide formique est propose et nous calculons la constante de formation de son sel d'amine. (auteur)

  17. Metabolism and Biomarkers of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Molecular Epidemiology Studies: Lessons Learned from Aromatic Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Aromatic amines and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are structurally related classes of carcinogens that are formed during the combustion of tobacco or during the high-temperature cooking of meats. Both classes of procarcinogens undergo metabolic activation by N-hydroxylation of the exocyclic amine group, to produce a common proposed intermediate, the arylnitrenium ion, which is the critical metabolite implicated in toxicity and DNA damage. However, the biochemistry and chemical properties of these compounds are distinct and different biomarkers of aromatic amines and HAAs have been developed for human biomonitoring studies. Hemoglobin adducts have been extensively used as biomarkers to monitor occupational and environmental exposures to a number of aromatic amines; however, HAAs do not form hemoglobin adducts at appreciable levels and other biomarkers have been sought. A number of epidemiologic studies that have investigated dietary consumption of well-done meat in relation to various tumor sites reported a positive association between cancer risk and well-done meat consumption, although some studies have shown no associations between well-done meat and cancer risk. A major limiting factor in most epidemiological studies is the uncertainty in quantitative estimates of chronic exposure to HAAs and, thus, the association of HAAs formed in cooked meat and cancer risk has been difficult to establish. There is a critical need to establish long-term biomarkers of HAAs that can be implemented in molecular epidemioIogy studies. In this review article, we highlight and contrast the biochemistry of several prototypical carcinogenic aromatic amines and HAAs to which humans are chronically exposed. The biochemical properties and the impact of polymorphisms of the major xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes on the biological effects of these chemicals are examined. Lastly, the analytical approaches that have been successfully employed to biomonitor aromatic amines and HAAs, and

  18. Complex nature of SNP genotype effects on gene expression in primary human leucocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesen Lotte C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide association studies have been hugely successful in identifying disease risk variants, yet most variants do not lead to coding changes and how variants influence biological function is usually unknown. Methods We correlated gene expression and genetic variation in untouched primary leucocytes (n = 110 from individuals with celiac disease – a common condition with multiple risk variants identified. We compared our observations with an EBV-transformed HapMap B cell line dataset (n = 90, and performed a meta-analysis to increase power to detect non-tissue specific effects. Results In celiac peripheral blood, 2,315 SNP variants influenced gene expression at 765 different transcripts (cis expression quantitative trait loci, eQTLs. 135 of the detected SNP-probe effects (reflecting 51 unique probes were also detected in a HapMap B cell line published dataset, all with effects in the same allelic direction. Overall gene expression differences within the two datasets predominantly explain the limited overlap in observed cis-eQTLs. Celiac associated risk variants from two regions, containing genes IL18RAP and CCR3, showed significant cis genotype-expression correlations in the peripheral blood but not in the B cell line datasets. We identified 14 genes where a SNP affected the expression of different probes within the same gene, but in opposite allelic directions. By incorporating genetic variation in co-expression analyses, functional relationships between genes can be more significantly detected. Conclusion In conclusion, the complex nature of genotypic effects in human populations makes the use of a relevant tissue, large datasets, and analysis of different exons essential to enable the identification of the function for many genetic risk variants in common diseases.

  19. Genetic determinants of leucocyte telomere length in children: a neglected and challenging field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulou, Maria G; Petrelis, Alexandros M; Buxton, Jessica L; Froguel, Philippe; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie

    2015-03-01

    Telomere length is associated with a large range of human diseases. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants that are associated with leucocyte telomere length (LTL). However, these studies are limited to adult populations. Nevertheless, childhood is a crucial period for the determination of LTL, and the assessment of age-specific genetic determinants, although neglected, could be of great importance. Our aim was to provide insights and preliminary results on genetic determinants of LTL in children. Healthy children (n = 322, age range = 6.75-17 years) with available GWAS data (Illumina Human CNV370-Duo array) were included. The LTL was measured using multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Linear regression models adjusted for age, gender, parental age at child's birth, and body mass index were used to test the associations of LTL with polymorphisms identified in adult GWAS and to perform a discovery-only GWAS. The previously GWAS-identified variants in adults were not associated with LTL in our paediatric sample. This lack of association was not due to possible interactions with age or gene × gene interactions. Furthermore, a discovery-only GWAS approach demonstrated six novel variants that reached the level of suggestive association (P ≤ 5 × 10(-5)) and explain a high percentage of children's LTL. The study of genetic determinants of LTL in children may identify novel variants not previously identified in adults. Studies in large-scale children populations are needed for the confirmation of these results, possibly through a childhood consortium that could better handle the methodological challenges of LTL genetic epidemiology field. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Evaluation of Ion Torrent sequencing technology for rapid clinical human leucocyte antigen typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Sandra G; Chong, Winnie; Brown, Colin J; Navarrete, Cristina V

    2018-06-05

    The development of techniques to define the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) region has proven to be challenging due to its high level of polymorphism. Within a clinical laboratory, a technique for high-resolution HLA typing, which is rapid and cost effective is essential. NGS has provided a rapid, high-resolution HLA typing solution, which has reduced the number of HLA ambiguities seen with other typing methods. In this study, the One Lambda NXType NGS kit was tested on the Ion Torrent PGM platform. A total of 362 registry donors from four ethnic populations (Europeans, South Asians, Africans and Chinese) were NGS HLA typed across 9-loci (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1,-DRB345 -DQB1 and -DPB1). Concordance rates of 91%-98% were obtained (for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1 and -DPB1) when compared to historical PCR-SSO HLA types, and the identification of uncommon alleles such as A*24:07:01 and C*04:82 were observed. A turnaround time of four days was achieved for typing 44 samples. However, some limitations were observed; primer locations did not allow all ambiguities to be resolved for HLA Class II where Exon I and IV amplification are needed (HLA-DRB1*04:07:01/04:92, HLA-DRB1*09:01:02/*09:21 and HLA-DRB1*12:01:01/*12:10). This study has demonstrated high-resolution typing by NGS can be achieved in an acceptable turnaround time for a clinical laboratory; however, the Ion Torrent workflow has some technical limitations that should be addressed. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Role of leucocytes cell population data in the early detection of sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrechaga, Eloísa; Bóveda, Oihane; Aguirre, Urko

    2018-03-01

    The cell population data (CPD) parameters reported by XN analyser (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan) reflect the size and internal structure of leucocytes. We aimed to assess the clinical utility of these parameters as biomarkers for the early diagnosis of sepsis. The study group (G1) included 586 controls (no quantitative or morphological alterations in the complete blood count) and 137 patients diagnosed with sepsis. The reliability of the model was evaluated using a validation group (G2) of 212 controls and 60 patients with sepsis. The optimal cut-off for the diagnosis of sepsis and the OR for CPD were established using a univariate logistic regression. A multivariate logistic regression model was then created. The OR and area under the curve were recorded. A risk stratification scale (neutrophils and monocytes (NEMO)) for diagnosing sepsis was established on the basis of the coefficients of the multivariate model. MO-X and neutrophils fluorescence intensity (NE-SFL) were found to be the most relevant of the CPD in predicting sepsis applying multivariate analysis to G1.NEMO score was composed using the above-mentioned CPD and subsequently stratified into three risk groups: mild (≤3), moderate (4≤NEMO≤5) and high (≥6). The OR for patients with a score of 4-5 was 10 and 249 for a score of ≥6. When applied to G2, the positive predictive value was 84.8 % and the negative predictive value was 96.0%. CPD are potentially useful for the early diagnosis of sepsis. Their values were used to compose in NEMO score can help in rapid and reliable decision making. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Deuterium exchange between hydrofluorocarbons and amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, W.B.; Bigeleisen, J.; Tuccio, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    The invention consists of a process for obtaining a compound enriched in deuterium which comprises the known method of exposing a gaseous hydrofluorocarbon to infrared laser radiation of a predetermined frequency to selectively cause a chemical reaction involving hydrofluorocarbon molecules containing deuterium without substantially affecting hydrofluorocarbon molecules not containing deuterium, thereby producing, as reaction products, a compound enriched in deuterium and hydrofluorocarbon depleted in deuterium; combined with a new method, which comprises enriching the deuterium content of the depleted hydrofluorocarbon by contacting the depleted hydrofluorocarbon with an alkali metal amide and an amine having a concentration of deuterium at least that which will yield an increase in deuterium concentration of the hydrofluorocarbon upon equilibration, whereby the amine becomes depleted in deuterium

  3. Amine chemistry. Update on impact on resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, Gregory; Kellogg, Douglas; Wilkes, Marty

    2012-01-01

    Impurity removal in the steam cycle and the associated prevention of corrosion and/or fouling of system components are the goals of ion exchange resins. However, in many instances (such as a switch to amine chemistry or a change in product specifications), resins do not remove, and, in fact, contribute impurities to the steam cycle. This paper reviews recent data compiled to determine the direct and indirect effects of amines on ion exchange resins used in the power industry. Water chemistries have improved in recent years, in large part due to changes in chemistry and resins, but it is necessary to continue to develop products, processes and techniques to reduce impurities and improve overall water chemistry in power plant systems. (orig.)

  4. Amine chemistry. Update on impact on resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, Gregory; Kellogg, Douglas [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Technology and Lab Services; Wilkes, Marty [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Water Technologies Div.

    2012-03-15

    Impurity removal in the steam cycle and the associated prevention of corrosion and/or fouling of system components are the goals of ion exchange resins. However, in many instances (such as a switch to amine chemistry or a change in product specifications), resins do not remove, and, in fact, contribute impurities to the steam cycle. This paper reviews recent data compiled to determine the direct and indirect effects of amines on ion exchange resins used in the power industry. Water chemistries have improved in recent years, in large part due to changes in chemistry and resins, but it is necessary to continue to develop products, processes and techniques to reduce impurities and improve overall water chemistry in power plant systems. (orig.)

  5. Rate phenomena in uranium extraction by amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.F.; McDowell, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Kinetics studies and other rate measurements are reviewed in the amine extraction of uranium and of some other related and associated metal ions. Equilibration is relatively fast in the uranium sulfate systems most important to uranium hydrometallurgy. Significantly slow equilibration has been encountered in some other systems. Most of the recorded rate information, both qualitative and quantitative, has come from exploratory and process-development work, while some kinetics studies have been directed specifically toward elucidation of extraction mechanisms. 71 references

  6. Purity of antidotal oxime HI-6 DMS as an active pharmaceutical ingredient for auto-injectors and infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogan, Reinhard; Koller, Marianne; Klaubert, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    As reactivators of inhibited acetylcholinesterase, oximes are essential antidotes in poisoning by organophosphorus compounds. Due to its superior efficacy in cases of soman, cyclosarin, and sarin poisoning, the oxime HI-6 represents a promising option for an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in the further development of antidote therapy for nerve agent poisoning. Developmental lots of HI-6 DMS (dimethanesulfonate) provided by different manufacturers were examined with respect to their content and purity with a view to their future use as an API. There are distinct differences in the HI-6 content from three manufacturers. With respect to purity, gradual differences arise with the known synthetic by-products as well as with unknown accompanying compounds. It became apparent that in the case of a modified synthesis using protective groups, the proportion of some synthesis by-products decreases considerably. With one exception, they are thus below the reporting threshold for API in accordance with pertinent regulatory guidelines. In HI-6, an unknown impurity always occurs, whose percentage necessitates identification due to regulations. This unknown impurity, which has not been described so far, could be identified as an isomer. These findings supply data required for the description of pharmaceutical quality in accordance with module 3 of a Common Technical Document (CTD). They thus contribute to the marketing authorization of this substance as an API for auto-injectors and infusions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Innovative approach for the electrochemical detection of non-electroactive organophosphorus pesticides using oxime as electroactive probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Jing; Hou, Juying; Jiang, Jianxia; Ai, Shiyun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel approach for electrochemical detection of non-electroactive OPs was proposed. • PAM was used as electroactive probe for the first time. • The detection system displayed high sensitivity and promptness. • The developed sensor was used in real samples with satisfactory results. - Abstract: An innovative approach for sensitive and simple electrochemical detection of non-electroactive organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was described in this report. The novel strategy emphasized the fabrication of an oxime-based sensor via attaching pralidoxime (PAM) on graphene quantum dots (GQDs) modified glassy carbon electrode. The introduction of GQDs significantly increased the effective electrode area, and then enlarged the immobilization quantity of PAM. Thus, the oxidation current of PAM was obviously increased. Relying on the nucleophilic substitution reaction between oxime and OPs, fenthion was detected using PAM as the electroactive probe. Under optimum conditions, the difference of oxidation current of PAM was proportional to fenthion concentration over the range from 1.0 × 10 −11 M to 5.0 × 10 −7 M with a detection limit of 6.8 × 10 −12 M (S/N = 3). Moreover, the favorable detection performance in water and soil samples heralded the promising applications in on-site OPs detection

  8. Contribution of direct actions of the oxime HI-6 in reversing soman-induced muscle weakness in the rat diaphragm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alder, M.; Maxwell, D.M.; Filbert, M.G.; Deshpande, S.S.

    1994-12-31

    The actions of the bispyridinium oxime HI-6 ((4-AMINOCARBONYL) PYRIDINO-methoxymethyl- 2-(HYDROXYIMINO)METHYL- pyridinium dichloride) were investigated in vitro on rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations. Isometric twitch and tetanic tensions were elicited at 37 deg C with supramaximal nerve stimulation at frequencies of 20 and 50 Hz. To approximate normal respiration patterns, trials consisting of 30 successive 0.55 5 trains were alternated with 1.25 5 rest periods. Under control conditions, the above stimulation pattern generated tensions that were well maintained at both frequencies. In contrast, a marked depression of muscle tension was observed in diaphragms removed from rats administered 339 ug/kg soman (3 LD50) and tested in vitro. Addition of HI-6, 4 h after soman exposure, led to a nearly complete recovery of muscle tension at 20 Hz. At 50 Hz, muscle tensions still declined especially when trains were elicited at 1.25 and 3 5 intervals. The recovery by HI-6 observed in this study appears to be mediated by mechanisms unrelated to acetylcholinesterase reactivation since no increase of enzymatic activity was detected and the effect was reversed by a brief washout in oxime-free physiological solution. The results suggest that the direct action of HI-6 may play a role in restoring soman-induced diaphragmatic failure but this effect would be significant primarily under low use conditions.

  9. Efficient Construction of Energetic Materials via Nonmetallic Catalytic Carbon-Carbon Cleavage/Oxime-Release-Coupling Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gang; He, Chunlin; Yin, Ping; Imler, Gregory H; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2018-03-14

    The exploitation of C-C activation to facilitate chemical reactions is well-known in organic chemistry. Traditional strategies in homogeneous media rely upon catalyst-activated or metal-mediated C-C bonds leading to the design of new processes for applications in organic chemistry. However, activation of a C-C bond, compared with C-H bond activation, is a more challenging process and an underdeveloped area because thermodynamics does not favor insertion into a C-C bond in solution. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage through loss of an oxime moiety has not been reported. In this paper, a new observation of self-coupling via C-C bond cleavage with concomitant loss of oxime in the absence of metals (either metal-complex mediation or catalysis) results in dihydroxylammonium 5,5-bistetrazole-1,10-diolate (TKX-50) as well as N, N'-([3,3'-bi(1,2,4-oxadiazole)]-5,5'-diyl)dinitramine, a potential candidate for a new generation of energetic materials.

  10. Thermometric titrations of amines with nitrosyl perchlorate in acetonitrile solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, T; Kiliç, E; Cakirer, O

    1996-05-01

    Thirteen aliphatic and four aromatic amines, namely diethylamine, triethylamine, n-propylamine, di-n-propylamine, tri-n-butylamine, isopropylamine, di-isopropylamine, n-butylamine, di-n-butylamine, tri-n-butylamine, isobutylamine, sec-butylamine, tert-butylamine, aniline, N,N-dimethylaniline, 2-nitroaniline and 4-nitroaniline were titrated thermometrically with nitrosyl perchlorate in acetonitrile solvent. All the aliphatic amines gave very well-shaped thermometric titration curves. The calculated recovery values of the amines were very good. In comparison, the aromatic amines, aniline and N,N-dimethylaniline gave rather well-shaped titration curves, but the recovery values were fairly low. 2-Nitro- and 4-nitro anilines gave no thermometric response at all. The heats of reaction of the amines with nitrosyl perchlorate are rather high. However, the average heat of reaction of the aromatic amines is approximately two-thirds that of the average heat of the aliphatic amines. To support this method all the amines were also titrated potentiometrically and very similar results to those obtained with the thermometric method are seen. The nitrosyl ion is a Lewis acid, strong enough to titrate quantitatively aliphatic amines in acetonitrile solvent, but not strong enough to titrate aromatic amines at the required level in the same solvent.

  11. Effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids on Toll-like receptor activation in primary leucocytes from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnemo, Marianne; Kavaliauskis, Arturas; Andresen, Adriana Magalhaes Santos; Bou, Marta; Berge, Gerd Marit; Ruyter, Bente; Gjøen, Tor

    2017-08-01

    The shortage of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the international markets has led to increasing substitution of fish oil by plant oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feed and thereby reducing the EPA and DHA content in salmon. However, the minimum required levels of these fatty acids in fish diets for securing fish health are unknown. Fish were fed with 0, 1 or 2% EPA or DHA alone or in combination of both over a period, growing from 50 to 400 g. Primary head kidney leucocytes were isolated and stimulated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands to determine if EPA and DHA deficiency can affect expression of important immune genes and eicosanoid production. Several genes related to viral immune response did not vary between groups. However, there was a tendency that the high-level EPA and DHA groups expressed lower levels of IL-1β in non-stimulated leucocytes. These leucocytes were also more responsive to the TLR ligands, inducing higher expression levels of IL-1β and Mx1 after stimulation. The levels of prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 in serum and media from stimulated leucocytes were lower in both low and high EPA and DHA groups. In conclusion, leucocytes from low EPA and DHA groups seemed to be less responsive towards immunostimulants, like TLR ligands, indicating that low levels or absence of dietary EPA and DHA may have immunosuppressive effects.

  12. Limitations in the use of indium-111-oxine-labeled leucocytes for the diagnosis of occult infection in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haentjens, M.; Piepsz, A.; Perlmutter-Cremer, N.; Schell-Frederick, E.; Fruehling, J.

    1987-02-01

    Fifteen children underwent scintigraphy with indium 111 (/sup 111/In)-labeled white blood cells (WBC) for the detection of a local suppuration. The procedure generally contributed to a correct diagnosis. False negative results were observed in 5 children, but in two of them positive foci were also present. The missed lesions were 2 liver abscesses, 1 lung abscess, foci of osteomyelitis and 1 pericarditis. Two cases of chronic granulomatous disease are presented in which increased leucocyte accumulation was not observed in proven instances of infection.

  13. Activation of human IK and SK Ca2+ -activated K+ channels by NS309 (6,7-dichloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione 3-oxime)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbaek, Dorte; Teuber, Lene; Jørgensen, Tino D

    2004-01-01

    We have identified and characterized the compound NS309 (6,7-dichloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione 3-oxime) as a potent activator of human Ca2+ -activated K+ channels of SK and IK types, whereas it is devoid of effect on BK type channels. IK- and SK-channels have previously been reported to be activated...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6660 - Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl... Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime-blocked... substance identified generically as a polymer of alkane-polyol and polyalkylpolyisocyanatocarbomonocy- cle...

  15. Uranium diphosphonates templated by interlayer organic amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Anna-Gay D., E-mail: nelsoa@umich.edu [Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1005 (United States); Alekseev, Evgeny V. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6), Forschungszentrum Juelich Wilhelm-Johnen-Strasse, 52428 Juelich (Germany); Institut fuer Kristallographie, RWTH Aachen University, D-52066 Aachen (Germany); Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E. [Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Ewing, Rodney C. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1005 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    The hydrothermal treatment of uranium trioxide and methylenediphosphonic acid with a variety of amines (2,2-dipyridyl, triethylenediamine, ethylenediamine, and 1,10-phenanthroline) at 200 Degree-Sign C results in the crystallization of a series of layered uranium diphosphonate compounds, [C{sub 10}H{sub 9}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{r_brace} (Ubip2), [C{sub 6}H{sub 14}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O{r_brace} (UDAB), [C{sub 2}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}]{sub 2}{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O{r_brace} (Uethyl), and [C{sub 12}H{sub 9}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{r_brace} (Uphen). The crystal structures of the compounds are based on UO{sub 7} units linked by methylenediphosphonate molecules to form two-dimensional anionic sheets in Ubip2 and UDAB, and one-dimensional anionic chains in Uethyl and Uphen, which are charge balanced by protonated amine molecules. Interaction of the amine molecules with phosphonate oxygens and water molecules results in extensive hydrogen bonding in the interlayer. These amine molecules serve both as structure-directing agents and charge-balancing cations for the anionic uranium phosphonate sheets and chains in the formation of the different coordination geometries and topologies of each structure. Reported herein are the syntheses, structural and spectroscopic characterization of the synthesized compounds. - Graphical abstract: The Raman spectra of the synthesized compounds and an illustration of the stacking of the layers with the diprotonated triethylenediamine molecules in [C{sub 6}H{sub 14}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O{r_brace} UDAB. Solvent water molecules are removed for clarity. The corresponding Raman spectra for the complexes synthesized is also

  16. Amine promoted, metal enhanced degradation of Mirex under high temperature conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jallad, Karim N. [American University of Sharjah, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 26666, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates)]. E-mail: kjallad@runbox.com; Lynn, Bert C. [University of Kentucky, Department of Chemistry, Lexington, KY 40506-055 (United States); Alley, Earl G. [Mississippi State University, Department of Chemistry, MS State, MS 39762 (United States)

    2006-07-31

    In this study, zero-valent metal dehalogenation of mirex was conducted with amine solvents at high temperatures. Mirex was treated with excess amine in sealed glass tube reactors under nitrogen. The amines used were n-butyl amine (l), ethyl amine (l), dimethyl amine (g), diethyl amine (l), triethyl amine (l), trimethyl amine (g) and ammonia (g). The metals used were copper, zinc, magnesium, aluminum and calcium. The most suitable amine solvent and metal were selected by running a series of reactions with different amines and different zero-valent metals, in order to optimize the conditions under which complete degradation of mirex takes place. These dehalogenation reactions illustrated the role of zero-valent metals as reductants, whereas the amine solvents acted as proton donors. In this study, we report that mirex was completely degraded with diethyl amine (l) in the presence of copper at 100 deg. C and the hydrogenated products accounted for more than 94 of the degraded mirex.

  17. Tandem catalytic allylic amination and [2,3]-Stevens rearrangement of tertiary amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Arash; Tambar, Uttam K

    2011-08-24

    We have developed a catalytic allylic amination involving tertiary aminoesters and allylcarbonates, which is the first example of the use of tertiary amines as intermolecular nucleophiles in metal-catalyzed allylic substitution chemistry. This process is employed in a tandem ammonium ylide generation/[2,3]-rearrangement reaction, which formally represents a palladium-catalyzed Stevens rearrangement. Low catalyst loadings and mild reaction conditions are compatible with an unprecedented substrate scope for the ammonium ylide functionality, and products are generated in high yields and diastereoselectivities. Mechanistic studies suggested the reversible formation of an ammonium intermediate.

  18. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Nicholas S.; Reed, Daniel M.; Edin, Matthew L.; Rauzi, Francesca; Mataragka, Stefania; Vojnovic, Ivana; Bishop-Bailey, David; Milne, Ginger L.; Longhurst, Hilary; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Mitchell, Jane A.; Warner, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Eicosanoids are important vascular regulators, but the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoforms supporting their production within the cardiovascular system are not fully understood. To address this, we have studied platelets, endothelial cells, and leukocytes from 2 siblings with a homozygous loss-of-function mutation in group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α). Chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine levels of a broad range of eicosanoids produced by isolated vascular cells, and in plasma and urine. Eicosanoid release data were paired with studies of cellular function. Absence of cPLA2α almost abolished eicosanoid synthesis in platelets (e.g., thromboxane A2, control 20.5 ± 1.4 ng/ml vs. patient 0.1 ng/ml) and leukocytes [e.g., prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), control 21.9 ± 7.4 ng/ml vs. patient 1.9 ng/ml], and this was associated with impaired platelet activation and enhanced inflammatory responses. cPLA2α-deficient endothelial cells showed reduced, but not absent, formation of prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin; control 956 ± 422 pg/ml vs. patient 196 pg/ml) and were primed for inflammation. In the urine, prostaglandin metabolites were selectively influenced by cPLA2α deficiency. For example, prostacyclin metabolites were strongly reduced (18.4% of control) in patients lacking cPLA2α, whereas PGE2 metabolites (77.8% of control) were similar to healthy volunteer levels. These studies constitute a definitive account, demonstrating the fundamental role of cPLA2α to eicosanoid formation and cellular responses within the human circulation.—Kirkby, N. S., Reed, D. M., Edin, M. L., Rauzi, F., Mataragka, S., Vojnovic, I., Bishop-Bailey, D., Milne, G. L., Longhurst, H., Zeldin, D. C., Mitchell, J. A., Warner, T. D. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation. PMID:26183771

  19. JC polyomavirus infection is strongly controlled by human leucocyte antigen class II variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Sundqvist

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available JC polyomavirus (JCV carriers with a compromised immune system, such as in HIV, or subjects on immune-modulating therapies, such as anti VLA-4 therapy may develop progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML which is a lytic infection of oligodendrocytes in the brain. Serum antibodies to JCV mark infection occur only in 50-60% of infected individuals, and high JCV-antibody titers seem to increase the risk of developing PML. We here investigated the role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA, instrumental in immune defense in JCV antibody response. Anti-JCV antibody status, as a surrogate for JCV infection, were compared to HLA class I and II alleles in 1621 Scandinavian persons with MS and 1064 population-based Swedish controls and associations were replicated in 718 German persons with MS. HLA-alleles were determined by SNP imputation, sequence specific (SSP kits and a reverse PCR sequence-specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO method. An initial GWAS screen displayed a strong HLA class II region signal. The HLA-DRB1*15 haplotype was strongly negatively associated to JCV sero-status in Scandinavian MS cases (OR = 0.42, p = 7×10(-15 and controls (OR = 0.53, p = 2×10(-5. In contrast, the DQB1*06:03 haplotype was positively associated with JCV sero-status, in Scandinavian MS cases (OR = 1.63, p = 0.006, and controls (OR = 2.69, p = 1×10(-5. The German dataset confirmed these findings (OR = 0.54, p = 1×10(-4 and OR = 1.58, p = 0.03 respectively for these haplotypes. HLA class II restricted immune responses, and hence CD4+ T cell immunity is pivotal for JCV infection control. Alleles within the HLA-DR1*15 haplotype are associated with a protective effect on JCV infection. Alleles within the DQB1*06:03 haplotype show an opposite association. These associations between JC virus antibody response and human leucocyte antigens supports the notion that CD4+ T cells are crucial in the immune defence to JCV and

  20. A ppendicitis with Positive Ultrasound and its Relation to Total and Differential Leucocytic Count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, G.M.; Sabek, E.A.S.; Elessiely, E.S.; Ibrahim, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background:The most common cause of acute surgical abdomen is acute appendicitis and the most commonly done emergency surgery is appendectomy. Although a battery of tests and different scoring methods are available for diagnosis of acute appendicitis, it is very difficult to prevent negative explorations for appendicectomy (15 - 30%). None of the tests has satisfactory Sensitivity and specificity that can be relied upon. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of total and differential leukocyte count, and ultrasonography (USG) of abdomen in diagnosing acute appendicitis and reducing the rates of negative appendicectomies and to prevent complications like perforation, peritonitis, and the longer the delay between diagnosis and surgery, the more likely is the perforation leading to peritonitis. In addition, emphasis was given to whether combining the investigations for the same patient would improve the diagnostic accuracy. Materials and Methods : A total of 76 clinically diagnosed patients of acute appendicitis, posted for emergency appendicectomy were included in the study in General Surgery Department of EL-Salam Hospital. This study was conducted in the period October 2012 to September 2013. Preoperatively blood tests for, total leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count(DLC) and USG abdomen were done. All patients were subjected to histological examination postoperatively, which was taken as the gold standard. The three investigations results were correlated with histopathological examination reports to evaluate their role in diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Results: In the present study, the US has the highest sensitivity and specificity (90%, 80%) followed by Total leucocyte count (87.5%, 90%), white Neutrophil count (78.75%, 80%). Combining US and WBC count increases the sensitivity and specificity of the tests (96.25%, 80%). Conclusion: US contains important diagnostic information and hence should always be included in the

  1. New potential of the reductive alkylation of amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusak, K N; Ignatovich, Zh V; Koroleva, E V

    2015-01-01

    Available data on the reductive alkylation of amines with carbonyl compounds — a key method for the preparation of secondary and tertiary amines — are described systematically. The review provides information on the relevant reducing agents and catalysts and on the use of chiral catalysts in stereo- and enantiocontrolled reactions of amine synthesis. The effect of the reactant and catalyst structures on the reaction rates and chemo- and stereo(enantio)selectivity is considered. The bibliography includes 156 references

  2. Fluorescence quenching of Rhodamine B base by two amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkialakshmi, S.; Selvarani, P.; Chenthamarai, S.

    2013-03-01

    Fluorescence quenching of Rhodamine B base (RhB) in DMF solution has been studied at different concentrations of the amine Triethyl amine (TEA) and n-butyl amine (NBA) at room temperature. It has been observed that the fluorescence intensity of RhB decrease with increase in the concentration of the TEA and NBA. It has been observed that the quenching due to amines proceeds via dynamic quenching process. The rate constants for the quenching process have been calculated using Stern-Volmer equation. Time resolved fluorescence study and 1H NMR spectral study have also been carried out and discussed.

  3. Evaluation of amine inhibitors for suitability as crevice buffering agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaweera, P.; Hettiarachchi, S.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes the results of a research effort to evaluate the suitability of some selected amines and amino acids as a crevice-buffering agents in pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators. The amines may be useful for buffering acid crevices, and the amino acids, because they contain both acidic and basic groups, may be useful for acidic and caustic crevices. Five commercially available amines and two amino acids were studied during this research. The study involved (1) the hydrolysis of these commercially available amines and amino acids, including measurement of their kinetics of decomposition, in simulated steam generator bulk water at 290 C, and (2) determination of their thermal stability in a simulated crevice environment. The study showed that, although the high-molecular-weight amines undergo hydrothermal decomposition, they have a better buffering capacity than their low-molecular-weight counterparts at 290 C. The amines provide effective crevice buffering by increasing the pH of the crevice solution by as much as 2.84 and to 4.24 units in the experimental setup used in this program. It was concluded that polyamines provide excellent buffering of the simulated crevice environment at 290 C and morpholine remains the best low-molecular-weight amine investigated. However, detailed volatility studies of the amines were not considered in this work. Such data would be needed before in-plant testing to ensure that the amines can concentrate in steam generator crevices to the levels assumed in this study

  4. Prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis (leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose) in a population of 3645 adult subjects--consequence for measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose in the general population and measure the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in subjects with or without a positive dipstick analysis. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study...... of 3645 subjects. SETTING: An unselected urban population study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence data of positive dipstick analyses and UAER values. RESULTS: Prevalence data of a positive dipstick analysis were 12%, 4%, 3% and 6%, respectively, for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, and glucose...

  5. High performance supercapacitor using N-doped graphene prepared via supercritical fluid processing with an oxime nitrogen source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaji, S. Suresh; Elavarasan, A.; Sathish, M.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: N-doped graphene prepared via supercritical fluid processing with oxime nitrogen source (DMG) showed enhanced performance in electrochemical supercapacitor application. A maximum specific capacitance of 286 F g"−"1 at a current density of 0.5 A/g was achieved with a high specific capacity retention of 98% after 1000 cycles at 5 A/g. - Highlights: • N-functionalised graphene synthesized via supercritical fluid processing. • DMG, an oxime based nitrogen precursor. • Maximum specific capacitance of 286 F/g at 0.5 A/g in aqueous solution. • Pyridinic as well as quarternary nitrogen for enhanced capacitance. - Abstract: Heteroatom doped graphene has been proved for its promising applications in electrochemical energy storage systems. Here, nitrogen (N) doped graphene was prepared via two different techniques namely supercritical fluid assisted processing and hydrothermal heat treatment using dimethylglyoxime (DMG) as an oxime nitrogen precursor. The FT-IR and Raman spectra showed the N-containing functional group in the graphene. The XRD analysis revealed the complete reduction of graphene oxide during the supercritical fluid processing. The elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the amount and nature of N-doping in the graphene, respectively. The surface morphology and physical nature of the samples were analyzed using scanning and transmission electron microscopic analysis. The electrochemical performance of prepared electrode materials was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The N-doped graphene prepared via supercritical fluid assisted processing exhibit enhanced capacitive behaviour with a maximum specific capacitance of 286 F g"−"1 at a current density of 0.5 A/g. The cycling studies showed 98% specific capacity retention with 100% coulombic efficiency over 1000 cycles at 5 A/g. The enhanced specific capacitance of N

  6. Enantioselective Direct α-Amination of Aldehydes via a Photoredox Mechanism: A Strategy for Asymmetric Amine Fragment Coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Cecere, Giuseppe; Koenig, Christian M.; Alleva, Jennifer L.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2013-01-01

    The direct, asymmetric α-amination of aldehydes has been accomplished via a combination of photoredox and organocatalysis. Photon-generated, nitrogen-centered radicals undergo enantioselective α-addition to catalytically formed chiral enamines to directly produce stable α-amino aldehyde adducts bearing synthetically useful amine substitution patterns. Incorporation of a photolabile group on the amine precursor obviates the need to employ a photoredox catalyst in this transformation. Important...

  7. Poly(Amido Amine)s containing agmatine and butanol side chains as efficient gene carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Won, Young-Wook; Ankone, Martinus J.K.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Feijen, Jan; Kim, S.W.

    2016-01-01

    A new type of bioreducible poly(amido amine) copolymer is synthesized by the Michael addition polymerization of cystamine bisacrylamide (CBA) with 4-aminobutylguanidine (agmatine, AGM) and 4-aminobutanol (ABOL). Since the positively charged guanidinium groups of AGM and the hydroxybutyl groups of

  8. Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Bzdek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of charged species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS. Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid neutralization is cluster size-dependent. With increasing cluster size (and, therefore, a decreasing role of charge, both positively- and negatively-charged cluster compositions converge toward ammonium bisulfate. The reactivity of negatively-charged sulfuric acid-ammonia clusters with dimethylamine and ammonia is also investigated by FTICR-MS. Two series of negatively-charged clusters are investigated: [(HSO4(H2SO4x] and [(NH4x(HSO4x+1(H2SO43]. Dimethylamine substitution for ammonia in [(NH4 x(HSO4 x+1(H2SO43] clusters is nearly collision-limited, and subsequent addition of dimethylamine to neutralize H2SO4 to bisulfate is within one order of magnitude of the substitution rate. Dimethylamine addition to [(HSO4 (H2SO4 x] clusters is either not observed or very slow. The results of this study indicate that amine chemistry will be evident and important only in large ambient negative ions (>m/z 400, whereas amine chemistry may be evident in small ambient positive ions. Addition of ammonia to unneutralized clusters occurs at a rate that is ~2–3 orders of magnitude slower than incorporation of dimethylamine either by substitution or addition

  9. Modular functionalization of allenes to aminated stereotriads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Christopher S; Boralsky, Luke A; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2012-07-04

    Nitrogen-containing stereotriads, compounds with three adjacent stereodefined carbons, are commonly found in biologically important molecules. However, the preparation of molecules bearing these motifs can be challenging. Herein, we describe a modular oxidation protocol which converts a substituted allene to a triply functionalized amine of the form C-X/C-N/C-Y. The key step employs a Rh-catalyzed intramolecular conversion of the allene to a strained bicyclic methylene aziridine. This reactive intermediate is further elaborated to the target products, often in one reaction vessel and with effective transfer of the axial chirality of the allene to point chirality in the stereotriad.

  10. Interaction of biogenic amines with ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A A

    1975-01-01

    Ethanol through its primary catabolite, acetaldehyde, competitively inhibits oxidation of aldehyde dehydrogenase substrates. As a consequence biogenic amines form increased quantities of alcohols rather than the corresponding acids. During this biotransformation, condensation reactions between deaminated and intact amines may occur which can yield tetrahydropapaverolines. These compounds are closely related to precursors of opioids which is cause to link ethanol abuse to morphine addiction. There is, however, no pharmacological or clinical evidence suggesting similarities between ethanol dependence or opiod addiction. Acetaldehyde plays an additional role in alkaloidal formation in vitro. Biogenic amines may react with acetaldehyde to form isoquinoline or carboline compounds. Some of these substances have significant pharmacological activity. Furthermore, they may enter neural stores and displace the natural neurotransmitter. Thus, they can act as false neurotransmitters. Some investigators believe that chronic ethanol ingestion leads to significant formation of such aberrant compounds which may then upset autonomic nervous system balance. This disturbance may explain the abnormal sympathetic activity seen in withdrawal. While these ideas about the etiology of alcohol abuse have a definite appeal, they are naturally based on in vitro preliminary work. Much study of the quantitative pharmacology of these compounds in animals is required before judgement can be made as to the merits of the proposed hypotheses. In the meantime, pharmacological studies on the ability of ethanol to depress respiration in the mouse has revealed that unlike opioids or barbituates, respiratory depression induced by ethanol requires the presence in brain of serotonin. This neurotransmitter also mediates the respiratory effects of several other alcohols but curiously, not chloral hydrate, yet this compound is purported to alter biogenic amine metabolism much like ethanol. Thus, the response

  11. Controlling Nitrosamines, Nitramines, and Amines in Amine-Based CO₂ Capture Systems with Continuous Ultraviolet and Ozone Treatment of Washwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ning; Mitch, William A

    2015-07-21

    Formation of nitrosamines and nitramines from reactions between flue gas NOx and the amines used in CO2 capture units has arisen as a significant concern. Washwater scrubbers can capture nitrosamines and nitramines. They can also capture amines, preventing formation of nitrosamines and nitramines downwind by amine reactions with ambient NOx. The continuous application of UV alone, or a combination of UV and ozone to the return line of a washwater treatment unit was evaluated to control the accumulation of nitrosamines, nitramines and amines in a laboratory-scale washwater unit. With model secondary amine solvents ranging from nonvolatile diethanolamine to volatile morpholine, application of 272-537 mJ/cm(2) UV incident fluence alone reduced the accumulation of nitrosamines and nitramines by approximately an order of magnitude. Modeling indicated that the gains achieved by UV treatment should increase over time, because UV treatment converts the time dependence of nitrosamine accumulation from a quadratic to a linear function. Ozone (21 mg/L) maintained low steady-state concentrations of amines in the washwater. While modeling indicated that more than 80% of nitrosamine accumulation in the washwater was associated with reaction of washwater amines with residual NOx, a reduction in nitrosamine accumulation rates due to ozone oxidation of amines was not fully realized because the ozonation products of amines reduced nitrosamine photolysis rates by competing for photons.

  12. Trace Amines and the Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1: Pharmacology, Neurochemistry and Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue ePei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines are a collection of endogenous molecules that play pivotal roles as neurotransmitters and hormones. In addition to the classical biogenic amines resulting from decarboxylation of aromatic acids, including dopamine (DA, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin (5-HT and histamine, other biogenic amines, present at much lower concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS, and hence referred to as trace amines (TAs, are now recognized to play significant neurophysiological and behavioural functions. At the turn of the century, the discovery of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1, a phylogenetically conserved G protein-coupled receptor that is responsive to both TAs, such as β-phenylethylamine, octopamine and tyramine, and structurally-related amphetamines, unveiled mechanisms of action for TAs other than interference with aminergic pathways, laying the foundations for deciphering the functional significance of TAs and its mammalian CNS receptor, TAAR1. Although its molecular interactions and downstream targets have not been fully elucidated, TAAR1 activation triggers accumulation of intracellular cAMP, modulates PKA and PKC signalling and interferes with the β-arrestin2-dependent pathway via G protein-independent mechanisms. TAAR1 is uniquely positioned to exert direct control over DA and 5-HT neuronal firing and release, which has profound implications for understanding the pathophysiology of, and therefore designing more efficacious therapeutic interventions for, a range of neuropsychiatric disorders that involve aminergic dysregulation, including Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, mood disorders and addiction. Indeed, the recent development of novel pharmacological tools targeting TAAR1 has uncovered the remarkable potential of TAAR1-based medications as new generation pharmacotherapies in neuropsychiatry. This review summarizes recent developments in the study of TAs and TAAR1, their intricate neurochemistry and

  13. 1H, 13C and 13N chemical shifts and 1H-15N and 13C-15N heteronuclear spin-spin coupling constants n the NMR spectra of 5-substituted furfural oximes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popelis, Yu.Yu.; Liepin'sh, E.E.; Lukevits, E.Ya.

    1986-01-01

    The 1 H, 13 C, and 15 N NMR spectra of 15 N-enriched 5-substituted furfural oximes were investigated. It was shown that the chemical shifts of the ring atoms and the oxime group correlate satisfactorily with the F and R substituent constants, whereas their sensitivity to the effect of the substituents is lower than in monosubstituted furan derivatives. The constants of spin-spin coupling between the ring protons and the oxime group were determined. An analysis of the 1 H- 1 H spin-spin coupling constants (SSCC) on the basis of their stereospecificity indicates that the E isomers have primarily an s-trans conformation in polar dimethyl sulfoxide, whereas the Z isomers, on the other hand, have an s-cis conformation. The signs of the direct and geminal 13 C- 15 N SSCC were determined for 5-trimethylsilylfurfural oxime

  14. Bifunctional (cyclopentadienone)iron-tricarbonyl complexes: Synthesis, computational studies and application in reductive amination

    KAUST Repository

    Moulin, Solenne; Dentel, Hé lè ne; Pagnoux-Ozherelyeva, Anastassiya; Gaillard, Sylvain; Poater, Albert; Cavallo, Luigi; Lohier, Jean Franç ois; Renaud, Jean Luc

    2013-01-01

    . Festival of amination: Two series of modified Knölker's complexes were synthesised and applied in the reductive amination of various carbonyl derivatives with primary or secondary amines (see scheme, TIPS = triisopropylsilyl). For a mechanistic insight

  15. The role of the oximes HI-6 and HS-6 inside human acetylcholinesterase inhibited with nerve agents: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuya, Teobaldo; Gonçalves, Arlan da Silva; da Silva, Jorge Alberto Valle; Ramalho, Teodorico C; Kuca, Kamil; C C França, Tanos

    2017-10-27

    The oximes 4-carbamoyl-1-[({2-[(E)-(hydroxyimino) methyl] pyridinium-1-yl} methoxy) methyl] pyridinium (known as HI-6) and 3-carbamoyl-1-[({2-[(E)-(hydroxyimino) methyl] pyridinium-1-yl} methoxy) methyl] pyridinium (known as HS-6) are isomers differing from each other only by the position of the carbamoyl group on the pyridine ring. However, this slight difference was verified to be responsible for big differences in the percentual of reactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibited by the nerve agents tabun, sarin, cyclosarin, and VX. In order to try to find out the reason for this, a computational study involving molecular docking, molecular dynamics, and binding energies calculations, was performed on the binding modes of HI-6 and HS-6 on human AChE (HssAChE) inhibited by those nerve agents.

  16. Reactions of Cp2MCl2 (M=Ti or Zr with Imine-Oxime Ligands. Formation of Metallacycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tripathi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of bis(cyclopentadienyltitanium(IV/zirconium(IV dichloridewith a series of imine-oxime ligands (LH2, derived by condensing benzil-α-monoxime and2-phenylenediamine, 4-phenylenediamine, 4-methyl-2-phenylenediamine, 2,6-diamino-pyridine, have been studied in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran in the presence of base andmetallocycles of the [Cp2M(L] (M=Ti or Zr type have been isolated. Tentative structureshave been proposed for the products based on elemental analysis, electrical conductance andspectral (electronic, IR and 1H-NMR data. Proton NMR spectra indicate that on the NMRtime scale there is rapid rotation of the cyclopentadienyl ring around the metal-ring axis at25oC. Studies were conducted to assess the growth inhibiting potential of the complexessynthesized and the ligands against various bacterial strains.

  17. Extractive and spectrophotometric determination of U (VI) using 5-(3-phenolyl azo)-2-hydroxy-4-ethoxy propiophenone oxime (PHEPO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, P.; Krishnapriya, B.; Rekha, D.; Reddy Prasad, P.; Chiranjeevi, P.

    2007-01-01

    A simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of U (VI) using 5-(3-phenolyl azo)-2-hydroxy-4-ethoxy propiophenone oxime (PHEPO) is developed. The reagent PHEPO was synthesized and used for extraction of uranium. At pH 8.5-10.0 uranium forms a purple colored complex with PHEPO which was then quantitatively extracted in chloroform showing maximum absorbance at wavelength of 380nm. The proposed method obeys Beer's law in the range of 1.2-19.0ppm. molar absorptivity and Sandelson's sensitivity of extracted species were calculated to be 1.750 x 104 lmol-1 cm-1 and 8.5 x 10-5 mg cm-2 respectively. The method was applied for the determination of uranium in synthetic and plant samples. It was found that the newly developed method is competent to those of standard methods. (author)

  18. Extraction of uranium(VI) by emulsion liquid membrane containing 5,8-diethyl-7-hydroxy-6-dodecanone oxime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Kenichi; Takahashi, Toshihiko; Kanno, Takuji

    1984-01-01

    Extraction of uranium(VI) by a liquid surfactant membrane has been studied. The stability of water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion dispersed in the continuous aqueous phase increased with an increase in surfactant concentrations and in the fraction of the organic phase in emulsion globules. Uranium(VI) in dilute acid solutions was extracted into (w/o) emulsions containing 5,8-diethyl-7-hydroxy-6-dodecanone oxime (LIX 63) as a mobile carrier and its concentration decreased according to [U]sub(t)=[U]sub(o)exp(-ksub(obsd)t). The apparent rate constants (ksub(obsd)) increased with an increase in carrier concentrations and in external pH values, while they were slightly dependent on the stripping acid concentrations. Uranium was transported and concentrated into the internal aqueous droplets. The final concentration of uranium in the external aqueous phase dropped to about 10 -3 of its initial value. (author)

  19. Indirubin Derivative 7-Bromoindirubin-3-Oxime (7Bio Attenuates Aβ Oligomer-Induced Cognitive Impairments in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Indirubins are natural occurring alkaloids extracted from indigo dye-containing plants. Indirubins could inhibit various kinases, and might be used to treat chronic myelocytic leukemia, cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. 7-bromoindirubin-3-oxime (7Bio, an indirubin derivative derived from indirubin-3-oxime, possesses inhibitory effects against cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (CDK5 and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β, two pharmacological targets of Alzheimer's disease (AD. In this study, we have discovered that 2.3–23.3 μg/kg 7Bio effectively prevented β-amyloid (Aβ oligomer-induced impairments of spatial cognition and recognition without affecting bodyweight and motor functions in mice. Moreover, 7Bio potently inhibited Aβ oligomer-induced expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Furthermore, 7Bio significantly prevented the decreased expression of synapsin-1 and PSD-95, biomarkers of pre-synaptic and post-synaptic proteins in Aβ oligomer-treated mice. The mean optical density (OD with hyper-phosphorylated tau (pTau, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and CD45 positive staining in the hippocampus of 7Bio-treated mice were significantly decreased compared to those of Aβ oligomer-treated mice. In addition, Western blotting analysis showed that 7Bio attenuated Aβ oligomer-decreased expression of pSer9-GSK3β. Those results suggested that 7Bio could potently inhibit Aβ oligomer-induced neuroinflammation, synaptic impairments, tau hyper-phosphorylation, and activation of astrocytes and microglia, which may contribute to the neuroprotective effects of 7Bio. Based on these findings, we expected that 7Bio might be developed as a novel anti-AD lead compound.

  20. Thermodynamics of organic mixtures containing amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio; Mozo, Ismael; Fuente, Isaias Garcia de la; Cobos, Jose Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Binary mixtures containing pyridine (PY), or 2-methylpyridine (2MPY) or 3-methylpyridine (3MPY) or 4-methylpyridine (4MPY) and an organic solvent as benzene, toluene, alkane, or 1-alkanol are investigated in the framework of DISQUAC. The corresponding interaction parameters are reported. The model describes accurately a whole set of thermodynamic properties: vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE), molar excess Gibbs energies (G E ), molar excess enthalpies (H E ), molar excess heat capacities at constant pressure (C P E ) and the concentration-concentration structure factor (S CC (0)). It is remarkable that DISQUAC correctly predicts the W-shaped curve of the C P E of the pyridine + n-hexadecane system. The model can be applied successfully to mixtures with strong positive or negative deviations from the Raoult's law. DISQUAC improves the theoretical results from UNIFAC (Dortmund version). The replacement of pyridine by a methylpyridine leads to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions, ascribed to the steric effect caused by the methyl group attached to the aromatic ring. This explains that for a given solvent (alkane, 1-alkanol) H E (pyridine)>H E (methylpyridine)

  1. Reducing tube bundle deposition with alternative amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.W.; Klimas, S.J.; Frattini, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    Particle deposition rates have been measured in a high-temperature loop for magnetite and hematite depositing onto Inconel-600 under flow-boiling conditions with pH controlled using one of the following amines: morpholine, ammonia, ethanolamine, or dimethylamine. Hematite particles deposited at rates an order of magnitude greater than those measured for magnetite, although the hematite deposition rate dropped when the loop was operated under reducing conditions. The magnetite deposition rate was influenced by the amine used to control the pH, with the relative rate decreasing in the following series: morpholine (1) : ethanolamine (0.72) ammonia (0.51) : dimethylamine (0.25). These trends in deposition rate are discussed in terms of the surface chemistry of the corrosion products. Deposition rates for both magnetite and hematite increased significantly once the mixture quality exceeded about 0.3, which may be related to a change in the heat transfer mechanism from nucleate boiling to two-phase forced convection through a thin film. (author)

  2. Reducing tube bundle deposition using alternative amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.W.; Klimas, S.J.; Frattini, P.L.

    1999-07-01

    Particle deposition rates were measured in a high-temperature loop for magnetite and hematite depositing onto Inconel-600 under flow-boiling conditions with pH controlled, using one of the following amines: morpholine, ammonia, ethanolamine, or dimethylamine. Hematite particles deposited at rates 10 times greater than those measured for magnetite although the hematite deposition rate dropped when the loop was operated under reducing conditions. The magnetite deposition rate was influenced by the amine used to control the pH, with the relative rate decreasing in the following series: morpholine (1) : ethanolamine (0.72) : ammonia (0.51) dimethylamine (0.25). These trends in deposition rate are discussed in terms of the surface chemistry of the corrosion products. Deposition rates for both magnetite and hematite increased significantly once the mixture quality exceeded about 0.3, which may be related to a change in the heat-transfer mechanism from nucleate boiling to 2-phase forced-convection through a thin film. (author)

  3. Conditions allowing the formation of biogenic amines in cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, H.M.L.J.

    1988-01-01

    A study was undertaken to reveal the conditions that allow the formation of biogenic amines in cheese.

    The starters most commonly used in the Dutch cheese industry do not have decarboxylative properties. Only if the milk or curd is contaminated with non-starter bacteria, amine

  4. Amine-selective bioconjugation using arene diazonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diethelm, Stefan; Schafroth, Michael A; Carreira, Erick M

    2014-08-01

    A novel bioconjugation strategy is presented that relies on the coupling of diazonium terephthalates with amines in proteins. The diazonium captures the amine while the vicinal ester locks it through cyclization, ensuring no reversibility. The reaction is highly efficient and proceeds under mild conditions and short reaction times. Densely functionalized, complex natural products were directly coupled to proteins using low concentrations of coupling partners.

  5. Effects of dietary amines on the gut and its vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Kenneth J; Akhtar Anwar, M; Herbert, Amy A; Fehler, Martina; Jones, Elen M; Davies, Wyn E; Kidd, Emma J; Ford, William R

    2009-06-01

    Trace amines, including tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA), are constituents of many foods including chocolate, cheeses and wines and are generated by so-called 'friendly' bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Enterococcus species, which are found in probiotics. We therefore examined whether these dietary amines could exert pharmacological effects on the gut and its vasculature. In the present study we examined the effects of tyramine and beta-PEA on the contractile activity of guinea-pig and rat ileum and upon the isolated mesenteric vasculature and other blood vessels. Traditionally, these amines are regarded as sympathomimetic amines, exerting effects through the release of noradrenaline from sympathetic nerve endings, which should relax the gut. A secondary aim was therefore to confirm this mechanism of action. However, contractile effects were observed in the gut and these were independent of noradrenaline, acetylcholine, histamine and serotonin receptors. They were therefore probably due to the recently described trace amine-associated receptors. These amines relaxed the mesenteric vasculature. In contrast, the aorta and coronary arteries were constricted, a response that was also independent of a sympathomimetic action. From these results, we propose that after ingestion, trace amines could stimulate the gut and improve intestinal blood flow. Restriction of blood flow elsewhere diverts blood to the gut to aid digestion. Thus, trace amines in the diet may promote the digestive process through stimulation of the gut and improved gastrointestinal circulation.

  6. Mesoporous amine-bridged polysilsesquioxane for CO2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng; Fu, Liling; Duan, Xiaonan; Choi, Brian Hyun; Abraham, Michael; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2011-01-01

    A novel class of amine-supported sorbents based on amine-bridged mesoporous polysilsesquioxane was developed via a simple one-pot sol-gel process. The new sorbent allows the incorporation of a large amount of active groups without sacrificing

  7. Astramol polypropyleneimine dendrimers as Norrish Type II amine synergists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.F.G.A.; Dias, A.A.; Hartwig, H.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    UV-curable coatings for various applications . In most of these applications they serve a dual role ie as initiator and as oxygen scavenger. Dimethylethanolamine is one of the more frequently employed aliphatic amines. However, this amine is a highly volatile . AstramolTM polypropyleneimine

  8. Strong poly(ethylene oxide) based gel adhesives via oxime cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Smita; Cabral, Jaydee D; Hanton, Lyall R; Moratti, Stephen C

    2016-01-01

    There is a demand for materials to replace or augment the use of sutures and staples in surgical procedures. Currently available commercial surgical adhesives provide either high bond strength with biological toxicity or polymer and protein-based products that are biologically acceptable (though with potential sensitizing potential) but have much reduced bond strength. It is desirable to provide novel biocompatible and biodegradable surgical adhesives/sealants capable of high strength with minimal immune or inflammatory response. In this work, we report the end group derivatization of 8-arm star PEOs with aldehyde and amine end groups. Gels were prepared employing the Schiff-base chemistry between the aldehydes and the amines. Gel setting times, swelling behavior and rheological characterization were carried out for these gels. The mechanical-viscoelastic properties were found to be directly proportional to the crosslinking density of the gels, the 10K PEO gel was stiffer in comparison to the 20K PEO gel. The adhesive properties of these gels were tested using porcine skin and showed excellent adhesion properties. Cytotoxicity studies were carried out for the individual gel components using two different methods: (a) Crystal Violet Staining assay (CVS assay) and (b) impedance and cell index measurement by the xCELLigence system at concentrations >5%. Gels prepared by mixing 20% w/w solutions were also tested for cytotoxicity. The results revealed that the individual gel components as well as the prepared gels and their leachables were non-cytotoxic at these concentrations. This work presents a new type of glue that is aimed at surgery applications using a water soluble star shaped polymer. It show excellent adhesion to skin and is tough and easy to use. We show that it is very biocompatible based on tests on live human cells, and could therefore in principle be used for internal surgery. Comparison with other reported and commercial glues shows that it is stronger

  9. Use of 99mTc-HMPAO-leucocyte scintigraphy coupled to 99mTc-colloid scintigraphy in diagnosing the osteo-articular sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darlas, Y.; Pegoix, M.; Filmont, J.E.; Leclercq, S.; Rosas, M.H.; Agostini, D.; Aubriot, J.H.; Bouvard, G.

    1997-01-01

    The object of this study was the scintigraphic diagnosis of osseous sepsis based on the absence of congruence between leucocytic and colloidal fixations and the evaluation of the effect of coupling between the scintigraphies (sc) with leucocytes (A) and colloids (B) on the diagnosis feasibility index of this technique. Seventy four patients, 97 sc were divided into two groups according to the scintigraphic technique [(A) only]: 35 sc; [(A) and (B)]: 62 sc. [Prosthesis: 48 patients, 68 sc. Osteitis: 26 patients, 29 sc]. The scintigraphies were performed as follows: (A) autologous leucocytes labelled by 250 - 300 MBq of 99m Tc-HMPAO, with planar incidences (15 min), 3 - 4 hours after injection and (B) Labelled nano-colloids labelled by 180 - 200 MBq of 99m Tc, the same incidences, 30 min after injection. The delay between (A) and (B): 48 hours. The final diagnosis of sepsis: bacteriological and histologic criteria after biopsies and/or clinical, biological and radiological evolution. The comparison between the two groups is given in a table in terms of prevalence, sensitivity and specificity, using the χ2 and Fisher tests. In conclusion, the scintigraphy by 99m Tc-HMPAO-leucocyte is a sensitive method (Se ∼ 90%) for the diagnosis of osseous sepsis and coupled to the scintigraphy by 99m Tc-colloids allow obtaining a high specificity (Sp ≥ 90%) by reducing the number of falsely positive diagnoses

  10. Biogenic amines degradation by microorganisms isolated from cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Butor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of microorganisms able to degrade biogenic amines and their identification. Individual microorganisms were obtained by isolation from commercially available foodstuffs and food produced in the technological laboratories of Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlín and subsequently identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The results of MALDI-TOF MS identification were verified by 16S rRNA sequenation. In this work was studied the ability of 5 bacterial strains positive to biogenic amines degradation isolated from dairy products to decrease biogenic amines content in vitro and quantified reduction in the concentration of biogenic amines tryptamine, β-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine. The level of degradation (decrease of biogenic amines was determined on the base of the ability to grow in media with biogenic amines as the sole source carbon and nitrogen. The isolated strains with the ability of degradation of one or more biogenic amines were cultured in medium supplemented with relevant biogenic amines, the media derivatized with dansyl chloride and these amines separated by HPLC at a wavelength of 254 nm. From five tested strains identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Enterobacter cloacae, Rhizobium radiobacter and Acinetobacter pitii, isolated from gouda type cheese, the greatest ability of degradation was observed in Bacillus subtilis, which was capable to degrade almost all amount of histamine, cadaverine and putrescine. Other four strains showed a lower rate of degradation than Bacillus subtilis, but the ability to degrade biogenic amines with these microorganisms was still significant.

  11. A versatile family of degradable non-viral gene carriers based on hyperbranched poly(ester amine)s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, Zhiyuan; Song, Y.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Lok, Martin C.; Hennink, Wim E.; Feijen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    A variety of degradable hyperbranched poly(ester amine)s containing primary, secondary and tertiary amino groups, were synthesized and evaluated as non-viral gene carriers. The polymers were obtained in high yields through a Michael-type conjugate addition of diacrylate monomers with trifunctional

  12. Dual C-H functionalization of N-aryl amines: synthesis of polycyclic amines via an oxidative Povarov approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Chang; Sanchawala, Abbas; Seidel, Daniel

    2014-05-16

    Iminium ions generated in situ via copper(I) bromide catalyzed oxidation of N-aryl amines readily undergo [4 + 2] cycloadditions with a range of dienophiles. This method involves the functionalization of both a C(sp(3))-H and a C(sp(2))-H bond and enables the rapid construction of polycyclic amines under relatively mild conditions.

  13. Protective effect of gingerol on leucocyte and bone marrow DNA of 60Co γ-rays irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zhenfei; Zhou Yu; Geng Yanyan; Zeng Xianyin

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the effect of gingerol on peripheral leucocyte and bone marrow DNA of 60 Co γ-rays irradiated mice was developed., Twenty-four healthy healthy female Kunming mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, gingerol, irradiation and gingerol + irradiation group. Gingerol group and gingerol + irradiation group were given gingerol intragastrically once a day for five days. Irradiation group and gingerol + irradiation group were suffered from 5 Gy 60 Co γ-rays irradiation at the rate of 1.2 Gy/min on the 6 th day. Blood samples, spleens, livers and thigh bones were collected to be measured after 48 h. The results showed that, compared with irradiation group, gingerol + irradiation group had significantly higher spleen index (p 60 Co γ-rays irradiated mice. (authors)

  14. Polymorphonuclear leucocyte dysfunction during short term metabolic changes from normo- to hyperglycemia in type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjersem, H; Hilsted, J; Madsbad, S

    1988-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) ingestion of particles coated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli was compared to other PMN functions in seven patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) during short-term controlled metabolic changes from normo- to hyperglycemia...... without ketoacidosis. Factors known to interfere with PMN functions were excluded. PMN ingestion of particles coated with both LPS and bovine serum albumin became reduced from normo- to hyperglycemia. PMN motility was impaired in IDDM, but did not seem to be affected by short-term changes in metabolic...... control. PMN metabolism did not change from normo-to hyperglycemia. Particle-uptake by diabetic PMN is impaired after short term hyperglycemia in the range normally occurring in diabetics in every-day life....

  15. Further investigations on the influence of ultraviolet irradiation on blood corpuscles hemoglobin content and differential leucocyte count in the chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolukbasi, F.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of ultraviolet irradiation, applied for one hour, with a relatively high enerqy output of 95.5x10 3 erg. cm -2 . sn -1 , on some biological parameters of chicken's blood was determined. At the 24th hour after irradiation erythrocyte count, hemoglobin content and percentages of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils were decreased, but total leucocyte, thrombocyte counts and percentage of pseudoeosinophils were increased, significantly (P< 0,01). No significant changes were obtained in all parameters, at the 24th hour after a second irradiation. There were also found no differences between the values obtained at 24th hour after the second, and at 48th hour after the single irradiation, but all these values had a tendency taward the initial determinations

  16. Cytokine release from human peripheral blood leucocytes incubated with endotoxin with and without prior infection with influenza virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, Jytte; Smith, H; Sweet, C

    1993-01-01

    Previous work with a neonatal ferret model for human SIDS had indicated that inflammation caused by a combination of influenza virus and bacterial endotoxin may be a cause of human SIDS. To determine whether cytokines may be involved in this inflammatory response, levels of interleukin (IL)-1 beta......, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were examined, using ELISA assays, in culture supernatants of human peripheral blood leucocytes infected with influenza virus and subsequently incubated with endotoxin. Levels of TNF-alpha were increased compared to cells incubated with virus or endotoxin...... alone. Levels of IL-1 beta were also increased whereas levels of IL-6 were generally not enhanced. Cytokines appeared within 1-2 h of stimulation with virus or endotoxin and increased subsequently to reach maximum titres between 16 and 20 h post treatment. While levels of cytokine were much lower when...

  17. Diagnosis of gastric carcinoma and precancerosis by leucocyte adherence inhibition RIA(/sup 51/Cr-LAI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stosiek, P; Varga, A; Kasper, A; Werner, H

    1982-11-01

    23 patients with gastric cancer, 16 patients with gastric mucosa adenoma, 12 patients one year after gastrectomy due to malignancy, and 20 healthy controls were analyzed by a leucocyte adherence inhibition RIA using /sup 51/Cr as well as corresponding and non-corresponding antigens. All adenomas were endoscopically and bioptically diagnosed small size tubular adenomas. Histologic grading of dysplasias was performed in accordance with Oehlert et al. (4) by multiple biopsy or by endoscopic polypectomia. Staging of the carcinomas in accordance with the UICC followed laparoscopical, intra-operative, and histological findings. Whereas precancerous and early stages demonstrated distinct sensibility against gastric carcinoma antigen late stages reacted as healthy controls. Because of severe scattering and serious failure in single results this test can only be a diagnostic aid in early stages of gastric carcinoma.

  18. A possible role for polymorphonuclear leucocytes in the defence against recrudescent herpes simplex virus infection in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, A.S.; Miller, C.

    1978-01-01

    A 51 Cr release assay has been used to demonstrate that human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) can damage herpes simplex infected target cells sensitized with antiviral antibody. Effective sensitizing antibodies were found in both serum and saliva of all those persons tested who were subject to recurrent cold sores. PMNL were much less effective as killer cells than peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but as they are the predominant inflammatory cell within the HSVl lesion they may be, quantitatively, more important. The cytotoxic effects of both PMNL and mononuclear cells were significantly reduced by prostaglandin El as well as by several drugs that were tested. It is suggested that antibody dependent PMNL-mediated cytotoxicity may play a role in the human host defences against recrudescent herpes simplex infection. (author)

  19. Use of an autologous leucocyte and platelet-rich fibrin patch on hard-to-heal DFUs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löndahl, M; Tarnow, L.; Karlsmark, T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Leucopatch is a leukocyte and platelet-rich fibrin patch that provides concentrated blood cells and signal substances to the surface of an ulcer. It is produced by centrifugation of the patient's own venous blood. The aim of this pilot multicentre cohort study was to evaluate effects...... was applied once a week for up to 19 treatments or until the foot ulcer was completely epithelialised. The primary endpoint was healing within 20 weeks. RESULTS: Of the 60 patients who gave consent 16 were excluded during run-in period, 44 patients initiated study treatment and 39 were included in the per...... compared to non-healers. Adverse events were mild and rare. CONCLUSION: The leucocyte patch is well-tolerated, easy to use and has potential in the armamentarium of the DFU treatment, provided this outcome is confirmed in an appropriately powered randomised clinical trial....

  20. Inhibition of human polimorfonuclear leucocyte migration by clofazimine: a new pro-oxidative anti-inflammatory agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen van Rensburg, C.E.

    1986-10-01

    Preliminary studies on the in vitro and in vivo effects of clofazimine on the function of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) from normal individuals and patients with lepromatous leprosy showed that clofazimine caused a progressive dose-dependent inhibition of both random mortality of PMNL as well as migration of PMNL induced by the leucoattractant endotoxin-activated serum (EAS). The drug also increased chemiluminescence as well as hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS). These studies on clofazimine include the use of radiolabelling with 14 C, 125 I and 3 H. Clofazimine-mediated inhibition of PMNL migration is dependent on intact membrane-associated oxidative metabolism. Clofazimine is therefore a pro-oxidative anti-inflammatory agent

  1. Production of Primary Amines by Reductive Amination of Biomass-Derived Aldehydes/Ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guanfeng; Wang, Aiqin; Li, Lin; Xu, Gang; Yan, Ning; Zhang, Tao

    2017-03-06

    Transformation of biomass into valuable nitrogen-containing compounds is highly desired, yet limited success has been achieved. Here we report an efficient catalyst system, partially reduced Ru/ZrO 2 , which could catalyze the reductive amination of a variety of biomass-derived aldehydes/ketones in aqueous ammonia. With this approach, a spectrum of renewable primary amines was produced in good to excellent yields. Moreover, we have demonstrated a two-step approach for production of ethanolamine, a large-market nitrogen-containing chemical, from lignocellulose in an overall yield of 10 %. Extensive characterizations showed that Ru/ZrO 2 -containing multivalence Ru association species worked as a bifunctional catalyst, with RuO 2 as acidic promoter to facilitate the activation of carbonyl groups and Ru as active sites for the subsequent imine hydrogenation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Kinetics of prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane A2 synthesis and suppression of PHA-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awara, W; Hillier, K; Jones, D

    1986-12-01

    The immunomodulatory effects of thromboxane A2 and prostaglandin E2 on peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes stimulated with PHA in vitro, and the relationship of this to the time-course of their synthesis in culture, were investigated using prostaglandin E2, a thromboxane A2 synthesis inhibitor (UK37248), a thromboxane A2 mimic (U46619) and a thromboxane A2 receptor blocker (EP045). The inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on PHA-induced human peripheral blood mononuclear leucocyte proliferation diminishes if the addition of PGE2 is delayed. If added 4 hr after a maximum concentration of PHA (5 micrograms/ml), the effect of PGE2 was reduced by 60%. If a submaximal concentration of PHA (1 microgram/ml) was used, the effect of PGE2 was not reduced if added 4 hr later but fell by about 60% after 16 hr. UK37248 moderately inhibited PHA-induced activation while substantially inhibiting thromboxane A2 synthesis and simultaneously enhancing PGE2 synthesis. The enhanced accumulation of PGE2 occurs while sensitivity to PGE2 is dropping. U46619, exogenously applied as a thromboxane A2 mimic, inhibited PHA-induced activation at concentrations that did not significantly alter PGE2 synthesis. EP045, which may modulate the effects of endogenous thromboxane A2 by blocking receptors, did not alter PHA-induced activation. We conclude that thromboxane A2 may have a role in inhibiting PHA-induced activation on the basis of the effect of U46619. However, this study highlights difficulties in utilizing prostaglandin and thromboxane receptor and synthesis inhibitors to examine their endogenous role in the modulation of mitogen-induced activation in vitro. If sensitivity to the purported endogenous substance is limited to the early stages of culture and if only low levels are synthesized at this early stage, then blocking drugs would have little effect.

  3. Bothrops asper snake venom and its metalloproteinase BaP–1 activate the complement system. Role in leucocyte recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra H. P. Farsky

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The venom of the snake Bothrops asper, the most important poisonous snake in Central America, evokes an inflammatory response, the mechanisms of which are not well characterized. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether B. asper venom and its purified toxins – phospholipases and metalloproteinase – activate the complement system and the contribution of the effect on leucocyte recruitment. In vitro chemotaxis assays were performed using Boyden's chamber model to investigate the ability of serum incubated with venom and its purified toxins to induce neutrophil migration. The complement consumption by the venom was evaluated using an in vitro haemolytic assay. The importance of complement activation by the venom on neutrophil migration was investigated in vivo by injecting the venom into the peritoneal cavity of C5-deficient mice. Data obtained demonstrated that serum incubated with crude venom and its purified metalloproteinase BaP–1 are able to induce rat neutrophil chemotaxis, probably mediated by agent(s derived from the complement system. This hypothesis was corroborated by the capacity of the venom to activate this system in vitro. The involvement of C5a in neutrophil chemotaxis induced by venom-activated serum was demonstrated by abolishing migration when neutrophils were pre-incubated with antirat C5a receptor antibody. The relevance of the complement system in in vivo leucocyte mobilization was further demonstrated by the drastic decrease of this response in C5-deficient mice. Pre-incubation of serum with the soluble human recombinant complement receptor type 1 (sCR 1 did not prevent the response induced by the venom, but abolished the migration evoked by metalloproteinase-activated serum. These data show the role of the complement system in bothropic envenomation and the participation of metalloproteinase in the effect. Also, they suggest that the venom may contain other component(s which can cause direct activation

  4. Use of an autologous leucocyte and platelet-rich fibrin patch on hard-to-heal DFUs: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löndahl, M; Tarnow, L; Karlsmark, T; Lundquist, R; Nielsen, A M; Michelsen, M; Nilsson, A; Zakrzewski, M; Jörgensen, B

    2015-04-01

    Leucopatch is a leukocyte and platelet-rich fibrin patch that provides concentrated blood cells and signal substances to the surface of an ulcer. It is produced by centrifugation of the patient's own venous blood. The aim of this pilot multicentre cohort study was to evaluate effects of the leucocyte patch in patients with hard-to-heal diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). Non-ischaemic Wagner grade 1 or 2 DFUs with a duration of more than 6 weeks and a maximal area of 10cm² were included. Patients with >40% ulcer area change during a two-week run-in period were excluded. The treatment was applied once a week for up to 19 treatments or until the foot ulcer was completely epithelialised. The primary endpoint was healing within 20 weeks. Of the 60 patients who gave consent 16 were excluded during run-in period, 44 patients initiated study treatment and 39 were included in the per-protocol analysis. Complete epithelisation was achieved in 34% (per-protocol analysis 36%) at 12 weeks and 52% (59%) at 20 weeks. In patients with ulcer duration less than 6 months, 73% of ulcers healed within 20 weeks. Patients with healed ulcers had larger ulcer area reduction during the first two treatment weeks compared to non-healers. Adverse events were mild and rare. The leucocyte patch is well-tolerated, easy to use and has potential in the armamentarium of the DFU treatment, provided this outcome is confirmed in an appropriately powered randomised clinical trial.

  5. Theoretical study of the nucleophilic addition of oximes to the nitrile complexes trans-/cis-[ReCl4(NCCH3)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klestova-Nadeeva, E. A.; Kuznetsov, M. L.; Dement'ev, A. I.

    2005-01-01

    The reaction of nucleophilic addition of oximes (HON=CRR 1 ) to organic nitriles coordinated in the rhenium complexes trans-/cis-[ReCl 4 (NCCH 3 ) 2 ] was theoretically studied by the Hartree-Fock and density functional theory (B3LYP) methods. The reaction mechanism involves (I) the initial change of the oxime conformation; (II) the formation of the orientation complex with the coordinated nitrile molecule, which transforms into a four-membered transition state; (III) the formation of the addition product in a less stable conformation; and (IV) the formation of the ultimate addition product. The calculations make it possible to interpret the activation of nitriles in terms of the activated complex theory as a result of stabilization of the transition state in going from the free to the coordinated nitrile [ru

  6. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad; Heng, Lee Yook; Ling, Tan Ling

    2015-01-01

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study

  7. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Heng, Lee Yook [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Ling, Tan Ling [Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study.

  8. Poly(Amido Amine)s Containing Agmatine and Butanol Side Chains as Efficient Gene Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Young-Wook; Ankoné, Marc; Engbersen, Johan F J; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan

    2016-04-01

    A new type of bioreducible poly(amido amine) copolymer is synthesized by the Michael addition polymerization of cystamine bisacrylamide (CBA) with 4-aminobutylguanidine (agmatine, AGM) and 4-aminobutanol (ABOL). Since the positively charged guanidinium groups of AGM and the hydroxybutyl groups of ABOL in the side chains have shown to improve the overall transfection efficiency of poly(amido amine)s, it is hypothesized that poly(CBA-ABOL/AGM) synthesized at the optimal ratio of both components would result in high transfection efficiency and minimal toxicity. In this study, a series of the poly(CBA-ABOL/AGM) copolymers is synthesized as gene carriers. The polymers are characterized and luciferase transfection efficiencies of the polymers in various cell lines are investigated to select the ideal ratio between AGM and ABOL. The poly(CBA-ABOL/AGM) containing 80% AGM and 20% ABOL has shown the best transfection efficiency with the lowest cytotoxicity, indicating that this polymer is very promising as a potent and nontoxic gene carrier. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Detection of homing-in of stem cells labeled with technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime in infarcted myocardium after intracoronary injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Chetan D; Agarwal, Snehlata; Seth, Sandeep; Mohanty, Sujata; Aggarwal, Himesh; Gupta, Namit

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow stem cells having myogenic potential are promising candidates for various cell-based therapies for myocardial disease. We present here images showing homing of technetium-99m (Tc-99m) hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) labeled stem cells in the infarcted myocardium from a pilot study conducted to radio-label part of the stem cells in patients enrolled in a stem cell clinical trial for recent myocardial infarction

  10. /sup 13/C-/sup 13/C spin-spin coupling constants in structural investigations. I. New method of determining the configuration of oximes and their derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivdin, L.B.; Shcherbakov, V.V.; Kalabin, G.A.

    1986-07-10

    It was shown that the direct /sup 13/C-/sup 13/C spin-spin coupling constants can be used for the unambiguous identification of the configurational isomers of oximes and their derivatives. The stereospecificity of the constants is explained by the additional contribution from the unshared electron pair of the nitrogen atom to the spin-spin coupling constant between the adjacent carbon nuclei in the cis position.

  11. Application of oxime-diversification to optimize ligand interactions within a cryptic pocket of the polo-like kinase 1 polo-box domain | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    By a process involving initial screening of a set of 87 aldehydes using an oxime ligation-based strategy, we were able to achieve a several-fold affinity enhancement over one of the most potent previously known polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) polo-box domain (PBD) binding inhibitors. This improved binding may result by accessing a newly identified auxiliary region proximal to a key

  12. Solvent-free functionalization of carbon nanotube buckypaper with amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiuk, Elena V.; Ramírez-Calera, Itzel J.; Meza-Laguna, Victor; Abarca-Morales, Edgar; Pérez-Rey, Luis A.; Re, Marilena; Prete, Paola; Lovergine, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: We demonstrate the possibility of fast and efficient solvent-free functionalization of buckypaper (BP) mats prefabricated from oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-ox), by using three representative amines of different structure: one monofunctional aliphatic amine, octadecylamine (ODA), one monofunctional aromatic amine, 1-aminopyrene (AP), and one aromatic diamine, 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (DAN). The functionalization procedure, which relies on the formation of amide bonds with carboxylic groups of MWCNTs-ox, is performed at 150–180 °C under reduced pressure and takes about 4 h including auxiliary degassing. The amine-treated BP samples (BP-ODA, BP-AP and BP-DAN, respectively) were characterized by means of a variety of analytical techniques such as Fourier-transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, scanning helium ion microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The highest amine content was found for BP-ODA, and the lowest one was observed for BP-DAN, with a possible contribution of non-covalently bonded amine molecules in all three cases. Despite of some differences in spectral and morphological characteristics for amine-functionalized BP samples, they have in common a dramatically increased stability in water as compared to pristine BP and, on the other hand, a relatively invariable electrical conductivity.

  13. Ozone Promotes Chloropicrin Formation by Oxidizing Amines to Nitro Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurry, Daniel L; Quay, Amanda N; Mitch, William A

    2016-02-02

    Chloropicrin formation has been associated with ozonation followed by chlorination, but the reaction pathway and precursors have been poorly characterized. Experiments with methylamine demonstrated that ozonation converts methylamine to nitromethane at ∼100% yield. Subsequent chlorination converts nitromethane to chloropicrin at ∼50% yield under the conditions evaluated. Similarly high yields from other primary amines were limited to those with functional groups on the β-carbon (e.g., the carboxylic acid in glycine) that facilitate carbon-carbon bond cleavage to release nitromethyl anion. Secondary amines featuring these reactive primary amines as functional groups (e.g., secondary N-methylamines) formed chloropicrin at high yields, likely by facile dealkylation to release the primary nitro compound. Chloropicrin yields from tertiary amines were low. Natural water experiments, including derivatization to transform primary and secondary amines to less reactive carbamate functional groups, indicated that primary and secondary amines were the dominant chloropicrin precursors during ozonation/chlorination. Ozonation followed by chlorination of the primary amine side chain of lysine demonstrated low yields (∼0.2%) of chloropicrin, but high yields (∼17%) of dichloronitrolysine, a halonitroalkane structural analogue to chloropicrin. However, chloropicrin yields increased and dichloronitrolysine yields decreased in the absence of hydroxyl radical scavengers, suggesting that future research should characterize the potential occurrence of such halonitroalkane analogues relative to natural radical scavenger (e.g., carbonate) concentrations.

  14. Cp*Co(III) Catalyzed Site-Selective C-H Activation of Unsymmetrical O-Acyl Oximes: Synthesis of Multisubstituted Isoquinolines from Terminal and Internal Alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Yoshino, Tatsuhiko; Kanai, Motomu; Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2015-10-26

    The synthesis of isoquinolines by site-selective C-H activation of O-acyl oximes with a Cp*Co(III) catalyst is described. In the presence of this catalyst, the C-H activation of various unsymmetrically substituted O-acyl oximes selectively occurred at the sterically less hindered site, and reactions with terminal as well as internal alkynes afforded the corresponding products in up to 98 % yield. Whereas the reactions catalyzed by the Cp*Co(III) system proceeded with high site selectivity (15:1 to 20:1), use of the corresponding Cp*Rh(III) catalysts led to low selectivities and/or yields when unsymmetrical O-acyl oximes and terminal alkynes were used. Deuterium labeling studies indicate a clear difference in the site selectivity of the C-H activation step under Cp*Co(III) and Cp*Rh(III) catalysis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Amine functionalized nanodiamond promotes cellular adhesion, proliferation and neurite outgrowth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, A P; Dugan, J M; Gill, A A; Haycock, J W; Claeyssens, F; Fox, O J L; May, P W

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we report the production of amine functionalized nanodiamond. The amine functionalized nanodiamond forms a conformal monolayer on a negatively charged surface produced via plasma polymerization of acrylic acid. Nanodiamond terminated surfaces were studied as substrates for neuronal cell culture. NG108-15 neuroblastoma-glyoma hybrid cells were successfully cultured upon amine functionalized nanodiamond coated surfaces for between 1 and 7 d. Additionally, primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and Schwann cells isolated from Wistar rats were also successfully cultured over a period of 21 d illustrating the potential of the coating for applications in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. (paper)

  16. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN SELECTED WINES DURING WINEMAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Flasarová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the development of selected biogenic amines (histamine; tyramine; phenylethylamine; putrescine; agmatine; and cadaverine during the winemaking in 10 selected species grown in Central Europe in 2008. The analysis was performed using ion-exchange chromatography by the sodium-citrate buffers with the post-column ninhydrin derivatization and photometric detection. A comparison of the content of biogenic amines in red and wine varieties showed that red wines have higher concentrations of biogenic amines.

  17. Atmospheric chemistry and environmental impact of the use of amines in carbon capture and storage (CCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Claus J; Herrmann, Hartmut; Weller, Christian

    2012-10-07

    This critical review addresses the atmospheric gas phase and aqueous phase amine chemistry that is relevant to potential emissions from amine-based carbon capture and storage (CCS). The focus is on amine, nitrosamine and nitramine degradation, and nitrosamine and nitramine formation processes. A comparison between the relative importance of the various atmospheric sinks for amines, nitrosamines and nitramines is presented.

  18. Bioinspired organocatalytic aerobic C-H oxidation of amines with an ortho-quinone catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan; Zhang, Long; Lv, Jian; Luo, Sanzhong; Cheng, Jin-Pei

    2015-03-20

    A simple bioinspired ortho-quinone catalyst for the aerobic oxidative dehydrogenation of amines to imines is reported. Without any metal cocatalysts, the identified optimal ortho-quinone catalyst enables the oxidations of α-branched primary amines and cyclic secondary amines. Mechanistic studies have disclosed the origins of different performances of ortho-quinone vs para-quinone in biomimetic amine oxidations.

  19. Synthesis of a hollow fiber type porous chelating resin containing the amide oxime group by radiation induced graft polymerization for the uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Takahiro; Saito, Kyoichi; Furusaki, Shintaro; Sugo, Takanobu; Okamoto, Jiro.

    1986-01-01

    A hollow fiber type porous chelating resin containing amide oxime as a functional group was synthesized and used as an adsorbent for the recovery of uranium. Hollow fiber type porous polyethylene was used as a base polymer. Acrylonitrile was grafted onto it by the radiation-induced graft polymerization. By changing the reaction time, four kinds of graft polymer were obtained. The degree of grafting ranged from 79 % to 127 %. Each resin was soaked in hydroxylamine solution, and the cyano group was converted to amide oxime group. By elemental analysis, the amount of nitrogen introduced on the graft polymer resin in amidoximation was determined to range from 4.3 mmol to 8.5 mmol per 1 g of base polymer. Most of the nitrogen is considered to belong to the amide oxime group. The pore radius, which was initially distributed broadly from about 500 A to 10000 A for the base polymer, was changed to about 1000 A with narrow distribution by the grafting. The pore volume was 1.2 ∼ 1.4 cm 3 per 1 gram of the amide oxime resin, which was about half of that of the initial base polymer. But the pore volume per 1 g base polymer of the amide oxime resin increased with an increase in the grafting degree, e.g. 4.5 cm 3 /g base polymer at 127 % of grafting degree. Specific surface area, which was 30 m 2 /g in base polymer, decreased with an increase in the grafting degree, e.g. 15 m 2 /g at 127 % of grafting degree. Both the amounts of the adsorbed hydrochloric acid and the adsorbed copper were about 1.5 times of the amount of nitrogen introduced in the amidoximation. The reason is considered to be caused by the formation of hydroxamic acid and amide from the measurements of the IR spectra. The amount of uranium adsorbed on the resin was 64 % of the amount of nitrogen introduced in the amidoximation. (author)

  20. Efficient acetylation of primary amines and amino acids in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bDepartment of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, School of Tropical Medicine ... As a result ... methods of acetylation of amines are known using ace- ... vents we report here, environmentally benign, eco- ... It was filtered under suction,.

  1. Preparation and adsorption property of aminated cross linking ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    city and blood compatible and biocompatible. The preliminary study on the ... der reduced pressure before being used. Polyvinyl .... above, the difference of the amount of amine groups ... varying of connecting arm in length. Bilirubin mole-.

  2. Two simple amine hydrochlorides from the soft coral Lobophytum strictum

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Two simple amine hydrochlorides, viz., 1-amino-1, 1-dimethyl-3-oxo-butane hydrochloride (1) (Diacetonamine) and 2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidone hydrochloride (2) have been isolated from the fraction of the methanolic extract of the soft coral...

  3. Next Generation Life Support (NGLS): Rapid Cycle Amine Swing Bed

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swingbed has been identified as a technology with high potential to meet the stringent requirements for the next generation spacesuit's...

  4. Structure and activity of Aspergillus nidulans copper amine oxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGrath, Aaron P; Mithieux, Suzanne M; Collyer, Charles A

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans amine oxidase (ANAO) has the unusual ability among the family of copper and trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone-containing amine oxidases of being able to oxidize the amine side chains of lysine residues in large peptides and proteins. We show here that in common with the related...... enzyme from the yeast Pichia pastoris, ANAO can promote the cross-linking of tropoelastin and oxidize the lysine residues in α-casein proteins and tropoelastin. The crystal structure of ANAO, the first for a fungal enzyme in this family, has been determined to a resolution of 2.4 Å. The enzyme is a dimer...... with the archetypal fold of a copper-containing amine oxidase. The active site is the most open of any of those of the structurally characterized enzymes in the family and provides a ready explanation for its lysine oxidase-like activity....

  5. Extraction separation studies of uranium(VI) by amine oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejaz, M.

    1975-01-01

    The extraction of uranium(VI) by two amine oxides, 4-(5-nonyl)pyridine oxide and trioctylamine oxide has been studied. The extraction behavior of these two N-oxides is compared. The dependence of extraction on the type of amine oxide and acid, nature of organic diluent, and amine oxide concentration has been investigated. The influence of the concentration of the metal and salting-out agents is described. The possible mechanism of extraction is discussed in the light of the results of extraction isotherms, loading radiodata, and log-log plots of amine oxide concentration vs distribution ratio. The separation factors for a number of metal ions are reported, and the separation of uranium from some fission elements has also been achieved

  6. Silver-catalyzed synthesis of amides from amines and aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madix, Robert J; Zhou, Ling; Xu, Bingjun; Friend, Cynthia M; Freyschlag, Cassandra G

    2014-11-18

    The invention provides a method for producing amides via the reaction of aldehydes and amines with oxygen adsorbed on a metallic silver or silver alloy catalyst. An exemplary reaction is shown in Scheme 1: (I), (II), (III). ##STR00001##

  7. Amine-oxide hybrid materials for acid gas separations

    KAUST Repository

    Bollini, Praveen; Didas, Stephanie A.; Jones, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on porous silica materials functionalized with amine-containing organic species are emerging as an important class of materials for the adsorptive separation of acid gases from dilute gas streams

  8. Solvent extraction of cerium (III) with high molecular weight amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Basu, S.

    1992-01-01

    The use of high molecular weight amines in the extraction of cerium (III) as EDTA complex from neutral aqueous medium is reported. The extraction condition was optimised from the study of effects of several variables like concentration of amine and EDTA pH nature of diluents etc. The method has been applied for the determination of cerium in few mineral samples. (author). 7 refs., 5 tabs

  9. Effects of dietary amines on the gut and its vasculature

    OpenAIRE

    Broadley, Kenneth John; Anwar, Mohammad Akhtar; Herbert, Amy Angharad; Fehler, Martina; Jones, Elen M.; Davies, W. E.; Kidd, Emma Jane; Ford, William Richard

    2009-01-01

    Trace amines, including tyramine and β-phenylethylamine (β-PEA), are constituents of many foods including chocolate, cheeses and wines and are generated by so-called ‘friendly’ bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Enterococcus species, which are found in probiotics. We therefore examined whether these dietary amines could exert pharmacological effects on the gut and its vasculature. In the present study we examined the effects of tyramine and β-PEA on the contractile activity of gu...

  10. Biogenic amines in dry fermented sausages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzzi, Giovanna; Gardini, Fausto

    2003-11-15

    Biogenic amines are compounds commonly present in living organisms in which they are responsible for many essential functions. They can be naturally present in many foods such as fruits and vegetables, meat, fish, chocolate and milk, but they can also be produced in high amounts by microorganisms through the activity of amino acid decarboxylases. Excessive consumption of these amines can be of health concern because their not equilibrate assumption in human organism can generate different degrees of diseases determined by their action on nervous, gastric and intestinal systems and blood pressure. High microbial counts, which characterise fermented foods, often unavoidably lead to considerable accumulation of biogenic amines, especially tyramine, 2-phenylethylamine, tryptamine, cadaverine, putrescine and histamine. However, great fluctuations of amine content are reported in the same type of product. These differences depend on many variables: the quali-quantitative composition of microbial microflora, the chemico-physical variables, the hygienic procedure adopted during production, and the availability of precursors. Dry fermented sausages are worldwide diffused fermented meat products that can be a source of biogenic amines. Even in the absence of specific rules and regulations regarding the presence of these compounds in sausages and other fermented products, an increasing attention is given to biogenic amines, especially in relation to the higher number of consumers with enhanced sensitivity to biogenic amines determined by the inhibition of the action of amino oxidases, the enzymes involved in the detoxification of these substances. The aim of this paper is to give an overview on the presence of these compounds in dry fermented sausages and to discuss the most important factors influencing their accumulation. These include process and implicit factors as well as the role of starter and nonstarter microflora growing in the different steps of sausage production

  11. Facile and Green Synthesis of Saturated Cyclic Amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arruje Hameed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Single-nitrogen containing saturated cyclic amines are an important part of both natural and synthetic bioactive compounds. A number of methodologies have been developed for the synthesis of aziridines, azetidines, pyrrolidines, piperidines, azepanes and azocanes. This review highlights some facile and green synthetic routes for the synthesis of unsubstituted, multisubstituted and highly functionalized saturated cyclic amines including one-pot, microwave assisted, metal-free, solvent-free and in aqueous media.

  12. Calcium(ii)-catalyzed enantioselective conjugate additions of amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Brice E; Dicken, Rachel D; Redfern, Louis R; Stern, Charlotte M; Krzywicki, Greg G; Scheidt, Karl A

    2018-02-14

    The direct enantioselective chiral calcium(ii)·phosphate complex (Ca[CPA] 2 )-catalyzed conjugate addition of unprotected alkyl amines to maleimides was developed. This mild catalytic system represents a significant advance towards the general convergent asymmetric amination of α,β-unsaturated electrophiles, providing medicinally relevant chiral aminosuccinimide products in high yields and enantioselectivities. Furthermore, the catalyst can be reused directly from a previously chromatographed reaction and still maintain both high yield and selectivity.

  13. Catalyst Deactivation Reactions : The Role of Tertiary Amines Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novarino, Elena; Rios, Itzel Guerrero; van der Veer, Siebe; Meetsma, Auke; Hessen, Bart; Bouwkamp, Marco W.

    2011-01-01

    Decamethylzirconocene cation [Cp*2ZrMe](+) (2) decomposes in bromobenzene-d(5) solution to generate sigma-aryl species [Cp*Zr-2(2-C6H4Br-kappa Br,C)][B(C6F5)(4)] (3). This a-bond metathesis reaction is catalyzed by tertiary amines via a two-step mechanism, in which the amine acts as a proton relay.

  14. Production of biogenic amines in "Salamini italiani alla cacciatora PDO".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coı X0308 Sson, Jean Daniel; Cerutti, Caterina; Travaglia, Fabiano; Arlorio, Marco

    2004-06-01

    Various fermented and seasoned foods such as cheese, sauerkraut, wine, beer and meat products may contain biogenic amines. The aim of this paper was to describe the presence of some biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine) in "Salamini italiani alla cacciatora PDO", a typical fermented-ripened dry sausage widely consumed in Italy. Total level of biogenic amines in commercial samples ranged from 71 to 586 mg kg(-1). The amine recovered in higher concentrations was tyramine (372 mg kg(-1)) followed by histamine (165 mg kg(-1)). The second aim of this work was the quality control of the production in order to determine the parameters influencing the presence of biogenic amines in ripened salami. Sausages sampled for analysis during production, manipulation and ripening showed the presence of tyramine (64.4 mg kg(-1)) only after 15 days of fermentation. All investigated biogenic amines were detected in "Salamini" after 21 days of fermentation. We suggest the control of biogenic as important tool to establish the better condition of preservation of "Salamini italiani alla cacciatore PDO" during their shelf-life.

  15. STUDIES ON VINYL POLYMERIZATION WITH INITIATION SYSTEM CONTAINING AMINE DERIVATIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Kunyuan; ZHANG Jingyi; FENG Xinde(S. T. Voong)

    1983-01-01

    Two main types of amine-containing initiation systems were studied in this work. In the case of MMA polymerization initiated by BPO-amine (DMT, DHET, DMA) redox systems, it was found that the polymerization rate and colour stability of the polymer for different amine systems were in the following order: DMT≈DHET>DMA. Accordingly, BPO-DMT and BPO-DHET are effective initiators. In the case of MEMA polymerization by amine (DMT, DHET, DMA) alone, it was found that the polymerization rate and the percentage of conversion for these different amine systems were in the following order: DMT≥DHET>DMA. The polymerization rate and the percentage of conversion also increased with the increase of DMT concentration. From the kinetic investigation the rate equation of Rp=K [DMT]1/2 [MEMA]3/2 was obtained, and the overall activation energy of polymerization was calculated to be 34.3 KJ/mol (8.2 Kcal/mol). Moreover, the polymerization of MEMA in the presence of DMT was strongly inhibited by hydroquinone, indicating the polymerization being free radical in nature. From these results, the mechanism of MEMA polymerization initiated by amine was proposed.

  16. Biogenic amine formation and bacterial contribution in Natto products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bitna; Byun, Bo Young; Mah, Jae-Hyung

    2012-12-01

    Twenty-one Natto products currently distributed in Korea were analysed for biogenic amine contents and tested to determine physicochemical and bacterial contributions to biogenic amine formation. Among them, nine products (about 43%) had β-phenylethylamine or tyramine contents greater than the toxic dose (30mg/kg and 100mg/kg, respectively) of each amine, although no products showed total amounts of biogenic amines above the harmful level (1000mg/kg), which indicates that the amounts of biogenic amines in some Natto products are not within the safe level for human health. From four different Natto products, that contained noticeable levels of β-phenylethylamine and tyramine, 80 bacterial strains were isolated. All the strains were identified to be Bacillus subtilis and highly capable of producing β-phenylethylamine and tyramine. Therefore, it seems likely that the remarkable contents of β-phenylethylamine and tyramine in Natto predominantly resulted from the strains highly capable of producing those amines present in the food. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pyruvic oxime nitrification and copper and nickel resistance by a Cupriavidus pauculus, an active heterotrophic nitrifier-denitrifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Miguel; Obrzydowski, Jennifer; Ayers, Mary; Virparia, Sonia; Wang, Meijing; Stefan, Kurtis; Linchangco, Richard; Castignetti, Domenic

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrophic nitrifiers synthesize nitrogenous gasses when nitrifying ammonium ion. A Cupriavidus pauculus, previously thought an Alcaligenes sp. and noted as an active heterotrophic nitrifier-denitrifier, was examined for its ability to produce nitrogen gas (N2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) while heterotrophically nitrifying the organic substrate pyruvic oxime [CH3-C(NOH)-COOH]. Neither N2 nor N2O were produced. Nucleotide and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the organism is a member of a genus (Cupriavidus) known for its resistance to metals and its metabolism of xenobiotics. The microbe (a Cupriavidus pauculus designated as C. pauculus strain UM1) was examined for its ability to perform heterotrophic nitrification in the presence of Cu(2+) and Ni(2+) and to metabolize the xenobiotic phenol. The bacterium heterotrophically nitrified well when either 1 mM Cu(2+) or 0.5 mM Ni(2+) was present in either enriched or minimal medium. The organism also used phenol as a sole carbon source in either the presence or absence of 1 mM Cu(2+) or 0.5 mM Ni(2+). The ability of this isolate to perform a number of different metabolisms, its noteworthy resistance to copper and nickel, and its potential use as a bioremediation agent are discussed.

  18. Preparation and surface active properties of oxypropylated diol monoesters of fatty acids with an amide oxime terminal group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A. M.F.

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Locally produced non-edible oil, namely, rice bran oil (R.B.O. was utilized as starting materials for preparing new nonionic surfactant. Oxypropylated diol monoesters of linoleic and rice bran oil fatty acids were prepared. Also amide oxime derivatives were obtained. Surface active properties of these compounds were measured. Under neutral condition amide eximes served as nonionic surfactants and their properties were similar to other oxypropylated monoesters.

    Se ha utilizado un aceite no comestible de producción local, denominado, aceite de salvado de arroz (R.B.O. como materia prima para la preparación de nuevos tensioactivos no iónicos. Se prepararon diol monoésteres oxipropilados de ácido linoleico y ácidos grasos de aceite de salvado de arroz. También se obtuvieron los derivados de amido oxima. Se midieron las propiedades de tensión superficial de estos compuestos. Bajo condiciones neutras las amido eximas sirvieron como tensioactivos no iónicos y sus propiedades fueron similares a los de otros monoésteres oxipropilados.

  19. Pyruvic Oxime Nitrification and Copper and Nickel Resistance by a Cupriavidus pauculus, an Active Heterotrophic Nitrifier-Denitrifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ramirez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotrophic nitrifiers synthesize nitrogenous gasses when nitrifying ammonium ion. A Cupriavidus pauculus, previously thought an Alcaligenes sp. and noted as an active heterotrophic nitrifier-denitrifier, was examined for its ability to produce nitrogen gas (N2 and nitrous oxide (N2O while heterotrophically nitrifying the organic substrate pyruvic oxime [CH3–C(NOH–COOH]. Neither N2 nor N2O were produced. Nucleotide and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the organism is a member of a genus (Cupriavidus known for its resistance to metals and its metabolism of xenobiotics. The microbe (a Cupriavidus pauculus designated as C. pauculus strain UM1 was examined for its ability to perform heterotrophic nitrification in the presence of Cu2+ and Ni2+ and to metabolize the xenobiotic phenol. The bacterium heterotrophically nitrified well when either 1 mM Cu2+ or 0.5 mM Ni2+ was present in either enriched or minimal medium. The organism also used phenol as a sole carbon source in either the presence or absence of 1 mM Cu2+ or 0.5 mM Ni2+. The ability of this isolate to perform a number of different metabolisms, its noteworthy resistance to copper and nickel, and its potential use as a bioremediation agent are discussed.

  20. Heterocyclic amines in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliye BULGAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Heterocyclic amines (HA are the mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds which generate as a result of cooking of red meat, poultry meat and fish fillets at high temperatures. Up to 20 different HAs were detected and classified in the researches that conducted on these types of meats cooked at high temperatures. HAs are the products of Maillard reactions and the Strecker degredation of main precursors such as creatine/creatinine, aminoacid and the polysaccharides. Many physical and chemical factors effect the formation of HAs. Thus, it was reported by many researchers that utilizing coating and marination processes in addition to using natural and synthetic antioxidants and seasonings-plant extracts were effective on inhibiting/decreasing the formation of HAs. Additionally, boiling/steaming and microwave cooking methodologies were recommended instead of barbecuing, grilling or frying to inhibit/decrease the formation of HAs. The HAs formed in meat and meat products and the factors which have effects on the formation of HAs are presented in this review.

  1. Brain perfusion imaging with iodinated amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.F.

    1989-01-01

    Traditional nuclear medicine brain study using 99m Tc pertechnetate, glucoheptonate or diethlenetriaminepentacetic acid (DTPA) and planar imaging has experienced a significant decline in the past 10 years. This is mainly due to the introduction of X-ray CT and more recently the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, by which detailed morphology of the brain, including the detection of breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, can be obtained. The nuclear medicine brain imaging is only prescribed as a complementary test when X-ray CT is negative or equivocal and clinical suspicion remains. The attention of nuclear medicine brain imaging has been shifted from the detection of the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier to the study of brain function-perfusion, metabolism, and receptor binding, etc. The functional brain imaging provides diagnostic information usually unattainable by other radiological techniques. In this article, the iodinated amines as brain perfusion imaging agents are reviewed. Potential clinical application of these agents is discussed

  2. Development of I-123-labeled amines for brain studies: localization of I-123 iodophenylalkyl amines in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchell, H.S.; Baldwin, R.M.; Lin, T.H.

    1980-01-01

    Localization in rat brain of forty iodophenylalkyl amines labeled with I-123 was evaluated in an attempt to develop I-123-labeled amines useful for brain studies. For the amines studied, the highest activity in brain and the brain-to-blood activity ratios ranked p > m > o as related to iodine position on the benzene ring: for alkyl groups the rank order was α-methylethyl > ethyl > methyl > none; for N additions it was single lipophilic group > H > two lipophilic groups. It is suggested that introduction of a halogen into the ring structure of many amines results in greater concentration of the agent in brain than is seen with the nonhalogenated parent compound. The agent N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine was chosen for further study because, in the rat, it showed high brain activity (1.57%/g) and brain-blood ratio (12.6) at 5 min

  3. In vitro effects of prostaglandin E2 on leucocytes from sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) infected and not infected with the cestode Schistocephalus solidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyrev, Ivan A; Franke, Frederik; Büscher, Janine; Kurtz, Joachim; Scharsack, Jörn P

    2014-12-01

    Many helminth parasites have evolved strategies to evade the immune response of their hosts, which includes immunomodulation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is one of the best-described immunomodulators in mammalian helminth parasite infections. We hypothesized that also in teleost fish anti-helminthic immune responses are regulated via PGE2. We used a model system consisting of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus and its host, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), to investigate in vitro effects of PGE2 on head kidney leucocytes (HKL) derived from sticklebacks that were experimentally infected with S. solidus. PGE2 was tested alone or in combination with either S. solidus antigens or bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). After in vitro culture, cell viability and changes in leucocyte subpopulations (granulocytes to lymphocytes ratios) were monitored by flow cytometry and HKL were tested for their capacity to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a chemiluminescence assay. In short term (2 h) HKL cultures PGE2 did not change the total numbers of live HKL, but the production of ROS decreased significantly with high (0.1 μmol L(-1)) PGE2 concentrations. In long-term (96 h) cultures high PGE2 concentrations induced a sharp decrease of leucocytes viability, while low (0.1 pmol L(-1)) and intermediate (0.1 nmol L(-1)) concentrations of PGE2 caused elevated leucocyte viability compared to controls. This coincided with reduced ROS production in cultures with high PGE2 and elevated ROS production in cultures with low PGE2. Granulocyte to lymphocyte ratios increased with high PGE2 concentrations alone and in combination with S. solidus antigens and LPS, most prominently with HKL from S. solidus infected sticklebacks. The present study supports the hypothesis that PGE2 might be an immunomodulator in tapeworm-fish parasite-host interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Potent Humanin Analogue (HNG) Protects Germ Cells and Leucocytes While Enhancing Chemotherapy-Induced Suppression of Cancer Metastases in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, YanHe; Swerdloff, Ronald; Wan, Junxiang; Xiao, Jialin; French, Samuel; Atienza, Vince; Canela, Victor; Bruhn, Kevin W; Stone, Brian; Jia, Yue; Cohen, Pinchas; Wang, Christina

    2015-12-01

    Humanin is a peptide that is cytoprotective against stresses in many cell types. We investigated whether a potent humanin analogue S14G-humanin (HNG) would protect against chemotherapy-induced damage to normal cells without interfering with the chemotherapy-induced suppression of cancer cells. Young adult male mice were inoculated iv with murine melanoma cells. After 1 week, cancer-bearing mice were randomized to receive either: no treatment, daily ip injection of HNG, a single ip injection of cyclophosphamide (CP), or CP+HNG and killed at the end of 3 weeks. HNG rescued the CP-induced suppression of leucocytes and protected germ cell from CP-induced apoptosis. Lung metastases were suppressed by HNG or CP alone, and further suppressed by CP+HNG treatment. Plasma IGF-1 levels were suppressed by HNG with or without CP treatment. To investigate whether HNG maintains its protective effects on spermatogonial stem cells, sperm output, and peripheral leucocytes after repeated doses of CP, normal adult male mice received: no treatment, daily sc injection of HNG, 6 ip injections of CP at 5-day intervals, and the same regimens of CP+HNG and killed at the end of 4 weeks of treatment. Cauda epididymal sperm counts were elevated by HNG and suppressed by CP. HNG rescued the CP-induced suppression of spermatogonial stem cells, sperm count and peripheral leucocytes. We conclude that HNG 1) protects CP-induced loss of male germ cells and leucocytes, 2) enhances CP-induced suppression of cancer metastases, and 3) acts as a caloric-restriction mimetic by suppressing IGF-1 levels. Our findings suggest that humanin analogues may be promising adjuvants to chemotherapy.

  5. Labelling of leucocytes with colloidal technetium-99m-SnF{sub 2}: an investigation of the labelling process by autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puncher, M.R.B. [Biological Lab., Canterbury Univ. (United Kingdom); Blower, P.J. [Nuclear Medicine Dept., Kent and Canterbury Hospital, Canterbury (United Kingdom)

    1995-02-01

    Autoradiography of smears and frozen sections of labelled cell suspensions was used to study the distribution of radioactivity in and among blood cells labelled in either whole blood or leucocyte-rich plasma (LRP) with technetium-99m-SnF{sub 2} colloid. The tracer proved selective for neutrophils: the labelling probability (relative to that for erythrocytes) for each cell type in LRP (mean of five samples) was: neutrophils, 9.4; lymphocytes, 3.7; monocytes, 3.0; eosinophils 1.4; erythrocytes, 1.0. When labelling was carried out in whole blood (five samples), 74.5%{+-}8.3% of the cell-bound radioactivity was bound to erythrocytes, 13.6%{+-}6.5% to neutrophils, and 11.9%{+-}2.1% to lymphocytes, whereas in LRP (in which the leucocytes were only slightly outnumbered by erythrocytes), 76.5%{+-}14.9% of radioactivity was neutrophil bound. Labelled cells in smear autoradiographs exhibited two distinct silver grain patterns, ``diffuse``, consistent with an intracellular radioactive particle (in neutrophils), and ``focal``, consistent with a cell surface-adhering particle in direct contact with the emulsion (in other leucocyte types and erythrocytes). The phagocytic inhibitor cytochalasin B neither reduced the proportion of labelled neutrophils nor altered the labelling pattern. Neutrophils were able to scavenge radioactivity from the surface of erythrocytes. It is concluded that neutrophils bind {sup 99m}Tc-SnF{sub 2} intracellularly by phagocytosis, with high affinity; other cells become labelled at the cell surface reversibly and with lower affinity. This selectivity is high enough to permit predominantly leucocyte labelling in LRP but not in whole blood. (orig.)

  6. Transition Metal Free C-N Bond Forming Dearomatizations and Aryl C-H Aminations by in Situ Release of a Hydroxylamine-Based Aminating Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farndon, Joshua J; Ma, Xiaofeng; Bower, John F

    2017-10-11

    We outline a simple protocol that accesses directly unprotected secondary amines by intramolecular C-N bond forming dearomatization or aryl C-H amination. The method is dependent on the generation of a potent electrophilic aminating agent released by in situ deprotection of O-Ts activated N-Boc hydroxylamines.

  7. Catalytic Ester and Amide to Amine Interconversion: Nickel-Catalyzed Decarbonylative Amination of Esters and Amides by C−O and C−C Bond Activation

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Huifeng

    2017-03-15

    An efficient nickel-catalyzed decarbonylative amination reaction of aryl and heteroaryl esters has been achieved for the first time. The new amination protocol allows the direct interconversion of esters and amides into the corresponding amines and represents a good alternative to classical rearrangements as well as cross coupling reactions.

  8. Catalytic Ester and Amide to Amine Interconversion: Nickel-Catalyzed Decarbonylative Amination of Esters and Amides by C−O and C−C Bond Activation

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Huifeng; Guo, Lin; Liao, Hsuan-Hung; Cai, Yunfei; Zhu, Chen; Rueping, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    An efficient nickel-catalyzed decarbonylative amination reaction of aryl and heteroaryl esters has been achieved for the first time. The new amination protocol allows the direct interconversion of esters and amides into the corresponding amines and represents a good alternative to classical rearrangements as well as cross coupling reactions.

  9. Platelet-, leucocyte- and red cell-derived microparticles in stored whole blood, with and without leucofiltration, with and without ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shunnichi; Nollet, Kenneth E; Ngoma, Alain M; Ono, Takako; Ohto, Hitoshi

    2018-02-01

    Storage lesion, including microparticle formation, has been partially characterised in whole blood, but not in all combinations of pre-storage leucofiltration and/or irradiation. Single-donor whole blood products were processed into four subunits: with and without leucofiltration, with and without X-irradiation (25 Gy). Platelet-, leucocyte-, and erythrocyte-derived microparticles and free haemoglobin were measured periodically throughout 42 days of storage. Pre-storage leucofiltration substantially reduced platelet- and leucocyte-derived microparticle counts throughout storage. Irradiation, in contrast, had no significant effect on microparticle counts. A gate for all microparticles showed a substantial time-dependent increase in unfiltered whole blood. A time-dependent increase in free haemoglobin was greatest in unfiltered, irradiated whole blood. This study indicates that leucofiltration can prevent the formation of leucocyte- and platelet-derived microparticles, and might reduce haemolysis in irradiated whole blood, either by removing factors that provoke haemolysis, or by selective retention of senescent or effete red cells most prone to haemolysis.

  10. Recruitment of 99m-technetium- or 111-indium-labelled polymorphonuclear leucocytes in experimentally induced pyogranulomas in lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilloteau, L.; Pepin, M.; Pardon, P.; Le Pape, A. (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Nouzilly (France))

    1990-10-01

    The recruitment of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) during the development of experimental pyogranulomas induced by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was followed in nine male lambs by scintigraphic examination. Autologous blood PMNs were labelled with 99m-technetium or 111-indium and were re-injected intravenously into infected lambs. The functional properties of the labelled cells were monitored (1) in vitro by measuring their phagocytic and bactericidal activity against C. pseudotuberculosis and their chemotaxis under agarose, and (2) in vivo by following scintigraphically their capacity to accumulate in an inflammatory focus induced by intradermal injection of latex beads coated with Salmonella abortus equi lipopolysaccharide. Following inoculation of corynebacteria into the right ear of lambs, radioactive foci were observed to be localized in the right ear and in the draining lymph nodes during the 4 days following inoculation. Histopathological examination performed 32 h after inoculation confirmed the intense accumulation of PMNs at these sites. With the exception of one animal, which presented visible foci in the neck 14 days postinoculation, no radioactive foci were observed during the later phases of experimental infection, despite the presence of multiple pyogranulomas which were confirmed by bacteriological examination after necropsy of the lambs. Histopathological examination of these lesions revealed layers of fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and macrophages surrounding a necrotic centre. The results of these studies suggest that the contribution of PMNs during the chronic phase of inflammation is considerably reduced in comparison with the acute inflammatory phase of the infectious process.

  11. Effects of topical vitamin E on corneal superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase activities and polymorphonuclear leucocyte infiltration after photorefractive keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, Ayse; Bilgihan, Kamil; Yis, Ozgür; Sezer, Cem; Akyol, Gülen; Hasanreisoglu, Berati

    2003-04-01

    Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) induces free radical formation and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell infiltration in the cornea. Vitamin E is a free radical scavenger and protects the cells from reactive oxygen species. We investigated the effects of topical vitamin E on corneal PMN cell infiltration and corneal antioxidant enzyme activities after PRK. We studied four groups, each consisting of seven eyes. Group 1 were control eyes. In group 2 the corneal epithelium was removed by a blunt spatula (epithelial scrape). In group 3, corneal photoablation (59 micro m, 5 dioptres) was performed after epithelial removal (traditional PRK). In group 4 we tested the effects of topical Vitamin E after traditional PRK. Corneal tissues were removed and studied with enzymatic analysis (measurement of corneal superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities) and histologically. Stromal PMN leucocyte counts were significantly higher after mechanical epithelial removal and traditional PRK (p < 0.05). Corneal superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities decreased significantly after mechanical epithelial removal and traditional PRK (p < 0.05). In group 4, treated with vitamin E, corneal superoxide dismutase activity did not differ significantly from that in the medically non-treated groups, nor did corneal PMN cell infiltration after traditional PRK. The reduction of corneal glutathione peroxidase activity after PRK was reduced significantly after topical vitamin E treatment. Topical vitamin E treatment may be useful for reducing the harmful effects of reactive oxygen radical after epithelial scraping and PRK in that it increases corneal glutathione peroxidase activity.

  12. Recruitment of 99m-technetium- or 111-indium-labelled polymorphonuclear leucocytes in experimentally induced pyogranulomas in lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilloteau, L.; Pepin, M.; Pardon, P.; Le Pape, A.

    1990-01-01

    The recruitment of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) during the development of experimental pyogranulomas induced by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was followed in nine male lambs by scintigraphic examination. Autologous blood PMNs were labelled with 99m-technetium or 111-indium and were re-injected intravenously into infected lambs. The functional properties of the labelled cells were monitored (1) in vitro by measuring their phagocytic and bactericidal activity against C. pseudotuberculosis and their chemotaxis under agarose, and (2) in vivo by following scintigraphically their capacity to accumulate in an inflammatory focus induced by intradermal injection of latex beads coated with Salmonella abortus equi lipopolysaccharide. Following inoculation of corynebacteria into the right ear of lambs, radioactive foci were observed to be localized in the right ear and in the draining lymph nodes during the 4 days following inoculation. Histopathological examination performed 32 h after inoculation confirmed the intense accumulation of PMNs at these sites. With the exception of one animal, which presented visible foci in the neck 14 days postinoculation, no radioactive foci were observed during the later phases of experimental infection, despite the presence of multiple pyogranulomas which were confirmed by bacteriological examination after necropsy of the lambs. Histopathological examination of these lesions revealed layers of fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and macrophages surrounding a necrotic centre. The results of these studies suggest that the contribution of PMNs during the chronic phase of inflammation is considerably reduced in comparison with the acute inflammatory phase of the infectious process

  13. Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity Evaluation of Organochalcogens in Human Leucocytes: A Comparative Study between Ebselen, Diphenyl Diselenide, and Diphenyl Ditelluride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diones Caeran Bueno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organochalcogens, particularly ebselen, have been used in experimental and clinical trials with borderline efficacy. (PhSe2 and (PhTe2 are the simplest of the diaryl dichalcogenides and share with ebselen pharmacological properties. In view of the concerns with the use of mammals in studies and the great number of new organochalcogens with potential pharmacological properties that have been synthesized, it becomes important to develop screening protocols to select compounds that are worth to be tested in vivo. This study investigated the possible use of isolated human white cells as a preliminary model to test organochalcogen toxicity. Human leucocytes were exposed to 5–50 μM of ebselen, (PhSe2, or (PhTe2. All compounds were cytotoxic (Trypan’s Blue exclusion at the highest concentration tested, and Ebselen was the most toxic. Ebselen and (PhSe2 were genotoxic (Comet Assay only at 50 μM, and (PhTe2 at 5–50 μM. Here, the acute cytotoxicity did not correspond with in vivo toxicity of the compounds. But the genotoxicity was in the same order of the in vivo toxicity to mice. These results indicate that in vitro genotoxicity in white blood cells should be considered as an early step in the investigation of potential toxicity of organochalcogens.

  14. A comparison between visual and quantitative analysis in a prospective evaluation of labelled 111In leucocyte imaging in vascular infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berridge, D.C.; Frier, M.; Perkins, A.C.; Wastie, M.L.; Hopkinson, B.R.; Makin, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    In a continuing evaluation of 111 In-oxine labelled leucocyte imaging in vascular surgery, we have studied 16 patients with a clinical diagnosis of possible vascular graft infection. We have evaluated both visual and semi-quantitative analysis of the images obtained and have interpreted these in the light of the subsequent clinical outcome. Full length or multifocal uptake was seen in six patients, all of whom eventually required graft excision with two limbs surviving, and one death. These patients had a significantly higher uptake ratio than those with either localized or negative images. Of four patients showing localized uptake only, one required amputation for continuing sepsis. Six patients had negative images, and had normal DSA and CT scans. Uptake ratios could not distinguish between those with localized images and those with negative images. Computer generated vertical profiles aided separation of patients with presumed localized and negative images. Semi-quantitative analysis has proved to be a reliable method which should allow a more direct comparison of the efficacy of various investigative techniques and of the results of therapy, independent of intra-observer subjective bias. (author)

  15. The migration of 111Indium-labelled polymorphonuclear leucocytes into the oral cavity in the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scully, C.; Challacombe, S.J.

    1979-01-01

    The route of migration of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) from blood to the oral cavity was examined in rhesus monkeys. PMNL were isolated from the peripheral blood of eleven rhesus monkeys by dextran sedimentation, radiolabelled with 111 Indium and administered intravenously. Sequential samples of crevicular fluid washings (CFW), mixed and parotid saliva and mucosal washings were taken after injection of the labelled PMNL and harvested on glass fibre discs. Highest numbers of labelled PMNL were detected in CFW. CEll-associated radioactivity was detected in CFW within 20 min of injection of labelled PMNL and reached a maximal level 1 hour after injection. PMNL were found in CFW from monkeys with clinically normal gingiva but the number of labelled PMNL in CFW increased with increasing gingival index. Significant number of PMNL migrated into mixed saliva within 30 min, and low numbers of PMNL were detected in mucosal washings and in parotid saliva after 30 min. The results indicate that the migration time of the PMNL from blood to the oral cavity is less than 30 min, irrespective of the gingival index, that the gingival crevice is the main route of entry of PMNL to the oral cavity and that the numbers of PMNL migrating to the crevice increase as the gingival index rises. (author)

  16. Applications in environmental risk assessment of leucocyte apoptosis, necrosis and respiratory burst analysis on the European bullhead, Cottus sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bado-Nilles, Anne; Jolly, Sabrina; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Palluel, Olivier; Geffard, Alain

    2014-01-01

    The use of a biochemical multi-biomarker approach proved insufficient to obtain clear information about ecosystem health. The fish immune system is considered as an attractive non-specific marker for environmental biomonitoring which has direct implications in individual fitness and population growth. Thus, the present work proposes the use of fish immunomarkers together with more common biochemical biomarkers in sampling conditions optimized to reduce biomarker variability and increase parameter robustness. European bullheads (Cottus sp.) from 11 stations in the Artois-Picardie watershed (France) were sampled. In the multiple discriminant analysis, the sites were highly correlated with apoptosis, respiratory burst, GST and EROD activities. Moreover, the use together of biochemical and immune markers increased the percentage of fish correctly classed at each site and enhanced site separation. This study argues in favor of the utilization of apoptosis, necrosis and respiratory burst for the determination of environmental risk assessment in addition to the set of biochemical biomarkers commonly used in fish. -- Highlights: • Optimization of biomarker variability and parameters robustness for biomonitoring. • Adding of fish immunomarkers together with more current biochemical biomarkers. • Use of immune system allows a better evaluation of fish health. • We argue for the deployment of immunomarkers in freshwater monitoring programs. -- Attractive use of freshwater fish leucocyte non-specific immune function in environmental risk assessment according to international recommendations

  17. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of organochalcogens in human leucocytes: a comparative study between ebselen, diphenyl diselenide, and diphenyl ditelluride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caeran Bueno, Diones; Meinerz, Daiane Francine; Allebrandt, Josiane; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; dos Santos, Danúbia Bonfanti; Mariano, Douglas Oscar Ceolin; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Organochalcogens, particularly ebselen, have been used in experimental and clinical trials with borderline efficacy. (PhSe)2 and (PhTe)2 are the simplest of the diaryl dichalcogenides and share with ebselen pharmacological properties. In view of the concerns with the use of mammals in studies and the great number of new organochalcogens with potential pharmacological properties that have been synthesized, it becomes important to develop screening protocols to select compounds that are worth to be tested in vivo. This study investigated the possible use of isolated human white cells as a preliminary model to test organochalcogen toxicity. Human leucocytes were exposed to 5-50  μM of ebselen, (PhSe)2, or (PhTe)2. All compounds were cytotoxic (Trypan's Blue exclusion) at the highest concentration tested, and Ebselen was the most toxic. Ebselen and (PhSe)2 were genotoxic (Comet Assay) only at 50  μM, and (PhTe)2 at 5-50  μM. Here, the acute cytotoxicity did not correspond with in vivo toxicity of the compounds. But the genotoxicity was in the same order of the in vivo toxicity to mice. These results indicate that in vitro genotoxicity in white blood cells should be considered as an early step in the investigation of potential toxicity of organochalcogens.

  18. Interactions of opsonized immune complexes with whole blood cells: binding to erythrocytes restricts complex uptake by leucocyte populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C H; Svehag, S E; Marquart, H V

    1994-01-01

    -binding to granulocytes (PMN), monocytes and lymphocytes was inhibited by up to 46%, 61% and 48%, respectively, depending on the incubation time and the IC-concentration tested. The E-mediated inhibition of the binding to PMN was found to correlate with the average numbers of CR1 per E during the initial 15 min...... to the findings for PMN, the difference between IC-binding to monocytes in the absence and presence of E increased progressively over the 90 min observation period, suggesting that different mechanisms are involved in the late-phase IC uptake by monocytes and PMN. Lymphocytes were heterogeneous with respect to IC...... binding, the main contributors being B cells. E initially inhibited and then later enhanced the IC binding to lymphocytes, suggesting that E promote B cell uptake of C3d,g-covered IC via CR2. Our findings, that E can restrict the IC uptake by circulating leucocytes, and that an IC-induced degranulation...

  19. Determination of rate constants of N-alkylation of primary amines by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenghong

    2013-09-05

    Macromolecules containing N-diazeniumdiolates of secondary amines are proposed scaffolds for controlled nitrogen oxide (NO) release medical applications. Preparation of these compounds often involves converting primary amine groups to secondary amine groups through N-alkylation. However, N-alkylation results in not only secondary amines but tertiary amines as well. Only N-diazeniumdiolates of secondary amines are suitable for controlled NO release; therefore, the yield of secondary amines is crucial to the total NO load of the carrier. In this paper, (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used to estimate the rate constants for formation of secondary amine (k1) and tertiary amine (k2) for alkylation reagents such as propylene oxide (PO), methyl acrylate (MA), and acrylonitrile (ACN). At room temperature, the ratio of k2/k1 for the three reactions was found to be around 0.50, 0.026, and 0.0072.

  20. Detection of cometary amines in samples returned by Stardust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Sandford, S. A.

    2008-02-01

    The abundances of amino acids and amines, as well as their enantiomeric compositions, were measured in samples of Stardust comet-exposed aerogel and foil using liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection and time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS). A suite of amino acids and amines including glycine, L-alanine, β-alanine (BALA), γ-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA), ɛ-amino-n-caproic acid (EACA), ethanolamine (MEA), methylamine (MA), and ethylamine (EA) were identified in acid-hydrolyzed, hot-water extracts of these Stardust materials above background levels. With the exception of MA and EA, all other primary amines detected in cometexposed aerogel fragments C2054,4 and C2086,1 were also present in the flight aerogel witness tile that was not exposed to the comet, indicating that most amines are terrestrial in origin. The enhanced relative abundances of MA and EA in comet-exposed aerogel compared to controls, coupled with MA to EA ratios (C2054,4: 1.0 ± 0.2; C2086,1: 1.8 ± 0.2) that are distinct from preflight aerogels (E243-13C and E243-13F: 7 ± 3), suggest that these volatile amines were captured from comet Wild 2. MA and EA were present predominantly in an acid-hydrolyzable bound form in the aerogel, rather than as free primary amines, which is consistent with laboratory analyses of cometary ice analog materials. It is possible that Wild 2 MA and EA were formed on energetically processed icy grains containing ammonia and approximately equal abundances of methane and ethane. The presence of cometary amines in Stardust material supports the hypothesis that comets were an important source of prebiotic organic carbon and nitrogen on the early Earth.

  1. The ozonolysis of primary aliphatic amines in fine particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahardis, J.; Geddes, S.; Petrucci, G. A.

    2008-02-01

    The oxidative processing by ozone of the particulate amines octadecylamine (ODA) and hexadecylamine (HDA) is reported. Ozonolysis of these amines resulted in strong NO2- and NO3- ion signals that increased with ozone exposure as monitored by photoelectron resonance capture ionization aerosol mass spectrometry. These products suggest a mechanism of progressive oxidation of the particulate amines to nitroalkanes. Additionally, a strong ion signal at 125 m/z is assigned to the ion NO3- (HNO3). For ozonized mixed particles containing ODA or HDA + oleic acid (OL), with pO3≥3×10-7 atm, imine, secondary amide, and tertiary amide products were measured. These products most likely arise from reactions of amines with aldehydes (for imines) and stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCI) or secondary ozonides (for amides) from the fatty acid. The routes to amides via SCI and/or secondary ozonides were shown to be more important than comparable amide forming reactions between amines and organic acids, using azelaic acid as a test compound. Finally, direct evidence is provided for the formation of a surface barrier in the ODA + OL reaction system that resulted in the retention of OL at high ozone exposures (up to 10-3 atm for 17 s). This effect was not observed in HDA + OL or single component OL particles, suggesting that it may be a species-specific surfactant effect from an in situ generated amide or imine. Implications to tropospheric chemistry, including particle bound amines as sources of oxidized gas phase nitrogen species (e.g.~NO2, NO3), formation of nitrogen enriched HULIS via ozonolysis of amines and source apportionment are discussed.

  2. The ozonolysis of primary aliphatic amines in fine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zahardis

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative processing by ozone of the particulate amines octadecylamine (ODA and hexadecylamine (HDA is reported. Ozonolysis of these amines resulted in strong NO2 and NO3 ion signals that increased with ozone exposure as monitored by photoelectron resonance capture ionization aerosol mass spectrometry. These products suggest a mechanism of progressive oxidation of the particulate amines to nitroalkanes. Additionally, a strong ion signal at 125 m/z is assigned to the ion NO3 (HNO3. For ozonized mixed particles containing ODA or HDA + oleic acid (OL, with pO3≥3×10–7 atm, imine, secondary amide, and tertiary amide products were measured. These products most likely arise from reactions of amines with aldehydes (for imines and stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCI or secondary ozonides (for amides from the fatty acid. The routes to amides via SCI and/or secondary ozonides were shown to be more important than comparable amide forming reactions between amines and organic acids, using azelaic acid as a test compound. Finally, direct evidence is provided for the formation of a surface barrier in the ODA + OL reaction system that resulted in the retention of OL at high ozone exposures (up to 10−3 atm for 17 s. This effect was not observed in HDA + OL or single component OL particles, suggesting that it may be a species-specific surfactant effect from an in situ generated amide or imine. Implications to tropospheric chemistry, including particle bound amines as sources of oxidized gas phase nitrogen species (e.g.~NO2, NO3, formation of nitrogen enriched HULIS via ozonolysis of amines and source apportionment are discussed.

  3. Biogenic amines in Italian Pecorino cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eSchirone

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (approximately 53.727t of production. Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or thermized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA’s in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, aw, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge and the presence of cofactor. Generally, the total content of BA’s can range from about 100-2400 mg/kg, with a prevalence of toxicologically important BA’s, tyramine and histamine. The presence of BA in Pecorino cheeses is becoming increasingly important to consumers and cheese-maker alike, due to the potential threats of toxicity to humans and consequent trade implications.

  4. Yb(OTf){sub 3}-catalyzed one-pot three component synthesis for tertiary amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bum Seok; Kim, Ji Hye; Nam, Tae Kyu; Jang, Doo Ok [Dept. of Chemistry, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Tertiary amine functionality is found in many natural bioactive products such as alkaloids, amino acids, nucleic acids, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. Tertiary amines have also been used as building blocks for nitrogen-containing organic compounds and synthetic polymers. A one-pot method for direct reductive amination of aldehydes has been developed to synthesize tertiary amines using HMDS as a nitrogen source in the presence of Yb(OTf ){sub 3}. With a stoichiometric amount of HMDS, the reaction afforded the desired tertiary amines without competitive reduction of the parent carbonyl compounds. This reaction offers a convenient and efficient protocol for synthesizing aromatic and aliphatic tertiary amines under mild reaction conditions.

  5. The chemistry of amine radical cations produced by visible light photoredox catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Amine radical cations are highly useful reactive intermediates in amine synthesis. They have displayed several modes of reactivity leading to some highly sought-after synthetic intermediates including iminium ions, α-amino radicals, and distonic ions. One appealing method to access amine radical cations is through one-electron oxidation of the corresponding amines under visible light photoredox conditions. This approach and subsequent chemistries are emerging as a powerful tool in amine synthesis. This article reviews synthetic applications of amine radical cations produced by visible light photocatalysis.

  6. Chromosomal localization of the human vesicular amine transporter genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, D.; Finn, P.; Liu, Y.; Roghani, A.; Edwards, R.H.; Klisak, I.; Kojis, T.; Heinzmann, C.; Sparkes, R.S. (UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1993-12-01

    The physiologic and behavioral effects of pharmacologic agents that interfere with the transport of monoamine neurotransmitters into vesicles suggest that vesicular amine transport may contribute to human neuropsychiatric disease. To determine whether an alteration in the genes that encode vesicular amine transport contributes to the inherited component of these disorders, the authors have isolated a human cDNA for the brain transporter and localized the human vesciular amine transporter genes. The human brain synaptic vesicle amine transporter (SVAT) shows unexpected conservation with rat SVAT in the regions that diverge extensively between rat SVAT and the rat adrenal chromaffin granule amine transporter (CGAT). Using the cloned sequences with a panel of mouse-human hybrids and in situ hybridization for regional localization, the adrenal CGAT gene (or VAT1) maps to human chromosome 8p21.3 and the brain SVAT gene (or VAT2) maps to chromosome 10q25. Both of these sites occur very close to if not within previously described deletions that produce severe but viable phenotypes. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Metal and base free synthesis of primary amines via ipso amination of organoboronic acids mediated by [bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodo]benzene (PIFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nachiketa; Goswami, Avijit

    2015-08-07

    A metal and base free synthesis of primary amines has been developed at ambient temperature through ipso amination of diversely functionalized organoboronic acids, employing a combination of [bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodo]benzene (PIFA)-N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and methoxyamine hydrochloride as the aminating reagent. The amines were primarily obtained as their trifluoroacetate salts which on subsequent aqueous alkaline work up provided the corresponding free amines. The combination of PIFA-NBS is found to be the mildest choice compared to the commonly used strong bases (e.g. n-BuLi, Cs2CO3) for activating the aminating agent. The reaction is expected to proceed via activation of the aminating reagent followed by B-N 1,2-aryl migration.

  8. Application of oxime-diversification to optimize ligand interactions within a cryptic pocket of the polo-like kinase 1 polo-box domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue Zhi; Hymel, David; Burke, Terrence R

    2016-10-15

    By a process involving initial screening of a set of 87 aldehydes using an oxime ligation-based strategy, we were able to achieve a several-fold affinity enhancement over one of the most potent previously known polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) polo-box domain (PBD) binding inhibitors. This improved binding may result by accessing a newly identified auxiliary region proximal to a key hydrophobic cryptic pocket on the surface of the protein. Our findings could have general applicability to the design of PBD-binding antagonists. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Evaluation and Computational Characterization of the Faciliated Transport of Glc Carbon C-1 Oxime Reactivators Across a Blood Brain Barrier Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    blood brain barrier (BBB) to reactivate inhibited brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE). We selected glucose (Glc) transporters (GLUT) for this purpose as...Eur. J. Pharm. 332 (1997) 43–52. [4] N.J. Abbott , L. Ronnback, E. Hansson, Astrocyte-endothelial interactions at the blood –brain barrier, Nat. Rev...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER oxime reactivators across a blood brain barrier model 5b. GRANT NUMBER 1.E005.08.WR 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  10. Detection of amines with extended distyrylbenzenes by strip assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpf, Jan; Freudenberg, Jan; Fletcher, Katharyn; Dreuw, Andreas; Bunz, Uwe H F

    2014-07-18

    We herein describe the synthesis and property evaluation of three novel aldehyde-substituted pentameric phenylenevinylenes carrying branched oligo(ethylene glycol) (swallowtail, Sw) substituents. The targets were synthesized by a combination of Heck coupling and Wittig or Horner reactions of suitable precursor modules. If the pentameric phenylenevinylene carries only two of these Sw substituents, it is no longer water-soluble. When six of the Sw substituents are attached, regardless of their position, the pentameric phenylenevinylenes are well water-soluble. The dialdehydes were investigated with respect to their amine-sensing capabilities both in water as well as in the solid state, sprayed onto thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates (alox, silica gel, reversed phase silica gel). The recognition of amine vapors using the sprayed-on phenylenevinylene dialdehydes is superb and allows the identification of different amines on regular silica TLC plates via color changes, analyzed by a statistical tool, the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) protocol.

  11. Clustering of amines and hydrazines in atmospheric nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyang; Qu, Kun; Zhao, Hailiang; Ding, Lei; Du, Lin

    2016-06-01

    It has been proved that the presence of amines in the atmosphere can enhance aerosol formation. Hydrazine (HD) and its substituted derivatives, monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), which are organic derivatives of amine and ammonia, are common trace atmospheric species that may contribute to the growth of nucleation clusters. The structures of the hydrazine and amine clusters containing one or two common nucleation molecules (ammonia, water, methanol and sulfuric acid) have been optimized using density functional theory (DFT) methods. The clusters growth mechanism has been explored from the thermochemistry by calculating the Gibbs free energies of adding an ammonia, water, methanol or sulfuric acid molecule step by step at room temperature, respectively. The results show that hydrazine and its derivatives could enhance heteromolecular homogeneous nucleation in the earth's atmosphere.

  12. Enzymatic network for production of ether amines from alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacio, Cyntia M.; Crismaru, Ciprian G.; Bartsch, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    We constructed an enzymatic network composed of three different enzymes for the synthesis of valuable ether amines. The enzymatic reactions are interconnected to catalyze the oxidation and subsequent transamination of the substrate and to provide cofactor recycling. This allows production...... of the desired ether amines from the corresponding ether alcohols with inorganic ammonium as the only additional substrate. To examine conversion, individual and overall reaction equilibria were established. Using these data, it was found that the experimentally observed conversions of up to 60% observed...... for reactions containing 10mM alcohol and up to 280mM ammonia corresponded well to predicted conversions. The results indicate that efficient amination can be driven by high concentrations of ammonia and may require improving enzyme robustness for scale-up....

  13. Protective human leucocyte antigen haplotype, HLA-DRB1*01-B*14, against chronic Chagas disease in Bolivia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia del Puerto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease, caused by the flagellate parasite Trypanosoma cruzi affects 8-10 million people in Latin America. The mechanisms that underlie the development of complications of chronic Chagas disease, characterized primarily by pathology of the heart and digestive system, are not currently understood. To identify possible host genetic factors that may influence the clinical course of Chagas disease, Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA regional gene polymorphism was analyzed in patients presenting with differing clinical symptoms. METHODOLOGY: Two hundred and twenty nine chronic Chagas disease patients in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, were examined by serological tests, electrocardiogram (ECG, and Barium enema colon X-ray. 31.4% of the examinees showed ECG alterations, 15.7% megacolon and 58.1% showed neither of them. A further 62 seropositive megacolon patients who had undergone colonectomy due to acute abdomen were recruited. We analyzed their HLA genetic polymorphisms (HLA-A, HLA-B, MICA, MICB, DRB1 and TNF-alpha promoter region mainly through Sequence based and LABType SSO typing test using LUMINEX Technology. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The frequencies of HLA-DRB1*01 and HLA-B*14:02 were significantly lower in patients suffering from megacolon as well as in those with ECG alteration and/or megacolon compared with a group of patients with indeterminate symptoms. The DRB1*0102, B*1402 and MICA*011 alleles were in strong Linkage Disequilibrium (LD, and the HLA-DRB1*01-B*14-MICA*011 haplotype was associated with resistance against chronic Chagas disease. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of HLA haplotype association with resistance to chronic Chagas disease.

  14. Activated leucocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) regulates T cell responses in a murine model of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y S; Kim, M N; Lee, K E; Hong, J Y; Oh, M S; Kim, S Y; Kim, K W; Sohn, M H

    2018-05-01

    Food allergy is a major public health problem. Studies have shown that long-term interactions between activated leucocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, and CD6, a co-stimulatory molecule, influence immune responses. However, there are currently no studies on the functions of ALCAM in food allergy. Therefore, we aimed to identify the functions of ALCAM in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced food allergy using ALCAM-deficient mice. Wild-type (WT) and ALCAM-deficient (ALCAM -/- ) mice were sensitized intraperitoneally and with orally fed OVA. The mice were killed, and parameters related to food allergy and T helper type 2 (Th2) immune responses were analysed. ALCAM serum levels increased and mRNA expression decreased in OVA-challenged WT mice. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E levels, Th2 cytokine mRNA and histological injuries were higher in OVA-challenged WT mice than in control mice, and these were attenuated in ALCAM -/- mice. T cell proliferation of total cells, CD3 + CD4 + T cells and activated T cells in immune tissues were diminished in OVA-challenged ALCAM -/- mice. Proliferation of co-cultured T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) was decreased by the anti-CD6 antibody. In addition, WT mice sensitized by adoptive transfer of OVA-pulsed ALCAM -/- BM-derived DCs showed reduced immune responses. Lastly, serum ALCAM levels were higher in children with food allergy than in control subjects. In this study, serum levels of ALCAM were elevated in food allergy-induced WT mice and children with food allergy. Moreover, immune responses and T cell activation were attenuated in OVA-challenged ALCAM -/- mice. These results indicate that ALCAM regulates food allergy by affecting T cell activation. © 2018 British Society for Immunology.

  15. Molecular recognition of chromophore molecules to amine terminated surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Perez, Rosangelly; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2007-01-01

    We report the design and characterization of quartz surfaces that can bind to three retinal based chromophores. The amine terminated surfaces were engineered in order to mimic the environment of the opsin protein that accommodates binding of chromophore molecules in the human eye. Each surface coupling step was characterized by water contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission infrared spectroscopy. The spectroscopic techniques confirmed that the three chromophore molecules can bind to the surface using a Schiff base mode. Our data suggests that the availability of the amine groups on the surface is critical in the accommodation of the binding of different chromophores

  16. Determination of Biogenic Amines in Different Shrimp Species for Export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myat Myat Thaw; Oo Aung; Aung Myint; Bisswanger, Hans

    2004-06-01

    This study is part of the project on the ''Quality Assurance of Different Shrimp Species for Export''. Local shrimp samples were collected from Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries and various private enterprises. Contents of biogenic amines were determined by using benzoyl chloride derivatization method with HPLC (reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography). Based on the biogenic amines, quality index of shrimps were correlated with freshness index so that the grade of shrimp samples can be classified as excellent, good, and acceptable. All sizes of shrimps such as extra large, large, medium were found to excceptable respectively

  17. Mesoporous amine-bridged polysilsesquioxane for CO2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng

    2011-01-01

    A novel class of amine-supported sorbents based on amine-bridged mesoporous polysilsesquioxane was developed via a simple one-pot sol-gel process. The new sorbent allows the incorporation of a large amount of active groups without sacrificing surface area or pore volume available for CO2 capture, leading to a CO2 capture capacity of 3.2 mmol g−1 under simulated flue gas conditions. The sorbent is readily regenerated at 100°C and exhibits good stability over repetitive adsorption-desorption cycling.

  18. A Catalyst-Free Amination of Functional Organolithium Reagents by Flow Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejin; Yonekura, Yuya; Yoshida, Jun-Ichi

    2018-04-03

    Reported is the electrophilic amination of functional organolithium intermediates with well-designed aminating reagents under mild reaction conditions using flow microreactors. The aminating reagents were optimized to achieve efficient C-N bond formation without using any catalyst. The electrophilic amination reactions of functionalized aryllithiums were successfully conducted under mild reaction conditions, within 1 minute, by using flow microreactors. The aminating reagent was also prepared by the flow method. Based on stopped-flow NMR analysis, the reaction time for the preparation of the aminating reagent was quickly optimized without the necessity of work-up. Integrated one-flow synthesis consisting of the generation of an aryllithium, the preparation of an aminating reagent, and their combined reaction was successfully achieved to give the desired amine within 5 minutes of total reaction time. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Monomers for thermosetting and toughening epoxy resins. [glycidyl amine derivatives, propargyl-containing amines, and mutagenic testing of aromatic diamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Eight glycidyl amines were prepared by alkylating the parent amine with epichlorohydrin to form chlorohydrin, followed by cyclization with aqueous NaOH. Three of these compounds contained propargyl groups with postcuring studies. A procedure for quantitatively estimating the epoxy content of these glycidyl amines was employed for purity determination. Two diamond carbonates and several model propargly compounds were prepared. The synthesis of three new diamines, two which contain propargyloxy groups, and another with a sec-butyl group is in progress. These materials are at the dinitro stage ready for the final hydrogenation step. Four aromatic diamines were synthesized for mutagenic testing purposes. One of these compounds rapidly decomposes on exposure to air.

  20. A protocol for amide bond formation with electron deficient amines and sterically hindered substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Maria E; Pandey, Sunil K; Christiansen, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    A protocol for amide coupling by in situ formation of acyl fluorides and reaction with amines at elevated temperature has been developed and found to be efficient for coupling of sterically hindered substrates and electron deficient amines where standard methods failed.......A protocol for amide coupling by in situ formation of acyl fluorides and reaction with amines at elevated temperature has been developed and found to be efficient for coupling of sterically hindered substrates and electron deficient amines where standard methods failed....

  1. Thermal properties of wood reacted with a phosphorus pentoxide–amine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Lin Lee; George C. Chen; Roger M. Rowell

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research was to improve the fire-retardant properties of wood in one treatment using a phosphorus pentoxide–amine system. Phosphorus pentoxide and 16 amines including alkyl, halophenyl, and phenyl amines were compounded in N,N-dimethylformamide and the resulting solutions containing phosphoramides were reacted with wood. The characteristics of...

  2. Copper(II)-catalyzed electrophilic amination of quinoline N-oxides with O-benzoyl hydroxylamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Jia, Chunqi; Sun, Kai; Lv, Yunhe; Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Kexiao; Wu, Hankui

    2015-03-21

    Copper acetate-catalyzed C-H bond functionalization amination of quinoline N-oxides was achieved using O-benzoyl hydroxylamine as an electrophilic amination reagent, thereby affording the desired products in moderate to excellent yields. Electrophilic amination can also be performed in good yield on a gram scale.

  3. Blue Chitin columns for the extraction of heterocyclic amines from urine samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, J.; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Skog, K.

    2004-01-01

    During normal cooking of meat, a class of mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds called heterocyclic amines is formed. Heterocyclic amines are rapidly absorbed and metabolised in the human body, and for estimation of the intake of heterocyclic amines, it is useful to determinate their levels in the uri...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a... a fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject to reporting...

  5. Synthesis and 5α-Reductase Inhibitory Activity of C21 Steroids Having 1,4-diene or 4,6-diene 20-ones and 4-Azasteroid 20-Oximes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsook Ma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and evaluation of 5α-reductase inhibitory activity of some 4-azasteroid-20-ones and 20-oximes and 3β-hydroxy-, 3β-acetoxy-, or epoxy-substituted C21 steroidal 20-ones and 20-oximes having double bonds in the A and/or B ring are described. Inhibitory activity of synthesized compounds was assessed using 5α-reductase enzyme and [1,2,6,7-3H]testosterone as substrate. All synthesized compounds were less active than finasteride (IC50: 1.2 nM. Three 4-azasteroid-2-oximes (compounds 4, 6 and 8 showed good inhibitory activity (IC50: 26, 10 and 11 nM and were more active than corresponding 4-azasteroid 20-ones (compounds 3, 5 and 7. 3β-Hydroxy-, 3β-acetoxy- and 1α,2α-, 5α,6α- or 6α,7α-epoxysteroid-20-one and -20-oxime derivatives having double bonds in the A and/or B ring showed no inhibition of 5α-reductase enzyme.

  6. METALCOMPLEXES OF TELLURIUM-CONTAINING AMINES AND AZOMETINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abakarov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article methods of synthesis and reactionary ability of metalcomplexes of tellurium-containing amines, azometines, of a problem of competitive coordination with use of the principle of "soft" and "rigid" acids and the bases (R. Pearson.

  7. Cloud condensation nuclei activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The resulting particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate ...

  8. Cytocompatibility of amine functionalized carbon nanoparticles grafted on polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Žáková, Pavlína, E-mail: pavlina.zakova@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Slepičková Kasálková, Nikola [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Kolská, Zdeňka [Faculty of Science, J. E. Purkyně University, Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Leitner, Jindřich [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Karpíšková, Jana; Stibor, Ivan [Institute for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and Innovation, Technical University of Liberec (Czech Republic); Slepička, Petr; Švorčík, Václav [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2016-03-01

    Five types of amide–amine Carbon Nano-Particles (CNPs) were prepared by functionalization of CNPs and characterized by several analytical methods. The successful grafting of amines on CNPs was verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), organic elemental analysis and electrokinetic analysis. The size and morphology of CNPs were determined from transmission electron microscopy. The surface area and porosity of CNPs were examined by adsorption and desorption isotherms. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate thermal stability of CNPs. The amount of bonded amine depends on its dimensionality arrangement. Surface area and pore volumes of CNPs decrease several times after individual amino-compound grafting. Selected types of functionalized CNPs were grafted onto a plasma activated surface of HDPE. The successful grafting of CNPs on the polymer surface was verified by XPS. Wettability was determined by contact angle measurements. Surface morphology and roughness were studied by atomic force microscopy. A dramatic decrease of contact angle and surface morphology was observed on CNP grafted polymer surface. Cytocompatibility of modified surfaces was studied in vitro, by determination of adhesion, proliferation and viability of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Grafting of CNPs onto the polymer surface has a positive effect on the adhesion, proliferation and viability of VSMCs. - Highlights: • Amine functionalized CNPs were successfully grafted on HDPE surface. • Significant change to the positive zeta potential for grafted CNPs was induced. • Grafting of CNPs significantly enhanced cell cytocompatibility and viability. • Homogeneous distribution of cells with correct size was achieved.

  9. Effects of amine fluoride on biofilm growth and salivary pellicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mei, HC; Engels, E; de Vries, Jacob; Busscher, HJ

    2008-01-01

    The amine fluoride (AmF) N'-octadecyltrimethylendiamine-N, N,N'-tris(2-ethanol)-dihydrofluoride is a cationic antimicrobial which can have beneficial effects on plaque formation. Here, we determine changes in pellicle and bacterial cell surface properties of the strains Actinomyces naeslundii HM1,

  10. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... methods for protecting against such risk, into an MSDS as described in § 721.72(c) within 90 days from the..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... manner or method of manufacture, import, or processing associated with any use of this substance without...

  11. Efficient acetylation of primary amines and amino acids in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This effort represents the first efficient use of this most reactive but cheap acetylating agent to acetylate amines in excellent yields in aqueous medium. This is a potentially useful green chemical transformation where reaction takes place in environment-friendly brine solution leading to easy work-up and isolation of the ...

  12. Electrochemical degradation of aromatic amines on BDD electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, M.J.; Santos, V.; Ciriaco, L.; Lopes, A.

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of four aromatic amines, with different substituent groups, 3-amino-4-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzenesulfonic acid (A1), 5-amino-2-methoxybenzenesulfonic acid (A2), 2,4-dihydroxyaniline hydrochloride (A3) and benzene-1,4-diamine (A4), was performed using as anode a boron-doped diamond electrode, commercially available at Adamant Technologies. Tests were run at room temperature with model solutions of the different amines, with concentrations of 200 ppm, using as electrolyte 0.035 M Na 2 SO 4 aqueous solutions, in a batch cell with recirculation, at different current densities (200 and 300 A m -2 ). The following analyses were performed with the samples collected during the assays: UV-Vis spectrophotometry, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldahl nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, nitrates and HPLC. Results have shown a good electrodegradation of all the amines tested, with COD removals, after 6 h assays, higher than 90% and TOC removals between 60 and 80%. Combustion efficiency (η C ), which measures the tendency to convert organic carbon to CO 2 , was also determined for all the amines, being η CA1 CA2 CA3 CA4 = 0.99.

  13. Electrodeposition of amine-terminatedpoly(ethylene glycol) to titanium surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yuta; Doi, Hisashi; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Hiromoto, Sachiko; Yoneyama, Takayuki; Asami, Katsuhiko; Imai, Hachiro; Hanawa, Takao

    2007-01-01

    The immobilization of poly(ethylene glycol), PEG, to a solid surface is useful to functionalize the surface, e.g., to prevent the adsorption of proteins. No successful one-stage technique for the immobilization of PEG to base metals has ever been developed. In this study, PEG in which both terminals or one terminal had been modified with amine bases was immobilized onto a titanium surface using electrodeposition. PEG was dissolved in a NaCl solution, and electrodeposition was carried out at 310 K with - 5 V for 300 min. The thickness of the deposited PEG layer was evaluated using ellipsometry, and the bonding manner of PEG to the titanium surface was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy after electrodeposition. The results indicated that a certain amount of PEG was adsorbed on titanium through both electrodeposition and immersion when PEG was terminated by amine. However, terminated amines existed at the surface of titanium and were combined with titanium oxide as N-HO by electrodeposition, while amines randomly existed in the molecule and showed an ionic bond with titanium oxide by immersion. The electrodeposition of PEG was effective for the inhibition of albumin adsorption. This process is useful for materials that have electroconductivity and a complex morphology

  14. Enzymatic network for production of ether amines from alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palacio, Cyntia M.; Crismaru, Gica Ciprian; Bartsch, Sebastian; Navickas, Vaidotas; Ditrich, Klaus; Breuer, Michael; Abu, Rohana; Woodley, John; Baldenius, Kai-Uwe; Wu, Bian; Janssen, Dick

    We constructed an enzymatic network composed of three different enzymes for the synthesis of valuable ether amines. The enzymatic reactions are interconnected to catalyze the oxidation and subsequent transamination of the substrate and to provide cofactor recycling. This allows production of the

  15. Amides and Hydrazides from Amine and Hydrazine Hydrochlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shama, Sami A.; Tran, Thuan L.

    1978-01-01

    This safe and efficient procedure for the synthesis of N-substituted amides and hydrazides is a modification of the Schotten-Bausmann procedure in which the amine or hydrazide is replaced by the corresponding hydrochloride salt, and the use of alkali is eliminated. (Author/BB)

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterisation of amine-templated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrothermal synthesis and characterisation of amine-templated metal phosphate framework. ... The complexes were thermally stable up to 3000C, after which the organic components starts decomposing. The solubility test in a wide spectrum of solvents (at room temperature) showed that the complexes were insoluble in ...

  17. Products of tungstate ion interaction with primary aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrylev, L.D.; Sejfullina, I.I.; Purich, A.N.; Babinets, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    Using the methods of conductometric titration, IR-spectroscopic and thermographic analyses precipitates formed in the process of interaction of diluted aqueous solutions of sodium tungstate with alcoholic solutions of dodecyl-, tetradecyl- and octadecylamine have been studied. It is shown that as a result of interaction tungstates of corresponding amines are formed. The structure and thermal stability of singled out products are determined

  18. Understanding the political economy of contemporary Africa | Amin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further readings, offering a critique of 'post modernist' sociology and cultural studies (see, for instance, Samir Amin, The Liberal Virus, Pluto 2004, pages 19 et seq.) complete the picture of the ongoing intellectual disaster. CODESRIA constitutes an important intellectual locus conducting real open debates with a strong ...

  19. 99mTc-HMPAO labeled leucocyte, 99mTc-labeled antigranulocyte antibody and 67Ga scintigraphy in the evaluation of painful hip and knee prosthetic replacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.; Pereira, L.; Joao, F.; Lima, J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To evaluate the utility of 99mTc-HMPAO labeled leucocyte, 99mTc-labeled anti-granulocyte antibody and 67Ga scintigraphy in patients suspected to have infected hip and knee replacements, from March/1998 to March/ 2002. Methods: Retrospective study of 33 patients (12 male, 21 female) with an average age of 61,1 ± 7,3 years. Nineteen had hip replacements and 14 were submitted to knee replacements. 99mTc-HMPAO labeled leucocyte scintigraphy was performed in 17 patients, 99mTc-labeled anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy in 13 patients and 67Ga scintigraphy in 3 patients. Twenty-six patients were also submitted to 3-phase 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Results were compared to those from studies with infection/inflammation agents. Concordant positive studies were considered to be a positive result for infection. A second study using 67Ga was also performed in 3 patients. Results: Diagnosis was based on surgical findings in 14 patients, pathologic study of biopsy specimen in 1 case and clinical/ imaging follow-up in 18 patients. Infection was detected in 22 cases and absent in 11. The conjoined evaluation of scintigraphic studies considered infection to be present in 20 cases and absent in 13. With infection/inflammation agents, 20 cases were positive (+) and 13 cases were negative (-). Using 99mTc-HMPAO labeled leucocytes, 12 cases were (+) and 5 cases were (-). With 99mTc-labeled anti-granulocyte antibodies, 8 cases were (+) and 5 were (-). With 67Ga, all 3 cases were (-). In patients with (+) studies using infection/ inflammation agents, a false positive case with 99mTc-HMPAO labeled leucocytes was reported. Two false negative cases were detected, both with 99mTc-labeled antigranulocyte antibodies, in patients with (-) studies. Regarding the studies with 99mTc-MDP, 24 were (+) and 2 were (-). Eighteen of these (+) cases were also (+) in studies with infection/inflammation agents, but 6 were (-) with these agents. Negative cases were also (-) in

  20. Maillard reaction of lactose and fluoxetine hydrochloride, a secondary amine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, D D; Baertschi, S W; Johnson, R A; Maple, S R; Miller, M S; Hallenbeck, D K; Gregg, S M

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of commercially available generic formulations of fluoxetine HCl revealed the presence of lactose as the most common excipient. We show that such formulations are inherently less stable than formulations with starch as the diluent due to the Maillard reaction between the drug, a secondary amine hydrochloride, and lactose. The Amadori rearrangement product was isolated and characterized; the characterization was aided by reduction with sodium borohydride and subsequent characterization of this reduced adduct. The lactose-fluoxetine HCl reaction was examined in aqueous ethanol and in the solid state, in which factors such as water content, lubricant concentration, and temperature were found to influence the degradation. N-Formylfluoxetine was identified as a major product of this Maillard reaction and it is proposed that N-formyl compounds be used as markers for this drug-excipient interaction since they are easy to prepare synthetically. Many characteristic volatile products of the Maillard reaction have been identified by GC/MS, including furaldehyde, maltol, and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4 H-pyran-4-one. Close similarity between the degradation products of simple mixtures and formulated generic products was found; however, at least one product decomposed at a rate nearly 10 times that predicted from the simple models. Maillard products have also been identified in unstressed capsules. The main conclusion is that drugs which are secondary amines (not just primary amines as sometimes reported) undergo the Maillard reaction with lactose under pharmaceutically relevant conditions. This finding should be considered during the selection of excipients and stability protocols for drugs which are secondary amines or their salts, just as it currently is for primary amines.

  1. Regularities of synthesis and mechanism of polycondensation of aromatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matnishyan, Hagob

    2002-01-01

    Full text.Aniline polymers and its derivatives are widely used in modern electronics, electrical engineering and manufacturing of various appliances. They are used for production of electrical power sources, probes and sensors, composite materials absorbing high frequency radiations, anticorrosion coatings, nonlinear optical devices-such as lasers, cathode ray tubes, photodiodes etc. Such a wide usage of aromatic amine polymers brings up new demands to their structure and properties, which is dependent on conditions of synthesis and forming of the hard phase. The presented article describes regularities and mechanisms of oxidative polycondensation of aromatic amines. Several types of polymers have been synthesized by chemical and electrochemical oxidation of aniline and its chlor-, brom-, iodo-, nitro-, p-substituted derivatives; diphenylamine, benzidine and phenylenediamines in nonwater media. On the basis of kinetic and electrochemical studies and literature analysis we suggested a mechanism of polycondensation of aromatic amines. According to it, oxidation of amines starts with the electron transfer with cation-radical formation on the first stage, which stabilizes in acid environments due to complex formation with initial amine. Dimer formation and further growth of chain takes place upon another electron transfer from formed complex, which results in forming of macromolecules. We also suggested a scheme for obtaining of structures defect in media assisting in deprotonizing of cation radicals and formation of arylamine radical centers. Those processes lead to formation of azo- and diphenyl fragments in the main chain of the polymer and predetermine the possibility of chain disruption. We also considered reactions leading to formation of branched polymers and cyclic structures, such as phenazine in particular. The peculiarity of electrochemical process lies in regulation of concentration of active centres on the positive electrode surface

  2. Transglutaminase-catalyzed amination of pea protein peptides using the biogenic amines histamine and tyramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinyao; Hrynets, Yuliya; Betti, Mirko

    2017-06-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are produced by the enzymatic decarboxylation of amino acids, and are well-known for their toxicity to humans. This study describes a new method using microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) to covalently link BAs such as histamine (HIS) and tyramine (TYR) to the glutamine residues of alcalase-hydrolyzed pea protein (PPH). The incubation of PPH and HIS and TYR in the presence of MTGase at 37 °C led to the formation of conjugates, as determined by liquid chromatography, after derivatization with dansyl chloride. Seventy-six % of HIS and 65% of TYR were covalently incorporated to PPH by MTGase. The incubation of PPH and TYR in the presence of MTGase exhibited a 52% DPPH radical scavenging activity at 10 mg mL -1 . Conjugation via MTGase improved the antioxidant status by reducing lipid peroxidation. This study emphasizes that the application of MTGase can effectively reduce histamine and tyramine content while simultaneously enhancing antioxidative capacity of PPH. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Radiolabelled leucocyte scintigraphy versus conventional radiological imaging for the management of late, low-grade vascular prosthesis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erba, P A; Leo, G; Sollini, M; Tascini, C; Boni, R; Berchiolli, R N; Menichetti, F; Ferrari, M; Lazzeri, E; Mariani, G

    2014-02-01

    In this study we evaluated the diagnostic performance of (99m)Tc-HMPAO-leucocyte ((99m)Tc-HMPAO-WBC) scintigraphy in a consecutive series of 55 patients (46 men and 9 women, mean age 71 ± 9 years, range 50 - 88 years) with a suspected late or a low-grade late vascular prosthesis infection (VPI), also comparing the diagnostic accuracy of WBC with that of other radiological imaging methods. All patients suspected of having VPI underwent clinical examination, blood tests, microbiology, US and CT, and were classified according to the Fitzgerald criteria. A final diagnosis of VPI was established in 47 of the 55 patients, with microbiological confirmation after surgical removal of the prosthesis in 36 of the 47. In the 11 patients with major contraindications to surgery, the final diagnosis was based on microbiology and clinical follow-up of at least 18 months. (99m)Tc-HMPAO-WBC planar, SPECT and SPECT/CT imaging identified VPI in 43 of 47 patients (20 of these also showed infection at extra-prosthetic sites). In the remaining eight patients without VPI, different sites of infections were found. The use of SPECT/CT images led to a significant reduction in the number of false-positive findings in 37% of patients (sensitivity and specificity 100 %, versus 85.1% and 62.5% for stand-alone SPECT). Sensitivity and specificity were 34% and 75% for US, 48.9% and 83.3% for CT, and 68.1% and 62.5% for the FitzGerald classification. Perioperative mortality was 5.5%, mid-term mortality 12%, and long-term mortality 27%. Survival rates were similar in patients treated with surgery and antimicrobial therapy compared to patients treated with antimicrobial therapy alone (61% versus 63%, respectively), while infection eradication at 12 months was significantly higher following surgery (83.3% versus 45.5%). (99m)Tc-HMPAO-WBC SPECT/CT is useful for detecting, localizing and defining the extent of graft infection in patients with late and low-grade late VPI with inconclusive

  4. Radiolabelled leucocyte scintigraphy versus conventional radiological imaging for the management of late, low-grade vascular prosthesis infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erba, P.A. [University of Pisa, and University Hospital of Pisa, Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Translational Research and Advanced Technology in Medicine, Pisa (Italy); University of Pisa, Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Leo, G. [ASL Lecce, U.O. Gestione Rapporti Convenzionali, U.O. Chirurgia Generale, Lecce, Pisa (Italy); University of Pisa, and University Hospital of Pisa, Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Translational Research and Advanced Technology in Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Sollini, M. [Az. Osp. S.Maria Nuova - IRCCS Reggio Emilia, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Oncology and Advanced Technology, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Tascini, C.; Menichetti, F. [University Hospital of Pisa, Division of Infectious Diseases, Pisa (Italy); Boni, R.; Lazzeri, E.; Mariani, G. [University of Pisa, and University Hospital of Pisa, Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Translational Research and Advanced Technology in Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Berchiolli, R.N.; Ferrari, M. [University of Pisa, and University Hospital of Pisa, Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Translational Research and Advanced Technology in Medicine, Pisa (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    In this study we evaluated the diagnostic performance of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-leucocyte ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-WBC) scintigraphy in a consecutive series of 55 patients (46 men and 9 women, mean age 71 ± 9 years, range 50 - 88 years) with a suspected late or a low-grade late vascular prosthesis infection (VPI), also comparing the diagnostic accuracy of WBC with that of other radiological imaging methods. All patients suspected of having VPI underwent clinical examination, blood tests, microbiology, US and CT, and were classified according to the Fitzgerald criteria. A final diagnosis of VPI was established in 47 of the 55 patients, with microbiological confirmation after surgical removal of the prosthesis in 36 of the 47. In the 11 patients with major contraindications to surgery, the final diagnosis was based on microbiology and clinical follow-up of at least 18 months. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-WBC planar, SPECT and SPECT/CT imaging identified VPI in 43 of 47 patients (20 of these also showed infection at extra-prosthetic sites). In the remaining eight patients without VPI, different sites of infections were found. The use of SPECT/CT images led to a significant reduction in the number of false-positive findings in 37 % of patients (sensitivity and specificity 100 %, versus 85.1 % and 62.5 % for stand-alone SPECT). Sensitivity and specificity were 34 % and 75 % for US, 48.9 % and 83.3 % for CT, and 68.1 % and 62.5 % for the FitzGerald classification. Perioperative mortality was 5.5 %, mid-term mortality 12 %, and long-term mortality 27 %. Survival rates were similar in patients treated with surgery and antimicrobial therapy compared to patients treated with antimicrobial therapy alone (61 % versus 63 %, respectively), while infection eradication at 12 months was significantly higher following surgery (83.3 % versus 45.5 %). {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-WBC SPECT/CT is useful for detecting, localizing and defining the extent of graft infection in patients with late and low-grade late VPI

  5. Radiolabelled leucocyte scintigraphy versus conventional radiological imaging for the management of late, low-grade vascular prosthesis infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erba, P.A.; Leo, G.; Sollini, M.; Tascini, C.; Menichetti, F.; Boni, R.; Lazzeri, E.; Mariani, G.; Berchiolli, R.N.; Ferrari, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the diagnostic performance of 99m Tc-HMPAO-leucocyte ( 99m Tc-HMPAO-WBC) scintigraphy in a consecutive series of 55 patients (46 men and 9 women, mean age 71 ± 9 years, range 50 - 88 years) with a suspected late or a low-grade late vascular prosthesis infection (VPI), also comparing the diagnostic accuracy of WBC with that of other radiological imaging methods. All patients suspected of having VPI underwent clinical examination, blood tests, microbiology, US and CT, and were classified according to the Fitzgerald criteria. A final diagnosis of VPI was established in 47 of the 55 patients, with microbiological confirmation after surgical removal of the prosthesis in 36 of the 47. In the 11 patients with major contraindications to surgery, the final diagnosis was based on microbiology and clinical follow-up of at least 18 months. 99m Tc-HMPAO-WBC planar, SPECT and SPECT/CT imaging identified VPI in 43 of 47 patients (20 of these also showed infection at extra-prosthetic sites). In the remaining eight patients without VPI, different sites of infections were found. The use of SPECT/CT images led to a significant reduction in the number of false-positive findings in 37 % of patients (sensitivity and specificity 100 %, versus 85.1 % and 62.5 % for stand-alone SPECT). Sensitivity and specificity were 34 % and 75 % for US, 48.9 % and 83.3 % for CT, and 68.1 % and 62.5 % for the FitzGerald classification. Perioperative mortality was 5.5 %, mid-term mortality 12 %, and long-term mortality 27 %. Survival rates were similar in patients treated with surgery and antimicrobial therapy compared to patients treated with antimicrobial therapy alone (61 % versus 63 %, respectively), while infection eradication at 12 months was significantly higher following surgery (83.3 % versus 45.5 %). 99m Tc-HMPAO-WBC SPECT/CT is useful for detecting, localizing and defining the extent of graft infection in patients with late and low-grade late VPI with inconclusive

  6. Human leucocyte antigens class II allele and haplotype association with Type 1 Diabetes in Madeira Island (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spínola, H; Lemos, A; Couto, A R; Parreira, B; Soares, M; Dutra, I; Bruges-Armas, J; Brehm, A; Abreu, S

    2017-12-01

    This study confirms for Madeira Island (Portugal) population the Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) susceptible and protective Human leucocyte antigens (HLA) markers previously reported in other populations and adds some local specificities. Among the strongest T1D HLA associations, stands out, as susceptible, the alleles DRB1*04:05 (OR = 7.3), DQB1*03:02 (OR = 6.1) and DQA1*03:03 (OR = 4.5), as well as the haplotypes DRB1*04:05-DQA1*03:03-DQB1*03:02 (OR = 100.9) and DRB1*04:04-DQA1*03:01-DQB1*03:02 (OR = 22.1), and DQB1*06:02 (OR = 0.07) and DRB1*15:01-DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06:02 (OR = 0.04) as protective. HLA-DQA1 positive for Arginine at position 52 (Arg52) (OR = 15.2) and HLA-DQB1 negative for Aspartic acid at the position 57 (Asp57) (OR = 9.0) alleles appear to be important genetic markers for T1D susceptibility, with higher odds ratio values than any single allele and than most of the haplotypes. Genotypes generated by the association of markers Arg52 DQA1 positive and Asp57 DQB1 negative increase T1D susceptibility much more than one would expected by a simple additive effect of those markers separately (OR = 26.9). This study also confirms an increased risk for DRB1*04/DRB1*03 heterozygote genotypes (OR = 16.8) and also a DRB1*04-DQA1*03:01-DQB1*03:02 haplotype susceptibility dependent on the DRB1*04 allele (DRB1*04:01, OR = 7.9; DRB1*04:02, OR = 3.2; DRB1*04:04, OR = 22.1). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Original Article. Protection studies of new bis quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino-N-(pyridin-3yl acetamide derivatives (HNK-series oximes against acute poisoning by dichlorvos (DDVP in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pravin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The available antidotal therapy against acute poisoning by organophosphates involves the use of atropine alone or in combination with one of the oximes, e.g. 2-PAM, Obidoxime, TMB-4 or HI-6. Each of these oximes has some limitation, raising the question of the universal antidotal efficacy against poisoning by all OPs/nerve agents. In the present study, newly synthesized bis quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino-N-(pyridin-3yl acetamide derivatives (HNK-series oximes were evaluated for their antidotal efficacy against DDVP intoxicated Swiss mice, in terms of the Protection Index (PI and AChE reactivation in brain and serum. The inhibition concentration (IC50 was determined in brain and serum after optimizing the time point for maximum inhibition (60 min post DDVP exposure. AChE reactivation efficacy of the HNK series was evaluated at IC50 and compared with 2-PAM. HNK-102 showed a ~2 times better Protection Index (PI as compared to 2-PAM against DDVP toxicity. IC50 at 60 min DDVP post exposure was found to be approximately one fifth and one half of the LD50 dose for brain and serum AChE, respectively. Out of three HNK oximes, HNK-102 & 106 at 0.20 LD50 dose significantly reactivated DDVP intoxicated brain AChE (p<0.05 as compared to 2-PAM at double IC50 dose of DDVP. In light of double PI and higher AChE reactivation, HNK 102 was found to be a better oxime than 2-PAM in the treatment of acute poisoning by DDVP.

  8. Analysis of a Buchwald-Hartwig amination: reaction for pharmaceutical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik

    The Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction is widely used in the production of N-arylated amines in the pharmaceutical industry. The reaction is betweenan aryl halogen and a primary or secondary amine in the presence of a base and a homogeneous catalyst giving the desired N-arylated amine. Due to mild...... is to increase the understanding of the chem­ical reaction mechanisms and kinetics for the Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction. Also, to develop methods for application of these mechanisms and kinetics to optimize and scale up an organic synthesis to an industrial phar­maceutical production. The Buchwald...

  9. Analysis of a Buckwald-Hartwig amination: reaction for pharmaceutical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    The Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction is widely used in the production of N-arylated amines in the pharmaceutical industry. The reaction is betweenan aryl halogen and a primary or secondary amine in the presence of a base and a homogeneous catalyst giving the desired N-arylated amine. Due to mild...... is to increase the understanding of the chem­ical reaction mechanisms and kinetics for the Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction. Also, to develop methods for application of these mechanisms and kinetics to optimize and scale up an organic synthesis to an industrial phar­maceutical production. The Buchwald...

  10. Factors influencing the regioselectivity of the oxidation of asymmetric secondary amines with singlet oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, Dmitry B; Plutschack, Matthew B; Gilmore, Kerry; Seeberger, Peter H

    2015-04-20

    Aerobic amine oxidation is an attractive and elegant process for the α functionalization of amines. However, there are still several mechanistic uncertainties, particularly the factors governing the regioselectivity of the oxidation of asymmetric secondary amines and the oxidation rates of mixed primary amines. Herein, it is reported that singlet-oxygen-mediated oxidation of 1° and 2° amines is sensitive to the strength of the α-C-H bond and steric factors. Estimation of the relative bond dissociation energy by natural bond order analysis or by means of one-bond C-H coupling constants allowed the regioselectivity of secondary amine oxidations to be explained and predicted. In addition, the findings were utilized to synthesize highly regioselective substrates and perform selective amine cross-couplings to produce imines. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Therapeutic efficacy of milbemycin oxime/praziquantel oral formulation (Milbemax® against Thelazia callipaeda in naturally infested dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motta Bruna

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last few decades, canine and feline thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda eye worms has gained the attention of the veterinary community due to the spread of this ocular infestation in geographical areas previously regarded as non endemic. The therapeutic efficacy of milbemycin oxime/praziquantel tablets (Milbemax® against T. callipaeda was tested in naturally infested dogs and cats. Methods From January 2009 to July 2011 a placebo controlled and randomized field study was conducted in T. callipaeda endemic areas of Switzerland (CH and Italy (ITA involving client-owned animals. Dogs (n = 56 and cats (n = 31 were physically examined at enrolment Day 0 (D0 and twice afterwards (D7 and D14. Infested animals were orally treated with Milbemax® or with placebo tablets on D0 and, if an animal was found still infested with T. callipaeda, also on D7. On D14 nematodes were flushed from the conjunctiva, identified and counted. Results Out of 56 dogs, 43 were included in the statistical analysis, whereas 13 were excluded because the products under investigation were not administered with food, as required by the label. On D7 and D14, 72.7% and 90.9% of treated dogs were eye worm free, whereas in the placebo group 95.2% and 76.2% still harbored nematodes, resulting in a mean percentage worm count reduction for the Milbemax® group of 86.1% and 96.8%, respectively. Both results were significantly higher (p = 0.0001 than the placebo group. Out of the 31 cats included in the study at D7 and D14, 53.3% and 73.3% treated with Milbemax® were free of T. callipaeda, while 81.3% and 73.3 in the placebo group were still harbouring eye worms, resulting in a mean percentage worm count reduction for the treated group of 62.2% and 80.0%, respectively. Both results were significantly higher (p = 0.0106 and p = 0.0043 than the placebo group. Conclusions The commercial formulation of milbemycin oxime at the minimal dose

  12. Morphological peculiarities of duodenal peptic ulcer and leucocytes functional activity in the persons who were present in the zone of the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babak, O.Ya.; Kushnyir, Yi.E.; Bobro, L.M.; Karamishev, D.V.

    1994-01-01

    36 persons with duodenal peptic ulcer (DPU) who were in the zone of the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station (experimental group) and 20 patients who were not exposed to small doses of ionizing radiation were examined to study morphological peculiarities of DPU and blood leucocytes functional activity in the persons who were present in the zone of the accident. The finding have shown that in the persons, exposed to small doses of ionizing radiation, peptic ulcer is often accompanied by erosive changes of gastric and duodenal mucosa. Disturbance of mucus formation in myocytes and secret evacuation from the cells, epithelium large-intestine-type metaplasia, were revealed. Shift of cellular correlation balance in inflammatory infiltrate to the side of monocytes number increase as well as decrease of leucocytes functional activity, manifesting itself by slowing a granulocytes migration to the focus of inflammation, were noted, which is necessary to take into account at administration of effective peptic ulcer therapy in the persons who were in the zone of the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station

  13. Oxidations of N-(3-indoleethyl) cyclic aliphatic amines by horseradish peroxidase: the indole ring binds to the enzyme and mediates electron-transfer amine oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Ke-Qing; Li, Wen-Shan; Sayre, Lawrence M

    2008-01-23

    Although oxidations of aromatic amines by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) are well-known, typical aliphatic amines are not substrates of HRP. In this study, the reactions of N-benzyl and N-methyl cyclic amines with HRP were found to be slow, but reactions of N-(3-indoleethyl) cyclic amines were 2-3 orders of magnitude faster. Analyses of pH-rate profiles revealed a dominant contribution to reaction by the amine-free base forms, the only species found to bind to the enzyme. A metabolic study on a family of congeneric N-(3-indoleethyl) cyclic amines indicated competition between amine and indole oxidation pathways. Amine oxidation dominated for the seven- and eight-membered azacycles, where ring size supports the change in hybridization from sp3 to sp2 that occurs upon one-electron amine nitrogen oxidation, whereas only indole oxidation was observed for the six-membered ring congener. Optical difference spectroscopic binding data and computational docking simulations suggest that all the arylalkylamine substrates bind to the enzyme through their aromatic termini with similar binding modes and binding affinities. Kinetic saturation was observed for a particularly soluble substrate, consistent with an obligatory role of an enzyme-substrate complexation preceding electron transfer. The significant rate enhancements seen for the indoleethylamine substrates suggest the ability of the bound indole ring to mediate what amounts to medium long-range electron-transfer oxidation of the tertiary amine center by the HRP oxidants. This is the first systematic investigation to document aliphatic amine oxidation by HRP at rates consistent with normal metabolic turnover, and the demonstration that this is facilitated by an auxiliary electron-rich aromatic ring.

  14. Debromination of endo-(+)-3-bromocamphor with primary amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, Svetlana; Markovic, Violeta; Joksovic, Milan D.; Joksovic, Ljubinka, E-mail: ljubinka@kg.ac.rs [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac (Serbia); Todorovic, Nina [Institute for Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Serbia); Divjakovic, Vladimir [Department of Physics, University of Novi Sad (Serbia); Trifunovic, Snezana [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, (Serbia)

    2013-07-15

    Reductive debromination of endo-(+)-3-bromocamphor with different primary amines followed by imine formation was investigated. This reaction requires simple experimental procedure without any organic solvent, metal or conventional reducing agent. A strong influence of amine polarity on the efficacy of debromination process was observed, and ethanolamine and ethylene diamine having sufficiently high boiling points can debrominate 3-bromocamphor giving corresponding camphanimines in good isolated yields. The mechanisms of debromination of 3-bromocamphor with ethanolamine and n-hexylamine were investigated at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory. The radical mechanism was revealed, and it was shown that the reaction with more polar ethanolamine is energetically more favorable. (author)

  15. Nanoscale assembly of amine-functionalized colloidal iron oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barick, K.C. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Aslam, M. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Centre for Research in Nanotechnology and Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Prasad, Pottumarthi V. [Department of Radiology, Evanston Northwestern Healthcare, Evanston, IL 60201 (United States); Dravid, Vinayak P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); International Institute for Nanotechnology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)], E-mail: v-dravid@northwestern.edu; Bahadur, Dhirendra [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Centre for Research in Nanotechnology and Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)], E-mail: dhirenb@iitb.ac.in

    2009-05-15

    We demonstrate a single-step facile approach for highly water-stable assembly of amine-functionalized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles using thermal decomposition of Fe-chloride precursors in ethylene glycol medium in the presence of ethylenediamine. The average size of nanoassemblies is 40{+-}1 nm, wherein the individual nanoparticles are about 6 nm. Amine-functionalized properties are evident from Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), thermal and elemental analyses. The saturation magnetization and spin-echo r{sub 2} of the nanoassemblies were measured to be 64.3 emu/g and 314.6 mM{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively. The higher value of relaxivity ratio (r{sub 2}/r{sub 1}=143) indicates that nanoassemblies are a promising high-efficiency T2 contrast agent platform.

  16. Nanoscale assembly of amine-functionalized colloidal iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barick, K.C.; Aslam, M.; Prasad, Pottumarthi V.; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Bahadur, Dhirendra

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a single-step facile approach for highly water-stable assembly of amine-functionalized Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles using thermal decomposition of Fe-chloride precursors in ethylene glycol medium in the presence of ethylenediamine. The average size of nanoassemblies is 40±1 nm, wherein the individual nanoparticles are about 6 nm. Amine-functionalized properties are evident from Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), thermal and elemental analyses. The saturation magnetization and spin-echo r 2 of the nanoassemblies were measured to be 64.3 emu/g and 314.6 mM -1 s -1 , respectively. The higher value of relaxivity ratio (r 2 /r 1 =143) indicates that nanoassemblies are a promising high-efficiency T2 contrast agent platform.

  17. Structural Influence on Excited State Dynamics in Simple Amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Liv Bærenholdt

    experiments with calculations, provides new insight into the nature of the internal conversion processes that mediate the dynamical evolution between Rydberg states, and how structural variations in simple amine system have a large impact on the non-adiabatic processes. The experimental method of choice...... is femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron velocity map imaging (VMI), which is a newtechnique in the Copenhagen lab. The design, building and implementation of the VMI spectrometer has been a very substantial part of the thesis work. This techniques oers enhanced information content in the form of ecient...... and sensitive collection of photoelectron spectra. In particular, the angleresolved data available from the VMI approach provides highly detailed mechanistic insight about the relaxation pathways. One striking novel nding is that for tertiary amines, the critical factor driving the non-adiabatic dynamics...

  18. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etaix, E.S.

    1968-01-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [fr

  19. Berkelium (4) and cerium (4) extraction with tertiary amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyukova, M.S.; Malikov, D.A.; Myasoedov, B.V.

    1978-01-01

    Oxidation of indicator quantities of berkelium and cerium by a mixture of silver nitrate and ammonium persulfate in the solutions of nitric and sulfuric acid has been examined. The stability of the elements in a tetravalent state and their extraction by the solutions of ternary amines have been investigated. It has been established that berkelium and cerium oxidation under these conditions occurs under the effect of ions of divalent silver which is formed owing to oxidation of monovalent silver by peroxide sulfate ions. The following supposition has been put forward: a difference in the behaviour of tetravalent berkelium and cerium during their extraction by ternary amines is explained by their different stability in this state, but not by the formation of complex compounds with nitrate ions

  20. Electrophysiological effects of trace amines on mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada eLedonne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Trace amines (TAs are a class of endogenous compounds strictly related to classic monoamine neurotransmitters with regard to their structure, metabolism and tissue distribution. Although the presence of TAs in mammalian brain has been recognized for decades, until recently they were considered to be by-products of amino acid metabolism or as ‘false’ neurotransmitters. The discovery in 2001 of a new family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, namely trace amines receptors, has re-ignited interest in TAs. In particular, two members of the family, trace amine receptor 1 (TA1 and trace amine receptor 2 (TA2, were shown to be highly sensitive to these endogenous compounds. Experimental evidence suggests that TAs modulate the activity of catecholaminergic neurons and that TA dysregulation may contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression and Parkinson’s disease, all of which are characterised by altered monoaminergic networks. Here we review recent data concerning the electrophysiological effects of TAs on the activity of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. In the context of recent data obtained with TA1 receptor knockout mice, we also discuss the mechanisms by which the activation of these receptors modulates the activity of these neurons. Three important new aspects of TAs action have recently emerged: (a inhibition of firing due to increased release of dopamine; (b reduction of D2 and GABAB receptor-mediated inhibitory responses (excitatory effects due to dysinhibition; and (c a direct TA1 receptor-mediated activation of GIRK channels which produce cell membrane hyperpolarization. While the first two effects have been well documented in our laboratory, the direct activation of GIRK channels by TA1 receptors has been reported by others, but has not been seen in our laboratory (Geracitano et al., 2004. Further research is needed to address this point, and to further

  1. Biotinylated dextran amine anterograde tracing of the canine corticospinal tract?

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Xiao; Lv, Guangming; Wu, Huiqun; Ji, Dafeng; Sun, Zhou; Li, Yaofu; Tang, Lemin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was microinjected into the left cortical motor area of the canine brain. Fluorescence microscopy results showed that a large amount of BDA-labeled pyramidal cells were visible in the left cortical motor area after injection. In the left medulla oblongata, the BDA-labeled corticospinal tract was evenly distributed, with green fluorescence that had a clear boundary with the surrounding tissue. The BDA-positive corticospinal tract entered into the ...

  2. Amides derived from heteroaromatic amines and selected steryl hemiesters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bildziukevich, Uladzimir; Rárová, L.; Šaman, David; Havlíček, Libor; Drašar, P.; Wimmer, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 14 (2013), s. 1347-1352 ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0616 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Heteroaromatic amine * Cholesterol * Lanosterol Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 2.716, year: 2013

  3. OXIDATION OF CYCLIC AMINES BY MOLYBDENUM(II) AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    metal is in formal oxidation state +2. Since no reduction can take place without oxidation and vice versa, we can reasonably say the reduction of Mo(II) and W(II) species is accompanied by oxidation of the amine. At this juncture, we should point out that C=N bonds are also known to absorb IR radiation in the same spectral ...

  4. Probing the Carbonyl Functionality of a Petroleum Resin and Asphaltene through Oximation and Schiff Base Formation in Conjunction with N-15 NMR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Thorn

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in spectroscopic techniques, there is uncertainty regarding the nature of the carbonyl groups in the asphaltene and resin fractions of crude oil, information necessary for an understanding of the physical properties and environmental fate of these materials. Carbonyl and hydroxyl group functionalities are not observed in natural abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectra of asphaltenes and resins and therefore require spin labeling techniques for detection. In this study, the carbonyl functionalities of the resin and asphaltene fractions from a light aliphatic crude oil that is the source of groundwater contamination at the long term USGS study site near Bemidji, Minnesota, have been examined through reaction with 15N-labeled hydroxylamine and aniline in conjunction with analysis by solid and liquid state 15N NMR. Ketone groups were revealed through 15N NMR detection of their oxime and Schiff base derivatives, and esters through their hydroxamic acid derivatives. Anilinohydroquinone adducts provided evidence for quinones. Some possible configurations of the ketone groups in the resin and asphaltene fractions can be inferred from a consideration of the likely reactions that lead to heterocyclic condensation products with aniline and to the Beckmann reaction products from the initially formed oximes. These include aromatic ketones and ketones adjacent to quaternary carbon centers, β-hydroxyketones, β-diketones, and β-ketoesters. In a solid state cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS 15N NMR spectrum recorded on the underivatized asphaltene as a control, carbazole and pyrrole-like nitrogens were the major naturally abundant nitrogens detected.

  5. Probing the carbonyl functionality of a petroleum resin and asphaltene through oximation and schiff base formation in conjunction with N-15 NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Cox, Larry G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in spectroscopic techniques, there is uncertainty regarding the nature of the carbonyl groups in the asphaltene and resin fractions of crude oil, information necessary for an understanding of the physical properties and environmental fate of these materials. Carbonyl and hydroxyl group functionalities are not observed in natural abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of asphaltenes and resins and therefore require spin labeling techniques for detection. In this study, the carbonyl functionalities of the resin and asphaltene fractions from a light aliphatic crude oil that is the source of groundwater contamination at the long term USGS study site near Bemidji, Minnesota, have been examined through reaction with 15N-labeled hydroxylamine and aniline in conjunction with analysis by solid and liquid state 15N NMR. Ketone groups were revealed through 15N NMR detection of their oxime and Schiff base derivatives, and esters through their hydroxamic acid derivatives. Anilinohydroquinone adducts provided evidence for quinones. Some possible configurations of the ketone groups in the resin and asphaltene fractions can be inferred from a consideration of the likely reactions that lead to heterocyclic condensation products with aniline and to the Beckmann reaction products from the initially formed oximes. These include aromatic ketones and ketones adjacent to quaternary carbon centers, β-hydroxyketones, β-diketones, and β-ketoesters. In a solid state cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) 15N NMR spectrum recorded on the underivatized asphaltene as a control, carbazole and pyrrole-like nitrogens were the major naturally abundant nitrogens detected.

  6. Dicationic and zwitterionic catalysts for the amine-initiated, immortal ring-opening polymerisation of rac-lactide: facile synthesis of amine-terminated, highly heterotactic PLA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, L.; Cushion, M.G.; Dyer, H.E.; Schwarz, A.D.; Duchateau, R.; Mountford, P.

    2010-01-01

    Dicationic, zwitterionic and conventional yttrium compounds act as catalysts for the primary or secondary amine-initiated immortal ROP of rac-lactide; amine-terminated, highly heterotactic poly(rac-lactides) with narrow polydispersities and well-controlled molecular weights are prepared in this

  7. Tris{2-[(2-aminobenzylideneamino]ethyl}amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Elizondo Martínez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The title Schiff base, C27H33N7, is a tripodal amine displaying C3 symmetry, with the central tertiary N atom lying on the threefold crystallographic axis. The N—CH2—CH2—N conformation of the pendant arms is gauche [torsion angle = 76.1 (3°], which results in a claw-like molecule, with the terminal aniline groups wrapped around the symmetry axis. The lone pair of the apical N atom is clearly oriented inwards towards the cavity, and should thus be chemically inactive. The amine NH2 substituents lie in the plane of the benzene ring to which they are bonded. With such an arrangement, one amine H atom forms an S(6 motif through a weak N—H...N hydrogen bond with the imine N atom, while the other is engaged in an intermolecular N—H...π contact involving the benzene ring of a neighbouring molecule related by inversion. The benzene rings also participate in an intramolecular C—H...π contact of similar strength. In the crystal structure, molecules are separated by empty voids (ca 5% of the crystal volume, although the crystal seems to be unsolvated.

  8. Metabolism and genotoxicity of aromatic amines in aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezovich, J.P.; Krauter, P.W.; Lawton, M.P.; Harrison, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    Marine mussels (Mytilus edulis) and bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana) were used to investigate the comparative metabolism and genotoxicity of aromatic amines in vivo. These organisms were selected because they possess distinctly different metabolic capabilities: mussels lack an active mixed-function-oxidase enzyme system that is present in most other organisms, including amphibians. Using 14 C-labeled chemical probes (o- and p-toluidine, 2-aminofluorene (2-AF), and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF)), mussels and tadpoles well dosed with individual compounds by direct immersion in aqueous solutions. The identities of metabolites were then determined by HPLC and GC/MS methods. Results indicate that the N-conjugating pathways used by mussels result primarily in the detoxification of aromatic amines by limiting the amount of primary amine available for activation. The tadpoles excreted a number of 2-AAF metabolites but did form DNA and protein adducts in the liver. Induction of micronuclei in the peripheral red blood cells was also demonstrated. The tadpole was shown to be a sensitive biological indicator of pollution in aquatic ecosystems

  9. Role of amine structure on carbon dioxide adsorption from ultradilute gas streams such as ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didas, Stephanie A; Kulkarni, Ambarish R; Sholl, David S; Jones, Christopher W

    2012-10-01

    A fundamental study on the adsorption properties of primary, secondary, and tertiary amine materials is used to evaluate what amine type(s) are best suited for ultradilute CO(2) capture applications. A series of comparable materials comprised of primary, secondary, or tertiary amines ligated to a mesoporous silica support via a propyl linker are used to systematically assess the role of amine type. Both CO(2) and water adsorption isotherms are presented for these materials in the range relevant to CO(2) capture from ambient air and it is demonstrated that primary amines are the best candidates for CO(2) capture from air. Primary amines possess both the highest amine efficiency for CO(2) adsorption as well as enhanced water affinity compared to other amine types or the bare silica support. The results suggest that the rational design of amine adsorbents for the extraction of CO(2) from ambient air should focus on adsorbents rich in primary amines. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Concentration, size distribution and dry deposition of amines in atmospheric particles of urban Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengxian; Bi, Xinhui; Zhang, Guohua; Peng, Long; Lian, Xiufeng; Lu, Huiying; Fu, Yuzhen; Wang, Xinming; Peng, Ping'an; Sheng, Guoying

    2017-12-01

    Size-segregated PM10 samples were collected in Guangzhou, China during autumn of 2014. Nine amines, including seven aliphatic amines and two heterocyclic amines, were detected using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer after derivatization by benzenesulfonyl chloride. The total concentration of the nine aminesamines) was 79.6-140.9 ng m-3 in PM10. The most abundant species was methylamine (MA), which had a concentration of 29.2-70.1 ng m-3. MA, dimethylamine (DMA), diethylamine (DEA) and dibutylamine (DBA) were the predominant amines in the samples and accounted for approximately 80% of Ʃamines in each size segment. Two heterocyclic amines, pyrrolidine (PYR) and morpholine (MOR), were detected in all samples and had average concentrations of 1.14 ± 0.37 and 1.89 ± 0.64 ng m-3, respectively, in particles with aerodynamic diameters ammonium ranged from 0.0068 to 0.0107 in particles with diameters <1.5 μm, and the maximum ratio occurred in the smallest particles (diameter< 0.49 μm). The average dry deposition flux and velocity of Ʃamines in PM10 were 7.9 ± 1.6 μg m-2 d-1 and 0.084 ± 0.0021 cm s-1, respectively. The results of this study provide essential information on the contribution of amines to secondary organic aerosols and dry removal mechanisms in urban areas.

  11. Redox reactions of Cu(II)-amine complexes in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumbhar, A.G.; Kishore, Kamal

    2003-01-01

    A number of amines can be employed for all volatile treatment (AVT) of steam generator (SG) systems of nuclear power reactors. These amines form complexes with Cu 2+ and Ni 2+ ions which come into water due to corrosion. The redox reactions of a number of Cu(II)-AVT amine complexes and the stability of the transient species formed have been studied by pulse radiolysis technique. Rate constants for the reaction of e aq - with a number of Cu(II)-amine complexes have been determined by following the decay of e aq - absorption. Stability of Cu(I)-amine complexes was studied by following the kinetics of the bleaching signal formed at the λ max of the Cu(II) amine complex. Except for Cu(I)-triethanolamine complex all other Cu(I)-amine complexes were found to be stable. One-electron oxidation of Cu(II) amine complexes was studied using azidyl radicals for the oxidation reaction as OH radicals react with the alcohol groups present in the amines used in this study. Cu(III)-amine complexes were found to be unstable and decayed by second-order kinetics

  12. Potential occupational risk of amines in carbon capture for power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, P Robinan; House-Knight, Tamara; Harris, Angela; Greene, Tracy; Campleman, Sharan

    2014-08-01

    While CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technology has been well studied in terms of its efficacy and cost of implementation, there is limited available data concerning the potential for occupational exposure to amines, mixtures of amines, or degradation of by-products from the CCS process. This paper is a critical review of the available data concerning the potential effects of amines and CCS-degradation by-products. A comprehensive review of the occupational health and safety issues associated with exposure to amines and amine by-products at CCS facilities was performed, along with a review of the regulatory status and guidelines of amines, by-products, and CCS process vapor mixtures. There are no specific guidelines or regulations regarding permissible levels of exposure via air for amines and degradation products that could form atmospheric oxidation of amines released from post-combustion CO2 capture plants. While there has been a worldwide effort to develop legal and regulatory frameworks for CCS, none are directly related to occupational exposures. By-products of alkanolamine degradation may pose the most significant health hazard to workers in CCS facilities, with several aldehydes, amides, nitramines, and nitrosamines classified as either known or potential/possible human carcinogens. The absence of large-scale CCS facilities; absence and unreliability of reported data in the literature from pilot facilities; and proprietary amine blends make it difficult to estimate potential amine exposures and predict formation and exposure to degradation products.

  13. Identification of amines in wintertime ambient particulate material using high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottenus, Courtney L. H.; Massoli, Paola; Sueper, Donna; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; VanderSchelden, Graham; Jobson, B. Thomas; VanReken, Timothy M.

    2018-05-01

    Significant amounts of amines were detected in fine particulate matter (PM) during ambient wintertime conditions in Yakima, WA, using a high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) of the organic aerosol (OA) signal resulted in a six-factor solution that included two previously unreported amine OA factors. The contributions of the amine factors were strongly episodic, but the concentration of the combined amine factors was as high as 10-15 μg m-3 (2-min average) during those episodes. In one occasion, the Amine-II component was 45% of total OA signal. The Amine-I factor was dominated by spectral peaks at m/z 86 (C5H12N+) and m/z 100 (C6H14N+), while the Amine-II factor was dominated by spectral peaks at m/z 58 (C3H8N+ and C2H6N2+) and m/z 72 (C4H10N+ and C3H8N2+). The ions dominating each amine factor showed distinct time traces, suggesting different sources or formation processes. Investigation into the chemistry of the amine factors suggests a correlation with inorganic anions for Amine-I, but no evidence that the Amine-II was being neutralized by the same inorganic ions. We also excluded the presence of organonitrates (ON) in the OA. The presence of C2H4O2+ at m/z 60 (a levoglucosan fragment) in the Amine-I spectrum suggests some influence of biomass burning emissions (more specifically residential wood combustion) in this PMF factor, but wind direction suggested that the most likely sources of these amines were agricultural activities and feedlots to the S-SW of the site.

  14. The mysterious trace amines: protean neuromodulators of synaptic transmission in mammalian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchett, Scott A; Hicks, T Philip

    2006-08-01

    The trace amines are a structurally related group of amines and their isomers synthesized in mammalian brain and peripheral nervous tissues. They are closely associated metabolically with the dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin neurotransmitter systems in mammalian brain. Like dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin the trace amines have been implicated in a vast array of human disorders of affect and cognition. The trace amines are unique as they are present in trace concentrations, exhibit high rates of metabolism and are distributed heterogeneously in mammalian brain. While some are synthesized in their parent amine neurotransmitter systems, there is also evidence to suggest other trace amines may comprise their own independent neurotransmitter systems. A substantial body of evidence suggests that the trace amines may play very significant roles in the coordination of biogenic amine-based synaptic physiology. At high concentrations, they have well-characterized presynaptic "amphetamine-like" effects on catecholamine and indolamine release, reuptake and biosynthesis; at lower concentrations, they possess postsynaptic modulatory effects that potentiate the activity of other neurotransmitters, particularly dopamine and serotonin. The trace amines also possess electrophysiological effects that are in opposition to these neurotransmitters, indicating to some researchers the existence of receptors specific for the trace amines. While binding sites or receptors for a few of the trace amines have been advanced, the absence of cloned receptor protein has impeded significant development of their detailed mechanistic roles in the coordination of catecholamine and indolamine synaptic physiology. The recent discovery and characterization of a family of mammalian G protein-coupled receptors responsive to trace amines such as beta-phenylethylamine, tyramine, and octopamine, including socially ingested psychotropic drugs such as amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, N

  15. Methemoglobin Formation and Characterization of Hemoglobin Adducts of Carcinogenic Aromatic Amines and Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Khyatiben V; Chiu, Ting-Lan; Amin, Elizabeth Ambrose; Turesky, Robert J

    2016-03-21

    Arylamines (AAs) and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are structurally related carcinogens formed during the combustion of tobacco or cooking of meat. They undergo cytochrome P450 mediated N-hydroxylation to form metabolites which bind to DNA and lead to mutations. The N-hydroxylated metabolites of many AAs also can undergo a co-oxidation reaction with oxy-hemolgobin (HbO2) to form methemoglobin (met-Hb) and the arylnitroso intermediates, which react with the β-Cys(93) chain of Hb to form Hb-arylsulfinamide adducts. The biochemistry of arylamine metabolism has been exploited to biomonitor certain AAs through their Hb arylsulfinamide adducts in humans. We examined the reactivity of HbO2 with the N-hydroxylated metabolites of 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP, HONH-ABP), aniline (ANL, HONH-ANL), and the HAAs 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC, HONH-AαC), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP, HONH-PhIP), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx, HONH-MeIQx). HONH-ABP, HO-ANL, and HONH-AαC induced methemoglobinemia and formed Hb sulfinamide adducts. However, HONH-MeIQx and HONH-PhIP did not react with the oxy-heme complex, and met-Hb formation and chemical modification of the β-Cys(93) residue were negligible. Molecular modeling studies showed that the distances between the H-ON-AA or H-ON-HAA substrates and the oxy-heme complex of HbO2 were too far away to induce methemoglobinemia. Different conformational changes in flexible helical and loop regions around the heme pocket induced by the H-ON-AA or H-ON-HAAs may explain the different proclivities of these chemicals to induce methemoglobinemia. Hb-Cys(93β) sulfinamide and sulfonamide adducts of ABP, ANL, and AαC were identified, by Orbitrap MS, following the proteolysis of Hb with trypsin, Glu-C, or Lys-C. Hb sulfinamide and sulfonamide adducts of ABP were identified in the blood of mice exposed to ABP, by Orbitrap MS. This is the first report of the identification of intact Hb

  16. EARLY IDENTIFICATION OF SWINE INFLUENZA A (H1N1- BASING ONEPIDEMIOLOGIC CLUE, CLINICAL PRESENTATION, IMAGING FINDINGS, PERIPHERAL LEUCOCYTE COUNTS AND SPO2 LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswararao Kopparti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The present study is a retrospective study of 22 cases of RT-PCR positive swine influenza spanning from 2014 to 20-09-2017 with main objective of early identification of influenza A H1N1 basing on epidemiological clue, clinical presentation, imaging findings and lab parameters as early antiviral therapy and judicious management of ARDS brings good outcome as per available literature. 1,2,3 MATERIAL AND METHODS 22 confirmed adult cases of swine influenza by throat/nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR for H1N1 were studied in terms of clinical presentation, imaging findings, lab manifestations and SpO2 levels4 with particular emphasis on imaging findings. RESULTS 95% presented with symptoms of Influenza-Like Illness (ILI. Nearly, 80% of patients belonged to fourth to fifth decades. Leucocyte count was normal in 75% and 25% had low leucocyte count (<4000, SpO2 levels were normal in 25% and low in 75% cases. CXR was abnormal in 82% of cases of which 83% had mid/lower zone peripheral, patchy, pleural-based consolidations and 17% showed all lung zone opacities. HRCT chest done in 32% of cases showed similar features of chest xray findings with dominant mid/lower zone pleural-based consolidations to ground-glass haziness without pleural effusions and no mediastinal nodal involvement. CONCLUSION As intermittent outbreaks of swine influenza are still continuing in India with recent spurt in incidence in the months of April/May 2017, early diagnosis of H1N1 A is necessary for improved outcome. Early diagnosis is feasible by ILI presentation, normal or low leucocyte count, low SpO2 levels and characteristic radiologic findings of bilateral mid/lower zone pleural-based peripheral patchy opacities to consolidations. As this can be done at peripheral level, primary care physicians need to be sensitised in early diagnosis and treatment and prompt referral to higher centres when needed. Since, the present study is a retrospective one and of public health

  17. From caffeine to fish waste: amine compounds present in food and drugs and their interactions with primary amine oxidase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Olivieri, Aldo

    2011-07-01

    Tissue bound primary amine oxidase (PrAO) and its circulating plasma-soluble form are involved, through their catalytic activity, in important cellular roles, including the adhesion of lymphocytes to endothelial cells during various inflammatory conditions, the regulation of cell growth and maturation, extracellular matrix deposition and maturation and glucose transport. PrAO catalyses the oxidative deamination of several xenobiotics and has been linked to vascular toxicity, due to the generation of cytotoxic aldehydes. In this study, a series of amines and aldehydes contained in food and drugs were tested via a high-throughput assay as potential substrates or inhibitors of bovine plasma PrAO. Although none of the compounds analyzed were found to be substrates for the enzyme, a series of molecules, including caffeine, the antidiabetics phenformin and tolbutamide and the antimicrobial pentamidine, were identified as PrAO inhibitors. Although the inhibition observed was in the millimolar and micromolar range, these data show that further work will be necessary to elucidate whether the interaction of ingested biogenic or xenobiotic amines with PrAO might adversely affect its biological roles.

  18. Oxidation of aromatic amines and diamines by OH radicals. Formation and ionization constants of amine cation radicals in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayon, E.; Rao, P.S.

    1975-01-01

    The one-electron oxidation by hydroxyl radicals of aromatic amines and diamines in water was studied using the fast-reaction technique of pulse radiolysis and kinetic absorption spectrophotometry. The following compounds were examined: N,N,N 1 ,N 1 - tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD), p-phenylenediamine (PD), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamene (DMPD), N,N,N 1 ,N 1 -tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), and diphenylamine (DPA). The main initial reaction of the OH radicals is suggested to be an addition to these compounds to give absorption spectra which absorb strongly in the visible and uv regions. These OH radical adducts decay by first-order kinetics and have lifetimes of approximately 5-50 μsec, dependent on the pH, buffer concentration, and the nature of the aromatic amines and diamines. They decay to give species with somewhat similar absorption spectra and extinction coefficients, which are very long lived in the absence of oxygen. The latter species are assigned to the cation radicals TMPD. + , PD. + , DMPD. + , TMB. + , and DPA. + . The OH radical adducts and the cation radicals have acid-base properties. The pK/sub a/ values of the cation radicals TMPDH. 2+ , PDH. 2+ , DMPDH. 2+ , TMBH. 2+ , and DPAH. 2+ were found to be 5.3, 5.9, 6.1, 5.1, and 4.2, respectively. The results indicate that these aromatic amines and diamines can be oxidized by free radicals to yield the corresponding cation radicals. (U.S.)

  19. Effect of donor orientation on ultrafast intermolecular electron transfer in coumarin-amine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, P. K.; Nath, S.; Bhasikuttan, A. C.; Kumbhakar, M.; Mohanty, J.; Sarkar, S. K.; Mukherjee, T.; Pal, H.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of donor amine orientation on nondiffusive ultrafast intermolecular electron transfer (ET) reactions in coumarin-amine systems has been investigated using femtosecond fluorescence upconversion measurements. Intermolecular ET from different aromatic and aliphatic amines used as donor solvents to the excited coumarin-151 (C151) acceptor occurs with ultrafast rates such that the shortest fluorescence lifetime component (τ 1 ) is the measure of the fastest ET rate (τ 1 =τ ET fast =(k ET fast ) -1 ), assigned to the C151-amine contact pairs in which amine donors are properly oriented with respect to C151 to maximize the acceptor-donor electronic coupling (V el ). It is interestingly observed that as the amine solvents are diluted by suitable diluents (either keeping solvent dielectric constant similar or with increasing dielectric constant), the τ 1 remains almost in the similar range as long as the amine dilution does not cross a certain critical limit, which in terms of the amine mole fraction (x A ) is found to be ∼0.4 for aromatic amines and ∼0.8 for aliphatic amines. Beyond these dilutions in the two respective cases of the amine systems, the τ 1 values are seen to increase very sharply. The large difference in the critical x A values involving aromatic and aliphatic amine donors has been rationalized in terms of the largely different orientational restrictions for the ET reactions as imposed by the aliphatic (n-type) and aromatic (π-type) nature of the amine donors [A. K. Satpati et al., J. Mol. Struct. 878, 84 (2008)]. Since the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the n-type aliphatic amines is mostly centralized at the amino nitrogen, only some specific orientations of these amines with respect to the close-contact acceptor dye [also of π-character; A. K. Satpati et al., J. Mol. Struct. 878, 84 (2008) and E. W. Castner et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 2869 (2000)] can give suitable V el and thus ultrafast ET reaction. In contrary, the

  20. Leucocyte esterase dip-stick test as a point-of-care diagnostic for urogenital chlamydia in male patients: A multi-center evaluation in two STI outpatient clinics in Paramaribo and Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelsman, Menne; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Sabajo, Leslie O. A.; van der Helm, Jannie J.

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-care (POC) tests are an important strategy to address the epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The leucocyte esterase test (LET) can be used as a POC test for chlamydia. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the LET to detect urogenital chlamydia