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Sample records for amine oxime brain

  1. Evaluation of dysthymic disorder with technetium-99 m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain single-photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarikaya, A.; Cermik, T.F. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Trakya University, Faculty of Medicine, Edirne (Turkey); Karasin, E.; Abay, E. [Department of Psychiatry, Trakya University, Faculty of Medicine, Edirne (Turkey); Berkarda, S.

    1999-03-01

    Dysthymic disorder is a chronic disorder characterised by the presence of a depressed mood and is classified as a distinct category in DSM-IV, separately from major depression. Although brain imaging studies have been performed in major depressive disease, there have to date been no reports of such studies in dysthymic disorder. In this study 36 patients with dysthymic disorder were compared with 16 normal subjects using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain single-photon emission tomography. A relative blood flow ratio was calculated for each region of interest using the average tissue activity in the region divided by activity in the cerebellum. There were significant differences in the bilateral inferior frontal, bilateral parietal, right superior frontal and left posterior temporal regions in the patients with dysthymic disorder compared with the healthy controls. These findings support the hypothesis that the biological bases for dysthymic disorder and major depression are similar. Recognition of these regional abnormalities may have clinical utility in both the diagnosis and the treatment of dysthymic disorder. Further studies are needed to confirm our results and to assess the influence of treatment in patients with dysthymic disorder. (orig.) With 1 fig., 1 tab., 26 refs.

  2. A technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime brain single-photon emission tomography study in adolescent patients with major depressive disorder

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    Tutus, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erciyes University School of Medicine, Kayseri (Turkey); Kibar, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cukurova University School of Medicine, Kayseri (Turkey); Sofuoglu, S.; Basturk, M.; Goenuel, A.S. [Department of Psychiatry, Erciyes University School of Medicine, Kayseri (Turkey)

    1998-06-01

    We have not encountered any brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) study performed in adolescent depressed patients in the literature. Therefore, we used technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) brain SPET in adolescent patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) to examine the possible changes in cerebral perfusion and the possible association between perfusion indices and clinical variables. Fourteen adolescent out-patients (nine females, five males; mean{+-}SD age: 13.11{+-}1.43 years; range: 11-15 years) fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for MDD and 11 age-matched healthy control subjects (six females, five males; mean{+-}SD age: 13.80{+-}1.60 years; range: 12-15 years) were included in the study. {sup 99}Tc-HMPAO brain SPET was performed twice in the patient group and once in the control group. The first SPET investigation was performed under non-medicated conditions and the second was performed after depressive symptoms had subsided. A relative perfusion index (PI) was calculated as the ratio of regional cortical activity to the whole brain activity. We found significant differences between the PI values of the untreated depressed patients and those of the controls, indicating relatively reduced perfusion in the left anterofrontal and left temporal cortical areas. No significant differences in regional PI values were found between the remitted depressed patients and the controls. Our study suggests that adolescent patients with MDD may have regional cerebral blood flow deficits in frontal regions and a greater anterofrontal right-left perfusion asymmetry compared with normal subjects. The fact that these abnormalities in perfusion indices have a trend toward normal values with symptomatic improvement suggests that they may be state-dependent markers for adolescent MDD. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 37 refs.

  3. Increasing oxime efficacy by blood-brain barrier modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, M.J.A.; Schans, M.J. van der; Dijk, C.G.M. van; Kuijpers, W.C.; Wortelboer, H.M.; Helden, H.P.M. van

    2011-01-01

    One of the shortcomings of current treatment of nerve agent poisoning is that oximes hardly penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB), whereas nerve agents easily do. Increasing the concentration of oximes in the brain, would therefore provide an attractive approach to improve medical countermeasures.

  4. Quantum Chemical Studies of the Substituent Effect on the Reaction of Carbonyl Oxime with Amine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yunus

    2016-07-21

    The reaction of the two different substitue carbonyl oximes (isonitrosoacetylnaphthaline, inanH and nitro-isonitrosoacetophenone, ninapH) with two different amines (1-phenylethanol amine, pea, and ethanol amine, ea) was carried out and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic methods. As a result of these experimental studies, two different levels for all reactions were determined: (I) formation of imine oxime and (II) rearrangement of imine oxime or formation of amido alcohol. After a mechanism was suggested for all of these reactions, the reaction mechanism of carbonyl oxime with amine was first studied by means of the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) method. Because of the deficiency of density functional theory (DFT) on dispersion effects, the wB97X-D/6-311G(d,p) method, which includes dispersion correction, was used to obtain the reaction heat and free energy barriers to explain why the formation (imine oxime) and unexpected rearrangement products (amido alcohol) occurred or did not occur. The statistical thermodynamic method was used to obtain the changes in thermodynamic properties of the studied molecules between 100 and 500 K. From a kinetic viewpoint, the slowest step of the reactions is the IN1-TS2-IN2 step, which determines the steps of the reaction kinetics. In addition, spectroscopic properties such as vibrational and NMR chemical shifts were studied for all of the molecules. The frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs), and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs) were monitored for all of the molecules.

  5. The effect of blood brain barrier modulation on oxime efficacy in nerve agent poisoning (Abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, M.; Schans, M.J. van der; Dijk, C.G.M. van; Kuijpers, WC.; Wortelboer, H.M.; Helden, H.P.M. van

    2012-01-01

    One of the shortcomings of current treatment of nerve agent poisoning is that oximes hardly penetrate the blood brain barrier (BBB), whereas nerve agents easily do. Enhancing the efficacy of current oximes in the brain, would therefore provide an attractive approach to improve medical countermeasure

  6. Accumulation of leucocytes labelled with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime in malignant abdominal tumours

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    Lantto, E. (Paeijaet-Haeme Central Hospital, Lahti (Finland). Dept. of Radiology); Jaervi, K. (Paeijaet-Haeme Central Hospital, Lahti (Finland). Dept. of Pathology); Lantoo, T.; Vorne, M. (Paeijaet-Haeme Central Hospital, Lahti (Finland). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Ristkari, S. (Paeijaet-Haeme Central Hospital, Lahti (Finland). Dept. of Surgery)

    1991-10-01

    A total of 343 leucocyte scans labelled with technetium-99m hexamethylprophylene amine oxime were reviewed that had been performed patients suspected of having abdominal infection or inflammation. There was uptake by malignant abdominal tumours in 10 cases (2,9%), which represents 62.5% of known malignancies at the time of the scintigram. Accumulation was seen in 8 patients with adenocarcinoma of the colon associated with a secondary infection in the tumour or pericolic inflammation. A large tumour that had spread beyond the bowel wall was related to a positive scintigram. Accumulation was also found twice in a malignant fibrous histiocytoma in which bleeding and an inflammatory reaction to necrosis were probably responsible for the uptake. The relevant treatment was delayed for 2 weeks-2 months in 4 patients with adenocarcinoma of the colon in whom the positive uptake was regarded as confirmation of the clinically suspected cute diverticulitis. (orig.).

  7. Novel brain-penetrating oximes for reactivation of cholinesterase inhibited by sarin and VX surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Janice E; Meek, Edward C; Chambers, Howard W

    2016-06-01

    Current oxime reactivators for organophosphate-inhibited cholinesterase (ChE) do not effectively cross the blood-brain barrier and therefore cannot restore brain ChE activity in vivo. Our laboratories have studied highly relevant sarin and VX surrogates, which differ from their respective nerve agents only in the leaving group and thereby leave ChE phosphylated with the same chemical moiety as sarin and VX. Our laboratories have developed novel substituted phenoxyalkyl pyridinium oximes that lead to reduced ChE inhibition in the brains of rats challenged with a high sublethal dosage of the sarin surrogate, whereas 2-PAM did not, using a paradigm designed to demonstrate brain penetration. In addition, treatment of rats with these novel oximes is associated with attenuation of seizure-like behavior compared to rats treated with 2-PAM, providing additional evidence that the oximes penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Further, some of the oximes provided 24-h survival superior to 2-PAM, and shortened the duration of seizure-like behavior when rats were challenged with lethal dosages of the sarin and VX surrogates, providing additional support for the conclusion that these oximes penetrate the brain.

  8. Nanoparticulate transport of oximes over an in vitro blood-brain barrier model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Wagner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to the use of organophosphates (OP as pesticides and the availability of OP-type nerve agents, an effective medical treatment for OP poisonings is still a challenging problem. The acute toxicity of an OP poisoning is mainly due to the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE in the peripheral and central nervous systems (CNS. This results in an increase in the synaptic concentration of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, overstimulation of cholinergic receptors and disorder of numerous body functions up to death. The standard treatment of OP poisoning includes a combination of a muscarinic antagonist and an AChE reactivator (oxime. However, these oximes can not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB sufficiently. Therefore, new strategies are needed to transport oximes over the BBB. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we combined different oximes (obidoxime dichloride and two different HI 6 salts, HI 6 dichloride monohydrate and HI 6 dimethanesulfonate with human serum albumin nanoparticles and could show an oxime transport over an in vitro BBB model. In general, the nanoparticulate transported oximes achieved a better reactivation of OP-inhibited AChE than free oximes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With these nanoparticles, for the first time, a tool exists that could enable a transport of oximes over the BBB. This is very important for survival after severe OP intoxication. Therefore, these nanoparticulate formulations are promising formulations for the treatment of the peripheral and the CNS after OP poisoning.

  9. A comparative technetium 99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime SPET study in different types of dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habert, M.O.; Piketty, M.L.; Askienazy, S. (Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, 75 - Paris (France). Dept. de Medecine Nucleaire); Spampinato, U.; Mas, J.L.; Recondo, J. de; Rondot, P. (Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, 75 - Paris (France). Dept. de Neurologie); Bourdel, M.C. (Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, 75 - Paris (France). Dept. de Psychiatrie)

    1991-01-01

    Regional cerebral perfusion was evaluated by single photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium 99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) as a tracer, in 13 control subjects and 44 age-matched patients suffering from dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT, n=19) presumed Pick's disease (n=5), idiopathic Parkinson's disease with dementia (DPD, n=15) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, n=5), HMPAO uptake was measured in the superior frontal, inferior frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortices, and the perfusion values were expressed as cortical/cerebellar activity ratios. As compared with controls, tracer uptake ratios in the DAT group were signficantly reduced over all cortical regions, with the largest defects in the parieto-temporal and superior frontal cortices. A marked hypoperfusion affecting the superior and inferior frontal cortices was found in Pick's diesease, whereas a mild but significant hypoperfusion was observed only in the superior frontal cortex of patients with PSP. In the DPD group, HMPAO uptake was significantly reduced in the parietal, temporal and occipital cortices, but not in the frontal cortex. These results show that DAT and DPD share the opposite anteroposterior HMPAO uptake defect as compared with the Pick's and PSP groups. (orig.).

  10. Partition of bispyridinium oximes (trimedoxime and K074) administered in therapeutic doses into different parts of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Zemek, Filip; Bajgar, Jiri; Vasatova, Martina; Prochazka, Petr; Novotny, Ladislav; Kuca, Kamil

    2011-04-05

    The penetration of acetylcholinesterase reactivators (oximes) into the central nervous system is typically restricted by the blood-brain barrier. Although oximes are highly hydrophilic compounds, some contradictory results confirming permeation into the brain exist. The aim of this study is to verify the penetration of oximes through the blood-brain barrier and to detect their levels achieved in different brain regions 60 min after the administration. It was confirmed that oximes are able to penetrate into the brain after injection of therapeutic doses corresponding with 5% of LD(50). The level in whole brain was 0.58% for trimedoxime and 0.85% for the experimental drug oxime K074 as the percentage of their plasma concentration. The highest concentration was found in frontal cortex (trimedoxime 2.27%; oxime K074 0.95%) and lowest in basal ganglia (trimedoxime 0.86%; oxime K074 0.42%). Entry of oximes into the brain is minimal, but some low reactivation effect should be expected. The reactivation potency of oximes might be higher or lower, depending on the real oxime concentration in a given area.

  11. Oxidation of primary amines to oximes with molecular oxygen using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and WO3/Al2O3 as catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ken; Watanabe, Tomonari; Murahashi, Shun-Ichi

    2013-03-15

    The oxidative transformation of primary amines to their corresponding oximes proceeds with high efficiency under molecular oxygen diluted with molecular nitrogen (O2/N2 = 7/93 v/v, 5 MPa) in the presence of the catalysts 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and tungusten oxide/alumina (WO3/Al2O3). The method is environmentally benign, because the reaction requires only molecular oxygen as the terminal oxidant and gives water as a side product. Various alicyclic amines and aliphatic amines can be converted to their corresponding oximes in excellent yields. It is noteworthy that the oxidative transformation of primary amines proceeds chemoselectively in the presence of other functional groups. The key step of the present oxidation is a fast electron transfer from the primary amine to DPPH followed by proton transfer to give the α-aminoalkyl radical intermediate, which undergoes reaction with molecular oxygen and hydrogen abstraction to give α-aminoalkyl hydroperoxide. Subsequent reaction of the peroxide with WO3/Al2O3 gives oximes. The aerobic oxidation of secondary amines gives the corresponding nitrones. Aerobic oxidative transformation of cyclohexylamines to cyclohexanone oximes is important as a method for industrial production of ε-caprolactam, a raw material for Nylon 6.

  12. Synthesis, radiolabeling and biological evaluation of propylene amine oxime complexes containing nitrotriazoles as hypoxia markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huafan; Mei, Lei; Chu, Taiwei

    2012-06-04

    Two propylene amine oxime (PnAO) complexes, 1, containing a 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole and 2, containing two 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazoles, were synthesized and radiolabeled with (99m)Tc in high labeling yields. Cellular uptakes of (99m)Tc-1 and (99m)Tc-2 were tested using a S180 cells line. Under anoxic conditions, the cellular uptakes of (99m)Tc-1 and (99m)Tc-2 were 33.7 ± 0.2% and 35.0 ± 0.7% at 4 h, whereas the normoxic uptakes of the two complexes were 6.0 ± 1.6% and 4.6 ± 0.9%, respectively. Both (99m)Tc-1 and (99m)Tc-2 displayed significant anoxic/normoxic differentials. The cellular uptakes were highly dependent on oxygen and temperature. Biodistribution studies revealed that both (99m)Tc-1 and (99m)Tc-2 showed a selective localization in tumor and slow clearance from it. At 4 h, the tumor-to-muscle ratios (T/M) were 3.79 for (99m)Tc-1 and 4.58 for (99m)Tc-2. These results suggested that (99m)Tc-labeled PnAO complexes (99m)Tc-1 and (99m)Tc-2 might serve as novel hypoxia markers. By introducing a second nitrotriazole redox center, the hypoxic accumulation of the marker was slightly enhanced.

  13. Comparison of in vitro potency of oximes (pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6) to reactivate sarin-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in various parts of pig brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuca, Kamil; Cabal, Jiri; Kassa, Jiri; Jun, Daniel; Hrabinová, Martina

    2005-01-01

    The potency of currently used oximes to reactivate sarin-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in various parts of pig brain and whole pig brain was evaluated using in vitro methods. Significant differences in reactivation potency among all tested oximes were observed. At concentrations (10(-4) M) corresponding to recommended doses in vivo, the oxime HI-6 seems to be a more efficacious reactivator of sarin-inhibited AChE in whole pig brain as well as in cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum compared with the other oximes studied. Nevertheless, there are not any differences in the potency of oximes tested to reactivate sarin-inhibited AChE in medulla oblongata. Thus, the oxime HI-6 appears to be the most promising oxime among currently available oximes for the antidotal treatment of acute sarin poisoning, although it is not more efficacious than other currently used oximes in medulla oblongata, whose function is necessary for the vital functions of respiration and circulation.

  14. Amine-free approach toward N-toluenesulfonyl amidine construction: a phosphite-mediated Beckmann-like coupling of oximes and p-toluenesulfonyl azide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Lauren M; Wilson, Erin E; Vogt, Monika; Fan, Tiffany J; Oliver, Allen G; Ashfeld, Brandon L

    2013-10-25

    Atom hopping: A chlorophosphite-mediated Beckmann ligation of oximes and p-toluenesulfonyl azide gives access to N-sulfonyl phosphoramidines in good to excellent yields. The reaction proceeds under exceptionally mild conditions and constitutes a bioorthogonal approach toward amidines by avoiding the use of amines and transition-metal catalysts. dmp-ol=3,3-dimethylpropanediol.

  15. Efficacy of novel phenoxyalkyl pyridinium oximes as brain-penetrating reactivators of cholinesterase inhibited by surrogates of sarin and VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Janice E; Chambers, Howard W; Funck, Kristen E; Meek, Edward C; Pringle, Ronald B; Ross, Matthew K

    2016-11-25

    Pyridinium oximes are strong nucleophiles and many are effective reactivators of organophosphate-inhibited cholinesterase (ChE). However, the current oxime reactivators are ineffective at crossing the blood-brain barrier and reactivating brain ChE in the intact organism. Our laboratories have developed a series of substituted phenoxyalkyl pyridinium oximes (US patent 9,227,937 B2) with the goal of identifying reactivators effective in crossing the blood-brain barrier. The first 35 of the series were found to have similar in vitro efficacy as reactivators of ChE inhibited by a sarin surrogate (phthalimidyl isopropyl methylphosphonate, PIMP) or a VX surrogate (nitrophenyl ethyl methylphosphonate, NEMP) in bovine brain preparations as previously observed in rat brain preparations. A number of these novel oximes have shown the ability to decrease the level of ChE inhibition in the brains of rats treated with a high sublethal dosage of either a sarin surrogate (nitrophenyl isopropyl methylphosphonate, NIMP) or the VX surrogate NEMP. Levels of reactivation at 2 h after oxime administration were up to 35% while the currently approved therapeutic, 2-PAM, yielded no reduction in brain ChE inhibition. In addition, there was evidence of attenuation of seizure-like behavior with several of the more effective novel oximes, but not 2-PAM. Therefore these novel oximes have demonstrated an ability to reactivate inhibited ChE in brain preparations from two species and in vivo data support their ability to enter the brain and provide a therapeutic action. These novel oximes have the potential to be developed into improved antidotes for nerve agent therapy.

  16. Contribution of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime labelled leucocyte scintigraphy to the diagnosis of diabetic foot infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devillers, A.; Moisan, A.; Garin, E.; Bourguet, P. [CRLCC Eugene Marquis, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Rennes (France); Hennion, F.; Poirier, J.Y. [CHRU Pontchaillou, Service d`Endocrinologie, Rennes (France)

    1998-02-01

    We conducted a prospective study in order to evaluate the contribution of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) labelled leucocyte scintigraphy to the diagnosis and follow-up of osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot. The study was conducted between October 1992 and November 1996 and included 42 patients (30 men and 12 women; mean age 63 years) with diabetes mellitus (type 1, n = 22, type 2, n = 20) who had a total of 56 diabetic foot ulcers. The initial exploration included standard radiography, three-phase bone scintigraphy and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO labelled leucocyte scintigraphy (HMPAO-LS), performed within a 3-day interval. For the 56 ulceration sites, 26 cases of osteomyelitis were diagnosed: ten on the basis of radiographic and histological/bacteriological criteria after bone biopsy, 11 after radiographic follow-up and five on the basis of biopsy results alone. No osteomyelitis was present at 30 sites, there were seven cases of cellulitis. The sensitivity and specificity of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-LS were 88.4% and 96.6% respectively (23 true-positives, 29 true-negatives, one false-positive, three false-negatives). The accuracy of radiography, {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate and HMPAO-LS was 69.6%, 62.5%, and 92.9%, respectively. Follow-up scintigraphy (n = 14) 4 months after initial diagnosis and 1 month after antibiotic withdrawal confirmed cure of osteomyelitis despite the absence of complete clinical regression of the ulcers. In conclusion, {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO labelled leucocyte scintigraphy was found to be an excellent method for the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot. It can contribute to follow-up, particularly when clinical regression of perforating ulcers is incomplete and cure of osteomyelitis must be confirmed in order that antibiotic treatment may be discontinued. (orig.) With 5 figs., 3 tabs., 28 refs.

  17. Bisquaternary oximes as reactivators of tabun-inhibited human brain cholinesterases: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuca, Kamil; Jun, Daniel; Cabal, Jiri; Musilova, Lucie

    2007-07-01

    Intoxications caused by tabun nerve agent are generally very hard to treat by convential acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivators. Due to this, new AChE reactivators are still developed. In this study, we have tested three new promising bisquaternary AChE reactivators: K027, K033 and K048. These reactivators were previously tested on rat brain homogenate. To mimic reality, we studied the potency of these new oximes to reactivate tabun-inhibited human brain cholinesterases. As is evident from the results, reactivator K048 (reactivation 40%) surpassed all reactivators tested in this study [including the most promising ones, namely trimedoxime (37%) and obidoxime (33%)]. Moreover, if compared to our previous results from rat brain studies, species differences were demonstrated.

  18. Reactivation of human brain homogenate cholinesterases inhibited by Tabun using newly developed oximes K117 and K127.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuca, Kamil; Cabal, Jiri; Jung, Yung Sik; Musilek, Kamil; Soukup, Ondrej; Jun, Daniel; Pohanka, Miroslav; Musilova, Lucie; Karasová, Jana; Novotný, Ladislav; Hrabinova, Martina

    2009-09-01

    Newly developed acetylcholinesterase reactivators K117 [1,5-bis(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-3-oxapentane dichloride] and K127 [(1-(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-5-(4-carbamoylpyridinium)-3-oxapentane dibromide)] were tested for their potency to reactivate tabun-inhibited human brain cholinesterases. Pralidoxime and trimedoxime were chosen as standard reference reactivators. Human tissue was used, as that was closer on the real treatment of human beings. As a result, oxime K127 was found as the best tested reactivator according to the constant k(r), characterizing the overall reactivation process. On the contrary, the maximal reactivation ability expressed as percentage of reactivation was the best for trimedoxime. This differences were caused as a result of using the enzyme from different species. Due to this, experiments on human tissue should be conducted after in vitro and in vivo tests on animals to eliminate such important failures of promising oximes.

  19. Dynamic SPECT of the brain using a lipophilic technetium-99m complex, PnAO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, S; Andersen, A R; Vorstrup, S;

    1985-01-01

    The lipophilic 99mTc-labeled oxime propylene amine oxime (PnAO) should, according to recent reports behave like 133Xe in the human brain. This study compares SPECT images of the two tracers in six subjects: four stroke cases, one transitory ischemic attack case and one normal subject. Technetium-99...

  20. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime leucocyte scintigraphy for the diagnosis of bone and joint infections: a retrospective study in 116 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devillers, A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Centre Eugene Marquis, Rennes (France); Moisan, A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Centre Eugene Marquis, Rennes (France); Jean, S. [Dept. of Rheumatology, Pontchaillou CHU, Rennes (France); Arvieux, C. [Dept. of Infectious Diseases, Pontchaillou CHU, Rennes (France); Bourguet, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Centre Eugene Marquis, Rennes (France)

    1995-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime leucocyte scintigraphy (HMPAO-LS) by means of a retrospective review of 116 patients divided into three groups of bone and joint infection. One hundred and thirty-one LS examinations were performed, and 143 sites analysed. The final diagnosis of infection was based on surgical, histological and bacteriological data and follow-up. Ninety-four suspected localizations were examined in group 1, which included 74 patients with an infection suspected to involve orthopaedic implants. In this group, there were 38 true-positives, 1 false-negative, 49 true-negatives and 6 false-positives. Surgical confirmation was obtained in 34 cases. In group 2 (24 patients with suspected osteomyelitis), there were 27 localizations of which 14 were true-positives and 13 were true-negatives (including seven surgical confirmations). In group 3 (18 patients suspected of septic arthritis) there were eight true-positives, two false-negatives, ten true-negatives and two false-positives. Overall sensitivity of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-LS for the detection of bone and joint infection was 95%, with a specificity of 90% (group 1: sensitivity 97%, specificity 89%; group 2: 100% and 100%; group 3: 80% and 83%). It may be concluded that HMPAO-LS is an effective tool for the diagnosis of both bone infection involving implants and chronic osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  1. A rapid, convenient, solventless green approach for the synthesis of oximes using grindstone chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Saikia, Lakhinath; Baruah, Jejiron Maheswari; Thakur, Ashim Jyoti

    2011-01-01

    Background Synthesis of oximes is an important reaction in organic chemistry, because these versatile oximes are used for protection, purification, and characterization of carbonyl compounds. Nitriles, amides via Beckmann rearrangement, nitro compounds, nitrones, amines, and azaheterocycles can be synthesised from oximes. They also find applications for selective α-activation. In inorganic chemistry, oximes act as a versatile ligand. Several procedures for the preparation of oximes exist, but...

  2. Tertiary Oximes on Brain Acetylcholinesterase and Central Excitatory Effects of Nerve Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    quences of Organophosphate Poisoning in the CNS, Transworld Research Network: Kerala, India, pp. 111-133. 18. Shih T-M, Skovira JW, O’Donnell, JC and...Benschop HP, De Jong LRA, Vink JAJ, et al. 1976. The prophylactic value of oximes against organophosphate poisoning . In: SIPRI, Medical Protection...for treatment of organophosphate poisoning , Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 9: 259–263. 24. Vallejo-Freire AA. 1951. A simple technique for repeated collection

  3. amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Styszko Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the application of char activated with CO2 and impregnated with amines solutions for removal of selected xenobiotics from aqueous solutions. The chars produced from the pyrolysis of waste tires. The solutions of monoethanolamine (MEA, diethanolamine (DEA and polyethylenimine (PEI were used for impregnation of char. The sorption capacity of char impregnated with amines depended on amines chemical properties. The adsorptive removal of mixture of pharmaceuticals residues by modified materials was assessed. BET surface area of materials varied from 36 m2 g−1 to 128 m2 g−1. The highest removal efficiencies up to 99 % were observed for char impregnated with PEI.

  4. SPECT with [99mTc]-d,l-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime (HM-PAO) compared with regional cerebral blood flow measured by PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yonekura, Y; Nishizawa, S; Mukai, Thomas Søgaard;

    1988-01-01

    In order to validate the use of technetium-99m-d,l-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) as a flow tracer, a total of 21 cases were studied with single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and compared to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured by position emission tomography (...

  5. The use of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime labelled granulocytes with single-photon emission tomography imaging in the detection and follow-up of recurrence of infective endocarditis complicating transvenous endocardial pacemaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramackers, J.M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU E. Herriot, Lyon (France); Kotzki, P.O. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Lapeyronie et A. de Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Couret, I. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Lapeyronie et A. de Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Messner-Pellenc, P. [Department of Cardiology, CHU Lapeyronie et A. Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Davy, J.M. [Department of Cardiology, CHU Lapeyronie et A. Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Rossi, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Lapeyronie et A. de Villeneuve, Montpellier (France)

    1995-11-01

    In this case report we present a patient with a recurrence of subacute bacterial infectious endocarditis (IE) complicating a transvenous endocardial pacemaker. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) labelled granulocytes were used for diagnosis and follow-up under medical treatment only, since surgical removal of the pacemaker lead was ruled out because of the general condition of the patient. Single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging displayed the active lesion previously suspected on echography. At the end of antibiotic therapy, SPET indicated a favourable disease outcome whereas echocardiographic abnormalities remained nearly unchanged. The medical treatment had eradicated the IE, and the patient did well for more than 1 year thereafter. (orig.)

  6. Centrally acting oximes in reactivation of tabun-phosphoramidated AChE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Zrinka; Maček, Nikolina; Sit, Rakesh K; Radić, Zoran; Fokin, Valery V; Barry Sharpless, K; Taylor, Palmer

    2013-03-25

    Organophosphates (OP) inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7), both in peripheral tissues and central nervous system (CNS), causing adverse and sometimes fatal effects due to the accumulation of neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). The currently used therapy, focusing on the reactivation of inhibited AChE, is limited to peripheral tissues because commonly used quaternary pyridinium oxime reactivators do not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) at therapeutically relevant levels. A directed library of thirty uncharged oximes that contain tertiary amine or imidazole protonable functional groups that should cross the BBB as unionized species was tested as tabun-hAChE conjugate reactivators along with three reference oximes: DAM (diacetylmonoxime), MINA (monoisonitrosoacetone), and 2-PAM. The oxime RS150D [N-((1-(3-(2-((hydroxyimino)methyl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl)benzamide] was highlighted as the most promising reactivator of the tabun-hAChE conjugate. We also observed that oximes RS194B [N-(2-(azepan-1-yl)ethyl)-2-(hydroxyimino)acetamide] and RS41A [2-(hydroxyimino)-N-(2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)ethyl)acetamide], which emerged as lead uncharged reactivators of phosphylated hAChE with other OPs (sarin, cyclosarin and VX), exhibited only moderate reactivation potency for tabun inhibited hAChE. This implies that geometry of oxime access to the phosphorus atom conjugated to the active serine is an important criterion for efficient reactivation, along with the chemical nature of the conjugated moiety: phosphorate, phosphonate, or phosphoramidate. Moreover, modification of the active center through mutagenesis enhances the rates of reactivation. The phosphoramidated-hAChE choline-binding site mutant Y337A showed three-times enhanced reactivation capacity with non-triazole imidazole containing aldoximes (RS113B, RS113A and RS115A) and acetamide derivative (RS194B) than with 2PAM.

  7. In Vivo Reactivation by Oximes of Inhibited Blood, Brain and Peripheral Tissue Cholinesterase Activity Following Exposure to Nerve Agents in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    peripheral tissues and the blood components . A “+” sign was assigned for each of the peripheral tissues or blood com- ponents, when an oxime treatment...reactivation by oxime treatments in peripheral tissues and blood components following exposure to GB, GF, VR, and VXa. A. Peripheral tissues (diaphragm...tissues (A) or blood components (B), an oxime treatm ign. When an oxime treatment did not significantly reactivate a nerve agent-inhib ll four nerve

  8. Relationship between analgesia and turnover of brain biogenic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensemana, D; Gascon, A L

    1978-10-01

    The analgesic activity of morphine, delta9THC, and sodium salicylate was studied concomitantly with changes in brainstem and cortex turnover of dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), and serotonin (5HT). The results show that a correlation exists between the presence of analgesia and the increased turnover rates of the three biogenic amines. Morphine and sodium salicylate induced analgesia is accompanied by an increased turnover rate of all three biogenic amines; delta9THC-induced analgesia is accompanied by an increased turnover rate of DA and 5HT only. There is, however, no consistent relationship between the degree of analgesia and the degree of change in the turnover rates. The existence of the endogenous morphine-like substances, endorphines, may explain why morphine analgesia is distinct from that of delta9THC and sodium salicylate. The possible relationship between this morphine-like substance and biogenic amines is discussed.

  9. A comparison of reactivating efficacy of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) in cyclosarin-and tabun-poisoned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Jun, Daniel; Kuca, Kamil

    2007-06-01

    The potency of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) to reactivate nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase was evaluated in rats poisoned with tabun or cyclosarin at a lethal dose corresponding to the LD50 value. In vivo determined percentage of reactivation of tabun-inhibited blood and brain acetylcholinesterase showed that obidoxime is the most efficacious reactivator of tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase among studied oximes in the peripheral compartment (blood) although the differences between obidoxime and newly developed oximes were not significant. On the other hand, one of the newly developed oximes (K074) seems to be a significantly more efficacious reactivator of tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in the central compartment (brain) than the other studied oximes. In addition, the oxime HI-6 is unable to sufficiently reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in rats. In vivo determined percentage of reactivation of cyclosarin-inhibited blood and brain acetylcholinesterase in poisoned rats showed that HI-6 is the most efficacious reactivator of cyclosarin-inhibited acetylcholinesterase among the studied oximes in the peripheral (blood) as well as central (brain) compartment although the differences between the oxime HI-6 and other tested oximes in the brain were not significant. Due to their reactivating effects, both newly developed K-oximes can be considered to be promising oximes for the antidotal treatment of acute tabun poisoning while the oximes HI-6 is still the most promising oxime for the treatment of acute cyclosarin poisonings due to its high potency in reactivating cyclosarin-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in the peripheral as well as central compartment.

  10. A comparison of tabun-inhibited rat brain acetylcholinesterase reactivation by three oximes (HI-6, obidoxime, and K048) in vivo detected by biochemical and histochemical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajgar, Jiri; Hajek, Petr; Zdarova, Jana Karasova; Kassa, Jiri; Paseka, Antonin; Slizova, Dasa; Krs, Otakar; Kuca, Kamil; Jun, Daniel; Fusek, Josef; Capek, Lukas

    2010-12-01

    Tabun belongs to the most toxic nerve agents. Its mechanism of action is based on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition at the peripheral and central nervous systems. Therapeutic countermeasures comprise administration of atropine with cholinesterase reactivators able to reactivate the inhibited enzyme. Reactivation of AChE is determined mostly biochemically without specification of different brain structures. Histochemical determination allows a fine search for different structures but is performed mostly without quantitative evaluation. In rats intoxicated with tabun and treated with a combination of atropine and HI-6, obidoxime, or new oxime K048, AChE activities in different brain structures were determined using biochemical and quantitative histochemical methods. Inhibition of AChE following untreated tabun intoxication was different in the various brain structures, having the highest degree in the frontal cortex and reticular formation and lowest in the basal ganglia and substantia nigra. Treatment resulted in an increase of AChE activity detected by both methods. The highest increase was observed in the frontal cortex. This reactivation was increased in the order HI-6 tabun, reactivation in various parts of the brain is not of the same physiological importance. AChE activity in the pontomedullar area and frontal cortex seems to be the most important for the therapeutic effect of the reactivators. HI-6 was not a good reactivator for the treatment of tabun intoxication.

  11. A comparison of reactivating efficacy of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) in soman, cyclosarin and tabun-poisoned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Jun, Daniel; Karasova, Jana; Bajgar, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil

    2008-09-25

    The potency of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) to reactivate nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase was evaluated in rats poisoned with soman, tabun or cyclosarin at a lethal dose corresponding to their LD(50) value. In vivo determined percentage of reactivation of soman-inhibited blood and brain acetylcholinesterase in poisoned rats showed that only the oxime HI-6 was able to reactivate soman-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in the peripheral (blood) as well as central (brain) compartment. In vivo determined percentage of reactivation of tabun-inhibited blood and brain acetylcholinesterase in poisoned rats showed that obidoxime is the most efficacious reactivator of tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase among studied oximes in the peripheral compartment (blood) while K074 seems to be the most efficacious reactivator of tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase among studied oximes in the central compartment (brain). In vivo determined percentage of reactivation of cyclosarin-inhibited blood and brain acetylcholinesterase in poisoned rats showed that HI-6 is the most efficacious reactivator of cyclosarin-inhibited acetylcholinesterase among studied oximes. Due to their reactivating effects, both newly developed K oximes can be considered to be promising oximes for the antidotal treatment of acute tabun poisonings while the oxime HI-6 is still the most promising oxime for the treatment of acute soman and cyclosarin poisonings.

  12. A comparison of the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of two newly developed oximes (k727 and k733) with oxime k203 and trimedoxime in tabun-poisoned rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Sepsova, Vendula; Tumova, Martina; Horova, Anna; Musilek, Kamil

    2015-04-01

    The reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of three original bispyridinium oximes (K727, K733 and K203) and one currently available oxime (trimedoxime) was evaluated in tabun-poisoned rats and mice. The oxime-induced reactivation of tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase was measured in diaphragm and brain of tabun-poisoned rats. The results showed that the reactivating efficacy of two recently developed oximes (K727 and K733) does not achieve the level of the reactivation of tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase induced by oxime K203 and trimedoxime. While all oximes studied were able to increase the activity of tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in diaphragm, oxime K733 was not able to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in the brain. The therapeutic efficacy of all oximes studied roughly corresponds to their reactivating efficacy. While both recently developed oximes were able to reduce acute toxicity of tabun less than 1.5-fold, another original oxime K203 and commonly used trimedoxime reduced the acute toxicity of tabun almost two times. In conclusion, the reactivating and therapeutic potency of both newly developed oximes does not prevail the effectiveness of oxime K203 and trimedoxime, and therefore, they are not suitable for their replacement of commonly used oximes for the antidotal treatment of acute tabun poisoning.

  13. Oxime Catalysis by Freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agten, Stijn M; Suylen, Dennis P L; Hackeng, Tilman M

    2016-01-20

    Chemical reaction rates are generally decreased at lower temperatures. Here, we report that an oxime ligation reaction in water at neutral pH is accelerated by freezing. The freezing method and its rate effect on oxime ligation are systematically studied on a peptide model system, and applied to a larger chemokine protein, containing a single acetyl butyrate group, which is conjugated to an aminooxy-labeled ligand. Our improved ligation protocol now makes it possible to efficiently introduce oxime-bond coupled ligands into proteins under aqueous conditions at low concentrations and neutral pH.

  14. The evaluation of the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of two novel oximes (K361 and K378) in comparison with the oxime K203 and trimedoxime in tabun-poisoned rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Sepsova, Vendula; Tumova, Martina; Musilek, Kamil; Horova, Anna

    2014-03-01

    The potency of two newly developed oximes (K361 and K378) to reactivate tabun-inhibited cholinesterase and to reduce acute toxicity of tabun was compared with the oxime K203 and trimedoxime using in vivo methods. The study determining percentage of reactivation of tabun-inhibited diaphragm cholinesterase in poisoned rats showed that the reactivating efficacy of the oxime K378 is slightly lower than the reactivating potency of the oxime K203 and trimedoxime while the ability of the oxime K361 to reactivate tabun-inhibited cholinesterase is markedly lower compared with the oxime K203 and trimedoxime. In the brain, the potency of both newly developed oximes to reactivate tabun-inhibited cholinesterase was negligible. The therapeutic efficacy of both newly developed oximes roughly corresponds to their weak reactivating efficacy. Their potency to reduce acute toxicity of tabun was significantly lower compared with the oxime K203 as well as trimedoxime. In conclusion, the reactivating and therapeutic potency of both newly developed oximes does not prevail the effectiveness of the oxime K203 and trimedoxime and, therefore, they are not suitable for their replacement of commonly used oximes for the treatment of acute tabun poisoning.

  15. Mushroom Bodies of the Honeybee Brain Show Cell Population-Specific Plasticity in Expression of Amine-Receptor Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, H. James; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Mercer, Alison R.

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine and octopamine released in the mushroom bodies of the insect brain play a critical role in the formation of aversive and appetitive memories, respectively. As recent evidence suggests a complex relationship between the effects of these two amines on the output of mushroom body circuits, we compared the expression of dopamine- and…

  16. Refinement of structural leads for centrally acting oxime reactivators of phosphylated cholinesterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić, Zoran; Sit, Rakesh K; Kovarik, Zrinka; Berend, Suzana; Garcia, Edzna; Zhang, Limin; Amitai, Gabriel; Green, Carol; Radić, Bozica; Fokin, Valery V; Sharpless, K Barry; Taylor, Palmer

    2012-04-06

    We present a systematic structural optimization of uncharged but ionizable N-substituted 2-hydroxyiminoacetamido alkylamine reactivators of phosphylated human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) intended to catalyze the hydrolysis of organophosphate (OP)-inhibited hAChE in the CNS. Starting with the initial lead oxime RS41A identified in our earlier study and extending to the azepine analog RS194B, reactivation rates for OP-hAChE conjugates formed by sarin, cyclosarin, VX, paraoxon, and tabun are enhanced severalfold in vitro. To analyze the mechanism of intrinsic reactivation of the OP-AChE conjugate and penetration of the blood-brain barrier, the pH dependence of the oxime and amine ionizing groups of the compounds and their nucleophilic potential were examined by UV-visible spectroscopy, (1)H NMR, and oximolysis rates for acetylthiocholine and phosphoester hydrolysis. Oximolysis rates were compared in solution and on AChE conjugates and analyzed in terms of the ionization states for reactivation of the OP-conjugated AChE. In addition, toxicity and pharmacokinetic studies in mice show significantly improved CNS penetration and retention for RS194B when compared with RS41A. The enhanced intrinsic reactivity against the OP-AChE target combined with favorable pharmacokinetic properties resulted in great improvement of antidotal properties of RS194B compared with RS41A and the standard peripherally active oxime, 2-pyridinealdoxime methiodide. Improvement was particularly noticeable when pretreatment of mice with RS194B before OP exposure was combined with RS194B reactivation therapy after the OP insult.

  17. Fluoren-9-one oxime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Bugenhagen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecule, C13H9NO, the fluorene system and the oxime group non-H atoms are essentially coplanar, with a maximum deviation from the fluorene mean plane of 0.079 (2 Å for the oxime O atom. A short intramolecular C—H...O generates an S(6 ring. In the crystal, molecules related by a twofold screw axis are connected by O—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming [100] chains Within these chains, molecules related by a unit translation along [100] show π–π stacking interactions between their fluorene ring systems with an interplanar distance of 3.347 (2 Å. The dihedral angle between the fluorene units of adjacent molecules along the helix is 88.40 (2°. There is a short C—H...π contact between the fluorene groups belonging to neighbouring chains.

  18. A comparison of the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of newly developed bispyridinium oximes (K250, K251) with commonly used oximes against tabun in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana; Bajgar, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil; Musilek, Kamil; Kopelikova, Irena

    2009-08-01

    The potency of newly developed bispyridinium compounds (K250, K251) in reactivating tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and reducing tabun-induced lethal toxic effects was compared with currently available oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, the oxime HI-6) using in vivo methods. Studies determined percentage of reactivation of tabun-inhibited blood and tissue AChE in poisoned rats and showed that the reactivating efficacy of both newly developed oximes is comparable with the oxime HI-6 but it is significantly lower than the reactivating effects of obidoxime and trimedoxime, especially in diaphragm and brain. Both newly developed oximes were also found to be able to slightly reduce lethal toxic effects in tabun-poisoned mice. Their therapeutic efficacy is higher than the potency of the oxime HI-6 but it is lower than the therapeutic effects of trimedoxime and obidoxime. Thus, the reactivating and therapeutic potency of both newly developed oximes (K250, K251) does not prevail over the effectiveness of currently available oximes and, therefore, they are not suitable for their replacement for the treatment of acute tabun poisoning.

  19. A comparison of the efficacy of new asymmetric bispyridinium oximes (K027, K048) with currently available oximes against tabun by in vivo methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil; Cabal, Jiri; Paar, Martin

    2006-10-01

    The potency of newly developed asymmetric bispyridinium oximes (K027, K048) in reactivating tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and in eliminating tabun-induced acute toxic effects was compared with commonly used oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, the oxime HI-6) using in vivo methods. Studies determined the percent of reactivation of tabun-inhibited blood and tissue AChE in poisoned rats and showed that the reactivating efficacy of both newly developed oximes is comparable with obidoxime and trimedoxime, the most efficacious known reactivators of tabun-inhibited AChE. These were also found to be sufficiently efficacious in the elimination of acute lethal toxic effects in tabun-poisoned rats. The oxime HI-6, relatively efficacious against soman, did not seem to be an adequately effective oxime in reactivation of tabun-inhibited AChE and in counteracting acute lethal effects of tabun. In addition, our results confirm that the efficacy of oximes in reactivating tabun-inhibited AChE in blood, diaphragm, and brain correlates with the potency of oximes in protecting rats poisoned with supralethal doses of tabun.

  20. A comparison of the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of chosen combinations of oximes with individual oximes against VX in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Sepsova, Vendula; Caisberger, Filip; Bajgar, Jiri

    2011-10-01

    The ability of 2 combinations of oximes (HI-6 + trimedoxime and HI-6 + K203) to reactivate VX-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and reduce acute toxicity of VX was compared with the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of antidotal treatment involving a single oxime (HI-6, trimedoxime, K203) in rats and mice. Our results showed that the reactivating efficacy of both combinations of oximes studied in rats is significantly higher than the reactivating efficacy of all individual oximes in diaphragm and roughly corresponds to the most effective individual oxime in blood and brain. Both combinations of oximes were found to be more effective in the reduction of acute lethal toxicity of VX in mice than the antidotal treatment involving the most efficacious individual oxime although the difference is not significant. Based on the obtained data, we can conclude that the antidotal treatment involving the chosen combinations of oximes brings benefit for the reactivation of VX-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in rats and for the antidotal treatment of VX-induced acute poisoning in mice.

  1. A rapid, convenient, solventless green approach for the synthesis of oximes using grindstone chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Synthesis of oximes is an important reaction in organic chemistry, because these versatile oximes are used for protection, purification, and characterization of carbonyl compounds. Nitriles, amides via Beckmann rearrangement, nitro compounds, nitrones, amines, and azaheterocycles can be synthesised from oximes. They also find applications for selective α-activation. In inorganic chemistry, oximes act as a versatile ligand. Several procedures for the preparation of oximes exist, but, most of them have not addressed the green chemistry issue. They are associated with generation of pollutants, requirement of high reaction temperature, low yields, lack of a generalized procedure, etc. Hence, there is a demand for developing an efficient, convenient, and non-polluting or less polluting alternative method for the preparation of oximes. In this context, bismuth compounds are very useful as they are cheap in general, commercially available, air stable crystalline solids, safe, and non-toxic, hence easy to handle. Results Carbonyl compounds (aliphatic, heterocyclic, and aromatic) were converted into the corresponding oximes in excellent yields by simply grinding the reactants at room temperature without using any solvent in the presence of Bi2O3. Most importantly, this method minimizes waste disposal problems, provides a simple yet efficient example of unconventional methodology and requires short time. Conclusions We have developed a novel, quick, environmentally safe, and clean synthesis of aldoximes and ketoximes under solvent-free grinding condition. PMID:22373136

  2. The influence of combinations of oximes on the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of antidotal treatment of tabun poisoning in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Pavlikova, Ruzena; Misik, Jan; Caisberger, Filip; Bajgar, Jiri

    2010-03-01

    The influence of the combination of oximes on the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of antidotal treament of acute tabun poisoning was evaluated. The ability of two combinations of oximes (HI-6 + obidoxime and HI-6 + K203) to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and reduce acute toxicity of tabun was compared with the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of antidotal treatment involving single oxime (HI-6, obidoxime, K203) using in vivo methods. Studies determining percentage of reactivation of tabun-inhibited blood and tissue acetylcholinesterase in poisoned rats showed that the reactivating efficacy of both combinations of oximes is higher than the reactivating efficacy of the most effective individual oxime in blood and diaphragm and comparable with the reactivating effects of the most effective individual oxime in brain. Moreover, both combinations of oximes were found to be slightly more efficacious in the reduction of acute lethal toxic effects in tabun-poisoned mice than the antidotal treatment involving individual oxime. A comparison of reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of individual oximes showed that the newly developed oxime K203 is slightly more effective than commonly used obidoxime and both of them are markedly more effective than the oxime HI-6. Based on the obtained data, we can conclude that the antidotal treatment involving chosen combinations of oximes brings beneficial effects for the potency of antidotal treatment to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in rats and to reduce acute toxicity of tabun in mice.

  3. A comparison of reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of bispyridinium acetylcholinesterase reactivator KR-22934 with the oxime K203 and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, HI-6) in tabun-poisoned rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Pavlikova, Ruzena; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil; Bajgar, Jiri; Jung, Young-Sik

    2011-03-01

    The potency of bispyridinium acetylcholinesterase reactivator KR-22934 in reactivating tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and reducing tabun-induced lethal toxic effects was compared with the oxime K203 and commonly used oximes. Studies determining percentage of reactivation of tabun-inhibited blood and tissue acetylcholinesterase in rats showed that the reactivating efficacy of KR-22934 was slightly higher than the reactivating efficacy of K203 and roughly corresponded to the reactivating efficacy of obidoxime and trimedoxime in blood and diaphragm. On the other hand, the oxime KR-22934 was not able to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in the brain. The therapeutic efficacy of all oximes studied approximately corresponded to their reactivating efficacy. Based on the results, one can conclude that the oxime KR-22934 is not suitable for the replacement of commonly used oximes for the antidotal treatment of tabun poisoning in spite of its potency to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in the peripheral compartment (blood, diaphragm).

  4. A Convenient and Efficient Procedure for Oxime Ethers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Acetophenone oxime and benzaldehyde oxime were converted to oxime ethers in the presence of alkyl halide or methyl sulfate and KOH in aqueous DMSO in 5 to 70 min. The yields of oxime ethers were 70 - 96%.

  5. A Convenient and Efficient Procedure fox Oxime Ethers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChunBaoLI; MichaelC.K.CHOI; 等

    2002-01-01

    Acetophenone oxime and benzaldehyde oxime were converted to oxime ethers in the presence of alkyl halide or methyl sulfate and KOH in aqueous DMSO in 5 to 70 min. The yields of oxime ethers were 70-96%.

  6. Brain-specific overexpression of trace amine-associated receptor 1 alters monoaminergic neurotransmission and decreases sensitivity to amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, Florent G; Meyer, Claas A; Bradaia, Amyaouch; Jeanneau, Karine; Calcagno, Eleonora; André, Cédric B; Haenggi, Markus; Miss, Marie-Thérèse; Galley, Guido; Norcross, Roger D; Invernizzi, Roberto W; Wettstein, Joseph G; Moreau, Jean-Luc; Hoener, Marius C

    2012-11-01

    Trace amines (TAs) such as β-phenylethylamine, p-tyramine, or tryptamine are biogenic amines found in the brain at low concentrations that have been implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, depression, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. TAs are ligands for the recently identified trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), an important modulator of monoamine neurotransmission. Here, we sought to investigate the consequences of TAAR1 hypersignaling by generating a transgenic mouse line overexpressing Taar1 specifically in neurons. Taar1 transgenic mice did not show overt behavioral abnormalities under baseline conditions, despite augmented extracellular levels of dopamine and noradrenaline in the accumbens nucleus (Acb) and of serotonin in the medial prefrontal cortex. In vitro, this was correlated with an elevated spontaneous firing rate of monoaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, dorsal raphe nucleus, and locus coeruleus as the result of ectopic TAAR1 expression. Furthermore, Taar1 transgenic mice were hyposensitive to the psychostimulant effects of amphetamine, as it produced only a weak locomotor activation and failed to alter catecholamine release in the Acb. Attenuating TAAR1 activity with the selective partial agonist RO5073012 restored the stimulating effects of amphetamine on locomotion. Overall, these data show that Taar1 brain overexpression causes hyposensitivity to amphetamine and alterations of monoaminergic neurotransmission. These observations confirm the modulatory role of TAAR1 on monoamine activity and suggest that in vivo the receptor is either constitutively active and/or tonically activated by ambient levels of endogenous agonist(s).

  7. Oximes in organophosphorus poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organic insecticide poisoning is a major health problem all over the world, particularly in the developing countries, where organophosphates (OPs are the most common suicidal poisons with high morbidity and mortality and account for a large proportion of patients admitted to intensive care units. Other insecticides less commonly used are organocarbamates, organochlorides, and pyrethroids, which are less toxic and are associated with less morbidity and mortality. Patients with poisoning present with a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal, neurological, and cardiac manifestations. A strong clinical suspicion is necessary to make an early diagnosis and to start appropriate therapy. Treatment is primarily supportive and includes decontamination, anticholinergics, protection of the airway, and cardiac and respiratory support. The use of oximes has been controversial and may be associated with higher mortality owing to a higher incidence of type-II paralysis. They may have other toxic side effects. This paper reviews the literature on OP poisoning.

  8. Oxime silanes: structure/toxicity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derelanko, Michael J; Rusch, George M

    2008-01-01

    Acute and repeated oral and dermal rat toxicology studies of standard designs were conducted on four methyl ethyl ketoxime (MEKO) silanes and four methyl isobutyl ketoxime (MIBKO) silanes. Each compound contained either MEKO or MIBKO groups (but not both) and either a single methyl, vinyl, or phenyl group (trifunctional oxime silane), two methyl groups or a methyl and vinyl group (difunctional oxime silane), or no nonoxime group (tetrafunctional oxime silane) attached to the central silicon atom. All compounds caused transient narcosis and anemia, with oral exposure associated with the hydrolyzed oxime groups. Difunctional oxime silanes, containing both a methyl and a vinyl group, caused degeneration of the seminiferous tubules of the testes following oral administration. Serial testicular histopathology indicated the effect originated at the level of the spermatocyte, resulting in a wave of cellular depletion of later maturation stages of spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis gradually recovered but function was not evaluated. Tetrafunctional oxime silanes, trifunctional oxime silanes, including those containing a single methyl or vinyl group, or difunctional oxime silane containing two methyl groups did not affect the testes, indicating that both a methyl and vinyl group needs to be present on the oxime silane molecule for testicular toxicity. The testicular toxicity appears to be associated with the methyl/vinyl silane portion and not the oxime portion of the oxime silane molecule. With the exception of the methyl/vinyl difunctional oxime silanes, the silane portion of oxime silanes does not appear to contribute any significant toxicity to these compounds.

  9. Protective effect of taurine on the decreased biogenic amine neurotransmitter levels in the brain of mice exposed to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Piao, Fengyuan; Li, Yachen

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has a toxic effect on the central nervous system, especially on learning and memory. Norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) play an important role in learning and memory function of the brain. In the present study, the protective effect of taurine on the disturbed biogenic amine neurotransmitter levels in the mouse brain induced by arsenic was examined. Sixty SPF mice were divided into three groups. The As exposure group was administered with 4 ppm As(2)O(3) through drinking water for 60 days. The protective group was treated with both 4 ppm As(2)O(3) and 150 mg/kg taurine. The control group was given drinking water alone. The levels of NE, DA, and 5-HT were determined by HPLC in the cerebrum and cerebellum of mice. Ultrastructure of synapses in brain tissue of mice was observed in these groups by transmission electron microscopy. The mRNA expressions of dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) as NE, DA, and 5-HT synzymes were also analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that the concentrations of NE, DA, and 5-HT; the number of synaptic vesicles; and the expressions of TH, TPH, and DBH genes in the brains of mice exposed to As alone were significantly decreased. However, administration of taurine significantly alleviated the toxic effect on biochemicals detected in the experiment, compared with that in the brain of mice exposed to As alone. These results indicated that taurine was effective in counteracting the decreased biogenic amine neurotransmitter level and the mRNA expressions of their synzymes induced by arsenic.

  10. The evaluation of the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of three novel bispyridinium oximes (K454, K456, K458) in comparison with the oxime K203 and trimedoxime in tabun-poisoned rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Sepsova, Vendula; Musilek, Kamil; Horova, Anna

    2013-02-01

    The potency of three newly developed bispyridinium compounds (K454, K456, K458) to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and reduce tabun-induced lethal toxic effects was compared with the oxime K203 and trimedoxime using in vivo methods. The study determining percentage of reactivation of tabun-inhibited diaphragm and brain acetylcholinesterase in poisoned rats showed that the reactivating efficacy of all newly developed oximes is comparable with K203 but lower than the reactivating potency of trimedoxime in diaphragm. In the brain, their potency to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase is lower compared with trimedoxime and the oxime K203. All three newly developed oximes were also found to be relatively effective in reducing lethal toxic effects in tabun-poisoned mice. Their therapeutic efficacy is consistent with the therapeutic potency of the oxime K203. On the other hand, their potency to reduce acute toxicity of tabun is significantly lower compared with trimedoxime. In conclusion, the reactivating and therapeutic potency of all three newly developed oximes does not prevail the effectiveness of the oxime K203 and trimedoxime and, therefore, they are not suitable for their replacement of commonly used oximes for the treatment of acute tabun poisoning.

  11. The development of new oximes and the evaluation of their reactivating, therapeutic and neuroprotective efficacy against tabun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil; Karasova, Jana; Musilek, Kamil

    2008-10-01

    Tabun (O-ethyl-N,N-dimethyl phosphoramidocyanidate) belongs to highly toxic organophosphorus compounds misused as chemical warfare agents for military as well as terroristic purposes. The antidotal treatment of tabun acute poisonings still represents a serious problem and the development of new, more effective AChE reactivators to achieve the satisfactorily effective antidotal treatment of acute poisonings with tabun still represents very important goal. Since 2003, we have prepared around 200 new AChE reactivators. Their potency to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase has been subsequently evaluated using our in vitro screening test. Afterwards, promising compounds were selected and kinetic parameters and reactivation constants were determined. Then, the best reactivators were subjected to the in vivo studies (toxicity test, the evaluation of therapeutic, reactivating and neuroprotective efficacy) and their potency to counteract the acute toxicity of tabun is compared to the therapeutic, reactivating and neuroprotective efficacy of commonly used oximes - obidoxime and the oxime HI-6. According to the results obtained, the newly synthesized oxime K075 showed the highest potency to reduce tabun-induced acute lethal toxicity while the therapeutic potency of obidoxime and the oxime HI-6 was significantly lower. The therapeutic efficacy of oximes studied corresponds to their reactivating efficacy in vivo as well as in vitro. The potency of all newly synthesized oximes to reactivate tabun-inhibited AChE is comparable with obidoxime with the exception of K074 that is significantly more efficacious in the brain. In addition, all newly synthesized oximes combined with atropine seem to be effective antidotes for a decrease in tabun-induced acute neurotoxicity. While the neuroprotective efficacy of obidoxime in combination with atropine is similar to the potency of newly synthesized oximes, the ability of the oxime HI-6 combined with atropine to counteract tabun

  12. Scintigraphic evaluation of brain death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. H.; Bai, M. S.; Cho, K. K.; Kim, S. J.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    A law recognizing brain death is a life saving legal measure in patients suffering from badly diseased organs such as kidney, liver, heart, and lung. Such law is being discussed for legalization at the Korean National Assembly. There are various criteria used for brain death in western world and brain scintiscan is one of them. However, the scintiscan is not considered in establishing brain death in the draft of the law. The purpose of this report is to spread this technique in nuclear medicine society as well as in other medical societies. We evaluated 7 patients with clinical suspicion of brain death by various causes. The patient's age ranged from 5 to 39 years. We used 5-20mCi {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO (d.1-hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) or ECD (Ethyl Cysteinate Dimer), lipophilic agents that cross BBB (blood brain barrier). A dynamic study followed by static or SPECT (single photon emission tomography) was performed. Interpretive criteria used for brain death were 1) no intracranial circulation 2) no brain uptake. The second criteria is heavily used. Five of 7 patients were scintigraphically brain dead and the remaining 2 had some brain uptake excluding the diagnosis of scintigraphic brain death. In conclusion, cerebral perfusion study using a lipophilic brain tracer offers a noninvasive, rapid, easy, accurate and reliable mean in the diagnosis of brain death. We believe that this modality should be included in the criteria of brain death in the draft of the proposed Korean law.

  13. An evaluation of therapeutic and reactivating effects of newly developed oximes (K156, K203) and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, HI-6) in tabun-poisoned rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil

    2008-01-20

    The potency of newly developed monoxime bispyridinium compounds (K156, K203) in reactivating tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and reducing tabun-induced lethal toxic effects was compared with commonly used oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, the oxime HI-6) using in vivo methods. Studies determining percentage of reactivation of tabun-inhibited blood and tissue acetylcholinesterase in poisoned rats showed that the reactivating efficacy of newly developed oxime K203 is comparable with obidoxime and trimedoxime in blood and higher than the reactivating potency of trimedoxime and obidoxime in diaphragm and brain, where the difference in reactivating efficacy of obidoxime, trimedoxime and K203 is significant. On the other hand, the potency of newly developed K156 to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase is comparable with obidoxime or trimedoxime in diaphragm and brain. It is significantly lower than the reactivating efficacy of trimedoxime and obidoxime in blood. Moreover, both newly developed oximes were found to be relatively efficacious in the reduction of lethal toxic effects in tabun-poisoned mice. Especially, the oxime K203 is able to decrease the acute toxicity of tabun nearly two times. The therapeutic efficacy of K156 and K203 corresponds to their potency to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase, especially in diaphragm and brain. In contrast to obidoxime and trimedoxime, the oxime HI-6 is not effective in reactivation of tabun-inhibited acetycholinesterase and in reducing tabun lethality. While the oxime K156 does not improve the reactivating and therapeutic effectiveness of currently available obidoxime and trimedoxime, the newly developed oxime K203 is markedly more effective in reactivation of tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in rats, especially in brain, and in reducing lethal toxic effects of tabun in mice and, therefore, it is suitable for the replacement of commonly used oximes for the antidotal treatment of acute tabun

  14. [Effect of chronic exposure to nitrogen dioxide on biogenic amine levels in the brain of guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felińska, W; Szkilnik, R; Stanosek, B; Kamiński, M; Ludyga, K; Brus, R

    1985-01-01

    The experiment was carried out on male guinea pigs exposed to NO2 at a constant concentration of 0.1 ppm 24 h daily for 1, 2.5 and 6 months, or NO2 concentration was increased to 0.5 ppm twice daily, between 7:00 and 8:00 AM and 4:00 and 5:00 PM. After the exposure to NO2 was over the animals were killed by decapitation. The cranium was opened and the brain removed, and afterwards at 0 degrees C the left hemisphere was dissected into discrete areas which were then frozen on dry ice and weighed. The tissues were kept for 2-3 days at -20 degrees C, and afterwards the content of noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindole-acetic acid was estimated spectrofluorometrically in examined parts of the brain (thalamus--hypothalamus pons + medulla oblongata hippocampus, cortex frontalis). It was shown that the applied NO2 concentrations brought about slight and nonspecific alterations in the content of the investigated amines in guinea pigs' brain.

  15. Brain FDG-PET Scan and Brain Perfusion SPECT in the Diagnosis of Neuroacanthocytosis Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem Değirmenci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroacanthocytosis syndromes (NA include autosomal recessive chorea-acanthocytosis and X-linked McLeod syndrome consisting of a choreatic movement disorder, psychiatric manifestations and cognitive decline, and additional multi-system features including myopathy and axonal neuropathy. Fluor 18 -2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG-PET positron emission tomography (PET and technetium 99m -d, l-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT have been increasingly used for the detection of neurologic disorders, such as dementia, epilepsy, and movement disorders. In this case report, we report two patients with neuroacanthocytosis syndromes with the imaging features of brain metabolism by PET and brain perfusion by SPECT. Brain PET and brain SPECT findings of patients with neuroacanthocytosis syndromes were also reviewed.

  16. A comparison of the therapeutic and reactivating efficacy of newly developed oximes (K117, K127) and currently available oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, HI-6) in tabun-poisoned rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil; Jung, Young-Sik

    2008-01-01

    The potency of newly developed bispyridinium compounds (K117, K127) to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and reduce tabun-induced lethal toxic effects was compared with currently available oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, oxime HI-6) by using in vivo methods. A study that determined the percentage of reactivation of tabun-inhibited blood and tissue acetylcholinesterase in poisoned rats showed that the reactivating efficacy of newly developed oxime K127 is comparable with obidoxime and trimedoxime in blood but lower than the reactivating potency of trimedoxime and obidoxime in the diaphragm and brain. The potency of another newly developed K117 to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase is comparable with obidoxime or trimedoxime in the diaphragm, but it is significantly lower than the reactivating potency of trimedoxime and obidoxime in the blood and brain. The oxime, K127, was also found to be relatively effective in reducing lethal toxic effects in tabun-poisoned mice. Its therapeutic efficacy is consistent with the therapeutic potency of obidoxime. On the other hand, the potency of the oxime, K117, to reduce acute toxicity of tabun is significantly lower compared to trimedoxime and obidoxime. The therapeutic efficacy of K117 and K127 corresponds to their potency to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase, especially in the diaphragm and brain. Contrary to obidoxime and trimedoxime, the oxime, HI-6, is not an effective oxime in the reactivation of tabun-inhibited acetycholinesterase and in reducing the lethal effects of tabun. The reactivating and therapeutic potency of both newly developed oximes does not prevail over the effectiveness of currently available obidoxime and trimedoxime and, therefore, they are not suitable for their replacement of commonly used oximes for the treatment of acute tabun poisoning.

  17. Synthesis and in vitro assessment of antifungal activity of oximes, oxime ethers and isoxazoles.

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Velandia, John; Laboratorio de síntesis orgánica, Departamento de Química. Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia.; Durán-Díaz, Natalia; Laboratorio de síntesis orgánica, Departamento de Química. Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia.; Robles-Camargo, Jorge; Laboratorio de síntesis orgánica, Departamento de Química. Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia.; Loaiza, Alix Elena; Laboratorio de síntesis orgánica, Departamento de Química. Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To synthesize and carry out a preliminary evaluation of the in vitro antifungal activity of oximes, oxime ethers and isoxazoles. Materials and methods. Oximes were synthesized from aldehydes or ketones with NH2OH.HCl and K2CO3. Oxime ethers were prepared by alkylation of oximes with propargyl bromide or 2-bromobenzyl bromide, using NaOH as base and acetone as solvent. The isoxazoles were obtained by 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN), chloramine T (CA...

  18. Amine-containing neurons in the brain of Lymnaea stagnalis: distribution and effects of precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audesirk, G

    1985-01-01

    Glyoxylic acid-induced fluorescence in whole-brain preparations of the central nervous system of the freshwater pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, was used to map the distribution of serotonin-and dopamine-containing neurons. Serotonin and dopamine were easily distinguishable by differences in color of fluorescence. Serotonin-containing neurons were consistently found in the cerebral, pedal, right parietal and visceral ganglia. Dopamine-containing neurons were found in the pedal, and buccal ganglia. Prior incubation of brains in 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate precursor to serotonin, produced serotonin-like fluoresence in neurons which do not normally fluoresce. These neurons thus probably possess specific uptake mechanisms for 5-HTP. Since 5-HTP itself fluoresces yellow, the glyoxylic acid technique cannot determine if these neurons contain the enzyme aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, which converts 5-HTP to serotonin, or merely fluoresce because of the 5-HTP taken into the cells.

  19. Synthesis and tissue distribution of four Se-labeled tertiary amines, potential brain pH imaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenevaux, A; Cantineau, R; Brihaye, C; Lemaire, C; Christiaens, L; Guillaume, M

    1990-01-01

    Four new tertiary amines: bis(3-N,N-dimethyl aminopropyl)selenide (PROMOSE), bis(3-N-(morpholino)propyl)selenide, N-methyl-selenomorpholine and N-phenyl-selenomorpholine structurally related to MOSE proposed by Kung and Blau, have been labeled through a radiochemical procedure suitable for both 75Se and 73Se. The radiochemical yields of the carrier added synthesis ranged between 64 and 85% for the four 75Se labelings and was 64% EOB time corrected for [73Se]PROMOSE. The chemical and radiochemical purities were higher than 99% after chromatographic purifications. The n-octanol/phosphate buffer partition coefficients (P) were measured at various pH (6.5-8) for each compound and the tissue distributions of PROMOSE in rats were also carried out. The experimental results showed a good correlation between the P = f(pH) function and the in vivo behaviour of the considered compound. PROMOSE was selected for further investigations as a brain pH indicator.

  20. 99mTc-HMPAO perfusion SPECT/CT in the diagnosis of brain death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlin, Thorsten; Weiberg, Desiree

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a case of brain death (BD) evaluated by 99mTc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). A 16-year-old boy with a history of rapid unexpected brain herniation due to pilocytic astrocytoma underwent 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT/CT for evaluation of brain death in the context of organ donation. Flow images demonstrated lack of blood flow to the brain, and delayed images showed absence of demonstrable radionuclide activity within the brain. SPECT/CT confirmed absence of tracer accumulation, and was deemed helpful for evaluation of the brain stem. 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT/CT is a valuable tool enabling imaging-based confirmation of BD.

  1. A Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for the Oxime TMB-4: Simulation of Rodent and Human Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-13

    values) (Voicu et al. 2010). Medically, oximes are administered to counteract organophosphate (OP) poisoning . OPs form serine-conjugated phosphonates...AH, Warnet JM (2011) Does modulation of organic cation transporters improve pralidoxime activity in an animal model of organophosphate poisoning ...model structure for the organophosphate diisopropylfluorophosphate, the model includes key sites of acetylcholinesterase inhibition (brain and diaphragm

  2. Biogenic amines and their metabolites are differentially affected in the Mecp2-deficient mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villard Laurent

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rett syndrome (RTT, MIM #312750 is a severe neurological disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2 gene. Female patients are affected with an incidence of 1/15000 live births and develop normally from birth to 6-18 months of age before the onset of deficits in autonomic, cognitive, motor functions (stereotypic hand movements, impaired locomotion and autistic features. Studies on Mecp2 mouse models, and specifically null mice, revealed morphological and functional alterations of neurons. Several functions that are regulated by bioaminergic nuclei or peripheral ganglia are impaired in the absence of Mecp2. Results Using high performance liquid chromatography, combined with electrochemical detection (HPLC/EC we found that Mecp2-/y mice exhibit an alteration of DA metabolism in the ponto-bulbar region at 5 weeks followed by a more global alteration of monoamines when the disease progresses (8 weeks. Hypothalamic measurements suggest biphasic disturbances of norepinephrine and serotonin at pathology onset (5 weeks that were found stabilized later on (8 weeks. Interestingly, the postnatal nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficit identified previously does not parallel the reduction of the other neurotransmitters investigated. Finally, dosage in cortical samples do not suggest modification in the monoaminergic content respectively at 5 and 8 weeks of age. Conclusions We have identified that the level of catecholamines and serotonin is differentially affected in Mecp2-/y brain areas in a time-dependent fashion.

  3. Effect of Several New and Currently Available Oxime Cholinesterase Reactivators on Tabun-intoxicated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Kassa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutical efficacies of eleven oxime-based acetylcholinesterase reactivators were compared in an in vivo (rat model study of treatment of intoxication caused by tabun. In this group there were some currently available oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime and HI-6 and the rest were newly synthesized compounds. The best reactivation efficacy for acetylcholinesterase in blood (expressed as percent of reactivation among the currently available oximes was observed after administration of trimedoxime (16% and of the newly synthesized K127 (22432 (25%. The reactivation of butyrylcholinesterase in plasma was also studied; the best reactivators were trimedoxime, K117 (22435, and K127 (22432, with overall reactivation efficacies of approximately 30%. Partial protection of brain ChE against tabun inhibition was observed after administration of trimedoxime (acetylcholinesterase 20%; butyrylcholinesterase 30% and obidoxime (acetylcholinesterase 12%; butyrylcholinesterase 16%.

  4. Effects of tertiary amine local anesthetics on the assembly and disassembly of brain microtubules in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genna, J M; Coffe, G; Pudles, J

    1980-09-01

    From kinetic and electron microscopy studies on the effects of procaine, tetracaine and dibucaine on the polymerization and depolymerization of the microtubules isolated from pig and rat brains the following results were obtained. 1. Procaine or tetracaine, at the concentration range of 0.5--20 mM and of 0.5--5 mM respectively, increases the rate of tubulin polymerization (24 degrees C or 37 degrees C) and of microtubule depolymerization (4 degrees C) as a linear function of the concentration of the anesthetics, while identical amounts of microtubules are formed. In the absence of microtubule-associated proteins the polymerization of tubulin is not induced by 10 mM procaine, furthermore, the critical concentration of microtubule proteins necessary for assembly into microtubules is not affected at this concentration level of the anesthetic. This suggests that procaine affects not the nucleation, but rather the elongation process. 2. Dibucaine, from 0.5 mM to 3 mM increases the lag time of the polymerization reaction, while from 0.5 mM to 2 mM it linearly decreases both tubulin polymerization (24 degrees C) and microtubule depolymerization (4 degrees C) rates. Dibucaine, up to mM concentration, does not affect the extent of tubulin polymerization; however, above this concentration it induces the formation of amorphous aggregates. 3. Procaine or tetracaine enhances the depolymerizing effect of calcium on microtubules. The half-maximal values for the depolymerizing effect of calcium were 0.96, 0.71 and 0.51 mM for the control, in the presence of 10 mM procaine and 5 mM tetracaine respectively.

  5. A comparison of the therapeutic and reactivating efficacy of newly developed bispyridinium compounds (K206, K269) with currently available oximes against tabun in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana; Bajgar, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil; Musilek, Kamil

    2008-12-01

    The potency of newly developed bispyridinium compounds (K206, K269) in reactivating tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and eliminating tabun-induced lethal toxic effects was compared with commonly used oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, the oxime HI-6) using in vivo methods. Studies which determined percentage of reactivation of tabun-inhibited blood and tissue AChE in poisoned rats showed that the reactivating efficacy of both newly developed oximes is comparable with obidoxime and trimedoxime in blood but lower than the reactivating potency of trimedoxime and obidoxime in the diaphragm and brain. Nevertheless, the differences in reactivating efficacy of obidoxime, trimedoxime and K206 was not significant while the potency of K269 to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase was significantly lower. Both newly developed oximes were also found to be relatively efficacious in elimination of the lethal toxic effects in tabun-poisoned mice. Their therapeutic efficacy corresponds to the therapeutic potency of obidoxime. The oxime HI-6, relatively efficacious against soman, did not seem to be an adequately effective oxime in reactivation of tabun-inhibited AChE and to counteract lethal effects of tabun. Both newly developed oximes (K206, K269) are significantly more efficacious in reactivating tabun-inhibited AChE in rats and to eliminate lethal toxic effects of tabun in mice than the oxime HI-6 but their reactivating and therapeutic potency does not prevail over the effectiveness of currently available obidoxime and trimedoxime and, therefore, they are not suitable for their replacement of commonly used oximes for the treatment of acute tabun poisoning.

  6. Pharmacokinetic Studies on Oximes in Organophosphate Poisoning: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Thunga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate (OP poisoning is one of the most common causes of poisoning in developing countries especially in Southeastern Asia. Poisoning with phosphorus-containing organic chemicals or OP compounds can be managed with antidotes like oximes which are potential reactivators of acetylcholinesterase (AChE. The efficacy of oxime therapy in OP poisoned patients mainly depends upon various factors such as different dose plans, infusion rate of oximes, genetic differences of patients, type of oxime used and chemical nature of the OP compound ingested. Studies on pralidoxime kinetics in OP poisoned patients have shown that reactivation of AChE depends on the plasma concentration of oximes as well as OP compounds. The plasma concentration of oximes mainly depends on the dose plan from intermittent injection to continuous infusion after a loading dose. The incontrovertible fact is that the intermittent dosing of oximes results in deep troughs in blood pralidoxime/oxime levels (BPL whereas continuous infusion of oximes maintains steady state plasma concentrations. Many published literature also highlighted pralidoxime via continuous infusion results in better outcomes with minimum fluctuation in BPL compared to intermittent dosing. At therapeutic doses, adverse effects of oximes are reported to be minimal. But high BPL is associated with some common adverse effects including dizziness, blurred vision and diastolic hypertension. Considering all the facts, it is important to note that kinetic studies of oximes are useful not only in deciding the dose regimen, but also in predicting the possible side-effects.

  7. Evolution of technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT and brain mapping in a patient presenting with echolalia and palilalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckx, R A; Saerens, J; De Deyn, P P; Verslegers, W; Marien, P; Vandevivere, J

    1991-08-01

    A 78-yr-old woman presented with transient echolalia and palilalia. She had suffered from Parkinson's disease for 2 yr. Routine laboratory examination showed hypotonic hyponatremia, but was otherwise unremarkable. Brain mapping revealed a bifrontal delta focus, more pronounced on the right. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain with technetium-99m labeled d,l hexamethylpropylene-amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO), performed during the acute episode showed relative frontoparietal hypoactivity. Brain mapping performed after disappearance of the echolalia and palilalia, which persisted only for 1 day, was normal. By contrast, SPECT findings persisted for more than 3 wk. Features of particular interest in the presented patient are the extensive defects seen on brain SPECT despite the absence of morphologic lesions, the congruent electrophysiologic changes and their temporal relationship with the clinical evolution.

  8. Organic Process Technology Valuation: Cyclohexanone Oxime Syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kevin C.; Breen, Maureen P.

    2010-01-01

    Three contemporary processes for cyclohexanone oxime synthesis are evaluated in a case study. The case study introduces organic chemistry students to basic cost accounting to determine the most economical technology. Technical and financial aspects of these processes are evaluated with problem-based exercises that may be completed by students…

  9. Oximes in organophosphate poisoning: 60 years of hope and despair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Wille, Timo

    2016-11-25

    The high number of annual fatalities following suicidal poisoning by organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and the recent homicidal use of the chemical warfare nerve agent sarin against civilian population in Syria underlines the continuous threat by these highly toxic agents. The need for an effective treatment of OP poisoning resulted in the implementation of a combination therapy with the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine and an oxime for the reactivation of OP-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Since the invention of the first clinically used oxime pralidoxime (2-PAM) in the 1950s ongoing research attempted to identify more effective oximes. In fact, several thousand oximes were synthesized in the past six decades. These include charged and non-charged compounds, mono- and bispyridinium oximes, asymmetric oximes, oximes with different substitutes and more recently non-oxime reactivators. Multiple in vitro and in vivo studies investigated the potential of oximes to reactivate OP-inhibited AChE and to reverse OP-induced cholinergic signs. Depending on the experimental model, the investigated species and the tested OP largely variable results were obtained by different laboratories. These findings and the inconsistent effectiveness of oximes in the treatment of OP-pesticide poisoned patients led to a continuous discussion on the value of oximes. In order to provide a forward-looking evaluation of the significance of oximes in OP poisoning multiple aspects, including intrinsic toxicity, in vitro reactivation potency, efficacy and pharmacokinetics, as well as the impact of the causative OP have to be considered. The different influencing factors in order to define the benefit and limitations of oximes in OP poisoning will be discussed.

  10. Reactivation of Brain Acetylcholinesterase by Monoisonitrosoacetone Increases the Therapeutic Efficacy Against Nerve Agents in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Biological Interactions 187 (2010) 318–324 Table 1 ChE reactivation by oxime treatments in brain regions, peripheral tissues and blood components following...the significant ChE reactivation by oxime treatments in brain regions, peripheral tissues and blood components following exposure to GB, GF, and VX.a...regions, peripheral tis- ues, or blood components , when an oxime treatment significantly eactivated nerve agent-inhibited ChE. For example, if an

  11. Treatment of canine scabies with milbemycin oxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W H; de Jaham, C; Scott, D W; Cayatte, S M; Bagladi, M S; Buerger, R G

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of orally administered milbemycin oxime in the treatment of canine scabies. Forty dogs were treated. Mean drug dosage for all dogs was approximately 2 mg/kg body weight. Twenty-seven dogs received 3 doses separated by 7 d, and 13 dogs received 2 doses separated by 14 d. All dogs were clinically normal following treatment and no adverse reactions were detected.

  12. Binding of reactive organophosphate by oximes via hydrogen bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andrea Pappalardo; Maria E Amato; Francesco P Ballistreri; Valentina La Paglia Fragola; Gaetano A Tomaselli; Rosa Maria Toscano; Giuseppe Trusso Sfrazzetto

    2013-07-01

    In this contribution, the ability of simple oximes to bind a well-known nerve agent simulant (dimethylmethylphosphonate, DMMP) via hydrogen bond is reported. UV/Vis measurements indicate the formation of 1:1 complexes. 1H-, 31P-NMR titrations and T-ROESY experiments confirm that oximes bind the organophosphate via hydrogen bond.

  13. Specification of the structure of oximes able to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabal, Jirí; Kuca, K; Kassa, J

    2004-08-01

    The efficacy of various oximes to reactivate acetylcholinesterase phosphorylated by tabun (O-ethyl-N,N-dimethyl phosphoramidocyanidate) was tested by in vitro and in vivo methods. The oximes commonly used for the treatment of acute poisonings with highly toxic organophosphates appeared to be almost ineffective (HI-6, pralidoxime, methoxime) or just slightly effective (obidoxime) against tabun. On the other hand, trimedoxime seemed to be a significantly more efficacious reactivator than the others in the case of tabun poisonings. In vitro, the concentration of trimedoxime corresponding to 1.0 mmol/l was able to reach 50% reactivation of tabun-inhibited brain acetylcholinesterase. Higher reactivating potency of trimedoxime in comparison with the other commonly used oximes was demonstrated by in vivo method, too. In addition, other structural analogues of trimedoxime were found to be efficacious in counteracting tabun-induced acetylcholinesterase inhibition although not as efficacious as trimedoxime itself. Some effective acetylcholinesterase reactivators were characterised by dissociation constant of enzyme-reactivator complex as well as enzyme-inhibitor-reactivator complex and by rate constant of reactivation.

  14. Pretreatment with pyridinium oximes improves antidotal therapy against tabun poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucić Vrdoljak, Ana; Calić, Maja; Radić, Bozica; Berend, Suzana; Jun, Daniel; Kuca, Kamil; Kovarik, Zrinka

    2006-11-10

    Oximes K033 [1,4-bis(2-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium) butane dibromide] and K048 [1-(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-4-(4-carbamoylpyridinium) butane dibromide] were tested as pretreatment drugs in tabun-poisoned mice followed by treatment with atropine plus K033, K048, K027 [1-(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-3-(4-carbamoylpyridinium) propane dibromide], TMB-4 [1,3-bis(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium) propane dibromide] and HI-6 [(1-(2-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-3-(4-carbamoylpyridinium)-2-oxapropane dichloride)]. Oxime doses of 25% or 5% of its LD(50) were used for pretreatment 15 min before tabun-poisoning and for treatment 1 min after tabun administration to mice. The best therapeutic effect was obtained when oxime K048 (25% of its LD(50)) was used in both pretreatment and treatment with atropine. This regiment insured survival of all tested animals after the application of 10 LD(50) of tabun. In addition, since butyrylcholinesterase (BChE; EC 3.1.1.8) is considered an endogenous bioscavenger of anticholinesterase compounds and its interactions with oximes could be masked by AChE interactions, we evaluated kinetic parameters for interactions of tested oximes with native and tabun-inhibited human plasma BChE and compared them with results obtained previously for human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7). Progressive inhibition of BChE by tabun was slightly faster than that of AChE. The reactivation of tabun-inhibited BChE by oximes was very slow, and BChE binding affinity for oximes was lower than AChE's. Therefore, BChE could scavenge tabun prior to AChE inhibition, but fast oxime-assisted reactivation of tabun-inhibited AChE or protection of AChE by oxime against inhibition with tabun would not be obstructed by interaction between BChE and oximes.

  15. A comparison of the potency of trimedoxime and other currently available oximes to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and eliminate acute toxic effects of tabun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jirí; Kuca, Kamil; Cabal, Jirí

    2005-12-01

    Tabun (O-ethyl-N,N-dimethyl phosphoramidocyanidate) belongs to highly toxic organophosphorus compounds misused as chemical warfare agents for military as well as terroristic purposes. It differs from other highly toxic organophosphates by its chemical structure and by the fact that tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase is extraordinarily difficult to reactivate. The potency of trimedoxime and other commonly used oximes (pralidoxime, obidoxime, the oxime HI-6) to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and to eliminate tabun-induced acute effects was evaluated using in vitro and in vivo methods. In vitro calculated kinetic parameters of reactivation of tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase from rat brain homogenate and in vivo determined percentage of reactivation of tabun-inhibited blood and tissue acetylcholinesterase in poisoned rats show that trimedoxime seems to be the most efficacious reactivator in the case of tabun poisonings. Trimedoxime was also found to be the most efficacious oxime in the elimination of acute lethal toxic effects in tabun-poisoned rats and mice. The oxime HI-6, so efficacious against soman, does not seem to be sufficiently effective oxime to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and to counteract acute lethal effects of tabun.

  16. Deprotection of oximes using urea nitrate under microwave irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P T Perumal; M Anniyappan; D Muralidharan

    2004-08-01

    A new mild and efficient method for the cleavage of oximes to carbonyl compounds using readily available urea nitrate in acetonitrile-water (95 : 5), under microwave irradiation within 2 min, in good yields is reported.

  17. Synthesis of oxime from a renewable resource for metal extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Anh Son; Tran, Thi Huong; Nguyen, Hong Nhung; Vu, Hong Son; Vo, Thanh Phong [Institute of Materials Science, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Phan, Chi; Nguyen, Thanh Vinh [Curtin University, Perth (Australia)

    2015-08-15

    A new method for semi-synthesis of alkyl salicylaldoximes from cardanol is reported. Cardanol was extracted from decarboxylation process of cashew nutshell liquid, an abundant agricultural by-product. Molecular structures, physical and chemical properties of cardanol and oxime derivatives were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses. The produced oximes were successfully employed to extract copper(II) cation from aqueous copper salt solutions, offering a practical and economical pathway to effectively recover metals using agricultural by-products.

  18. A comparison of the potency of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and currently available oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, HI-6) to counteract acute toxic effects of tabun and cyclosarin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jirí; Humlicek, Vojtech

    2008-01-01

    The potency of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, and HI-6) to counteract tabun or cyclosarin-induced acute toxic effects was studied in mice. The therapeutic efficacy of trimedoxime and both newly developed oximes (K074, K075) was significantly higher than the potency of obidoxime and the oxime HI-6 in the case of acute tabun poisonings. On the other hand, the oxime HI-6 was significantly more efficacious than other studied oximes when mice were intoxicated with cyclosarin. The findings support the hypothesis that the therapeutic efficacy of oximes depends on the type of nerve agent. Due to their therapeutic efficacy, both newly developed K oximes can be considered to be promising oximes for the antidotal treatment of acute tabun poisonings, while the oxime HI-6 is still the most promising oxime for the treatment of acute cyclosarin poisonings due to its high potency to counteract cyclosarin-induced acute toxic effects.

  19. Comparison of reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of two salts of the oxime HI-6 against tabun, soman and cyclosarin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Jun, Daniel; Kuca, Kamil; Bajgar, Jiri

    2007-11-01

    The reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of two salts of the oxime HI-6 (dichloride and dimethanesulphonate) against chosen nerve agents (tabun, soman and cyclosarin) was compared in rats. The potency of both salts of HI-6 to decrease the acute toxicity of tabun, soman and cyclosarin was similar in nerve agent-poisoned rats. While the potency of HI-6 dichloride and HI-6 dimethanesulphonate to counteract acute toxic effects of tabun is rather low, both salts of HI-6 were able to decrease the acute toxicity of soman two times and acute toxicity of cyclosarin more than three times. The therapeutic efficacy of both salts of the oxime HI-6 corresponds to their reactivating potency. While the reactivating efficacy of HI-6 dichloride as well as HI-6 dimethanesulphonate against tabun was negligible, their potency to reactivate soman-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and cyclosarin-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in peripheral (blood) and central (brain) compartment was relatively high. HI-6 dichloride showed a somewhat higher potency to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in brain, and soman-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in blood and brain than HI-6 dimethanesulphonate but the differences were not significant. Thus, the replacement of dichloride anion by dimethanesulphonate anion in the oxime HI-6 does not influence the therapeutic and reactivating efficacy of the oxime HI-6 against nerve agents. In addition, the higher solubility and stability of HI-6 dimethanesulphonate in comparison with HI-6 dichloride makes it possible to increase the dose and thus, the effectiveness of the oxime HI-6 in the antidotal treatment of acute nerve agent poisonings.

  20. Estimation of oxime efficacy in nerve agent poisoning: a kinetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Szinicz, Ladislaus; Thiermann, Horst

    2005-12-15

    Standard treatment of poisoning by organophosphorus compounds (OP) includes the administration of an anti-muscarinic, e.g. atropine, and of an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator (oxime). Two oximes, obidoxime and pralidoxime (2-PAM), are presently commercially available, yet, these compounds are considered to be of insufficient efficacy against certain nerve agents, e.g. soman and cyclosarin. In the past decades, numerous new oximes were synthesized and tested for their antidotal efficacy. The available data indicate that two Hagedorn oximes, HI 6 and HLö 7, are promising antidotes against various nerve agents. The efficacy of antidotes against nerve agent poisoning cannot be investigated in humans for ethical reasons. Therefore, it is necessary to use surrogate parameters for the evaluation of oxime efficacy. Reactivation of inhibited AChE is considered to be the main mechanism of action of oximes. Clinical data indicate that changes in erythrocyte AChE activity correlate to neuromuscular function indicating that interactions between AChE, inhibitor and oximes can be investigated in vitro with human erythrocyte AChE. Different theoretical models were used for the evaluation of reactivating efficacy of oximes with nerve agent-inhibited human AChE and for estimating effective oxime concentrations. The calculations demonstrate the marked differences between oximes in dependence of the inhibitor and provide a basis for the estimation of the required oxime dose as well as of dosing intervals.

  1. Oximes: Reactivators of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase and antidotes in therapy against tabun poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Zrinka; Calić, Maja; Sinko, Goran; Bosak, Anita; Berend, Suzana; Vrdoljak, Ana Lucić; Radić, Bozica

    2008-09-25

    One of the therapeutic approaches to organophosphate poisoning is to reactivate AChE with site-directed nucleophiles such as oximes. However, pyridinium oximes 2-PAM, HI-6, TMB-4 and obidoxime, found as the most effective reactivators, have limiting reactivating potency in tabun poisoning. We tested oximes varying in the type of ring (pyridinium and/or imidazolium), the length and type of the linker between rings, and in the position of the oxime group on the ring to find more effective oximes to reactivate tabun-inhibited human erythrocyte AChE. Three of our tested pyridinium oximes K027, K048, K074, along with TMB-4, were the most promising for AChE reactivation. Promising oximes were further tested in vivo on tabun poisoned mice not only as antidotes in combination with atropine but also as pretreatment drug. Herein, we showed that a promising treatment in tabun poisoning by selected oximes and atropine could be improved if oximes are also used in pretreatment. Since the reactivating efficacy of the oximes in vitro corresponded to their therapeutic efficacy in vivo, it seems that pharmacological effect of these oximes is indeed primarily related to the reactivation of tabun-phosphorylated AChE.

  2. A comparison of the potency of newly developed oximes (K027, K048) and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) to counteract tabun-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jirí; Kunesova, Gabriela

    2006-01-01

    The neuroprotective effects of newly developed oximes (K027, K048) and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) in combination with atropine in rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (170 microg kg(-1) i.m.; 80% of LD(50) value) were studied. The tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored using a functional observational battery and an automatic measurement of motor activity. The neurotoxicity of tabun was monitored at 24 h and 7 days following tabun challenge. The results indicate that the oxime HI-6 in combination with atropine was not able to protect the rats from the lethal effects of tabun. Two non-treated tabun-poisoned rats and one tabun-poisoned rat treated with atropine combined with HI-6 died within 2 h. On the other hand, all other tested oximes combined with atropine allowed all the tabun-poisoned rats to survive 7 days following tabun challenge. Both newly developed oximes combined with atropine seem to be sufficiently effective antidotes for a decrease in tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of sublethal poisoning although they are not able to eliminate tabun-induced neurotoxicity completely. The neuroprotective efficacy of obidoxime in combination with atropine approached the potency of newly developed oximes but the ability of the oxime HI-6 to counteract tabun-induced acute neurotoxicity was significantly lower, especially at 24 h after tabun poisoning. Due to their neuroprotective effects, both newly developed oximes appear to be suitable oximes for the antidotal treatment of acute tabun poisoning.

  3. Increased rCBF in gray matter heterotopias detected by SPECT using sup 99m Tc hexamethyl-propylenamine oxime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henkes, H. (Universitaetskliniken, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Inst. fuer Neuroradiologie Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Berlin (Germany). Radiologische Klinik mit Poliklinik); Hosten, N.; Cordes, M.; Neumann, K. (Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Berlin (Germany). Radiologische Klinik mit Poliklinik); Hansen, M.L. (Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Berlin (Germany). Abt. fuer Neurophysiologie)

    1991-08-01

    Imaging findings of morphology and regional cerebral blood flow in two patients suffering from epileptic seizures are presented. CT and MRI revealed heterotopic gray matter as a probable structural correlate, causing the seizure disorder. {sup 99m}Tc hexamethyl-propylenamine oxime (HM-PAO) SPECT demonstrated focally increased regional cerebral blood flow in both patients in the areas of their heterotopic lesions. Heterotopic and orthotopic gray matter seem to have similar features in terms of regional perfusion. A focally increased brain perfusion in interictal epileptic patients may indicate an underlying migration anomaly. (orig.).

  4. Evaluation of oxime k203 as antidote in tabun poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Zrinka; Vrdoljak, Ana Lucić; Berend, Suzana; Katalinić, Maja; Kuc, Kamil; Musilek, Kamil; Radić, Bozica

    2009-03-01

    We studied bispyridinium oxime K203 [(E)-1-(4-carbamoylpyridinium)-4-(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-but-2-ene dibromide] with tabun-inhibited human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in vitro, and its antidotal effect on tabun-poisoned mice and rats in vivo. We compared it with oximes K048 and TMB-4, which have proven the most efficient oxime antidotes in tabun poisoning by now. Tabun-inhibited AChE was completely reactivated by K203, with the overall reactivation rate constant of 1806 L mol(-1) min(-1). This means that K203 is a very potent reactivator of tabun-inhibited AChE. In addition, K203 reversibly inhibited AChE (Ki = 0.090 mmol L(-1)) and BChE (K(i) = 0.91 mmol L(-1)), and exhibited its protective effect against phosphorylation of AChE by tabun in vitro. In vivo, a quarter of the LD50 K203 dose insured survival of all mice after the application of as many as 8 LD50 doses of tabun, which is the highest dosage obtained compared to K048 and TMB-4. Moreover, K203 showed high therapeutic potency in tabun-poisoned rats, preserving cholinesterase activity in rat plasma up to 60 min after poisoning. This therapeutic improvement obtained by K203 in tabun-poisoning places this oxime in the spotlight for further development.

  5. High Efficient of the Intermolecular Radical Reactions through three-Component Carbo-Oximation Process using new ready available Sulfonyl oxime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireen Mohammed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Addition of functionalized carbon fragments across the olefinic π-system through a free-radical carbo-oximation process offers a straightforward access to valuable intermediates for organic synthesis. For this purpose, we designed a new protected sulfonyl oxime, which enable rapid radical addition with high yields under mild conditions.

  6. A comparison of the neuroprotective efficacy of individual oxime (HI-6) and combinations of oximes (HI-6+trimedoxime, HI-6+K203) in soman-poisoned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Tesarova, Sandra

    2011-07-01

    The ability of two combinations of oximes (HI-6+trimedoxime, HI-6+K203) to reduce soman-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was compared with the neuroprotective efficacy of the oxime HI-6 alone, using a functional observational battery. Soman-induced neurotoxicity and the neuroprotective effects of HI-6 alone and HI-6 combined with trimedoxime or K203 in rats poisoned with soman at a sublethal dose (90 μg/kg intramuscularly, i.m.; 80% of LD₅₀ value) were monitored by the functional observational battery at 24 hours following soman administration. The results indicate that both tested oxime mixtures combined with atropine were able to allow soman-poisoned rats to survive 24 hours following soman challenge, while 4 nontreated soman-poisoned rats and 1 soman-poisoned rat treated with oxime HI-6 alone combined with atropine died within 24 hours following soman poisoning. While the oxime HI-6 alone combined with atropine treatment was able to eliminate a few soman-induced neurotoxic signs and symptoms, both oxime mixtures showed higher neuroprotective efficacy in soman-poisoned rats. Especially, the combination of HI-6 with trimedoxime was able to eliminate most soman-induced neurotoxic signs and symptoms and markedly reduce acute neurotoxicity of soman in rats. Thus, both tested mixtures of oximes combined with atropine were able to increase the neuroprotective effectiveness of antidotal treatment of acute soman poisonings, compared to the individual oxime.

  7. A comparison of the potency of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) to counteract tabun-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana

    2007-01-05

    The neuroprotective effects of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) in combination with atropine in rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (180 micro g/kg i.m.; 80% LD(50)) were studied. The tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored using a functional observational battery and an automatic measurement of motor activity. The neurotoxicity of tabun was monitored at 24h and 7 days following tabun challenge. The results indicate that all oximes studied in combination with atropine allow all tabun-poisoned rats to survive within 7 days following tabun challenge while two non-treated tabun-poisoned rats died within 2h. Both newly developed oximes combined with atropine seem to be effective antidotes for a decrease in tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of sublethal poisoning although they are not able to eliminate tabun-induced neurotoxicity completely. The oxime K075 showed a higher neuroprotective efficacy against tabun than K074 according to the number of eliminated tabun-induced neurotoxic signs at 24h as well as 7 days after tabun challenge. The neuroprotective efficacy of obidoxime in combination with atropine is similar to the potency of newly developed oxime K075 but the ability of the oxime HI-6 to counteract tabun-induced acute neurotoxicity is significantly lower at 24h as well as 7 days after tabun poisoning. Due to their neuroprotective effects, both newly developed oximes (especially K075) appear to be more suitable oximes for the antidotal treatment of acute tabun poisonings than the oxime HI-6.

  8. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Some Transition Metal Complexes of Oxime, Semicarbazone and Phenylhydrazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed M. Hania

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Co, Ni and Cu complexes have been prepared by reacting metal chloride with 4-chlorobenzaldehyde oxime, 4-methylbenzaldehyde oxime, 4-nitrobenzaldehyde oxime, 4-chlorobenzaldehyde semicarbazone, 4-methyl- benzaldehyde semicarbazone, 4-nitrobenzaldehyde semicarbazone, 4-chloro benzaldehyde phenylhydrazone, 4-methylbenzaldehyde phenyl hydrazone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde phenylhydrazone and their antibacterial activity have been studied and compared with their ligands against E. coli which gave significant results of activity.

  9. Synthesis and insecticidal activities of new pyrethroid acid oxime ester derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A series of compounds containing oxime-ester linkage in place of the ester linkage in pyrethroid ester are designed and prepared. Bioassay data of insecticidal activities of these compounds on Ostrinia nubilalis (H.) and Culex pipines (L.) are presented. Among them 4-dimethyaminobenzaldehyde oxime ester of 2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid and 4-dimethyamino benzaldehyde oxime ester of cyclopropanecarboxylic acid are found to be potent insecticide against Ostrinia nubilalis (H.). Structure-activity relationship of the compounds is discussed.

  10. In vivo protection studies of bis-quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino)- N-(pyridin-3-yl) acetamide derivatives (HNK oximes) against tabun and soman poisoning in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Swami, D; Nagar, D P; Singh, K P; Acharya, J; Karade, H N; Yadav, R

    2017-01-01

    The study reports antidotal efficacy of three HNK [ bis quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino)-N-(pyridin-3yl) acetamide derivatives] and pralidoxime (2-PAM), against soman and tabun poisoning in Swiss albino mice. Protection index (PI) was determined (treatment doses: HNK oximes, ×0.20 of their median lethal dose (LD50) and 2-PAM, 30 mg/kg, intramuscularly (im)) together with atropine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Probit log doses with difference of 0.301 log of LD50 of the nerve agents administered and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by 50% (IC50) was calculated at optimized time in brain and serum. Using various doses of tabun and soman (subcutaneously (sc)), in multiples of their IC50, AChE reactivation ability of the oximes was studied. Besides, acute toxicity (0.8× LD50, im, 24 h postexposure) of HNK-102 and 2-PAM was also compared by determining biochemical, hematological variables and making histopathological observations. Protection offered by HNK-102 against tabun poisoning was found to be four times higher compared to 2-PAM. However, nearly equal protection was noted with all the four oximes against soman poisoning. HNK-102 reactivated brain AChE activity by 1.5 times more than 2-PAM at IC50 dose of soman and tabun. Acute toxicity studies of HNK-102 and 2-PAM showed sporadic changes in urea, uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase, and so on compared to control group, however, not supported by histopathological investigations. The present investigation showed superiority of newly synthesized HNK-102 oxime over standard 2-PAM, as a better antidote, against acute poisoning of tabun (4.00 times) and soman (1.04 times), in Swiss albino mice.

  11. Synthesis,QSAR Study and Optimization of Propiophenone Oxime Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; YU Fei; LIU Bin; YUAN Liping; YAO Jianhua; HUANG Ying; XlE Wei; CAO Jin; NI Changchun; SHEN Zhou; LI Xiuli; ZHANG Yibin; SHEN Tianxiang

    2009-01-01

    A method combining chemical and biological experiments and computer-aided molecular design was used to optimize lead compounds with inhibiting activity against Sphaerotheca fuliginea. 44 propiophenone oxime deriva-tives were synthesized by 3-amino-1-arylpropan-1-one oxime and halohydrocarbon. The results of biological test showed that most of these compounds had inhibiting activity against Sphaerothecafuliginea. QSAR study was done based on the experimental data of the 44 compounds. CoMFA ( γcv2, S and γ2 are 0.577, 0.258 and 0.962, respec-tively) and CoMSIA ( γcv2, S and γ2 are 0.583, 0.343 and 0.932 respectively) models were contributed and employed to design three new lead compounds whose prediction carcinogenic and mutagenic toxicities show impossibility. The performances of the two models are satisfied because the test results showed that their prediction activity and observed activity are corresponding.

  12. The toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of organophosphonates versus the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oxime antidotes: biological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Victor A; Thiermann, Horst; Rădulescu, Flavian Stefan; Mircioiu, Constantin; Miron, Dalia Simona

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents basic data on organophosphonate (OP) mechanisms of action, especially by toxicokinetic/toxicodynamic (TK/TD) process correlations. It is generally accepted that at least during onset of OP biological systems interaction, blood and tissue cholinesterase's inhibition represents OP exposure marker and initiating mechanisms for toxicodynamic effects, characteristic for cholinergic crisis. OP penetrability of various biological barriers conditioning TK characteristics are determined by a series of physico-chemical properties. Non-cholinergic effects, direct interactions with cellular structures and subsequent effects (excitotoxicity) triggered by cholinergic crisis are also briefly presented. Opposed to these OP TK/TD characteristics, the authors analysed the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) characteristics and their correlations for oximes, as basic OP antidotes, besides atropine and anticonvulsants. Phosphorilated cholinesterasis reactivators are mono or bispyridinium derivatives with quaternary ammonium atoms, high water solubility, ionized at physiological pH, distribution in extra-cellular space, very low digestive absorption and blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetrability. OP nerve gas acute toxicity is correlated with anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and partition coefficient. The toxicity rank seems to be determined by lipophilicity, besides their specific AChE inhibitory property. It has the effect that acute toxicity is the resultant of a TD process closely linked and dependent in vivo upon molecular descriptors determinant for the TK process. For cholinesterasis reactivators, molecular and PK characteristics limit their effects, especially to the peripheral level. The absent or much reduced BBB penetrability allowed some researchers to suggest that reactivators' penetration and presence at central level are not necessary. The study of PK/PD correlations, molecular descriptors and biological membrane permeability of oximes can

  13. Amine Functionalized Porous Network

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-05-28

    Amine groups can be introduced in porous materials by a direct (one pot) or post-synthetic modification (PSM) process on aldehyde groups, and the resulting porous materials have increased gas affinity.

  14. Subchronic exposure to arsenic disturbed the biogenic amine neurotransmitter level and the mRNA expression of synthetase in mice brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Liu, X; Zhao, L; Hu, S; Li, S; Piao, F

    2013-06-25

    Little is known about the influence of arsenic (As) exposure on monoamine neurotransmitters and the underlying mechanisms, although arsenic toxicity on the central nervous system has been well documented. In the present study, the levels of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and 5-HT were determined by high performance liquid chromatography in the cerebrum and cerebellum of mice exposed to 1, 2 and 4 ppm As2O3 through drinking water for 60 days. The ultra-structural change of vesicles in the synapses of mice brains was observed by transmission electron microscopy; the mRNA expressions of dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) as NE, DA and 5-HT synthetases were quantitatively assessed by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. It was shown that the concentrations of NE, DA and 5-HT in the cerebrum or cerebellum of mice exposed to As were significantly lower than those in the control group. The number of synaptic vesicles significantly decreased in the brain of mice exposed to As. Moreover, the expressions of TH, TPH and DBH genes were significantly lower in the brains of mice exposed to As than those in the controls. These results suggested that subchronic exposure to As might decrease the concentrations of the three monoamine neurotransmitters in the mouse brain and downregulate TH, TPH and DBH gene expressions. It was also indicated that the decreased concentrations of the three monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain might be related to the down-regulated gene expressions of these synthetases by As.

  15. Biogenic amines in beer

    OpenAIRE

    Čiháková, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the technological process of brewing beer, describes the raw materials needed for its production, and points out the useful and harmful substances contained in beer as biogenic amines (BA). Furthermore, there are described the issues of biogenic amines in food and primarily in beer, which is a histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine and tryptamine. In the practical section BA was determined in lager bottom-fermented beers from local microbreweries and large industri...

  16. A Novel Method for Beckmann Rearrangement of Oximes with Silica Sulfuric Acid under Mild Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Fei XIAO; Jia Jian PENG; Chun Gu XIA

    2006-01-01

    Silica sulfuric acid in which sulfuric acid is immobilized on the surface of silica gel via covalent bond has been proved to be green catalyst for liquid-phase Beckmann rearrangement of oximes in dried dioxane at room temperature. Excellent conversion and selectivity were acquired in the Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime. The catalyst system was recycled and reused.

  17. Oxidative effects in human erythrocytes caused by some oximes and hydroxylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmen, N G; Evelo, C T

    1998-04-01

    Both oximes and hydroxylamine (HYAM) are compounds with known oxidative capacity. We tested in vitro whether acetaldoxime (AAO), cyclohexanone oxime (CHO), methyl ethyl ketoxime (MEKO) or HYAM affect haemoglobin oxidation (into HbFe3+), formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and glutathione (GT) depletion in human haemolysate, erythrocytes or blood. All these parameters are known to be related to oxidative stress. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was measured as it may be affected by oxygen radicals. All three oximes caused a low degree of HbFe3+ accumulation in erythrocytes. This was higher in haemolysates indicating that membrane transport may be limiting or that protective mechanisms within erythrocytes are more effective. HbFe3+ accumulation was lower for the oximes than for HYAM. AAO and HYAM caused TBARS formation in blood. For HYAM this was expected as free radicals are known to be generated during HbFe3+ formation. Free radical generation by AAO and HYAM in erythrocytes was confirmed by the inhibition of GST. For the other two oximes (CHO and MEKO) some special effects were found. CHO did inhibit erythrocyte GST while it did not cause TBARS formation. MEKO was the least potent oxime as it caused no TBARS formation, little HbFe3+ accumulation and little GST inhibition in erythrocytes. However, GT depletion was more pronounced for MEKO than for the other oximes, indicating that glutathione conjugation occurs. TBARS formation, GT depletion and GST modulation caused by the oximes and HYAM were also tested in rat hepatocytes. However, no effects were found in hepatocytes. This suggests that a factor present in erythrocytes is necessary for free radical formation. Studies with proposed metabolites of the oximes (i.e. cyclohexanone, acetaldehyde or methylethyl ketone) and addition of rat liver preparations to the erythrocyte incubations with oximes, suggest that metabolism is not a limiting factor in erythrocyte toxicity.

  18. A comparison of the neuroprotective efficacy of newly developed oximes (K117, K127) and currently available oxime (obidoxime) in tabun-poisoned rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil; Jung, Young-Sik

    2009-01-01

    The potency of newly developed bispyridinium compounds (K117, K127) to reduce tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was compared with currently available oxime (obidoxime) using functional observational battery. The neuroprotective effects of atropine alone and atropine combined with one of three bispyridinium oximes (K117, K127, obidoxime) on rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (180 μg/kg i.m.; 80% of LD50 value) were studied. Tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored us...

  19. A comparison of neuroprotective efficacy of newly developed oximes (K203, K206) and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) in tabun-poisoned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana; Vasina, Libor; Bajgar, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil; Musilek, Kamil

    2009-01-01

    The neuroprotective effects of newly developed oximes (K203, K206) and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) in combination with atropine in rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (180 microg/kg i.m.; 80% LD(50)) were studied. The tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored by using a functional observational battery and an automatic measurement of motor activity. The neurotoxicity of tabun was monitored at 24 hours and 7 days following tabun challenge. The results indicate that K203 and obidoxime in combination with atropine allow all tabun-poisoned rats to survive within 7 days following tabun challenge, while 2 nontreated tabun-poisoned rats and 1 tabun-poisoned rat treated with K206 or HI-6 in combination with atropine died within 7 days. Only one of the newly developed oximes (K203) combined with atropine seems to be effective for a decrease in tabun-induced neurotoxicity within 24 hours after tabun sublethal poisoning, although it is not able to eliminate tabun-induced neurotoxicity completely. On the other hand, the neuroprotective efficacy of commonly used oximes (obidoxime and HI-6), as well as one of the new synthesized oximes (K206), is significantly lower in comparison with K203, according to the number of eliminated tabun-induced neurotoxic signs at 24 hours after tabun challenge. Due to its neuroprotective effects, K203 appears to be a suitable oxime for the antidotal treatment of acute tabun poisonings.

  20. Beckmann Rearrangement of Erythromycin A 9(E)-Oxime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓志华; 姚国伟; 欧育湘

    2003-01-01

    9-Deoxo-6-deoxy-6,9-epoxy-9,9a-didehydro-9a-aza-9a-homoerythromycin A (1), 9-deoxo-11-deoxy-9,11-epoxy-9,9a-didehydro-9a-aza-9a-homoerythromycin A (2) and 9a-aza-9a-homoerythromycin cyclic lactam (3) were synthesized by the Beckmann rearrangement of erythromycin A 9(E)-oxime (4). The structures of compounds (1), (2) and (3) have been identified by their spectral data. The reaction mechanism was also discussed. The yield of the Beckmann rearrangement of compounds (4) was better than that reported in literatures.

  1. Studies of the biogenic amine transporters. VI. Characterization of a novel cocaine binding site, identified with [125I]RTI-55, in membranes prepared from whole rat brain minus caudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, R B; Silverthorn, M L; Baumann, M H; Goodman, C B; Cadet, J L; Matecka, D; Rice, K C; Carroll, F I; Wang, J B; Uhl, G R

    1995-07-01

    Previous studies showed that the cocaine analog [125I]RTI-55 labels dopamine and serotonergic (5-HT) biogenic amine transporters (BATs) with high affinity. Here we characterized [125I]RTI-55 binding to membranes prepared from whole rat brain minus the caudate nuclei. Paroxetine (50 nM) was used to block [125I]RTI-55 binding to 5-HT transporter sites. Initial experiments identified drugs that displaced [125I]RTI-55 binding with moderately low slope factors. Binding surface analysis of the interaction of 3 beta-(4-chlorophenyl)tropan-2 beta-carboxylic acid phenyl ester hydrochloride (RTI-113) and 3 beta-(4-iodophenyl)tropan-2 beta-carboxylic acid phenyl ester hydrochloride (RTI-122) with [125I]RTI-55 binding sites readily resolved two binding sites for [125I]RTI-55 with Kd values of 0.44 nM and 17 nM and Bmax values of 31 and 245 fmol/mg protein. Potent 5-HT and noradrenergic uptake inhibitors had low affinity for both sites. Whereas cocaine, CFT and WIN35,065-2 were 6.0-, 25- and 14-fold selective for the first site, benztropine, PCP and the novel pyrrole, (+-)-(2RS,3aSR,8bRS)-1,2,3,3a,4,8b-hexahydro- 2-benzyl-1-methylindeno-[1,2-b]pyrrole resorcylate [(+-)-HBMP, formerly called (+-)-RTI-4793-14], were moderately selective for the second site. A single binding site with the characteristics of site 1 was resolved using COS cells transiently expressing the cloned rat dopamine transporter. Lesion studies with 6-hydroxydopamine and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine were conducted to test the hypothesis that site 1 and site 2 are physically distinct. The data showed that these neurotoxins differentially decreased [125I]RTI-55 binding to sites 1 and 2. The differential distribution of sites 1 and 2 in rat brain provides further support for this hypothesis. Viewed collectively, these data show that [125I]RTI-55 labels a novel binding site in rat brain membranes, termed DATsite2, which is not associated with the classic dopamine, serotonin or norepinephrine transporters.

  2. Synthesis, antifungal activity and structure-activity relationships of vanillin oxime-N-O-alkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Vivek; Garg, Nandini; Kumar, Birendra; Walia, Suresh; Sati, Om P

    2012-12-01

    Vanillin oxime-N-O-alkanoates were synthesized following reaction of vanillin with hydroxylamine hydrochloride, followed by reaction of the resultant oxime with acyl chlorides. The structures of the compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral data. The test compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against three phytopathogenic fungi Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii by the poisoned food technique. The moderate antifungal activity of vanillin was slightly increased following its conversion to vanillin oxime, but significantly increased after conversion of the oxime to oxime-N-O-alkanoates. While vanillin oxime-N-O-dodecanoate with an EC50 value 73.1 microg/mL was most active against M. phaseolina, vanillin oxime-N-O-nonanoate with EC50 of value 66.7 microg/mL was most active against R. solani. The activity increased with increases in the acyl chain length and was maximal with an acyl chain length of nine carbons.

  3. High capacity immobilized amine sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Soong, Yee; Filburn, Thomas

    2007-10-30

    A method is provided for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The improved method entails treating an amine to increase the number of secondary amine groups and impregnating the amine in a porous solid support. The method increases the CO.sub.2 capture capacity and decreases the cost of utilizing an amine-enriched solid sorbent in CO.sub.2 capture systems.

  4. CHITOSE AMINE & BODY ACUPOINTS' COSMETOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TEO Gek Chun

    2002-01-01

    @@ Chitose Amine is a natural substance which the body cells will readily absorb and it helps strengthen the immune system and reduces the cholesterol. Currently. Chitose Amine has been used widely in cosmetics and detoxification foods. The mian therapeutic properties of Chitose Amine in cosmetics are as follow:

  5. A comparison of the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of newly developed oximes (K347, K628) with commonly used oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) against tabun in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Kuca, Kamil; Musilek, Kamil

    2010-07-01

    The potency of newly developed reactivators of nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (K347, K628) in reactivating tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and reducing tabun-induced lethal toxic effects was compared with currently available oximes (obidoxime, the oxime HI-6), using in vivo methods. Studies that determined the percentage of reactivation of tabun-inhibited blood and tissue acetycholinesterase in poisoned rats showed that the reactivating efficacy of both newly developed oximes is comparable with the oxime HI-6, but it is significantly lower than the reactivating effects of obidoxime. The monopyridinium oxime, K347, was also found to be able to reduce lethal toxic effects in tabun-poisoned mice, while the therapeutic efficacy of another newly developed bispyridinium oxime, K628, was negligible. The therapeutic efficacy of K347 was higher than the potency of the oxime, HI-6, but it was lower than the therapeutic effects of obidoxime. Thus, the reactivating and therapeutic potency of both newly developed oximes (K347, K628) was not more effective then currently available oximes, and therefore, they are not suitable for the replacement of commonly used oximes (especially obidoxime) for the treatment of acute tabun poisoning.

  6. Synthesis of Pyridyl Polyheterocyclic Oxime-ether Schiff Bases Containing s-Triazole and Oxadiazole Subunits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Qiang HU; Sheng LI; Wen Long HUANG

    2006-01-01

    4-Amino-5-pyridin-4-yl-s-triazole-3-thiol (1) was sequentally reacted with 3-chloro-1-phenylpropan-1-one to afford 3-(4-amino-5-pyridin-4-yl-s-triazole-3-sulfanyl)-1-phenylpropan-1-one (2) followed by oximation with hydroxylamine hydrochloride and etherification with 5-aryl-[13,4]oxadiazole-2-chloromethanes to the corresponding oxime (3) and oxime-ethers (4a-e),respectively. The condensation of compounds 4 with salicylaldehyde gave the title compounds (5a-e). The antibacterial activity in vitro against Gram-postive (G+) and Gram negative (G-)bacteria was primarily evaluated.

  7. A comparison of the neuroprotective efficacy of newly developed oximes (K117, K127) and currently available oxime (obidoxime) in tabun-poisoned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil; Jung, And Young-Sik

    2009-03-01

    The potency of newly developed bispyridinium compounds (K117, K127) to reduce tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was compared with currently available oxime (obidoxime) using functional observational battery. The neuroprotective effects of atropine alone and atropine combined with one of three bispyridinium oximes (K117, K127, obidoxime) on rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (180 microg/kg i.m.; 80% of LD(50) value) were studied. Tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored using a functional observational battery and automatic measurement of motor activity at 24 h following tabun challenge. The results indicated that all tested oximes combined with atropine enabled tabun-poisoned rats to survive 24 h following tabun challenge while one tabun-poisoned rats died within 24 h after tabun poisoning when the rats were treated with atropine alone. Newly developed oxime K127 combined with atropine was the most effective in decreasing tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of sublethal poisonings among all oximes tested. Nevertheless, the differences of neuroprotective efficacy between K127 and obidoxime are not sufficient to replace obidoxime by K127 for the treatment of acute tabun poisonings.

  8. Synthesis, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of novel vanillin derived piperidin-4-one oxime esters: preponderant role of the phenyl ester substituents on the piperidin-4-one oxime core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harini, Salakatte Thammaiah; Kumar, Honnaiah Vijay; Rangaswamy, Javarappa; Naik, Nagaraja

    2012-12-15

    The study has been achieved the efficient synthesis of vanillin derived piperidin-4-one oxime esters (5a-m) via four step reaction involved Mannich reaction of vanillin, acetone and ammonium acetate to obtain 2,6-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-piperidin-4-one 2 followed by N-methylation and oximation. Further, to enhance the biological activity of vanillin derived piperidin-4-one oxime core, esterification of 4 with substituted benzoyl chlorides in the presence of strong organic base t-BuOK accomplished a series of vanillin derived piperidin-4-one oxime esters (5a-m). The synthesized analogues are screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial studies and the preponderant effect of the phenyl ester substituents on the biological activity of piperidin-4-one oxime core was demonstrated. Among the tested compounds, 5i and 5j are emerged as outperformed antioxidants than standard Butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) whereas, compounds 5b and 5d manifested potent antibacterial and antifungal activity than standard streptomycin and fluconazole respectively.

  9. Hydrothermal Reactivity of Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, K.; Shock, E.; Hartnett, H. E.; Williams, L. B.; Gould, I.

    2013-12-01

    The reactivity of aqueous amines depends on temperature, pH, and redox state [1], all of which are highly variable in hydrothermal systems. Temperature and pH affect the ratio of protonated to unprotonated amines (R-NH2 + H+ = R-NH3+), which act as nucleophiles and electrophiles, respectively. We hypothesize that this dual nature can explain the pH dependence of reaction rates, and predict that rates will approach a maximum at pH = pKa where the ratio of protonated and unprotonated amines approaches one and the two compounds are poised to react with one another. Higher temperatures in hydrothermal systems allow for more rapid reaction rates, readily reversible reactions, and unique carbon-nitrogen chemistry in which water acts as a reagent in addition to being the solvent. In this study, aqueous benzylamine was used as a model compound to explore the reaction mechanisms, kinetics, and equilibria of amines under hydrothermal conditions. Experiments were carried out in anoxic silica glass tubes at 250°C (Psat) using phosphate-buffered solutions to observe changes in reaction rates and product distributions as a function of pH. The rate of decomposition of benzylamine was much faster at pH 4 than at pH 9, consistent with the prediction that benzylamine acts as both nucleophile and an electrophile, and our estimate that the pKa of benzylamine is ~5 at 250°C and Psat. Accordingly, dibenzylamine is the primary product of the reaction of two benzylamine molecules, and this reaction is readily reversible under hydrothermal conditions. Extremely acidic or basic pH can be used to suppress dibenzylamine production, which also suppresses the formation of all other major products, including toluene, benzyl alcohol, dibenzylimine, and tribenzylamine. This suggests that dibenzylamine is the lone primary product that then itself reacts as a precursor to produce the above compounds. Analog experiments performed with ring-substituted benzylamine derivatives and chiral

  10. A comparison of reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of the oxime K203 and its fluorinated analog (KR-22836) with currently available oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, HI-6) against tabun in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Caisberger, Filip; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil; Jung, Young-Sik

    2010-08-01

    The potency of newly developed bispyridinium compound K203 and its fluorinated analog KR-22836 in reactivating tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and reducing tabun-induced lethal toxic effects was compared with commonly used oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, the oxime HI-6) using in vivo methods. Studies determining the percentage of reactivation of tabun-inhibited blood and tissue acetylcholinesterase in rats showed that the reactivating efficacy of K203 is higher than the reactivating efficacy of its fluorinated analog KR-22836 as well as currently available oximes studied. The therapeutic efficacy of the oxime K203 and its fluorinated analog corresponds to their potency to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase. According to the results, the oxime K203 is more suitable than KR-22836 for the replacement of commonly used oximes for the antidotal treatment of acute tabun poisoning due to its relatively high potency to counteract the acute toxicity of tabun.

  11. Estimation of kinetics parameters in Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime using genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian; LI Zhong; LUO He-an

    2006-01-01

    Beckmann rearrangement mechanism of cyclohexanone oxime, based on the characteristic of self-catalyzed reaction and polymorphism was proposed. According to the suggested mechanism, the basic approach was the rearrangement of OXH+ while the SO3 acts as dehydrating agent and OXSO3 can turn to CPLSO3 ultimately. Considering self-catalyzed reaction between OXSO3 and CPLH+ , kinetic model for Beckmann rearrangement was established. Corresponding parameters were estimated by using float genetic algorithm (GA) and simulation results agree well with the experimental data below -19.3℃. Industrial equipment was simulated and analyzed. Effects of key process parameters such as molar ratio of sulfuric acid to oxime and circulation ratio on the residual oxime are also discussed. The results show that the caprolactam exists as CPLH+ finally in oleum and the minimum molecular ratio of sulfuric acid to oxime can be 0.5 theoretically.

  12. EFFECTS OF NORETHISTERONE OXIME ON THE OVIDUCT AND OVUM TRANSPORT IN RABBITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAOHui-Yi; LIQi-Gui; LIFeng; XIAOBang-Zhou; LIDun-Zhou

    1989-01-01

    Effects of norethisterone oxime ( NETO ) on muscular contraction of rabbit ovldacts were studied and compared with those of ethinyloestradiol ( EE ). Besides, its effects on morphological changes of oviducts and on ovum transport and development were alto investigated.

  13. Effects of Oxime K203 and Oxidative Stress in Plasma of Tabun Poisoned Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Berend, Suzana; Lucić Vrdoljak, Ana; Musilek, Kamil; Kuča, Kamil; Radić, Božica

    2012-01-01

    The highly toxic nature of tabun has been known for many years, but there are still serious limitations to antidotal therapy. In this study, we used rats as an experimental model to evaluate the efficiency of bispyridinium para-oxime K203 as therapy against tabun poisoning as well as to examine if induction of oxidative stress is linked to organophosphate toxicity. K203 showed high potency in counteracting tabun poisoning. Either alone or in combination with atropine, this oxime s...

  14. The evaluation of the neuroprotective effects of bispyridinium oximes in tabun-poisoned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana

    2007-09-01

    Tabun (O-ethyl-N,N-dimethyl phosphoramidocyanidate) belongs to the group of highly toxic organophosphorus compounds that may be used as chemical warfare agents for military as well as terrorist purposes. Tabun differs from other highly toxic organophosphates by the fact that commonly used antidotes are not able adequately to prevent tabun-induced acute toxic effects. The neuroprotective effects of four bispyridinium oximes (K075, trimedoxime, HI-6, obidoxime) in combination with atropine on rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (150 microg/kg i.m.; 80% of LD50 value) were studied. Tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored using a functional observational battery and automatic measurement of motor activity at 24 h and 7 d following tabun challenge. The results indicated that all tested oximes combined with atropine enabled tabun-poisoned rats to survive 7 d following challenge. Trimedoxime combined with atropine was the most effective antidote in decreasing tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of sublethal poisonings among all oximes tested. Due to its neuroprotective effects, trimedoxime may be considered to be more suitable oxime for the antidotal treatment of acute tabun exposure than currently used oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) and the newly synthesized oxime K075.

  15. Differences in {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPET perfusion imaging between Tourette's syndrome and chronic tic disorder in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, N.-T.; Lee, B.-F. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (Taiwan); Chang, Y.-C. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Chang Kang Children' s Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (Taiwan); Huang, C.-C. [Dept. of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (Taiwan); Wang, S.-T. [Dept. of Public Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (Taiwan)

    2001-02-01

    Early differential diagnosis between Tourette's syndrome and chronic tic disorder is difficult but important because both the outcome and the treatment of these two childhood-onset diseases are distinct. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) perfusion imaging in distinguishing the two diseases, and characterized their different cerebral perfusion patterns. Twenty-seven children with Tourette's syndrome and 11 with chronic tic disorder (mean age 9.5 and 8.6 years, respectively) underwent brain SPET with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO). Visual interpretation and semi-quantitative analysis of SPET images were performed. On visual interpretation, 22 of 27 (82%) of the Tourette's syndrome group had lesions characterized by decreased perfusion. The left hemisphere was more frequently involved. None of the children with chronic tic disorder had a visible abnormality. Semi-quantitative analysis showed that, compared with children with chronic tic disorder, children with Tourette's syndrome had significantly lower perfusion in the left lateral temporal area and asymmetric perfusion in the dorsolateral frontal, lateral and medial temporal areas. In conclusion, using the visual approach, brain SPET perfusion imaging is sensitive and specific in differentiating Tourette's syndrome and chronic tic disorder. The perfusion difference between the two groups, demonstrated by semi-quantitative analysis, may be related more to the co-morbidity in Tourette's syndrome than to tics per se. (orig.)

  16. Growth, crystalline perfection and characterization of benzophenone oxime crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, M.; Muthu, K.; Meenatchi, V.; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Mahadevan, C. K.; Meenakshisundaram, SP.

    Single crystals of benzophenone oxime (BPO) have been grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique from ethanol at room temperature. The single crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals that the crystal belongs to monoclinic system and cell parameters are, a = 9.459 Å, b = 8.383 Å, c = 26.690 Å, v = 2115 Å3 and β = 92.807°. The structure and the crystallinity of the materials were further confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The various functional groups present in the molecule are confirmed by FT-IR analysis. The TG/DSC studies reveal the purity of the material and the crystals are transparent in the entire visible region having a lower optical cut-off at ˜300 nm. The crystalline perfection was evaluated by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The crystal is further characterized by Kurtz powder technique, dielectric studies and microhardness analysis.

  17. Normal cerebral perfusion of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT. Evaluation by an anatomical standardization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Masamichi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Ito, Hiroshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Development, Aging and Cancer] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Single photon labeled tracer {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime (HMPAO) has been used for rCBF studies by SPECT. However, normal perfusion pattern of this agent still remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate normal {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT image voxel by voxel. Eighteen male subjects without any prior or present history of medical illness participated in this study. All SPECT images were globally normalized to 100 count/voxel. Each subject had an X-ray CT scan at the same day of SPECT measurement. All subjects had normal X-ray CT scans. The standard anatomical structures of the computerized brain atlas of Roland et al. were fitted to X-ray CT images of a subject by linear and non-linear parameters. These parameters were subsequently used to transform SPECT images of the subject. After the anatomical standardization, mean and SD images of eight standardized images were calculated voxel-by-voxel basis. In the mean image, following structures showed relatively higher radioactivity; the putamen, the cerebellum, and the frontal lobe. In addition, the occipital lobe, parietal lobe, frontal lobe, and the putamen showed large degree of SD. Anatomical standardization of SPECT images may be useful as a reference to diagnose and evaluate various brain disorders. (author).

  18. Metabolism of biogenic amines in acute cerebral ischemia: Influence of systemic hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin are biogenic amines which are transmitters of the central nervous system. The effects of ischemia on the brain parenchyma depends on many factors, such is the mechanism of blood flow interruption, velocity of the occurring blood flow interruption, duration of an ischemic episode, organization of anatomical structures of the brain blood vessels etc., which all influence the final outcome. During interruption of the brain circulation in experimental or clinical conditions, neurotransmitter metabolism, primarily of biogenic amines, is disturbed. Many researches with various experimental models of complete ischemia reported a decrease in the content of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in the CNS tissue. It was proven that hyperglycemia can drastically increase cerebral injury followed by short-term cerebral ischemia. Considering the fact that biogenic amines (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin influence the size of neurologic damage, as well as the fact that in hyperglycemic conditions infarct size (from the morphological aspect is larger relative to normoglycemic status, the intention was to evaluate the role of biogenic amines in occurrence of damage in conditions of hyperglycemia, i.e. in the case of brain apoplexia in diabetics. Analysis of biogenic amines metabolism in states of acute hyperglycemia, as well as analysis of the effects of reversible and irreversible brain ischemia on metabolism of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine, showed that acute hyperglycemia slows down serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine metabolism in the cerebral cortex and n. caudatus. Brain ischemia in normoglycemic animals by itself has no influence on biogenic amines metabolism, but the effect of ischemia becomes apparent during reperfusion. In recirculation, which corresponds to the occurrences in penumbra, release of biogenic amines is uncontrolled and increased. Brain ischemia in acute hyperglycemic animals

  19. Comparison of oxime reactivation and aging of nerve agent-inhibited monkey and human acetylcholinesterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chunyuan; Tong, Min; Maxwell, Donald M; Saxena, Ashima

    2008-09-25

    Non-human primates are valuable animal models that are used for the evaluation of nerve agent toxicity as well as antidotes and results from animal experiments are extrapolated to humans. It has been demonstrated that the efficacy of an oxime primarily depends on its ability to reactivate nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). If the in vitro oxime reactivation of nerve agent-inhibited animal AChE is similar to that of human AChE, it is likely that the results of an in vivo animal study will reliably extrapolate to humans. Therefore, the goal of this study was to compare the aging and reactivation of human and different monkey (Rhesus, Cynomolgus, and African Green) AChEs inhibited by GF, GD, and VR. The oximes examined include the traditional oxime 2-PAM, two H-oximes HI-6 and HLo-7, and the new candidate oxime MMB4. Results indicate that oxime reactivation of all three monkey AChEs was very similar to human AChE. The maximum difference in the second-order reactivation rate constant between human and three monkey AChEs or between AChEs from different monkey species was 5-fold. Aging rate constants of GF-, GD-, and VR-inhibited monkey AChEs were very similar to human AChE except for GF-inhibited monkey AChEs, which aged 2-3 times faster than the human enzyme. The results of this study suggest that all three monkey species are suitable animal models for nerve agent antidote evaluation since monkey AChEs possess similar biochemical/pharmacological properties to human AChE.

  20. The intravenous and oral pharmacokinetics of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime when used as a combination chewable parasiticide for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letendre, L; Harriman, J; Drag, M; Mullins, A; Malinski, T; Rehbein, S

    2017-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime (A3 and A4 forms) in dogs were evaluated following the oral administration of NexGard Spectra(®) (Merial), a fixed combination chewable formulation of these two active pharmaceutical ingredients. Absorption of actives was rapid at levels that provide the minimum effective doses of 2.5 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime, respectively. The time to maximum afoxolaner plasma concentrations (tmax ) was 2-4 h. The milbemycin tmax was 1-2 h. The terminal plasma half-life (t1/2 ) and the oral bioavailability were 14 ± 3 days and 88.3% for afoxolaner, 1.6 ± 0.4 days and 80.5% for milbemycin oxime A3 and 3.3 ± 1.4 days and 65.1% for milbemycin oxime A4. The volume of distribution (Vd ) and systemic clearance (Cls) were determined following an IV dose of afoxolaner or milbemycin oxime. The Vd was 2.6 ± 0.6, 2.7 ± 0.4 and 2.6 ± 0.6 L/kg for afoxolaner, milbemycin oxime A3 and milbemycin oxime A4, respectively. The Cls was 5.0 ± 1.2, 75 ± 22 and 41 ± 12 mL/h/kg for afoxolaner, milbemycin oxime A3 and milbemycin oxime A4, respectively. The pharmacokinetic profile for the combination of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime supports the rapid onset and a sustained efficacy for afoxolaner against ectoparasites and the known endoparasitic activity of milbemycin oxime.

  1. Evaluation of the potency of two novel bispyridinium oximes (K456, K458) in comparison with oxime K203 and trimedoxime to counteract tabun-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Misik, Jan; Karasova, Jana Z

    2013-09-01

    The ability of two newly developed bispyridinium oximes (K456, K458) to reduce tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was compared with oxime K203 and trimedoxime using the functional observational battery. The neuroprotective effects of the oximes studied combined with atropine on rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (200 μg/kg i.m.; 85% of LD50 value) were evaluated. Tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored by the functional observational battery and automatic measurement of motor activity at 2 hr after tabun challenge. The results indicate that all tested oximes combined with atropine enable tabun-poisoned rats to survive till the end of experiment. Both newly developed oximes (K456, K458) combined with atropine were able to decrease tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of sublethal poisonings although they did not eliminate all tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms. Their ability to decrease tabun-induced acute neurotoxicity was slightly higher than that of trimedoxime and oxime K203, but the difference in neuroprotective efficacy among all oximes studied is not large enough to make a decision about replacement of commonly used oximes (especially trimedoxime and obidoxime) in the treatment of acute tabun poisonings.

  2. Tc-99m-HMPAO brain scintigraphy. A comparative study with I-123-IMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimoto, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Yoichi; Yoshida, Shoji; Akagi, Naoki; Ohara, Shuichi; Kamiike, Osamu; Maeda, Tomoho

    1989-04-01

    Sixteen single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies with Tc-99m hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (Tc-99m HMPAO) were performed in patients with cerebral infarction (n=10), transient ischemic attack (n=2), or brain tumor (n=3). X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans and SPECT scans with N-isopropyl-p-(I-123)iodoamphetamine (I-123 IMP) were also obtained for comparison with findings of SPECT with Tc-99m HMPAO. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) was detected in five patients (33%) on both early and delayed SPECT scans with Tc-99m HMPAO. In 8 patients, early scans with Tc-99m HMPAO tended to depict lesions more extensively when compared with CT. Early scanning with I-123 IMP was superior to that with Tc-99m HMPAO in detecting lesions. In detecting CCD, both methods were comparable to each other. In visualizing the basal ganglion, early scans with Tc-99m HMPAO were superior to scans with I-123 IMP. Tc-99m HMPAO has the advantages of short half-life period, small amounts of exposure doses, simple labeling, and prompt usage in emergency cases, such as cerebral infarction and cerebrovascular disorder. (Namekawa, K).

  3. Efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewables against induced gastrointestinal nematode infections in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser, Rebecca; Hamel, Dietmar; Dorr, Paul; Reinemeyer, Craig R; Crafford, Dionne; Bowman, Dwight D; Ulrich, Michael; Yoon, Stephen; Larsen, Diane L

    2016-07-30

    The efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime combination chewables against induced gastrointestinal nematode infections in dogs was evaluated in six separate studies. Two studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the product against Toxocara canis, two studies evaluated the efficacy against Toxascaris leonina, one study evaluated the efficacy against Ancylostoma braziliense, and one study evaluated the efficacy against Ancylostoma caninum. In the A. caninum study, the efficacy of milbemycin oxime alone and afoxolaner alone was also evaluated. Dogs in all studies were inoculated with infective eggs or larvae and confirmed to have patent infections based on a fecal examination prior to allocation to study group and treatment. Each study utilized a randomized block design with blocks based on pre-treatment body weight. All dogs were assigned to blocks based on body weight, and then each dog within a block was randomly assigned to treatment group. There were two groups of 10 dogs each in the T. canis, T. leonina, and A. braziliense studies: 1) an untreated (control) group and 2) a group treated with afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewables (NexGard Spectra(®), Merial). This group was treated at a dose as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime (2.5mg+0.5mg per kg body weight, respectively) once on Day 0 using whole chews. There were four groups of 10 dogs each in the A. caninum study: 1) untreated (control), 2) NexGard Spectra(®) as described above, 3) milbemycin oxime alone (dose of at least 0.5mg per kg of body weight) and 4) afoxalaner alone (dose of at least 2.5mg per kg body weight). For parasite recovery and counts, dogs were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven days after treatment. The efficacy of the afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime combination was ≥98% against T. canis, ≥95.8% against T. leonina, and 90.2% against A. braziliense. Efficacy of the combination against A. caninum was 99

  4. Clinical usefulness of scatter and attenuation correction for brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in pediatrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Itaru; Doi, Kenji; Komori, Tsuyoshi; Hou, Nobuyoshi; Tabuchi, Koujirou; Matsui, Ritsuo; Sueyoshi, Kouzou; Utsunomiya, Keita; Narabayashi, Isamu [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to study clinical usefulness of scatter and attenuation correction (SAC) of brain SPECT in infants to compare the standard reconstruction (STD). The brain SPECT was performed in 31 patients with 19 epilepsy, 5 cerebro-vascular disease, 2 brain tumor, 3 meningitis, 1 hydrocephalus and psychosis (mean age 5.0{+-}4.9 years old). Many patients was necessary to be injected sedatives for restraining body motion after Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) was injected at the convulsion or rest. Brain SPECT data were acquired with triple detector gamma camera (GCA-9300 Toshiba Japan). These data were reconstructed by filtered backprojection after the raw data were corrected by triple energy windows method of scatter correction and Chang filtered method of attenuation correction. The same data was reconstructed by filtered backprojection without these corrections. Both SAC and STD SPECT images were analyzed by the visual interpretation. The uptake ratio of cerebral basal nuclei was calculated by the counts of the thalamus or lenticular nuclei divided by the cortex. All images of SAC method were excellent than that of STD method. The thalamic uptake ratio in SAC method was higher than that of STD method (1.22{+-}0.09>0.87{+-}0.22 p<0.01). The lenticular nuclear uptake ratio in SAC method was higher than that of STD method (1.26{+-}0.15>1.02{+-}0.16 p<0.01). Transmission scan is the most suitable method of absorption correction. But the transmission scan is not adequate for examination of children, because this scan needs a lot of time and the infants are exposed by the line source radioisotope. It was concluded that these scatter and absorption corrections were most suitable method for brain SPECT in pediatrics. (author)

  5. Structural, vibrational, NMR, quantum chemical, DNA binding and protein docking studies of two flexible imine oximes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YUNUS KAYA

    2016-09-01

    Two flexible imine oxime molecules, namely, 3-(pyridin-2-ylmethylimino)-butan-2-one oxime (HL¹) and 3-(pyridin-2-ylmethylimino)-pentan-2-one oxime (HL²) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and NMR techniques. The conformational behavior was investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP method combined with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. As a result of the conformational studies, three stable molecules and the most stable conformer were determined for the both imine oximes. The spectroscopic properties such as vibrational and NMR were calculated for the most stable conformer of the HL¹ and HL². The calculation results were applied to simulate infrared spectra of the title compounds, which show good agreement with observed spectra. In addition, the stable three molecules of the both imine oximes have been used to carry out DNA binding and protein docking studies with DNA and protein structures (downloaded from Protein Data Bank) using Discovery Studio 3.5 to find the most preferred binding mode of the ligands inside the DNA and protein cavity.

  6. Conversion of Oximes to Carbonyl Compounds by Triscetylpyridinium Tetrakis(oxodiperoxotungsto) Phosphate (PCWP)-mediated Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Toscano, Rosa M.; Gaetano Tomaselli; Antonio Rescifina; Ugo Chiacchio; Francesco P. Ballistreri

    2008-01-01

    Aromatic and aliphatic oximes have been deoximated in chloroform-water to the corresponding aldehydes with dilute hydrogen peroxide and triscetylpyridinium tetrakis (oxodiperoxotungsto) phosphate as catalyst. The presence of dipolarophiles in the reaction mixtures allows a competitive reaction that converts oximes into isoxazole and isoxazoline derivatives via the intermediate formation of nitrile oxide species.

  7. Conversion of Oximes to Carbonyl Compounds by Triscetylpyridinium Tetrakis(oxodiperoxotungsto Phosphate (PCWP-mediated Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Toscano

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic and aliphatic oximes have been deoximated in chloroform-water to the corresponding aldehydes with dilute hydrogen peroxide and triscetylpyridinium tetrakis (oxodiperoxotungsto phosphate as catalyst. The presence of dipolarophiles in the reaction mixtures allows a competitive reaction that converts oximes into isoxazole and isoxazoline derivatives via the intermediate formation of nitrile oxide species.

  8. Differences in resting state regional cerebral blood flow assessed with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT and brain atlas matching between depressed patients with and without tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A; Pagani, M; Jacobsson, H; Lindberg, G; Larsson, S A; Wägner, A; Hällstrom, T

    2002-05-01

    An increased occurrence of major depressive disorder has been reported in tinnitus patients, and of tinnitus in depressive patients. Involvement of several Brodmann areas (BAs) has been reported in tinnitus perception. The aim of this study was to assess the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in depressed patients with and without tinnitus. The rCBF distribution at rest was compared among 45 patients with a lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder, of whom 27 had severe tinnitus, and 26 normal healthy subjects. 99mTc-hexamethylenepropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), using a three-headed gamma camera, was performed and the uptake in 34 functional sub-volumes of the brain bilaterally was assessed by a computerized brain atlas. Decreased rCBF in right frontal lobe BA 45 (Ptinnitus patients compared with non-tinnitus patients. The proportion of tinnitus patients with pronounced rCBF alterations in one or more of the temporal lobe BAs 41+21+22 was increased compared to gender matched controls (Ptinnitus (Ptinnitus patients only in three limbic BAs (Ptinnitus patients only in five BAs subserving auditory perception and processing (Pdepressed patients with and without tinnitus were found in this study. The rCBF alterations were distributed in the cortex and were particularly specific in the auditory cortex. These findings suggest that taking audiological symptoms into account may yield more consistent results between rCBF studies of depression.

  9. Effects of butane-2,3-dione thiosemicarbazone oxime on testicular damage induced by cadmium in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Mayara Lutchemeyer; Dalmolin, Laíza; Oliveira, Lia Pavelacki; da Rosa Moreira, Laís; Roman, Silvane Souza; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Bresolin, Leandro; Duarte, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura; Brandão, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Our group of studies investigated the action of butane-2,3-dione thiosemicarbazone oxime against the testicular damage caused by cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) in mice. Mice received a single injection of CdCl(2 )(5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and, after thirty minutes, the oxime (10 mg/kg, subcutaneously) was administered. Twenty four hours after the last administration, the animals were killed by cervical dislocation and the testes and serum were removed for analysis. The parameters determined were δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D), myeloperoxidase (MPO), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. The levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), nonprotein thiols (NPSH), ascorbic acid, cadmium and testosterone were also determined. In addition, histological analysis and cytokines quantification (IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ) were performed. Our results demonstrated that the oxime was effective in restoring the inhibition in δ-ALA-D activity induced by CdCl(2). The activation of MPO and increase in IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels induced by CdCl(2) were also reduced by oxime. IL-10, which was reduced by cadmium, was restored by oxime administration. In addition, the oxime was effective in restoring the increase in TBARS levels and the reduction on NPSH levels induced by CdCl(2). Our results demonstrated that oxime was effective in containing the histological alterations induced by CdCl(2). In addition, oxime was able to increase the testosterone levels, reduced by cadmium exposure. In conclusion, the oxime tested was effective in reducing the testicular damage induced by CdCl(2) in mice. The beneficial effects of this oxime are related to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action.

  10. Vapor-phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime over solid acid catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Y.; Saeki, Y.; Ito, K.

    1978-01-01

    Of various catalysts tested for the conversion of cyclohexanone oxime to epsilon-caprolactam, best results were obtained with the catalyst having the strongest acid sites, silica-alumina, which gave 60% selectivity at 100% conversion at 330/sup 0/C, 0.505 g catalyst hr/mole, and 0.0563 atm cyclohexanone oxime partial pressure. A decline in activity without loss of selectivity was observed for all catalysts as carbonaceous deposits formed with time on stream (e.g., the caprolactam yield on silica-alumina declined to 90% after 120 min and to 35% after 270 min). Pulse reactor tests with silica-alumina with and without preadsorbed caprolactam showed that cyclohexanone oxime adsorbed even more strongly than the strongly adsorbed caprolactam. The mechanism is discussed. Graphs and 21 references.

  11. Synthesis and photochromic properties of oxime derivatives of 2,3-diarylcyclopent-2-en-1-ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirinian, Valerii Z; Lonshakov, Dmitry V; Lvov, Andrey G; Shimkin, Alexey A; Krayushkin, Mikhail M

    2013-09-01

    A wide range of new oxime-based photochromic diarylethenes of the cyclopentenone series have been synthesized. Their spectral properties have been investigated in detail upon UV/vis light irradiation in acetonitrile solution, and distinct correlations between photochromic characteristics and substance structures are revealed. It was found that the introduction of an oxime group into the cyclopentene ring has a significant influence on the switching characteristics-primarily on the thermal stability, and a series of thermally stable oxime-based photochromic diarylcyclopentenones have been prepared. The results obtained suggest that the modifications of the ethene "bridge" are a promising way to tune the spectral parameters of diarylethenes in an accurate manner and thus to synthesize the photochromic compounds with desired properties.

  12. Density functional study on enantioselective reduction of keto oxime ether with borane catalyzed by oxazaborolidine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Ming; ZHENG; Wenxu

    2006-01-01

    The enantioselective reduction of keto oxime ether with borane catalyzed by oxazaborolidine is discussed by the density functional theory (DFT) method. The main intermediates and transition states for this reaction are optimized completely at the B3LYP/6-31g(d) level, and the transition states are verified by vibrational modes. As shown, the chirality-controlled steps for this reaction are the hydride transfer from borane to carbonyl carbon and oxime carbon of keto oxime ether, and the chirality for the reduced products is determined in these two reaction steps. In all examined reaction paths, the first hydride is transferred via a six-membered ring and the second hydride via a five-membered ring or a four-membered ring.

  13. Antioxidant properties of flavone-6(4')-carboxaldehyde oxime ether derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan-Kilcigil, Gülgün; Coban, Tülay; Tunçbilek, Meral; Can-Eke, Benay; Bozdağ-Dündar, Oya; Ertan, Rahmiye; Iscan, Mümtaz

    2004-06-01

    The in vitro antioxidant properties of some flavone-6(4)-carboxaldehyde oxime ether derivatives (Ia-f, IIa-f) were determined by their effects on the rat liver microsomal NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation (LP) levels by measuring the formation of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The free radical scavenging properties of the compounds were also examined in vitro by determining their capacity to scavenge superoxide anions and interact with the stable free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The most active compounds, IIb (Flavone-4'-carboxaldehyde-O-ethyl oxime) and Id (Flavone-6-carboxaldehyde-O-[2-(1-pyrolidino) ethyl] oxime), caused 98 and 79% inhibition of superoxide anion production and DPPH stable free radical at 10(-3) M, respectively.

  14. Development of advanced zeolite catalysts for the vapor phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lian-Xin; Iwaki, Yoshihide; Koyama, Katsuyuki; Tatsumi, Takashi

    1997-11-01

    The vapor phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime to ɛ-caprolactam catalyzed by various zeolites was studied. The catalytic performance was greatly affected by both the zeolite structure and diluent solvent. When 1-hexanol was used in place of benzene, the catalytic performance of all catalysts except silicalite-1 was greatly improved. In particular, the selectivity and stability of H-LTL and H-OFF-ERI zeolites remarkably increased; both catalysts exhibited ca. 100% oxime conversion and ɛ-caprolactam selectivity of >95% for 6 h.

  15. New Oxime Ligand with Potential for Proton-Coupled Electron-Transfer Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deville, Claire; Sundberg, Jonas; McKenzie, Christine Joy

    .2 Metal complex of ligands possessing both H-donor and H-acceptor sites in the second coordination sphere should be interesting candidates for proton transfer reactions induced by photooxidation of the metal ion. We have prepared new oxime-containing ligands which coordinate to metal ions...... such that a pyridine group is sterically restricted so it does not coordinate. Instead it can act as proximal base for accepting the oxime proton. [1] M. H. V. Huynh, T. J. Meyer, Chem. Rev. 2007, 107, 5004-5064. [2] T. Irebo, O. Johansson, L. Hammarström, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130, 9194-9195....

  16. Safety evaluation of orally administered afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime in eight-week-old dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drag, M; Saik, J; Harriman, J; Letendre, L; Yoon, S; Larsen, D

    2016-11-27

    The safety profile of afoxolaner (an isoxazoline molecule) when combined with milbemycin oxime (a macrocyclic lactone) was evaluated according to the regulatory requirements when administered six times orally in a soft chewable formulation at a dose of at least 1×, 3×, or 5× the maximum exposure dose in 8-week-old Beagle dogs. Thirty-two healthy puppies (16 males and 16 females) were enrolled and allocated randomly to one of four treatment groups. Three doses were administered at 28-day intervals (Days 0, 28, and 56), followed by three additional doses administered with 14-day intervals (Days 84, 98, and 112). The study ended on Day 126. Treatment groups were as follows: Group 1: untreated, sham-dosed control; Group 2: afoxolaner/milbemycin oxime chews administered at a dose of at least 5 and 1 mg/kg, respectively (1×); Group 3: afoxolaner/milbemycin oxime chews administered at a dose of at least 15 and 3 mg/kg, respectively (3); and Group 4: afoxolaner/milbemycin oxime chews administered at a dose of at least 25 and 5 mg/kg, respectively (5×). All dogs were examined for general health twice a day beginning on Day -14. Physical examinations, and blood collections for clinical pathology analysis and afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime plasma concentrations, were performed throughout the study. No afoxolaner/milbemycin oxime treatment-related changes were observed in growth, physical variables, clinical pathology variables, or tissues examined histologically. No clinically relevant or statistically significant health abnormalities related to the administration of afoxolaner/milbemycin oxime were observed. No signs of macrocyclic lactone sensitivity were observed at any time during the study. Vomiting and diarrhea were observed sporadically across all groups including the controls. Based upon the results of this study, afoxolaner/milbemycin oxime soft chewables were shown to be safe when administered repeatedly at up to 5× the maximum exposure dose in dogs as

  17. A comparison of the potency of newly developed oximes (K347, K628) and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) to counteract acute neurotoxic effects of Tabun in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jirí; Karasová, Jana Zdarová; Tesarová, Sandra; Musílek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    The ability of newly developed oximes (K347, K628) to reduce tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was compared with currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) using a functional observational battery. The neuroprotective effects of the oximes studied (K347, K628, obidoxime, HI-6) combined with atropine on rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (220 microg/kg i.m.; 80% of LD50 value) were evaluated. Tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored by a functional observational battery and automatic measurement of motor activity at 24 hours following tabun challenge. The results indicate that all tested oximes combined with atropine enable tabun-poisoned rats to survive 24 hours following tabun challenge. Both newly developed oximes (K347, K628) combined with atropine are able to decrease tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of sublethal poisonings but they do not eliminate all tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms. Their ability to decrease the tabun-induced acute neurotoxicity is higher than that of the oxime HI-6 and it is slightly slower than the neuroprotective efficacy of obidoxime. As the neuroprotective potency of both newly developed oximes (K347, K628) is not as high as the potency of obidoxime, they are not a suitable replacement for obidoxime for the treatment of acute tabun poisonings.

  18. Analysis of anti-implantational action of norethisterone-3-oxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q G; Li, D Z

    1987-12-01

    Mature rabbits received norethisterone-3-oxime (NETO) 2 mg/kg/day from day 2 through day 4 of pregnancy by gavage. Control rabbits were given vehicle. All animals were sacrificed on day 5. The oviducts were removed and sections stained with HE. Morphological changes were evaluated. The outer and inner diameters of tubes, and the thickness of circular muscle layers were measured. The layers of the circular muscle cells and the mean thickness occupied by the cytoplasmic mass of the muscle cells were estimated. The fertilized ova flushed out from the oviduct were stained together with the section of ampullary-isthmic junction (AIJ) and isthmus by PAS. The intensity of the staining was observed microscopically and quantified with a microspectrophotometer. NETO treatment led to tortuosity of oviducts showing hyperplasia of epithelial cells and a mucosal edema. The circular muscle layer was thickened but no increase in the number of muscle cells was observed, indicating muscular contraction. Dilatated and congested capillaries appeared in the muscular and subserous layers. All these manifestations were so prominent that the lumen of AIJ and isthmus portion were significantly narrowed as shown by a decreased percentage of inner diameter to outer diameter at AIJ and isthmus. The amount of mucin secreted into the lumen was decreased, but there was an accumulation of mucin in the epithelial cells. The above-mentioned morphological changes lead to the suggestion that the anti-implantational action of NETO is exhibited by its effect on the oviduct in rabbits. Most probably, the action is mainly related to the estrogenic and anti-progestational activity of NETO.

  19. Amine-Amine Exchange in Aminium-Methanesulfonate Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Matthew L.; Varner, Mychel E.; Perraud, Veronique M.; Ezell, Michael J.; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Gerber, Robert B.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2014-12-18

    Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and have been shown to impact the Earth’s climate, reduce visibility, and adversely affect human health. Modeling the evolution of aerosol systems requires an understanding of the species and mechanisms involved in particle growth, including the complex interactions between particle- and gas-phase species. Here we report studies of displacement of amines (methylamine, dimethylamine or trimethylamine) in methanesulfonate salt particles by exposure to a different gas-phase amine, using a single particle mass spectrometer, SPLAT II. The variation of the displacement with the nature of the amine suggests that behavior is dependent on water in or on the particles. Small clusters of methanesulfonic acid with amines are used as a model in quantum chemical calculations to identify key structural elements that are expected to influence water uptake, and hence the efficiency of displacement by gas-phase molecules in the aminium salts. Such molecular-level understanding of the processes affecting the ability of gas-phase amines to displace particle-phase aminium species is important for modeling the growth of particles and their impacts in the atmosphere.

  20. An efficient noble-metal-free supported copper catalyst for selective nitrocyclohexane hydrogenation to cyclohexanone oxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Dong, Jing; Liu, Yong-Mei; Cao, Yong; He, He-Yong; Wang, Yang-Dong

    2017-03-07

    It was shown for the first time that cyclohexanone oxime (CHO) can be selectively produced by heterogeneous copper-catalyzed hydrogenative transformation of nitrocyclohexane (NC). The combination of Cu(0) and Cu(+) and their cooperative interaction with weakly acidic SiO2 supports elicited a significantly unique and selective catalysis in the hydrogenation of NC to CHO.

  1. One pot synthesis of cyclohexanone oxime from nitrobenzene using a bifunctional catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Marqués, Paula; Hernández-Garrido, Juan Carlos; Leyva-Pérez, Antonio; Corma, Avelino

    2014-02-18

    Cyclohexanone oxime is formed from nitrobenzene with 97% yield in a one-pot reaction catalysed by palladium and gold nanoparticles on carbon. The reaction is carried out under hydrogen at 60 °C and the overall transformation involves a multi-step catalysed mechanism from which intermediates and catalytically active species have been identified.

  2. Oxime Ethers of (E)-11-Isonitrosostrychnine as Highly Potent Glycine Receptor Antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohsen, Amal M Y; Mandour, Yasmine M; Sarukhanyan, Edita;

    2016-01-01

    A series of (E)-11-isonitrosostrychnine oxime ethers, 2-aminostrychnine, (strychnine-2-yl)propionamide, 18-oxostrychnine, and N-propylstrychnine bromide were synthesized and evaluated pharmacologically at human α1 and α1β glycine receptors in a functional fluorescence-based and a whole-cell patch...

  3. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF OVARY AND UTERUS IN ANIMALS AND WOMEN TREATED WITH NORETHISTERONE OXIME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGYi-Di; ZHANGLong-Sheng; CHENWen-Jing; PENGLin; SHENJi-Yun; HUANGGuo-Qiang; WUXi-Rui

    1989-01-01

    Effects of norethisterone,oxime ( NETO ) on ovary and uterus were studied in pregnant rats, pregnant and pseudopregnant rabbits and pregnant women. In the experimental groups, NETO at a dose of 4mg/kg showed signifiant anti-implanation and

  4. A Structure-Activity Analysis of the Variation in Oxime Efficacy Against Nerve Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    order of the ability of oximes to produce direct pharmacological effects at either the neuromuscular junction (Tattersall, 1993) or in the central...Dishovsky, C. (Eds.), Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Terrorism: Chemical Terrorism and Traumatism. Union of Scientists in Bulgaria, Sofia

  5. Translation of in vitro to in vivo pyridinium oxime potential in tabun poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katalinić, Maja; Maček Hrvat, Nikolina; Žďárová Karasová, Jana; Misik, Jan; Kovarik, Zrinka

    2015-12-01

    Even if organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents were banned entirely, their presence would remain a problem as weapons of terror (like in Syria). Oxime antidotes currently used in medical practice still fall short of their therapeutic purpose, as they fail to fully restore the activity of cholinesterases, the main target for OPs. As orphan drugs, these antidotes are tested too seldom for anybody's benefit. Over the last few decades, search for improved reactivators has reached new levels, but the translation of data obtained in vitro to in vivo application is still a problem that hinders efficient therapy. In this study, we tested the strengths and weaknesses of extrapolating pyridinium oxime antidotes reactivation efficiency from in vitro to in vivo application. Our results show that this extrapolation is possible with well-determined kinetic constants, but that it also largely depends on oxime circulation time and its tissue-specific distribution. This suggests that pharmacokinetic studies should be planned at the early stages of antidote development. Special attention should also be given to improving oxime distribution throughout the organism to overcome this major constraint in improving overall OP therapy.

  6. Synthesis of oxime-linked mucin mimics containing thetumor-related TN and sialyl TN antigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcaurelle, Lisa A.; Shin, Youngsook; Goon, Scarlett; Bertozzi,Carolyn R.

    2001-08-21

    The synthesis of oxime-linked mucin mimics was accomplished via the incorporation of multiple ketone residues into a peptide followed by reaction with aminooxy sugars corresponding to the tumor-related T{sub N} and sialyl T{sub N} (ST{sub N}) antigens.

  7. 77 FR 4225 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Milbemycin Oxime, Lufenuron, and Praziquantel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... prevention of heartworm disease, for prevention and control of fleas, and for the treatment and control of... oxime/lufenuron/praziquantel) Tablets for the prevention of heartworm disease, for the prevention and... for use. For the prevention of heartworm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis; for the prevention...

  8. Amine Swingbed Payload Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsch, Mary; Curley, Su

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has been designed as a laboratory for demonstrating technologies in a microgravity environment, benefitting exploration programs by reducing the overall risk of implementing such technologies in new spacecraft. At the beginning of fiscal year 2010, the ISS program manager requested that the amine-based, pressure-swing carbon dioxide and humidity absorption technology (designed by Hamilton Sundstrand, baselined for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, and tested at the Johnson Space Center in relevant environments, including with humans, since 2005) be developed into a payload for ISS Utilization. In addition to evaluating the amine technology in a flight environment before the first launch of the Orion vehicle, the ISS program wanted to determine the capability of the amine technology to remove carbon dioxide from the ISS cabin environment at the metabolic rate of the full 6 ]person crew. Because the amine technology vents the absorbed carbon dioxide and water vapor to space vacuum (open loop), additional hardware needed to be developed to minimize the amount of air and water resources lost overboard. Additionally, the payload system would be launched on two separate Space Shuttle flights, with the heart of the payload-the swingbed unit itself-launching a full year before the remainder of the payload. This paper discusses the project management and challenges of developing the amine swingbed payload in order to accomplish the technology objectives of both the open -loop Orion application as well as the closed-loop ISS application.

  9. Delayed treatment of 6-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime stimulates neurogenesis and functional recovery after focal ischemic stroke in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Li; Li, Jimei; Gu, Xiaohuan; Wei, Ling; Yu, Shan Ping

    2017-04-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) was originally identified as a regulator for glycogen metabolism and is now an important therapeutic target for a variety of brain disorders including neurodegenerative diseases due to it's pivotal role in cellular metabolism, proliferation and differentiation. In the development of stroke therapies focusing on tissue repair and functional recovery, promoting neurogenesis is a main approach in regenerative medicine. In the present investigation, we explored the effects of a GSK3β specific inhibitor, 6-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO), on regenerative activities of neuroblasts in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and functional recovery after focal cerebral ischemia. Adult C57/BL mice were subjected to occlusion of distal branches of middle cerebral artery (MCA) supplying the sensorimotor barrel cortex. Three days later, BIO (8.5μg/kg, i.p.) was administered every 2days until sacrificed at 14 or 21days after stroke. The BIO treatment significantly increased generation of neuroblasts labeled with BrdU and BrdU/doublecortin (DCX) in the SVZ. Comparing to vehicle controls, increased number of neuroblasts migrated to the peri-infarct region where they differentiate into mature neurons. Along with the elevated BDNF expression at the peri-infarct area, the number of newly formed neurons was significantly increased. BIO treatment significantly enhanced sensorimotor functional recovery after the focal ischemia. It is suggested that the GSK3 signaling may be a potential therapeutic target for regenerative treatment after ischemic stroke.

  10. Combined approach to demonstrate acetylcholinesterase activity changes in the rat brain following tabun intoxication and its treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajgar, Jiri; Hajek, Petr; Kassa, Jiri; Slizova, Dasa; Krs, Otakar; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Fusek, Josef; Capek, Lukas; Voicu, Victor A

    2012-01-01

    Reactivation effects of K203 and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) in combination with atropine on acetylcholinesterase activities in the brain parts of rats poisoned with tabun were studied. The activity was determined by quantitative histochemical and biochemical methods correlating between them very well. The tabun-induced changes in acetylcholinsterase activity as well as in reactivation potency of reactivators used were different in various parts of the brain. Pontomedullar area seems to be important for observed changes following tabun intoxication and its treatment. From the oximes studied, the reactivation effect of K203 was comparable with obidoxime; HI-6 was ineffective. Combination of bio- and histochemical methods allow fine differentiation among the action of different oximes following tabun poisoning.

  11. New bispyridinium oximes: in vitro and in vivo evaluation of their biological efficiency in soman and tabun poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berend, Suzana; Vrdoljak, Ana Lucić; Radić, Bozica; Kuca, Kamil

    2008-09-25

    Improving the efficacy of antidotal treatment of poisonings with nerve agents is still a challenge for the scientific community. This study investigated the interactions of four bispyridinium oximes with human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and their effects on soman- and tabun-poisoned mice. Oximes HI-6 and TMB-4 were used for comparison. These oximes inhibited AchE with inhibitory potency (IC(50)) ranging from 0.02 to 1.0 mM. The best reactivating potency (%R) was obtained with K074, when AChE was inhibited by tabun. The protective potency (P(50)) of all oximes in human erythrocyte AChE inhibited by soman and tabun could not be determined. In tabun-poisoned mice very good antidotal efficacy was obtained with K027, K048, and K074, which makes them interesting for future investigation. The combination of HI-6 and atropine is the therapy of choice for soman poisoning.

  12. Amine Swingbed Payload Technology Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The Amine Swingbed is an amine-based, vacuum-regenerated adsorption technology for removing carbon dioxide and humidity from a habitable spacecraft environment, and is the baseline technology for the Orion Program’s Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). It uses a pair of interleaved-layer beds filled with SA9T, the amine sorbent, and a linear multiball valve rotates 270° back and forth to control the flow of air and vacuum to adsorbing and desorbing beds. One bed adsorbs CO2 and H2O from cabin air while the other bed is exposed to vacuum for regeneration by venting the CO2 and H2O. The two beds are thermally linked, so no additional heating or cooling is required. The technology can be applied to habitable environments where recycling CO2 and H2O is not required such as short duration missions.

  13. Quantitative evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow by visual stimulation in {sup 99m}Tc- HMPAO brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juh, Ra Hyeong; Suh, Tae Suk; Kwark, Chul Eun; Choe, Bo Young; Lee, Hyoung Koo; Chung, Yong An; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of visual activation and quantitative analysis of regional cerebral blood flow. Visual activation was known to increase regional cerebral blood flow in the visual cortex in occipital lobe. We evaluated that change in the distribution of '9{sup 9m}Tc-HMPAO (Hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) to reflect in regional cerebral blood flow. The six volunteers were injected with 925 MBq (mean ages: 26.75 years, n=6, 3men, 3women) underwent MRI and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT during a rest state with closed eyes and visual stimulated with 8 Hz LED. We delineate the region of interest and calculated the mean count per voxel in each of the fifteen slices to quantitative analysis. The ROI to whole brain ratio and regional index was calculated pixel to pixel subtraction visual non-activation image from visual activation image and constructed brain map using a statistical parameter map(SPM99). The mean regional cerebral blood flow was increased due to visual stimulation. The increase rate of the mean regional cerebral blood flow which of the activation region in primary visual cortex of occipital lobe was 32.50{+-}5.67%. The significant activation sites using a statistical parameter of brain constructed a rendering image and image fusion with SPECT and MRI. Visual activation was revealed significant increase through quantitative analysis in visual cortex. Activation region was certified in Talairach coordinate and primary visual cortex (Ba17),visual association area (Ba18,19) of Brodmann.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow by visual stimulation in {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juh, R. H.; Suh, T. S.; Chung, Y. A. [The Catholic Univ., of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of visual activation and quantitative analysis of regional cerebral blood flow. Visual activation was known to increase regional cerebral blood flow in the visual cortex in occipital lobe. We evaluated that change in the distribution of 99mTc-HMPAO (Hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) to reflect in regional cerebral blood flow. The six volunteers were injected with 925 MBq (mean ages: 26.75 years, n=6, 3men, 3women) underwent MRI and 99mTc- HMPAO SPECT during a rest state with closed eyes and visual stimulated with 8 Hz LED. We delineate the region of interest and calculated the mean count per voxel in each of the fifteen slices to quantitative analysis. The ROI to whole brain ratio and regional index was calculated pixel to pixel subtraction visual non-activation image from visual activation image and constructed brain map using a statistical parameter map (SPM99). The mean regional cerebral blood flow was increased due to visual stimulation. The increase rate of the mean regional cerebral blood flow which of the activation region in primary visual cortex of occipital lobe was 32.50{+-}5.67%. The significant activation sites using a statistical parameter of brain constructed a rendering image and image fusion with SPECT and MRI. Visual activation was revealed significant increase through quantitative analysis in visual cortex. Activation region was certified in Talairach coordinate and primary visual cortex (Ba17),visual association area (Ba18,19) of Brodmann.

  15. Complex amine-based reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslov, S. Yu.; Kirilina, A. V.; Sergeev, I. A.; Zezyulya, T. V.; Sokolova, E. A.; Eremina, E. V.; Timofeev, N. V.

    2017-03-01

    Amines for a long time have been applied to maintaining water chemistry conditions (WCC) at power plants. However, making use of complex reagents that are the mixture of neutralizing and the filmforming amines, which may also contain other organic components, causes many disputes. This is mainly due to lack of reliable information about these components. The protective properties of any amine with regard to metal surfaces depend on several factors, which are considered in this article. The results of applying complex reagents to the protection of heating surfaces in industrial conditions and estimated behavior forecasts for various reagents under maintaining WCC on heat-recovery boilers with different thermal circuits are presented. The case of a two-drum heat-recovery boiler with in-line drums was used as an example, for which we present the calculated pH values for various brands of reagents under the same conditions. Work with different reagent brands and its analysis enabled us to derive a composition best suitable for the conditions of their practical applications in heat-recovery boilers at different pressures. Testing the new amine reagent performed at a CCPP power unit shows that this reagent is an adequate base for further development of reagents based on amine compounds. An example of testing a complex reagent is shown created with the participation of the authors within the framework the program of import substitution and its possible use is demonstrated for maintaining WCC of power-generating units of combined-cycle power plants (CCPP) and TPP. The compliance of the employed reagents with the standards of water chemistry conditions and protection of heating surfaces were assessed. The application of amine-containing reagents at power-generating units of TPP makes it possible to solve complex problems aimed at ensuring the sparing cleaning of heating surfaces from deposits and the implementation of conservation and management of water chemistry condition

  16. Bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Arora

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic amines are an important group of industrial chemicals, which are widely used for manufacturing of dyes, pesticides, drugs, pigments, and other industrial products. These compounds have been considered highly toxic to human beings due to their carcinogenic nature. Three groups of aromatic amines have been recognized: monocyclic, polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic amines. Bacterial degradation of several monocyclic aromatic compounds has been studied in a variety of bacteria, which utilizes monocyclic aromatic amines as their sole source of carbon and energy. Several degradation pathways have been proposed and the related enzymes and genes have also been characterized. Many reviews have been reviewed toxicity of monocyclic aromatic amines; however, there is lack of review on biodegradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. The aim of this review is to summarize bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. This review will increase our current understanding of biochemical and molecular basis of bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines.

  17. Ring-Expansion Reaction of Oximes with Aluminum Reductants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Tokuyama

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ring-expansion reactions of heterocyclic ketoximes and carbocyclic ketoximes with several reductants such as AlHCl2, AlH3 (alane, LiAlH4, LiAlH(OtBu3, and (MeOCH2CH2O2AlH2Na (Red-Al were examined. Among reductants, AlHCl2 (LiAlH4:AlCl3 = 1:3 in cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME has been found to be a suitable reagent for the reaction, and the rearranged cyclic secondary amines were obtained in good to excellent yields.

  18. Can hydroxylamine be a more potent nucleophile for the reactivation of tabun-inhibited AChE than prototype oxime drugs? An answer derived from quantum chemical and steered molecular dynamics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Rabindranath; Ganguly, Bishwajit

    2014-07-29

    parameters (rupture force profiles, hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions), geometry and the orientation of the drug candidates, the hydroxylamine is suggested to orchestrate the reactivation process better than TMB4. Furthermore, the calculated log P values show the effective penetration of the neutral drug candidate through the blood-brain barrier. The toxicity measurements and the IC50 values (a measure of the intrinsic affinity toward AChE) suggest that the pyridinylhydroxylamine compound could have similar toxic behavior compared to the prototype oxime antidotes used for reactivation purposes. The newly designed pyridinylhydroxylamine drug candidate can be an effective antidote both kinetically and structurally to reactivate the tabun-inhibited enzyme.

  19. Polymeric amines and biomedical uses thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, Antonius; Zhang, Youchum; Picchioni, Francesco; Roks, Antonius

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to the field of polymers and biomedical applications thereof. In particular, it relates to the use of polymeric amines derived from alternating polyketones.Provided is the use of a polymeric amine for modulating or supporting cellular behavior, said polymeric amine being an alt

  20. Advances in heterocyclic ketene aminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of the reactions of heterocyclic ketene aminals are reviewed with the emphases on regioselective alkylation, acylation and glycosylation reactions, and on the aza-ene reactions with α,β-unsaturated compounds, azo and carbonyl compounds. Reactions with 1,3-dipoles and other reagents to synthesize fused heterocycles are also discussed.

  1. Aminering van hydroxyderivaten van halogeenazahetarenen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, W.A.

    1972-01-01

    In this thesis an introductory investigation is described on the reactivity of hydroxy derivatives of halogenopyridines and a bromohydroxyquinoline towards strong bases.It is a sequel to earlier work on the effect of substituents present in the nucleus of halogenopyridines on the course of amination

  2. Biogenic amines in fermented foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spano, G.; Russo, P.; Lonvaud-Funel, A.; Lucas, P.; Alexandre, H.; Grandvalet, C.; Coton, E.; Coton, M.; Barnavon, L.; Bach, B.; Rattray, F.; Bunte, A.; Magni, C.; Ladero, V.; Alvarez, M.; Fernández, M.; Lopez, P.; Palencia, P.F. de; Corbi, A.; Trip, H.; Lolkema, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Food-fermenting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are generally considered to be non-toxic and non-pathogenic. Some species of LAB, however, can produce biogenic amines (BAs). BAs are organic, basic, nitrogenous compounds, mainly formed through decarboxylation of amino acids. BAs are present in a wide rang

  3. A Development of Rapid, Practical and Selective Process for Preparation of Z-Oximes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Ram; Sung, Gi Hyeon; Yoon, Yongjin [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeumjong [Electronic and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Oximes are important functional groups in organic chemistry due to their synthetic utility as protecting groups for carbonyl groups and their ability to form other functionalities, and their biological activity. Oximes are commonly prepared by condensing aldehydes and ketones with hydroxylamines. These reactions do not always go to completion and reaction times can be long, and therefore there has been interest in more convenient and efficient methods. To avoid the typical disadvantage, conversion of aldehydes and ketones to the corresponding oximes was accomplished by using various catalysts such as organic acid/bases, AcONa, alumina, TiO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} silica gel, Oxone, NaOH, basic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydroxide, polyoxometalates, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and CuSO{sub 4}/K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} under the solvent, the solvent-free or the microwave conditions. These are one and more drowbacks such as long reaction time, use of catalysts, inconvenients due to solid-sate reaction, low yields and limitaion of some carbonyl compounds. On the other hand, H. Sharghi, et al.,14 reported the catalysis of the stereoselectivity of CuSO{sub 4} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in the oximation of aldehydes and ketones under solvent-free conditions. Although this method show high selectivity, it is inconvenient for the large scale experiments and the industrial process due to the solvent-free condition. Therefore, we attempted to develop a more convenient and efficient solution method. According to the literatures, treatment of potassium carbonate with methanol generates slightly the potassium methoxide, which may be useful for forming the free NH{sub 2}OH from its salts. We describe the oximation of aldehyde and ketone using NH{sub 2}OH·HCl/K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in methanol solvent. We selected oximation of acetophenone (1a) with hydroxylamine hydrochloride as a model and its behavior was investigated in seven solvents involving methanol (Table 1). As shown in the Entry 2 in

  4. Theoretical and experimental studies of 3β-acetoxy-5α-cholestan-6-one oxime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Azhar U.; Avecillia, Fernando; Malik, Nazia; Khan, Md. Shahzad; Khan, Mohd Shahid; Mushtaque, Md.

    2016-10-01

    Steroidal oxime (3β-acetoxy-5α-cholestan- 6-one oxime) has been synthesized using microwave-induced reaction in 3.5 min using saturated steroidal ketone and aqueous hydroxylamine hydrochloride in ethanol. The structure of the compound was elucidated by UV, IR, 1H NMR and X-ray single crystal structure. The computational quantum chemical studies like, IR, UV analysis were performed by density functional theory (DFT) at Becke-3-Lee-Yang-Parr(B3LYP) exchange-correlation functional in combination with 6-31++G(d,p) basis sets. The harmonic vibrational frequencies, the optimized geometric parameters have been interpreted and compared with experimental values. Theoretical wavelength at 214.88 cm-1 correspond to the experimental value 214.0 cm-1. The nature of this transition is n → π*. The theoretical results are in good agreement with experiment results.

  5. Synthesis and Bioactivities of Novel Pyrazole Oxime Derivatives Containing a 5-Trifluoromethylpyridyl Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Dai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in order to find novel biologically active pyrazole oxime compounds, a series of pyrazole oxime derivatives containing a 5-trifluoromethylpyridyl moiety were synthesized. Preliminary bioassays indicated that most title compounds were found to display good to excellent acaricidal activity against Tetranychus cinnabarinus at a concentration of 200 μg/mL, and some designed compounds still showed excellent acaricidal activity against Tetranychus cinnabarinus at the concentration of 10 μg/mL, especially since the inhibition rates of compounds 8e, 8f, 8l, 8m, 8n, 8p, and 8q were all 100.00%. Interestingly, some target compounds exhibited moderate to good insecticidal activities against Plutella xylostella and Aphis craccivora at a concentration of 200 μg/mL; furthermore, compounds 8e and 8l possessed outstanding insecticidal activities against Plutella xylostella under the concentration of 50 μg/mL.

  6. Design, Synthesis and Bioactivities of Novel Dichloro-Allyloxy-Phenol-Containing Pyrazole Oxime Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hong; Ye, Linyu; Zhuang, Huiyang; Dai, Baojiang; Fang, Yuan; Shi, Yujun

    2015-12-08

    In this study, in order to find novel biologically active pyrazole oxime compounds, a number of dichloro-allyloxy-phenol-containing pyrazole oximes were designed and synthesized according to the method of active group combination. All of the target compounds were confirmed by ¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and elemental analysis. In addition, bioassays showed that all of the newly synthesized compounds had no acaricidal activity against Tetranychus cinnabarinus and low insecticidal activity against Aphis craccivora at tested concentrations. However, most of them displayed excellent insecticidal activity against Oriental armyworm at a concentration of 500 μg/mL, and some designed compounds still exhibited potent insecticidal activity against Oriental armyworm even at the dose of 20 μg/mL, especially compounds 7f, 7n and 7p had 100%, 90% and 90% inhibition rates, respectively, which were comparable to that of the control pyridalyl.

  7. Preparation of Oxime HI-6 (Dichloride and DimethanesulphonateŒAntidote against Nerve Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kuca

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of the threat of misuse of nerve agents as terroristic weapons by the terrorists, animmediate need is felt for the preparation of antidotes on large-scale basis.  HI-6 (dichloride anddimethanesulphonate salt are the most promising acetylcholinesterase reactivators used ascausal antidotes in nerve agents intoxication. In this study, rapid and large-scale preparationof oxime HI-6, the most promising reactivator has been described.

  8. Eco-friendly synthesis, physicochemical studies, biological assay and molecular docking of steroidal oxime-ethers

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the synthesis of biologically active compounds; 7-(2′-aminoethoxyimino)-cholest-5-ene (4), a steroidal oxime-ether and its derivatives (5, 6) via a facile microwave assisted solvent free reaction methodology. This new synthetic, eco-friendly, sustainable protocol resulted in a remarkable improvement in the synthetic efficiency (85–93 % yield) and high purity using basic alumina. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial against six bac...

  9. FTIR study of acetone oxime interaction with H-ZSM-5 and Cu-ZSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, Andrey V.; Stoyanov, Evgenii S.; Rebrov, Evgenii V.; Sazonova, N. N.

    2004-08-01

    Copper based catalysts are of great importance as catalysts for NO removal from exhaust industrial gases. Earlier authors have shown that NO reaction with acetone oxime (AO) is the rate determining step of NO catalytic reduction by propane over Cu-ZSM-5 catalyst at temperatures below 300oC. Aim of the present work is to clarify the peculiarities of acetone oxime coordination over surface of H-ZSM-5 zeolite and that doped with Cu(II) and Cu(I)-cations. We studied AO coordination in CCl4 solutions and then data obtained were used for analysis of spectra of AO adsorbed on pure zeolite and that dopped with Cu (I) and Cu (II) cations. It was shown that there are monomers and several associates of AO in CCl4 solution differing in size and type of bonding with their own characteristic bands in IR spectra. The spectrum of acetone oxime adsorbed on pure zeolite includes non symmetrical band at 1710 cm-1 due to AO strongly bonded with zeolite surface through H-bond. There are four AO adspecies on zeolite dopped with copper with two different types of AO coordination to Cu(I) or to Cu(II) cations: one with participation of O atom and another one with N atom. Complexes of AO with Cu(I) ions are much more stable then those with Cu(II) ions.

  10. Investigation of kinetic interactions between approved oximes and human acetylcholinesterase inhibited by pesticide carbamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Timo; Kaltenbach, Lisa; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz

    2013-12-01

    Carbamates are widely used for pest control and act primarily by inhibition of insect and mammalian acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Accidental or intentional uptake of carbamates may result in typical signs and symptoms of cholinergic overstimulation which cannot be discriminated from those of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. There is an ongoing debate whether standard treatment with atropine and oximes should be recommended for human carbamate poisoning as well, since in vitro and in vivo animal data indicate a deleterious effect of oximes when used in combination with the N-methyl carbamate carbaryl. Therefore, we performed an in vitro kinetic study to investigate the effect of clinically used oximes on carbamoylation and decarbamoylation of human AChE. It became evident that pralidoxime and obidoxime in therapeutic concentrations aggravate the inhibition of AChE by carbaryl and propoxur, with obidoxime being substantially more potent compared to 2-PAM. However, obidoxime had no impact on the decarbamoylation kinetics. Hence, the administration of 2-PAM and especially of obidoxime to severely propoxur and carbaryl poisoned humans cannot be recommended.

  11. Eco-friendly synthesis, physicochemical studies, biological assay and molecular docking of steroidal oxime-ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mahboob; Lee, Dong-Ung

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the synthesis of biologically active compounds; 7-(2'-aminoethoxyimino)-cholest-5-ene (4), a steroidal oxime-ether and its derivatives (5, 6) via a facile microwave assisted solvent free reaction methodology. This new synthetic, eco-friendly, sustainable protocol resulted in a remarkable improvement in the synthetic efficiency (85-93 % yield) and high purity using basic alumina. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial against six bacterial strains by disc diffusion method and antioxidant potential by DPPH assay. The binding capabilities of a compound 6 exhibiting good antibacterial potential were assessed on the basis of molecular docking studies and four types of three-dimensional molecular field descriptors. Moreover the structure-antimicrobial activity relationships were studied using some physicochemical and quantum-chemical parameters with GAMESS interface as well as WebMO Job Manager by using the basic level of theory. Hence, this synthetic approach is believed to provide a better scope for the synthesis of steroidal oxime-ether analogues and will be a more practical alternative to the presently existing procedures. Moreover, detailed in silico docking studies suggested the plausible mechanism of steroidal oxime-ethers as effective antimicrobial agents.

  12. The oxime pro-2-PAM provides minimal protection against the CNS effects of the nerve agents sarin, cyclosarin, and VX in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tsung-Ming; Guarisco, John A; Myers, Todd M; Kan, Robert K; McDonough, John H

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether pro-2-PAM, a pro-drug dihydropyridine derivative of the oxime 2-pralidoxime (2-PAM) that can penetrate the brain, could prevent or reverse the central toxic effects of three nerve agents; sarin, cyclosarin, and VX. The first experiment tested whether pro-2-PAM could reactivate guinea pig cholinesterase (ChE) in vivo in central and peripheral tissues inhibited by these nerve agents. Pro-2-PAM produced a dose-dependent reactivation of sarin- or VX-inhibited ChE in both peripheral and brain tissues, but with substantially greater reactivation in peripheral tissues compared to brain. Pro-2-PAM produced 9-25% reactivation of cyclosarin-inhibited ChE in blood, heart, and spinal cord, but no reactivation in brain or muscle tissues. In a second experiment, the ability of pro-2-PAM to block or terminate nerve agent-induced electroencephalographic seizure activity was evaluated. Pro-2-PAM was able to block sarin- or VX-induced seizures (16-33%) over a dose range of 24-32 mg/kg, but was ineffective against cyclosarin-induced seizures. Animals that were protected from seizures showed significantly less weight loss and greater behavioral function 24 h after exposure than those animals that were not protected. Additionally, brains were free from neuropathology when pro-2-PAM prevented seizures. In summary, pro-2-PAM provided modest reactivation of sarin- and VX-inhibited ChE in the brain and periphery, which was reflected by a limited ability to block or terminate seizures elicited by these agents. Pro-2-PAM was able to reactivate blood, heart, and spinal cord ChE inhibited by cyclosarin, but was not effective against cyclosarin-induced seizures.

  13. Efficacy of afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewable tablets against naturally acquired intestinal nematodes in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, Steffen; Dorr, Paul; Bowman, Dwight D; Crafford, Dionne; Kusi, Ilir; Postoli, Rezart; Yoon, Stephen; Chester, S Theodore; Dollhofer, Doris; Visser, Martin; Larsen, Diane L

    2016-02-15

    The efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime combination chewable tablets (NexGard Spectra, Merial) against naturally acquired intestinal nematode infections in dogs was evaluated in six negative control, blinded studies including a total of 114 dogs. Dogs were selected based on a pre-treatment fecal examination indicating patent infections with hookworms (two studies), Toxocara or Toxascaris ascarids (one study each) or Trichuris whipworms (two studies). In each study, dogs were assigned to blocks of two animals each, based on decreasing pre-treatment body weight and were randomly allocated to one of two groups consisting of eight, nine or 10 dogs: untreated (control) or treated with the combination chewable tablet formulation. Chewable tablets were combined to provide doses of actives as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime, i.e., 2.5 mg/kg body weight and 0.5 mg/kg body weight, respectively, once on Day 0. For parasite recovery and count, dogs were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven or eight days after treatment. A single treatment with afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewable tablets provided 94.8% and 90.9% efficacy against adult Ancylostoma braziliense and A. caninum, respectively, 97.8% and 99.4% efficacy against adult Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina, respectively, and ≥98.3% efficacy against adult Trichuris vulpis. Compared to untreated controls, nematode counts of the treated dogs were significantly reduced (F-test; pafoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewable tablets reduced adult Uncinaria stenocephala burdens by 74.9% (p=0.002). All dogs tolerated the treatment well based on clinical observations post-treatment and daily clinical observations. No adverse experiences or other clinical problems related to the treatment were observed throughout the studies. The results of this series of controlled studies demonstrated high efficacy and excellent acceptability and safety of the afoxolaner

  14. Reactivation of VX-inhibited AChE by novel oximes having two oxygen atoms in the linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuca, Kamil; Cabal, Jiri; Jun, Daniel; Musilek, Kamil; Soukup, Ondrej; Pohanka, Miroslav; Pejchal, Jaroslav; Oh, Kyung-Ae; Yang, Garp Yeol; Jung, Young-Sik

    2010-07-01

    Two newly developed AChE reactivators possessing two oxime groups in 4-position of the pyridinium rings with linkers CH(2)O(CH(2))(2)OCH(2) and CH(2)O(CH(2))(4)OCH(2) were tested for their potency to reactivate VX-inhibited AChE. Their reactivation potency was compared with currently available oximes such as pralidoxime, obidoxime and HI-6. Appropriate constants (affinity towards the intact and inhibited enzyme, reactivation rate) characterizing the reactivation process were determined. According to the data obtained, a new oxime with CH(2)O(CH(2))(2)OCH(2) linker reached as high reactivation potency as HI-6. The percentage of reactivation of the oxime with CH(2)O(CH(2))(2)OCH(2) linker was comparable to that of obidoxime at a concentration 10(-3)M. Hence, these oximes may be worthy of future development for the treatment of nerve agent intoxications, especially, with lipophilic agents such as soman and cyclosarin.

  15. Exploring the physicochemical properties of oxime-reactivation therapeutics for cyclosarin, sarin, tabun, and VX inactivated acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Emilio Xavier; Stouch, Terry R; Wymore, Troy; Madura, Jeffry D

    2014-01-21

    The inactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by organophosphorus agent (OP) compounds is a serious problem regardless of how the individual was exposed. The reactivation of OP-inactivated AChE is dependent on the OP conjugate, and commonly a specific oxime is better at reactivating a specific OP conjugate than several diverse OP conjugates. The presented research explores the physicochemical properties needed for the reactivation of OP-inactivated AChE. Four different OPs, cyclosarin, sarin, tabun, and VX, were analyzed using the same set of oxime reactivators. A trial descriptor pool of semiempirical, traditional, and molecular interaction field descriptors was used to construct an ensemble of QSAR models for each OP-conjugate pair. Based on the molecular information and the cross-validation ability, individual QSAR models were selected to be part of an OP-conjugate consensus model. The OP-conjugate specific models provide important insight into the physicochemical properties required to reactivate the OP conjugates of interest. The reactivation of AChE inactivated with either cyclosarin or tabun requires the oxime therapeutic to possess an overall polar-positive surface area. Oxime therapeutics for the reactivation of sarin-inactivated AChE are conformationally dependent while oxime reverse therapeutics for VX require a compact region with a highly hydrophilic region and two positively charged pyridine rings.

  16. Conversion of Natural Aldehydes from Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, and Lippia multiflora into Oximes: GC-MS and FT-IR Analysis †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor W. Ouédraogo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Three carbonyl-containing extracts of essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora (Myrtaceae, Cymbopogon citratus (Gramineae and Lippia multiflora (Verbenaceae were used for the preparation of oximes. The reaction mixtures were analyzed by GC-MS and different compounds were identified on the basis of their retention times and mass spectra. We observed quantitative conversion of aldehydes to their corresponding oximes with a purity of 95 to 99%. E and Z stereoisomers of the oximes were obtained and separated by GC-MS. During GC analysis, the high temperature in the injector was shown to cause partial dehydratation of oximes and the resulting nitriles were readily identified. Based on FT-IR spectroscopy, that revealed the high stability and low volatility of these compounds, the so-obtained oximes could be useful for future biological studies.

  17. The influence of the time of antidotal treatment administration on the potency of newly developed oximes to counteract acute toxic effects of tabun in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jirí

    2005-01-01

    (1) The influence of the time of administration of antidotal treatment consisting of anticholinergic drug (atropine) and newly developed oxime (K027 or K048) on its effectiveness to eliminate tabun-induced lethal toxic effects was studied in mice. (2) The therapeutic efficacy of antidotal treatment of tabun-induced acute poisoning depends on the time of its administration regardless of the choice of the oxime. (3) Our results show that both oximes studied (K027, K048) are able to sufficiently eliminate lethal effects of tabun. Nevertheless, their efficacy significantly decreases when they were administered 5 min after tabun poisoning. (4) The findings support the hypothesis that both newly developed oximes appear to be suitable oximes to counteract acute toxicity of tabun although their ability to eliminate lethal toxic effects of tabun significantly decreases with prolonged time interval between tabun challenge and antidotal treatment administration.

  18. Trace Amines and the Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1: Pharmacology, Neurochemistry, and Clinical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Yue ePei; Aman eAsif-Malik; Canales, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines are a collection of endogenous molecules that play pivotal roles as neurotransmitters and hormones. In addition to the “classical” biogenic amines resulting from decarboxylation of aromatic acids, including dopamine (DA), norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin (5-HT), and histamine, other biogenic amines, present at much lower concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS), and hence referred to as “trace” amines (TAs), are now recognized to play significant neurophysiolog...

  19. Flotation of kaolinite with dodecyl tertiary amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xue-feng; LIU Chang-miao; HU Yue-hua

    2009-01-01

    The flotation of kaolinite using a series of tertiary amines (N,N-dimethyl-dodecyl amine (DRN), N,N-diethyl-dodecyl amine (DEN), N,N-dipropyl-dodecyl amine (DPN) and N,N-dibenzyl-bodecyi amine (DBN)) was investigated. The results show that the maximum recoveries of kaolinite for DEN, DPN and DRN are 93%, 88% and 84%, respectively, but that of DBN is very low. On the basis of zeta potential and FT-IR spectra, the ionization of surface hydroxyl and isomorphic exchange of surface ions account for the charging mechanisms of kaolinite surface. The adsorption mechanism of tertiary amines on kaolinite surface is mainly electrostatic. The isoelectric point (IEP) of kaolinite increases from 3.4 to some more positive points after the interaction of kaolinite with the four tertiary amines. The FT-IR spectra of kaolinite change with the presence of some new sharp shapes belonging to the tertiary amines. The inductive electronic effects and space-steric effects of -CH_3, -C_2H_5, -C_3H_7 and -C_7H_7 bonding to N atom result in different collecting power of the four tertiary amines.

  20. Design, synthesis and cytotoxicity of novel N-benzylpiperidin-4-one oximes on human cervical cancer cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Someshwar D Dindulkar; Ira Bhatnagar; Rupesh L Gawade; Vedavati G Puranik; Se-Kwon Kim; Dong Hyun Anh; Paramasivam Parthiban; Yeon Tae Jeong

    2014-05-01

    A series of fifteen diversified N-benzylpiperidin-4-one oximes were synthesized and characterized by their NMR spectral data. Additionally, single-crystal XRD analysis was performed for the representative symmetrically and unsymmetrically substituted molecules. All the synthesized oximes from unsymmetrical ketones existed as E-isomer as witnessed by their NMR and XRD data. Among the synthesized target compounds that evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells, five compounds were potent with IC50 < 17 M. 1-Benzyl-2,6-bis(4-isopropylphenyl)-3-methylpiperidin-4-one oxime 3c with an IC50 of 13.88 M was found to be the best active compound as depicted by the microscopic analysis.

  1. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of new oxime carbamates of 3-aryl-2-thioquinazolin-4(3H)-one

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suresh S Patil; Swati D Jadhav; M B Deshmukh

    2012-09-01

    S-alkylation of 3-aryl-2-thioquinazolin-4(3H)-one (1) with chloroacetone gave 2-(propanonyl thio)-3-arylquinazol-4(3H)ones (2). Further, the treatment of compound (2) with hydroxylamine hydrochloride gave the corresponding oximes (3) which on reaction with phenyl isocyanate in THF yielded corresponding oxime carbamates 4. The synthesized compounds have been confirmed using IR and 1H NMR, mass spectral data together with elemental analysis. All newly synthesized compounds have been tested for their antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  2. Synthesis, spectral and computational analysis of 2-(N-bromoalkoxy)-5-(phenylazo)benzaldehydes and their oximes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachander, R.; Manimekalai, A.

    2017-04-01

    2-(N-Bromoalkoxy)-5-(phenylazo)benzaldehydes 1-3, 2-(3-bromomethylbenzyloxy)-5-(phenylazo)benzaldehyde 4 and their oximes 5-8 were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, GC-MS, 1H, 13C and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The favoured conformations of aldehydes 1-4 and oximes 5-8 were predicted theoretically by geometry optimization and potential energy scan (PES) studies. Selected geometrical parameters and molecular properties such as AIM, NBO, HOMO-LUMO and MEP surfaces were derived from optimized structures. IR, 1H and 13C NMR data were also computed using Gaussian-03 package and compared with the observed values.

  3. Electrophysiological effects of trace amines on mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada eLedonne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Trace amines (TAs are a class of endogenous compounds strictly related to classic monoamine neurotransmitters with regard to their structure, metabolism and tissue distribution. Although the presence of TAs in mammalian brain has been recognized for decades, until recently they were considered to be by-products of amino acid metabolism or as ‘false’ neurotransmitters. The discovery in 2001 of a new family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, namely trace amines receptors, has re-ignited interest in TAs. In particular, two members of the family, trace amine receptor 1 (TA1 and trace amine receptor 2 (TA2, were shown to be highly sensitive to these endogenous compounds. Experimental evidence suggests that TAs modulate the activity of catecholaminergic neurons and that TA dysregulation may contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression and Parkinson’s disease, all of which are characterised by altered monoaminergic networks. Here we review recent data concerning the electrophysiological effects of TAs on the activity of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. In the context of recent data obtained with TA1 receptor knockout mice, we also discuss the mechanisms by which the activation of these receptors modulates the activity of these neurons. Three important new aspects of TAs action have recently emerged: (a inhibition of firing due to increased release of dopamine; (b reduction of D2 and GABAB receptor-mediated inhibitory responses (excitatory effects due to dysinhibition; and (c a direct TA1 receptor-mediated activation of GIRK channels which produce cell membrane hyperpolarization. While the first two effects have been well documented in our laboratory, the direct activation of GIRK channels by TA1 receptors has been reported by others, but has not been seen in our laboratory (Geracitano et al., 2004. Further research is needed to address this point, and to further

  4. Studies of the biogenic amine transporters. V. Demonstration of two binding sites for the cocaine analog [125I]RTI-55 associated with the 5-HT transporter in rat brain membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, M L; Dersch, C M; Baumann, M H; Cadet, J L; Partilla, J S; Rice, K C; Carroll, F I; Becketts, K M; Brockington, A; Rothman, R B

    1995-04-01

    Earlier work characterized the binding of the high-affinity cocaine analog 3 beta-(4-125iodophenyl)-tropane-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester ([125I]RTI-55) to membranes prepared from rat caudate. That investigation demonstrated that [125I]RTI-55-labeled serotonin (5-HT) transporters in addition to dopamine (DA) transporters and resolved [125I]RTI-55 binding to 5-HT transporters into two distinct components. In the present study, we characterized [125I]RTI-55 binding to membranes prepared from whole rat brain minus caudate. The first series of experiments established that [125I]RTI-55 labels both DA and 5-HT transporters and that 50 nM paroxetine and either 1000 nM 1-[2-(diphenylmethoxy)ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)homopiperazine (LR1111) or 500 nM (RTI-120) could be used to block [125I]RTI-55 binding to the 5-HT and DA transporters, thereby generating selective assay conditions for the DA and 5-HT transporters, respectively. Selective lesioning of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons with intracerebroventricular 6-hydroxydopamine and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine selectively decreased [125I]RTI-55 binding to DA and 5-HT transporters, respectively, thereby confirming the selectivity of the assay conditions. The ligand-selectivity pattern of the whole brain minus caudate 5-HT transporter correlated significantly with that of the caudate 5-HT transporter, although there were some striking differences for selected test agents. Additional experiments resolved [125I]RTI-55 binding to the 5-HT transporter into two components. A ligand-selectivity analysis of the two components failed to identify a highly selective test agent. In summary, the major findings of the present study are that [125I]RTI-55 labels both DA and 5-HT transporters in membranes prepared from whole brain minus caudate, that 50 nM paroxetine and either 1000 nM LR1111 or 500 nM RTI-120 can be used as a blocking agent to generate selective assay conditions for the DA and 5-HT transporters, respectively, and that [125

  5. Clinical correlative evaluation of an iterative method for reconstruction of brain SPECT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobili, Flavio E-mail: fnobili@smartino.ge.it; Vitali, Paolo; Calvini, Piero; Bollati, Francesca; Girtler, Nicola; Delmonte, Marta; Mariani, Giuliano; Rodriguez, Guido

    2001-08-01

    Background: Brain SPECT and PET investigations have showed discrepancies in Alzheimer's disease (AD) when considering data deriving from deeply located structures, such as the mesial temporal lobe. These discrepancies could be due to a variety of factors, including substantial differences in gamma-cameras and underlying technology. Mesial temporal structures are deeply located within the brain and the commonly used Filtered Back-Projection (FBP) technique does not fully take into account either the physical parameters of gamma-cameras or geometry of collimators. In order to overcome these limitations, alternative reconstruction methods have been proposed, such as the iterative method of the Conjugate Gradients with modified matrix (CG). However, the clinical applications of these methods have so far been only anecdotal. The present study was planned to compare perfusional SPECT data as derived from the conventional FBP method and from the iterative CG method, which takes into account the geometrical and physical characteristics of the gamma-camera, by a correlative approach with neuropsychology. Methods: Correlations were compared between perfusion of the hippocampal region, as achieved by both the FBP and the CG reconstruction methods, and a short-memory test (Selective Reminding Test, SRT), specifically addressing one of its function. A brain-dedicated camera (CERASPECT) was used for SPECT studies with {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropylene-amine-oxime in 23 consecutive patients (mean age: 74.2{+-}6.5) with mild (Mini-Mental Status Examination score {>=}15, mean 20.3{+-}3), probable AD. Counts from a hippocampal region in each hemisphere were referred to the average thalamic counts. Results: Hippocampal perfusion significantly correlated with the MMSE score with similar statistical significance (p<0.01) between the two reconstruction methods. Correlation between hippocampal perfusion and the SRT score was better with the CG method (r=0.50 for both hemispheres, p<0

  6. A Novel Ionic Liquid/water Biphasic System for the Preparation of Oximes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Mou LUO; Yi Qun LI; Wen Jie ZHENG

    2005-01-01

    A variety of carbonyl compounds can be converted into oximes efficiently and conveniently in a novel ionic liquid/water bi-phasic system in the presence of sodium bicarbonate at ambient temperature. The ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate [bmim]PF6 is immiscible with water or diethyl ether and can be easily recycled for reuse without noticeable droping in activity after separation of the products. The protocol is rapid, the yields are excellent, the method is simple and the ionic liquid can be reused.

  7. Tris(phenyl 2-pyridyl ketone oxime-κ2N,N′cadmium(II dinitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Yan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cd atom in the title compound, [Cd(C12H10N2O3](NO32, adopts a distorted octahedral geometry, being ligated by six N atoms from three different phenyl-2-pyridyl ketone oxime ligands. In the crystal structure, intermolecular O—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into a chain structure propagating along [100]. The chains are further linked into a three-dimensional supramolecular structure via van der Waals forces.

  8. Biomimetic Synthesis of Insulin Enabled by Oxime Ligation and Traceless "C-Peptide" Chemical Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalluri, Kishore; Kou, Binbin; Gelfanov, Vasily; Mayer, John P; Liu, Fa; DiMarchi, Richard D

    2017-02-03

    For decades, insulin has represented a preeminent synthetic target. Recently introduced "biomimetic" strategies based on convertible single-chain precursors require incorporation of a chemical linker or a unique proteolytic site, which limits their practicality. In this approach the A- and B-chains are linked by two sequential oxime ligations followed by disulfide bond formation under redox conditions and linker excision by diketopiperazine (DKP) formation and ester hydrolysis, yielding native two-chain insulin. The method is expected to be applicable to any member of the insulin superfamily.

  9. Synthesis and Biological Activity of New Pyrethroid Acid Oxime-esters Containing Pyrazole Ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun-an; HUANG Run-qiu; FENG Lei; SONG Jian; QIU De-wen

    2003-01-01

    A series of compounds containing oxime-ester linkage and pyrazole ring(in place of the ester linkage and the alcohol moiety in pyrethroid ester) was designed and synthesized. The structures of all the compounds prepared were confirmed by 1H NMR and MS spectroscopy as well as elemental analyses. The bioassay data of those compounds against tobacco mosaic virus(TMV), cucumber mosaic virus(CMV), potato virus X(PVX) and potato virus Y(PVY) were presented. Among them compound 6i was found to possess significant plant antiviral activities. But all the compounds showed low insecticidal and acaricidal activities.

  10. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.C.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Bottema, K.C.; Dubois, A.E.J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allerg*, intoler*, and

  11. Palladium-catalyzed amination of allyl alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Raju; Sarkar, Amitabha

    2011-10-21

    An efficient catalytic amination of aryl-substituted allylic alcohols has been developed. The complex [(η(3)-allyl)PdCl](2) modified by a bis phosphine ligand, L, has been used as catalyst in the reaction that afforded a wide range of allyl amines in good to excellent yield under mild conditions.

  12. Speaking Personally--with Amin Qazi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an interview with Amin Quazi, the founding chief executive officer of Unizin, a university-owned consortium focused on the emerging digital teaching and learning ecosystem. Amin has a bachelor's degree in chemical engineering from The University of Iowa and a master's degree in business administration from the Carlson School…

  13. Method for the production of primary amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldenius, Kai-Uwe; Ditrich, Klaus; Breurer, Michael; Navickas, Vaidotas; Janssen, Dick; Crismaru, Ciprian; Bartsch, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel enzymatically catalyzed method for the production of aliphatic primary amines, which method comprises the enzymatic oxidation of a primary aliphatic alcohol catalyzed by an alcohol dehydrogenase, amination of the resulting oxocompound catalyzed by a transamin

  14. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, SC; van Dusseldorp, M; Bottema, KC; Dubois, AEJ

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allergen intoler*, and

  15. The Evaluation of the Potency of Newly Developed Oximes (K727, K733 and Trimedoxime to Counteract Acute Neurotoxic Effects of Tabun in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kassa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The ability of two newly developed oximes (K727, K733 to reduce tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was evaluated and compared with currently available trimedoxime in rats. Methods: The neuroprotective effects of the oximes studied combined with atropine on Wistar rats poisoned with tabun at a lethal dose (380 μg/kg i.m.; 90% of LD50 value were evaluated. Tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored by the functional observational battery consisting of 38 measurements of sensory, motor and autonomic nervous functions at 2 hours following tabun challenge. Results: All tested oximes combined with atropine enable tabun-poisoned rats to survive till the end of experiment. Both newly developed oximes (K727, K733 combined with atropine were able to decrease tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of lethal poisoning although they did not eliminate all tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms. Conclusion: The ability of both novel bispyridinium oximes to decrease tabun-induced acute neurotoxicity was slightly lower than that of trimedoxime. Therefore, the newly developed oximes are not suitable for the replacement of commonly used oximes such as trimedoxime in the treatment of acute tabun poisonings.

  16. Application of a dynamic in vitro model with real-time determination of acetylcholinesterase activity for the investigation of tabun analogues and oximes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Herkert, Nadja M; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst; Wille, Timo

    2015-12-25

    Tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is rather resistant towards reactivation by oximes in vitro while in vivo experiments showed some protection of animals poisoned by this chemical warfare nerve agent after treatment with an oxime and atropine. In addition, AChE inhibited by close tabun analogues, N,N-diethyltabun and N,N-di-n-propyltabun was completely resistant towards reactivation by oximes. In order to get more insight into potential mechanisms of this oxime resistance experiments with these toxic agents and the oximes obidoxime, 2-PAM, MMB-4 and HI-6 were performed utilizing a dynamic model with real-time determination of AChE activity. This experimental setup allowed the investigation of reactivation with minimized side reactions. The determined reactivation constants with tabun-inhibited human AChE were in good agreement with previously reported constants determined with a static model. N,N-diethyl- and N,N-di-n-propyltabun-inhibited human AChE could not be reactivated by oximes which indicates that the inadequate oxime effect was not due to re-inhibition by phosphonyloximes. Additional experiments with tabun-inhibited human and Rhesus monkey AChE revealed that no reactivation occurred with HI-6. These data give further support to the assumption that an interaction of tabun with residues in the active site gorge of AChE prevents effective reactivation by oximes, a mechanism which may also be the reason for the total oxime resistance of N,N-diethyl- and N,N-di-n-propyltabun-inhibited human AChE.

  17. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)], E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Mozo, Ismael; Garcia de la Fuente, Isaias; Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Riesco, Nicolas [Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE113TU Leicestershire (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-30

    Mixtures with dimethyl or trimethylpyridines and alkane, aromatic compound or 1-alkanol have been examined using different theories: DISQUAC, Flory, the concentration-concentration structure factor, S{sub CC}(0), or the Kirkwood-Buff formalism. DISQUAC represents fairly well the available experimental data, and improves theoretical calculations from Dortmund UNIFAC. Two important effects have been investigated: (i) the effect of increasing the number of methyl groups attached to the aromatic ring of the amine; (ii) the effect of modifying the position of the methyl groups in this ring. The molar excess enthalpy, H{sup E}, and the molar excess volume, V{sup E}, decrease in systems with alkane or methanol as follows: pyridine > 3-methylpyridine > 3,5-dimethylpyridine and pyridine > 2-methylpyridine > 2,4-dimethylpyridine > 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine, which has been attributed to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions in the same sequences. This is in agreement with the relative variation of the effective dipole moment, {mu}-bar, and of the differences between the boiling temperature of a pyridine base and that of the homomorphic alkane. For heptane solutions, the observed H{sup E} variation, H{sup E} (3,5-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,4-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,6-dimethylpyridine), is explained similarly. Calculations on the basis of the Flory model confirm that orientational effects become weaker in systems with alkane in the order: pyridine > methylpyridine > dimethylpyridine > trimethylpyridine. S{sub CC}(0) calculations show that steric effects increase with the number of CH{sub 3}- groups in the pyridine base, and that the steric effects exerted by methyl groups in positions 2 and 6 are higher than when they are placed in positions 3 and 5. The hydrogen bond energy in methanol mixtures is independent of the pyridine base, and it is estimated to be -35.2 kJ mol{sup -1}. Heterocoordination in these solutions is due in part to size effects. Their

  18. Catalytic Properties of Mesoporous Silica (FSM-16) for Beckmann Rearrangement of Cyclohexanone Oxime in Gas Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, T. [Shinshu Univ, Nagano (Japan). Department of Chemistry and Material Engineering Facutly of Engineering; Nakajima, T. [Iiyama Electric Co. Ltd., Nagano (Japan); Mishima, S. [Shinshu Univ, Nagano (Japan). Cooperative Research Center

    1997-08-10

    Catalytic properties of FSM-16 (porous silica with the honeycomb structure of uniform mesopores) were investigated for Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime in gas phase at 523-623 K, and were compared with those of other typical solid acid catalysts. FSM-16 was found to be a long-life catalyst and exhibited higher conversion of the oxime than silica-alumina, H-ZSM-5, Na-ZSM-5, HX-zeolite, and {gamma}-alumina. Selectivity for {epsilon}-caprolactam of FSM-16 was 42-25%, which was lower than that of H-ZSM-5 (89%), silica-alumina (77%), and HX-zeolite (74%). The product composition given by FSM-16 was very similar to that by silica gel. FSM-16, which was impregnated with a solution of aluminum nitrate and then calcined at 823 K, exhibited a higher selectivity (54%) for {epsilon}-caprolactam than an original one. The activity of FSM-16 was remarkably decreased when the catalyst was calcined at 1073 K or above. However, the selectivity for {epsilon}-caprolactam scarcely changed. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. NEW POLY(METHACRYLATE)S CONTAINING OXIME ESTERS MOIETIES BASED ON CYCLOHEXANON AND CYCLOPENTANON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim Erol

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of two new methacrylates such as 2-[(cyclohexylideneamino)oxy]-2-oxoethyl methylacrylate (CHOEMA) and 2-[(cyclopentylideneamino)oxy]-2-oxoethyl methylacrylate (CPOEMA) are described. The monomers produced from the reaction of corresponding cyclohexanone O-(2-chloroacetyl) oxime and cyclopentanone O-(2-chloroacetyl) oxime with sodium methacrylate was polymerized in 1,4-dioxane solution at 65℃ using AIBN as an initiator. The monomers and their polymers were characterized by IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The glass transition temperature of the polymers was investigated by DSC and the apparent thermal decomposition activation energies (ED) were calculated by Ozawa and multiple heating rate kinetics (MHRK) method using the Shimadzu TGA thermobalance. By using gel permeation chromatography, weight-average (Mw) and number-average (Mn) molecular weights and polydispersity indices of the polymers were determined. The antibacterial and antifungal effects of the monomers and polymers were also investigated on various bacteria and fungi. The photochemical properties of the polymers were investigated by UV and FTIR spectra.

  20. Efficient synthesis of eight-membered nitrogen heterocycles from o-propargylic oximes by rhodium-catalyzed cascade reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Itaru; Sato, Yoshinori; Takeda, Keisuke; Terada, Masahiro

    2014-08-11

    Azocine derivatives were successfully synthesized from O-propargylic oximes by means of a Rh-catalyzed 2,3-rearrangement/heterocyclization cascade reaction. Moreover, the chirality of the substrate was maintained throughout the cascade process to afford the corresponding optically active azocines.

  1. Antifungal agents. 5. Chemical modification of antibiotics from Polyangium cellulosum var. fulvum. Alcohol, ketone, aldehyde, and oxime analogues of ambruticin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, D T; von Strandtmann, M

    1979-09-01

    Alcohol, ketone, aldehyde, and oxime analogues of ambruticin (1) were prepared. The analogues were tested against Histoplasma capsulatum, Microsporum fulvum, Candida albicans, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Structure-activity relationships are described. Increasing the bulk of substituent at C1 and C5 reduces antifungal activity.

  2. Microwave Promoted Regeneration of Carbonyl Compounds from Oximes Using N, N-Dichloro Poly(Styrene-co-divinylbenzene)Sulphonamide Resin

    OpenAIRE

    A.G. Beldar; Mamta Sharma

    2011-01-01

    An efficient, economically viable and operationally simple method was developed for deoximation of oximes (of ketones and aldehydes) to their corresponding carbonyl compounds using polymer beads of N, N-dichloro poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene)sulphonamide resin. Polymeric reagent offered speedy conversion and substantial yields of products under mild condition and is recyclable. Deoximation was monitored by the use of 13C NMR.

  3. A truncated [Mn(III)₁₂] tetrahedron from oxime-based [Mn(III)₃O] building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, J M; Sanz, S; Rajeshkumar, T; Pitak, M B; Coles, S J; Rajaraman, G; Wernsdorfer, W; Schnack, J; Lusby, P J; Brechin, E K

    2014-07-28

    The use of the novel pro-ligand H4L combining the complimentary phenolic oxime and diethanolamine moieties in one organic framework, results in the formation of the first example of a [Mn(III)12] truncated tetrahedron and an extremely rare example of a Mn cage conforming to an Archimedean solid.

  4. Quantifying amine permeation sources with acid neutralization: calibrations and amines measured in coastal and continental atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Freshour

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An acid titration method for quantifying amine permeation rates was used to calibrate an Ambient pressure Proton transfer Mass Spectrometer (AmPMS that monitors ambient amine compounds. The method involves capturing amines entrained in a N2 flow by bubbling it through an acidified solution (~ 10−5 M HCl, and the amines are quantified via changes in solution pH with time. Home-made permeation tubes had permeation rates (typically tens of pmol s−1 that depended on the type of amine and tubing and on temperature. Calibrations of AmPMS yielded sensitivities for ammonia, methyl amine, dimethyl amine, and trimethyl amine that are close to the sensitivity assuming a gas-kinetic, ion-molecule rate coefficient. The permeation tubes were also designed to deliver a reproducible amount of amine to a flow reactor where nucleation with sulfuric acid was studied. The high proton affinity compound dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, linked to oceanic environments, was also studied and AmPMS is highly sensitive to it. AmPMS was deployed recently in two field campaigns and mixing ratios are reported for ammonia, alkyl amines, and DMSO and correlations between these species and with particle formation events are discussed.

  5. In Vitro Comparison of Two Most Promising H-Oximes (HI-6 and HLö-7) and Currently Commercially Available Reactivators Pralidoxime and Obidoxime in Reactivation of Cyclosarin-Inhibited Human Cholinesterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuca, Kamil; Cabal, Jiri; Jun, Daniel; Koleckar, Vit

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study describes the evaluation of the in vitro ability of two acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7) reactivators, HI-6 and HLö-7, very promising at present, to reactivate human brain cholinesterases inhibited by the nerve agent cyclosarin. The results obtained (percentage of reactivation and appropriate constants characterizing the whole reactivation process) were compared with two currently available reactivators on the market: pralidoxime and obidoxime. It is clear that both promising oximes surpassed the potency of standard reactivators, especially at human relevant concentrations (10(-4) M and lower). Because of the prohibition of such experiments on humans, data obtained in this study could be used as input data for prediction of in vivo action of these drugs in future.

  6. Different uptake of 99mTc-ECD adn 99mTc-HMPAO in the same brains: analysis by statistical parametric mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Y; Lee, J S; Rha, J H; Lee, I K; Ha, C K; Lee, D S

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) uptake in the same brains by means of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. We examined 20 patients (9 male, 11 female, mean age 62+/-12 years) using 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain less than 7 days after onset of stroke. MRI showed no cortical infarctions. Infarctions in the pons (6 patients) and medulla (1), ischaemic periventricular white matter lesions (13) and lacunar infarction (7) were found on MRI. Split-dose and sequential SPET techniques were used for 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPET, without repositioning of the patient. All of the SPET images were spatially transformed to standard space, smoothed and globally normalized. The differences between the 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images were statistically analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 96 software. The difference between two groups was considered significant at a threshold of uncorrected P values less than 0.01. Visual analysis showed no hypoperfused areas on either 99mTc-ECD or 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images. SPM analysis revealed significantly different uptake of 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO in the same brains. On the 99mTc-ECD SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes, in the left superior temporal lobe and in the superior region of the cerebellum. On the 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the medial temporal lobes, thalami, periventricular white matter and brain stem. These differences in uptake of the two tracers in the same brains on SPM analysis suggest that interpretation of cerebral perfusion is possible using SPET with 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO.

  7. Different uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO in the same brains: analysis by statistical parametric mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, I.Y. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea); Lee, J.S.; Lee, D.S. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Rha, J.H.; Lee, I.K.; Ha, C.K. [Dept. of Neurology, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea)

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) uptake in the same brains by means of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. We examined 20 patients (9 male, 11 female, mean age 62{+-}12 years) using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain less than 7 days after onset of stroke. MRI showed no cortical infarctions. Infarctions in the pons (6 patients) and medulla (1), ischaemic periventricular white matter lesions (13) and lacunar infarction (7) were found on MRI. Split-dose and sequential SPET techniques were used for {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPET, without repositioning of the patient. All of the SPET images were spatially transformed to standard space, smoothed and globally normalized. The differences between the {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET images were statistically analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 96 software. The difference between two groups was considered significant at a threshold of uncorrected P values less than 0.01. Visual analysis showed no hypoperfused areas on either {sup 99m}Tc-ECD or {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET images. SPM analysis revealed significantly different uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO in the same brains. On the {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes, in the left superior temporal lobe and in the superior region of the cerebellum. On the {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the medial temporal lobes, thalami, periventricular white matter and brain stem. These differences in uptake of the two tracers in the same brains on SPM analysis suggest that interpretation of cerebral perfusion is possible using SPET with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and

  8. Interaction energies of CO2·amine complexes: effects of amine substituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Kameron R; Cundari, Thomas R; Wilson, Angela K

    2012-10-25

    To focus on the identification of potential alternative amine carbon capture compounds, CO(2) with methyl, silyl, and trifluoromethyl monosubstituted and disubstituted amine compounds were studied. Interaction energies of these CO(2)·amine complexes were determined via two methods: (a) an ab initio composite method, the correlation consistent composite approach (ccCA), to determine interaction energies and (b) density functional theories, B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ and B97D/aug-cc-pVTZ. Substituent effects on the interaction energies were examined by interchanging electron donating and electron withdrawing substituents on the amine compounds. The calculations suggested two different binding modes, hydrogen bonding and acid-base interactions, which arise from the modification of the amine substituents, echoing previous work by our group on modeling protein·CO(2) interactions. Recommendations have been noted for the development of improved amine scrubber complexes.

  9. Cocaine affects foraging behaviour and biogenic amine modulated behavioural reflexes in honey bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik Søvik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In humans and other mammals, drugs of abuse alter the function of biogenic amine pathways in the brain leading to the subjective experience of reward and euphoria. Biogenic amine pathways are involved in reward processing across diverse animal phyla, however whether cocaine acts on these neurochemical pathways to cause similar rewarding behavioural effects in animal phyla other than mammals is unclear. Previously, it has been shown that bees are more likely to dance (a signal of perceived reward when returning from a sucrose feeder after cocaine treatment. Here we examined more broadly whether cocaine altered reward-related behaviour, and biogenic amine modulated behavioural responses in bees. Bees developed a preference for locations at which they received cocaine, and when foraging at low quality sucrose feeders increase their foraging rate in response to cocaine treatment. Cocaine also increased reflexive proboscis extension to sucrose, and sting extension to electric shock. Both of these simple reflexes are modulated by biogenic amines. This shows that systemic cocaine treatment alters behavioural responses that are modulated by biogenic amines in insects. Since insect reward responses involve both octopamine and dopamine signalling, we conclude that cocaine treatment altered diverse reward-related aspects of behaviour in bees. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding the ecology of cocaine as a plant defence compound. Our findings further validate the honey bee as a model system for understanding the behavioural impacts of cocaine, and potentially other drugs of abuse.

  10. Advance in the synthesis of aromatic amine via direct amination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Arylamines are very common and important organic molecules. Acting as important intermediates in medical and chemical industry, they are widely used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, dyes, pesticides, rubber additives, isocyanates and heterocyclic compounds. The traditional methods for the synthesis of arylamines include several steps. The production of aniline, for example, includes the following steps: the production of nitro-benzene by the nitration of benzene, and the reduction of the resulting nitro-benzene by catalytic hydrogenation or other reduction ways[1-6]; or the substitution of phenol or chlorbenzene by amino groups, etc.[7-10]. There are several disadvantages for these methods: low atom utilization, strict operation condition, large amount of by-products and serious environmental pollution, which could not afford for the needs of a sustainable civilization. So there has been growing interest in the direct amination to produce arylamines recently. With the direct methods, the multi- step reaction may change into one step, the atom utilization can be evidently improved, and the by-products H2 or/and H2O are harmless to the environment.

  11. Transformation of Oximes and Alcohols to Carbonyl Compounds Using Amberlite IRA-400 Supported Chromic Acid in the Presence of Zirconium Tetrachloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAHRAMI, Kiumars; KHODAEIMohammad-Mehdi; GORGIN-KARAJI, Usef

    2009-01-01

    A wide variety of oximes and alcohols were efficiently converted to their corresponding aldehydes and ketones in good to excellent yields using amberlite IRA-400 supported chromic acid in the presence of zirconium tetrachlo-ride in refluxing acetonitrile-H2O. Selective oxidation of oximes and alcohols in the presence of other functional groups such as acetal, hydrazone, aldehyde, ether and alkene can be considered as a noteworthy advantage of this method. A wide variety of oximes and alcohols were efficiently converted to their corresponding aldehydes and ke-tones in good to excellent yields using amberlite IRA-400 supported chromic acid in the presence of zirconium tet-rachloride in refluxing acetonitrile-H2O. Selective oxidation of oximes and alcohols in the presence of other func-tional groups such as acetal, hydrazone, aldehyde, ether and alkene can be considered as a noteworthy advantage of this method.

  12. Graphite Oxide and Aromatic Amines : Size Matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyrou, Konstantinos; Calvaresi, Matteo; Diamanti, Evmorfi A. K.; Tsoufis, Theodoros; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies are performed in order to illuminate, for first time, the intercalation mechanism of polycyclic aromatic molecules into graphite oxide. Two representative molecules of this family, aniline and naphthalene amine are investigated. After intercalation, aniline molec

  13. Amines as occupational hazards for visual disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    JANG, Jae-Kil

    2015-01-01

    Various amines, such as triethylamine and N,N-dimethylethylamine, have been reported to cause glaucopsia in workers employed in epoxy, foundry, and polyurethane foam industries. This symptom has been related to corneal edema and vesicular collection of fluid within the corneal subepithelial cells. Exposure to amine vapors for 30 min to several hours leads to blurring of vision, a blue-grey appearance of objects, and halos around lights, that are probably reversible. Concentration-effect relationships have been established. The visual disturbance is considered a nuisance, as it could cause onsite accidents, impair work efficiency, and create difficulties in driving back home. Occupational exposure limits have been established for some amines, but there is shortage of criteria. Volatility factors, such as vapor pressure, should be considered in industrial settings to prevent human ocular risks, while trying to reduce levels of hazardous amines in the atmosphere. PMID:26538000

  14. Multiple amine oxidases in cucumber seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, F W; Purves, W K

    1974-10-01

    Cell-free extracts of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. National Pickling) seedlings were found to have amine oxidase activity when assayed with tryptamine as a substrate. Studies of the effect of lowered pH on the extract indicated that this activity was heterogeneous, and three amine oxidases could be separated by ion exchange chromatography. The partially purified enzymes were tested for their activities with several substrates and for their sensitivities to various amine oxidase inhibitors. One of the enzymes may be a monoamine oxidase, although it is inhibited by some diamine oxidase inhibitors. The other two enzymes have properties more characteristic of the diamine oxidases. The possible relationship of the amine oxidases to indoleacetic acid biosynthesis in cucumber seedlings is discussed.

  15. Efficacy of Milbemax (milbemycin oxime + praziquantel) in the treatment of dogs experimentally infected with Crenosoma vulpis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conboy, G; Bourque, A; Miller, L; Seewald, W; Schenker, R

    2013-12-06

    Crenosoma vulpis, the fox lungworm, infects wild and domestic canids and is a cause of chronic respiratory disease in dogs in North America and Europe. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of milbemycin oxime (0.5mg/kg)/praziquantel (5mg/kg) (Milbemax; Novartis Animal Health, Inc.) against C. vulpis infection in a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study using experimentally infected dogs. Sixteen beagles (8 males, 8 females) were each given 100 infective third-stage larvae of C. vulpis. Fecal samples were examined for first-stage larvae by quantitative Baermann examination pre-exposure and at days 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 post-infection (PI). All of the dogs were shedding larvae in the feces at 21 days PI. The dogs were randomly assigned to one of two groups. At 28 days PI, Group 1 (4 males, 4 females) received placebo only while Group 2 (4 males, 4 females) received a single treatment of milbemycin oxime (0.5mg/kg) and praziquantel (5mg/kg). The 16 dogs were euthanized and necropsied at 49 days PI. Lungs were removed, assessed for gross lesions (graded on a subjective scale 0-3 with 0 being normal) and C. vulpis were collected by lung-flush and counted. Samples of lung tissue were preserved for evaluation of histopathology and the lesions graded on a subjective scale (0-3 with 0 being normal). Gross and histopathology lesions were detected in all 8 untreated Group 1 dogs with mean subjective lesion scores of 1.8 ± 0.7 (range 1-3) and 3.0 ± 0.0 (range 3), respectively. Gross lesions were observed in 3/8 and histopathology lesions in all 8 of the treated Group 2 dogs with mean subjective lesion scores of 0.4 ± 0.5 (range 0-1) and 1.3 ± 0.4 (range 1-2), respectively. The mean (geometric) number for adult C. vulpis recovered in untreated dogs was 48.3 (range 25-70) compared with 0.65 (range 0-2) in animals treated with Milbemax. The resulting efficacy against C. vulpis was 98.7%. The number of C. vulpis was significantly lower for treated

  16. Pyrylium Salts as Reactive Matrices for MALDI-MS Imaging of Biologically Active Primary Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza; Nilsson, Anna; Källback, Patrik; Karlsson, Oskar; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Svenningsson, Per; Andren, Per E.

    2015-06-01

    Many neuroactive substances, including endogenous biomolecules, environmental compounds, and pharmaceuticals possess primary amine functional groups. Among these are catecholamine neurotransmitters (e.g., dopamine), many substituted phenethylamines (e.g., amphetamine), as well as amino acids and neuropeptides. In most cases, mass spectrometric (ESI and MALDI) analyses of trace amounts of such compounds are challenging because of their poor ionization properties. We present a method for chemical derivatization of primary amines by reaction with pyrylium salts that facilitates their detection by MALDI-MS and enables the imaging of primary amines in brain tissue sections. A screen of pyrylium salts revealed that the 2,4-diphenyl-pyranylium ion efficiently derivatizes primary amines and can be used as a reactive MALDI-MS matrix that induces both derivatization and desorption. MALDI-MS imaging with such matrix was used to map the localization of dopamine and amphetamine in brain tissue sections and to quantitatively map the distribution of the neurotoxin β- N-methylamino-L-alanine.

  17. Aromatic amines sources, environmental impact and remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Luciana; Mondal, P. K.; Alves, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic amines are widely used industrial chemicals as their major sources in the environment include several chemical industry sectors such as oil refining, synthetic polymers, dyes, adhesives, rubbers, perfume, pharmaceuticals, pesticides and explosives. They result also from diesel exhaust, combustion of wood chips and rubber and tobacco smoke. Some types of aromatic amines are generated during cooking, special grilled meat and fish, as well. The intensive use and production of these comp...

  18. Intranasal delivery of obidoxime to the brain prevents mortality and CNS damage from organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Jishnu K S; Arun, Peethambaran; Appu, Abhilash P; Vijayakumar, Nivetha; Figueiredo, Taíza H; Braga, Maria F M; Baskota, Sudikshya; Olsen, Cara H; Farkas, Natalia; Dagata, John; Frey, William H; Moffett, John R; Namboodiri, Aryan M A

    2016-03-01

    Intranasal delivery is an emerging method for bypassing the blood brain barrier (BBB) and targeting therapeutics to the CNS. Oximes are used to counteract the effects of organophosphate poisoning, but they do not readily cross the BBB. Therefore, they cannot effectively counteract the central neuropathologies caused by cholinergic over-activation when administered peripherally. For these reasons we examined intranasal administration of oximes in an animal model of severe organophosphate poisoning to determine their effectiveness in reducing mortality and seizure-induced neuronal degeneration. Using the paraoxon model of organophosphate poisoning, we administered the standard treatment (intramuscular pralidoxime plus atropine sulphate) to all animals and then compared the effectiveness of intranasal application of obidoxime (OBD) to saline in the control groups. Intranasally administered OBD was effective in partially reducing paraoxon-induced acetylcholinesterase inhibition in the brain and substantially reduced seizure severity and duration. Further, intranasal OBD completely prevented mortality, which was 41% in the animals given standard treatment plus intranasal saline. Fluoro-Jade-B staining revealed extensive neuronal degeneration in the surviving saline-treated animals 24h after paraoxon administration, whereas no detectable degenerating neurons were observed in any of the animals given intranasal OBD 30min before or 5min after paraoxon administration. These findings demonstrate that intranasally administered oximes bypass the BBB more effectively than those administered peripherally and provide an effective method for protecting the brain from organophosphates. The addition of intranasally administered oximes to the current treatment regimen for organophosphate poisoning would improve efficacy, reducing both brain damage and mortality.

  19. Kinetic analysis of interactions of different sarin and tabun analogues with human acetylcholinesterase and oximes: is there a structure-activity relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurbek, Nadine; Herkert, Nadja M; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz

    2010-09-06

    The repeated misuse of highly toxic organophosphorus compound (OP) based chemical warfare agents in military conflicts and terrorist attacks poses a continuous threat to the military and civilian sector. The toxic symptomatology of OP poisoning is mainly caused by inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, E.C. 3.1.1.7) resulting in generalized cholinergic crisis due to accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) in synaptic clefts. Beside atropine as competitive antagonist of ACh at muscarinic ACh receptors oximes as reactivators of OP-inhibited AChE are a mainstay of standard antidotal treatment. However, human AChE inhibited by certain OP is rather resistant to oxime-induced reactivation. The development of more effective oxime-based reactivators may fill the gaps. To get more insight into a potential structure-activity relationship between human AChE, OPs and oximes in vitro studies were conducted to investigate interactions of different tabun and sarin analogues with human AChE and the oximes obidoxime and HI 6 by determination of various kinetic constants. Rate constants for the inhibition of human AChE by OPs, spontaneous dealkylation and reactivation as well as reactivation by obidoxime and HI 6 of OP-inhibited human AChE were determined. The recorded kinetic data did not allow a general statement concerning a structure-activity relationship between human AChE, OP and oximes.

  20. Enhancing amine terminals in an amine-deprived collagen matrix.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tiong, William H C

    2008-10-21

    Collagen, though widely used as a core biomaterial in many clinical applications, is often limited by its rapid degradability which prevents full exploitation of its potential in vivo. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer, a highly branched macromolecule, possesses versatile multiterminal amine surface groups that enable them to be tethered to collagen molecules and enhance their potential. In this study, we hypothesized that incorporation of PAMAM dendrimer in a collagen matrix through cross-linking will result in a durable, cross-linked collagen biomaterial with free -NH 2 groups available for further multi-biomolecular tethering. The aim of this study was to assess the physicochemical properties of a G1 PAMAM cross-linked collagen matrix and its cellular sustainability in vitro. Different amounts of G1 PAMAM dendrimer (5 or 10 mg) were integrated into bovine-derived collagen matrices through a cross-linking process, mediated by 5 or 25 mM 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) in 5 mM N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and 50 mM 2-morpholinoethane sulfonic acid buffer at pH 5.5. The physicochemical properties of resultant matrices were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), collagenase degradation assay, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and ninhydrin assay. Cellular sustainability of the matrices was assessed with Alamar Blue assay and SEM. There was no significant difference in cellular behavior between the treated and nontreated groups. However, the benefit of incorporating PAMAM in the cross-linking reaction was limited when higher concentrations of either agent were used. These results confirm the hypothesis that PAMAM dendrimer can be incorporated in the collagen cross-linking process in order to modulate the properties of the resulting cross-linked collagen biomaterial with free -NH 2 groups available for multi-biomolecular tethering.

  1. Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime to {epsilon}-caprolactam using a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlhoff, G.; Hoelderich, W.F. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The application of a fluidized bed reactor on the heterogeneously catalyzed Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime to {epsilon}-caprolactam is presented. For this purpose the classic industrial synthesis route is compared to the new route catalyzed by [B]-MFI zeolite which proved to be the most suitable. To prepare the use of the catalyst the thermodynamics were calculated showing that the residence time of the reactants are of great importance. A regeneration model was developed resulting in a mathematical equation for the regeneration time calculated to seven hours under oxidative conditions. A 40 day regeneration experiment demonstrated the excellent regeneration behaviour of the chosen catalyst showing no decrease in activity after 40 recycle treatments. Finally, the experiments in a constructed non circulating fluidized bed showed good yields and selectivities (99%/91%) completely comparable to the actual synthesis route but avoiding 4 t ammonia sulphate/t product. (orig.)

  2. Efficacy of fenbendazole and milbemycin oxime for treating baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis) infected with Trichuris trichiura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Mason V; Wolf, Roman F; Carey, David W; Garrett, Jennifer Jane; Briscoe, Heather A

    2007-03-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of fenbendazole (FBZ) and milbemycin oxime (MO) in the treatment of baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis) with naturally acquired Trichuris trichiura infection by comparing fecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. We assigned 7 baboons, each singly housed and confirmed infected with T. trichiura, to treatment groups of FBZ (n=3) or MO (n=3), or as a control (n=1). All (100%) baboons that received FBZ stopped shedding T. trichiura eggs within 6 d of treatment, and fecal egg counts remained negative at 65 d after treatment. Although the number of T. trichiura eggs shed per gram of feces from 2 (67%) baboons decreased significantly after the second treatment with MO, this regimen never totally eliminated eggs of T. trichiura. The results of our study indicate that FBZ was more effective for treating baboons with T. trichiura than was MO.

  3. Gas-Phase Beckmann Rearrangement of Cyclohexanone Oxime over B-ZSM-5 Derived Titanosilicalite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹双凤; 张法智; 徐柏庆

    2002-01-01

    Four different ZSM-5 zeolites are tested for the gas-phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime (CHO) into lactam. B-ZSM-5 derived titanosilicalite (Ti-ZSM-5) exhibits catalytic performances comparable to hydrothermally synthesized titanosilicalite (TS-1), much better than B-ZSM-5 and Al-ZSM-5. The effect of reaction conditions (solvent, feed space velocity, and water) on the catalytic performance of Ti-ZSM-5 is studied. It is found that a quantitative relationship exists among the feed space velocity, the reaction time, and the CHO constant conversion. Ethanol or methanol as solvent shows higher activity, lactam selectivity, and stability than benzene and n-hexanol. The addition of water to the rearrangement with a maximum amount of 1.0 mole per mole CHO results in the increase of CHO conversion while no meaningful changes in lactam selectivity and stability are observed.

  4. Synthesis antimicrobial and antioxidant studies of new oximes of steroidal chalcones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Imtiyaz H; Khan, Khaliquz Z; Fozdar, Bharat I; Hussain, Fida

    2013-09-01

    A convenient synthesis of oximes of steroidal chalcones (4a-4j) was performed and structural assignment of the products was confirmed on the basis of IR, (1)HNMR, (13)C NMR, MS and analytical data. The synthesized compounds were screened for in vitro antioxidant activity by using DPPH method and in vitro antimicrobial activity against different bacterial and fungal strains by agar diffusion method. The activity of the tested compounds against each microbe varied due to structural differences between them. Presence and position of different substituents on the benzene ring of the chalconyl pendent had a marked effect on the activity of the compounds. From the results it can be inferred that the compounds 4a-j showed significant antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity against all microbial strains used for testing.

  5. Evaluation of monoquaternary pyridinium oximes potency to reactivate tabun-inhibited human acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odzak, Renata; Calić, Maja; Hrenar, Tomica; Primozic, Ines; Kovarik, Zrinka

    2007-04-20

    Monoquaternary N-benzyl-4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium bromide (Py-4-H) and its analogous with diverse substituents introduced into the phenyl ring (Py-4-CH(3), Py-4-Br, Py-4-Cl and Py-4-NO(2)) were synthesized in order to examine their potency as reactivators of tabun-inhibited human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7). Within 24h, the reactivation of tabun-inhibited AChE reached 80% with Py-4-CH(3), Py-4-Br and Py-4-Cl, 40% with Py-4-NO(2), and 30% with Py-4-H. The overall reactivation rate constants were up to 5.0min(-1)M(-1). All oximes inhibited human AChE reversibly, and the inhibition potency increased in the following order Py-4-Brtabun-phosphorylated human AChE.

  6. THE EFFECTS OF OXIMES IN THE ASSAY OF ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN LYSED ERYTHROCYTES IN VITRO

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    M. Abdollahi.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus compounds are known to inhibit the esteratic site of acetylcholinesterase by phosphorylation. The phosphorylated esteratic site of acetylcholinesterase undergoes hydrolytic regeneration at a slow or negligible rate. Nucleophilic agents such as hydroxytamine, hydroxamic acids, and oximes reactivate the enzyme more erapidfy than does spontaneous hydrolysis. The red cell cholinesterose activity was assayed using dithio bis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB commonly known as Ellman's reagent. The principle of this assay method is the rate of hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine (substrate by a red celt suspension. Thiocholine that is produced, forms a yellow complex, when EUman's reagent (DTNB is used in the assay. This was tested in vitro in lysed erythrocyte samples of 35 healthy persons who had no known exposure to cholinesterose inhibitors, after the observation of immediate increase in absorption of light at 440 nm. All of data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and student t-test. A value of p<0.01 was considered. Results of this study show an increased absorbance in 440 nm, for pretreated samples with pratidoxime. This was observed by doses of (0.1, 0.5, 1,2 mmol, p<0.01. It was also a good dose dependent increase in absorbance at 440 nm for pralidoxime, (r=0.940, p<0.01. Also there is a significant increase in absorbance at 440 nm for samples pretreated by obidoxime at doses of (0.1, 0.5, 1,2 mmol. There is also a good correlation between absorbance at 440 nm and variou doses of obidoxime (r=0.946 , p<0.01. It is concluded that oximes can hydrofyzes the substrate, which then would be a source of error in determination of acetylcholinesterase activity and must be token into account.

  7. Oxime and atropine failure to prevent intermediate syndrome development in acute organophosphate poisoning

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    Vučinić Slavica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intermediate syndrome (IMS was described a few decades ago, however, there is still a controversy regarding its exact etiology, risk factors, diagnostic parameters and required therapy. Considering that acute poisonings are treated in different types of medical institutions this serious complication of organophosphate insecticide (OPI poisoning is frequently overlooked. The aim of this paper was to present a case of IMS in organophosphate poisoning, which, we believe, provides additional data on the use of oxime or atropine. Case report. After a well-resolved cholinergic crisis, the patient developed clinical presentation of IMS within the first 72 h from deliberate malathion ingestion. The signs of IMS were weakness of proximal limb muscles and muscles innervated by motor cranial nerves, followed by the weakness of respiratory muscles and serious respiratory insufficiency. Malathion and its active metabolite were confirmed by analytical procedure (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pralidoxime methylsulphate, adiministered as a continuous infusion until day 8 (total dose 38.4 g, and atropine until the day 10 (total dose 922 mg did not prevent the development of IMS, hence the mechanical ventilation that was stopped after 27 h had to be continued until the day 10. Conclusion. Continuous pralidoxime methylsulphate infusion with atropine did not prevent the development of IMS, most likely due to the delayed treatment and insufficient oxime dose but also because of chemical structure and lipophilicity of ingested OPI. A prolonged intensive care monitoring and respiratory care are the key management for the intermediate syndrome. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 176018, No. 46009

  8. Multilayered Thin Films from Poly(amido amine)s and DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hujaya, S.D.; Engbersen, J.F.J.; Paulusse, J.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Dip-coated multilayered thin films of poly(amido amine)s (PAAs) and DNA have been developed to provide surfaces with cell-transfecting capabilities. Three types of PAAs, differing in side chain functional groups, were synthesized and characterized for their properties in forming multilayered structu

  9. Accurate determination of aldehydes in amine catalysts or amines by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Bhajendra N

    2014-01-31

    Carbonyl compounds, specifically aldehydes, present in amine catalysts or amines are determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using ultraviolet detection of their corresponding 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones. The primary focus has been to establish optimum conditions for determining aldehydes accurately because these add exposure concerns when the amine catalysts are used to manufacture polyurethane products. Concentrations of aldehydes determined by this method are found to vary with the pH of the aqueous amine solution and the derivatization time, the latter being problematic when the derivatization reaction proceeds slowly and not to completion in neutral and basic media. Accurate determination of aldehydes in amines through derivatization can be carried out at an effective solution pH of about 2 and with derivatization time of 20min. Hydrochloric acid has been used for neutralization of an amine. For complete derivatization, it is essential to protonate all nitrogen atoms in the amine. An approach for the determination of an adequate amount of acid needed for complete derivatization has been described. Several 0.2M buffer solutions varying in pH from 4 to 8 have also been used to make amine solutions for carrying out derivatization of aldehydes. These solutions have effective pHs of 10 or higher and provide much lower aldehyde concentrations compared to their true values. Mechanisms for the formation of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones in both acidic and basic media are discussed.

  10. Reductive Amination of Aldehydes and Ketones with Primary Amines by Using Lithium Amidoborane as Reducing Reagent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐维亮; 郑学丽; 吴国涛; 陈萍

    2012-01-01

    A variety of secondary amines were obtained in high isolated yields in the reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones by using lithium amidoborane as reducing agent. Compared to ammonia borane, lithium amidoborane has higher reducibility, and thus, exhibits faster reaction rate.

  11. Energetics of Ortho-7 (oxime drug translocation through the active-site gorge of tabun conjugated acetylcholinesterase.

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    Vivek Sinha

    Full Text Available Oxime drugs translocate through the 20 Å active-site gorge of acetylcholinesterase in order to liberate the enzyme from organophosphorus compounds' (such as tabun conjugation. Here we report bidirectional steered molecular dynamics simulations of oxime drug (Ortho-7 translocation through the gorge of tabun intoxicated enzyme, in which time dependent external forces accelerate the translocation event. The simulations reveal the participation of drug-enzyme hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions and water bridges between them. Employing nonequilibrium theorems that recovers the free energy from irreversible work done, we reconstruct potential of mean force along the translocation pathway such that the desired quantity represents an unperturbed system. The potential locates the binding sites and barriers for the drug to translocate inside the gorge. Configurational entropic contribution of the protein-drug binding entity and the role of solvent translational mobility in the binding energetics is further assessed.

  12. Energetics of Ortho-7 (oxime drug) translocation through the active-site gorge of tabun conjugated acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Vivek; Ganguly, Bishwajit; Bandyopadhyay, Tusar

    2012-01-01

    Oxime drugs translocate through the 20 Å active-site gorge of acetylcholinesterase in order to liberate the enzyme from organophosphorus compounds' (such as tabun) conjugation. Here we report bidirectional steered molecular dynamics simulations of oxime drug (Ortho-7) translocation through the gorge of tabun intoxicated enzyme, in which time dependent external forces accelerate the translocation event. The simulations reveal the participation of drug-enzyme hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions and water bridges between them. Employing nonequilibrium theorems that recovers the free energy from irreversible work done, we reconstruct potential of mean force along the translocation pathway such that the desired quantity represents an unperturbed system. The potential locates the binding sites and barriers for the drug to translocate inside the gorge. Configurational entropic contribution of the protein-drug binding entity and the role of solvent translational mobility in the binding energetics is further assessed.

  13. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Thiophosphoryl Oximates Containing Thiazole and 1,2,3-Triazole Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU,Xiaofei; SHI,Deqing

    2009-01-01

    In order to find novel high activity and low toxicity agrochemicals,a series of novel thiophosphoryl oximates containing thiazole and 1,2,3-triazole rings 4 were synthesized by the reactions of 1-{1-[(2-chlorothiazol-5-y1)methyl]-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl}ethanone oxime with various asymmetric thiophosphoryl chlorides.Their structures were confn'med by IR,1H NMR,31P NMR,EI-MS and elemental analyses.The target compounds existed as E-configuration,which was deduced by NMR analysis and by comparison with their pyfidyl analog de-termined by X-ray diffraction.The results of preliminary bioassay indicate that some of title compounds possess moderate insecticidal and fungicidal activities.

  14. Effects of biogenic amines on the testicular development in mud crabs Scylla serrata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Haihui; HUANG Huiyang; LI Shaojing; WANG Guizhong; LI Qifu

    2006-01-01

    The regulation of three biogenic amines over the reproductive neuroendocrine activity of the male Scylla serrata was investigated by in vivo injection and in vitro incubation. The testicular index, the ratio of the mature sections in testes, and the ratio of Type B cells in androgenic gland were taken as the quantitative indexes. The in vivo injections indicated that: 5-HT can significantly promote the testicular development and the secretion of the androgenic gland in S. serrata; DA can inhibit the testicular development, but no influence on the secretion of the androgenic gland was found; no significant difference was observed between the OA-injected group and the concurrent control group. In vitro incubations showed that: 5-HT can stimulate the secretion of the brain and the thoracic ganglia, thus accelerating that of the androgenic gland; however, neither OA nor DA showed any significant influence on the secretion of the brain and the thoracic ganglionic mass. As to the optic ganglia, the three biogenic amines hardly have any effect on its secretion. It is the first time to report the regulation of biogenic amines over the reproductive neuroendocrine of male crustaceans through vitro experiments.Results corroborate that 5-HT activates the brain and the thoracic ganglia to secret GSH first, then promote the testicular development through the activity of the androgenic gland.

  15. CCN activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

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    X. Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical. The particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA and butylamine (BA reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ ≤ 0.25. Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3, contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA aerosol. TMA + N2O5 form semi-volatile organics in low RH conditions that have κ ~ 0.20, indicative of slightly soluble organic material. As RH increases, several inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR ideal mixing rules. Higher CCN activity (κ > 0.3 was also observed for humid BA+N2O5 aerosols compared with dry aerosol (κ ~ 0.2, as a result of the formation of inorganic salts such as NH4NO3 and butylamine nitrate (C4H11N · HNO3. Compared with TMA, BA+N2O5 reactions produce more volatile aerosols. The BA+N2O5 aerosol products under humid experiments were found to be very sensitive to the temperature within the stream-wise continuous flow thermal gradient CCN counter. The CCN counter, when set above a 21 °C temperature difference, evaporates BA+N2O5 aerosol formed at RH ≥ 30%; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 and is dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss settings. The aerosol behaves non-ideally, hence simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems κ ranges from 0.2 < κ < 0.7. This work indicates that

  16. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

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    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD, DAD detectors and Extend-C18 LC column (50 mm x 3.0 mm ID, 1.8 μm particle size. In this study the highest level of biogenic amine in all wine samples represent tryptamine (TRM with the highest content 170.9±5.3 mg/L in Pinot Blanc wine. Phenylalanine (PHE cadaverine (CAD, histamine (HIS and spermidine (SPD were not detected in all wines; mainly SPD was not detected in 16 wines, HIS not detected in 14 wines, PHE and CAD not detected in 2 wines. Tyramine (TYR, spermine (SPN and putrescine (PUT were detected in all wines, but PUT and SPN in very low concentration. The worst wine samples with high biogenic amine content were Saint Laurent (BF, Pinot Blanc (S and Pinot Noir (AF.

  17. Biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierina eVisciano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of biogenic amines in raw seafood. On the other hand, some food technological treatments such as salting, ripening, fermentation or marination can increase the levels of biogenic amines in processed seafood. The consumption of high amount of biogenic amines, above all histamine, can result in food borne poisoning which is a worldwide problem. The European Regulation established as maximum limits for histamine, in fishery products from fish species associated with high histidine amounts, values ranging from 100 to 200 mg/kg, while for products which have undergone enzyme maturation treatment in brine, the aforementioned limits rise to 200 and 400 mg/kg. Preventive measures and emerging methods aiming at controlling the production of biogenic amines are also reported for potential application in seafood industries.

  18. Microwave Promoted Regeneration of Carbonyl Compounds from Oximes Using N, N-Dichloro Poly(Styrene-co-divinylbenzeneSulphonamide Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Beldar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient, economically viable and operationally simple method was developed for deoximation of oximes (of ketones and aldehydes to their corresponding carbonyl compounds using polymer beads of N, N-dichloro poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzenesulphonamide resin. Polymeric reagent offered speedy conversion and substantial yields of products under mild condition and is recyclable. Deoximation was monitored by the use of 13C NMR.

  19. Inhibition, recovery and oxime-induced reactivation of muscle esterases following chlorpyrifos exposure in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collange, B. [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 Abeilles et Environnement, Site AGROPARC, F-84914, Avignon Cede 09 (France); Wheelock, C.E. [Division of Physiological Chemistry II, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77, Stockholm (Sweden); Rault, M.; Mazzia, C. [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 Abeilles et Environnement, Site AGROPARC, F-84914, Avignon Cede 09 (France); Capowiez, Y. [INRA, Unite PSH, Site AGROPARC, F-84914 Avignon Cedex 09 (France); Sanchez-Hernandez, J.C., E-mail: juancarlos.sanchez@uclm.e [Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Environmental Science, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III s/n, 45071, Toledo (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    Assessment of wildlife exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides generally involves the measurement of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition, and complementary biomarkers (or related endpoints) are rarely included. Herein, we investigated the time course inhibition and recovery of ChE and carboxylesterase (CE) activities in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris exposed to chlorpyrifos, and the ability of oximes to reactivate the phosphorylated ChE activity. Results indicated that these esterase activities are a suitable multibiomarker scheme for monitoring OP exposure due to their high sensitivity to OP inhibition and slow recovery to full activity levels following pesticide exposure. Moreover, oximes reactivated the inhibited ChE activity of the earthworms exposed to 12 and 48 mg kg{sup -1} chlorpyrifos during the first week following pesticide exposure. This methodology is useful for providing evidence for OP-mediated ChE inhibition in individuals with a short history of OP exposure (<=1 week); resulting a valuable approach for assessing multiple OP exposure episodes in the field. - Esterase inhibition combined with oxime reactivation methods is a suitable approach for monitoring organophosphate contamination

  20. Pseudocatalytic scavenging of the nerve agent VX with human blood components and the oximes obidoxime and HI-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Timo; von der Wellen, Jens; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz

    2017-03-01

    Despite six decades of extensive research in medical countermeasures against nerve agent poisoning, a broad spectrum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator is not yet available. One current approach is directed toward synthesizing oximes with high affinity and reactivatability toward butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in plasma to generate an effective pseudocatalytic scavenger. An interim solution could be the administration of external AChE or BChE from blood products to augment pseudocatalytic scavenging with slower but clinically approved oximes to decrease nerve agent concentrations in the body. We here semiquantitatively investigate the ability of obidoxime and HI-6 to decrease the inhibitory activity of VX with human AChE and BChE from whole blood, erythrocyte membranes, erythrocytes, plasma, clinically available fresh frozen plasma and packed red blood cells. The main findings are that whole blood showed a VX concentration-dependent decrease in inhibitory activity with HI-6 being more potent than obidoxime. Using erythrocytes and erythrocyte membranes again, HI-6 was more potent compared to obidoxime. With freshly prepared plasma, obidoxime and HI-6 showed comparable results for the decrease in VX. The use of the clinically available blood products revealed that packed red blood cells showed similar kinetics as fresh erythrocytes. Fresh frozen plasma resulted in a slower and incomplete decrease in inhibitory plasma compared to freshly prepared plasma. In conclusion, the administration of blood products in combination with available oximes augments pseudocatalytic scavenging and might be useful to decrease the body load of persistent, highly toxic nerve agents.

  1. Natural infections of Crenosoma vulpis and Angiostrongylus vasorum in dogs in Atlantic Canada and their treatment with milbemycin oxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conboy, G

    2004-07-03

    Milbemycin oxime was used to treat dogs with natural infections of the fox lungworm, Crenosoma vulpis and the French heartworm, Angiostrongylus vasorum. Crenosomosis was identified in 42 of 202 dogs with clinical signs of coughing, dyspnoea or exercise intolerance by a Baermann analysis of faecal samples taken between October 2000 and October 2001. It occurred throughout Atlantic Canada (New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island). The clinical signs resolved and shedding of larvae in faeces ceased in all 32 Crenosoma-infected dogs given a single oral dose of 0.5 mg/kg milbemycin oxime for which the results of faecal examinations were available. Angiostrongylosis was identified in 16 of the 202 dogs and was restricted to the Avalon peninsula of Newfoundland, where 67 dogs were tested. The clinical signs resolved and shedding of larvae ceased in 14 of the 16 dogs treated with four, weekly oral doses of 0.5 mg/kg milbemycin oxime. One dog with severe clinical signs died during the course of treatment and one owner failed to provide a faecal sample from their dog but reported that the clinical signs had resolved.

  2. Kinetic analysis of interactions of paraoxon and oximes with human, Rhesus monkey, swine, rabbit, rat and guinea pig acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Aurbek, Nadine; Wille, Timo; Eyer, Peter; Thiermann, Horst

    2011-01-15

    Previous in vitro studies showed marked species differences in the reactivating efficiency of oximes between human and animal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibited by organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. These findings provoked the present in vitro study which was designed to determine the inhibition, aging, spontaneous and oxime-induced reactivation kinetics of the pesticide paraoxon, serving as a model compound for diethyl-OP, and the oximes obidoxime, pralidoxime, HI 6 and MMB-4 with human, Rhesus monkey, swine, rabbit, rat and guinea pig erythrocyte AChE. Comparable results were obtained with human and monkey AChE. Differences between human, swine, rabbit, rat and guinea pig AChE were determined for the inhibition and reactivation kinetics. A six-fold difference of the inhibitory potency of paraoxon with human and guinea pig AChE was recorded while only moderate differences of the reactivation constants between human and animal AChE were determined. Obidoxime was by far the most effective reactivator with all tested species. Only minor species differences were found for the aging and spontaneous reactivation kinetics. The results of the present study underline the necessity to determine the inhibition, aging and reactivation kinetics in vitro as a basis for the development of meaningful therapeutic animal models, for the proper assessment of in vivo animal data and for the extrapolation of animal data to humans.

  3. Detoxification of tabun at physiological pH mediated by substituted β-cyclodextrin and glucose derivatives containing oxime groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhuber, Florian; Zengerle, Michael; Porwol, Luzian; Tenberken, Oliver; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; Kubik, Stefan; Reiter, Georg

    2012-12-16

    The ability of 13 β-cyclodextrin and 2 glucose derivatives containing substituents with oxime groups as nucleophilic components to accelerate the degradation of tabun at physiological pH has been evaluated. To this end, a qualitative and a quantitative enzymatic assay as well as a highly sensitive enantioselective GC-MS assay were used. In addition, an assay was developed that provided information about the mode of action of the investigated compounds. The results show that attachment of pyridinium-derived substituents with an aldoxime group in 3- or 4-position to a β-cyclodextrin ring affords active compounds mediating tabun degradation. Activities differ depending on the structure, the number, and the position of the substituent on the ring. Highest activity was observed for a β-cyclodextrin containing a 4-formylpyridinium oxime residue in 6-position of one glucose subunit, which detoxifies tabun with a half-time of 10.2 min. Comparison of the activity of this compound with that of an analog in which the cyclodextrin ring was replaced by a glucose residue demonstrated that the cyclodextrin is not necessary for activity but certainly beneficial. Finally, the results provide evidence that the mode of action of the cyclodextrin involves covalent modification of its oxime group rendering the scavenger inactive after reaction with the first tabun molecule.

  4. Oxime amides as a novel zinc binding group in histone deacetylase inhibitors: synthesis, biological activity, and computational evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Cinzia B; Cabri, Walter; Cini, Elena; De Cesare, Lucia; Fattorusso, Caterina; Giannini, Giuseppe; Persico, Marco; Petrella, Antonello; Rondinelli, Francesca; Rodriquez, Manuela; Russo, Adele; Taddei, Maurizio

    2011-04-14

    Several oxime containing molecules, characterized by a SAHA-like structure, were explored to select a potentially new biasing binding element for the zinc in HDAC catalytic site. All compounds were evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory activity against the 11 human HDACs isoforms. After identification of a "hit" molecule, a programmed variation at the cap group and at the linker was carried out in order to increase HDAC inhibition and/or paralogue selectivity. Some of the new derivatives showed increased activity against a number of HDAC isoforms, even if their overall activity range is still far from the inhibition values reported for SAHA. Moreover, different from what was reported for their hydroxamic acid analogues the new α-oxime amide derivatives do not select between class I and class II HDACs; rather they target specific isoforms in each class. These somehow contradictory results were finally rationalized by a computational assisted SAR, which gave us the chance to understand how the oxime derivatives interact with the catalytic site and justify the observed activity profile.

  5. Synthesis of Novel Oxime Sulfonate Derivatives of 2'(2',6')-(Di)chloropicropodophyllotoxins as Insecticidal Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Li, Jie; Xu, Hui

    2015-08-05

    To discover novel natural-product-based pesticidal agents, we prepared a series of oxime sulfonate derivatives of 2'(2',6')-(Di)chloropicropodophyllotoxins by structural modification of podophyllotoxin. Their structures were well-characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), optical rotation, and melting point. Moreover, the key steric structure of compound 5f was unambiguously determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Additionally, their insecticidal activity was evaluated at 1 mg/mL against the pre-third-instar larvae of oriental armyworm (Mythimna separata Walker), a typical lepidopteran pest. Among all derivatives, compounds 4c, 5c, and 5d exhibited more promising insecticidal activity, with the final mortality rates greater than 60%, when compared to their precursor podophyllotoxin and the positive control, toosendanin. It demonstrated that introduction of the chlorine atom at the C-2' or C-2',6' position on the E ring of picropodophyllotoxin or oxime sulfonate derivatives of picropodophyllotoxin was important for the insecticidal activity and introduction of a halogen (e.g., fluorine, chlorine, or bromine) atom-substituted phenylsulfonyl group on the oxime fragment of 2'(2',6')-(di)chloropicropodophyllones could lead to more promising compounds.

  6. Amine permeation sources characterized with acid neutralization and sensitivities of an amine mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshour, N. A.; Carlson, K. K.; Melka, Y. A.; Hinz, S.; Panta, B.; Hanson, D. R.

    2014-10-01

    An acid titration method for quantifying amine permeation rates was used to calibrate an Ambient pressure Proton transfer Mass Spectrometer (AmPMS) that monitors ambient amine compounds. The method involves capturing amines entrained in a N2 flow by bubbling it through an acidified solution (~10-5 M HCl), and the amines are quantified via changes in solution pH with time. Home-made permeation tubes had permeation rates (typically tens of pmol s-1) that depended on the type of amine and tubing and on temperature. Calibrations of AmPMS yielded sensitivities for ammonia, methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine that are close to the sensitivity assuming a gas-kinetic, ion-molecule rate coefficient. The permeation tubes were also designed to deliver a reproducible amount of amine to a flow reactor where nucleation with sulfuric acid was studied. The high proton affinity compound dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), linked to oceanic environments, was also studied and AmPMS is highly sensitive to it. AmPMS was deployed recently in two field campaigns and, using these sensitivities, mixing ratios for ammonia and the alkyl amines are derived from the signals. Correlations between these species and with particle formation events are discussed.

  7. The role of FDG-PET, HMPAO-SPET and MRI in the detection of brain involvement in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao Chiahung [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Lan Jungliang [Division of Rheumatology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); ChangLai Shengping [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chung-Shan Medical and Dental College, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Liao Kokaung [Electron Microscopic Laboratory, Chung-Shan Medical and Dental College, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Yen Rouhfang; Chieng Poonung [Department of Nuclear Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1999-02-01

    Involvement of the brain is one of the most important complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); however, its diagnosis is difficult due to the lack of effective imaging methods. We combined three brain imaging modalities - positron emission tomography with fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG-PET), single-photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO-SPET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - in order to detect brain involvement in SLE. Thirty-seven SLE patients, aged 22-45 years, were divided into three groups. Group 1 (G1) consisted of ten patients with major neuropsychiatric manifestations; group 2 (G2) consisted of 15 patients with minor manifestations; and group 3 (G3) consisted of 12 patients without manifestations. FDG-PET findings were abnormal in 51% of patients: 90% of G1, 67% of G2 and 0% of G3 patients respectively. HMPAO-SPET findings were abnormal in 62% of patients: 100% of G1, 73% of G2 and 17% of G3 patients respectively. MRI findings were abnormal in 35% of patients: 70% of G1, 40% of G2 and 0% of G3 patients respectively. Grey matter was more commonly involved than white matter; 62% of patients presented with lesions in the cerebral cortex, 27% with lesions in the basal ganglion, 5% with lesions in the cerebellum, and 19% with lesions in white matter. No white matter lesions were found on FDG-PET or HMPAO-SPET. However, in 19% of patients, MRI demonstrated abnormally high signal lesions in white matter. Forty-three percent of cases had positive serum anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA). However, ACA was not related to FDG-PET, HMPAO-SPET or MRI findings. It may be concluding that HMPAO-SPET is a more sensitive tool for detecting brain involvement in SLE patients when compared with FDG-PET or MRI. However, MRI is necessary for detecting lesions in white matter. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 46 refs.

  8. Interaction between hypocrellin and aliphatic amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曼华; 陈申; 夏万林; 蒋丽金; 陈德文

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of hypocrellin, including hypocrellin A (HA) and hypocrellin B (HB), with aliphatic amines in deaerated solutions has been studied by ESR and nanosecond transient absorption spectra. In polar solvents, the acid-base interaction between hypocrellin and amines was observed without irradiation. The signals of semiquinone radical anions of hypocrellm and the spin-trapping adduct of α-phenyl-N-tertbutyl-ratrone (PNB) with the aminoalkyl radicals have been detected in photoinduced ESR studies. The transient absorption of excited triplet state of HA and semiquinone radical anion of HA have been observed in laser flash photolysis studies.

  9. Enantioselective catalytic syntheses of alpha-branched chiral amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brase, S.; Baumann, T.; Dahmen, S.

    2007-01-01

    Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials.......Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials....

  10. Modulation of biogenic amines content by poly(propylene imine) dendrimers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepluch, Karol; Ziemba, Barbara; Janaszewska, Anna; Appelhans, Dietmar; Klajnert, Barbara; Bryszewska, Maria; Fogel, Wiesława Agnieszka

    2012-09-01

    Biogenic amines and polyamines participate in all vital organism functions, their levels being important function determinants. Studies were performed to check whether repeated administration of poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers, synthetic macromolecules with diaminobutane core, and peripheral primary amine groups, may influence the endogenous level of amines, as represented by the two of them: spermidine, a natural derivative of diaminobutane, and histamine. The experiment was carried out on Wistar rats. Fourth generation PPI dendrimer, as well as maltotriose-modified fourth generation PPI dendrimers with (a) cationic open sugar shell and (b) neutral dense sugar shell that possess a higher biocompatibility, was used. Applying the combination of column chromatography on Cellex P and spectrofluorimetric assays of o-phthaldialdehyde, the final amine condensation products were employed to analyze tissue spermidine and histamine outside the central nervous system. Furthermore, radioenzymatic assay was used to measure histamine levels in the brain. The obtained results indicate that in some tissues, the endogenous concentrations of histamine and spermidine may be affected by dendrimers depending on their dose and type of dendrimers.

  11. NTP Toxicity Studies of Cyclohexanone Oxime Administered by Drinking Water to B6C3F1 Mice (CAS No. 100-64-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Cyclohexanone oxime is used primarily as a captive intermediate in the synthesis of caprolactam for the production of polycaprolactam (Nylon-6) fibers and plastics and also in a variety of industrial applications. Cyclohexanone oxime was selected for study because of the potential for human exposure and the interest in oximes as a chemical class. Toxicity studies of cyclohexanone oxime (approximately 99% pure) were carried out in male and female B6C3F1 mice; the compound was administered in drinking water for 2 weeks or 13 weeks. In addition, the genetic toxicity of cyclohexanone oxime was evaluated by determining mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium and induction of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro, with and without S9 activation. The frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of mice from the 13-week study was also determined. In the 2-week study, groups of five male and five female mice were given drinking water containing 0, 106, 312, 625, 1,250, or 2,500 ppm cyclohexanone oxime. No deaths occurred, and there was no decrease in weight gain in any group. No gross lesions were observed; there were significant increases in relative spleen weights of males and females in the 2,500 ppm group and increases in the relative liver weight of male mice exposed to 312 ppm or greater. In the 13-week studies, groups of 10 male and 10 female mice were given drinking water containing 625, 1,250, 2,500, 5,000 or 10,000 ppm cyclohexanone oxime. Deaths occurred in the 10,000 ppm groups and weight gain was depressed in males and females given 10,000 ppm and in females given 5,000 ppm. There were significant increases in relative spleen weight at exposure levels of 5,000 and 10,000 ppm and significant increases in the relative liver weights of males and females that received 10,000 ppm. Microscopically, hematopoietic cell proliferation was observed in the spleen of males and females in

  12. Tertiary amines nucleophilicity in quaternization reaction with benzyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia S. Yutilova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quaternization reaction of tertiary amines with benzyl chloride was investigated. Reaction orders with respect to the reactants were determined. Kinetic scheme of quaternization reaction was found to be corresponding to reversible process. An influence of amines basicity and steric factor of alkyl substituent bound to the nitrogen atom on tertiary amines reactivity as nucleophiles was studied. It was shown that the rate constants of direct reaction step may serve as a measure of nucleophilicity of amines.

  13. A comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy of leading oxime therapies in guinea pigs exposed to organophosphorus chemical warfare agents or pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Christina M., E-mail: wilhelmc@battelle.org [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Snider, Thomas H., E-mail: snidert@battelle.org [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Babin, Michael C., E-mail: babinm@battelle.org [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Jett, David A., E-mail: jettd@ninds.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Platoff, Gennady E., E-mail: platoffg@niaid.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Yeung, David T., E-mail: dy70v@nih.gov [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The currently fielded pre-hospital therapeutic regimen for the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning in the United States (U.S.) is the administration of atropine in combination with an oxime antidote (2-PAM Cl) to reactivate inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Depending on clinical symptoms, an anticonvulsant, e.g., diazepam, may also be administered. Unfortunately, 2-PAM Cl does not offer sufficient protection across the range of OP threat agents, and there is some question as to whether it is the most effective oxime compound available. The objective of the present study is to identify an oxime antidote, under standardized and comparable conditions, that offers protection at the FDA approved human equivalent dose (HED) of 2-PAM Cl against tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), cyclosarin (GF), and VX, and the pesticides paraoxon, chlorpyrifos oxon, and phorate oxon. Male Hartley guinea pigs were subcutaneously challenged with a lethal level of OP and treated at approximately 1 min post challenge with atropine followed by equimolar oxime therapy (2-PAM Cl, HI-6 DMS, obidoxime Cl{sub 2}, TMB-4, MMB4-DMS, HLö-7 DMS, MINA, and RS194B) or therapeutic-index (TI) level therapy (HI-6 DMS, MMB4-DMS, MINA, and RS194B). Clinical signs of toxicity were observed for 24 h post challenge and blood cholinesterase [AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)] activity was analyzed utilizing a modified Ellman's method. When the oxime is standardized against the HED of 2-PAM Cl for guinea pigs, the evidence from clinical observations, lethality, quality of life (QOL) scores, and cholinesterase reactivation rates across all OPs indicated that MMB4 DMS and HLö-7 DMS were the two most consistently efficacious oximes. - Highlights: • First comprehensive evaluation of leading AChE oxime reactivators • All oximes are compared against current U.S. therapy 2-PAM Cl. • Relative therapeutic oxime efficacies against OP CWNA and pesticides • Contribution to more effective

  14. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of pyridinium oximes: mode of interaction with acetylcholinesterase, effect on tabun- and soman-poisoned mice and their cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calić, Maja; Vrdoljak, Ana Lucić; Radić, Bozica; Jelić, Dubravko; Jun, Daniel; Kuca, Kamil; Kovarik, Zrinka

    2006-02-15

    The increased concern about terrorist use of nerve agents prompted us to search for new more effective oximes against tabun and soman poisoning. We investigated the interactions of five bispyridinium oximes: K027 [1-(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-3-(4-carbamoylpyridinium) propane dibromide], K048 [1-(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-4-(4-carbamoylpyridinium) butane dibromide], K033 [1,4-bis(2-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium) butane dibromide], TMB-4 [1,3-bis(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium) propane dibromide] and HI-6 [(1-(2-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-3-(4-carbamoylpyridinium)-2-oxapropane dichloride)] with human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE; E.C. 3.1.1.7) and their effects on tabun- and soman-poisoned mice. All the oximes reversibly inhibited AChE, and the enzyme-oxime dissociation constants were between 17 and 180 microM. Tabun-inhibited AChE was completely reactivated by TMB-4, K027 and K048, with the overall reactivation rate constants of 306, 376 and 673 min(-1)M(-1), respectively. The reactivation of tabun-inhibited AChE by K033 reached 50% after 24h, while HI-6 failed to reactivate any AChE at all. Soman-inhibited AChE was resistant to reactivation by 1mM oximes. All studied oximes protected AChE from phosphorylation with both soman and tabun. In vivo experiments showed that the studied oximes were relatively toxic to mice; K033 was the most toxic (LD50=33.4 mg/kg), while K027 was the least toxic (LD50=672.8 mg/kg). The best antidotal efficacy was obtained with K048, K027 and TMB-4 for tabun poisoning, and HI-6 for soman poisoning. Moreover, all tested oximes showed no cytotoxic effect on several cell lines in concentrations up to 0.8mM. The potency of the oximes K048 and K027 to protect mice from five-fold LD50 of tabun and their low toxicity make these compounds leading in the therapy of tabun poisoning. The combination of HI-6 and atropine is the therapy of choice for soman poisoning.

  15. Linear Free Energy Relationship Analysis of Transition State Mimicry by 3-Deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate (DAHP) Oxime, a DAHP Synthase Inhibitor and Phosphate Mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Naresh; To, Frederick; Berti, Paul J

    2017-01-31

    3-Deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase catalyzes an aldol-like reaction of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) with erythrose 4-phosphate (E4P) to form DAHP in the first step of the shikimate biosynthetic pathway. DAHP oxime, in which an oxime replaces the ketone, is a potent inhibitor, with Ki = 1.5 μM. Linear free energy relationship (LFER) analysis of DAHP oxime inhibition using DAHP synthase mutants revealed an excellent correlation between transition state stabilization and inhibition. The equations of LFER analysis were rederived to formalize the possibility of proportional, rather than equal, changes in the free energies of transition state stabilization and inhibitor binding, in accord with the fact that the majority of LFER analyses in the literature demonstrate nonunity slopes. A slope of unity, m = 1, indicates that catalysis and inhibitor binding are equally sensitive to perturbations such as mutations or modified inhibitor/substrate structures. Slopes 1 indicate that inhibitor binding is less sensitive or more sensitive, respectively, to perturbations than is catalysis. LFER analysis using the tetramolecular specificity constant, that is, plotting log(KM,MnKM,PEPKM,E4P/kcat) versus log(Ki), revealed a slope, m, of 0.34, with r(2) = 0.93. This provides evidence that DAHP oxime is mimicking the first irreversible transition state of the DAHP synthase reaction, presumably phosphate departure from the tetrahedral intermediate. This is evidence that the oxime group can act as a functional, as well as structural, mimic of phosphate groups.

  16. A comparison of neuroprotective efficacy of two novel reactivators of acetylcholinesterase called K920 and K923 with the oxime K203 and trimedoxime in tabun-poisoned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Misik, Jan; Hatlapatkova, Jana; Zdarova Karasova, Jana

    2017-01-22

    The ability of two newly developed bispyridinium oximes (K920, K923) to reduce tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was compared with the oxime K203 and trimedoxime using a functional observational battery (FOB). The neuroprotective effects of the oximes studied combined with atropine on rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (130 μg/kg i.m.; 80% of LD50 value) were evaluated. Tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored by FOB at 2 h after tabun administration. The results indicate that all tested oximes combined with atropine enable tabun-poisoned rats to survive till the end of experiment while one non-treated tabun-poisoned rat died within 2 h. Both newly developed oximes (K920, K923) combined with atropine were able to markedly decrease tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of sublethal poisoning although they did not eliminate all tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms. Their ability to decrease tabun-induced acute neurotoxicity did not prevail the neuroprotective efficacy of trimedoxime and the oxime K203. Therefore, the newly developed oximes are not suitable for the replacement of currently available oximes (especially trimedoxime) in the treatment of acute tabun poisonings.

  17. Amine-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes protect neurons from injury in a rat stroke model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Park, Jiae; Yoon, Ok Ja; Kim, Hyun Woo; Lee, Do Yeon; Kim, Do Hee; Lee, Won Bok; Lee, Nae-Eung; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Kim, Sung Su

    2011-02-01

    Stroke results in the disruption of tissue architecture and is the third leading cause of death in the United States. Transplanting scaffolds containing stem cells into the injured areas of the brain has been proposed as a treatment strategy, and carbon nanotubes show promise in this regard, with positive outcomes when used as scaffolds in neural cells and brain tissues. Here, we show that pretreating rats with amine-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes can protect neurons and enhance the recovery of behavioural functions in rats with induced stroke. Treated rats showed less tissue damage than controls and took longer to fall from a rotating rod, suggesting better motor functions after injury. Low levels of apoptotic, angiogenic and inflammation markers indicated that amine-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes protected the brains of treated rats from ischaemic injury.

  18. Catalytic Amination of Alcohols, Aldehydes, and Ketones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyuev, M. V.; Khidekel', M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Data on the catalytic amination of alcohols and carbonyl compounds are examined, the catalysts for these processes are described, and the problems of their effectiveness, selectivity, and stability are discussed. The possible mechanisms of the reactions indicated are presented. The bibliography includes 266 references.

  19. Fate and biodegradability of sulfonated aromatic amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, N.C.G.; Leeuwen, van A.; Voorthuizen, van E.M.; Slenders, P.; Prenafeta, F.X.; Temmink, H.; Lettinga, G.; Field, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Ten sulfonated aromatic amines were tested for their aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity potential in a variety of environmental inocula. Of all the compounds tested, only two aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ABS) isomers, 2- and 4-ABS, were degraded. The observed degradation occurred only

  20. Peptide-functionalized oxime hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties and gelation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fei; Yu, Jiayi; Tang, Wen; Zheng, Jukuan; Defante, Adrian; Guo, Kai; Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Becker, Matthew L

    2013-10-14

    We demonstrate the formation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) based hydrogels via oxime ligation and the photoinitiated thiol-ene 3D patterning of peptides within the hydrogel matrix postgelation. The gelation process and final mechanical strength of the hydrogels can be tuned using pH and the catalyst concentration. The time scale to reach the gel point and complete gelation can be shortened from hours to seconds using both pH and aniline catalyst, which facilitates the tuning of the storage modulus from 0.3 to over 15 kPa. Azide- and alkene-functionalized hydrogels were also synthesized, and we have shown the post gelation "click"-type Huisgen 1,3 cycloaddition and thiolene-based radical reactions for spatially defined peptide incorporation. These materials are the initial demonstration for translationally relevant hydrogel materials that possess tunable mechanical regimes attractive to soft tissue engineering and possess atom neutral chemistries attractive for post gelation patterning in the presence or absence of cells.

  1. Reactivation of tabun-hAChE investigated by structurally analogous oximes and mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artursson, Elisabet; Akfur, Christine; Hörnberg, Andreas; Worek, Franz; Ekström, Fredrik

    2009-11-30

    The nerve agent tabun inhibits the essential enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by a rapid phosphoramidation of the catalytic serine residue. Oximes, such as K027 and HLö-7, can reactivate tabun-inhibited human AChE (tabun-hAChE) whereas the activity of their close structural analogue HI-6 is notably low. To investigate HI-6, K027 and HLö-7, residues lining the active-site gorge of hAChE were substituted and the effects on kinetic parameters for reactivation were determined. None of the mutants (Asp74Asn, Asp74Glu, Tyr124Phe, Tyr337Ala, Tyr337Phe, Phe338Val and Tyr341Ala) were able to facilitate HI-6-mediated reactivation of tabun-hAChE. In contrast, Tyr124Phe and Tyr337Phe induce a 2-2.5-fold enhancement of the bimolecular rate constant for K027 and HLö-7. The largest effects on the dissociation constant (3.5-fold increase) and rate constant (20-fold decrease) were observed for Tyr341Ala and Asp74Asn, respectively. These findings demonstrate the importance of residues located distant from the conjugate during the reactivation of tabun-hAChE.

  2. Effect of administered radioactive dose level on image quality of brain perfusion imaging with 99mTc-HMPAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Armeniakos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain perfusion imaging by means of 99mTc-labeled hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (HMPAO is a well-established Nuclear Medicine diagnostic procedure. The administered dose range recommended by the supplying company and reported in bibliography is rather wide (approximately 9.5-27 mCi. This fact necessitates further quantitative analysis of the technique, so as to minimise patient absorbed dose without compromising the examination diagnostic value. In this study, a quantitative evaluation of the radiopharmaceutical performance for different values of administered dose (10, 15, 20 mCi was carried out. Subsequently, a generic image quality index was correlated with the administered dose, to produce an overall performance indicator. Through this cost-to-benefit type analysis, the necessity of administration of higher radioactive dose levels in order to perform the specific diagnostic procedure was examined.Materials & methods: The study was based on a sample of 78 patients (56 administered with 10 mCi, 10 with 15 mCi and 12 with 20 mCi. Some patients were classified as normal, while others presented various forms of pathology. Evaluation of image quality was based on contrast, noise and contrast-to-noise ratio indicators, denoted CI, NI and CNR respectively. Calculation of all indicators was based on wavelet transform. An overall performance indicator (denoted PI, produced by the ratio of CNR by administered dose, was also calculated.Results: Calculation of skewness parameter revealed the normality of CI, NI and non-normality of CNR, PI populations. Application of appropriate statistical tests (analysis of variance for normal and Kruskal-Wallis test for non-normal populations showed that there is a statistically significant difference in CI (p0.05 values. Application of Tukey test for normal populations CI, NI led to the conclusion that CI(10 mCi = CI(20 mCiNI(20 mCi, while NI(15 mCi can not be characterised. Finally, application of non

  3. CCN activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X.; Price, D.; Praske, E.; Vu, D.; Purvis-Roberts, K.; Silva, P. J.; Cocker, D. R., III; Asa-Awuku, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA) and butylamine (BA) reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH) is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ ≤ 0.25). Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA) with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3), contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA) aerosol. TMA + N2O5 form semi-volatile organics in low RH conditions that have κ ~ 0.20, indicative of slightly soluble organic material. As RH increases, several inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR) ideal mixing rules. Higher CCN activity (κ > 0.3) was also observed for humid BA+N2O5 aerosols compared with dry aerosol (κ ~ 0.2), as a result of the formation of inorganic salts such as NH4NO3 and butylamine nitrate (C4H11N · HNO3). Compared with TMA, BA+N2O5 reactions produce more volatile aerosols. The BA+N2O5 aerosol products under humid experiments were found to be very sensitive to the temperature within the stream-wise continuous flow thermal gradient CCN counter. The CCN counter, when set above a 21 °C temperature difference, evaporates BA+N2O5 aerosol formed at RH ≥ 30%; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 and is dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss) settings. The aerosol behaves non-ideally, hence simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems κ ranges from 0.2 systems.

  4. A novel l-amino acid ionic liquid for quick and highly efficient synthesis of oxime derivatives – An environmental benign approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parasuraman Karthikeyan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A mild, efficient, and eco-friendly procedure for the conversion of aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic carbonyl compounds into the corresponding oximes, was catalyzed by a novel imidazolium based ionic liquid coupled with amino acid (asparagine (l-AAIL, l-Amino acid functionalized ionic liquid catalytic system. The quantitative conversion of aryl and alkyl carbonyl compounds into the corresponding oximes was achieved by simply grinding at ambient temperature using 0.05 mmol of catalyst in 50 s. In addition, this L-AAIL catalyst exhibited good reusability for five consecutive trials without significant loss of its catalytic activity.

  5. The Evaluation of the Potency of Newly Developed Oximes (K727, K733) and Trimedoxime to Counteract Acute Neurotoxic Effects of Tabun in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří Kassa; Jana Hatlapatková; Jana Žďárová Karasová

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The ability of two newly developed oximes (K727, K733) to reduce tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was evaluated and compared with currently available trimedoxime in rats. Methods: The neuroprotective effects of the oximes studied combined with atropine on Wistar rats poisoned with tabun at a lethal dose (380 μg/kg i.m.; 90% of LD50 value) were evaluated. Tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored by the functional observational battery consisting of 38 measurements of sen...

  6. Development of a general non-noble metal catalyst for the benign amination of alcohols with amines and ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xinjiang; Dai, Xingchao; Deng, Youquan; Shi, Feng

    2013-03-11

    The N-alkylation of amines or ammonia with alcohols is a valuable route for the synthesis of N-alkyl amines. However, as a potentially clean and economic choice for N-alkyl amine synthesis, non-noble metal catalysts with high activity and good selectivity are rarely reported. Normally, they are severely limited due to low activity and poor generality. Herein, a simple NiCuFeOx catalyst was designed and prepared for the N-alkylation of ammonia or amines with alcohol or primary amines. N-alkyl amines with various structures were successfully synthesized in moderate to excellent yields in the absence of organic ligands and bases. Typically, primary amines could be efficiently transformed into secondary amines and N-heterocyclic compounds, and secondary amines could be N-alkylated to synthesize tertiary amines. Note that primary and secondary amines could be produced through a one-pot reaction of ammonia and alcohols. In addition to excellent catalytic performance, the catalyst itself possesses outstanding superiority, that is, it is air and moisture stable. Moreover, the magnetic property of this catalyst makes it easily separable from the reaction mixture and it could be recovered and reused for several runs without obvious deactivation.

  7. Catalytic dehydrogenation of amine borane complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajeri, Nahid (Inventor); Tabatabaie-Raissi, Ali (Inventor); Bokerman, Gary (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method of generating hydrogen includes the steps of providing an amine borane (AB) complex, at least one hydrogen generation catalyst, and a solvent, and mixing these components Hydrogen is generated. The hydrogen produced is high purity hydrogen suitable for PEM fuel cells. A hydrolytic in-situ hydrogen generator includes a first compartment that contains an amine borane (AB) complex, a second container including at least one hydrogen generation catalyst, wherein the first or second compartment includes water or other hydroxyl group containing solvent. A connecting network permits mixing contents in the first compartment with contents in the second compartment, wherein high purity hydrogen is generated upon mixing. At least one flow controller is provided for controlling a flow rate of the catalyst or AB complex.

  8. Organic chemistry. Strain-release amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianatassio, Ryan; Lopchuk, Justin M; Wang, Jie; Pan, Chung-Mao; Malins, Lara R; Prieto, Liher; Brandt, Thomas A; Collins, Michael R; Gallego, Gary M; Sach, Neal W; Spangler, Jillian E; Zhu, Huichin; Zhu, Jinjiang; Baran, Phil S

    2016-01-15

    To optimize drug candidates, modern medicinal chemists are increasingly turning to an unconventional structural motif: small, strained ring systems. However, the difficulty of introducing substituents such as bicyclo[1.1.1]pentanes, azetidines, or cyclobutanes often outweighs the challenge of synthesizing the parent scaffold itself. Thus, there is an urgent need for general methods to rapidly and directly append such groups onto core scaffolds. Here we report a general strategy to harness the embedded potential energy of effectively spring-loaded C-C and C-N bonds with the most oft-encountered nucleophiles in pharmaceutical chemistry, amines. Strain-release amination can diversify a range of substrates with a multitude of desirable bioisosteres at both the early and late stages of a synthesis. The technique has also been applied to peptide labeling and bioconjugation.

  9. Sonophotocatalytic Degradation of Amines in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verman, Mayank; Pankaj

    Hazardous effects of various amines, produced in the environment from the partial degradation of azo dyes and amino acids, adversely affect the quality of human life through water, soil and air pollution and therefore needed to be degraded. A number of such studies are already available in the literature, with or without the use of ultrasound, which have been summarized briefly. The sonochemical degradation of amines and in the combination with a photocatalyst, TiO2 has also been discussed. Similar such degradation studies for ethylamine (EA), aniline (A), diphenylamine (DPA) and naphthylamine (NA) in the presence of ultrasound, TiO2 and rare earths (REs); La, Pr, Nd, Sm and Gd, in aqueous solutions at 20 kHz and 250 W power have been carried out and reported, to examine the combinatorial efficacy of ultrasound in the presence of a photocatalyst and rare earth ions with reactive f-electrons.

  10. Amine chemistry. Update on impact on resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, Gregory; Kellogg, Douglas [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Technology and Lab Services; Wilkes, Marty [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Water Technologies Div.

    2012-03-15

    Impurity removal in the steam cycle and the associated prevention of corrosion and/or fouling of system components are the goals of ion exchange resins. However, in many instances (such as a switch to amine chemistry or a change in product specifications), resins do not remove, and, in fact, contribute impurities to the steam cycle. This paper reviews recent data compiled to determine the direct and indirect effects of amines on ion exchange resins used in the power industry. Water chemistries have improved in recent years, in large part due to changes in chemistry and resins, but it is necessary to continue to develop products, processes and techniques to reduce impurities and improve overall water chemistry in power plant systems. (orig.)

  11. Synthesis and insecticidal activity of new oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin-based phenazines against Mythimna separata Walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Xiaoyan; Yang, Chun; Yu, Xiang; Xu, Hui

    2014-12-15

    To discover new natural-product-based insecticidal agents, a series of novel oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin-based phenazines modified in the C, D and E rings of podophyllotoxin were prepared and tested as insecticidal agents against the pre-third-instar larvae of oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker) in vivo at 1 mg/mL. The steric configuration of IIIc was unambiguously confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds IIIa-d, and IIIi exhibited an equal or higher insecticidal activity than toosendanin.

  12. O—Maltosylation of Heterocyclic Ketene Aminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐占辉; 黄志镗

    2002-01-01

    The stereoselective synthesis of O-maltosides by reacting benzoyl-substituted heterocyclic ketene aminals 1 or 2 with acetylated maltosyl bromide 3 was investigated.Compounds 1 or 2 reacted with 3 in the presence of mercuric cyanide to give O-maltosides 4 or 5 with E-configuration.While 1 reacted with 3 in the presence of calcium hydride to give O-maltosides 6 with Zconfiguration.

  13. O-Maltosylation of Heterocyclic Ketene Aminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU,Zhan-Hui(徐占辉); HUANG,Zhi-Tang(黄志镗)

    2002-01-01

    The stereoselective synthesis of O-maltosides by reacting benzoyl-substituted heterocyclic ketene aminals 1 or 2 with acetylated maltosyl bromide 3 was investigated. Compounds 1 or 2 reacted with 3 in the presence of mercuric cyanide to give O-maltosides 4 or 5 with E-configuration. While 1 reacted with 3 in the presence of calcium hydride to give O-maltosides 6 with Zconfiguration.

  14. Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdek, B. R.; Ridge, D. P.; Johnston, M. V.

    2011-08-01

    The distribution of charged species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid neutralization is cluster size-dependent. With increasing cluster size (and, therefore, a decreasing role of charge), both positively- and negatively-charged cluster compositions converge toward ammonium bisulfate. The reactivity of negatively-charged sulfuric acid-ammonia clusters with dimethylamine and ammonia is also investigated by FTICR-MS. Two series of negatively-charged clusters are investigated: [(HSO4)(H2SO4)x]- and [(NH4)x(HSO4)x+1(H2SO4)3]-. Dimethylamine substitution for ammonia in [(NH4) x(HSO4) x+1(H2SO4)3]- clusters is nearly collision-limited, and subsequent addition of dimethylamine to neutralize H2SO4 to bisulfate is within one order of magnitude of the substitution rate. Dimethylamine addition to [(HSO4) (H2SO4) x]- clusters is either not observed or very slow. The results of this study indicate that amine chemistry will be evident and important only in large ambient negative ions (>m/z 400), whereas amine chemistry may be evident in small ambient positive ions. Addition of ammonia to unneutralized clusters occurs at a rate that is ~2-3 orders of magnitude slower than incorporation of dimethylamine either by substitution or addition. Therefore, in locations where amine levels are within a few orders of magnitude of ammonia levels, amine chemistry may compete favorably with ammonia chemistry.

  15. Whole cell biotransformation for reductive amination reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Klatte, Stephanie; Lorenz, Elisabeth; Wendisch, Volker F.

    2013-01-01

    Whole cell biotransformation systems with enzyme cascading increasingly find application in biocatalysis to complement or replace established chemical synthetic routes for production of, e.g., fine chemicals. Recently, we established an Escherichia coli whole cell biotransformation system for reductive amination by coupling a transaminase and an amino acid dehydrogenase with glucose catabolism for cofactor recycling. Transformation of 2-keto-3-methylvalerate to l-isoleucine by E. coli cells w...

  16. Iridium- and Ruthenium-Catalyzed N-alkylation of Amines with Alcohols and Amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentz-Petersen, Linda Luise Reeh

    via folding assisted ligation. One segment was synthesised as the C-terminal thioester by Boc-SPPS and the other segment as a C-terminal acid by Fmoc-SPPS. The sites of mutation were all in the α-helical region of the protein and the mutation choices were alanine and Aib, which both posses a high α...... is environmentally benign as it is performed in the absence of both solvent and additives and the only by-product is ammonia. Additionally, the work-up procedure is a simple distillation of the product directly from the reaction mixture. Synthesis of piperazines In the Madsen group it has previously been...... catalysts have been employed for the N-alkylation of amines with either alcohols or amines. Synthesis of secondary amines Self-condensation of primary amines afforded secondary amines in good to high yields. The reaction is catalyzed by the commercially available [Cp*IrCl2]2 complex. The procedure...

  17. Rett syndrome - Stimulation of endogenous biogenic amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelligra, R.; Norton, R. D.; Wilkinson, R.; Leon, H. A.; Matson, W. R.

    1992-01-01

    Transient hypercapnic hyperoxemia was induced in two Rett syndrome children by the administration of a gaseous mixture of 80 percent O2 and 20 percent CO2. Time course studies of neurotransmitters and their metabolites showed an immediate and marked increase in central biogenic amine turnover following inhalation of the gas mixture. The increased turnover of biogenic amines was associated with improved clinical changes. This suggests a coupled relationship and provides further support for an etiological role of neurotransmitter dysfunction in Rett syndrome. In a complementary study, elevation of pulmonary CO2 by application of a simple rebreathing device resulted in improvement of abnormal blood gases and elimination of the Cheyne-Stokes-like respiratory pattern of the Rett syndrome. Near normalization of the EEG occurred when a normal respiratory pattern was imposed by means of a respirator. Taken together, these results lead to the preliminary conclusion that cerebral hypoxemia secondary to abnormal respiratory function may contribute to diminished production of biogenic amines in Rett syndrome.

  18. Amine Swingbed Payload Testing on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Amy B.; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    One of NASA Johnson Space Center's test articles of the amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor sorbent system known as the CO2 And Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed, or CAMRAS, was incorporated into a payload on the International Space Station (ISS). The intent of the payload is to demonstrate the spacecraft-environment viability of the core atmosphere revitalization technology baselined for the new Orion vehicle. In addition to the air blower, vacuum connection, and controls needed to run the CAMRAS, the payload incorporates a suite of sensors for scientific data gathering, a water save function, and an air save function. The water save function minimizes the atmospheric water vapor reaching the CAMRAS unit, thereby reducing ISS water losses that are otherwise acceptable, and even desirable, in the Orion environment. The air save function captures about half of the ullage air that would normally be vented overboard every time the cabin air-adsorbing and space vacuum-desorbing CAMRAS beds swap functions. The JSC team conducted 1000 hours of on-orbit Amine Swingbed Payload testing in 2013 and early 2014. This paper presents the basics of the payload's design and history, as well as a summary of the test results, including comparisons with prelaunch testing.

  19. Innovative approach for the electrochemical detection of non-electroactive organophosphorus pesticides using oxime as electroactive probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Jing; Hou, Juying; Jiang, Jianxia; Ai, Shiyun, E-mail: ashy@sdau.edu.cn

    2015-07-23

    Highlights: • Novel approach for electrochemical detection of non-electroactive OPs was proposed. • PAM was used as electroactive probe for the first time. • The detection system displayed high sensitivity and promptness. • The developed sensor was used in real samples with satisfactory results. - Abstract: An innovative approach for sensitive and simple electrochemical detection of non-electroactive organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was described in this report. The novel strategy emphasized the fabrication of an oxime-based sensor via attaching pralidoxime (PAM) on graphene quantum dots (GQDs) modified glassy carbon electrode. The introduction of GQDs significantly increased the effective electrode area, and then enlarged the immobilization quantity of PAM. Thus, the oxidation current of PAM was obviously increased. Relying on the nucleophilic substitution reaction between oxime and OPs, fenthion was detected using PAM as the electroactive probe. Under optimum conditions, the difference of oxidation current of PAM was proportional to fenthion concentration over the range from 1.0 × 10{sup −11} M to 5.0 × 10{sup −7} M with a detection limit of 6.8 × 10{sup −12} M (S/N = 3). Moreover, the favorable detection performance in water and soil samples heralded the promising applications in on-site OPs detection.

  20. Ammoximation of Cyclohexanone to Cyclohexanone Oxime Catalyzed by Titanium Silicalite-I Zeolite in Three-phase System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国清; 吴剑; 罗和安

    2012-01-01

    An innovative green process of producing ε-caprolactam was proposed by integrating ammoximation and Beckmann rearrangement effectively. As a first part of the new process, TS-1 molecular sieve-catalyzed synthesis of cyclohexanone oxime from cyclohexanone, ammonia and hydrogen peroxide was carried out in a batch plant. Cyclohexane was used as the solvent in the three-phase reaction system. The influences of essential process parameters on ammoximation were investigated. Under the reaction conditions as catalyst content of 2.5% (by mass); H 2 O 2 /yclohexanone molar ratio of 1.10; NH 3 /cyclohexanone molar ratio of 2.20; reaction temperature of 343 K; reaction time of 5 h, high conversion of cyclohexanone and selectivity to oxime (both〉99%) were obtained. Thus, the three-phase ammoximation process showed equal catalytic activity as TS-1 but much more convenient and simpler for the separation of catalyst in comparison to the industrial two-phase system with t-butanol used as solvent.

  1. Novel oxime-bearing coumarin derivatives act as potent Nrf2/ARE activators in vitro and in mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ken-Ming; Chen, Huang-Hui; Wang, Tai-Chi; Chen, I-Li; Chen, Yu-Tsen; Yang, Shyh-Chyun; Chen, Yeh-Long; Chang, Hsin-Huei; Huang, Chih-Hsiang; Chang, Jang-Yang; Shih, Chuan; Kuo, Ching-Chuan; Tzeng, Cherng-Chyi

    2015-12-01

    We have designed and synthesized certain novel oxime- and amide-bearing coumarin derivatives as nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activators. The potency of these compounds was measured by antioxidant responsive element (ARE)-driven luciferase activity, level of Nrf2-related cytoprotective genes and proteins, and antioxidant activity. Among them, (Z)-3-(2-(hydroxyimino)-2-phenylethoxy)-2H-chromen-2-one (17a) was the most active, and more potent than the positive t-BHQ in the induction of ARE-driven luciferase activity. Exposure of HSC-3 cells to various concentrations of 17a strongly increased Nrf2 nuclear translocation and the expression level of Nrf2-mediated cytoprotective proteins in a concentration-dependent manner. HSC-3 cells pretreated with 17a significantly reduced t-BOOH-induced oxidative stress. In the animal experiment, Nrf2-mediated cytoprotective proteins, such as aldo-keto reductase 1 subunit C-1 (AKR1C1), glutathione reductase (GR), and heme oxygenase (HO-1), were obviously elevated in the liver of 17a-treated mice than that of control. These results suggested that novel oxime-bearing coumarin 17a is able to activate Nrf2/ARE pathway in vivo and are therefore seen as a promising candidate for further investigation.

  2. The antidotal efficacy of the bispyridinium oximes K027 and TMB-4 against tabun poisoning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berend, Suzana; Radić, Bozica; Kuca, Kamil; Lucić Vrdoljak, Ana

    2010-09-06

    A toxic effect of highly toxic nervous agents is irreversible inhibition of vitally important enzyme acethylcholinesterase (AChE). Inhibition of AChE results in accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic cleft of the cholinergic neurons, leading to overstimulation of cholinergic receptors. The highly toxic nature of tabun has been known for many years, but there are still serious limitations to the antidotal therapy. In this paper a bispyridinium compound K027 [1-(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-3-(-4-carbamoylpyridinium) propane dibromide] was tested as potential antidote in tabun poisoned mice. Oxime TMB-4 was included for comparison. The therapeutic efficacy of applied antidotal regimens was tested as pretreatment given 15 min before tabun poisoning and/or as therapy given 1 min after tabun poisoning. Using oxime K027 (25% of its LD(50)) plus atropine as both, pretreatment and therapy, we showed that this combination can protect mice 8 times better than the therapy alone. Under these experimental conditions we confirmed good antidotal efficacy of K027. Moreover, its low acute toxicity is as much as beneficial effect in contrast to high toxicity of currently used TMB-4.

  3. Structural, spectroscopic and quantum chemical studies of acetyl hydrazone oxime and its palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yunus; Icsel, Ceyda; Yilmaz, Veysel T.; Buyukgungor, Orhan

    2015-09-01

    Acetyl hydrazone oxime, [(1E,2E)-2-(hydroxyimino)-1-phenylethylidene]acetohydrazone (hipeahH2) and its palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes, [M(hipeahH)2] (M = PdII and PtII), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV-vis IR, NMR and LC-MS techniques. X-ray diffraction analysis of [Pd(hipeahH)2] shows that the two hipeahH2 ligands are not equal; one of the ligands loses the hydrazone proton, while the other one loses the oxime proton, resulting in a different coordination behavior to form five- and six-membered chelate rings. The molecular geometries from X-ray experiments in the ground state were compared using the density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP method combined with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set for the ligand and the LanL2DZ basis set for the complexes. Comprehensive theoretical and experimental structural studies on the molecule have been carried out by FT-IR, NMR and UV-vis spectrometry. In addition, the isomer studies of ligand and its complexes were made by DFT.

  4. Solvent Free, Microwave Assisted Conversion of Aldehydes into Nitriles and Oximes in the Presence of NH2OH·HCl and TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Villas-Boas Hoelz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic aldehydes bearing electron-donating groups are easily converted into their respective nitriles using NH2OH·HCl and TiO2 under microwave irradiation, while those bearing an electron-withdrawing group give the corresponding oximes.

  5. Dehydration of Oximes to Nitriles Catalyzed by a Green Heteropolyacid Catalyst :Preyssler's Anion,[NaP5W30O110]14-

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HERAVI,Majid M.; SADJADI,Sodeh; HEKMATSHOAR,Rahim; OSKOOIE,Hossein A; BAMOHARRAM,Fatemeh F

    2009-01-01

    A mild, simple and high yielding procedure for the direct conversion of oximes to nitriles has been developed using heteropolyacid in acetic acid. Aromatic and aliphatic aldoximes wee converted to the corresponding nitriles in the presence of Preyssler type heteropolyacid. Which could be reused several times without any appreciable loss of activity

  6. 40 CFR 721.6660 - Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone oxime-blocked (generic name). 721.6660 Section 721.6660... Polymer of alkanepolyol and poly-alkyl-poly-iso-cyan-ato-car-bo-mo-no-cycle, acetone...

  7. A comparison of neuroprotective efficacy of the oxime K203 and its fluorinated analogue (KR-22836) with obidoxime in Tabun-poisoned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Tesarova, Sandra; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil; Jung, Young-Sik

    2010-11-01

    The ability of the newly developed bispyridinium compound K203 and its fluorinated analogue KR-22836 to reduce tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was compared with the currently available reactivator of acetylcholinesterase-obidoxime. Tabun-induced neurotoxicity and the neuroprotective effects of all tested oximes in combination with atropine in rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (200 μg/kg intramuscularly (i.m.); 80% of LD(50) value) were monitored by a functional observational battery at 24 hr after tabun challenge. The results indicate that all tested oximes combined with atropine were able to survive tabun-poisoned rats 24 hr after tabun challenge while one non-treated tabun-poisoned rat died within 24 hr after tabun poisoning. All tested oximes combined with atropine were able to decrease tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of sublethal poisoning but they did not eliminate all tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms. While the ability to reduce tabun-induced acute neurotoxicity of obidoxime and K203 was similar, the neuroprotective efficacy of KR-22836 was slightly higher compared to other tested oximes. Thus, the newly developed fluorinated analogue of K203, called KR-22836, is able to slightly increase the neuroprotective effectiveness of antidotal treatment of acute tabun poisonings compared to K203 and currently available obidoxime.

  8. New potential of the reductive alkylation of amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusak, K. N.; Ignatovich, Zh V.; Koroleva, E. V.

    2015-03-01

    Available data on the reductive alkylation of amines with carbonyl compounds — a key method for the preparation of secondary and tertiary amines — are described systematically. The review provides information on the relevant reducing agents and catalysts and on the use of chiral catalysts in stereo- and enantiocontrolled reactions of amine synthesis. The effect of the reactant and catalyst structures on the reaction rates and chemo- and stereo(enantio)selectivity is considered. The bibliography includes 156 references.

  9. When the endogenous hallucinogenic trace amine N,N-dimethyltryptamine meets the sigma-1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tsung-Ping; Hayashi, Teruo; Vaupel, D Bruce

    2009-03-10

    N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a hallucinogen found endogenously in human brain that is commonly recognized to target the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor or the trace amine-associated receptor to exert its psychedelic effect. DMT has been recently shown to bind sigma-1 receptors, which are ligand-regulated molecular chaperones whose function includes inhibiting various voltage-sensitive ion channels. Thus, it is possible that the psychedelic action of DMT might be mediated in part through sigma-1 receptors. Here, we present a hypothetical signaling scheme that might be triggered by the binding of DMT to sigma-1 receptors.

  10. Biotinylated dextran amine anterograde tracing of the canine corticospinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Han; Guangming Lv; Huiqun Wu; Dafeng Ji; Zhou Sun; Yaofu Li; Lemin Tang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was microinjected into the left cortical motor area of the canine brain. Fluorescence microscopy results showed that a large amount of BDA-labeled pyramidal cells were visible in the left cortical motor area after injection. In the left medulla oblongata, the BDA-labeled corticospinal tract was evenly distributed, with green fluorescence that had a clear boundary with the surrounding tissue. The BDA-positive corticospinal tract entered into the right lateral funiculus of the spinal cord and descended into the posterior part of the right lateral funiculus, close to the posterior horn, from cervical to sacral segments. There was a small amount of green fluorescence in the sacral segment. The distribution of BDA labeling in the canine central nervous system was consistent with the course of the corticospinal tract. Fluorescence labeling for BDA gradually diminished with time after injection. Our findings indicate that the BDA anterograde tracing technique can be used to visualize the localization and trajectory of the corticospinal tract in the canine central nervous system.

  11. Amines and amine-related compounds in surface waters: a review of sources, concentrations and aquatic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poste, Amanda E; Grung, Merete; Wright, Richard F

    2014-05-15

    This review compiles available information on the concentrations, sources, fate and toxicity of amines and amine-related compounds in surface waters, including rivers, lakes, reservoirs, wetlands and seawater. There is a strong need for this information, especially given the emergence of amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture technologies, which may represent a new and significant source of amines to the environment. We identify a broad range of anthropogenic and natural sources of amines, nitrosamines and nitramines to the aquatic environment, and identify some key fate and degradation pathways of these compounds. There were very few data available on amines in surface waters, with reported concentrations often below detection and only rarely exceeding 10 μg/L. Reported concentrations for seawater and reservoirs were below detection or very low, while for lakes and rivers, concentrations spanned several orders of magnitude. The most prevalent and commonly detected amines were methylamine (MA), dimethylamine (DMA), ethylamine (EA), diethylamine (DEA) and monoethanolamine (MEAT). The paucity of data may reflect the analytical challenges posed by determination of amines in complex environmental matrices at ambient levels. We provide an overview of available aquatic toxicological data for amines and conclude that at current environmental concentrations, amines are not likely to be of toxicological concern to the aquatic environment, however, the potential for amines to act as precursors in the formation of nitrosamines and nitramines may represent a risk of contamination of drinking water supplies by these often carcinogenic compounds. More research on the prevalence and toxicity of amines, nitrosamines and nitramines in natural waters is necessary before the environmental impact of new point sources from carbon capture facilities can be adequately quantified.

  12. Separation and isolation of tautomers of 2-hydroxy-4-naphthoquinone-1-oxime derivatives by liquid chromatography: Antiproliferative activity and DFT studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yogesh Shinde; Stephen Sproules; Laxmi Kathawate; Sanjima Pal; V Badireenath Konkimalla; Sunita Salunke-Gawali

    2014-01-01

    Reversed phase HPLC separation and isolation of isomers of 2-hydroxy-4-naphthoquinone-1-oxime (Lwox) and 3-methyl-2-hydroxy-4-naphthoquinone-1-oxime (Phox) have been investigated. Two distinct peaks are observed in the chromatogram of Lwox and are assigned to `para’ tautomer; 2-hydroxy-4-naphthoquinone-1-oxime (3) and `ortho’ tautomer; 4-hydroxy-2-naphthoquinone-1-oxime (4). The tautomeric equilibrium of 3 and 4 has been manipulated by incrementally increasing the pH of the mobile phase from 2.5 to 10.5, and altering the solvent polarity. At pH > 6.8 the tautomers are well-separated from each other. There is no separation of Phox isomers between pH 2.5 and 10.5. Isolation of the tautomers has been carried out by preparative HPLC, with 3 and 4 obtained as ammonium bicarbonate adducts and characterized by LC-MS, FTIR, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Red-orange 3 is characterized by a paranaphthoquinone stretch at 1287 cm-1 and a charge transfer band at 420 nm; yellow 4 exhibits, a similar stretch at 1246 cm-1 and absorption band at 406 nm. Compounds 3 and 4 were screened for selective antiproliferative activity in three cancer cell lines of different tissue types (COLO 205 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma),U87 MG (glioblastoma astrocytoma) and MIAPaCa-2 (human pancreatic carcinoma). Geometry-optimized structures for tautomers 3 and 4 (3′ and 4′ in Phox) were computed using the B3LYP method. Structures, 3 and 3′ are 4.7 and 5.8 kcal mol-1 more stabilized than 4 and 4′, respectively, as a result of a hydrogen bond interaction between the 2-hydroxyl group and the nitrogen of the oxime.

  13. PRO-2-PAM: The First Therapeutic Drug for Reactivation of Organo-Phosphate-Inhibited Central (Brain) and Peripheral Cholinesterases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    the H&E and fluoro-jade stained slides, respectively. The middle lobe of the piriform cortex, a distinct brain region known to be sensitive to OP...U /m g Figure 8. H & E stain of guinea pig brain, 40x magnification of the piriform cortical neuron layer (“A”; see Methods section 2.5). (a...receiving DFP followed by the oxime 2-PAM. Black arrow points to piriform neurons. (a) ControlPiriform cortical neuron layer (b) DFP (c) DFP, then pro-2

  14. Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Bzdek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of charged species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS. Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid neutralization is cluster size-dependent. With increasing cluster size (and, therefore, a decreasing role of charge, both positively- and negatively-charged cluster compositions converge toward ammonium bisulfate. The reactivity of negatively-charged sulfuric acid-ammonia clusters with dimethylamine and ammonia is also investigated by FTICR-MS. Two series of negatively-charged clusters are investigated: [(HSO4(H2SO4x] and [(NH4x(HSO4x+1(H2SO43]. Dimethylamine substitution for ammonia in [(NH4 x(HSO4 x+1(H2SO43] clusters is nearly collision-limited, and subsequent addition of dimethylamine to neutralize H2SO4 to bisulfate is within one order of magnitude of the substitution rate. Dimethylamine addition to [(HSO4 (H2SO4 x] clusters is either not observed or very slow. The results of this study indicate that amine chemistry will be evident and important only in large ambient negative ions (>m/z 400, whereas amine chemistry may be evident in small ambient positive ions. Addition of ammonia to unneutralized clusters occurs at a rate that is ~2–3 orders of magnitude slower than incorporation of dimethylamine either by substitution or addition

  15. Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Bzdek

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of ionic species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS. Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid neutralization is cluster size-dependent. With increasing cluster size (and, therefore, a decreasing role of charge, both positively- and negatively-charged cluster compositions converge toward ammonium bisulfate. The reactivity of negatively-charged sulfuric acid-ammonia clusters with dimethylamine and ammonia are also investigated by FTICR-MS. Two series of negatively-charged clusters are investigated: [(HSO4(H2SO4x] and [(NH4x(HSO4x+1(H2SO43]. Dimethylamine substitution for ammonia in [(NH4x(HSO4x+1(H2SO43] clusters is nearly collision-limited, and subsequent addition of dimethylamine to neutralize H2SO4 is within one order of magnitude of the substitution rate. Dimethylamine addition to [(HSO4(H2SO4x]clusters is either not observed or very slow. The results of this study indicate that amine chemistry will be evident and important only in large ambient negative ions (> m/z 400, whereas amine chemistry may be evident in small ambient positive ions. Addition of ammonia to unneutralized clusters occurs at a rate that is ~2–3 orders of magnitude slower than incorporation of dimethylamine either by

  16. Controlling Nitrosamines, Nitramines, and Amines in Amine-Based CO₂ Capture Systems with Continuous Ultraviolet and Ozone Treatment of Washwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ning; Mitch, William A

    2015-07-21

    Formation of nitrosamines and nitramines from reactions between flue gas NOx and the amines used in CO2 capture units has arisen as a significant concern. Washwater scrubbers can capture nitrosamines and nitramines. They can also capture amines, preventing formation of nitrosamines and nitramines downwind by amine reactions with ambient NOx. The continuous application of UV alone, or a combination of UV and ozone to the return line of a washwater treatment unit was evaluated to control the accumulation of nitrosamines, nitramines and amines in a laboratory-scale washwater unit. With model secondary amine solvents ranging from nonvolatile diethanolamine to volatile morpholine, application of 272-537 mJ/cm(2) UV incident fluence alone reduced the accumulation of nitrosamines and nitramines by approximately an order of magnitude. Modeling indicated that the gains achieved by UV treatment should increase over time, because UV treatment converts the time dependence of nitrosamine accumulation from a quadratic to a linear function. Ozone (21 mg/L) maintained low steady-state concentrations of amines in the washwater. While modeling indicated that more than 80% of nitrosamine accumulation in the washwater was associated with reaction of washwater amines with residual NOx, a reduction in nitrosamine accumulation rates due to ozone oxidation of amines was not fully realized because the ozonation products of amines reduced nitrosamine photolysis rates by competing for photons.

  17. Steric Effect of Alkyl Substituted Piperidin-4-one Oximes for Corrosion Control of Mild Steel in H2SO4 Medium%Steric Effect of Alkyl Substituted Piperidin-4-one Oximes for Corrosion Control of Mild Steel in H2SO4Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SENTHILKUMAR Annamalai; THARINI Kumaravel; SETHURAMAN Mathur Gopalakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Three synthesized piperidin-4-one oximes,3-ethyl-2,6-diphenyl-piperidin-4-one oxime (A),1-methyl-3-isopropyl-2,6-diphenyl-piperidin-4-one oxime (B),and 3-isopropyl-2,6-diphenyl-piperidin-4-one oxime (C),were tested at different concentrations to determine their ability to inhibit corrosion of mild steel in 1 mol · L-1 H2SO4 and measured by a mass loss method (at various temperatures),polarization and impedance measurements,X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energydispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS),and a quantum chemical method.The synergistic influence of compounds A,B and C with iodides has also been evaluated.All three compounds show good inhibition efficiency in the following order:A>B>C.Compounds A,B and C were found to physically adsorb on the surface of mild steel while obeying the Temkin isotherm.Polarization measurements indicated that these compounds behave as a mixed mode inhibitor.XRD and SEM with EDS studies revealed the formation of a protective barrier on the mild steel surface by these oximes.The electron donating ability of the studied molecules was tested using semi empirical methods.The studies revealed that the oxime nitrogen,the piperidine moiety,and the phenyl ring assist largely in corrosion control.The studies also showed that the steric crowding by the alkyl group in the piperidine ring affects the inhibitor efficiency.Further,it is interesting to note that all of the studied compounds exhibit synergism with iodide ions.

  18. Efficacy of oral afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime chewables against induced infestations with Dermacentor reticulatus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, Steffen; Fourie, Josephus J; de Vos, Christa; Anderson, Andrew; Larsen, Diane L; Jeannin, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime (AFX + MO) combination chewables (NexGard Spectra®, Merial) and AFX single-entity chewables (NexGard®, Merial) against induced infestations with Dermacentor reticulatus ticks was evaluated in dogs. Thirty dogs were assigned to blocks of three animals each based on pre-allocation tick counts and were randomly allocated to one of three groups: untreated (control), treated with a combination of AFX + MO chewables to be as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of AFX + MO (2.5 + 0.5 mg per kg body weight), and treated with a combination of NexGard® chewables to be as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of AFX (2.5 mg per kg body weight). Treatments were administered orally once on day 0. Starting 2 days before treatment administration, each dog was infested with approximately 50 ticks weekly for six consecutive weeks. Live ticks were counted at ∼48 h post-treatment (removal count) and at ∼48 h (in situ counts) and ∼72 h (removal counts) following each post-treatment infestation. Treatment with both AFX + MO and NexGard® chewables rapidly eliminated the existing tick infestations (100 % efficacy) within 2 days following treatment administration. Weekly re-infestations were controlled for a minimum of 5 weeks with the efficacy ranging from 92.2 to 99.7 % based on ∼48 h post-treatment in situ counts and between 99.0 and 100 % based on ∼72 h post-treatment removal counts (p < 0.0001 at each occasion). This study demonstrated a high efficacy of both AFX + MO chewable and NexGard® chewable treatments against infestations of dogs with D. reticulatus ticks for at least 5 weeks. In addition, this study indicated no interference between the two compounds with respect to the acaricidal activity provided by AFX.

  19. Trace Amines and the Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1: Pharmacology, Neurochemistry, and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yue; Asif-Malik, Aman; Canales, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines are a collection of endogenous molecules that play pivotal roles as neurotransmitters and hormones. In addition to the "classical" biogenic amines resulting from decarboxylation of aromatic acids, including dopamine (DA), norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin (5-HT), and histamine, other biogenic amines, present at much lower concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS), and hence referred to as "trace" amines (TAs), are now recognized to play significant neurophysiological and behavioral functions. At the turn of the century, the discovery of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), a phylogenetically conserved G protein-coupled receptor that is responsive to both TAs, such as β-phenylethylamine, octopamine, and tyramine, and structurally-related amphetamines, unveiled mechanisms of action for TAs other than interference with aminergic pathways, laying the foundations for deciphering the functional significance of TAs and its mammalian CNS receptor, TAAR1. Although, its molecular interactions and downstream targets have not been fully elucidated, TAAR1 activation triggers accumulation of intracellular cAMP, modulates PKA and PKC signaling and interferes with the β-arrestin2-dependent pathway via G protein-independent mechanisms. TAAR1 is uniquely positioned to exert direct control over DA and 5-HT neuronal firing and release, which has profound implications for understanding the pathophysiology of, and therefore designing more efficacious therapeutic interventions for, a range of neuropsychiatric disorders that involve aminergic dysregulation, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, mood disorders, and addiction. Indeed, the recent development of novel pharmacological tools targeting TAAR1 has uncovered the remarkable potential of TAAR1-based medications as new generation pharmacotherapies in neuropsychiatry. This review summarizes recent developments in the study of TAs and TAAR1, their intricate neurochemistry and

  20. Preparation and characterization of amine-functionalized sugarcane bagasse for CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shihe; Chen, Siyu; Chen, Shuixia; Zhuang, Linzhou; Ma, Nianfang; Xu, Teng; Li, Qihan; Hou, Xunan

    2016-03-01

    A low-cost solid amine adsorbent for CO2 capture was prepared by using sugarcane bagasse (SB), a dominant agro-industrial residue in the sugar and alcohol industry as raw materials. In this preparation process, acrylamide was grafted on SB, and the grafted fiber was then aminated with different type of amine reagents to introduce primary and secondary amine groups onto the surface of SB fibers. The graft and amination conditions were optimized. The prepared solid amine adsorbent showed remarkable CO2 adsorption capacity and the adsorption capacity of the solid amine adsorbent could reach 5.01 mmol CO2/g at room temperature. The comparison of adsorption capacities of amine fibers aminated with various amination agents demonstrated that fibers aminated with triethylenetetramine would obtain higher adsorption capacities and higher amine efficiency. These adsorbents also showed good regeneration performance, the regenerated adsorbent could maintain almost the same adsorption capacity for CO2 after 10 recycles.

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  3. Thermodynamics of organic mixtures containing amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)]. E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Mozo, Ismael [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Fuente, Isaias Garcia de la [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)

    2006-02-01

    Binary mixtures containing pyridine (PY), or 2-methylpyridine (2MPY) or 3-methylpyridine (3MPY) or 4-methylpyridine (4MPY) and an organic solvent as benzene, toluene, alkane, or 1-alkanol are investigated in the framework of DISQUAC. The corresponding interaction parameters are reported. The model describes accurately a whole set of thermodynamic properties: vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE), molar excess Gibbs energies (G{sup E}), molar excess enthalpies (H{sup E}), molar excess heat capacities at constant pressure (C{sub P}{sup E}) and the concentration-concentration structure factor (S{sub CC}(0)). It is remarkable that DISQUAC correctly predicts the W-shaped curve of the C{sub P}{sup E} of the pyridine + n-hexadecane system. The model can be applied successfully to mixtures with strong positive or negative deviations from the Raoult's law. DISQUAC improves the theoretical results from UNIFAC (Dortmund version). The replacement of pyridine by a methylpyridine leads to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions, ascribed to the steric effect caused by the methyl group attached to the aromatic ring. This explains that for a given solvent (alkane, 1-alkanol) H{sup E}(pyridine)>H{sup E}(methylpyridine)

  4. Biosynthesis of the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin in cassava: isolation, biochemical characterization, and expression pattern of CYP71E7, the oxime-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Morant, Anne Vinther; Morant, Marc; Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Olsen, Carl Erik; Kannangara, Rubini; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Bak, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a eudicotyledonous plant that produces the valine- and isoleucine-derived cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin with the corresponding oximes and cyanohydrins as key intermediates. CYP79 enzymes catalyzing amino acid-to-oxime conversion in cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis are known from several plants including cassava. The enzyme system converting oxime into cyanohydrin has previously only been identified in the monocotyledonous plant great millet (Sorghum bicolor). Using this great millet CYP71E1 sequence as a query in a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool-p search, a putative functional homolog that exhibited an approximately 50% amino acid sequence identity was found in cassava. The corresponding full-length cDNA clone was obtained from a plasmid library prepared from cassava shoot tips and was assigned CYP71E7. Heterologous expression of CYP71E7 in yeast afforded microsomes converting 2-methylpropanal oxime (valine-derived oxime) and 2-methylbutanal oxime (isoleucine-derived oxime) to the corresponding cyanohydrins, which dissociate into acetone and 2-butanone, respectively, and hydrogen cyanide. The volatile ketones were detected as 2.4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A K(S) of approximately 0.9 μm was determined for 2-methylbutanal oxime based on substrate-binding spectra. CYP71E7 exhibits low specificity for the side chain of the substrate and catalyzes the conversion of aliphatic and aromatic oximes with turnovers of approximately 21, 17, 8, and 1 min(-1) for the oximes derived from valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine, respectively. A second paralog of CYP71E7 was identified by database searches and showed approximately 90% amino acid sequence identity. In tube in situ polymerase chain reaction showed that in nearly unfolded leaves, the CYP71E7 paralogs are preferentially expressed in specific cells in the endodermis and in most cells in the first cortex

  5. Conditions allowing the formation of biogenic amines in cheese.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, H.M.L.J.

    1988-01-01

    A study was undertaken to reveal the conditions that allow the formation of biogenic amines in cheese.The starters most commonly used in the Dutch cheese industry do not have decarboxylative properties. Only if the milk or curd is contaminated with non-starter bacteria, amine formation may be observ

  6. Amination of allylic alcohols in water at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikata, Takashi; Lipshutz, Bruce H

    2009-06-04

    The "trick" to carrying out regiocontrolled aminations of allylic alcohols in water as the only medium is use of a nanomicelle's interior as the organic reaction solvent. When HCO(2)Me is present, along with the proper base and source of catalytic Pd, allylic amines are cleanly formed at room temperature.

  7. Effects of dietary amines on the gut and its vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Kenneth J; Akhtar Anwar, M; Herbert, Amy A; Fehler, Martina; Jones, Elen M; Davies, Wyn E; Kidd, Emma J; Ford, William R

    2009-06-01

    Trace amines, including tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA), are constituents of many foods including chocolate, cheeses and wines and are generated by so-called 'friendly' bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Enterococcus species, which are found in probiotics. We therefore examined whether these dietary amines could exert pharmacological effects on the gut and its vasculature. In the present study we examined the effects of tyramine and beta-PEA on the contractile activity of guinea-pig and rat ileum and upon the isolated mesenteric vasculature and other blood vessels. Traditionally, these amines are regarded as sympathomimetic amines, exerting effects through the release of noradrenaline from sympathetic nerve endings, which should relax the gut. A secondary aim was therefore to confirm this mechanism of action. However, contractile effects were observed in the gut and these were independent of noradrenaline, acetylcholine, histamine and serotonin receptors. They were therefore probably due to the recently described trace amine-associated receptors. These amines relaxed the mesenteric vasculature. In contrast, the aorta and coronary arteries were constricted, a response that was also independent of a sympathomimetic action. From these results, we propose that after ingestion, trace amines could stimulate the gut and improve intestinal blood flow. Restriction of blood flow elsewhere diverts blood to the gut to aid digestion. Thus, trace amines in the diet may promote the digestive process through stimulation of the gut and improved gastrointestinal circulation.

  8. Nitrosamine formation in amine scrubbing at desorber temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Nathan A; Goldman, Mark J; Rochelle, Gary T

    2014-01-01

    Amine scrubbing is a thermodynamically efficient and industrially proven method for carbon capture, but amine solvents can nitrosate in the desorber, forming potentially carcinogenic nitrosamines. The kinetics of reactions involving nitrite and monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methylethanolamine (MMEA), and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) were determined under desorber conditions. The nitrosations of MEA, DEA, and MMEA are first order in nitrite, carbamate species, and hydronium ion. Nitrosation of MDEA, a tertiary amine, is not catalyzed by the addition of CO2 since it cannot form a stable carbamate. Concentrated and CO2 loaded MEA was blended with low concentrations of N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine (HeGly), hydroxyethyl-ethylenediamine (HEEDA), and DEA, secondary amines common in MEA degradation. Nitrosamine yield was proportional to the concentration of secondary amine and was a function of CO2 loading and temperature. Blends of tertiary amines with piperazine (PZ) showed n-nitrosopiperazine (MNPZ) yields close to unity, validating the slow nitrosation rates hypothesized for tertiary amines. These results provide a useful tool for estimating nitrosamine accumulation over a range of amine solvents.

  9. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting under... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dialkyldithiophosphoric...

  10. ELPI+ measurements of aerosol growth in an amine absorption column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, J.; Brachert, L.; Desagher, D.; Thielens, M.L.; Khakharia, P.M.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Schaber, K.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, studies have appeared pointing out that aerosols can dominate the total amine emission from amine based PCCC pilot plant scale installations. For the design of countermeasure types (upstream or downstream of the PCCC installation), it is crucial to have an idea of the aerosol size distribu

  11. Hβ AND MODIFIED Hβ ZEOLITES AS CATALYSTS FOR BECKMANN REARRANGEMENT OF CYCLOHEXANONE OXIME%Hβ及改性Hβ分子筛催化环己酮肟重排制己内酰胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章永洁; 王亚权; 卜亿峰; 王莅; 米镇涛; 何菲; 吴魏; 闵恩泽; 傅送保; 朱泽华

    2004-01-01

    The Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime is an important reaction for obtaining ε-caprolactam, the raw material of nylon 6 fibers. Currently, the widely used technologies for the production of cyclohexanone oxime produce large amounts of byproducts. For the Beckmann rearrangement, many solid acid catalysts such as alumina, boria-alumina, and zeolites including Y, those with MFI-structure and β have been studied. However, no generally accepted understanding about the reaction mechanism has been achieved.

  12. Functional evolution of the trace amine associated receptors in mammals and the loss of TAAR1 in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westmoreland Susan V

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The trace amine associated receptor family is a diverse array of GPCRs that arose before the first vertebrates walked on land. Trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1 is a wide spectrum aminergic receptor that acts as a modulator in brain monoaminergic systems. Other trace amine associated receptors appear to relate to environmental perception and show a birth-and-death pattern in mammals similar to olfactory receptors. Results Across mammals, avians, and amphibians, the TAAR1 gene is intact and appears to be under strong purifying selection based on rates of amino acid fixation compared to neutral mutations. We have found that in dogs it has become a pseudogene. Our analyses using a comparative genetics approach revealed that the pseudogenization event predated the emergence of the Canini tribe rather than being coincident with canine domestication. By assessing the effects of the TAAR1 agonist β-phenylethylamine on [3H]dopamine uptake in canine striatal synaptosomes and comparing the degree and pattern of uptake inhibition to that seen in other mammals, including TAAR1 knockout mice, wild type mice and rhesus monkey, we found that the TAAR1 pseudogenization event resulted in an uncompensated loss of function. Conclusion The gene family has seen expansions among certain mammals, notably rodents, and reductions in others, including primates. By placing the trace amine associated receptors in an evolutionary context we can better understand their function and their potential associations with behavior and neurological disease.

  13. Factors influencing biogenic amines accumulation in dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. eLinares

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods are within the food products more often complained of having caused biogenic amines poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain significant levels of biogenic amines, specially tyramine, histamine and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report about cheese elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting biogenic amines levels. Synthesis of biogenic amines is possible only when three conditions converge: i availability of the substrate amino acids; ii presence of microorganisms with the appropriate catabolic pathway activated; and iii environmental conditions favorable to the decarboxilation activity. These conditions depend on several factors such as milk treatment (pasteurization, use of starter cultures, NaCl concentration, time and temperature of ripening and preservation, pH… which will be discussed in this chapter.

  14. Reactivation of nerve agent-inhibited human acetylcholinesterase by obidoxime, HI-6 and obidoxime+HI-6: Kinetic in vitro study with simulated nerve agent toxicokinetics and oxime pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst; Wille, Timo

    2016-03-28

    Despite extensive research for decades no effective broad-spectrum oxime for the treatment of poisoning by a broad range of nerve agents is available. Previous in vitro and in vivo data indicate that the combination of in service oximes could be beneficial. To investigate the ability of obidoxime, HI-6 and the combination of both oximes to reactivate inhibited human AChE in the presence of sarin, cyclosarin or tabun we adopted a dynamic in vitro model with real-time and continuous determination of AChE activity to simulate inhalation nerve agent exposure and intramuscular oxime administration. The major findings of this kinetic study are that the extent and velocity of reactivation is dependent on the nerve agent and the oxime-specific reactivating potency. The oxime-induced reactivation of inhibited human AChE in the presence of nerve agents is markedly impaired and the combination of obidoxime and HI-6 had no additive effect but could broaden the spectrum. In conclusion, these data indicate that a combination of obidoxime and HI-6 would be beneficial for the treatment of poisoning by a broad spectrum of nerve agents and could present an interim solution until more effective and broad-spectrum reactivators are available.

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow distribution in newly diagnosed schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, P; Holm, S; Madsen, P L

    1994-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow distribution (rCBF) in 24 first admissions with schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder and in 17 healthy volunteers was examined. Single photon emission computed tomography with a brain-retained tracer, technetium-99m-d,l-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime, was used...

  16. Amine Reactivity with Nanoclusters of Sulfuric Acid and Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M. V.; Bzdek, B. R.; DePalma, J.

    2011-12-01

    Alkyl amines have emerged as key species in new particle formation and growth. This interest is reinforced by ambient measurements of amines (e.g. Smith et al., 2010) and enhanced levels of nitrogen (e.g. Bzdek et al., 2011) during growth of newly formed particles. An important mechanism of amine uptake is aminium salt formation, either by substituting for ammonium ions that already exist in the particle or by opening new channels for salt formation that are not favorable with ammonia. This presentation will focus on recent experimental and computational work in our group to study amine uptake into charged nanoclusters of sulfuric acid and ammonia. In the experimental work, clusters are produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution and then drawn into a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer where a specific cluster is isolated and exposed to amine vapor. We find that amine reactivity is dependent on the size, composition and charge of the isolated cluster. For small clusters of either polarity, all ammonium ions reside on the surface and amine substitution occurs with near unit reaction probability. As the cluster size increases, an ammonium ion can be encapsulated in the center of the cluster, which provides a steric hindrance to amine substitution. Negatively charged clusters are more likely to be acidic than positively charged clusters. For acidic clusters, incoming amine molecules first substitute for preexisting ammonium ions and then add to the cluster until a "neutralized" aminium bisulfate composition is reached. Computational studies of these clusters provide fundamental insight into the thermodynamics and kinetics of amine uptake.

  17. Hierarchically structured monolithic silicalite-1 consisting of crystallized nanoparticles and its performance in the Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Cui; Lu, An-Hui; Palkovits, Regina; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Spliethoff, Bernd; Schüth, Ferdi

    2005-09-14

    In this study, we present a synthetic pathway for the fabrication of self-supporting zeolite monoliths consisting of crystallized nanoparticles. A resorcinol-formaldehyde-based organic aerogel is used as a template, and silicalite-1 is used as the zeolite example. The silicalite-1 monoliths obtained consist of individual well-defined zeolite nanocrystals with sizes of 30-40 nm. The monoliths exhibit a high mechanical stability and have hierarchical porosity, with micropores within the zeolite particles, a mesopore system formed by the packing of the nanoparticles, and a macropore system on the monolith level. Such monolithic zeolites show high selectivity typically above 80% to epsilon-caprolactam combined with a high rate of reaction of 0.46 g(caprolactame)/(g(catalyst).h) in the Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime.

  18. Hydrogen bond driven chemical reactions: Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime into epsilon-caprolactam in supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boero, Mauro; Ikeshoji, Tamio; Liew, Chee Chin; Terakura, Kiyoyuki; Parrinello, Michele

    2004-05-26

    Recent experiments have shown that supercritical water (SCW) has the ability to accelerate and make selective synthetic organic reactions, thus replacing the common but environmentally harmful acid and basic catalysts. In an attempt to understand the intimate mechanism behind this observation, we analyze, via first-principles molecular dynamics, the Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime into epsilon-caprolactam in supercritical water, for which accurate experimental evidence has been reported. Differences in the wetting of the hydrophilic parts of the solute, enhanced by SCW, and the disrupted hydrogen bond network are shown to be crucial in triggering the reaction and in making it selective. Furthermore, the enhanced concentrations of H(+) in SCW play an important role in starting the reaction.

  19. Cycloisomerization of acetylenic oximes and hydrazones under gold catalysis: Synthesis and cytotoxic evaluation of isoxazoles and pyrazoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J C Jeyaveeran; Chandrasekar Praveen; Y Arun; A A M Prince; P T Perumal

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of substituted isoxazoles and pyrazoles through a general cycloisomerization methodology has been reported. The capability of gold(III) chloride to promote cycloisomerization of both , -acetylenic oximes and , -acetylenic hydrazones is the centrepiece of the strategy. A range of acetylenic precursors were investigated to afford 28 examples of the products with good to excellent chemical yields. Selected compounds were screened for their cytotoxic potential towards COLO320 cancer cell lines. The IC50 values of the tested compounds were in the micromolar range, with the best compound, 5-(6-Methoxy-naphthalen-2-yl)-3-phenyl-isoxazole (3h) displaying an IC50 of 38.9 M. For this compound, the crystal structure in complex with Aurora-A kinase was obtained which revealed details of its binding mode within the active site with a free energy of binding -9.54 kcal/mol.

  20. Thermal, Electrical, and Optical Properties of Synthesized (1E, 2E-(4-bromophenyl(hydroxyiminoacetaldehyde Oxime Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Karapinar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The (1E, 2E-(4-bromophenyl(hydroxyiminoacetaldehyde oxime complexes, [ML2], M = Co(II, Cu(II, and Ni(II, were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, FT-IR spectra, and thermal analysis techniques. The optical band gap of this ligand and its complexes were determined by UV-vis spectrophotometer in the wavelength range 300–800 nm. A decrease in the energy band gap of the [CoL2], [NiL2], and [CuL2] complexes has been observed compared with LH ligand. Temperature-dependent conductivity measurements showed that all samples behave like semiconductor. Activation energies calculated from Arrhenius plots showed that the conduction occurs via both intramolecular and the intermolecular processes.

  1. In vitro reactivation potency of acetylcholinesterase reactivators--K074 and K075--to reactivate tabun-inhibited human brain cholinesterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuca, Kamil; Cabal, Jiri; Jun, Daniel; Musilek, Kamil

    2007-02-01

    In this work, two oximes for the treatment of tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7), K074 (1,4-bis(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)butane dibromide) and K075 ((E)-1,4-bis(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)but-2-en dibromide), were tested in vitro as reactivators of AChE. Comparison was made with currently used AChE reactivators (pralidoxime, HI-6, methoxime and obidoxime). Human brain homogenate was taken as an appropriate source of the cholinesterases. As resulted, oxime K074 appears to be the most potent reactivator of tabun-inhibited AChE, with reactivation potency comparable to that of obidoxime. A second AChE reactivator, K075, does not attain as great a reactivation potency as K074, although its maximal reactivation (17%) was achieved at relevant concentrations for humans.

  2. Lanthanide Complexes with Multidentate Oxime Ligands as Single-Molecule Magnets and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Fixation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hołyńska, Małgorzata; Clérac, Rodolphe; Rouzières, Mathieu

    2015-09-14

    The synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of five lanthanide complexes with multidentate oxime ligands are described. Complexes 1 and 2 (1: [La2 (pop)2 (acac)4 (CH3 OH)], 2: [Dy2 (pop)(acac)5 ]) are synthesized from the 2-hydroxyimino-N-[1-(2-pyridyl)ethylidene]propanohydrazone (Hpop) ligand, while 3, 4, and 5 (3: [Dy2 (naphthsaoH)2 (acac)4 H(OH)]⋅0.85 CH3 CN⋅1.58 H2 O; 4: [Tb2 (naphthsaoH)2 (acac)4 H(OH)]⋅0.52 CH3 CN⋅1.71 H2 O; 5: [La6 (CO3 )2 (naphthsao)5 (naphthsaoH)0.5 (acac)8 (CO3 )0.5 (CH3 OH)2.76 H5.5 (H2 O)1.24 ]⋅2.39 CH3 CN⋅0.12 H2 O) contain 1-(1-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)-ethanone oxime (naphthsaoH2 ). In 1-4, dinuclear [Ln2 ] complexes crystallize, whereas hexanuclear La(III) complex 5 is formed after fixation of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Dy(III) -based complexes 2 and 3 display single-molecule-magnet properties with energy barriers of 27 and 98 K, respectively. The presence of a broad and unsymmetrical relaxation mode observed in the ac susceptibility data for 3 suggest two different dynamics of the magnetization which might be a consequence of independent relaxation processes of the two different Dy(3+) ions.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of bisimide amines and bisimide amine-cured epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scola, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt is made to develop tough, moisture resistant, high char yield epoxy resins by means of novel bisimide amine (BIA) hardener curing agents and a state-of-the-art epoxy resin system. The BIAs are isolated as mixtures containing monomer, oligomer, and polymeric species, and then characterized by elemental analysis and high pressure liquid chromatography. The bisimide amine-cured epoxies (IMEs) were characterized with respect to moisture absorption, thermal properties, and physical and mechanical properties, as well as in the role of matrices in Celion 6000/IME composites. The relative toughness characteristics of each IME formulation was measured by the 10 deg off-axis tensile test, measuring the uniaxial tensile strength, shear strength, and shear-strain-to-failure of the composite systems.

  4. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Heng, Lee Yook [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Ling, Tan Ling [Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study.

  5. N-(3-Methylphenylquinoxalin-2-amine monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azila Idris

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The quinoxaline system in the title hydrate, C15H13N3·H2O, is roughly planar, the r.m.s. deviation for the 18 non-H atoms being 0.188 Å; this conformation features a short intramolecular C—H...N(pyrazine interaction. In the crystal, the amine H atom forms an N—H...O hydrogen bond to the water molecule, which in turn forms two O—H...N hydrogen bonds to the pyrazine N atoms of different organic molecules. These interactions lead to supramolecular arrays in the bc plane that are two molecules thick; additional π–π interactions stabilize the layers [ring centroid–centroid distance = 3.5923 (7 Å]. The layers stack along the a-axis direction via C—H...π contacts.

  6. Amine scrubbing for CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle, Gary T

    2009-09-25

    Amine scrubbing has been used to separate carbon dioxide (CO2) from natural gas and hydrogen since 1930. It is a robust technology and is ready to be tested and used on a larger scale for CO2 capture from coal-fired power plants. The minimum work requirement to separate CO2 from coal-fired flue gas and compress CO2 to 150 bar is 0.11 megawatt-hours per metric ton of CO2. Process and solvent improvements should reduce the energy consumption to 0.2 megawatt-hour per ton of CO2. Other advanced technologies will not provide energy-efficient or timely solutions to CO2 emission from conventional coal-fired power plants.

  7. Whole cell biotransformation for reductive amination reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatte, Stephanie; Lorenz, Elisabeth; Wendisch, Volker F

    2014-01-01

    Whole cell biotransformation systems with enzyme cascading increasingly find application in biocatalysis to complement or replace established chemical synthetic routes for production of, e.g., fine chemicals. Recently, we established an Escherichia coli whole cell biotransformation system for reductive amination by coupling a transaminase and an amino acid dehydrogenase with glucose catabolism for cofactor recycling. Transformation of 2-keto-3-methylvalerate to l-isoleucine by E. coli cells was improved by genetic engineering of glucose metabolism for improved cofactor regeneration. Here, we compare this system with different strategies for cofactor regeneration such as cascading with alcohol dehydrogenases, with alternative production hosts such as Pseudomonas species or Corynebacterium glutamicum, and with improving whole cell biotransformation systems by metabolic engineering of NADPH regeneration. PMID:24406456

  8. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  9. Water-soluble primary amine compounds in rural continental precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelska, Krystyna; Galloway, James N.; Watterson, Karen; Keene, William C.

    Procedures for collecting, storing and analysing precipitation samples for organic nitrogen studies were developed. These procedures preserve chemical integrities of the species of interest, allow for up to 3 months storage and quantitative determination of water-soluble primary amine compounds, with the overall error at the 2 nM detection limit of less than 30%. This methodology was applied to study amino compounds in precipitation samples collected over a period of one year in central Virginia. Nitrogen concentrations of 13 amino acids and 3 aliphatic amines were summed to calculate the total amine nitrogen (TAN). The concentration of TAN ranged from below our detection level to 6658 nM, and possibly reflected a seasonal variation in the source strength of the atmospheric amines. Overall, the most commonly occurring amino compounds were methyl amine, ethyl amine, glutamic acid, glycine and serine. On average, the highest overall contribution to the TAN came from arginine, asparagine, glutamine, methyl amine, serine and alanine. However, large qualitative and quantitative variations observed among samples warrant caution in interpretation and application of the averaged values. TAN in Charlottesville precipitation contributed from less than 1 to ca 10% of the ammonium nitrogen level. However, our estimates show that amino compounds may contribute significantly to reduced nitrogen budget in precipitation in remote regions.

  10. 丁酮肟法制备乙氧胺的新工艺研究%Synthesis of Ethoxyamine via Butanone Oxime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞勇; 石鑫华; 唐裕才; 许响生

    2012-01-01

    以丁酮为起始原料,与盐酸羟胺反应生成丁酮肟,再与硫酸二乙酯反应得到丁酮肟乙基醚,在盐酸作用下水解得到乙氧胺,同时回收丁酮。收率为71.58%,纯度为99.33%。%Butanone oxime was synthesized by butanone and hydroxylamine hydro-chloride, and butanone oxiroe ethyl ether was prepared by butanone exime and diethyl sulfate. Ethoxyamine was gained by oxime ether.The butanone was recycled. The.yield was71.5% The purity was 99.33%.

  11. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN SELECTED WINES DURING WINEMAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Flasarová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the development of selected biogenic amines (histamine; tyramine; phenylethylamine; putrescine; agmatine; and cadaverine during the winemaking in 10 selected species grown in Central Europe in 2008. The analysis was performed using ion-exchange chromatography by the sodium-citrate buffers with the post-column ninhydrin derivatization and photometric detection. A comparison of the content of biogenic amines in red and wine varieties showed that red wines have higher concentrations of biogenic amines.

  12. Comparison of Solvation Effects on CO2 Capture with Aqueous Amine Solutions and Amine-Functionalized Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hidetaka

    2016-10-13

    Amines are the most widely utilized chemicals for postcombustion CO2 capture, because the reversible reactions between amines and CO2 through their moderate interaction allow effective "catch and release". Usually, CO2 is dissolved in the form of an anion such as carbamate or bicarbonate. Therefore, the reaction energy diagram is potentially governed to a large extent by the polarity of the surrounding solvent. Herein, we compared aqueous amine solutions and amine-functionalized ionic liquids by investigating their dielectric constants and performing an intrinsic reaction coordinate analysis of the CO2 absorption process. Quantum mechanical calculations at the CCSD(T)/6-311++G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level within the continuum solvation model (SMD/IEF-PCM) revealed contrasting dependencies of C-N bond formation on the dielectric constant in those solutions. Amines react with CO2 on an energy surface that is significantly affected by the dielectric constant in conventional aqueous amine solutions, whereas amine-functionalized anions and CO2 form stable C-N bonds with a comparatively lower activation energy regardless of the dielectric constant.

  13. Copper(Ⅱ) and Cobalt(Ⅱ) Dinuclear Complexes with Oxime-based Ligand as Catalysts for the Hydrolysis of Phosphate Diester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Juan; MENG Xiang-Guang; ZENG Xian-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Dinuclear copper(Ⅱ) and cobalt(Ⅱ) complexes were prepared and investigated with respect to their effects on hydrolysis of bis(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate (BNPP). The kinetic data indicated that the mono-deprotonated oxime group could act as an effective intramolecular nucleophile in the reaction. The higher reactivity of dinuclear copper(Ⅱ) complex than that of its mononuclear analogues illustrated the probability of double Lewis acid activation by two metal centers in the former complex.

  14. Synthesis, characterization, computational calculation and biological studies of some 2,6-diaryl-1-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)piperidin-4-one oxime derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, G; Rajaraman, D; Srinivasan, T; Velmurugan, D; Krishnasamy, K

    2015-03-15

    A new series of 2,6-diaryl-1-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)piperidin-4-one oximes (17-24) were designed and synthesized from 2,6-diarylpiperidin-4-one oximes (9-16) with propargyl bromide. Unambiguous structural elucidation has been carried out by investigating IR, NMR ((1)H, (13)C, (1)H-(1)H COSY and HSQC), mass spectral techniques and theoretical (DFT) calculations. Further, crystal structure of compound 17 was evaluated by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Single crystal X-ray structural analysis of compound 17 evidenced that the configuration about CN double bond is syn to C-5 carbon (E-form). The existence of chair conformation was further confirmed by theoretical DFT calculation. All the synthesized compounds were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against a panel of selected bacterial and fungal strains using Ciprofloxacin and Ketoconazole as standards. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) results revealed that most of the 2,6-diaryl-1-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)piperidin-4-one oximes (17, 19, 20 and 23) exhibited better activity against the selected bacterial and fungal strains.

  15. Spectroscopic and pH-metric studies of the complexation of 3-[2-(4-methylquinolin-2-yl)hydrazono]butan-2-one oxime compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleem, H. S.; El-Inany, G. A.; Mousa, M.; Hanafy, F. I.

    2010-05-01

    The electronic absorption spectra of the oximic quinolinyl hydrazone (MHQ; H 2L) and its Co(II) and Cu(II)-complexes have been studied in Britton-Rhobinson buffer solutions of varying pH's in 75% dioxane-water. The dissociation constant of the hydrazone (p KH) as well as the stability constants (log K) of its chelates were determined spectrophotometrically and pH-metrically. The obtained data are in good agreement. Beer's law is valid in the ranges (0.64-6.99) and (2.36-6.48) μg/mL for Cu(II) and Co(II)-ions, respectively. On the other hand, the p KH and log K were determined pH-metrically in 75% solvent-water; (solvent = dioxane, ethanol, methanol and isopropanol). The variation of p KH or log K as a function of solvent parameters viz. 1/ D, ET, AN and π* was used to evaluate the dissociation and stability constants in the aqueous medium. Furthermore, the reaction of the oximic hydrazone (H 2L) with copper(II)-nitrate and chloride in addition to copper(I)-iodide afforded square planar mononuclear and binuclear complexes in which the oximic hydrazone showed three different modes of bonding. The obtained complexes reflect the strong bridging ability of the oximato group as well as its ambidentate and flexidentate characters.

  16. Biogenic amines in italian pecorino cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Visciano, Pierina; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations, and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (∼62.000t of production in 2010). Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or pasteurized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA). Bacterial amino acid decarboxylase activity and BA content have to be investigated within the complex microbial community of raw milk cheese for different cheese technologies. The results emphasize the necessity of controlling the indigenous bacterial population responsible for high production of BA and the use of competitive adjunct cultures could be suggested. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA's in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, water activity, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge), and the presence of cofactor (pyridoxal phosphate, availability of aminases and deaminases). In fact physico-chemical parameters seem to favor biogenic amine-positive microbiota; both of these environmental factors can easily be modulated, in order to control growth of undesirable microorganisms. Generally, the total content of BA's in Pecorino cheeses can range from about 100-2400

  17. Study on the Reaction of Benzimidazolium Salt with Amine Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The addition-hydrolysis reaction of benzimidazolium salt with some mono- andbifunctional amine nucleophiles is reported, and a novel method of biomimetic synthesis forformamides and heterocycle compounds is provided.

  18. Biogenic amines in meat and fermented meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Stadnik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends in food quality and safety promote an increasing search for trace compounds that can affect human health. Biogenic amines belong to this group of substances. They can cause distinctive pharmacological, physiological and toxic effects in organisms. Their amounts are usually increasing as a consequence of the use of poor quality raw materials, during controlled or spontaneous microbial fermentation or in the course of food spoilage. The origin of biogenic amines makes them suitable as chemical indicators of the hygienic quality and freshness of some foods being associated to the degree of food fermentation or degradation. The development of appropriate manufacturing technologies to obtain products free or nearly free from biogenic amines is a challenge for the meat industry. This review briefly summarises current knowledge on the biological implications of biogenic amines on human health and collects data on the factors affecting their formation in meat and fermented meat products.

  19. FTIR Study of Enhanced Polymeric Blend Membrane with Amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Mushtaq

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, research will be carried out to identify the functional group behavior of glassy and rubbery polymeric blend membrane with amines. Polymeric blend membranes with different blending ratios were prepared and the developed membranes were characterized by FTIR to see the effect of blend ratio on different functional groups. The developed membranes are flat dense sheet membrane of 20% wt/wt. The pure and blend membrane polysulfone, polyethersulfone, polyvinyl acetate with different composition, with 10% methyl diethanol amine, mono ethanol amine, diethanol amine are developed with dimethyl acetamide solvent. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy was utilized to study the interaction between two polymers and to analyze the type of bonding present. To observed frequencies were assigned to various mode of vibration in terms of fundamentals and combination. These spectral changes indicated the existence of molecular interaction among the enhanced polymeric blends; highlight the compatible nature among each other.

  20. Two simple amine hydrochlorides from the soft coral Lobophytum strictum

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Two simple amine hydrochlorides, viz., 1-amino-1, 1-dimethyl-3-oxo-butane hydrochloride (1) (Diacetonamine) and 2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidone hydrochloride (2) have been isolated from the fraction of the methanolic extract of the soft coral...

  1. Amine reclaiming technologies in post-combustion carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tielin; Hovland, Jon; Jens, Klaus J

    2015-01-01

    Amine scrubbing is the most developed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. Degradation of amine solvents due to the presence of high levels of oxygen and other impurities in flue gas causes increasing costs and deterioration in long term performance, and therefore purification of the solvents is needed to overcome these problems. This review presents the reclaiming of amine solvents used for post combustion CO2 capture (PCC). Thermal reclaiming, ion exchange, and electrodialysis, although principally developed for sour gas sweetening, have also been tested for CO2 capture from flue gas. The three technologies all have their strengths and weaknesses, and further development is needed to reduce energy usage and costs. An expected future trend for amine reclamation is to focus on process integration of the current reclaiming technologies into the PCC process in order to drive down costs.

  2. Silver-catalyzed synthesis of amides from amines and aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madix, Robert J; Zhou, Ling; Xu, Bingjun; Friend, Cynthia M; Freyschlag, Cassandra G

    2014-11-18

    The invention provides a method for producing amides via the reaction of aldehydes and amines with oxygen adsorbed on a metallic silver or silver alloy catalyst. An exemplary reaction is shown in Scheme 1: (I), (II), (III). ##STR00001##

  3. Amine reclaiming technologies in post-combustion carbon dioxide capture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tielin Wang; Jon Hovland; KlauS J.Jens

    2015-01-01

    Amine scrubbing is the most developed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture.Degradation of amine solvents due to the presence of high levels of oxygen and other impurities in flue gas causes increasing costs and deterioration in long term performance,and therefore purification of the solvents is needed to overcome these problems.This review presents the reclaiming of amine solvents used for post combustion CO2 capture (PCC).Thermal reclaiming,ion exchange,and electrodialysis,although principally developed for sour gas sweetening,have also been tested for CO2 capture from flue gas.The three technologies all have their strengths and weaknesses,and further development is needed to reduce energy usage and costs.An expected future trend for amine reclamation is to focus on process integration of the current reclaiming technologies into the PCC process in order to drive down costs.

  4. Isomerization of metastable amine radical cations by dissociation-recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Holmen; Nielsen, Christian Benedikt; Bojesen, Gustav;

    2015-01-01

    The metastable molecular ions of primary aliphatic amines branched at C2 can isomerize by cleavage-recombination, thereby facilitating fragmentation reactions that require less energy than simple cleavage of the initial molecular ion. This process complements the reactions described by Audier...... to account for the conspicuous absence of the conventional a-cleavage among the major fragmentation reactions of the metastable molecular ions of primary amines....

  5. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X.; Price, D.; Praske, E.; Vu, D. N.; Purvis-Roberts, K.; Silva, P. J.; Cocker, D. R., III; Asa-Awuku, A.

    2014-06-01

    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g., hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The particle can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The ratio of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA) and butylamine (BA) reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH) is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ, ≤ 0.25). Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA) with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3) contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA) aerosol. As relative humidity (RH) increases, inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR) ideal mixing rules. The humid BA + N2O5 aerosol products were found to be very sensitive to the temperature at which the measurements were made within the streamwise continuous-flow thermal gradient CCN counter; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss) settings. The variance of the measured aerosol κ values indicates that simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems' κ ranges within 0.2 systems.

  6. Biogenic amines in wines from three Spanish regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landete, José M; Ferrer, Sergi; Polo, Lucía; Pardo, Isabel

    2005-02-23

    One hundred and sixty-three wines from La Rioja, Utiel-Requena, and Tarragona were analyzed to determine if there were any differences in the concentrations of six biogenic amines that are found in these three regions. The influence of grape variety, type of vinification, wine pH, malolactic fermentation, and storage in bottle on biogenic amine concentrations was studied. Results show important differences in putrescine and histamine concentrations among regions, varieties of grape, and type of wine; differences were less appreciable for the remaining biogenic amines studied. Low pH prevented biogenic amine formation. Malolactic fermentation and short storage periods in bottle (3-6 months) showed increases in histamine concentration, whereas longer periods of storage led to a general decrease in histamine. Several strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated in this work, and their ability to form biogenic amines was assayed in synthetic media, grape must, and wine. Grape varieties, different types of winemaking, pH, and lactic acid bacteria may be responsible for the differences observed in the biogenic amine concentrations of the wines analyzed.

  7. STRUCTURAL EFFECT ON VINYL POLYMERIZATION INITIATED WITH AROMATIC TERTIARY AMINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Weixiao; FENG Xinde

    1983-01-01

    The polymerization mechanism of various vinyl monomers in the presence of aromatic tertiary amines has been studied. It was found that the mechanisms of different monomers are varied with the structures of monomers. Those monomers, such as methacrylic esters containing α-CH3 group on the double bond could be polymerized with aromatic tertiary amine in the absence of light,while the monomers without α-CH3 group, such as methyl acrylate, acrylonitrile etc. would polymerize only under light.The structural effects, both of the monomer and the amine, on the rate of photopolymerization were studied. The activities of monomers and amines may be arranged in the following orderMonomer: AN>MA>VA>St Amine: DMT>DMA>DMB>DNAIt is revealed that both the electro-negative group on the double bond of monomer which acts as an acceptor and the electro-positive group on the nitrogen atom of amine which acts as a donor would effectively increase the rate of photopolymerization.

  8. STUDIES ON VINYL POLYMERIZATION WITH INITIATION SYSTEM CONTAINING AMINE DERIVATIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Kunyuan; ZHANG Jingyi; FENG Xinde(S. T. Voong)

    1983-01-01

    Two main types of amine-containing initiation systems were studied in this work. In the case of MMA polymerization initiated by BPO-amine (DMT, DHET, DMA) redox systems, it was found that the polymerization rate and colour stability of the polymer for different amine systems were in the following order: DMT≈DHET>DMA. Accordingly, BPO-DMT and BPO-DHET are effective initiators. In the case of MEMA polymerization by amine (DMT, DHET, DMA) alone, it was found that the polymerization rate and the percentage of conversion for these different amine systems were in the following order: DMT≥DHET>DMA. The polymerization rate and the percentage of conversion also increased with the increase of DMT concentration. From the kinetic investigation the rate equation of Rp=K [DMT]1/2 [MEMA]3/2 was obtained, and the overall activation energy of polymerization was calculated to be 34.3 KJ/mol (8.2 Kcal/mol). Moreover, the polymerization of MEMA in the presence of DMT was strongly inhibited by hydroquinone, indicating the polymerization being free radical in nature. From these results, the mechanism of MEMA polymerization initiated by amine was proposed.

  9. Amine-functionalized porous silicas as adsorbents for aldehyde abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Akihiro; Jones, Christopher W

    2013-06-26

    A series of aminopropyl-functionalized silicas containing of primary, secondary, or tertiary amines is fabricated via silane-grafting on mesoporous SBA-15 silica and the utility of each material in the adsorption of volatile aldehydes from air is systematically assessed. A particular emphasis is placed on low-molecular-weight aldehydes such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, which are highly problematic volatile organic compound (VOC) pollutants. The adsorption tests demonstrate that the aminosilica materials with primary amines most effectively adsorbed formaldehyde with an adsorption capacity of 1.4 mmolHCHO g(-1), whereas the aminosilica containing secondary amines showed lower adsorption capacity (0.80 mmolHCHO g(-1)) and the aminosilica containing tertiary amines adsorbed a negligible amount of formaldehyde. The primary amine containing silica also successfully abated higher aldehyde VOC pollutants, including acetaldehyde, hexanal, and benzaldehyde, by effectively adsorbing them. The adsorption mechanism is investigated by (13)C CP MAS solid-state NMR and FT-Raman spectroscopy, and it is demonstrated that the aldehydes are chemically attached to the surface of aminosilica in the form of imines and hemiaminals. The high aldehyde adsorption capacities of the primary aminosilicas in this study demonstrate the utility of amine-functionalized silica materials for reduction of gaseous aldehydes.

  10. Heterocyclic amines in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliye BULGAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Heterocyclic amines (HA are the mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds which generate as a result of cooking of red meat, poultry meat and fish fillets at high temperatures. Up to 20 different HAs were detected and classified in the researches that conducted on these types of meats cooked at high temperatures. HAs are the products of Maillard reactions and the Strecker degredation of main precursors such as creatine/creatinine, aminoacid and the polysaccharides. Many physical and chemical factors effect the formation of HAs. Thus, it was reported by many researchers that utilizing coating and marination processes in addition to using natural and synthetic antioxidants and seasonings-plant extracts were effective on inhibiting/decreasing the formation of HAs. Additionally, boiling/steaming and microwave cooking methodologies were recommended instead of barbecuing, grilling or frying to inhibit/decrease the formation of HAs. The HAs formed in meat and meat products and the factors which have effects on the formation of HAs are presented in this review.

  11. ANTIMICROBIAL POTENT OXAZINE-2-AMINE DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GANESAMOORTHY THIRUNARAYANAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To synthesize thirteen effective microbial potent oxazine-2-amine derivatives and evaluate the antimicrobial activities of these compounds. Material and methods: The solvent-free solid fly-ash: H2SO4 catalyzed cyclization of 4-bromo-1-naphthyl chalcones and urea under microwave irradiation technique was utilized for the synthesis of oxazine derivatives. The synthesized oxazines were characterized by their physical constants and spectroscopic data. The Bauer-Kirby disc-diffusion method of measurement of zone of inhibition was used for evaluation antimicrobial activity of synthesized oxazines. Results: The cyclization was effective and this reaction gave more than 80% yield. The catalyst was reused up to five times consecutively without appreciable decreasing of yield. All compounds were active against their microbial strains. Conclusions: This solvent-free synthetic method was effective for the synthesis of oxazine derivatives. The amino, dimethylamino, halogens, methoxy and methyl substituted oxazines shows significant antibacterial activity. Chloro, hydroxy and nitro substituted oxazine derivative have shown significant antifungal activity.

  12. Dynamic Kinetic Asymmetric Amination of Alcohols: From A Mixture of Four Isomers to Diastereo- and Enantiopure α-Branched Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Zi-Qiang; Zhang, Yao; Chua, Raymond Hong Bing; Pan, Hui-Jie; Zhao, Yu

    2015-04-22

    The first dynamic kinetic asymmetric amination of alcohols via borrowing hydrogen methodology is presented. Under the cooperative catalysis by an iridium complex and a chiral phosphoric acid, α-branched alcohols that exist as a mixture of four isomers undergo racemization by two orthogonal mechanisms and are converted to diastereo- and enantiopure amines bearing adjacent stereocenters. The preparation of diastereo- and enantiopure 1,2-amino alcohols is also realized using this catalytic system.

  13. Preparation of tertiary amines by the reaction of iminium ions derived from unsymmetrical aminals with zinc and magnesium organometallics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Veronika; Ellwart, Mario; Wagner, Andreas J; Knochel, Paul

    2015-04-17

    We report a convenient one-pot preparation of polyfunctional tertiary amines, including various biorelevant phenethylamines or ephedrine derivatives, via the reaction of new functionalized iminium ions with a variety of zinc and magnesium organometallic reagents. These iminium ions were generated from unsymmetrical aminals, obtained by the in situ addition of various amides to Tietze's iminium salt [Me2NCH2(+)CF3COO(-)]. A functionalized aniline, prepared by this method, was converted to a quinolidine via an intramolecular Heck reaction.

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain ...

  15. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalography (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain.

  16. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ravi kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalograph y (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain

  17. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  18. Biogenic amines in Italian Pecorino cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eSchirone

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (approximately 53.727t of production. Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or thermized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA’s in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, aw, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge and the presence of cofactor. Generally, the total content of BA’s can range from about 100-2400 mg/kg, with a prevalence of toxicologically important BA’s, tyramine and histamine. The presence of BA in Pecorino cheeses is becoming increasingly important to consumers and cheese-maker alike, due to the potential threats of toxicity to humans and consequent trade implications.

  19. The ozonolysis of primary aliphatic amines in fine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zahardis

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative processing by ozone of the particulate amines octadecylamine (ODA and hexadecylamine (HDA is reported. Ozonolysis of these amines resulted in strong NO2 and NO3 ion signals that increased with ozone exposure as monitored by photoelectron resonance capture ionization aerosol mass spectrometry. These products suggest a mechanism of progressive oxidation of the particulate amines to nitroalkanes. Additionally, a strong ion signal at 125 m/z is assigned to the ion NO3 (HNO3. For ozonized mixed particles containing ODA or HDA + oleic acid (OL, with pO3≥3×10–7 atm, imine, secondary amide, and tertiary amide products were measured. These products most likely arise from reactions of amines with aldehydes (for imines and stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCI or secondary ozonides (for amides from the fatty acid. The routes to amides via SCI and/or secondary ozonides were shown to be more important than comparable amide forming reactions between amines and organic acids, using azelaic acid as a test compound. Finally, direct evidence is provided for the formation of a surface barrier in the ODA + OL reaction system that resulted in the retention of OL at high ozone exposures (up to 10−3 atm for 17 s. This effect was not observed in HDA + OL or single component OL particles, suggesting that it may be a species-specific surfactant effect from an in situ generated amide or imine. Implications to tropospheric chemistry, including particle bound amines as sources of oxidized gas phase nitrogen species (e.g.~NO2, NO3, formation of nitrogen enriched HULIS via ozonolysis of amines and source apportionment are discussed.

  20. Secondary aerosol formation from atmospheric reactions of aliphatic amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Murphy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although aliphatic amines have been detected in both urban and rural atmospheric aerosols, little is known about the chemistry leading to particle formation or the potential aerosol yields from reactions of gas-phase amines. We present here the first systematic study of aerosol formation from the atmospheric reactions of amines. Based on laboratory chamber experiments and theoretical calculations, we evaluate aerosol formation from reaction of OH, ozone, and nitric acid with trimethylamine, methylamine, triethylamine, diethylamine, ethylamine, and ethanolamine. Entropies of formation for alkylammonium nitrate salts are estimated by molecular dynamics calculations enabling us to estimate equilibrium constants for the reactions of amines with nitric acid. Though subject to significant uncertainty, the calculated dissociation equilibrium constant for diethylammonium nitrate is found to be sufficiently small to allow for its atmospheric formation, even in the presence of ammonia which competes for available nitric acid. Experimental chamber studies indicate that the dissociation equilibrium constant for triethylammonium nitrate is of the same order of magnitude as that for ammonium nitrate. All amines studied form aerosol when photooxidized in the presence of NOx with the majority of the aerosol mass present at the peak of aerosol growth consisting of aminium (R3NH+ nitrate salts, which repartition back to the gas phase as the parent amine is consumed. Only the two tertiary amines studied, trimethylamine and triethylamine, are found to form significant non-salt organic aerosol when oxidized by OH or ozone; calculated organic mass yields for the experiments conducted are similar for ozonolysis (15% and 5% respectively and photooxidation (23% and 8% respectively. The non-salt organic aerosol formed appears to be more stable than the nitrate salts and does not quickly repartition back to the gas phase.

  1. Secondary aerosol formation from atmospheric reactions of aliphatic amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Murphy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although aliphatic amines have been detected in both urban and rural atmospheric aerosols, little is known about the chemistry leading to particle formation or the potential aerosol yields from reactions of gas-phase amines. We present here the first systematic study of aerosol formation from the atmospheric reactions of amines. Based on laboratory chamber experiments and theoretical calculations, we evaluate aerosol formation from reaction of OH, ozone, and nitric acid with trimethylamine, methylamine, triethylamine, diethylamine, ethylamine, and ethanolamine. Entropies of formation for alkylammonium nitrate salts are estimated by molecular dynamics calculations enabling us to estimate equilibrium constants for the reactions of amines with nitric acid. Though subject to significant uncertainty, the calculated dissociation equilibrium constant for diethylammonium nitrate is found to be sufficiently small to allow for its atmospheric formation, even in the presence of ammonia which competes for available nitric acid. Experimental chamber studies indicate that the dissociation equilibrium constant for triethylammonium nitrate is of the same order of magnitude as that for ammonium nitrate. All amines studied form aerosol when photooxidized in the presence of NOx with the majority of the aerosol mass present at the peak of aerosol growth consisting of aminium (R3NH+ nitrate salts, which repartition back to the gas phase as the parent amine is consumed. Only the two tertiary amines studied, trimethylamine and triethylamine, are found to form significant non-salt organic aerosol when oxidized by OH or ozone; calculated organic mass yields for the experiments conducted are similar for ozonolysis (15% and 5% respectively and photooxidation (23% and 8% respectively. The non-salt organic aerosol formed appears to be more stable than the nitrate salts and does not quickly repartition back to the gas phase.

  2. Mutagenic activity and heterocyclic amine content of the human diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knize, M.G.; Dolbeare, F.A.; Cunningham, P.L.; Felton, J.S.

    1993-01-15

    The mutagenic activity and the mass amount of heterocyclic amines responsible for the mutagenic activity have been measured in some cooked foods. Cooked meats are the predominant source of mutagenic activity in the diet with values ranging from 0 to 10,000 revertants per gram reported in the Ames/Salmonelia test with strain TA98. Several heterocyclic amines are present and have been quantified using solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC. Frying at higher temperatures and for longer times produces the greatest mutagenic response, and concomitantly, the largest amounts of heterocyclic amines. Most of the mutagenic activity in fried meat samples can be accounted for by MelQx, DiMelQx and IQ, although other heterocylic amines are present and PHIP mutagenic activity becomes significant at higher temperatures. Non-meat products such as baked breads can also form significant mutagenic activity, particularly when overcooked. Commercially prepared hamburgers made from meat substitutes such as tofu, wheat gluten or tempeh and fried at 210{degrees}C have up to 10% of the mutagenic activity of a fried beef patty cooked under the same conditions. When detected, amounts of heterocyclic amines in fried beef patties range from a total of 0.35 ng/g for commercial beef hamburgers to 142 ng/g for a beef patty cooked over a barbecue. Dietary intake is expected to have a large range, from less than one microgram per day to over 50 micrograms per day based on current knowledge of known heterocyclic amine chemicals and heterocyclic amine-containing foods.

  3. Biogenic amines at a low level of evolution: Production, functions and regulation in the unicellular Tetrahymena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György

    2015-06-01

    The unicellular eukaryote Tetrahymena synthesize, store and secrete biogenic amines (histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, dopamine, melatonin) and also can take up amines from the milieu. It also has (G-protein-coupled) receptors (binding sites) for these amines as well, as second messengers. The factors infuencing the mentioned processes are shown. For certain amines the genes and the coded enzymes are demonstrated. The amines influence phagocytosis, cell division, ciliary regeneration, glucose metabolism and chemotaxis. There are interhormone actions between the amines, and between the amines and other hormones produced by Tetrahymena. The critical review discusses the role of amines in the early stages of evolution and compares this to their functions in mammals. It tries to give answer how and why biogenic amines were selected to hormones, and why new functions formed for them in higher ranked animals, preserving also the ancient ones.

  4. Preparation and surface active properties of oxypropylated diol monoesters of fatty acids with an amide oxime terminal group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A. M.F.

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Locally produced non-edible oil, namely, rice bran oil (R.B.O. was utilized as starting materials for preparing new nonionic surfactant. Oxypropylated diol monoesters of linoleic and rice bran oil fatty acids were prepared. Also amide oxime derivatives were obtained. Surface active properties of these compounds were measured. Under neutral condition amide eximes served as nonionic surfactants and their properties were similar to other oxypropylated monoesters.

    Se ha utilizado un aceite no comestible de producción local, denominado, aceite de salvado de arroz (R.B.O. como materia prima para la preparación de nuevos tensioactivos no iónicos. Se prepararon diol monoésteres oxipropilados de ácido linoleico y ácidos grasos de aceite de salvado de arroz. También se obtuvieron los derivados de amido oxima. Se midieron las propiedades de tensión superficial de estos compuestos. Bajo condiciones neutras las amido eximas sirvieron como tensioactivos no iónicos y sus propiedades fueron similares a los de otros monoésteres oxipropilados.

  5. Versatile preparation of intracellular-acidity-sensitive oxime-linked polysaccharide-doxorubicin conjugate for malignancy therapeutic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weiguo; Ding, Jianxun; Xiao, Chunsheng; Li, Lingyu; Zhuang, Xiuli; Chen, Xuesi

    2015-06-01

    Recently, chemotherapy has been one of the most important therapeutic approaches for malignant tumors. The tumor tissular or intracellular microenvironment-sensitive polymer-doxorubicin (DOX) conjugates demonstrate great potential for improved antitumor efficacy and reduced side effects. In this work, the acid-sensitive dextran-DOX conjugate (noted as Dex-O-DOX) was synthesized through the versatile efficient oximation reaction between the terminal aldehyde group of polysaccharide and the amino group in DOX in the buffer solution of sodium acetate/acetic acid. The insensitive one, i.e., Dex-b-DOX, was prepared similarly as Dex-O-DOX with a supplemented reduction reaction. The DOX release from Dex-O-DOX was pH-dependent and accelerated by the decreased pH. The efficient intracellular DOX release from Dex-O-DOX toward the human hepatoma HepG2 cells was further confirmed. Furthermore, Dex-O-DOX exhibited a closer antiproliferative activity to free DOX·HCl as the extension of time. More importantly, compared with Dex-b-DOX, Dex-O-DOX exhibited higher antitumor activity and lower toxicity, which were further confirmed by the systemic histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Hence, the facilely prepared smart polysaccharide-DOX conjugates, i.e., Dex-O-DOX, exhibited great potential in the clinical chemotherapy of malignancy.

  6. Enzymatic prenylation and oxime ligation for the synthesis of stable and homogeneous protein-drug conjugates for targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joong-Jae; Choi, Hyo-Jung; Yun, Misun; Kang, YingJin; Jung, Ji-Eun; Ryu, Yiseul; Kim, Tae Yoon; Cha, Young-Je; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Min, Jung-Joon; Chung, Chul-Woong; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2015-10-05

    Targeted therapy based on protein-drug conjugates has attracted significant attention owing to its high efficacy and low side effects. However, efficient and stable drug conjugation to a protein binder remains a challenge. Herein, a chemoenzymatic method to generate highly stable and homogenous drug conjugates with high efficiency is presented. The approach comprises the insertion of the CaaX sequence at the C-terminal end of the protein binder, prenylation using farnesyltransferase, and drug conjugation through an oxime ligation reaction. MMAF and an EGFR-specific repebody are used as the antitumor agent and protein binder, respectively. The method enables the precisely controlled synthesis of repebody-drug conjugates with high yield and homogeneity. The utility of this approach is illustrated by the notable stability of the repebody-drug conjugates in human plasma, negligible off-target effects, and a remarkable antitumor activity in vivo. The present method can be widely used for generating highly homogeneous and stable PDCs for targeted therapy.

  7. Cytotoxic, genotoxic and apoptotic effects of naringenin-oxime relative to naringenin on normal and cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdurrahim Kocyigit; Ismail Koyuncu; Murat Dikilitas; Fatemeh Bahadori; Baki Turkkan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the cytotoxic, genotoxic, apoptotic and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating effects of naringenin (NG) and its new derived compound naringenin-oxime (NG-Ox) on MCF-7, HT-29, PC-12 cancer and L-929 normal cell lines. Methods: The cells were incubated with different doses of NG-Ox and NG (50–1 000 mmol/L) for 24 h. The cell viability was assessed based on ATP cell viability assay. Intracellular accumulation of ROS was determined using the fluorescent probes 2070-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate. Genotoxic effects were evaluated by alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) and, the apoptotic effect was evaluated by acridine orange staining at below the IC50 levels. Results: Both NG-Ox and NG exhibited cytotoxic, genotoxic and apoptotic effects and resulted in increased ROS values in a dose-dependent manner. The effects were more pronounced on cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic, genotoxic and apoptotic effects of NG-Ox were higher than that of NG in all cell lines. Significant correlations were observed be-tween cell viability, DNA damage, apoptosis and ROS, in all cell lines exposed to either NG-Ox or NG. Conclusions: This study showed that both NG-Ox and NG possess cytotoxic, genotoxic and apoptotic activities through the production of ROS on cells, NG-Ox being the more effective one. Therefore, derived compound of NG might be used as antiproliferative agents for the treatment of cancer.

  8. Pyruvic Oxime Nitrification and Copper and Nickel Resistance by a Cupriavidus pauculus, an Active Heterotrophic Nitrifier-Denitrifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ramirez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotrophic nitrifiers synthesize nitrogenous gasses when nitrifying ammonium ion. A Cupriavidus pauculus, previously thought an Alcaligenes sp. and noted as an active heterotrophic nitrifier-denitrifier, was examined for its ability to produce nitrogen gas (N2 and nitrous oxide (N2O while heterotrophically nitrifying the organic substrate pyruvic oxime [CH3–C(NOH–COOH]. Neither N2 nor N2O were produced. Nucleotide and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the organism is a member of a genus (Cupriavidus known for its resistance to metals and its metabolism of xenobiotics. The microbe (a Cupriavidus pauculus designated as C. pauculus strain UM1 was examined for its ability to perform heterotrophic nitrification in the presence of Cu2+ and Ni2+ and to metabolize the xenobiotic phenol. The bacterium heterotrophically nitrified well when either 1 mM Cu2+ or 0.5 mM Ni2+ was present in either enriched or minimal medium. The organism also used phenol as a sole carbon source in either the presence or absence of 1 mM Cu2+ or 0.5 mM Ni2+. The ability of this isolate to perform a number of different metabolisms, its noteworthy resistance to copper and nickel, and its potential use as a bioremediation agent are discussed.

  9. Brain components

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can make complex movements without thinking. The brain stem connects the brain with the spinal cord and is composed of ... structures: the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The brain stem provides us with automatic functions that are necessary ...

  10. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  11. Brain Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can lead to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits ... tailored treatments, and possibly prevention of such illnesses. The Working Brain Neurotransmitters Everything we do relies on ...

  14. Oxidations of amines with molecular oxygen using bifunctional gold–titania catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Søren Kegnæs; Egeblad, Kresten; Mentzel, Uffe Vie

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decades it has become clear that supported gold nanoparticles are surprisingly active and selective catalysts for several green oxidation reactions of oxygen-containing hydrocarbons using molecular oxygen as the stoichiometric oxidant. We here report that bifunctional gold–titania c...... new and environmentally benign routes to caprolactam and cyclohexanone oxime, both of which are precursors for nylon-6....

  15. Polycyclic amines as chloroquine resistance modulating agents in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Jacques; Kapp, Erika; Taylor, Dale; Smith, Peter J; Malan, Sarel F

    2016-02-15

    Pentacycloundecylamines (PCUs) and adamantane amines, such as NGP1-01 (1) and amantadine, have shown significant channel blocking activities. They are postulated to act as chemosensitizers and circumvent the resistance of the plasmodia parasite against chloroquine (CQ) by inhibiting the p-glycoprotein efflux pump and enabling the accumulation of CQ inside the parasite digestive vacuole. Twelve polycyclic amines containing either a PCU or adamantane amine moiety conjugated to different aromatic functionalities through various tethered linkers were selected based on their channel blocking abilities and evaluated as potential chemosensitizers. Compounds 2, 4, 5 and 10 showed significant voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) blocking ability (IC50=0.27-35 μM) and were able to alter the CQ IC50 in differing degrees (45-81%) in the multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum Dd2 isolate. Among them, the PCU-dansyl amine compound (4) displayed the best potential to act as a chemosensitizer against the Dd2 strain at a 1 μM concentration (RMI=0.19) while displaying moderate antiplasmodial activity (Dd2 IC50=6.25 μM) and low in vitro cytotoxicity against a mammalian cell line (CHO, IC50=119 μM). Compounds 2 and 10 also showed some promising chemosensitizing abilities (RMI=0.36 and 0.35 respectively). A direct correlation was found between the VGCC blocking ability of these polycyclic amines and their capacity to act as CQ resistance modulating agents.

  16. Choosing amine-based absorbents for CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, João; Santos, Samuel; Bordado, João

    2015-01-01

    CO2 capture from gaseous effluents is one of the great challenges faced by chemical and environmental engineers, as the increase in CO2 levels in the Earth atmosphere might be responsible for dramatic climate changes. From the existing capture technologies, the only proven and mature technology is chemical absorption using aqueous amine solutions. However, bearing in mind that this process is somewhat expensive, it is important to choose the most efficient and, at the same time, the least expensive solvents. For this purpose, a pilot test facility was assembled and includes an absorption column, as well as a stripping column, a heat exchanger between the two columns, a reboiler for the stripping column, pumping systems, surge tanks and all necessary instrumentation and control systems. Some different aquous amine solutions were tested on this facility and it was found that, from a set of six tested amines, diethanol amine is the one that turned out to be the most economical choice, as it showed a higher CO2 loading capacity (0.982 mol of CO2 per mol of amine) and the lowest price per litre (25.70 €/L), even when compared with monoethanolamine, the benchmark solvent, exhibiting a price per litre of 30.50 €/L.

  17. Blue Chitin columns for the extraction of heterocyclic amines from urine samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, J.; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Skog, K.

    2004-01-01

    During normal cooking of meat, a class of mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds called heterocyclic amines is formed. Heterocyclic amines are rapidly absorbed and metabolised in the human body, and for estimation of the intake of heterocyclic amines, it is useful to determinate their levels in the urine....... Blue Chitin columns were used for the extraction and purification of heterocyclic amines from urine samples spiked with 14 different heterocyclic amines. The samples were analysed using LC-MS. The results show that Blue Chitin columns provide a straightforward and rapid means of extracting heterocyclic...... amines from urine samples, and that Blue Chitin column are also useful in the purification of urinary metabolites....

  18. The Potential of the Yeast Debaryomyces hansenii H525 to Degrade Biogenic Amines in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Bäumlisberger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six yeasts from different genera were investigated for their ability to metabolize biogenic amines. About half of the yeast strains produced one or more different biogenic amines, but some strains of Debaryomyces hansenii and Yarrowia lipolytica were also able to degrade such compounds. The most effective strain D. hanseniii H525 metabolized a broad spectrum of biogenic amines by growing and resting cells. Degradation of biogenic amines by this yeast isolate could be attributed to a peroxisomal amine oxidase activity. Strain H525 may be useful as a starter culture to reduce biogenic amines in fermented food.

  19. New amines for the reversible absorption of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michele Aresta; Angela Dibenedetto [University of Bari, Bari (Italy). Department of Chemistry and METEA Research Center

    2003-07-01

    This paper discusses the use of new amines as a medium for the capture of CO{sub 2} from a gas mixture. The study was carried out comparing the absorption of carbon dioxide by two alkyl-di-amines with that of amines used so far at industrial level, namely mono-ethanolamine (MEA). A known mono silyl-alkyl-amine was also studied for comparison. The absorption of carbon dioxide was studied at different temperatures, in water solution, in organic solvents and using the neat amine. Several cycles of absorption/desorption were carried out. Xerogel solidified amines were also used. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  20. A Metal and Base-Free Chemoselective Primary Amination of Boronic Acids Using Cyanamidyl/Arylcyanamidyl Radical as Aminating Species: Synthesis and Mechanistic Studies by Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nachiketa; Arfeen, Minhajul; Bharatam, Prasad V; Goswami, Avijit

    2016-06-17

    An efficient, metal and base-free, chemoselective synthesis of aryl-, heteroaryl-, and alkyl primary amines from the corresponding boronic acids has been achieved at ambient temperature mediated by [bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodo]benzene (PIFA) and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) using cyanamidyl/arylcyanamidyl radicals as the aminating species. The primary amine compounds were initially obtained as their corresponding ammonium trifluoroacetate salts which, on treatment with aq NaOH, provide the free amines. Finally, the primary amines were isolated through column chromatography over silica-gel using hexane-EtOAc solvent system as the eluent. The reactions are sufficiently fast, completing within 1 h. Quantum chemical calculations in combination with experimental observations validate that the ipso amination of substituted boronic acids involves the formation of cyanamidyl/arylcyanamidyl radical, followed by regiospecific interaction of its nitrile-N center with boron atom of the boronic acids, leading to chemoselective primary amination.

  1. Amine modeling for CO2 capture: internals selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpe, Prakash; Aichele, Clint P

    2013-04-16

    Traditionally, trays have been the mass-transfer device of choice in amine absorption units. However, the need to process large volumes of flue gas to capture CO2 and the resultant high costs of multiple trains of large trayed columns have prompted process licensors and vendors to investigate alternative mass-transfer devices. These alternatives include third-generation random packings and structured packings. Nevertheless, clear-cut guidelines for selection of packings for amine units are lacking. This paper provides well-defined guidelines and a consistent framework for the choice of mass-transfer devices for amine absorbers and regenerators. This work emphasizes the role played by the flow parameter, a measure of column liquid loading and pressure, in the type of packing selected. In addition, this paper demonstrates the significant economic advantage of packings over trays in terms of capital costs (CAPEX) and operating costs (OPEX).

  2. Mechanism of phosphine borane deprotection with amines: the effects of phosphine, solvent and amine on rate and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Guy C; Taylor, Nicholas P

    2015-03-27

    The kinetics of borane transfer from simple tertiary phosphine borane adducts to a wide range of amines have been determined. All data obtained, including second-order kinetics, lack of cross-over, and negative entropies of activation for reaction of triphenylphosphine borane with quinuclidine and triethylamine, are consistent with a direct (SN 2-like) transfer process, rather than a dissociative (SN 1-like) process. The identities of the amine, phosphine, and solvent all impact substantially on the rate (k) and equilibrium (K) of the transfer, which in some cases vary by many orders of magnitude. P-to-N transfer is more efficient with cyclic amines in apolar solvents due to reduced entropic costs and ground-state destabilisation. Taken as a whole, the data allow informed optimisation of the deprotection step from the stand-point of rate, or synthetic convenience. In all cases, both reactants should be present at high initial concentration to gain kinetic benefit from the bimolecularity of the process. Ultimately, the choice of amine is dictated by the identity of the phosphine borane complex. Aryl-rich phosphine boranes are sufficiently reactive to allow use of diethylamine or pyrrolidine as a volatile low polarity solvent and reactant, whereas more alkyl-rich phosphines benefit from the use of more reactive amines, such as 1,4-diaza[2.2.2]bicyclooctane (DABCO), in apolar solvents at higher temperatures.

  3. Skin absorption of six performance amines used in metalworking fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Lauriane N; Brooks, James D; Yeatts, James L; Baynes, Ronald E

    2015-05-01

    Every year, 10 million workers are exposed to metalworking fluids (MWFs) that may be toxic. There are four types of MWFs: neat oils and three water-based MWFs (soluble oil, semisynthetic and synthetic), which are diluted with water and whose composition varies according to the mineral oils ratio. MWFs also contain various additives. To determine the absorption of six amines used as corrosion inhibitors and biocides in MWFs, porcine skin flow-through diffusion cell experiments were conducted with hydrophilic ethanolamines (mono-, di- and triethanolamine, MEA, DEA and TEA respectively) and a mixture of lipophilic amines (dibutylethanolamine, dicyclohexylamine and diphenylamine). The six amines were dosed in four vehicles (water and three generic water-based MWF formulations) and analyzed using a scintillation counter or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These 24 h studies showed that dermal absorption significantly (P < 0.05) increased from water for the six amines (e.g. 1.15 ± 0.29% dose; DEA in water) compared to other formulations (e.g. 0.13 ± 0.01% dose; DEA in semisynthetic MWF) and absorption was greatest for dibutylethanolamine in all the formulations. The soluble oil formulation tended to increase the dermal absorption of the hydrophilic amines. The permeability coefficient was significantly higher (P < 0.05) with TEA relative to the other hydrophilic amines (e.g. 4.22 × 10(-4) ± 0.53 × 10(-4) cm h(-1) [TEA in synthetic MWF] vs. 1.23 × 10(-4) ± 0.10 × 10(-4) cm h(-1) [MEA in synthetic MWF]), except for MEA in soluble oil formulation. Future research will confirm these findings in an in vivo pig model along with dermatotoxicity studies. These results should help MWF industries choose safer additives for their formulations to protect the health of metalworkers.

  4. Dynamics of N-OH bond dissociation in cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone oxime at 193 nm: laser-induced fluorescence detection of nascent OH (v'', J'').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawade, Monali N; Saha, Ankur; Upadhyaya, Hari P; Kumar, Awadhesh; Naik, Prakash D

    2010-12-01

    Cyclohexanone oxime (CHO) and cyclopentanone oxime (CPO) in the vapor phase undergo N-OH bond scission upon excitation at 193 nm to produce OH, which was detected state selectively employing laser-induced fluorescence. The measured energy distribution between fragments for both oximes suggests that in CHO the OH produced is mostly vibrationally cold, with moderate rotational excitation, whereas in CPO the OH fragment is also formed in v'' = 1 (~2%). The rotational population of OH (v'' = 0, J'') from CHO is characterized by a rotational temperature of 1440 ± 80 K, whereas the rotational populations of OH (v'' = 0, J'') and OH (v'' = 1, J'') from CPO are characterized by temperatures of 1360 ± 90 K and 930 ± 170 K, respectively. A high fraction of the available energy is partitioned to the relative translation of the fragments with f(T) values of 0.25 and 0.22 for CHO and CPO, respectively. In the case of CHO, the Λ-doublet states of the nascent OH radical are populated almost equally in lower rotational quantum levels N'', with a preference for Π(+) (A') states for higher N''. However, there is no preference for either of the two spin orbit states Π(3/2) and Π(1/2) of OH. The nascent OH product in CPO is equally distributed in both Λ-doublet states of Π(+) (A') and Π(-) (A'') for all N'', but has a preference for the Π(3/2) spin orbit state. Experimental work in combination with theoretical calculations suggests that both CHO and CPO molecules at 193 nm are excited to the S(2) state, which undergoes nonradiative relaxation to the T(2) state. Subsequently, molecules undergo the N-OH bond dissociation from the T(2) state with an exit barrier to produce OH (v'', J'').

  5. Microwave-assisted syntheses of N-heterocycles using alkenone-, alkynone- and aryl-carbonyl O-phenyl oximes: formal synthesis of neocryptolepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela-Cubillo, Fernando; Scott, Jackie S; Walton, John C

    2008-07-18

    This research aimed to provide a new and "clean" synthetic method that would enable both known and novel N-heterocycles to be prepared efficiently. O-Phenyl oximes were found to be excellent precursors for iminyl radicals with a variety of acceptor side chains. Dihyropyrroles were made in good yields from O-phenyl oximes containing pent-4-ene acceptors. The analogous process with a hex-5-enyl acceptor did not yield a dihydropyridine, probably because the 6-exo-trig ring closure of the iminyl radical was too slow to compete with H-atom abstraction. The iminyl radical from a precursor with a pent-4-yne type side chain underwent ring closure followed by rearrangement to afford a pyrrole derivative. Suitably substituted iminyl radicals ring closed readily onto aromatic acceptors, thus enabling several polycyclic systems to be accessed. Quinolines were made from 3-phenylpropanones via their O-phenyl oximes. Syntheses of phenanthridines starting from 2-formylbiphenyls were particularly efficient, and this approach enabled the natural product trisphaeridine to be made. Starting from 2-phenylnicotinaldehyde derivatives, ring closures of the derived iminyl radicals onto the phenyl rings yielded benzo[h][1,6]naphthyridines. Similarly, ring closure onto a phenyl ring from a benzothiophene-based iminyl yielded a benzo[b]thieno[2,3-c]quinoline. By way of contrast, iminyl radical ring closure onto pyridine rings was not observed. However, iminyl radicals did cyclize onto indoles, enabling indolopyridines to be prepared. The latter route was exploited in a short formal synthesis of neocryptolepine starting from 2-((1H-indol-3-yl)methyl)cyclohexanone.

  6. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of dehydroepiandrosterone oxime acetate%醋酸去氢表雄酮肟的合成及其抗菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田光辉

    2012-01-01

    以醋酸去氢表雄酮为原料,室温搅拌下和盐酸羟胺在弱碱性介质中反应合成醋酸去氢表雄酮肟,得到了纯度较高的醋酸去氢表雄酮肟,收率达89.6%.通过测定其熔点,借助紫外光谱(UV)、红外光谱(IR)、核磁共振谱( NMR)、质谱(MS)以及元素分析等技术来表征其结构.抗菌活性实验表明,醋酸去氢表雄酮肟对实验菌株均有抑制和灭活作用,对枯草芽胞杆菌CMCC63501株的作用表现得更为明显.%The target compound 3-β-hydroxy-deoxyandrost-5-ene-17-one oxime-3-acetate was synthesized in alkalescence medium with 3-β-hydroxy-deoxyandrost-5-ene-17-one-3-acetate and hydroxyla-mine hydrochloride at room temperature by churn-dasher, purer dehydroepiandrosterone oxime acetate was obtained and its yield reached 89. 6%. The melting point of this target compound was determined and its structure was fully characterized by UV, IR, NMR, MS and elemental analysis. The antimicrobial activities of dehydroepiandrosterone oxime acetate was evaluated by inhibiting the growth of four bacteria. The results showed that the target compound inhibited the growth of testing bacteria and sterilized them, and showed higher antimicrobial activity especially against bacillus subtillis CMCC63S01.

  7. Amine-intercalated α-zirconium phosphates as lubricant additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Huaping; Dai, Wei [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham [Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Liang, Hong, E-mail: hliang@tamu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2015-02-28

    In this study, three types of amines intercalated α-zirconium phosphate nanosheets with different interspaces were synthesized and examined as lubricant additives to a mineral oil. Results from tribological experiments illustrated that these additives improved lubricating performance. Results of rheological experiments showed that the viscosity of the mineral oil was effectively reduced with the addition of α-zirconium phosphate nanosheets. The two-dimensional structure, with larger interspaces, resulting from amine intercalation, exhibited improved effectiveness in reducing viscosity. This study demonstrates that the nanosheet structure of α-zirconium phosphates is effective in friction reduction. The manufacture of lubricants with tailored viscosity is possible by using different intercalators.

  8. Mesoporous amine-bridged polysilsesquioxane for CO2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng

    2011-01-01

    A novel class of amine-supported sorbents based on amine-bridged mesoporous polysilsesquioxane was developed via a simple one-pot sol-gel process. The new sorbent allows the incorporation of a large amount of active groups without sacrificing surface area or pore volume available for CO2 capture, leading to a CO2 capture capacity of 3.2 mmol g−1 under simulated flue gas conditions. The sorbent is readily regenerated at 100°C and exhibits good stability over repetitive adsorption-desorption cycling.

  9. Enzymatic network for production of ether amines from alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacio, Cyntia M.; Crismaru, Ciprian G.; Bartsch, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    We constructed an enzymatic network composed of three different enzymes for the synthesis of valuable ether amines. The enzymatic reactions are interconnected to catalyze the oxidation and subsequent transamination of the substrate and to provide cofactor recycling. This allows production...... for reactions containing 10mM alcohol and up to 280mM ammonia corresponded well to predicted conversions. The results indicate that efficient amination can be driven by high concentrations of ammonia and may require improving enzyme robustness for scale-up....

  10. Biogenic amines in smear and mould-ripened cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Pleva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the monitoring of six biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, and cadaverine and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine in 30 samples of dairy products purchased in the Czech Republic, namely in 15 samples of mould-ripened cheeses and in 15 samples of smear-ripened cheeses. A further goal was the microbiological analysis of the individual samples of cheeses (total count of microorganisms, number of enterobacteria, enterococci, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds. The monitored biogenic amines were analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. The amount of enterobacteria in fresh cheese exceeded 105 CFU.g‑1. In smear-ripened cheese flavourless (Romadur type, the amount was >103 CFU.g-1 and 104-105 CFU.g-1 in smear-ripened cheese with flavour. Biogenic amines were observed in two groups of blue cheeses (white veined cheese and blue veined cheese and smear-ripened cheeses. In both groups, there is a possibility of the presence of biogenic amines because the number of microorganisms and concentration of free amino acids increase during ripening. In ten samples of soft smear-ripening acid cheese and in smear-ripened cheese, the total content of biogenic amines were 22-1000 mg.kg-1 and in 5 samples of these cheeses, it was in range 1000-6000 mg.kg-1. The total amount of biogenic amines in the blue cheeses were in range 40-600 mg.kg-1. The presense of the tyramine was observed in the all analysed cheeses. The tyramine producing strains generated more than 900 mg.kg-1 of this biogenic amine. The production of tryptamine in the analysed cheeses was not proved by this study. The results of this study show that biogenic amines and polyamines are common in cheese. However, in some cases, they can pose a significant health danger for consumers. Any legislative control authority does not monitor them, as they are secondary metabolites even

  11. The effect of fluorine substitution in alcohol-amine complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Schou; Du, Lin; Kjærgaard, Henrik Grum

    2014-01-01

    The effect of fluorine substitution on the hydrogen bond strength in alcohol-amine molecular complexes was investigated, with a combination of vapour phase infrared spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. The complexes were combined from methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH) and trifluoroethanol (TFE...... elucidated by Natural Bond Orbital, Atoms in Molecules and Non-covalent Interactions analysis. We find that the alcohol-amine complexes with TFE as the hydrogen bond donor form stronger hydrogen bonds and that secondary interactions between the monomers increase from MeOH to EtOH to TFE. TFE is a stronger...

  12. Anatomy of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menu Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Risk Factors ... form Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Risk Factors ...

  13. Effect of the acidic strength on the vapor phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime over the MFI zeolite: an embedded ONIOM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirijaraensre, Jakkapan; Limtrakul, Jumras

    2009-01-21

    The mechanism and energetic profile of the Beckmann rearrangement reaction of cyclohexanone oxime to epsilon-caprolactam catalyzed by the H-[Al]-MFI and H-[B]-MFI zeolites were investigated by both the bare cluster and the ONIOM models at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p):MNDO levels of theory, respectively. In order to improve the energetic properties and take into account the whole zeolite framework effect, single point calculations are undertaken at the embedded ONIOM2 schemes; MP2/6-311G(d,p):HF/6-31G(d) with an additional long-range electrostatic potential from the extended zeolite framework. The reaction mechanism of the Beckmann rearrangement over the acid site of zeolites consists of three steps: the 1,2 H shift, the rearrangement and the tautomerization. The activation energies for the Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime on the H-[Al]-MFI zeolite are calculated to be 31.46, 16.15 and 18.95 kcal mol(-1), for the first, second and third steps, respectively, whereas in the H-[B]-MFI zeolite, the energy barriers for each step of the reaction are 24.33, 7.46 and 20.43 kcal mol(-1), respectively. The rate-determining step of the reaction is the first step, which is the transformation from the N-ended cyclohexanone oxime adsorption complex and the O-ended one. These results signify the important role that the acid strength of zeolites plays in altering the energy profile of the reaction. The results further indicate that the weak Brønsted acid sites in the [B]-MFI zeolite could better catalyze the Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime than the strong acid sites in the [Al]-MFI zeolite, as compared with the quantitatively low activation energy of most steps. However, the turnover reaction of the H-[B]-MFI zeolite might be delayed by the quantitatively high desorption energy of the product as compared to the adsorption energy of the reactant.

  14. Preclincal Studies of the Oxime, HI-6, an Element of the Treatment of Soman Poisoning. Appendix 13. The Pharmacokinetics of HI-6 in the Rat and Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-31

    shown that the H oximes are unstable in strongly alkaline solutions. Therefore buffers have been used to maintain a pH which ensures a suitable...clean test tube containing 4 ml of 0.05 M tris buffer pH 8.8g The samples were mixed as before and centrifuged to * 4Fisher Scientific Co., Fair Lawn...Thomas Company, Philadelphia, PA. I8 * 8Acta III, Beckman Instruments Inc., Fullerton, CA, 92634. 9 ’ Trizma 8.8, Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO 63178

  15. Reaction mechanisms of secondary and tertiary amines with OH and NO3 radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions of aliphatic amines are common near agricultural facilities such as animal feed lots. Determining the reactions of these amines with common atmospheric radicals is important to understanding both daytime and nighttime atmospheric chemistry. Several smog chamber experiments were conducted ...

  16. Monomers for thermosetting and toughening epoxy resins. [glycidyl amine derivatives, propargyl-containing amines, and mutagenic testing of aromatic diamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Eight glycidyl amines were prepared by alkylating the parent amine with epichlorohydrin to form chlorohydrin, followed by cyclization with aqueous NaOH. Three of these compounds contained propargyl groups with postcuring studies. A procedure for quantitatively estimating the epoxy content of these glycidyl amines was employed for purity determination. Two diamond carbonates and several model propargly compounds were prepared. The synthesis of three new diamines, two which contain propargyloxy groups, and another with a sec-butyl group is in progress. These materials are at the dinitro stage ready for the final hydrogenation step. Four aromatic diamines were synthesized for mutagenic testing purposes. One of these compounds rapidly decomposes on exposure to air.

  17. Catalytic Enantioselective Allylic Amination of Olefins for the Synthesis of ent-Sitagliptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hongli; Bayeh, Liela; Tambar, Uttam K

    2013-11-01

    The presence of nitrogen atoms in most chiral pharmaceutical drugs has motivated the development of numerous strategies for the synthesis of enantioenriched amines. Current methods are based on the multi-step transformation of pre-functionalized allylic electrophiles into chiral allylic amines. The enantioselective allylic amination of unactivated olefins represents a more direct and attractive strategy. We report the enantioselective synthesis of ent-sitagliptin via an allylic amination of an unactivated terminal olefin.

  18. Spectroscopic (infrared, Raman, UV and NMR) analysis, Gaussian hybrid computational investigation (MEP maps/HOMO and LUMO) on cyclohexanone oxime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, S.; Karabacak, M.; Periandy, S.; Puviarasan, N.; Tanuja, D.

    2012-10-01

    In the present analysis, FT-IR/FT-Raman spectra of the cyclohexanone oxime (CHO, C6H11NO) are recorded. The observed vibrational frequencies are assigned and the computational calculations are carried out by HF and DFT (B3LYP and B3PW91) methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set and the corresponding results are tabulated. In order to yield good coherence with observed values, the calculated frequencies are scaled by appropriate scale factors. The complete assignments are performed on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method. The alternation of structure of cyclohexanone due to the substitution of NOH is investigated. The vibrational sequence pattern of the molecule related to the substitutions is analyzed. Comparison of the observed fundamental vibrational frequencies of CHO and calculated results by density functional (B3LYP and B3PW91) and HF methods indicates that B3LYP is superior to the scaled HF and B3PW91 approach for molecular vibrational problems. Moreover, 13C NMR and 1H NMR chemical shifts are calculated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method with HF/B3LYP/B3PW91 methods and the same basis set. A study on the electronic properties; absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies, are performed by HF and DFT methods. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Besides frontier molecular orbitals (FMO), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) was performed. NLO properties and Mulliken charges of the CHO was also calculated and interpreted. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures are calculated in gas phase.

  19. Synthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of novel isoxazoline and oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin as insecticidal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Shao, Yonghua; Wang, Yangyang; Fan, Lingling; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Yang, Chun; Qu, Huan; Yao, Xiaojun; Xu, Hui

    2012-08-29

    In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, 33 isoxazoline and oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin modified in the C and D rings were synthesized and their structures were characterized by Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), optical rotation, melting point (mp), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The stereochemical configurations of compounds 5e, 5f, and 9f were unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallography. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of northern armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker), in vivo. Compounds 5e, 9c, 11g, and 11h especially exhibited more promising insecticidal activity than toosendanin, a commercial botanical insecticide extracted from Melia azedarach . A genetic algorithm combined with multiple linear regression (GA-MLR) calculation is performed by the MOBY DIGS package. Five selected descriptors are as follows: one two-dimensional (2D) autocorrelation descriptor (GATS4e), one edge adjacency indice (EEig06x), one RDF descriptor (RDF080v), one three-dimensional (3D) MoRSE descriptor (Mor09v), and one atom-centered fragment (H-052) descriptor. Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies demonstrated that the insecticidal activity of these compounds was mainly influenced by many factors, such as electronic distribution, steric factors, etc. For this model, the standard deviation error in prediction (SDEP) is 0.0592, the correlation coefficient (R(2)) is 0.861, and the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q(2)loo) is 0.797.

  20. Super absorbent conjugated microporous polymers: a synergistic structural effect on the exceptional uptake of amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Xu, Yanhong; Guo, Zhaoqi; Nagai, Atsushi; Jiang, Donglin

    2013-04-21

    Conjugated microporous polymers exhibit a synergistic structural effect on the exceptional uptake of amines, whereas the dense porphyrin units facilitate uptake, the high porosity offers a large interface and the swellability boosts capacity. They are efficient in the uptake of both vapor and liquid amines, are applicable to various types of amines, and are excellent for cycle use.

  1. Conversion of alcohols to enantiopure amines through dual-enzyme hydrogen-borrowing cascades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutti, F.G.; Knaus, T.; Scrutton, N.S.; Breuer, M.; Turner, N.J.

    2015-01-01

    α-Chiral amines are key intermediates for the synthesis of a plethora of chemical compounds at industrial scale. We present a biocatalytic hydrogen-borrowing amination of primary and secondary alcohols that allows for the efficient and environmentally benign production of enantiopure amines. The met

  2. Whole-​cell biocatalysts for stereoselective C-H amination reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, P.; Busch, H.; Kelly, P.P.; Mutti, F.G.; Turner, N.J.; Flitsch, S.L.

    2016-01-01

    Enantiomerically pure chiral amines are ubiquitous chemical building blocks in bioactive pharmaceutical products and their synthesis from simple starting materials is of great interest. One of the most attractive strategies is the stereoselective installation of a chiral amine through C H amination,

  3. Cooperative catalysis by palladium and a chiral phosphoric acid: enantioselective amination of racemic allylic alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debasis; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias

    2014-11-24

    Cooperative catalysis by [Pd(dba)2] and the chiral phosphoric acid BA1 in combination with the phosphoramidite ligand L8 enabled the efficient enantioselective amination of racemic allylic alcohols with a variety of functionalized amines. This catalytic protocol is highly regio- and stereoselective (up to e.r. 96:4) and furnishes valuable chiral amines in almost quantitative yield.

  4. Copper(II)-catalyzed electrophilic amination of quinoline N-oxides with O-benzoyl hydroxylamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Jia, Chunqi; Sun, Kai; Lv, Yunhe; Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Kexiao; Wu, Hankui

    2015-03-21

    Copper acetate-catalyzed C-H bond functionalization amination of quinoline N-oxides was achieved using O-benzoyl hydroxylamine as an electrophilic amination reagent, thereby affording the desired products in moderate to excellent yields. Electrophilic amination can also be performed in good yield on a gram scale.

  5. Aerosol and cloud chemistry of amines from CCS - reactivity experiments and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Christian; Tilgner, Andreas; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2013-04-01

    Capturing CO2 from the exhaust of power plants using amine scrubbing is a common technology. Therefore, amines can be released during the carbon capture process. To investigate the tropospheric chemical fate of amines from CO2 capturing processes and their oxidation products, the impact of aqueous aerosol particles and cloud droplets on the amine chemistry has been considered. Aqueous phase reactivity experiments of NO3 radicals and ozone with relevant amines and their corresponding nitrosamines were performed. Furthermore, nitrosamine formation and nitrosamine photolysis was investigated during laboratory experiments. These experiments implicated that aqueous phase photolysis can be an effective sink for nitrosamines and that ozone is unreactive towards amines and nitrosamines. Multiphase phase oxidation schemes of amines, nitrosamines and amides were developed, coupled to the existing multiphase chemistry mechanism CAPRAM and built into the Lagrangian parcel model SPACCIM using published and newly measured data. As a result, both deliquescent particles and cloud droplets are important compartments for the multiphase processing of amines and their products. Amines can be readily oxidised by OH radicals in the gas and cloud phase during daytime summer conditions. However, amine oxidation is restricted during winter conditions with low photochemical activity leading to long lifetimes of amines. The importance of the gas and aqueous phase depends strongly on the partitioning of the different amines. Furthermore, the simulations revealed that the aqueous formation of nitrosamines in aerosol particles and could droplets is not a relevant process under tropospheric conditions.

  6. Synthesis and Properties of An Aminated hypocrellin B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new aminated-perylenequinone derivative 2 was synthesized by the reaction of 1 ( hypocrellin B ) with 6-aminohexanoic-acid. The structure of 2 was identified by UV-Vis, MS, IR and 1H-NMR. The amphiphility, spectrum and photochemical properties of 2 were reported.

  7. Iron catalysed direct alkylation of amines with alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Tao; Feringa, Ben L; Barta, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    The selective conversion of carbon-oxygen bonds into carbon-nitrogen bonds to form amines is one of the most important chemical transformations for the production of bulk and fine chemicals and pharma intermediates. An attractive atom-economic way of carrying out such C-N bond formations is the dire

  8. Use of mixed amines for CO[sub 2] removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahi, P.

    1993-08-01

    The process of sweetening of gas mixtures has widespread applications. The amine process involves absorbing the acid gas in an absorption column and subsequently regenerating the solvent in a stripping column by the application of heat. Monoethanolamine (MEA) is an excellent solvent in terms of its absorption characteristics while methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) can be regenerated using less energy. However, despite its higher capacity to absorb CO[sub 2], MDEA has slower mass transfer rates compared to MEA due to its slower reaction, so that blending the two amines to obtain their individual characteristics is attractive. Experimental studies were conducted on a pilot scale unit consisting of an absorber and a stripper. The effects of various process parameters were studied for single as well as mixed amines. It was observed that a mixture of MEA and MDEA has vastly improved absorption characteristics and at the same time consumes less energy during regeneration. A simple solubility model is presented which predicts the solubility of CO[sub 2] in individual amines and their mixtures. Excellent agreement is found with existing experimental data and predictions of another rigorous solubility model. 120 refs., 59 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Inhibition of chickpea seedling copper amine oxidases by tetraethylenepentamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Talaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper amine oxidases are important enzymes, which contribute to the regulation of mono- and polyamine levels. Each monomer contains one Cu(II ion and 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine (TPQ as cofactors. They catalyze the oxidative deamination of primary amines to aldehydes with a ping-pong mechanism consisting of a transamination. The mechanism is followed by the transfer of two electrons to molecular oxygen which is reduced to hydrogen peroxide. Inhibitors are important tools in the study of catalytic properties of copper amine oxidases and they also have a wide application in physiological research. In this study, purification of the chickpea seedling amine oxidase, was done via salting out by ammonium sulfate and dialysis, followed by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. By using the Lineweaver - Burk plot, the Km and Vm of the enzyme were found to be 3.3 mM and 0.95 mmol/min/mg, respectively. In this study, the interaction of chickpea diamino oxidase with tetraethylene- pentamine was studied. Analysis of kinetic data indicated that tetraethylenepentamine (with Ki=0.1 mM inhibits the enzyme by linear mixed inhibitory effect.

  10. Heterogeneous uptake of amines by citric acid and humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongchun; Ma, Qingxin; He, Hong

    2012-10-16

    Heterogeneous uptake of methylamine (MA), dimethylamine (DMA), and trimethylamine (TMA) onto citric acid and humic acid was investigated using a Knudsen cell reactor coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer at 298 K. Acid-base reactions between amines and carboxylic acids were confirmed. The observed uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA on citric acid at 298 K were measured to be 7.31 ± 1.13 × 10(-3), 6.65 ± 0.49 × 10(-3), and 5.82 ± 0.68 × 10(-3), respectively, and showed independence of sample mass. The observed uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA on humic acid at 298 K increased linearly with sample mass, and the true uptake coefficients of MA, DMA, and TMA were measured to be 1.26 ± 0.07 × 10(-5), 7.33 ± 0.40 × 10(-6), and 4.75 ± 0.15 × 10(-6), respectively. Citric acid, having stronger acidity, showed a higher reactivity than humic acid for a given amine; while the steric effect of amines was found to govern the reactivity between amines and citric acid or humic acid.

  11. Dissolving Carboxylic Acids and Primary Amines on the Overhead Projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sally D.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid carboxylic acids (or primary amines) with limited solubility in water are dissolved by addition of aqueous sodium hydroxide (or hydrochloric acid) on the stage of an overhead projector using simple glassware and very small quantities of chemicals. This effective and colorful demonstration can be used to accompany discussions of the…

  12. Amine-phenyl multi-component gradient stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewoolkar, Veeren C; Kannan, Balamurali; Ashraf, Kayesh M; Higgins, Daniel A; Collinson, Maryanne M

    2015-09-04

    Continuous multi-component gradients in amine and phenyl groups were fabricated using controlled rate infusion (CRI). Solutions prepared from either 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTEOS) or phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMOS) were infused, in a sequential fashion, at a controlled rate into an empty graduated cylinder housing a vertically aligned thin layer chromatography (TLC) plate. The hydrolyzed precursors reacted with an abundance of silanol (SiOH) groups on the TLC plates, covalently attaching the functionalized silane to its surface. The extent of modification by phenyl and amine was determined by the kinetics of each reaction and the exposure time at each point along the TLC plate. The local concentrations of phenyl and amine were measured using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The profile of the multi-component gradients strongly depended on the order of infusion, the direction of the gradient and the presence of available surface silanol groups. A slightly higher amount of phenyl can be deposited on the TLC plate by first modifying its surface with amine groups as they serve as a catalyst, enhancing condensation. Separation of water- and fat-soluble vitamins and the control of retention factors were demonstrated on the multi-component gradient TLC plates. Uniformly modified and single-component TLC plates gave different separations compared to the multi-component gradient plates. The retention factors of the individual vitamins depended on the order of surface modification, the spotting end, and whether the multi-component gradients align or oppose each other.

  13. Polymeric Amines by chemical modifications of alternating aliphatic polyketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Youchun; Broekhuis, A. A.; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Picchioni, F.

    2008-01-01

    Alternating, aliphatic polyketones were chemically modified by using di-amines to obtain polymeric products having pendant amino groups. The used reaction, Paal-Knorr, involves the formation of pyrrole rings along the polyketone backbone. The corresponding kinetics and final conversions are clearly

  14. Peptide N-Amination Supports β-Sheet Conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnowski, Matthew P; Kang, Chang Won; Elbatrawi, Yassin M; Wojtas, Lukasz; Del Valle, Juan R

    2017-02-13

    The conformational heterogeneity of backbone N-substituted peptides limits their ability to adopt stable secondary structures. Herein, we describe a practical synthesis of backbone aminated peptides that readily adopt β-sheet folds. Data derived from model N-amino peptides suggest that extended conformations are stabilized through cooperative steric, electrostatic, and hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  15. Experimental and theoretical investigations into the stability of cyclic aminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Sawatzky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cyclic aminals are core features of natural products, drug molecules and important synthetic intermediates. Despite their relevance, systematic investigations into their stability towards hydrolysis depending on the pH value are lacking.Results: A set of cyclic aminals was synthesized and their stability quantified by kinetic measurements. Steric and electronic effects were investigated by choosing appropriate groups. Both molecular mechanics (MM and density functional theory (DFT based studies were applied to support and explain the results obtained. Rapid decomposition is observed in acidic aqueous media for all cyclic aminals which occurs as a reversible reaction. Electronic effects do not seem relevant with regard to stability, but the magnitude of the conformational energy of the ring system and pKa values of the N-3 nitrogen atom.Conclusion: Cyclic aminals are stable compounds when not exposed to acidic media and their stability is mainly dependent on the conformational energy of the ring system. Therefore, for the preparation and work-up of these valuable synthetic intermediates and natural products, appropriate conditions have to be chosen and for application as drug molecules their sensitivity towards hydrolysis has to be taken into account.

  16. Biogenic amines in rhizobia and legume root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Shinsuke

    2009-01-01

    Root-nodule bacteria (rhizobia) are of great importance for nitrogen acquisition through symbiotic nitrogen fixation in a wide variety of leguminous plants. These bacteria differ from most other soil microorganisms by taking dual forms, i.e. a free-living form in soils and a symbiotic form inside of host legumes. Therefore, they should have a versatile strategy for survival, whether inhabiting soils or root nodules formed through rhizobia-legume interactions. Rhizobia generally contain large amounts of the biogenic amine homospermidine, an analog of spermidine which is an essential cellular component in most living systems. The external pH, salinity and a rapid change in osmolarity are thought to be significant environmental factors affecting the persistence of rhizobia. The present review describes the regulation of homospermidine biosynthesis in response to environmental stress and its possible functional role in rhizobia. Legume root nodules, an alternative habitat of rhizobia, usually contain a variety of biogenic amines besides homospermidine and the occurrence of some of these amines is closely associated with rhizobial infections. In the second half of this review, novel biogenic amines found in certain legume root nodules and the mechanism of their synthesis involving cooperation between the rhizobia and host legume cells are also described.

  17. Effects of amine fluoride on biofilm growth and salivary pellicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mei, HC; Engels, E; de Vries, Jacob; Busscher, HJ

    2008-01-01

    The amine fluoride (AmF) N'-octadecyltrimethylendiamine-N, N,N'-tris(2-ethanol)-dihydrofluoride is a cationic antimicrobial which can have beneficial effects on plaque formation. Here, we determine changes in pellicle and bacterial cell surface properties of the strains Actinomyces naeslundii HM1, S

  18. The Reactions of 3, 7-Dinitrodibenzobromolium Salt with Some Amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The reactions of 3,7-dinitrodibenzobromolium salt with some amines were studied. A reaction mechanism based on the structure of the major product 6 and the minor product 7 was proposed. The reaction was considered to proceed via a substituted benzyene intermediate.

  19. Selective acylation of primary amines in peptides and proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abello, N.; Kerstjens, H.A.M.; Postma, D.S; Bischoff, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) esters are derivatizing agents that target primary amine groups. However, even a small molar excess of NHS may lead to acylation of hydroxyl-containing amino acids as a side reaction. We report a straightforward method for the selective removal of ester-linked acyl groups

  20. Economic Considerations for Selecting an Amine Donor in Biocatalytic Transamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufvesson, Pär; Nordblad, Mathias; Krühne, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The industrial implementation of biocatalysis for production of pharma and fine chemicals has grown substantially over recent years. An upcoming application is that of chiral synthesis of optically pure amines, a technology known for many years but that is now seeing a renewed and wider interest ...

  1. Synthesis of Oxazolidinone and Tosyl Enamines by Tertiary Amine Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Nicholas A; Morse, Peter D; Morton, Martha D; Fenteany, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    A procedure for the synthesis of oxazolidinone and tosyl enamines is reported. Alkynoyl oxazolidinones and tosyl imides undergo reaction to form enamines in the presence of catalytic amounts of tertiary amines. The data suggest that an amide anion is formed during the reaction, which undergoes conjugate addition to form the final product.

  2. Cytocompatibility of amine functionalized carbon nanoparticles grafted on polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Žáková, Pavlína, E-mail: pavlina.zakova@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Slepičková Kasálková, Nikola [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Kolská, Zdeňka [Faculty of Science, J. E. Purkyně University, Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Leitner, Jindřich [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Karpíšková, Jana; Stibor, Ivan [Institute for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and Innovation, Technical University of Liberec (Czech Republic); Slepička, Petr; Švorčík, Václav [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2016-03-01

    Five types of amide–amine Carbon Nano-Particles (CNPs) were prepared by functionalization of CNPs and characterized by several analytical methods. The successful grafting of amines on CNPs was verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), organic elemental analysis and electrokinetic analysis. The size and morphology of CNPs were determined from transmission electron microscopy. The surface area and porosity of CNPs were examined by adsorption and desorption isotherms. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate thermal stability of CNPs. The amount of bonded amine depends on its dimensionality arrangement. Surface area and pore volumes of CNPs decrease several times after individual amino-compound grafting. Selected types of functionalized CNPs were grafted onto a plasma activated surface of HDPE. The successful grafting of CNPs on the polymer surface was verified by XPS. Wettability was determined by contact angle measurements. Surface morphology and roughness were studied by atomic force microscopy. A dramatic decrease of contact angle and surface morphology was observed on CNP grafted polymer surface. Cytocompatibility of modified surfaces was studied in vitro, by determination of adhesion, proliferation and viability of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Grafting of CNPs onto the polymer surface has a positive effect on the adhesion, proliferation and viability of VSMCs. - Highlights: • Amine functionalized CNPs were successfully grafted on HDPE surface. • Significant change to the positive zeta potential for grafted CNPs was induced. • Grafting of CNPs significantly enhanced cell cytocompatibility and viability. • Homogeneous distribution of cells with correct size was achieved.

  3. Trimodal nanoporous silica as a support for amine-based CO2 adsorbents: Improvement in adsorption capacity and kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Bhattacharjee, Samiran

    2017-02-01

    A trimodal nanoporous silica (TS) having unique trimodal pore structure viz., internal mesopores, textural mesopores and interconnected macropores, has been functionalized with amine using two different methods covalent grafting and wet impregnation. Both were studied as nanocomposite sorbents for CO2 capture. The effects of the amine loading, immobilization processes and the type of support were investigated. Commercially available silica gel (SG) with a purely mesoporous structure was studied as the support for the amine in order to compare differences in pore structure and amine loading with differences in CO2 adsorption capacity and kinetics. Amine-grafted TS exhibited much faster CO2 adsorption kinetics at 35 °C than amine-grafted SG. At the same amine loading, amine-impregnated TS showed higher CO2 adsorption capacity and faster CO2 adsorption kinetics than amine-impregnated SG. The CO2 adsorption capacity of amine-impregnated TS increased as the amine loading increased until 70%, with the highest value of 172 mg/g, while the amine-impregnated SG reached the highest CO2 adsorption capacity of only 78 mg/g at 40% amine loading. More importantly, amine-impregnated as-prepared TS exhibited even higher CO2 capture capacity than amine-impregnated TS when the amine loading was below 60%. Results suggest that amine-modified trimodal nanoporous silica sorbents meet the challenges of current CO2 capture technology.

  4. Combining oximes with azides to create a novel 1-D [NaCo(III)(2)] system: synthesis, structure and solid-state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathmalingam, Thushan; Habib, Fatemah; Widdifield, Cory M; Loiseau, Francis; Burchell, Tara J; Gorelsky, Serge I; Beauchemin, André M; Bryce, David L; Murugesu, Muralee

    2010-02-14

    The synthesis and structure of a novel complex with the formula [NaCo(III)(2)(dmo)(2)(mu-N(3))(3)(N(3))(2)](infinity), , are reported. Complex was synthesized from the reaction of 1-(dimethylamino)propan-2-one oxime (Hdmo), CoCl(2).6H(2)O, and NaN(3) in MeOH. It crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c. The molecular structure consists of one Na(I) and two Co(III) ions bridged by two oxime ligands, two end-to-end azide and three end-on azide anions. The units are linked, forming a 1-D chain. This complex was characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy where the data confirm the presence of low-spin Co(III) ions. Solid-state (23)Na NMR experiments indicate the presence of one magnetically unique site in the repeating unit, that sample purity in the bulk powdered form is high, and that it possesses microcrystalline order. Solid-state (59)Co NMR experiments at ultra-high field (B(0) = 21.1 T) are in agreement with the structure obtained through X-ray crystallography where the Co(III) ions are coordinated to five nitrogen atoms as well as an oxygen atom.

  5. Atmospheric Amines and Ammonia Measured with a Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Y.; Kanawade, V. P.; de Gouw, J. A.; Guenther, Alex B.; Madronich, Sasha; Sierra-Hernandez, M. R.; Lawler, M.; Smith, James N.; Takahama, S.; Ruggeri, G.; Koss, A.; Olson, K.; Baumann, K.; Weber, R. J.; Nenes, A.; Guo, H.; Edgerton, Eric S.; Porcelli, L.; Brune, W. H.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Lee, S.-H

    2014-11-19

    We report ambient measurements of amines and ammonia with a fast response chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) in a Southeastern U.S. forest in Alabama and a moderately polluted Midwestern site during the summer. In the Alabama forest, mostly C3-amines (from pptv to tens of pptv) and ammonia (up to 2 ppbv) were detected on a daily basis. C3-amines and ammonia showed similar diurnal trends and temperature and wind direction dependences, and were not associated with transported CO and SO2 plumes. Consistent with temperature dependences, amine and ammonia in the gas and aerosol phases showed opposite diurnal trends, indicating gas-to-particle partitioning of amines and ammonia. Temperature dependences also imply reversible processes of amines and ammonia evaporation from soil surfaces in daytime and deposition of amines and ammonia to soil surfaces at nighttime. Various amines (C1-C6) at the pptv level were observed in the transported biomass burning plumes, showing that biomass burning can be a substantial source of amines in the Southeast U.S. At the moderately polluted Kent site, higher concentrations of amines (C1-C6, from pptv to tens of pptv) and ammonia (up to 6 ppbv) were detected. Diurnal variations of C1- to C3-amines and ammonia were correlated with the ambient temperature. C4- to C6-amines showed abrupt increases during the nighttime, suggesting that they were emitted from local sources. These abundant amines and ammonia may in part explain the frequent new particle formation events reported from Kent. Lower amine concentrations at the rural forested site highlight the importance of constraining anthropogenic sources of amines.

  6. Atmospheric amines and ammonia measured with a Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. You

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report ambient measurements of amines and ammonia with a~fast response chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS in a southeastern US forest in Alabama and a~moderately polluted Midwestern site during the summer. In the Alabama forest, mostly C3-amines (from pptv to tens of pptv and ammonia (up to 2 ppbv were detected on a daily basis. C3-amines and ammonia showed similar diurnal trends and temperature and wind direction dependences, and were not associated with transported CO and SO2 plumes. Consistent with temperature dependences, amine and ammonia in the gas and aerosol phases showed opposite diurnal trends, indicating gas-to-particle partitioning of amines and ammonia. Temperature dependences also imply reversible processes of amines and ammonia evaporation from soil surfaces in daytime and deposition of amines and ammonia to soil surfaces at nighttime. Various amines (C1–C6 at the pptv level were observed in the transported biomass burning plumes, showing that biomass burning can be a substantial source of amines in the Southeast US. At the moderately polluted Kent site, higher concentrations of amines (C1–C6, from pptv to tens of pptv and ammonia (up to 6 ppbv were detected. Diurnal variations of C1- to C3-amines and ammonia were correlated with the ambient temperature. C4- to C6-amines showed abrupt increases during the nighttime, suggesting that they were emitted from local sources. These abundant amines and ammonia may in part explain the frequent new particle formation events reported from Kent. Lower amine concentrations at the rural forested site highlight the importance of constraining anthropogenic sources of amines.

  7. Spectroscopic study on the active site of a SiO2 supported niobia catalyst used for the gas-phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime to ε-caprolactam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maronna, M M; Kruissink, E C; Parton, R F; Soulimani, F; Weckhuysen, B M; Hoelderich, W F

    2016-01-01

    NbOx/SiO2 with a very high catalytic activity for the gas-phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime to ε-caprolactam, was investigated by different spectroscopic methods in order to obtain new insights in the formation and nature of the active sites. FT-IR spectroscopy in combination with

  8. NbOx/SiO2 in the gas-phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime to epsilon-caprolactam: Influence of calcination temperature, niobia loading and silylation post-treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maronna, M. M.; Kruissink, E. C.; Parton, R. F.; Tinge, J. T.; Soulimani, F.; Weckhuysen, B. M.; Hoelderich, W. F.

    2016-01-01

    NbOx/SiO2 catalyst materials prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method were studied in the industrially relevant gas-phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime to ε-caprolactam. The catalytic experiments were carried out in a fixed bed reactor system at atmospheric pressure. Res

  9. Iron-Catalyzed Intramolecular C(sp(2))-N Cyclization of 1-(N-Arylpyrrol-2-yl)ethanone O-Acetyl Oximes toward Pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Li, Junlong; Zhang, Guisheng; Ma, Nana; Liu, Qingfeng; Liu, Tongxin

    2015-07-01

    An efficient and convenient iron-catalyzed protocol has been developed for the synthesis of substituted pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxalines from 1-(N-arylpyrrol-2-yl)ethanone O-acetyl oximes through N-O bond cleavage and intramolecular directed C-H arylation reactions in acetic acid.

  10. Involvement of cytochrome P450 in oxime production in glucosinolate biosynthesis as demonstrated by an in vitro microsomal enzyme system isolated from jasmonic acid-induced seedlings of Sinapis alba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, L; Lykkesfeldt, J; Olsen, C E; Halkier, B A

    1995-01-01

    An in vitro enzyme system for the conversion of amino acid to oxime in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates has been established by the combined use of an improved isolation medium and jasmonic acid-induced etiolated seedlings of Sinapis alba L. An 8-fold induction of de novo biosynthesis of the L-tyrosine-derived p-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate was obtained in etiolated S. alba seedlings upon treatment with jasmonic acid. Formation of inhibitory glucosinolate degradation products upon tissue homogenization was prevented by inactivation of myrosinase by addition of 100 mM ascorbic acid to the isolation buffer. The biosynthetically active microsomal enzyme system converted L-tyrosine into p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime and the production of oxime was strictly dependent on NADPH. The Km and Vmax values of the enzyme system were 346 microM and 538 pmol per mg of protein per h, respectively. The nature of the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of amino acid to oxime in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates has been subject of much speculation. In the present paper, we demonstrate the involvement of cytochrome P450 by photoreversible inhibition by carbon monoxide. The inhibitory effect of numerous cytochrome P450 inhibitors confirms the involvement of cytochrome P450. This provides experimental documentation of similarity between the enzymes converting amino acids into the corresponding oximes in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates and cyanogenic glycosides. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:8618930

  11. INFLUENCE OF MOLECULAR STRUCTURES OF SECONDARY AMINE TERMINATED POLY(ESTER-AMINE)S ON THE CURING PERFORMANCE WITH EPOXY RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Five secondary amine terminated poly(ester-amine)s (defined as PEA) with controlled molecular structures were synthesized through reacting excessive piperazine with phthalicdiglycol diacrylate (PDDA) and 1,1,1-trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) at a constant secondary amine/acrylate group ratio of 1.5/1 and at different PDDA/TMPTA molar ratios.Both IR and 1H-NMR spectra indicated that all acrylate groups were consumed in the reaction, based on which the structural parameters were calculated from the 1H-NMR spectra. With decreasing PDDA/TMPTA ratio, the content of secondary amine, degree of branching, molecular weight, Tg and Td increased accordingly. These polymers were further used as both crosslinkers and flexibilizers for a linear epoxy resin E51 to form cured films under ambient condition, The gel content,relative hardness and Tg of the resulting films increased as PEA molecules changed from linear to highly branching structures. Due to the flexibility of PEA molecules, all the films possessed excellent mechanical performance.

  12. Poly(amido amine)s as Gene Delivery Vectors: Effects of Quaternary Nicotinamide Moieties in the Side Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateos Timoneda, Miguel A.; Lok, Martin C.; Hennink, Wim E.; Feijen, Jan; Engbersen, Johan F.J.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of quaternary nicotinamide pendant groups on gene delivery properties, a series of poly(amido amine) (co)polymers were synthesized by Michael addition polymerization of N, N-cystaminebisacrylamide with variable ratios of 1-(4-aminobutyl)-3-carbamoylpyridinium (Nic-BuNH2), and

  13. Bifunctional Catalysis: Direct Reductive Amination of Aliphatic Ketones with an Iridium-Phosphate Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Villa-Marcos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Chiral amines are one of the ubiquitous functional groups in fine chemical, pharmaceutical and agrochemical products, and the most convenient, economical, and eco-benign synthetic pathway to these amines is direct asymmetric reductive amination (DARA of prochiral ketones. This paper shows that a wide range of aliphatic ketones can be directly aminated under hydrogenation conditions, affording chiral amines with good to excellent yields and with enantioselectivities up to 96% ee. The catalysis is effected by the cooperative action of a cationic Cp*Ir(III complex and its phosphate counteranion.

  14. An alternative approach to estimation of the brain perfusion index for measurement of cerebral blood flow using technetium-99m compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, Kenya; Mochizuki, Teruhito; Ikezoe, Junpei [Dept. of Radiology, Ehime University School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Shigenobu-cho (Japan); Inoue, Takeshi; Fujioka, Hiroyoshi; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Akamune, Akihisa [Dept. of Radiology, Matsuyama Shimin Hospital, Ohte-machi, Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan); Yamamoto, Yuji [Department of Neurosurgery, Matsuyama Shimin Hospital, Ohte-machi, Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been quantified non-invasively using the brain perfusion index (BPI) determined from radionuclide angiographic data generated by technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) or technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD). The BPI is generally calculated using graphical analysis (GA). In the present study, BPI was measured using spectral analysis (SA), and its usefulness evaluated in comparison with GA. The BPI was calculated from the sum of spectral data obtained by SA. We applied this method to radionuclide angiographic data collected from the bilateral brain hemispheres of 20 patients with various brain diseases using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and from those of 20 patients using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD. We also measured BPI using GA. The BPI values obtained by SA (BPI{sup S}) (x) and by GA (BPI{sup G}) (y) correlated closely (y=0.708x+0.038, r=0.945 for {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and y=0.559x+0.093, r=0.931 for {sup 99m}Tc-ECD). However, the BPI{sup G} values were underestimated by 22.9%{+-}6.6% (mean{+-}SD) for {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and by 27.9%{+-}7.5% for {sup 99m}Tc-ECD as compared with the BPI{sup S} values. The extent of underestimation tended to increase with increasing BPI{sup S} values. These findings were considered to be a result of the BPI{sup G} values being affected by the first-pass extraction fraction of the tracer. We also compared the BPI{sup S} and BPI{sup G} values with those of CBF measured using N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine (CBF{sup IMP}) in 16 patients (six for {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and ten for {sup 99m}Tc-ECD). Although both BPI{sup S} and BPI{sup G} values correlated significantly with the CBF{sup IMP} values, the correlation coefficient in BPI{sup S} was always better than that in BPI{sup G} (r=0.869 for {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and r=0.929 for {sup 99m}Tc-ECD in BPI{sup S}, r=0.629 for {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and r=0.856 for {sup 99m}Tc-ECD in BPI{sup G}). These results suggest that SA can provide a more

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have been linked to many mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain ... studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as they grow ...

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of ... but sometimes give rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ... depression experience when starting treatment. Gene Studies Advanced technologies are also making it faster, easier, and more ...

  18. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions of cells in the body, the results can affect many ... unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function of conducting ...

  20. Brain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... their final destination. Chemical signals from other cells guide neurons in forming various brain structures. Neighboring neurons ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate ...

  4. Mechanism of the N-Hydroxylation of Primary and Secondary Amines by Cytochrome P450

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Signe T.; Rydberg, Patrik; Olsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    ) for four different amines (aniline, N-methylaniline, propan-2-amine, and dimethylamine). The hydrogen abstraction and rebound mechanism is found to be preferred over a direct oxygen transfer mechanism for all four amines. However, in contrast to the same mechanism for the hydroxylation of aliphatic carbon......Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) metabolize alkyl- and arylamines, generating several different products. For the primary and secondary amines, some of these reactions result in hydroxylated amines, which may be toxic. Thus, when designing new drugs containing amine groups, it is important to be able...... to predict if a given compound will be a substrate for CYPs, in order to avoid toxic metabolites, and hence to understand the mechanism that is utilized by CYPs. Two possible mechanisms, for the N-hydroxylation of primary and secondary amines mediated by CYPs, are studied by density functional theory (DFT...

  5. Electron spin resonance study of chloroplast photosynthetic activity in the presence of amphiphilic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sersen, F; Balgavý, P; Devínsky, F

    1990-12-01

    Electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) was used to study the effects of amphiphilic amines of the carbamate, amide, and ester type and amine oxide on the photosynthetic system of spinach chloroplasts. The ESR signal II connected to the photosynthetic center PS II donor side was observed to diminish in the presence of amines, whereas that of PS I remained unchanged. The inhibition of PS II increased with the increasing of amine concentration. In the presence of amines, the light: dark chloroplast ESR signals ratio as well as the intensity of the ESR signal of unbound Mn2+ increased. It is suggested that the amphiphilic amines affect the structure of PS II and the electron transfer to PS I. The effects of the amines tested on the photosynthetic system correlate with their potency to perturb the lipid membrane structure.

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit ... final destination. Chemical signals from other cells guide neurons in forming various brain structures. Neighboring neurons make connections with each other ...

  7. Brain Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  8. The Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, David H.

    1979-01-01

    This article on the brain is part of an entire issue about neurobiology and the question of how the human brain works. The brain as an intricate tissue composed of cells is discussed based on the current knowledge and understanding of its composition and structure. (SA)

  9. Adsorption of catechol from aqueous solution by aminated hypercrosslinked polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yue; LI Xiao-tao; XU Chao; CHEN Jin-long; LI Ai-min; ZHANG Quan-xing

    2005-01-01

    Adsorption of catechol from aqueous solution with the hypercrosslinked polymeric adsorbent NDA-100 and its derivatives AH-1,AH-2 and AH-3 aminated by dimethylamine, the commercial resin Amberlite XAD-4 and weakly basic anion exchanger resin D301 was compared. It was found that the aminated hypercrosslinked resins had the highest adsorption capacities among the tested polymers. The empirical Freundlich equation was successfully employed to describe the adsorption process. Specific surface area and micropore structure of the adsorbent, in company with tertiary amino groups on matrix affected the adsorption performance towards catechol. In addition,thermodynamic study was carried out to interpret the adsorption mechanism. Kinetic study testified that the tertiary amino groups on the polymer matrix could decrease the adsorption rate and increase the adsorption apparent activation energy.

  10. The effect of fluorine substitution in alcohol-amine complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Schou; Du, Lin; Kjærgaard, Henrik Grum

    2014-01-01

    The effect of fluorine substitution on the hydrogen bond strength in alcohol-amine molecular complexes was investigated, with a combination of vapour phase infrared spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. The complexes were combined from methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH) and trifluoroethanol (TFE...... formation were determined by combining a calculated intensity and the measured integrated absorbance. The observation of two transitions in the alcohol-DMA complexes provides an opportunity for two independent determinations of the equilibrium constants. Molecular interactions between the monomers were...... elucidated by Natural Bond Orbital, Atoms in Molecules and Non-covalent Interactions analysis. We find that the alcohol-amine complexes with TFE as the hydrogen bond donor form stronger hydrogen bonds and that secondary interactions between the monomers increase from MeOH to EtOH to TFE. TFE is a stronger...

  11. The weak fundamental NH-stretching transition in amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrøder, Sidsel D.; Hansen, Anne S.; Wallberg, Jens H.; Nielsen, Anne R.; Du, Lin; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.

    2017-02-01

    Absolute intensities of NH-stretching fundamental and overtone transitions of gas phase aniline, methylamine, ethylamine, cyclopropylamine, methylethylamine, diethylamine and pyrrolidine have been measured with long path length conventional absorption spectroscopy. To support the assignments of NH-stretching transitions, transition frequencies and intensities were calculated with the local mode model using ab initio calculated local mode parameters and dipole moment functions obtained at the CCSD(T)-F12a/VDZ-F12 level of theory. For aniline, the absolute intensities of the NH-stretching transitions show the typical decrease of approximately an order of magnitude for each successive vibrational excitation. For methylamine, ethylamine, cyclopropylamine, methylethylamine, diethylamine and pyrrolidine, the observed absolute intensities of the fundamental NH-stretching transition is weak and of similar strength or even weaker than the corresponding first overtone transition. Characteristic for the amines with a normal fundamental intensity is a conjugated double bond next to the amine group.

  12. Debromination of endo-(+)-3-bromocamphor with primary amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, Svetlana; Markovic, Violeta; Joksovic, Milan D.; Joksovic, Ljubinka, E-mail: ljubinka@kg.ac.rs [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac (Serbia); Todorovic, Nina [Institute for Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Serbia); Divjakovic, Vladimir [Department of Physics, University of Novi Sad (Serbia); Trifunovic, Snezana [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, (Serbia)

    2013-07-15

    Reductive debromination of endo-(+)-3-bromocamphor with different primary amines followed by imine formation was investigated. This reaction requires simple experimental procedure without any organic solvent, metal or conventional reducing agent. A strong influence of amine polarity on the efficacy of debromination process was observed, and ethanolamine and ethylene diamine having sufficiently high boiling points can debrominate 3-bromocamphor giving corresponding camphanimines in good isolated yields. The mechanisms of debromination of 3-bromocamphor with ethanolamine and n-hexylamine were investigated at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory. The radical mechanism was revealed, and it was shown that the reaction with more polar ethanolamine is energetically more favorable. (author)

  13. Nanoscale assembly of amine-functionalized colloidal iron oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barick, K.C. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Aslam, M. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Centre for Research in Nanotechnology and Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Prasad, Pottumarthi V. [Department of Radiology, Evanston Northwestern Healthcare, Evanston, IL 60201 (United States); Dravid, Vinayak P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); International Institute for Nanotechnology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)], E-mail: v-dravid@northwestern.edu; Bahadur, Dhirendra [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Centre for Research in Nanotechnology and Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)], E-mail: dhirenb@iitb.ac.in

    2009-05-15

    We demonstrate a single-step facile approach for highly water-stable assembly of amine-functionalized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles using thermal decomposition of Fe-chloride precursors in ethylene glycol medium in the presence of ethylenediamine. The average size of nanoassemblies is 40{+-}1 nm, wherein the individual nanoparticles are about 6 nm. Amine-functionalized properties are evident from Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), thermal and elemental analyses. The saturation magnetization and spin-echo r{sub 2} of the nanoassemblies were measured to be 64.3 emu/g and 314.6 mM{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively. The higher value of relaxivity ratio (r{sub 2}/r{sub 1}=143) indicates that nanoassemblies are a promising high-efficiency T2 contrast agent platform.

  14. Nanoscale assembly of amine-functionalized colloidal iron oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barick, K. C.; Aslam, M.; Prasad, Pottumarthi V.; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Bahadur, Dhirendra

    2009-05-01

    We demonstrate a single-step facile approach for highly water-stable assembly of amine-functionalized Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles using thermal decomposition of Fe-chloride precursors in ethylene glycol medium in the presence of ethylenediamine. The average size of nanoassemblies is 40±1 nm, wherein the individual nanoparticles are about 6 nm. Amine-functionalized properties are evident from Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), thermal and elemental analyses. The saturation magnetization and spin-echo r2 of the nanoassemblies were measured to be 64.3 emu/g and 314.6 mM -1 s -1, respectively. The higher value of relaxivity ratio ( r2/ r1=143) indicates that nanoassemblies are a promising high-efficiency T2 contrast agent platform.

  15. Aromatic Esters of Bicyclic Amines as Antimicrobials against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gracia Retamosa, María; Díez-Martínez, Roberto; Maestro, Beatriz; García-Fernández, Esther; de Waal, Bas; Meijer, E W; García, Pedro; Sanz, Jesús M

    2015-11-09

    A double approach was followed in the search of novel inhibitors of the surface choline-binding proteins (CBPs) of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) with antimicrobial properties. First, a library of 49 rationally-designed esters of alkyl amines was screened for their specific binding to CBPs. The best binders, being esters of bicyclic amines (EBAs), were then tested for their in vitro effect on pneumococcal growth and morphology. Second, the efficiency of EBA-induced CBP inhibition was enhanced about 45,000-fold by multivalency effects upon synthesizing a poly(propylene imine) dendrimer containing eight copies of an atropine derivative. Both approaches led to compounds that arrest bacterial growth, dramatically decrease cell viability, and exhibit a protection effect in animal disease models, demonstrating that the pneumococcal CBPs are adequate targets for the discovery of novel antimicrobials that overcome the currently increasing antimicrobial resistance issues.

  16. Structural Influence on Excited State Dynamics in Simple Amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Liv Bærenholdt

    is femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron velocity map imaging (VMI), which is a newtechnique in the Copenhagen lab. The design, building and implementation of the VMI spectrometer has been a very substantial part of the thesis work. This techniques oers enhanced information content in the form of ecient......Simple amines are basic model system of nitrogen-containing chromophores that appear widely in nature. They are also ideal systems for detailed investigation of nonadiabatic dynamical processes and ultrafast temporal evolution of electronic states of the Rydberg type. This investigation, combining...... experiments with calculations, provides new insight into the nature of the internal conversion processes that mediate the dynamical evolution between Rydberg states, and how structural variations in simple amine system have a large impact on the non-adiabatic processes. The experimental method of choice...

  17. Asymmetric trienamine catalysis: new opportunities in amine catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Indresh; Ramaraju, Panduga; Mir, Nisar A

    2013-02-07

    Amine catalysis, through HOMO-activating enamine and LUMO-activating iminium-ion formation, is receiving increasing attention among other organocatalytic strategies, for the activation of unmodified carbonyl compounds. Particularly, the HOMO-raising activation concept has been applied to the greatest number of asymmetric transformations through enamine, dienamine, and SOMO-activation strategies. Recently, trienamine catalysis, an extension of amine catalysis, has emerged as a powerful tool for synthetic chemists with a novel activation strategy for polyenals/polyenones. In this review article, we discuss the initial developments of trienamine catalysis for highly asymmetric Diels-Alder reactions with different dienophiles and emerging opportunities for other types of cycloadditions and cascade reactions.

  18. Permeability and fluoride release of lining materials containing amine fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbö, H; Eriksen, H M

    1976-11-01

    The addition of amine fluorides to a copal recin (Copalite) and a chlorine caoutchouc varnish (Pergut S-40) has been studied. The permeability of Copalite films was only slightly increased whereas the excellent film-forming qualities of Pergut S-40 were destroyed by the addition of fluorides. A high fluoride release was found initially from test films of the materials but within 2-3 weeks a decrease to very low fluoride levels was observed.

  19. [N,N-Bis(diphenyl-phosphino)isopropyl-amine]dibromidonickel(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Marko; Wöhl, Anina; Peitz, Stephan; Müller, Bernd H; Spannenberg, Anke; Rosenthal, Uwe

    2009-02-06

    The title compound, [NiBr(2)(C(27)H(27)NP(2))], was synthesized by the reaction of NiBr(2)(dme) (dme is 1,2-dimethoxy-ethane) with N,N-bis-(diphenyl-phosphino)isopropyl-amine in methanol/tetra-hydro-furan. The nickel(II) center is coordinated by two P atoms of the chelating PNP ligand, Ph(2)PN(iPr)PPh(2), and two bromide ions in a distorted square-planar geometry.

  20. [Metabolism of various biogenic amines in acute viral neuroinfections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynenko, I N; Shchegoleva, R A; Ponomarenko, V P; Leshchinskaia, E V; Kodkind, G Kh

    1983-01-01

    The metabolism of biogenic amines was examined in 62 patients with various acute viral neuroinfections. The control group consisted of 57 persons. Depending on the process character and disease period variations of the levels of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindolylacetic acid, coeruloplasmin and histamine were discovered. A comparison of the results obtained with the clinical course of the diseases revealed a certain correlation, especially in patients with acute meningoencephalitis.

  1. Metabolic activation of aromatic amines and azo dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, H

    1981-01-01

    Aromatic amines, amides and nitro compounds are a class of chemicals that produce tumors in a wide variety of tissues in experimental animals, including liver, urinary bladder, forestomach, small intestine, Zymbal's gland, subcutaneous tissue or skin. In man, exposure to some aromatic amines is associated with tumours of the urinary bladder and carcinoma of the renal pelvis. Their biological activity as carcinogens or genotoxic agents is, in all the cases that have been studied in detail, dependent on metabolic activation in vivo, occurring by multiple pathways. Differences in these metabolic pathways may largely account for the differences in tissues and species susceptibilities to cancer induction. Carcinogenicity of aromatic amines or amides is dependent on their oxidation to N-hydroxy derivatives, whilst the carcinogenicity of aromatic nitro compounds is linked to their reduction to hydroxylamines. Further conversion of the N-hydroxylamine or N-hydroxyamide to reactive intermediates can occur in several ways, which include (i) esterification of the N-hydroxy group, (ii) non-enzymic protonation of the nitrogen of the hydroxylamine and (iii) oxidation to a free radical of arylhydroxamic acids. Following generation of such reactive electrophilic intermediates in tissues or cells, macromolecular binding has been observed to nucleic acids and proteins. In many cases, arylamidated and arylaminated products are formed with nucleic acid bases; in the case of the well-studied 2-acetylaminofluorene, nucleophilic atoms of guanine are the predominant site of reaction. Relatively little is known of the structure and biological consequences of DNA adducts formed from other aromatic amines, amides or nitro compounds; more research in these directions is warranted.

  2. Preparation of mesoporous aluminophosphate usingpoly(amido amine) as template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaofeng; LIN Shen; CHEN Xinqing; CHEN Jiebo; YANG Liuyi; LUO Minghong

    2007-01-01

    Mesoporous aluminophosphate was prepared by using G4.0 poly(amido amine)dendrimer as a template and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer(FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N2 adsorption/desorption methods.Results show that the title compound exhibits a typical mesoporous structure with the average pore size from 5 to 8 nm. The formation mechanism of the nanoporous structure using dendrimer as a template was also discussed.

  3. Synthesis Chiral Dihydropyridine Derivatives from Geniposide and Primary Amine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhu-Lan; LEI Jun; LIU Jian-Li

    2003-01-01

    @@ Since Ohno and co-workers[1] reported the first example of asymmetric reduction using a model of coenzyme NADH in 1975, numerous efforts have been made to construct model compounds mimicking the activity of NADH and many publications have appeared. [2] Here we reported the design and synthesis of novel chiral dihydropyridine derivatives which can be used as NADH model from geniposide and primary amine.

  4. 丙酮肟甲醚饱和蒸气压测定及关联%Vapor Pressure Measurement and Correlation of Acetone Oxime Methyl Ether

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶长燊; 董佳; 李玲

    2013-01-01

      采用动态法,利用Rose釜测定了丙酮肟甲醚在307.75~344.05 K的饱和蒸气压,并应用Antoine方程进行关联,获得Antoine常数A、B、C分别为20.64,2338.72和−88.86,Antoine方程计算值与饱和蒸气压实验测定值之间的平均相对误差为0.45%.在此基础上,通过Clausius-Clapeyron方程计算得到丙酮肟甲醚在307.75~344.05 K温度范围内的平均摩尔蒸发热为36479.24 kJ⋅kmol−1.所得饱和蒸气压方程对丙酮肟甲醚精馏分离过程的设计与操作具有重要意义.%Saturated vapor pressures of acetone oxime methyl ether(AOME) were measured in the temperature range of 307.75~344.05 K by dynamic method in a Rose still. The measured saturated vapor pressures and temperatures were correlated by Antoine equation and the constants of equation were determinated as A=20.64, B = 2338.72, and C = −88.86 by nonlinear regression method. The averaged relative error between saturated vapor pressures calculated from the Antoine equation and the experimental data is 0.45%. Based on the experimental data of vapor pressures, the latent heat of vaporization of acetone oxime methyl ether was also obtained by Clausius-Clapeyron equation and its value is 36479.24 kJ⋅kmol−1 in the temperature range of 307.75~344.05 K. It is very important to provide the Antoine constants and latent heat of acetone oxime methyl ether for the design and operation of its distillation separation process.

  5. Therapeutic efficacy of milbemycin oxime/praziquantel oral formulation (Milbemax® against Thelazia callipaeda in naturally infested dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motta Bruna

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last few decades, canine and feline thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda eye worms has gained the attention of the veterinary community due to the spread of this ocular infestation in geographical areas previously regarded as non endemic. The therapeutic efficacy of milbemycin oxime/praziquantel tablets (Milbemax® against T. callipaeda was tested in naturally infested dogs and cats. Methods From January 2009 to July 2011 a placebo controlled and randomized field study was conducted in T. callipaeda endemic areas of Switzerland (CH and Italy (ITA involving client-owned animals. Dogs (n = 56 and cats (n = 31 were physically examined at enrolment Day 0 (D0 and twice afterwards (D7 and D14. Infested animals were orally treated with Milbemax® or with placebo tablets on D0 and, if an animal was found still infested with T. callipaeda, also on D7. On D14 nematodes were flushed from the conjunctiva, identified and counted. Results Out of 56 dogs, 43 were included in the statistical analysis, whereas 13 were excluded because the products under investigation were not administered with food, as required by the label. On D7 and D14, 72.7% and 90.9% of treated dogs were eye worm free, whereas in the placebo group 95.2% and 76.2% still harbored nematodes, resulting in a mean percentage worm count reduction for the Milbemax® group of 86.1% and 96.8%, respectively. Both results were significantly higher (p = 0.0001 than the placebo group. Out of the 31 cats included in the study at D7 and D14, 53.3% and 73.3% treated with Milbemax® were free of T. callipaeda, while 81.3% and 73.3 in the placebo group were still harbouring eye worms, resulting in a mean percentage worm count reduction for the treated group of 62.2% and 80.0%, respectively. Both results were significantly higher (p = 0.0106 and p = 0.0043 than the placebo group. Conclusions The commercial formulation of milbemycin oxime at the minimal dose

  6. Cytocompatibility of amine functionalized carbon nanoparticles grafted on polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáková, Pavlína; Slepičková Kasálková, Nikola; Kolská, Zdeňka; Leitner, Jindřich; Karpíšková, Jana; Stibor, Ivan; Slepička, Petr; Švorčík, Václav

    2016-03-01

    Five types of amide-amine Carbon Nano-Particles (CNPs) were prepared by functionalization of CNPs and characterized by several analytical methods. The successful grafting of amines on CNPs was verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), organic elemental analysis and electrokinetic analysis. The size and morphology of CNPs were determined from transmission electron microscopy. The surface area and porosity of CNPs were examined by adsorption and desorption isotherms. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate thermal stability of CNPs. The amount of bonded amine depends on its dimensionality arrangement. Surface area and pore volumes of CNPs decrease several times after individual amino-compound grafting. Selected types of functionalized CNPs were grafted onto a plasma activated surface of HDPE. The successful grafting of CNPs on the polymer surface was verified by XPS. Wettability was determined by contact angle measurements. Surface morphology and roughness were studied by atomic force microscopy. A dramatic decrease of contact angle and surface morphology was observed on CNP grafted polymer surface. Cytocompatibility of modified surfaces was studied in vitro, by determination of adhesion, proliferation and viability of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Grafting of CNPs onto the polymer surface has a positive effect on the adhesion, proliferation and viability of VSMCs.

  7. Robust dithiocarbamate-anchored amine functionalization of Au nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Robinson, Hans D.

    2011-02-01

    We introduce an effective and facile technique that achieves robust amine functionalization of Au nanoparticles by binding the polyamine poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) to the surface using a dithiocarbamate (DTC) modification of the side group amines. The DTC anchor confers superior short- and long-term colloidal stability compared to a physisorbed layer of the same polymer. We also demonstrate that the surface amines are available for further functionalization and that at least four alternately charged polyelectrolyte layers can be assembled onto the particles. The latter modification could not be performed on a physisorbed functional layer, so this demonstrates the effectiveness of the DTC groups in robustly anchoring the polymer to the particle surface. At the same time, the DTC-anchored polymer layer is less than 2 nm thick in the dry state. This is one-third of the thickness of a physisorbed polyamine layer deposited under the same conditions, and sufficiently thin that the plasmonic field enhancement on the metal particle remains accessible to the outside environment. We attribute the difference in thickness to multiple DTC bonds on each polymer chain forcing it into much closer conformity to the particle surface than in the physisorbed case.

  8. Tris{2-[(2-aminobenzylideneamino]ethyl}amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Elizondo Martínez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The title Schiff base, C27H33N7, is a tripodal amine displaying C3 symmetry, with the central tertiary N atom lying on the threefold crystallographic axis. The N—CH2—CH2—N conformation of the pendant arms is gauche [torsion angle = 76.1 (3°], which results in a claw-like molecule, with the terminal aniline groups wrapped around the symmetry axis. The lone pair of the apical N atom is clearly oriented inwards towards the cavity, and should thus be chemically inactive. The amine NH2 substituents lie in the plane of the benzene ring to which they are bonded. With such an arrangement, one amine H atom forms an S(6 motif through a weak N—H...N hydrogen bond with the imine N atom, while the other is engaged in an intermolecular N—H...π contact involving the benzene ring of a neighbouring molecule related by inversion. The benzene rings also participate in an intramolecular C—H...π contact of similar strength. In the crystal structure, molecules are separated by empty voids (ca 5% of the crystal volume, although the crystal seems to be unsolvated.

  9. Trace amine-associated receptors are olfactory receptors in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberles, Stephen D

    2009-07-01

    The mammalian nose is a powerful chemosensor, capable of detecting and distinguishing a myriad of chemicals. Sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium contain two types of chemosensory G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): odorant receptors (ORs), which are encoded by the largest gene family in mammals, and trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs), a smaller family of receptors distantly related to biogenic amine receptors. Do TAARs play a specialized role in olfaction distinct from that of ORs? Genes encoding TAARs are found in diverse vertebrates, from fish to mice to humans. Like OR genes, each Taar gene defines a unique population of canonical sensory neurons dispersed in a single zone of the olfactory epithelium. Ligands for mouse TAARs include a number of volatile amines, several of which are natural constituents of mouse urine, a rich source of rodent social cues. One chemical, 2-phenylethylamine, is reported to be enriched in the urine of stressed animals, and two others, trimethylamine and isoamylamine, are enriched in male versus female urine. Furthermore, isoamylamine has been proposed to be a pheromone that induces puberty acceleration in young female mice. These data raise the possibility that some TAARs are pheromone receptors in the nose, a hypothesis consistent with recent data suggesting that the olfactory epithelium contains dedicated pheromone receptors, separate from pheromone receptors in the vomeronasal organ. Future experiments will clarify the roles of TAARs in olfaction.

  10. DFT investigation on dihydrogen-bonded amine-borane complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shihai; Zou, Hongmei; Kang, Wukui; Sun, Lixiang

    2016-01-01

    The DFT method has been employed in the exploration on dihydrogen-bonded amine-borane complexes, with a special emphasis on the dimerization and substituent group effect. Stable dihydrogen bonded complexes can be generated from these amine-borane monomers with the appearance of NH(δ+)…H(δ-)B interactions. The binding energy decreases gradually with the increase of the steric effect of the substituents. The substituent group number mainly varies the C-N bond length. The dimerization generates close H…H and influences predominantly the N-B distance. The effect of dimerization on IR and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra is stronger than that of the number of substituent groups, which leads to distinct NBO charge variation on α-C. Both the substituent group number and dimerization enhance the chemical shift difference between hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to N and B, Δδ H-H, which can be hired as an index for structural determination. It is proposed that amine-borane complexes with more substituent groups in higher degree of polymerization are potentially interesting materials for hydrogen storage. Graphical Abstract Both the number of substituent group and dimerization enhance the chemical shift difference of hydrogen atoms covalently bonded on N and B, Δδ H-H, which can be employed as an index for the structural determination.

  11. Role of specific amine surface configurations for grafted surfaces: implications for nanostructured CO2 adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Steven; Song, Changsik; Strano, Michael

    2011-03-15

    Amine-grafted porous materials that capture CO2 from emission streams have been considered to be potential alternatives to the more energy-intensive liquid amine systems currently employed. An underappreciated fact in the uptake mechanism of these materials is that under dry, anhydrous conditions each CO2 molecule must react with two adjacent amine groups to adsorb onto the surface, which makes the configuration of amine groups on the surface critically important. Using this chemical mechanism, we developed a semiempirical adsorption isotherm equation that allows straightforward computation of the adsorption isotherm from an arbitrary surface configuration of grafted amines for honeycomb, square, and triangular lattices. The model makes use of the fact that the distribution of amines with respect to the number of nearest neighbors, referred to as the z-histogram, along with the amine loading and equilibrium constant, uniquely determine the adsorption characteristics to a very good approximation. This model was used to predict the range of uptakes possible just through surface configuration, and it was used to fit experimental data in the literature to give a meaningful equilibrium constant and show how efficiently amines were utilized. We also demonstrate how the model can be utilized to design more efficient nanostructured adsorbents and polymer-based adsorbents. Recommendations for exploiting the role of surface configuration include the use of linear instead of branched polyamines, higher amine grafting densities, the use of flexible, less bulky, long, and rotationally free amine groups, and increased silanol densities.

  12. A Review: Microbiological, Physicochemical and Health Impact of High Level of Biogenic Amines in Fish Sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Z. Zaman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Biogenic amines are basic nitrogenous compounds present in a wide variety of foods and beverages. Their formations were mainly due to the amino acids decarboxylase activity of certain microorganisms. Excessive intake of biogenic amines could induce many undesirable physiological effects determined by their psychoactive and vasoactive action. Fish sauce which is considered as a good source of dietary protein, amino acids, vitamins and minerals was a popular condiment in Southeast Asian countries. However, it has also been reported that fish sauce contain high amount of amines. Hence, attention should be given to ensure the safety of this product. Approach: A review study was conducted to deliver an overview on the presence of biogenic amines in fish sauce and to discuss the important factors affecting their accumulation. Impact of amines on human health and efforts to reduce their accumulation in fish sauce were also discussed to give a comprehensive view. Results: Histamine, putrescine and cadaverine is the most abundant amines in fish sauce with maximum reported value of 1220, 1257 and 1429 ppm, respectively. Tyramine present in a lesser amount with maximum reported value of 1178 ppm. Other amines such as tryptamine, phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine were considered as minor amines. However, different profiles of amines were reported in different type of products. This was depended on microbial flora, availability of precursors and physicochemical factors such as temperature, pH, salt, oxygen and sugar concentration. In synergistically supporting physicochemical factors, several microorganisms such as Enterobacteriaceae, Micrococci and Lactobacilli were responsible for biogenic amines formation in fish sauce. Conclusion: Since the formation of amines in fish sauce was a result of many factors, it was almost virtually impossible to control each factor during fermentation. Addition of amines degrading bacteria into fish

  13. Equilibrium and Transport Properties of Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Amines by Molecular Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orozco Gustavo A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Using molecular simulation techniques such as Monte Carlo (MC and molecular dynamics (MD, we present several simulation results of thermodynamic and transport properties for primary, secondary and tertiary amines. These calculations are based on a recently proposed force field for amines that follows the Anisotropic United Atom approach (AUA. Different amine molecules have been studied, including n-ButylAmine, di-n-ButylAmine, tri-n-ButylAmine and 1,4-ButaneDiAmine for primary, secondary, tertiary and multi-functional amines respectively. For the transport properties, we have calculated the viscosity coefficients as a function of temperature using the isothermal-isobaric (NPT ensemble. In the case of the pure components, we have investigated different thermodynamic properties using NVT Gibbs ensemble simulations such as liquid-vapor phase equilibrium diagrams, vaporization enthalpies, vapor pressures, normal boiling points, critical temperatures and critical densities. We have also calculated the excess enthalpies for water-n-ButylAmine and n-heptane-n-ButylAmine mixtures using Monte Carlo simulations in the NPT ensemble. In addition, we present the calculation of liquid-vapor surface tensions of n-ButylAmine using a two-phase NVT simulation as well as the radial distribution functions. Finally, we have investigated the physical Henry constants of nitrous oxide (N2O and nitrogen (N2 in an aqueous solutions of n-ButylAmine. In general, we found a good agreement between the available experimental information and our simulation results for all the studied properties, ratifying the predictive capability of the AUA force field for amines.

  14. Depression of brain dopamine and its metabolite after mating in European honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harano, Ken-Ichi; Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi

    2005-07-01

    To explore neuro-endocrinal changes in the brain of European honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens before and after mating, we measured the amount of several biogenic amines, including dopamine and its metabolite in the brain of 6- and 12-day-old virgins and 12-day-old mated queens. Twelve-day-old mated queens showed significantly lower amounts of dopamine and its metabolite (N-acetyldopamine) than both 6- and 12-day-old virgin queens, whereas significant differences in the amounts of these amines were not detected between 6- and 12-day-old virgin queens. These results are explained by down-regulation of both synthesis and secretion of brain dopamine after mating. It is speculated that higher amounts of brain dopamine in virgin queens might be involved in activation of ovarian follicles arrested in previtellogenic stages, as well as regulation of their characteristic behaviors.

  15. From caffeine to fish waste: amine compounds present in food and drugs and their interactions with primary amine oxidase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Olivieri, Aldo

    2011-07-01

    Tissue bound primary amine oxidase (PrAO) and its circulating plasma-soluble form are involved, through their catalytic activity, in important cellular roles, including the adhesion of lymphocytes to endothelial cells during various inflammatory conditions, the regulation of cell growth and maturation, extracellular matrix deposition and maturation and glucose transport. PrAO catalyses the oxidative deamination of several xenobiotics and has been linked to vascular toxicity, due to the generation of cytotoxic aldehydes. In this study, a series of amines and aldehydes contained in food and drugs were tested via a high-throughput assay as potential substrates or inhibitors of bovine plasma PrAO. Although none of the compounds analyzed were found to be substrates for the enzyme, a series of molecules, including caffeine, the antidiabetics phenformin and tolbutamide and the antimicrobial pentamidine, were identified as PrAO inhibitors. Although the inhibition observed was in the millimolar and micromolar range, these data show that further work will be necessary to elucidate whether the interaction of ingested biogenic or xenobiotic amines with PrAO might adversely affect its biological roles.

  16. Functionalized SBA-15 supported nickel (II)-oxime-imine catalysts for liquid phase oxidation of olefins under solvent-free conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Luna; Banerjee, Biplab; Bhaumik, Asim; Ali, Mahammad

    2016-05-01

    A new oxime-imine functionalized highly ordered mesoporous SBA-15 (SBA-15-NH2-DAMO) has been synthesized via post-synthesis functionalization of SBA-15 with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane followed by the Schiff base condensation with diacetylmonooxime, which was further reacted with Ni(ClO4)2 to yield the functionalized nickel catalyst SBA-15-NH2-DAMO-Ni. All the synthesized materials were thoroughly characterized using different characterization techniques. It was found that SBA-15-NH2-DAMO-Ni catalyzes the one-pot oxidation of olefins like styrene, cyclohexene, cyclooctene, 1-hexene and 1-octene to the corresponding benzaldehyde, cyclohexene-1-ol and cyclooctene-oxide, respectively under solvent-free conditions by using tert-butylhydroperoxide as oxidant.

  17. Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel Isoxazolines/Oxime Sulfonates of 2′(2′,6′)-(Di)Chloropodophyllotoxins as Insecticidal Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingqiao; Liu, Guangci; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Feng, Tao; Xu, Ming; Xu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    A series of 2′(2′,6′)-(di)halogeno-isoxazolopodophyllic acids-based esters, and oxime sulfonates of 2′(2′,6′)-(di)halogenopodophyllones were prepared by structural modifications of podophyllotoxin as insecticidal agents against Mythimna separata Walker. It was found that when 2′(2′,6′)-(di)halogenopodophyllones or 2′(2′,6′)-(di)chloropicropodophyllones reacted with hydroxylamine hydrochloride, the desired products were related with the configuration of their lactones. Three key single-crystal structures of Ie, IIe and IIIb were determined by X-ray diffraction. Especially compounds IIc and Vc showed the highest insecticidal activity. Moreover, some interesting results of structure-insecticidal activity relationships of tested compounds were also observed. PMID:27667584

  18. The Effect of Platinum on Stability of the B2O3/TiO2-ZrO2 Catalyst for Beckmann Rearrangement of Cyclohexanone Oxime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Sen MAO; Guan Zhong LU

    2006-01-01

    The addition of platinum over the B2O3/TiO2-ZrO2 remarkably enhanced its catalytic stability in the vapor phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime under the carrier gas of H2. The content of coke deposited on catalyst surface was decreased from 1.92% over the B2O3/TiO2-ZrO2 to 1.14% over the platinum promoted B2O3/TiO2-ZrO2 after reaction of six hours. This result indicates that the platinum added on the B2O3/TiO2-ZrO2 catalyst plays an important role in reducing the coke formation on the catalyst surface.

  19. Expectation and surprise in group 13 organometallics: molecular vs. polymeric aggregation of Me2Ga and Me2In norcamphor oximates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Matthias; Berger, Raphael J F; Pape, Tania; Mitzel, Norbert W

    2006-12-07

    Whereas (meso)-[(norcamphor oximato)GaMe2]2 exhibits the dimeric M2O2N2 motif favoured by organo group 13 metal oximates, the Me2In derivative [{(meso)-[(norcamphor oximato)InMe2]2}2]infinity aggregates distinctly different with the In atoms adopting coordination number (CN)=5; compound is the first oximato-based chain-like coordination polymer in group 13 organometallics; it comprises alternating M2O2N2 and M2O2 ring dimers interconnected via two types of a fifth dative bond (O-->In and N-->In) to yield the new {M4O4N4}infinity motif; the calculated energetics of the heteroatom rings involved in and confirm the diverging aggregational behaviour of Ga and In.

  20. Computational and ¹³C investigations of the diazadienes and oxazadienes formed via the rearrangement of methylenecyclopropyl hydrazones and oximes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Scott, Mark E; Adams, Bruce A; Hrovat, David A; Borden, Weston Thatcher; Lautens, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Computational and further experimental investigations of the previously reported diazadienes, obtained via the rearrangement of methylenecyclopropyl hydrazone 1 are reported. Calculations at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory indicate that the initially reported product 3 would, if formed, undergo rapid electrocyclic ring opening and, hence, would be unstable under the reaction conditions. Based on this computational prediction, further analysis of the (13)C NMR spectrum, previously attributed to 3, led to the revision of structure 3 to that of its N-tosylaminopyrrole constitutional isomer 11. Similarly, structure 8, formed in the rearrangement of oxime 6, was revised to that of N-hydroxypyrrole 12.

  1. Evaluation of potency of known oximes (pralidoxime, trimedoxime, HI-6, methoxime, obidoxime) to in vitro reactivate acetylcholinesterase inhibited by pesticides (chlorpyrifos and methylchlorpyrifos) and nerve agent (Russian VX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musílek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil; Jun, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Nerve agents and pesticides belong to the group of organophosphates. They are able to inhibit irreversibly the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Acetylcholinesterase reactivators were designed for the treatment of nerve agent intoxications. Their potency to reactivate pesticide-inhibited AChE was many times evaluated. In this study, five commonly used AChE reactivators (pralidoxime, methoxime, HI-6, obidoxime, trimedoxime) for the reactivation of AChE inhibited by two pesticides (chlorpyrifos and methylchlorpyrifos) were used. Russian VX (nerve agent) as a member of nerve agents' family was taken for comparison. Obtained results show that oximes developed against nerve agent intoxication are less effective for intoxication with organophosphorus pesticides. Especially, methylchlorpyrifos-inhibited AChE was found to be poorly reactivated by the compounds used.

  2. Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel Isoxazolines/Oxime Sulfonates of 2‧(2‧,6‧)-(Di)Chloropodophyllotoxins as Insecticidal Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingqiao; Liu, Guangci; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Feng, Tao; Xu, Ming; Xu, Hui

    2016-09-01

    A series of 2‧(2‧,6‧)-(di)halogeno-isoxazolopodophyllic acids-based esters, and oxime sulfonates of 2‧(2‧,6‧)-(di)halogenopodophyllones were prepared by structural modifications of podophyllotoxin as insecticidal agents against Mythimna separata Walker. It was found that when 2‧(2‧,6‧)-(di)halogenopodophyllones or 2‧(2‧,6‧)-(di)chloropicropodophyllones reacted with hydroxylamine hydrochloride, the desired products were related with the configuration of their lactones. Three key single-crystal structures of Ie, IIe and IIIb were determined by X-ray diffraction. Especially compounds IIc and Vc showed the highest insecticidal activity. Moreover, some interesting results of structure-insecticidal activity relationships of tested compounds were also observed.

  3. Probing the carbonyl functionality of a petroleum resin and asphaltene through oximation and schiff base formation in conjunction with N-15 NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Cox, Larry G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in spectroscopic techniques, there is uncertainty regarding the nature of the carbonyl groups in the asphaltene and resin fractions of crude oil, information necessary for an understanding of the physical properties and environmental fate of these materials. Carbonyl and hydroxyl group functionalities are not observed in natural abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of asphaltenes and resins and therefore require spin labeling techniques for detection. In this study, the carbonyl functionalities of the resin and asphaltene fractions from a light aliphatic crude oil that is the source of groundwater contamination at the long term USGS study site near Bemidji, Minnesota, have been examined through reaction with 15N-labeled hydroxylamine and aniline in conjunction with analysis by solid and liquid state 15N NMR. Ketone groups were revealed through 15N NMR detection of their oxime and Schiff base derivatives, and esters through their hydroxamic acid derivatives. Anilinohydroquinone adducts provided evidence for quinones. Some possible configurations of the ketone groups in the resin and asphaltene fractions can be inferred from a consideration of the likely reactions that lead to heterocyclic condensation products with aniline and to the Beckmann reaction products from the initially formed oximes. These include aromatic ketones and ketones adjacent to quaternary carbon centers, β-hydroxyketones, β-diketones, and β-ketoesters. In a solid state cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) 15N NMR spectrum recorded on the underivatized asphaltene as a control, carbazole and pyrrole-like nitrogens were the major naturally abundant nitrogens detected.

  4. Probing the Carbonyl Functionality of a Petroleum Resin and Asphaltene through Oximation and Schiff Base Formation in Conjunction with N-15 NMR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Thorn

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in spectroscopic techniques, there is uncertainty regarding the nature of the carbonyl groups in the asphaltene and resin fractions of crude oil, information necessary for an understanding of the physical properties and environmental fate of these materials. Carbonyl and hydroxyl group functionalities are not observed in natural abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectra of asphaltenes and resins and therefore require spin labeling techniques for detection. In this study, the carbonyl functionalities of the resin and asphaltene fractions from a light aliphatic crude oil that is the source of groundwater contamination at the long term USGS study site near Bemidji, Minnesota, have been examined through reaction with 15N-labeled hydroxylamine and aniline in conjunction with analysis by solid and liquid state 15N NMR. Ketone groups were revealed through 15N NMR detection of their oxime and Schiff base derivatives, and esters through their hydroxamic acid derivatives. Anilinohydroquinone adducts provided evidence for quinones. Some possible configurations of the ketone groups in the resin and asphaltene fractions can be inferred from a consideration of the likely reactions that lead to heterocyclic condensation products with aniline and to the Beckmann reaction products from the initially formed oximes. These include aromatic ketones and ketones adjacent to quaternary carbon centers, β-hydroxyketones, β-diketones, and β-ketoesters. In a solid state cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS 15N NMR spectrum recorded on the underivatized asphaltene as a control, carbazole and pyrrole-like nitrogens were the major naturally abundant nitrogens detected.

  5. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activities of Epoxyprogesterone Oxime%环氧孕酮肟的合成及其抗菌活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田光辉; 赖普辉; 孙志锋; 赵桦

    2012-01-01

    Epoxyprogesterone-3-oxime and epoxyprogesterone-3,20-dioxime were synthesized from the raw material of 16α,17α-epoxyprogesterone in ethanol medium with 16α,17α-epoxyprogesterone and different dosage of hydroxylamine hydrochloride respectively at 55 ℃ by way of stirrer,and their yields reached up to 68.58% and 55.96%.These two compound structures were characterized by IR,UV,MS,1H NMR,13C NMR,135° DEPT and elemental analysis.The results of the antimicrobial activities of epoxyprogesterone-3-oxime and epoxyprogesterone-3,20-dioxime inhibited the growth of testing bacterias and sterilized them especially against Staphylococcus aureus 25925 and Salmonella typhimurium 50013.%在55℃保温搅拌下,在乙醇介质中以环氧孕酮为原料与不同剂量的盐酸羟胺反应合成得到环氧孕酮-3-肟和环氧孕酮-3,20-二肟,产率分别为68.58%和55.96%,利用红外光谱(IR),紫外(UV),质谱(MS),核磁共振谱(NMR)以及元素分析等技术来表征其结构.抗菌实验结果证实,两种环氧孕酮肟产物对实验菌株均有明显的抑制和灭活作用,特别是对金黄色葡萄球25925株和鼠伤寒沙门菌50013株更为显著.

  6. Sponges with covalently tethered amines for high-efficiency carbon capture

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng

    2014-12-12

    © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Adsorption using solid amine sorbents is an attractive emerging technology for energy-efficient carbon capture. Current syntheses for solid amine sorbents mainly based on physical impregnation or grafting-to methods (for example, aminosilane-grafting) lead to limited sorbent performance in terms of stability and working capacity, respectively. Here we report a family of solid amine sorbents using a grafting-from synthesis approach and synthesized by cationic polymerization of oxazolines on mesoporous silica. The sorbent with high amount of covalently tethered amines shows fast adsorption rate, high amine efficiency and sorbent capacity well exceeding the highest value reported to date for lowerature carbon dioxide sorbents under simulated flue gas conditions. The demonstrated efficiency of the new amine-immobilization chemistry may open up new avenues in the development of advanced carbon dioxide sorbents, as well as other nitrogen-functionalized systems.

  7. Conversion of alcohols to enantiopure amines through dual enzyme hydrogen-borrowing cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Francesco G.; Knaus, Tanja; Scrutton, Nigel S.; Breuer, Michael; Turner, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    α-Chiral amines are key intermediates for the synthesis of a plethora of chemical compounds on industrial scale. Here we present a biocatalytic hydrogen-borrowing amination of primary and secondary alcohols that allows for the efficient and environmentally benign production of enantiopure amines. The method relies on the combination of an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHs from Aromatoleum sp., Lactobacillus sp. and Bacillus sp.) enzyme operating in tandem with an amine dehydrogenase (AmDHs engineered from Bacillus sp.) to aminate a structurally diverse range of aromatic and aliphatic alcohols (up to 96% conversion and 99% enantiomeric excess). Furthermore, primary alcohols are aminated with high conversion (up to 99%). This redox self-sufficient network possesses high atom efficiency, sourcing nitrogen from ammonium and generating water as the sole by-product. PMID:26404833

  8. Conversion of alcohols to enantiopure amines through dual-enzyme hydrogen-borrowing cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Francesco G; Knaus, Tanja; Scrutton, Nigel S; Breuer, Michael; Turner, Nicholas J

    2015-09-25

    α-Chiral amines are key intermediates for the synthesis of a plethora of chemical compounds at industrial scale. We present a biocatalytic hydrogen-borrowing amination of primary and secondary alcohols that allows for the efficient and environmentally benign production of enantiopure amines. The method relies on a combination of two enzymes: an alcohol dehydrogenase (from Aromatoleum sp., Lactobacillus sp., or Bacillus sp.) operating in tandem with an amine dehydrogenase (engineered from Bacillus sp.) to aminate a structurally diverse range of aromatic and aliphatic alcohols, yielding up to 96% conversion and 99% enantiomeric excess. Primary alcohols were aminated with high conversion (up to 99%). This redox self-sufficient cascade possesses high atom efficiency, sourcing nitrogen from ammonium and generating water as the sole by-product.

  9. A facile protocol for N-Cbz protection of amines in PEG-600

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Lin Zhang; Dong Feng Zhang; Hong Yi Zhao; Zi Yun Lin; Hai Hong Huang

    2012-01-01

    An efficient and eco-friendly protocol for the chemoselective N-benzyloxycarbonylation of amines was described.The reaction of amines with benzyl chloroformate (Cbz-Cl) in the presence of PEG-600 at room temperature afforded the corresponding N-Cbz derivatives in excellent yields.The method is applicable to the N-Cbz protection of aliphatic (acyclic and cyclic) and aromatic amines.

  10. Monofunctional primary amine: A new class of organocatalyst for asymmetric Aldol reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KHIANGTE VANLALDINPUIA; PORAG BORA; GHANASHYAM BEZ

    2017-03-01

    A new class of organocatalysts involving a primary amine as the only functional group is developed for catalytic asymmetric aldol reaction of cyclohexanone/ cyclopentanone with various aryl aldehydes in thepresence of benzoic acid as an additive at −10◦C. In an unexpected observation, the primary amine catalyzed reactions gave excellent yield and good to excellent stereoselectivity, while secondary amines were found to have little or no reactivity under similar reaction conditions.

  11. Tri-n-butylphosphane catalyzed ring opening of aziridines with secondary amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Xuan Zhang; Li Su; Wei Gang Hu; Jie Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Ring opening of aziridine with dialkyl amine took place readily in the presence of catalytic amounts of tri-n-butylphosphane (10 mol%) in the mixture of CH3CN/H2O (10:1),giving corresponding vicinal diamines in mediate to high yields (58-95%) with good regioselecfivifie,while aromatic secondary amine could not react under the same condifions.Tti-n-butylphosphane exhibited different catalytic selectivity to amines from Lewis acid catalysts.

  12. Mechanistic insights into the oxidative dehydrogenation of amines to nitriles in continuous flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corker, Emily C.; Ruiz-Martínez, Javier; Riisager, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative dehydrogenation of various aliphatic amines to their corresponding nitrile compounds using RuO2/Al2O3 catalysts in air was successfully applied to a continuous flow reaction. Conversions of amines (up to >99%) and yields of nitriles (up to 77%) varied depending on reaction conditions...... and the amine utilised. The presence of water was found to be important for the activity and stability of the RuO2/Al2O3 catalyst. The Hammett relationship and in situ infrared spectroscopy were applied to divulge details about the catalytic mechanism of the oxidative dehydrogenation of amines over RuO2/Al2O3...

  13. Amine-Functionalized ZnO Nanosheets for Efficient CO2 Capture and Photoreduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusen Liao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Amine-functionalized ZnO nanosheets were prepared through a one-step hydrothermal method by using monoethanolamine, which has a hydroxyl group, for covalent attachment on ZnO and a primary amine group to supply the amine-functionalization. We demonstrate that the terminal amine groups on ZnO surfaces substantially increase the capability of CO2 capture via chemisorption, resulting in effective CO2 activation. As a result, the photogenerated electrons from excited ZnO can more readily reduce the surface-activated CO2, which thereby enhances the activity for photocatalytic CO2 reduction.

  14. Amine-Functionalized ZnO Nanosheets for Efficient CO2 Capture and Photoreduction

    OpenAIRE

    Yusen Liao; Zhaoning Hu; Quan Gu; Can Xue

    2015-01-01

    Amine-functionalized ZnO nanosheets were prepared through a one-step hydrothermal method by using monoethanolamine, which has a hydroxyl group, for covalent attachment on ZnO and a primary amine group to supply the amine-functionalization. We demonstrate that the terminal amine groups on ZnO surfaces substantially increase the capability of CO2 capture via chemisorption, resulting in effective CO2 activation. As a result, the photogenerated electrons from excited ZnO can more readily reduce t...

  15. Control of biogenic amines in fermented sausages: role of starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariluz eLatorre-Moratalla

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several works show the ability of some starters to render biogenic amine-free sausages. In this paper, the effect of different starter culture is reviewed and the factors determining their performance discussed.

  16. Control of biogenic amines in fermented sausages: role of starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Bover-Cid, Sara; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several works show the ability of some starters to render biogenic amine-free sausages. In this paper, the effect of different starter culture is reviewed and the factors determining their performance discussed.

  17. Chemical and Molecular Descriptors for the Reactivity of Amines with CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Anita S.; Kitchin, John R.

    2012-10-24

    Amine-based solvents are likely to play an important role in CO{sub 2} capture applications in the future, and the identification of amines with superior performance will facilitate their use in CO{sub 2} capture. While some improvements in performance will be achieved through process modifications, modifying the CO{sub 2} capture performance of an amine also implies in part an ability to modify the reactions between the amine and CO{sub 2} through development of new functionalized amines. We present a computational study of trends in the reactions between CO{sub 2} and functionalized amines with a focus on identifying molecular descriptors that determine trends in reactivity. We examine the formation of bicarbonate and carbamate species on three classes of functionalized amines: alkylamines, alkanolamines, and fluorinated alkylamines including primary, secondary and tertiary amines in each class. These functional groups span electron-withdrawing to donating behavior, hydrogen-bonding, extent of functionalization, and proximity effects of the functional groups. Electron withdrawing groups tend to destabilize CO{sub 2} reaction products, whereas electron-donating groups tend to stabilize CO{sub 2} reaction products. Hydrogen bonding stabilizes CO{sub 2} reaction products. Electronic structure descriptors based on electronegativity were found to describe trends in the bicarbonate formation energy. A chemical correlation was observed between the carbamate formation energy and the carbamic acid formation energy. The local softness on the reacting N in the amine was found to partially explain trends carbamic acid formation energy.

  18. Method of neutralizing the corrosive surface of amine-cured epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. Y. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    The corrosive alkaline surface layer of an epoxy resin product formed by the curing of the epoxy with an aliphatic amine is eliminated by first applying a non-solvent to remove most or all of the free unreacted amine and then applying a layer of a chemical reagent to neutralize the unused amine or amine functional groups by forming a substituted urea. The surface then may be rinsed with acetone and then with alcohol. The non-solvent may be an alcohol. The neutralizing chemical reagent is a mono-isocyanate or a mono-isothiocyanate. Preferred is an aromatic mono-isocyanate such as phenyl isocyanate, nitrophenyl isocyanate and naplthyl isocyanate.

  19. EFFECTS OF HYDRAZINES ON THE METABOLISM OF CERTAIN AMINES AND AMINO ACIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMINES, * AMINO ACIDS , *DIAMINE OXIDASE, TOXICITY, METABOLISM, METABOLISM, DIMETHYLHYDRAZINES, GLUTAMIC ACID, ENZYMES, PHARMACOLOGY, TRACER STUDIES, LABELED SUBSTANCES, RESPIRATION, GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM, RATS.

  20. Brain Autopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... why a family should consider arranging for a brain autopsy upon the death of their loved one. To get a definitive ... study of tissue removed from the body after death. Examination of the whole brain is important in understanding FTD because the patterns ...