WorldWideScience

Sample records for amies gel transystem

  1. AMY trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Yoshihide [National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1989-04-01

    A trigger system of the AMY detector at TRISTAN e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is described briefly. The system uses simple track segment and shower cluster counting scheme to classify events to be triggered. It has been operating successfully since 1987.

  2. Amy Courtney: Freewheelin' Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Shareholders in Freewheelin’ Farm’s community supported agriculture program enjoy an unusual perk: delivery by bicycle-drawn trailer. Freewheelin’ founder Amy Courtney, a 1997 graduate of UCSC’s Apprenticeship in Ecological Horticulture, strives to produce fresh, healthy food while minimizing her environmental footprint. Courtney started the farm in 2002 with almost no motorized vehicles, incorporating used equipment and recycled materials wherever possible in the farm’s operations. She and h...

  3. Membumikan AMI, Membangun Museum Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mulyadi, Yadi

    2014-01-01

    Asosiasi Museum Indonesia (AMI) sebagai satu-satunya perhimpunan museum di Indonesia telah berkiprah selama 16 tahun terhitung sejak dibentuknya Badan Musyawarah Museum Indonesia (BMMI) pada tanggal 28 Oktober 1998. Lalu pada pelaksanaan Munas BMMI ke II di Cisarua Bogor tanggal 12 - 14 Juli 2004 disepakati perubahan nama dan bentuk Badan Musyawarah Indonesia (BMMI) menjadiAsosiasi Museum Indonesia (AMI).

  4. AMiBA: System Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Kai-Yang; Li, Chao-Te; Ho, Paul T. P.; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Liao, Yu-Wei; Liu, Guo-Chin; Koch, Patrick M.; Molnar, Sandor M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Kestevan, Michael; Birkinshaw, Mark; Altamirano, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    The Y.T. Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) started scientific operation in early 2007. This work describes the optimization of the system performance for the measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect for six massive galaxy clusters at redshifts $0.09 - 0.32$. We achieved a point source sensitivity of $63\\pm 7$ mJy with the seven 0.6m dishes in 1 hour of on-source integration in 2-patch differencing observations. We measured and compensated for the delays between the an...

  5. Amy Finkelstein: 2012 John Bates Clark Medalist

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Levin; James Poterba

    2012-01-01

    Amy Finkelstein is the 2012 recipient of the John Bates Clark Medal from the American Economic Association. The core concerns of Amy's research program have been insurance markets and health care. She has addressed whether asymmetric information leads to inefficiencies in insurance markets, how large social insurance programs affect healthcare markets, and the determinants of innovation incentives in health care. We describe a number of Amy's key research contributions, with particular emphas...

  6. AMiBA, XMM, and Cluster Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, H

    2001-01-01

    The Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) is an interferometric array of 19 dishes co-mounted on a steerable platform and operating at 95GHz. One of the main scientific aims of AMiBA is to conduct cluster surveys using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. Here we explore the potential of AMiBA as a tailor-made SZ instrument for the study of cluster physics and cosmology via cluster surveys out to the epoch of cluster formation. In particular, we explore the potential of combining AMiBA cluster surveys with the XMM-LSS (Large Scale Structure) survey.

  7. Main: 1AMY [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1AMY 大麦 Barley Hordeum vulgare l. Alpha-Amylase Type B Isozyme Precursor Name=Amy1.2; Hordeum ... ; X-ray; @=25-427.|InterPro; IPR006047; Alpha_amyl_cat .|InterPro; IPR006589; Alp_amyl_cat _sub.|InterPro; ...

  8. Adieu l’ami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bùi Xuân Quang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Qu’est-ce qu’une amitié ? Une tête, deux mains, quatre pieds … Cette phrase, dite avec légèreté un jour où nous parlions football, rugby et sport, revient en mémoire. Prononcée par mon ami Kasra Vafadari, elle illustre ce qui est exprimé ici. Je n’avais pas compris sur le champ. J’en mesure mieux la portée. Cette contribution peut surprendre dans la gerbe de textes rassemblés en l’honneur d’un homme de bien. Elle prend sens au delà des apparences. Ces lignes sont hommage à un homme disparu, i...

  9. AMiBA, XMM, and Cluster Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Haida

    2001-01-01

    The Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) is an interferometric array of 19 dishes co-mounted on a steerable platform and operating at 95GHz. One of the main scientific aims of AMiBA is to conduct cluster surveys using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. Here we explore the potential of AMiBA as a tailor-made SZ instrument for the study of cluster physics and cosmology via cluster surveys out to the epoch of cluster formation. In particular, we explore the potential of combining A...

  10. AMiBA: System Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Kai-Yang; Ho, Paul T P; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Liao, Yu-Wei; Liu, Guo-Chin; Koch, Patrick M; Molnar, Sandor M; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Kestevan, Michael; Birkinshaw, Mark; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Ming-Tang; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Ibañez-Roman, Fabiola; Jiang, Homin; Kubo, Derek Y; Oshiro, Peter; Raffin, Philippe; Wei, Tashun; Wilson, Warwick; Chen, Ke-Jung; Chiueh, Tzihong

    2009-01-01

    The Y.T. Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) started scientific operation in early 2007. This work describes the optimization of the system performance for the measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect for six massive galaxy clusters at redshifts $0.09 - 0.32$. We achieved a point source sensitivity of $63\\pm 7$ mJy with the seven 0.6m dishes in 1 hour of on-source integration in 2-patch differencing observations. We measured and compensated for the delays between the antennas of our platform-mounted interferometer. Beam switching was used to cancel instrumental instabilities and ground pick up. Total power and phase stability were good on time scales of hours, and the system was shown to integrate down on equivalent timescales of 300 hours per baseline/correlation, or about 10 hours for the entire array. While the broadband correlator leads to good sensitivity, the small number of lags in the correlator resulted in poorly measured bandpass response. We corrected for this by using extern...

  11. AMiBA First SZ Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, K.-Y.; Wu, J.-H. P.; Umetsu, K.; Kock, P.; Liu, G.-C.; Nishioka, H.; Huang, C.-W.; Liao, Y.-W.; Wang, F.-C.; Ho, P.

    2008-10-01

    Y.T.Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) is an array utilizing the 90GHz band to measure the CMB power spectrum and the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect of galaxy clusters. The first stage with seven antennae has been completed, and the second stage with thirteen antennae is being constructed. Using the seven-element array, AMiBA has performed observations on six massive galaxy clusters at redshifts 0.09 - 0.32 during 2007.

  12. The AMiBA Hexapod Telescope Mount

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Patrick M.; Kesteven, Michael; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Jiang, Homin; Lin, Kai-Yang; Umetsu, Keiichi; Huang, Yau-De; Raffin, Philippe; Chen, Ke-Jung; Ibanez-Romano, Fabiola; Chereau, Guillaume; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Chen, Ming-Tang; Ho, Paul T. P.; Pausch, Konrad

    2009-01-01

    AMiBA is the largest hexapod astronomical telescope in current operation. We present a description of this novel hexapod mount with its main mechanical components -- the support cone, universal joints, jack screws, and platform -- and outline the control system with the pointing model and the operating modes that are supported. The AMiBA hexapod mount performance is verified based on optical pointing tests and platform photogrammetry measurements. The photogrammetry results show that the defo...

  13. A Tall Tale: Laura Amy Schlitz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Mary Grace

    2008-01-01

    In this article, American author, children's librarian, and storyteller Laura Amy Schlitz is profiled. Schlitz is the winner of this year's Newbery Medal for her tall tale about the Mongols called "Gulnara the Tartar Warrior." Like her award-winning book, "Good Masters! Sweet Ladies!" (Candlewick, 2007), the tale takes place in the Middle Ages.…

  14. Engineering professor Amy Bell honored by IEEE

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2006-01-01

    Amy Bell, an associate professor in the Virginia Tech College of Engineering's Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, has received a 2006 Outstanding Student Branch Advisor Award from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. (IEEE), the world's largest professional organization for electrical and computer engineers.

  15. AMiBA: Broadband Heterodyne CMB Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ming-Tang; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Jiang, Homin; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chiueh, Tzi-Dar; Chu, Tah-Hsiung; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De; Kesteven, Michael; Kubo, Derek; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter; Raffin, Philippe; Wei, Tashun; Wang, Huei; Wilson, Warwick; Ho, Paul T P; Huang, Chih-Wei; Koch, Patrick; Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty

    2009-01-01

    The Y. T. Lee Array for Microwave Background (AMiBA) has reported the first science results on the detection of galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect. The science objectives required small reflectors in order to sample large scale structures (20') while interferometry provided modest resolutions (2'). With these constraints, we designed for the best sensitivity by utilizing the maximum possible continuum bandwidth matched to the atmospheric window at 86-102GHz, with dual polarizations. A novel wide-band analog correlator was designed that is easily expandable for more interferometer elements. MMIC technology was used throughout as much as possible in order to miniaturize the components and to enhance mass production. These designs will find application in other upcoming astronomy projects. AMiBA is now in operations since 2006, and we are in the process to expand the array from 7 to 13 elements.

  16. The AMiBA Hexapod Telescope Mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Patrick M.; Kesteven, Michael; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Jiang, Homin; Lin, Kai-Yang; Umetsu, Keiichi; Huang, Yau-De; Raffin, Philippe; Chen, Ke-Jung; Ibañez-Romano, Fabiola; Chereau, Guillaume; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Chen, Ming-Tang; Ho, Paul T. P.; Pausch, Konrad; Willmeroth, Klaus; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Han, Chih-Chiang; Kubo, Derek; Li, Chao-Te; Liao, Yu-Wei; Liu, Guo-Chin; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wei, Ta-Shun; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Birkinshaw, Mark; Chiueh, Tzihong; Lancaster, Katy; Lo, Kwok Yung; Martin, Robert N.; Molnar, Sandor M.; Patt, Ferdinand; Romeo, Bob

    2009-04-01

    The Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) is the largest hexapod astronomical telescope in current operation. We present a description of this novel hexapod mount with its main mechanical components—the support cone, universal joints, jack screws, and platform—and outline the control system with the pointing model and the operating modes that are supported. The AMiBA hexapod mount performance is verified based on optical pointing tests and platform photogrammetry measurements. The photogrammetry results show that the deformations in the inner part of the platform are less than 120 μm rms. This is negligible for optical pointing corrections, radio alignment, and radio phase errors for the currently operational seven-element compact configuration. The optical pointing error in azimuth and elevation is successively reduced by a series of corrections to about 0farcm 4 rms which meets our goal for the seven-element target specifications.

  17. The AMiBA Hexapod Telescope Mount

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Patrick M; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Jiang, Homin; Lin, Kai-Yang; Umetsu, Keiichi; Huang, Yau-De; Raffin, Philippe; Chen, Ke-Jung; Ibanez-Romano, Fabiola; Chereau, Guillaume; Chen, Ming-Tang; Ho, Paul T P; Pausch, Konrad; Willmeroth, Klaus; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Han, Chih-Chiang; Kubo, Derek; Li, Chao-Te; Liu, Guo-Chin; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter; Wei, Ta-Shun; Birkinshaw, Mark; Lancaster, Katy; Lo, Kwok Yung; Martin, Robert N; Molnar, Sandor M; Patt, Ferdinand; Romeo, Bob

    2009-01-01

    AMiBA is the largest hexapod astronomical telescope in current operation. We present a description of this novel hexapod mount with its main mechanical components -- the support cone, universal joints, jack screws, and platform -- and outline the control system with the pointing model and the operating modes that are supported. The AMiBA hexapod mount performance is verified based on optical pointing tests and platform photogrammetry measurements. The photogrammetry results show that the deformations in the inner part of the platform are less than 120 micron rms. This is negligible for optical pointing corrections, radio alignment and radio phase errors for the currently operational 7-element compact configuration. The optical pointing error in azimuth and elevation is successively reduced by a series of corrections to about 0.4 arcmin rms which meets our goal for the 7-element target specifications.

  18. AMiBA: Broadband Heterodyne CMB Interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ming-Tang; Li, Chao-Te; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Jiang, Homin; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chiueh, Tzi-Dar; Chu, Tah-Hsiung; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De; Kesteven, Michael; Kubo, Derek; Martin-Cocher, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The Y. T. Lee Array for Microwave Background (AMiBA) has reported the first science results on the detection of galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect. The science objectives required small reflectors in order to sample large scale structures (20') while interferometry provided modest resolutions (2'). With these constraints, we designed for the best sensitivity by utilizing the maximum possible continuum bandwidth matched to the atmospheric window at 86-102GHz, with dual polarizat...

  19. Tests of AMiBA Data Integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Nishioka, Hiroaki; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Ho, Paul T. P.; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Koch, Patrick M.; Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M.; Umetsu, Keiichi; Birkinshaw, Mark; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao

    2008-01-01

    We describe methods used to validate data from the Y.T. Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA), an interferometric array designed to measure the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and the anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). We perform several statistical tests on data from pointed galaxy cluster observations taken in 2007 and noise data from long-term blank sky observations and measurements with the feeds covered by the absorbers. We apply power spectrum analysis, cross...

  20. G.hnem for AMI and DR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The power grid is evolving into the Smart Grid, by incorporating Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and new functionalities. Some of the Smart Grid functionalities, such as Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and Demand Response (DR), require information about customers’ energy...... consumption and production. Power Line Communication (PLC) is a candidate technology for connecting the customers and utilities as it is easy to deploy and has extensive coverage. ITU-T G.hnem standard defines a narrowband PLC, which was specially designed for Smart Grid applications. This paper proposes a...

  1. A dermatoglyphic study of the Amis aboriginal population of Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Amis is the largest aboriginal population in Taiwan. The previous dermatoglyphic studies of the Amis only reported limited data. In this study, we collected and analyzed the dermatoglyphs of 200 Amis individuals, and we reported a wide range of dermatoglyphic variables including total finger ridge count, a-b ridge count, atd angle, axial triradius percent distance, and frequencies of fingerprint pattern, palmar thenar pattern, palmar interdigital pattern, and simian line. This study is the first comprehensive dermatoglyphic research of Amis since 1960s, and its dermatoglyphic data will be useful for future research in anthropology, genetics and medicine.

  2. A dermatoglyphic study of the Amis aboriginal population of Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Amis is the largest aboriginal population in Taiwan. The previous dermatoglyphic studies of the Amis only reported limited data. In this study, we collected and analyzed the dermatoglyphs of 200 Amis in-dividuals, and we reported a wide range of dermatoglyphic variables including total finger ridge count, a-b ridge count, atd angle, axial triradius percent distance, and frequencies of fingerprint pattern, pal-mar thenar pattern, palmar interdigital pattern, and simian line. This study is the first comprehensive dermatoglyphic research of Amis since 1960s, and its dermatoglyphic data will be useful for future re-search in anthropology, genetics and medicine.

  3. Evolution of the ATLAS Metadata Interface (AMI)

    CERN Document Server

    Odier, Jerome; The ATLAS collaboration; Fulachier, Jerome; Lambert, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Metadata Interface (AMI) can be considered to be a mature application because it has existed for at least 10 years. Over the years, the number of users and the number of functions provided for these users has increased. It has been necessary to adapt the hardware infrastructure in a seamless way so that the Quality of Service remains high. We will describe the evolution of the application from the initial one, using single server with a MySQL backend database, to the current state, where we use a cluster of Virtual Machines on the French Tier 1 Cloud at Lyon, an ORACLE database backend also at Lyon, with replication to CERN using ORACLE streams behind a back-up server.

  4. Evolution of the architecture of the ATLAS Metadata Interface (AMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odier, J.; Aidel, O.; Albrand, S.; Fulachier, J.; Lambert, F.

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS Metadata Interface (AMI) is now a mature application. Over the years, the number of users and the number of provided functions has dramatically increased. It is necessary to adapt the hardware infrastructure in a seamless way so that the quality of service re - mains high. We describe the AMI evolution since its beginning being served by a single MySQL backend database server to the current state having a cluster of virtual machines at French Tier1, an Oracle database at Lyon with complementary replication to the Oracle DB at CERN and AMI back-up server.

  5. AMiBA: Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, K. Y.; Chiueh, T.H.; Martin, R. N.; Ng, Kin-Wang; Liang, H.; Pen, Ue-Li; Ma, Chung-Pei

    2000-01-01

    As part of a 4-year Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (CosPA) Research Excellence Initiative in Taiwan, AMiBA $-$ a 19-element dual-channel 85-105 GHz interferometer array is being specifically built to search for high redshift clusters of galaxies via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect (SZE). In addition, AMiBA will have full polarization capabilities, in order to probe the polarization properties of the Cosmic Microwave Background. AMiBA, to be sited on Mauna Kea in Hawaii or in Chile, will rea...

  6. Tests of AMiBA Data Integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Nishioka, Hiroaki; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Ho, Paul T P; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Koch, Patrick M; Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M; Umetsu, Keiichi; Birkinshaw, Mark; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Ming-Tang; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Jiang, Homin; Kesteven, Michael; Kubo, Derek Y; Li, Chao-Te; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter; Raffin, Philippe; Wei, Tashun; Wilson, Warwick

    2008-01-01

    We describe methods used to validate data from the Y.T. Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA), an interferometric array designed to measure the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and the anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). We perform several statistical tests on data from pointed galaxy cluster observations taken in 2007 and noise data from long-term blank sky observations and measurements with the feeds covered by the absorbers. We apply power spectrum analysis, cross power spectrum analysis among different outputs with different time lags in our analog correlator, and sample variance law tests to noise data. We find that (1) there is no time variation of electronic offsets on the time scale of our two-patch observations (~10 minutes); (2) noise is correlated by less than 10% between different lags; and (3) the variance of noise scales with the inverse of time. To test the Gaussianity of the data, we apply Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) tests to cluster data, and find that a 5% significance...

  7. Tests of AMiBA Data Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Hiroaki; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Ho, Paul T. P.; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Koch, Patrick M.; Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M.; Umetsu, Keiichi; Birkinshaw, Mark; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Ming-Tang; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Jiang, Homin; Kesteven, Michael; Kubo, Derek Y.; Li, Chao-Te; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter; Raffin, Philippe; Wei, Tashun; Wilson, Warwick

    2009-04-01

    We describe methods used to validate data from the Y.T. Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA), an interferometric array designed to measure the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background. We perform several statistical tests on data from pointed observations of galaxy clusters taken in 2007 and noise data from long-term blank-sky observations and measurements with the feeds covered by the absorbers. We apply power-spectrum analysis, cross-power-spectrum analysis among different outputs with different time lags in our analog correlator, and sample-variance law tests to noise data. We find that (1) there is no time variation of electronic offsets on the timescale of our two-patch observations (~10 minutes); (2) noise is correlated by less than 10% between different lags; and (3) the variance of noise scales with the inverse of time. To test the Gaussianity of the data, we apply Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests to cluster data and find that a 5% significance level efficiently detects data sets with known hardware problems without rejecting an excess of acceptable data. We also calculate third- and fourth-order moments and cumulants for the noise residual visibilities and find that about 95% of our data are within the 99% confidence regions of Gaussianity.

  8. AMiBA Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Lo, K Y; Martin, R N; Ng, K W; Liang, H; Pen, U; Ma Chung Pei; Ng, Kin-Wang; Pen, Ue-li; Ma, Chung-Pei

    2000-01-01

    As part of a 4-year Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (CosPA) Research Excellence Initiative in Taiwan, AMiBA $-$ a 19-element dual-channel 85-105 GHz interferometer array is being specifically built to search for high redshift clusters of galaxies via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect (SZE). In addition, AMiBA will have full polarization capabilities, in order to probe the polarization properties of the Cosmic Microwave Background. AMiBA, to be sited on Mauna Kea in Hawaii or in Chile, will reach a sensitivity of $\\sim 1$ mJy or 7$\\mu$K in 1 hour. The project involves extensive international scientific and technical collaborations. The construction of AMiBA is scheduled to starting operating in early 2004.

  9. Broadband PLC for Clustered Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Ikpehai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI subsystems monitor and control energy distribution through exchange of information between smart meters and utility networks. A key challenge is how to select a cost-effective communication system without compromising the performance of the applications. Current communication technologies were developed for conventional data networks with different requirements. It is therefore necessary to investigate how much of existing communication technologies can be retrofitted into the new energy infrastructure to cost-effectively deliver acceptable level of service. This paper investigates broadband power line communications (BPLC as a backhaul solution in AMI. By applying the disparate traffic characteristics of selected AMI applications, the network performance is evaluated. This study also examines the communication network response to changes in application configurations in terms of packet sizes. In each case, the network is stress-tested and performance is assessed against acceptable thresholds documented in the literature. Results show that, like every other communication technology, BPLC has certain limitations; however, with some modifications in the network topology, it indeed can fulfill most AMI traffic requirements for flexible and time-bounded applications. These opportunities, if tapped, can significantly improve fiscal and operational efficiencies in AMI services. Simulation results also reveal that BPLC as a backhaul can support flat and clustered AMI structures with cluster size ranging from 1 to 150 smart meters.

  10. Constraining Intracluster Gas Models with AMiBA13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Sandor M.; Umetsu, Keiichi; Birkinshaw, Mark; Bryan, Greg; Haiman, Zoltán; Hearn, Nathan; Shang, Cien; Ho, Paul T. P.; Locutus Huang, Chih-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Liao, Yu-Wei Victor; Lin, Kai-Yang; Liu, Guo-Chin; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Proty Wu, Jiun-Huei

    2010-11-01

    Clusters of galaxies have been extensively used to determine cosmological parameters. A major difficulty in making the best use of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) and X-ray observations of clusters for cosmology is that using X-ray observations it is difficult to measure the temperature distribution and therefore determine the density distribution in individual clusters of galaxies out to the virial radius. Observations with the new generation of SZ instruments are a promising alternative approach. We use clusters of galaxies drawn from high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement cosmological simulations to study how well we should be able to constrain the large-scale distribution of the intracluster gas (ICG) in individual massive relaxed clusters using AMiBA in its configuration with 13 1.2 m diameter dishes (AMiBA13) along with X-ray observations. We show that non-isothermal β models provide a good description of the ICG in our simulated relaxed clusters. We use simulated X-ray observations to estimate the quality of constraints on the distribution of gas density, and simulated SZ visibilities (AMiBA13 observations) for constraints on the large-scale temperature distribution of the ICG. We find that AMiBA13 visibilities should constrain the scale radius of the temperature distribution to about 50% accuracy. We conclude that the upgraded AMiBA, AMiBA13, should be a powerful instrument to constrain the large-scale distribution of the ICG.

  11. Obesity, starch digestion and amylase: association between copy number variants at human salivary (AMY1) and pancreatic (AMY2) amylase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Danielle; Dhar, Sugandha; Mitchell, Laura M; Fu, Beiyuan; Tyson, Jess; Shwan, Nzar A A; Yang, Fengtang; Thomas, Mark G; Armour, John A L

    2015-06-15

    The human salivary amylase genes display extensive copy number variation (CNV), and recent work has implicated this variation in adaptation to starch-rich diets, and in association with body mass index. In this work, we use paralogue ratio tests, microsatellite analysis, read depth and fibre-FISH to demonstrate that human amylase CNV is not a smooth continuum, but is instead partitioned into distinct haplotype classes. There is a fundamental structural distinction between haplotypes containing odd or even numbers of AMY1 gene units, in turn coupled to CNV in pancreatic amylase genes AMY2A and AMY2B. Most haplotypes have one copy each of AMY2A and AMY2B and contain an odd number of copies of AMY1; consequently, most individuals have an even total number of AMY1. In contrast, haplotypes carrying an even number of AMY1 genes have rearrangements leading to CNVs of AMY2A/AMY2B. Read-depth and experimental data show that different populations harbour different proportions of these basic haplotype classes. In Europeans, the copy numbers of AMY1 and AMY2A are correlated, so that phenotypic associations caused by variation in pancreatic amylase copy number could be detected indirectly as weak association with AMY1 copy number. We show that the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay previously applied to the high-throughput measurement of AMY1 copy number is less accurate than the measures we use and that qPCR data in other studies have been further compromised by systematic miscalibration. Our results uncover new patterns in human amylase variation and imply a potential role for AMY2 CNV in functional associations. PMID:25788522

  12. AMiBA: Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, K. Y.; Chiueh, T. H.; Martin, R. N.; Ng, Kin-Wang; Liang, H.; Pen, Ue-Li; Ma, Chung-Pei

    An Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) is being built to measure the polarization of the CMB and to survey for high z clusters via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE). AMiBA is a platform mounted 19-element interferometer operating between 85 - 105 GHz, with full polarization capabilities. The aperture size of the elements can be changed between 0.3m and 1.2m, in order to provide a range of fields of view and l-resolution. The platform size is about 10-m so that the resolution can be as high as 1 arc-minute. The sensitivity can be as low as 2 mJy and 7 μK in an hour. The array is to be placed on Mauna Kea in Hawaii or in the Atacama desert in Chile, and is scheduled to be completed in 2003. The current status of AMiBA will be described.

  13. Observing the CMB with the AMiBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyan, R.

    I discuss the capabilities and limitations of the AMiBA for imaging CMB anisotropies. Michael Kesteven (ATNF-CSIRO) has proposed drift-scanning as an observing strategy for measuring and rejecting any instrumental response that the close-packed interferometers may have to the local environment. The advantages of mosaic imaging CMB anisotropies using a co-mounted interferometric array in a drift-scanning observing mode are discussed. A particular case of mosaic imaging a sky strip using a two-element AMiBA prototype interferometer is considered and the signal-to-noise ratio in the measurement of sky anisotropy using this observing strategy is analysed.

  14. Observing the CMB with the AMiBA

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, R

    2001-01-01

    I discuss the capabilities and limitations of the AMiBA for imaging CMB anisotropies. Michael Kesteven (ATNF-CSIRO) has proposed drift-scanning as an observing strategy for measuring and rejecting any instrumental response that the close-packed interferometers may have to the local environment. The advantages of mosaic imaging CMB anisotropies using a co-mounted interferometric array in a drift-scanning observing mode are discussed. A particular case of mosaic imaging a sky strip using a two-element AMiBA prototype interferometer is considered and the signal-to-noise ratio in the measurement of sky anisotropy using this observing strategy is analysed.

  15. AMiBA-array for microwave background anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesteven, M.

    2002-03-01

    AMiBA is a 90 GHz interferometric array of the ASIAA (Academia Sinica, Institue of Astronomy and Astrophysics). It will make a detailed study of the polarization of the CMB anisotropy; it will also undertake a survey of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich clusters. It is under construction at present, with an expected completion date of late 2003. .

  16. 78 FR 30387 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel MON AMI; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel MON AMI... of the vessel MON AMI is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Charter''. Geographic...

  17. 41 CFR 102-33.460 - What is our responsibility in relation to C-AMIS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is our responsibility in relation to C-AMIS? 102-33.460 Section 102-33.460 Public Contracts and Property Management... Management Information Standard (c-Amis) § 102-33.460 What is our responsibility in relation to C-AMIS?...

  18. Determination of CKMB Activity and Protein Concentration and Their Application in the Diagnosis of AMI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The activity and protein concentration of CKMB in 19 patients with AMI, 17 non-AMI patients and 26 normal persons. It was found that both peak times in patients with AMI and nonAMI patients were similar but the peak values were different. At peak values, the F value of CKMB (5. 3) was much lower than that of CKMB protein concentration (50. 1). We are led to conclude that the measurement of CKMB protein level can identify AMI much earlier than that of CKMB activity.

  19. AMiBA: Broadband Heterodyne Cosmic Microwave Background Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Tang; Li, Chao-Te; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Jiang, Homin; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chiueh, Tzi-Dar; Chu, Tah-Hsiung; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De; Kesteven, Michael; Kubo, Derek; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter; Raffin, Philippe; Wei, Tashun; Wang, Huei; Wilson, Warwick; Ho, Paul T. P.; Huang, Chih-Wei; Koch, Patrick; Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty

    2009-04-01

    The Y. T. Lee Array for Microwave Background (AMiBA) has reported the first results on the detection of galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. The objectives required small reflectors in order to sample large-scale structures (20'), while interferometry provided modest resolutions (2'). With these constraints, we designed for the best sensitivity by utilizing the maximum possible continuum bandwidth matched to the atmospheric window at 86-102 GHz, with dual polarizations. A novel wide-band analog correlator was designed that is easily expandable for more interferometer elements. Monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit technology was used throughout as much as possible in order to miniaturize the components and to enhance mass production. These designs will find application in other upcoming astronomy projects. AMiBA is now in operation since 2006, and we are in the process to expand the array from seven to 13 elements.

  20. Observing the CMB with the AMiBA

    OpenAIRE

    Subrahmanyan, Ravi

    2001-01-01

    I discuss the capabilities and limitations of the AMiBA for imaging CMB anisotropies. Michael Kesteven (ATNF-CSIRO) has proposed drift-scanning as an observing strategy for measuring and rejecting any instrumental response that the close-packed interferometers may have to the local environment. The advantages of mosaic imaging CMB anisotropies using a co-mounted interferometric array in a drift-scanning observing mode are discussed. A particular case of mosaic imaging a sky strip using a two-...

  1. AmyR is a novel negative regulator of amylovoran production in Erwinia amylovora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongping Wang

    Full Text Available In this study, we attempted to understand the role of an orphan gene amyR in Erwinia amylovora, a functionally conserved ortholog of ybjN in Escherichia coli, which has recently been characterized. Amylovoran, a high molecular weight acidic heteropolymer exopolysaccharide, is a virulent factor of E. amylovora. As reported earlier, amylovoran production in an amyR knockout mutant was about eight-fold higher than that in the wild type (WT strain of E. amylovora. When a multicopy plasmid containing the amyR gene was introduced into the amyR mutant or WT strains, amylovoran production was strongly inhibited. Furthermore, amylovoran production was also suppressed in various amylovoran-over-producing mutants, such as grrSA containing multicopies of the amyR gene. Consistent with amylovoran production, an inverse correlation was observed between in vitro expression of amyR and that of amylovoran biosynthetic genes. However, both the amyR knockout mutant and over-expression strains showed reduced levan production, another exopolysaccharide produced by E. amylovora. Virulence assays demonstrated that while the amyR mutant was capable of inducing slightly greater disease severity than that of the WT strain, strains over-expressing the amyR gene did not incite disease on apple shoots or leaves, and only caused reduced disease on immature pear fruits. Microarray studies revealed that amylovoran biosynthesis and related membrane protein-encoding genes were highly expressed in the amyR mutant, but down-regulated in the amyR over-expression strains in vitro. Down-regulation of amylovoran biosynthesis genes in the amyR over-expression strain partially explained why over-expression of amyR led to non-pathogenic or reduced virulence in vivo. These results suggest that AmyR plays an important role in regulating exopolysaccharide production, and thus virulence in E. amylovora.

  2. AmI and Deployment Considerations in AAL Services Provision for Elderly Independent Living: The MonAMI Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ibarz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The MonAMI project aims to investigate the feasibility of the deployment of open platforms for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL services provision based on Ambient Intelligence (AmI and to test user acceptance and the usability of the services. Services were designed to provide support in the areas of environmental control, security, well-being and leisure. These services were installed and evaluated in a Spanish geriatric residence. The participants included elderly persons with disabilities, nursing home care givers and informal carers. The concept of the open platform proved to be satisfactory for the provision of the services in a context aware framework. Furthermore, the usability of the technology was viewed positively and the overall results indicate that this system has the potential to prolong independent living at home for elderly people with disabilities. Deployment was proven successful and awareness of open-platform AAL service delivery was raised in local communities throughout Europe.

  3. Are AMI patients with comorbid mental illness more likely to be admitted to hospitals with lower quality of AMI care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueya Cai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Older patients with comorbid mental illness are shown to receive less appropriate care for their medical conditions. This study analyzed Medicare patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction (AMI and determined whether those with comorbid mental illness were more likely to present to hospitals with lower quality of AMI care. METHODS: Retrospective analyses of Medicare claims in 2008. Hospital quality was measured using the five "Hospital Compare" process indicators (aspirin at admission/discharge, beta-blocker at admission/discharge, and angiotension-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotension receptor blocker for left ventricular dysfunction. Multinomial logit model determined the association of mental illness with admission to low-quality hospitals (rank of the composite process score 90(th percentile, compared to admissions to other hospitals with medium quality. Multivariate analyses further determined the effects of hospital type and mental diagnosis on outcomes. RESULTS: Among all AMI admissions to 2,845 hospitals, 41,044 out of 287,881 patients were diagnosed with mental illness. Mental illness predicted a higher likelihood of admission to low-quality hospitals (unadjusted rate 2.9% vs. 2.0%; adjusted odds ratio [OR]1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.34, p<0.01, and an equal likelihood to high-quality hospitals (unadjusted rate 9.8% vs. 10.3%; adjusted OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.93-1.01, p = 0.11. Both lower hospital quality and mental diagnosis predicted higher rates of 30-day readmission, 30-day mortality, and 1-year mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Among Medicare myocardial infarction patients, comorbid mental illness was associated with an increased risk for admission to lower-quality hospitals. Both lower hospital quality and mental illness predicted worse post-AMI outcomes.

  4. The predictive values of D-dimer for the early prognosis of the acute myocardial infarction(AMI):a review of 3134 AMI patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether D-dimer could be an early warning signal for patients with acute myocardial infarction(AMI),then may be helpful in risk accessment in emergency department. Methods Three thousand one hundred and thirty-four emergency AMI cases admitted to

  5. Evolution of the Architecture of the ATLAS Metadata Interface (AMI)

    CERN Document Server

    Odier, Jerome; The ATLAS collaboration; Fulachier, Jerome; Lambert, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Metadata Interface (AMI) is now a mature application. Over the years, the number of users and the number of provided functions has dramatically increased. It is necessary to adapt the hardware infrastructure in a seamless way so that the quality of service remains high. We describe the evolution from the beginning of the application life, using one server with a MySQL backend database, to the current state in which a cluster of virtual machines on the French Tier 1 cloud at Lyon, an Oracle database also at Lyon, with replication to Oracle at CERN and a back-up server are used.

  6. Photogrammetry measurement of the AMiBA 6-meter platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yau De; Raffin, Philippe; Chen, Ming-Tang; Altamirano, Pablo; Oshiro, Peter

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the photogrammetry method as a mean to measure the deformation of the 6-meter carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) Platform of the AMiBA interferometric array telescope installed at the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. The Platform was surveyed at a series of elevation, azimuth and polarization angles. Photogrammetry demonstrates that the deformation of the Platform is not only gravity-induced but also due to the Hexapod mount actuator. The measurement results verify the predictions of the Finite Element Analysis (FEA).

  7. The Yuan Tseh Lee AMiBA Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Paul T. P.; Altimirano, Pablo; Birkinshaw, Mark; Chang, Su-Wei; Chang, Cha-Hao; Chen, Ke-Jun; Chen, Mingtang; Chiueh, Tzi-Dar; Chiueh, Tzihong; Chu, Tah-Hsiung; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Chi-Wei; Huang, Yao-De; Hwang, W.-Y. Pauchy; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Jiang, Homin; Kesteven, Michael; Koch, Patrick; Kubo, Derek; Lancaster, Katy; Li, Chao-Te; Liang, Haida; Liao, Yao-Wei; Lim, Jeremy; Lin, Yen-Shen; Lin, Kai-Yang; Liu, Guo-Chin; Lo, Kwok-Yung; Ma, Cheng-Jiun; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Martin, Robert N.; Molnar, Sandor; Ng, Kin-Wang; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Park, Chan-Gyung; Patt, Ferdinand; Peterson, Jeffrey B.; Raffin, Philippe; Romano, Fabi; Wang, Huei; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty

    The Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy is a 7-element interferometer sited on Mauna Loa, Hawaii. The seven 60cm telescopes are mounted on a 6-meter platform, and operates at 3mm wavelength. In October 2006, the telescope was officially dedicated and renamed as the Y. T. Lee AMiBA. During 2007, scientific operations have begun, after a long process of calibration and testing. At the time of this meeting, six clusters of galaxies have been detected and mapped via the inverse Compton scattering of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation, also known as the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect.

  8. Simulation of Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Fields for AMiBA Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chan-Gyung; Park, Changbom

    2002-01-01

    We have made a topological study of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization maps by simulating the AMiBA experiment results. A $\\Lambda$CDM CMB sky is adopted to make mock interferometric observations designed for the AMiBA experiment. CMB polarization fields are reconstructed from the AMiBA mock visibility data using the maximum entropy method. We have also considered effects of Galactic foregrounds on the CMB polarization fields. The genus statistic is calculated from the simulated $...

  9. Screening Protocols for Group B Streptococcus: Are Transport Media Appropriate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolette Teese

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate group B streptococcus (GBS detection in an in vitro setting, using a low and controlled inoculum from swabs directly inoculated into a selective medium, as compared to delayed inoculation following a period in a commercial Amies transport medium with charcoal (Venturi Transystem™ Copan, Italy.

  10. AMiBA: Cluster Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect Observations with the Expanded 13-Element Array

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Kai-Yang; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Liao, Yu-Wei; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Koch, Patrick M.; Umetsu, Keiichi; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chan, Shun-Hsiang; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Wen-Hsuan Lucky; Cheng, Tai-An; Duy, Hoang Ngoc; Fu, Szu-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) is a co-planar interferometer array operating at a wavelength of 3mm to measure the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE) of galaxy clusters. In the first phase of operation -- with a compact 7-element array with 0.6m antennas (AMiBA-7) -- we observed six clusters at angular scales from 5\\arcmin to 23\\arcmin. Here, we describe the expansion of AMiBA to a 13-element array with 1.2m antennas (AMiBA-13), its subsequent commissioning, a...

  11. On Chinese American Identity Dilemma in Amy Tan's The Bonesetter's Daughter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁福江

    2010-01-01

    In The Bonesetter's Daughter,Amy Tan explores the complexity of Chinese American identity dilemma confronted by the major charactersThis paper in-tends to examine the marginalized position of the Chinese immigrant mother Luling and the American bom daughter Ruth and reveal the ideology of Amy Tan's writing beyond the bounds of ethnicity.

  12. AMiBA: Cluster Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect Observations with the Expanded 13-Element Array

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Kai-Yang; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Liao, Yu-Wei; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Koch, Patrick M; Umetsu, Keiichi; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chan, Shun-Hsiang; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Wen-Hsuan Lucky; Cheng, Tai-An; Duy, Hoang Ngoc; Fu, Szu-Yuan; Han, Chih-Chiang; Ho, Solomon; Ho, Ming-Feng; Ho, Paul T P; Huang, Yau-De; Jiang, Homin; Kubo, Derek Y; Li, Chao-Te; Lin, Yu-Chiung; Liu, Guo-Chin; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Molnar, Sandor M; Nunez, Emmanuel; Oshiro, Peter; Pai, Shang-Ping; Raffin, Philippe; Ridenour, Anthony; Shih, Chia-You; Stoebner, Sara; Teo, Giap-Siong; Yeh, Jia-Long Johnny; Williams, Joshua; Birkinshaw, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) is a co-planar interferometer array operating at a wavelength of 3mm to measure the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE) of galaxy clusters. In the first phase of operation -- with a compact 7-element array with 0.6m antennas (AMiBA-7) -- we observed six clusters at angular scales from 5\\arcmin to 23\\arcmin. Here, we describe the expansion of AMiBA to a 13-element array with 1.2m antennas (AMiBA-13), its subsequent commissioning, and our cluster SZE observing program. The most important changes compared to AMiBA-7 are (1) array re-configuration with baselines ranging from 1.4m to 4.8m covering angular scales from 2\\arcmin to 11.5\\arcmin, (2) thirteen new lightweight carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) 1.2m reflectors, and (3) additional correlators and six new receivers. From the AMiBA-13 SZE observing program, we present here maps of a subset of twelve clusters. In highlights, we combine AMiBA-7 and AMiBA-13 observations of Abell 1689 and perfo...

  13. A wideband analog correlator system for AMiBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-Te; Kubo, Derek; Han, Chih-Chiang; Chen, Chung-Cheng; Chen, Ming-Tang; Lien, Chun-Hsien; Wang, Huei; Wei, Ray-Ming; Yang, Chia-Hsiang; Chiueh, Tzi-Dar; Peterson, Jeffrey; Kesteven, Michael; Wilson, Warwick

    2004-10-01

    A wideband correlator system with a bandwidth of 16 GHz or more is required for Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) to achieve the sensitivity of 10μK in one hour of observation. Double-balanced diode mixers were used as multipliers in 4-lag correlator modules. Several wideband modules were developed for IF signal distribution between receivers and correlators. Correlator outputs were amplified, and digitized by voltage-to-frequency converters. Data acquisition circuits were designed using field programmable gate arrays (FPGA). Subsequent data transfer and control software were based on the configuration for Australia Telescope Compact Array. Transform matrix method will be adopted during calibration to take into account the phase and amplitude variations of analog devices across the passband.

  14. Amy63, a novel type of marine bacterial multifunctional enzyme possessing amylase, agarase and carrageenase activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ge; Wu, Shimei; Jin, Weihua; Sun, Chaomin

    2016-01-01

    A multifunctional enzyme is one that performs multiple physiological functions, thus benefiting the organism. Characterization of multifunctional enzymes is important for researchers to understand how organisms adapt to different environmental challenges. In the present study, we report the discovery of a novel multifunctional enzyme Amy63 produced by marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus 63. Remarkably, Amy63 possesses amylase, agarase and carrageenase activities. Amy63 is a substrate promiscuous α-amylase, with the substrate priority order of starch, carrageenan and agar. Amy63 maintains considerable amylase, carrageenase and agarase activities and stabilities at wide temperature and pH ranges, and optimum activities are detected at temperature of 60 °C and pH of 6.0, respectively. Moreover, the heteroexpression of Amy63 dramatically enhances the ability of E. coli to degrade starch, carrageenan and agar. Motif searching shows three continuous glycosyl hydrolase 70 (GH70) family homologs existed in Amy63 encoding sequence. Combining serial deletions and phylogenetic analysis of Amy63, the GH70 homologs are proposed as the determinants of enzyme promiscuity. Notably, such enzymes exist in all kingdoms of life, thus providing an expanded perspective on studies of multifunctional enzymes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amylase having additional agarase and carrageenase activities. PMID:26725302

  15. A joint analysis of AMI and CARMA observations of the recently discovered SZ galaxy cluster system AMI-CL J0300+2613

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMI Consortium; Shimwell, Timothy W.; Carpenter, John M.; Feroz, Farhan; Grainge, Keith J. B.; Hobson, Michael P.; Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Lasenby, Anthony N.; Olamaie, Malak; Perrott, Yvette C.; Pooley, Guy G.; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, Carmen; Rumsey, Clare; Saunders, Richard D. E.; Schammel, Michel P.; Scott, Paul F.; Titterington, David J.; Waldram, Elizabeth M.

    2013-08-01

    We present Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) observations of a massive galaxy cluster discovered in the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI) blind Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) survey. Without knowledge of the cluster redshift a Bayesian analysis of the AMI, CARMA and joint AMI and CARMA uv-data is used to quantify the detection significance and parametrize both the physical and observational properties of the cluster whilst accounting for the statistics of primary cosmic microwave background anisotropies, receiver noise and radio sources. The joint analysis of the AMI and CARMA uv-data was performed with two parametric physical cluster models: the β-model; and the model described in Olamaie et al. with the pressure profile fixed according to Arnaud et al. The cluster mass derived from these different models is comparable but our Bayesian evidences indicate a preference for the β-profile which we, therefore, use throughout our analysis. From the CARMA data alone we obtain a formal Bayesian probability of detection ratio of 12.8:1 when assuming that a cluster exists within our search area; alternatively assuming that Jenkins et al. accurately predict the number of clusters as a function of mass and redshift, the formal Bayesian probability of detection is 0.29:1. From the Bayesian analysis of the AMI or AMI and CARMA data the probability of detection ratio exceeds 4.5 × 103:1. Performing a joint analysis of the AMI and CARMA data with a physical cluster model we derive the total mass internal to r200 as MT, 200 = 4.1 ± 1.1 × 1014 M⊙. Using a phenomenological β-model to quantify the temperature decrement as a function of angular distance we find a central SZ temperature decrement of 170 ± 24 μK in the AMI and CARMA data. The SZ decrement in the CARMA data is weaker than expected and we speculate that this is a consequence of the cluster morphology. In a forthcoming study the pipeline that we have developed for the analyses of these

  16. Health and aging in elderly farmers: the AMI cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérès Karine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health of the agricultural population has been previously explored, particularly in relation to the farming exposures and among professionally active individuals. However, few studies specifically focused on health and aging among elders retired from agriculture. Yet, this population faces the long-term effects of occupational exposures and multiple difficulties related to living and aging in rural area (limited access to shops, services, and practitioners. However, these difficulties may be counter-balanced by advantages related to healthier lifestyle, richer social support and better living environment. The general aim of the AMI cohort was to study health and aging in elderly farmers living in rural area through a multidisciplinary approach, with a main focus on dementia. Methods/design The study initially included 1 002 participants, randomly selected from the Farmer Health Insurance rolls. Selection criteria were: being 65 years and older; living in rural area in Gironde (South-Western France; being retired from agriculture after at least 20 years of activity and being affiliated to the Health Insurance under own name. The study started in 2007, with two follow-up visits over 5 years. Baseline visits were conducted at home by a neuropsychologist then by a geriatrician for all cases suspected of dementia, Parkinson’s disease and depression (to confirm the diagnosis, and by a nurse for others. A large panel of data were collected through standardised questionnaires: complete neuropsychological assessment, material and social living environment, psychological transition to retirement, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol and diet, medications, disability in daily living, sensory impairments and some clinical measures (blood pressure, depression symptomatology, anxiety, visual test, anthropometry…. A blood sampling was performed with biological measurements and constitution of a biological bank, including DNA. Brain MRI

  17. Amy Tan’s View on Cultural Identity in The Joy Luck Club

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANY Jing; FAN Yuan

    2016-01-01

    In The Joy Luck Club, Amy Tan explores the issue of cultural identity and shows her thoughtful understanding of the mi-nority’s cultural identity. With a series of analysis and elaborations about The Joy Luck Club based upon post-colonial theories, the author of this thesis holds that:in Amy Tan’s opinion, the ethnic cultural identities should not be fixed, single but negotiable and hybrid. Amy Tan’s exploration of the ethnic cultural identity can provide some positive enlightenment for those minorities who are still confused about their cultural identities.

  18. AMiBA Observations, Data Analysis and Results for Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, J. -H. P.; P. T. P. Ho; Huang, C. -W. L.; Koch, P. M.; Liao, Y. -W.; Lin, K.-Y.; Liu, G. -C.; Molnar, S. M.; Nishioka, H.; Umetsu, K.; Wang, F. -C.; Altamirano, P.; Birkinshaw, M.; Chang, C.-H.; Chang, S.-H.

    2008-01-01

    We present observations, analysis and results for the first-year operation of AMiBA, an interferometric experiment designed to study cosmology via the measurement of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). AMiBA is the first CMB interferometer operating at 3 mm to have reported successful results, currently with seven close-packed antennas of 60-cm diameter giving a synthesized resolution of around 6'. During 2007 AMiBA detected the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects (SZE) of six galaxy clusters at redshi...

  19. Development of Heart Rate Variaty in the Early and Rehabilitation Phase of AMI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Tanhbalouti; Feng Jianzhang; Feng Xiuhua

    2000-01-01

    Heart rate variaty (HRV) of 85 cases with AMI was observed in the early phase after onset and rehabilitation phase at first month and sixth month, and was contrasted with six time threshold indices of 111 cases with coronary heart disease and that of 35 normal control. We found the HRV of AMI was apperantly lower in the acute phase than that of coronary heart disease and normal controls. HRV recovered gradually with inclining to be stable after half a year, but it was still lower than that of controls. Low HRV in early phase of AMI suggested the poor prognosis.

  20. Arabidopsis thaliana AMY3 is a unique redox-regulated chloroplastic α-amylase

    OpenAIRE

    Seung, David; Thalmann, Matthias; Sparla, Francesca; Abou Hachem, Maher; Lee, Sang Kyu; Issakidis-Bourguet, Emmanuelle; Svensson, Birte; Zeeman, Samuel C.; Santelia, Diana

    2013-01-01

    α-Amylases are glucan hydrolases that cleave α-1,4-glucosidic bonds in starch. In vascular plants, α-amylases can be classified into three subfamilies. Arabidopsis has one member of each subfamily. Among them, only AtAMY3 is localized in the chloroplast. We expressed and purified AtAMY3 from Escherichia coli and carried out a biochemical characterization of the protein to find factors that regulate its activity. Recombinant AtAMY3 was active toward both insoluble starch granules and soluble s...

  1. AMIE Gan Island Ancillary Disdrometer Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oue, Mariko [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment (AMIE), in January 2012 a disdrometer observation took place with the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2), the Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (SACR), the Texas A&M SMART-R C-band radar, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) dual wavelength S- and Ka-bands polarimetric (SPolKa) radar on Gan Island, Maldives. In order to measure raindrop size distributions, a disdrometer of Nagoya University, Japan, was set up close to the ARM Two-Dimensional (2D) Video Disdrometer (2DVD). The SMART-R and SPolKa radars performed range-height-indicator scanning in the direction of the disdrometer site. Comparing the disdrometer data with 2DVD data, the raindrop size distribution data will be calibrated. Furthermore, the analysis of the raindrop size distribution and radar data will be expected to clarify the microphysics in tropical convective clouds.

  2. No gender differences in prognosis and preventive treatment in patients with AMI without significant stenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Wadt; Hvelplund, Anders; Abildstrøm, Steen Zabell;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible gender differences in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and without significant stenoses on coronary angiography (CAG) regarding prognosis and use of secondary preventive medication. DESIGN: Nationwide register-based cohort study. PATIENTS: By comp...

  3. Security Analysis of Selected AMI Failure Scenarios Using Agent Based Game Theoretic Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Information security analysis can be performed using game theory implemented in dynamic Agent Based Game Theoretic (ABGT) simulations. Such simulations can be verified with the results from game theory analysis and further used to explore larger scale, real world scenarios involving multiple attackers, defenders, and information assets. We concentrated our analysis on the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) functional domain which the National Electric Sector Cyber security Organization Resource (NESCOR) working group has currently documented 29 failure scenarios. The strategy for the game was developed by analyzing five electric sector representative failure scenarios contained in the AMI functional domain. From these five selected scenarios, we characterize them into three specific threat categories affecting confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA). The analysis using our ABGT simulation demonstrates how to model the AMI functional domain using a set of rationalized game theoretic rules decomposed from the failure scenarios in terms of how those scenarios might impact the AMI network with respect to CIA.

  4. ARM MJO Investigation Experiment on Gan Island (AMIE-Gan) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, CL; Del Genio, A; Deng, M; Fu, X; Gustafson, W; Houze, R; Jakob, C; Jensen, M; Johnson, R; Liu, X; Luke, E; May, P; McFarlane, S; Minnis, P; Schumacher, C; Vogelmann, A; Wang, Y; Webster, P; Xie, S; Zhang, C

    2011-04-11

    The overarching campaign, which includes the ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2) deployment in conjunction with the Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) and the Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011) campaigns, is designed to test several current hypotheses regarding the mechanisms responsible for Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) initiation and propagation in the Indian Ocean area. The synergy between the proposed AMF2 deployment with DYNAMO/CINDY2011, and the corresponding funded experiment on Manus, combine for an overarching ARM MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) with two components: AMF2 on Gan Island in the Indian Ocean (AMIE-Gan), where the MJO initiates and starts its eastward propagation; and the ARM Manus site (AMIE-Manus), which is in the general area where the MJO usually starts to weaken in climate models. AMIE-Gan will provide measurements of particular interest to Atmospheric System Research (ASR) researchers relevant to improving the representation of MJO initiation in climate models. The framework of DYNAMO/CINDY2011 includes two proposed island-based sites and two ship-based locations forming a square pattern with sonde profiles and scanning precipitation and cloud radars at both island and ship sites. These data will be used to produce a Variational Analysis data set coinciding with the one produced for AMIE-Manus. The synergy between AMIE-Manus and AMIE-Gan will allow studies of the initiation, propagation, and evolution of the convective cloud population within the framework of the MJO. As with AMIE-Manus, AMIE-Gan/DYNAMO also includes a significant modeling component geared toward improving the representation of MJO initiation and propagation in climate and forecast models. This campaign involves the deployment of the second, marine-capable, AMF; all of the included measurement systems; and especially the scanning and vertically pointing radars. The campaign will include sonde

  5. Low AMY1 Gene Copy Number Is Associated with Increased Body Mass Index in Prepubertal Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verginelli, Fabio; De Lellis, Laura; Capelli, Cristian; Verzilli, Delfina; Chiarelli, Francesco; Mohn, Angelika; Cama, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 60 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with Body Mass Index (BMI). Additional genetic variants, such as copy number variations (CNV), have also been investigated in relation to BMI. Recently, the highly polymorphic CNV in the salivary amylase (AMY1) gene, encoding an enzyme implicated in the first step of starch digestion, has been associated with obesity in adults and children. We assessed the potential association between AMY1 copy number and a wide range of BMI in a population of Italian school-children. Methods 744 children (354 boys, 390 girls, mean age (±SD): 8.4±1.4years) underwent anthropometric assessments (height, weight) and collection of saliva samples for DNA extraction. AMY1 copies were evaluated by quantitative PCR. Results A significant increase of BMI z-score by decreasing AMY1 copy number was observed in boys (β: -0.117, p = 0.033), but not in girls. Similarly, waist circumference (β: -0.155, p = 0.003, adjusted for age) was negatively influenced by AMY1 copy number in boys. Boys with 8 or more AMY1 copy numbers presented a significant lower BMI z-score (p = 0.04) and waist circumference (p = 0.01) when compared to boys with less than 8 copy numbers. Conclusions In this pediatric-only, population-based study, a lower AMY1 copy number emerged to be associated with increased BMI in boys. These data confirm previous findings from adult studies and support a potential role of a higher copy number of the salivary AMY1 gene in protecting from excess weight gain. PMID:27149670

  6. INSIDE AND OUTSIDE STORY OF POST FEMINISM IN MARTIN AMIS?S THE PREGNANT WIDOW

    OpenAIRE

    SAMBHUNATH MAJI

    2012-01-01

    Eroticism has a wider definition. Martin Amis is the most successful postmodern British fiction writer in defining this. The Pregnant Widow is a demi-bible of polished eroticism. Every psalm of this bible beats post feministic pulse. This small excerpt will be an endeavour to conceptualize post feminism and how it is defined by Amis in his novel The Pregnant Widow. Feminism is often defined as a movement and revolution for the liberation of women. This research paper will focu...

  7. Arzneimittel-Informationssystem (AMIS) - Öffentlicher Teil bei DIMDI recherchierbar

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, W.

    2005-01-01

    Mehr Transparenz im Arzneimittel-Informationssystem: Das "AMIS" enthält jetzt auch aktuelle Änderungen zu Zulassungsunterlagen, die bei den zuständigen Zulassungsbehörden BfArM, BVL und PEI eingereicht wurden und dort noch in Bearbeitung sind. Die Daten sind in AMIS - Öffentlicher Teil im Internet über die Datenbankrecherche des DIMDI recherchierbar.

  8. Low AMY1 Gene Copy Number Is Associated with Increased Body Mass Index in Prepubertal Boys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Loredana Marcovecchio

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 60 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with Body Mass Index (BMI. Additional genetic variants, such as copy number variations (CNV, have also been investigated in relation to BMI. Recently, the highly polymorphic CNV in the salivary amylase (AMY1 gene, encoding an enzyme implicated in the first step of starch digestion, has been associated with obesity in adults and children. We assessed the potential association between AMY1 copy number and a wide range of BMI in a population of Italian school-children.744 children (354 boys, 390 girls, mean age (±SD: 8.4±1.4years underwent anthropometric assessments (height, weight and collection of saliva samples for DNA extraction. AMY1 copies were evaluated by quantitative PCR.A significant increase of BMI z-score by decreasing AMY1 copy number was observed in boys (β: -0.117, p = 0.033, but not in girls. Similarly, waist circumference (β: -0.155, p = 0.003, adjusted for age was negatively influenced by AMY1 copy number in boys. Boys with 8 or more AMY1 copy numbers presented a significant lower BMI z-score (p = 0.04 and waist circumference (p = 0.01 when compared to boys with less than 8 copy numbers.In this pediatric-only, population-based study, a lower AMY1 copy number emerged to be associated with increased BMI in boys. These data confirm previous findings from adult studies and support a potential role of a higher copy number of the salivary AMY1 gene in protecting from excess weight gain.

  9. Migration of the ATLAS Metadata Interface (AMI) to Web 2.0 and cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Odier, Jerome; The ATLAS collaboration; Fulachier, Jerome; Lambert, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Metadata Interface (AMI), a mature application of more than 10 years of existence, is currently under adaptation to some recently available technologies. The web interfaces, which previously manipulated XML documents using XSL transformations, are being migrated to Asynchronous JavaScript (AJAX). Web development is considerably simplified by the introduction of a framework based on JQuery and Twitter Bootstrap. Finally, the AMI services are being migrated to an OpenStack cloud infrastructure.

  10. Migration of the ATLAS Metadata Interface (AMI) to Web 2.0 and cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odier, J.; Albrand, S.; Fulachier, J.; Lambert, F.

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS Metadata Interface (AMI), a mature application of more than 10 years of existence, is currently under adaptation to some recently available technologies. The web interfaces, which previously manipulated XML documents using XSL transformations, are being migrated to Asynchronous JavaScript (AJAX). Web development is considerably simplified by the introduction of a framework based on JQuery and Twitter Bootstrap. Finally, the AMI services are being migrated to an OpenStack cloud infrastructure.

  11. Platform Deformation Refined Pointing and Phase Correction for the AMiBA Hexapod Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Patrick M.; Kesteven, Michael; Chang, Yu-Yen; Huang, Yau-De; Raffin, Philippe; Chen, Ke-Yung; Chereau, Guillaume; Chen, Ming-Tang; Ho, Paul T. P.; Huang, Chih-Wie; Ibanez-Romano, Fabiola; Jiang, Homin; Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Liu, Guo-Chin

    2009-01-01

    The Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) is a radio interferometer for research in cosmology, currently operating 7 0.6m diameter antennas co-mounted on a 6m diameter platform driven by a hexapod mount. AMiBA is currently the largest hexapod telescope. We briefly summarize the hexapod operation with the current pointing error model. We then focus on the upcoming 13-element expansion with its potential difficulties and solutions. Photogrammetry measurements of the platform reveal ...

  12. Profile of acute myocardial infarction (ami) in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While doing the study on Aspirin Awareness and Usage (AAUS) in cases of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), AAUS study Group designed the protocol to include the profile of patients presenting with symptoms of ACS and in the light of that also reviewed the available data in South Asian population. A prospective study was carried out in 17 coronary care units (CCUs) in all 4 provinces of Pakistan. Patients included were males and females of all age groups presenting with chest pain, diagnosed to have Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) and categorized into Unstable Angina (USA), STEMI or NSTEMI, based on clinical, ECG and enzymatic criteria. The risk factors, family history, dietary history, time to reach ER after the onset of symptoms, management of ACS in CCU and outcome of treatment were recorded. A total of 1,527 patients presented to the Emergency Room (ER) with chest pain but around 1400 patients were evaluable. The majority (68%) were males. The mean age of all patients was 52.2+-10.7 years. 28.3% patients were <45 years. Average time to presentation at ER was 13.2+-6.2 hours. 92.7% patients presented with chest pain. More than half the patients had hypertension (55.2%) and or smoking (52%) as the risk factors while 37.2 % had diabetes and 18.2% had hyperlipidemia. Hypertension (52.7%), IHD (44%) and Diabetes (36.2%) figured prominently in the family history. USA and STEMI were the major types of ACS (43.0% and 40.5% respectively). At discharge 67.8% of patients were stable without symptoms, 13.3% were stable but with symptoms, 16.4% were referred for further investigations and 2.5% had died. The review of the available data in Pakistan, supported by the present study in a cohort of 1400 patients from 17 CCUs in the country, the emerging profile of patients with AMI is that the majority are male, relatively younger as compared to Western population, have smoking and hypertension followed by diabetes as the major risk factors. USA and STEMI are the dominant types of ACS

  13. The evaluation of the cardiac function and the effect of urokinase therapy in patients with AMI in ICU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cardiac function and the effect of therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were assessed in 61 patients by analysis of Tl-scintigraphy and Tc-HSA gated pool study in our ICU. Nineteen of them were treated with intravenous Urokinase (UK) within 6 hours from onset. The other 36 patients without UK treatment served as a control group. Significant correlation was recognized between Tl-defect ratio calculated by the circumferential profile curve and peak-CPK levels with a correlation coefficient of 0.578. Significant correlation (r=-0.674) was found between Tl-defect ratio and LVEF. Cardiac function, Tl-defect ratio and peak-CPK levels were compared among patients with antero-septal AMI, inferior AMI and posterior AMI. Significant reductions of LVEF (37.2+-11.7 %) were observed in antero-septal AMI, while RVEF (43.0+-10.0 %) showed significant decreases in inferior AMI. In addition, Tl-defect ratio (3.36+-1.97) and peak-CPK levels in antero-septal AMI were significant higher than those in iferior AMI and posterior AMI. The UK group showed a significant increase of LVEF as compared with the control group in patients with antero-septal AMI. In patients with inferior AMI, no significant differences were observed between UK and control group in LVEF, RVEF and Tl-defect ratio. We have demonstrated that a combination of Tl-scintigraphy and Tc-HSA gated pool study are useful techniques especially when performed in ICU, to evaluate the cardiac function and the effect of thrombolysis therapy and thus greatly contribute to the primary care of AMI cases. (author)

  14. AMiRESot - A New Robot Soccer League with Autonomous Miniature Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Ulf; Sitte, Joaquin; Herbrechtsmeier, Stefan; Rückert, Ulrich

    AMiRESot is a new robot soccer league that is played with small autonomous miniature robots. Team sizes are defined with one, two, and three robots per team. Special to the AMiRESot league are the fully autonomous behavior of the robots and their small size. For the matches, the rules mainly follow the FIFA laws with some modifications being useful for robot soccer. The new AMiRESot soccer robot is small in size (maximum 110 mm diameter) but a powerful vehicle, equipped with a differential drive system. For sensing, the robots in their basic configuration are equipped with active infrared sensors and a color image sensor. For information processing a powerful mobile processor and reconfigurable hardware resources (FPGA) are available. Due to the robot’s modular structure it can be easily extended by additional sensing and processing resources. This paper gives an overview of the AMiRESot rules and presents details of the new robot platform used for AMiRESot.

  15. FunBlocks. A Modular Framework for AmI System Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Piero Mateos Papis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has seen explosive growth in the technologies required to implement Ambient Intelligence (AmI systems. Technologies such as facial and speech recognition, home networks, household cleaning robots, to name a few, have become commonplace. However, due to the multidisciplinary nature of AmI systems and the distinct requirements of different user groups, integrating these developments into full-scale systems is not an easy task. In this paper we propose FunBlocks, a minimalist modular framework for the development of AmI systems based on the function module abstraction used in the IEC 61499 standard for distributed control systems. FunBlocks provides a framework for the development of AmI systems through the integration of modules loosely joined by means of an event-driven middleware and a module and sensor/actuator catalog. The modular design of the FunBlocks framework allows the development of AmI systems which can be customized to a wide variety of usage scenarios.

  16. amiA is a negative regulator of acetamidase expression in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Jane

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The acetamidase of Mycobacterium smegmatis is a highly inducible enzyme. Expression of this enzyme is increased 100-fold when the substrate acetamide is present. The acetamidase gene is found immediately downstream of three open reading frames. Two of these are proposed to be involved in regulation. Results We constructed a deletion mutant in one of the upstream ORFs (amiA. This mutant (Mad1 showed a constitutively high level of acetamidase expression. We identified four promoters in the upstream region using a β-galactosidase reporter gene. One of these (P2 was inducible in the wild-type, but was constitutively active in Mad1. Conclusions These results demonstrate that amiA encodes a negative regulatory protein which interacts with P2. Since amiA has homology to DNA-binding proteins, it is likely that it exerts the regulatory effect by binding to the promoter to prevent transcription.

  17. Simulation of Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Fields for AMiBA Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Park, C G; Park, Chan-Gyung; Park, Changbom

    2002-01-01

    We have made a topological study of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization maps by simulating the AMiBA experiment results. A $\\Lambda$CDM CMB sky is adopted to make mock interferometric observations designed for the AMiBA experiment. CMB polarization fields are reconstructed from the AMiBA mock visibility data using the maximum entropy method. We have also considered effects of Galactic foregrounds on the CMB polarization fields. The genus statistic is calculated from the simulated $Q$ and $U$ polarization maps, where $Q$ and $U$ are Stokes parameters. Our study shows that the Galactic foreground emission, even at low Galactic latitude, is expected to have small effects on the CMB polarization field. Increasing survey area and integration time is essential to detect non-Gaussian signals of cosmological origin through genus measurement.

  18. Simulation of Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Fields for AMiBA Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Gyung; Park, Changbom

    2002-06-01

    We have made a topological study of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization maps by simulating the AMiBA experiment results. A ΛCDM CMB sky is adopted to make mock interferometric observations designed for the AMiBA experiment. CMB polarization fields are reconstructed from the AMiBA mock visibility data using the maximum entropy method. We have also considered effects of Galactic foregrounds on the CMB polarization fields. The genus statistic is calculated from the simulated Q and U polarization maps, where Q and U are Stokes parameters. Our study shows that the Galactic foreground emission, even at low Galactic latitude, is expected to have small effects on the CMB polarization field. Increasing survey area and integration time is essential to detect non-Gaussian signals of cosmological origin through genus measurement.

  19. INSIDE AND OUTSIDE STORY OF POST FEMINISM IN MARTIN AMIS?S THE PREGNANT WIDOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMBHUNATH MAJI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Eroticism has a wider definition. Martin Amis is the most successful postmodern British fiction writer in defining this. The Pregnant Widow is a demi-bible of polished eroticism. Every psalm of this bible beats post feministic pulse. This small excerpt will be an endeavour to conceptualize post feminism and how it is defined by Amis in his novel The Pregnant Widow. Feminism is often defined as a movement and revolution for the liberation of women. This research paper will focus how feminism came as promise and how they are left untouched. My curiosity equally runs high if this same frustration continues even in the case of post feminism also. Is Amis uniquely unparallel in sharpshooting this?

  20. AmI in good care? Developing design principles for ambient intelligent domotics for elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulendijk, Michiel; Van De Wijngaert, Lidwien; Brinkkemper, Sjaak; Leenstra, Herbert

    2011-03-01

    The combination of ambient intelligence (AmI) and domotics has the potential to respond to elderly people's desire to live independent from extensive forms of care. Their slow adoption of technological aids shows reluctance, though. This article investigates their motivations to adopt ambient intelligent domotics, and proposes design principles specifically based on their preferences and experiences. Respondents appeared to be more acceptive of tangible problems they expected with AmI domotics than intangible ones. In addition, their opinions seemed to be profoundly influenced by the way they perceived their psychological quality of life, while their physical conditions did not seem to have noticeable impacts. PMID:21291298

  1. Migration of the ATLAS Metadata Interface (AMI) to Web 2.0 and cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Odier, Jerome; The ATLAS collaboration; Fulachier, Jerome; Lambert, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Metadata Interface (AMI) can be considered to be a mature application because it has existed for at least 10 years. Over the last year, we have been adapting the application to some recently available technologies. The web interface, which previously manipulated XML documents using XSL transformations, has been migrated to Asynchronous Java Script (AJAX). Web development has been considerably simplified by the development of a framework for AMI based on JQuery and Twitter Bootstrap. Finally there has been a major upgrade of the python web service client.

  2. RamiGO: an R/Bioconductor package providing an AmiGO Visualize interface

    OpenAIRE

    Markus S Schröder; Gusenleitner, Daniel; Quackenbush, John; Culhane, Aedín C.; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The R/Bioconductor package RamiGO is an R interface to AmiGO that enables visualization of Gene Ontology (GO) trees. Given a list of GO terms, RamiGO uses the AmiGO visualize API to import Graphviz-DOT format files into R, and export these either as images (SVG, PNG) or into Cytoscape for extended network analyses. RamiGO provides easy customization of annotation, highlighting of specific GO terms, colouring of terms by P-value or export of a simplified summary GO tree. We illustrate...

  3. Simulation of a Combined SZE and Weak Lensing Cluster Survey for AMiBA Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Umetsu, Keiichi; Chiueh, Tzihong; Lin, Kai-Yang; Wu, Jun-Mein; Tseng, Yao-Huan

    2004-01-01

    We present simulations of interferometric Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) and optical weak lenisng observations for the forthcoming AMiBA experiment, aiming at searching for high-redshift clusters of galaxies. On the basis of simulated sky maps, we have derived theoretical halo number counts and redshift distributions of selected halo samples for an AMiBA SZE survey and a weak lensing follow-up survey. By utilizing the conditional number counts of weak lensing halos with the faint SZE detecti...

  4. Amylase activity is associated with AMY2B copy numbers in dog: implications for dog domestication, diet and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Maja; Fall, Tove; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Axelsson, Erik

    2014-10-01

    High amylase activity in dogs is associated with a drastic increase in copy numbers of the gene coding for pancreatic amylase, AMY2B, that likely allowed dogs to thrive on a relatively starch-rich diet during early dog domestication. Although most dogs thus probably digest starch more efficiently than do wolves, AMY2B copy numbers vary widely within the dog population, and it is not clear how this variation affects the individual ability to handle starch nor how it affects dog health. In humans, copy numbers of the gene coding for salivary amylase, AMY1, correlate with both salivary amylase levels and enzyme activity, and high amylase activity is related to improved glycemic homeostasis and lower frequencies of metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigate the relationship between AMY2B copy numbers and serum amylase activity in dogs and show that amylase activity correlates with AMY2B copy numbers. We then describe how AMY2B copy numbers vary in individuals from 20 dog breeds and find strong breed-dependent patterns, indicating that the ability to digest starch varies both at the breed and individual level. Finally, to test whether AMY2B copy number is strongly associated with the risk of developing diabetes mellitus, we compare copy numbers in cases and controls as well as in breeds with varying diabetes susceptibility. Although we see no such association here, future studies using larger cohorts are needed before excluding a possible link between AMY2B and diabetes mellitus. PMID:24975239

  5. Amy Tan, Author of "The Joy Luck Club." (People to Know).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Barbara

    This book, aimed at the young reader, explores the life and career of the Chinese-American author, Amy Tan. It follows her childhood in Oakland, California, through her struggle to accept her Chinese heritage, through her education and marriage to a non-Chinese man, to her early work as a business writer, and finally to her great success as a…

  6. Now that California has AMI, what can the state do with it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognizing the lack of retail-demand response, a state regulator, such as the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), seeks tariff proposals that transmit wholesale price signals to a local distribution company's (LDC) retail customers. To enable these proposals, the CPUC has authorized funding for advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) for two investor-owned LDCs. Assuming regulatory approval of the third LDC's application, the state's US$4.28 billion AMI investment will aid new rate designs for 11.3 million electricity customers. Now that California has AMI, what can the state do with it? With AMI in hand, an LDC can implement service options that can further the state's energy initiatives, ranging from resource adequacy requirement (RAR) to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction. These options can efficiently allocate limited capacity based on each customer's willingness to pay, without the unnecessary distinction between price rationing and reliability differentiation. They can be Pareto superior, welfare dominating the default tariffs that apply to these customers. A case in point is the generalized demand subscription service (GDSS) option proposed in this paper. However, it is unclear whether the option will find wide customer acceptance, without an LDC's intensive customer education and marketing efforts

  7. AMiBA Observations, Data Analysis and Results for Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, J H P; Huang, C W L; Koch, P M; Liao, Y W; Lin, K Y; Liu, G C; Molnár, S M; Nishioka, H; Umetsu, K; Wang, F C; Altamirano, P; Birkinshaw, M; Chang, C H; Chang, S H; Chang, S W; Chen, M T; Chiueh, T; Han, C C; Huang, Y D; Hwang, Y J; Jiang, H; Kesteven, M; Kubo, D Y; Lancaster, K; Li, C T; Martin-Cocher, P; Oshiro, P; Raffin, P; Wei, T; Wilson, W

    2008-01-01

    We present observations, analysis and results for the first-year operation of AMiBA, an interferometric experiment designed to study cosmology via the measurement of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). AMiBA is the first CMB interferometer operating at 3 mm to have reported successful results, currently with seven close-packed antennas of 60-cm diameter giving a synthesized resolution of around 6'. During 2007 AMiBA detected the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects (SZE) of six galaxy clusters at redshift 0.091 <= z <= 0.322. An observing strategy with on-off-source switching is used to minimize the effects from electronic offset and ground pickup. Planets were used to test the observational capability of AMiBA and to calibrate the conversion from correlator time-lag data to visibilities. The detailed formalism for data analysis is given. We summarize our early tests including observations of planets and quasars, and present images, visibility profiles, the estimated central coordinates, sizes, and SZE amplitudes ...

  8. Copy number variations in the amylase gene (AMY2B) in Japanese native dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonoike, A; Hori, Y; Inoue-Murayama, M; Konno, A; Fujita, K; Miyado, M; Fukami, M; Nagasawa, M; Mogi, K; Kikusui, T

    2015-10-01

    A recent study suggested that increased copy numbers of the AMY2B gene might be a crucial genetic change that occurred during the domestication of dogs. To investigate AMY2B expansion in ancient breeds, which are highly divergent from modern breeds of presumed European origins, we analysed copy numbers in native Japanese dog breeds. Copy numbers in the Akita and Shiba, two ancient breeds in Japan, were higher than those in wolves. However, compared to a group of various modern breeds, Akitas had fewer copy numbers, whereas Shibas exhibited the same level of expansion as modern breeds. Interestingly, average AMY2B copy numbers in the Jomon-Shiba, a unique line of the Shiba that has been bred to maintain their appearance resembling ancestors of native Japanese dogs and that originated in the same region as the Akita, were lower than those in the Shiba. These differences may have arisen from the earlier introduction of rice farming to the region in which the Shiba originated compared to the region in which the Akita and the Jomon-Shiba originated. Thus, our data provide insights into the relationship between the introduction of agriculture and AMY2B expansion in dogs. PMID:26358734

  9. Contribution of diet and major depression to incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poor Seyedehozma

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite significant improvements in the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD, it is still a major cause of mortality and morbidity among the Iranian population. Epidemiological studies have documented that risk factors including smoking and the biochemical profile are responsible for the development of acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Psychological factors have been discussed as potential risk factors for coronary heart disease. Among emotional factors, depression correlates with coronary heart disease, particularly myocardial infarction. Methods This case-control study was conducted on 120 cases (69 males and 51 females of acute myocardial infarction (AMI and 120 controls, with a mean age of 62.48 ± 15.39 years. Cases and controls were matched by age, residence and sex. Results The results revealed that severe depression was independently associated with the risk of AMI (P = 0.025, OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-5.8. The analysis of variables indicated that risk factors for developing depression were unmarried, low levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, total dietary fiber (TDF and carbohydrates. The levels of these dietary factors were lowest in severely depressed patients compared to those categorised as moderate or mild cases. Furthermore, severely depressed subjects were associated with higher levels of total cholesterol, high systolic blood pressure (SBP and WHR. Age, income, a family history of coronary heart disease, education level, sex, employment and smoking were not associated with severe depression. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that severe depression symptoms are independent risk factors for AMI. Furthermore, severe depression was associated with an unhealthy diet and AMI risk factors.

  10. AMIE SMART-1: review of results and legacy 10 years after launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, Jean-Luc; Souchon, Audrey; Josset, Marie; Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    The Advanced Moon micro-Imager Experiment (AMIE) camera was launched in September 2003 onboard the ESA SMART-1 spacecraft. We review the technical characteristics, scientific objectives and results of the instrument, 10 years after its launch. The AMIE camera is an ultra-compact imaging system that includes a tele-objective with a 5.3° x 5.3° field of view and an imaging sensor of 1024 x 1024 pixels. It is dedicated to spectral imaging with three spectral filters (750, 915 and 960 nm filters), photometric measurements (filter free CCD area), and Laser-link experiment (laser filter at 847 nm). The AMIE camera was designed to acquire high-resolution images of the lunar surface, in white light and for specific spectral bands, under a number of different viewing conditions and geometries. Specifically, its main scientific objectives included: (i) imaging of high latitude regions in the southern hemisphere, in particular the South Pole Aitken basin and the permanently shadowed regions close to the South Pole; (ii) determination of the photometric properties of the lunar surface from observations at different phase angles (physical properties of the regolith); (iii) multi-band imaging for constraining the chemical and mineral composition of the surface; (iv) detection and characterisation of lunar non-mare volcanic units; (v) study of lithological variations from impact craters and implications for crustal heterogeneity. The study of AMIE images enhanced the knowledge of the lunar surface, in particular regarding photometric modelling and surface physical properties of localized lunar areas and geological units. References: http://scholar.google.nl/scholar?q=smart-1+amie We acknowledge ESA, member states, industry and institutes for their contribution, and the members of the AMIE Team: J.-L. Josset, P. Plancke, Y. Langevin, P. Cerroni, M. C. De Sanctis, P. Pinet, S. Chevrel, S. Beauvivre, B.A. Hofmann, M. Josset, D. Koschny, M. Almeida, K. Muinonen, J. Piironen, M. A

  11. Gated SPECT in AMI patients with large perfusion defects and left ventricular dysfunction: comparison with two-dimensional echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the accuracy of 99mTc-MIBI gated SPECT in assessing LV EF and volumes in patients with AMI, large perfusion defects and LV dysfunction LV EF and volumes were determined by post-stress 99mTc-MIBI acquisition (≤ 4 days ) in 16 patients with large perfusion defects (> 20% of the LV) and LV dysfunction (EF 99mTc-MIBI fated SPECT with QGS method in patients with AMI, large perfusion defects and LV dysfunction. However, 99mTc-MIBI gated SPECT significantly underestimated EF in patient with AMI, and without large perfusion defects

  12. A Study of Ethnocentrism and its Dysfunction in Amy Tan’s The Joy Luck Club

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王真

    2013-01-01

    In Amy Tan’s famous novel: The Joy Luck Club, ethnocentrism held by different groups including the mainstream so⁃ciety and minorities is to blame for cultural conflicts. In this article, it gives the theoretical framework by discussing the definition, function and consequences of ethnocentrism. The second chapter probes into Amy Tan’story and gives examples of ethnocen⁃trism held by family members within the minority group and by people around them. It concludes that the ethnocentrism is not limited to history or to some specific country or races. High level of ethnocentrism is dysfunctional, leading to misunderstanding and conflicts with out-group members. It is indicated that cultural relativism is the reasonable method people should adopt when they are involved in intercultural communication.

  13. Voltage Harmonics Monitoring in a Microgrid Based on Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi; Guan, Yajuan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez;

    2015-01-01

    Smart meters are the main part of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and are usually able to provide detailed information on customers’ energy consumptions, voltage variations and interruptions. In addition, these meters are potentially able to provide more information about power quality (PQ......) disturbances. This paper will address the monitoring of voltage harmonics utilizing the features of smart meters and AMI system. To do this, the first step is to select proper indices to quantify the distortion. An important point which should be considered in this regard is the limited processing power of...... smart meters in comparison with PQ Analyzers (PQAs). Furthermore, the indices are categorized as site and system indices. The site indices measure the distortion at one metering section while the system indices provide a PQ view in an area encompassing multiple meters. In addition, the smart metering...

  14. Using AMIE data to study cloud processes within the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houze, Robert A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2015-12-17

    This study uses AMIE data to show how the small clouds in the Madden-Julian Oscillation first organize into lines and other patterns, how they develop the first rainshowers, how those showers deposit cool air over the ocean surface, how this cool air spreads and triggers deeper convection, how the deep convection develops into mesoscale systems, how the mesoscale systems modify the heating profile through the depth of the troposphere, and how the development of the clouds responds to and interacts with large-scale waves circumnavigating the globe at upper levels, and how equatorial trapped waves at lower levels modulates the development of the cloud population. The techniques used to analyze the radar and sounding data collected in AMIE to achieve the above results are innovative, and to obtain more general results we have used regional modeling with a variety of cloud microphysical schemes in combination with the data analyses.

  15. Initial operation of the array for microwave background anisotropy (AMiBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-Te; Han, Chih-Chiang; Chen, Ming-Tang; Huang, Yau-De; Jiang, Homin; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Chang, Su-Wei; Chang, Shu-Hao; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chen, Chung-Cheng; Wilson, Warwick; Umetsu, Keiichi; Lin, Kai-Yang; Koch, Patrick; Liu, Guo-Chin; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Ho, Paul T. P.

    2006-06-01

    AMiBA, as a dual-polarization 86-102 GHz interferometer array, is designed to measure the power spectrum of fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, and to detect the high-redshift clusters of galaxies via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect (SZE). The operation of AMiBA is about to begin after installation of the first two receivers and correlators onto the 6-meter diameter platform by the end of 2005. The initial setup of the array will consist of 7 antennas with 60 cm diameter reflectors in a hexagonal configuration, aiming at multipoles l ~ 3000. Signals from receivers are cross-correlated in analog lag correlators. The initial operation will focus on characterizing the systematics by observing various known objects on the sky. The expansion to 13 elements with larger dishes will commence once the 7-element array testing is completed.

  16. Simulation of a Combined SZE and Weak Lensing Cluster Survey for AMiBA Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Umetsu, K; Lin, K Y; Wu, J M; Tseng, Y H; Umetsu, Keiichi; Chiueh, Tzihong; Lin, Kai-Yang; Wu, Jun-Mein; Tseng, Yao-Huan

    2004-01-01

    We present simulations of interferometric Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) and optical weak lenisng observations for the forthcoming AMiBA experiment, aiming at searching for high-redshift clusters of galaxies. On the basis of simulated sky maps, we have derived theoretical halo number counts and redshift distributions of selected halo samples for an AMiBA SZE survey and a weak lensing follow-up survey. By utilizing the conditional number counts of weak lensing halos with the faint SZE detection, we show that a combined SZE and weak lensing survey can gain an additional fainter halo sample at a given false positive rate, which cannot be obtained from either survey alone

  17. Platform Deformation Refined Pointing and Phase Correction for the AMiBA Hexapod Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Patrick M; Chang, Yu-Yen; Huang, Yau-De; Raffin, Philippe; Chen, Ke-Yung; Chereau, Guillaume; Chen, Ming-Tang; Ho, Paul T P; Huang, Chih-Wie; Ibanez-Romano, Fabiola; Jiang, Homin; Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Han, Chi-Chiang; Kubo, Derek; Li, Chao-Te; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) is a radio interferometer for research in cosmology, currently operating 7 0.6m diameter antennas co-mounted on a 6m diameter platform driven by a hexapod mount. AMiBA is currently the largest hexapod telescope. We briefly summarize the hexapod operation with the current pointing error model. We then focus on the upcoming 13-element expansion with its potential difficulties and solutions. Photogrammetry measurements of the platform reveal deformations at a level which can affect the optical pointing and the receiver radio phase. In order to prepare for the 13-element upgrade, two optical telescopes are installed on the platform to correlate optical pointing tests. Being mounted on different locations, the residuals of the two sets of pointing errors show a characteristic phase and amplitude difference as a function of the platform deformation pattern. These results depend on the telescope's azimuth, elevation and polarization position. An analytical model ...

  18. A Grouped System Architecture for Smart Grids Based AMI Communications Over LTE

    OpenAIRE

    Elmesalawy, Mahmoud M.; A.S. Ali

    2016-01-01

    A smart grid based Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), is a technology that enables the utilities to monitor and control the electricity consumption through a set of various smart meters (SMs) connected via a two way communication infrastructure. One of the key challenges for smart grids is how to connect a large number of devices. On the other hand, 4G Long Term Evolution (LTE), the latest standard for mobile communications, was developed to provide stable service performance...

  19. A GROUPED SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE FOR SMART GRIDS BASED AMI COMMUNICATIONS OVER LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Elmesalawy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A smart grid based Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI, is a technology that enables the utilities to monitor and control the electricity consumption through a set of various smart meters (SMs connected via a two way communication infrastructure. One of the key challenges for smart grids is how to connect a large number of devices. On the other hand, 4G Long Term Evolution (LTE, the latest standard for mobile communications, was developed to provide stable service performance and higher data rates for a large number of mobile users. Therefore, LTE is considered a promising solution for wide area connectivity for SMs. In this paper, a grouped hierarchal architecture for SMs communications over LTE is introduced. Then, an efficient grouped scheduling technique is proposed for SMs transmissions over LTE. The proposed architecture efficiently solves the overload problem due to AMI traffic and guarantees a full monitoring and control for energy consumption. The results of our suggested solution showed that LTE can serve better for smart grids based AMI with particular grouping and scheduling scheme. In addition, the presented technique can able to be used in urban areas having high density of SMs.

  20. Platform Deformation Phase Correction for the AMiBA-13 Coplanar Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Huang, Yau-De; Proty Wu, Jiun-Huei; Ho, Paul T. P.; Chen, Ming-Tang; Locutus Huang, Chih-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Cheng, Tai-An; Fu, Szu-Yuan; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M.; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Chang, Yu-Yen; Han, Chih-Chiang; Li, Chao-Te; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter

    2013-05-01

    We present a new way to solve the platform deformation problem of coplanar interferometers. The platform of a coplanar interferometer can be deformed due to driving forces and gravity. A deformed platform will induce extra components into the geometric delay of each baseline and change the phases of observed visibilities. The reconstructed images will also be diluted due to the errors of the phases. The platform deformations of The Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) were modeled based on photogrammetry data with about 20 mount pointing positions. We then used the differential optical pointing error between two optical telescopes to fit the model parameters in the entire horizontal coordinate space. With the platform deformation model, we can predict the errors of the geometric phase delays due to platform deformation with a given azimuth and elevation of the targets and calibrators. After correcting the phases of the radio point sources in the AMiBA interferometric data, we recover 50%-70% flux loss due to phase errors. This allows us to restore more than 90% of a source flux. The method outlined in this work is not only applicable to the correction of deformation for other coplanar telescopes but also to single-dish telescopes with deformation problems. This work also forms the basis of the upcoming science results of AMiBA-13.

  1. PLATFORM DEFORMATION PHASE CORRECTION FOR THE AMiBA-13 COPLANAR INTERFEROMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Huang, Yau-De; Ho, Paul T. P.; Chen, Ming-Tang; Locutus Huang, Chih-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Han, Chih-Chiang; Li, Chao-Te; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Proty Wu, Jiun-Huei; Cheng, Tai-An; Fu, Szu-Yuan; Wang, Fu-Cheng [Department of Physics, Institute of Astrophysics, and Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Liu, Guo-Chin [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, 251-37 Tamsui, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Molnar, Sandor M. [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yu-Yen, E-mail: ywliao@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: jhpw@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-05-20

    We present a new way to solve the platform deformation problem of coplanar interferometers. The platform of a coplanar interferometer can be deformed due to driving forces and gravity. A deformed platform will induce extra components into the geometric delay of each baseline and change the phases of observed visibilities. The reconstructed images will also be diluted due to the errors of the phases. The platform deformations of The Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) were modeled based on photogrammetry data with about 20 mount pointing positions. We then used the differential optical pointing error between two optical telescopes to fit the model parameters in the entire horizontal coordinate space. With the platform deformation model, we can predict the errors of the geometric phase delays due to platform deformation with a given azimuth and elevation of the targets and calibrators. After correcting the phases of the radio point sources in the AMiBA interferometric data, we recover 50%-70% flux loss due to phase errors. This allows us to restore more than 90% of a source flux. The method outlined in this work is not only applicable to the correction of deformation for other coplanar telescopes but also to single-dish telescopes with deformation problems. This work also forms the basis of the upcoming science results of AMiBA-13.

  2. Amidase Activity of AmiC Controls Cell Separation and Stem Peptide Release and Is Enhanced by NlpD in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Jonathan D; Stohl, Elizabeth A; Robertson, Rosanna M; Hackett, Kathleen T; Fisher, Kathryn; Xiong, Kalia; Lee, Mijoon; Hesek, Dusan; Mobashery, Shahriar; Seifert, H Steven; Davies, Christopher; Dillard, Joseph P

    2016-05-13

    The human-restricted pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae encodes a single N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine amidase involved in cell separation (AmiC), as compared with three largely redundant cell separation amidases found in Escherichia coli (AmiA, AmiB, and AmiC). Deletion of amiC from N. gonorrhoeae results in severely impaired cell separation and altered peptidoglycan (PG) fragment release, but little else is known about how AmiC functions in gonococci. Here, we demonstrated that gonococcal AmiC can act on macromolecular PG to liberate cross-linked and non-cross-linked peptides indicative of amidase activity, and we provided the first evidence that a cell separation amidase can utilize a small synthetic PG fragment as substrate (GlcNAc-MurNAc(pentapeptide)-GlcNAc-MurNAc(pentapeptide)). An investigation of two residues in the active site of AmiC revealed that Glu-229 is critical for both normal cell separation and the release of PG fragments by gonococci during growth. In contrast, Gln-316 has an autoinhibitory role, and its mutation to lysine resulted in an AmiC with increased enzymatic activity on macromolecular PG and on the synthetic PG derivative. Curiously, the same Q316K mutation that increased AmiC activity also resulted in cell separation and PG fragment release defects, indicating that activation state is not the only factor determining normal AmiC activity. In addition to displaying high basal activity on PG, gonococcal AmiC can utilize metal ions other than the zinc cofactor typically used by cell separation amidases, potentially protecting its ability to function in zinc-limiting environments. Thus gonococcal AmiC has distinct differences from related enzymes, and these studies revealed parameters for how AmiC functions in cell separation and PG fragment release. PMID:26984407

  3. Low Copy Number of the AMY1 Locus Is Associated with Early-Onset Female Obesity in Finland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Viljakainen

    Full Text Available The salivary α-amylase locus (AMY1 is located in a highly polymorphic multi allelic copy number variable chromosomal region. A recent report identified an association between AMY1 copy numbers and BMI in common obesity. The present study investigated the relationship between AMY1 copy number, BMI and serum amylase in childhood-onset obesity.Sixty-one subjects with a history of childhood-onset obesity (mean age 19.1 years, 54% males and 71 matched controls (19.8 yrs, 45% males were included. All anthropometric measures were greater in the obese; their mean BMI was 40 kg/m2 (range 25-62 kg/m2 compared with 23 kg/m2 in the controls (15-32 kg/m2.Mean AMY1 copy numbers did not differ between the obese and control subjects, but gender differences were observed; obese men showed the highest and obese women the lowest number of AMY1 copies (p=0.045. Further, only in affected females, AMY1 copy number correlated significantly with whole body fat percent (r=-0.512, p=0.013 and BMI (r=-0.416, p=0.025. Finally, a clear linear association between AMY1 copy number and serum salivary amylase was observed in all subgroups but again differences existed between obese males and females.In conclusion, our findings suggest that AMY1 copy number differences play a role in childhood-onset obesity but the effect differs between males and females. Further studies in larger cohorts are needed to confirm these observations.

  4. Transport Phenomena in Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Tokita

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gel becomes an important class of soft materials since it can be seen in a wide variety of the chemical and the biological systems. The unique properties of gel arise from the structure, namely, the three-dimensional polymer network that is swollen by a huge amount of solvent. Despite the small volume fraction of the polymer network, which is usually only a few percent or less, gel shows the typical properties that belong to solids such as the elasticity. Gel is, therefore, regarded as a dilute solid because its elasticity is much smaller than that of typical solids. Because of the diluted structure, small molecules can pass along the open space of the polymer network. In addition to the viscous resistance of gel fluid, however, the substance experiences resistance due to the polymer network of gel during the transport process. It is, therefore, of importance to study the diffusion of the small molecules in gel as well as the flow of gel fluid itself through the polymer network of gel. It may be natural to assume that the effects of the resistance due to the polymer network of gel depends strongly on the network structure. Therefore, detailed study on the transport processes in and through gel may open a new insight into the relationship between the structure and the transport properties of gel. The two typical transport processes in and through gel, that is, the diffusion of small molecules due to the thermal fluctuations and the flow of gel fluid that is caused by the mechanical pressure gradient will be reviewed.

  5. Degradation of Raw Corn Starch by an α-Amylase (AmyP) from Marine Environment%海洋环境来源的淀粉酶AmyP对生玉米淀粉的降解特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭惠; 雷寅; 刘源涛; 汪颖

    2012-01-01

    来自海洋宏基因组文库的α-淀粉酶(AmyP)属于最新建立的糖苷水解酶亚家族GH13_37.AmyP是一个生淀粉降解酶,能有效降解玉米生淀粉.在最适反应条件pH7.5和40℃下,生玉米淀粉的比活达到(39.6±1.4) U/mg.酶解反应动力学显示AmyP可以非常快速的降解生玉米淀粉.对1%的生玉米淀粉降解仅需要30min;4%和8%的生玉米淀粉只需3h.DTT可以显著提高AmyP对生玉米淀粉的降解活性,1% DTT促使活性增加1倍.根据电镜观察和产物分析,认为AmyP是以内腐蚀的模式降解生玉米淀粉颗粒,释放出葡萄糖、麦芽糖和麦芽三糖作为终产物.%The α-amylase ( AmyP) from a marine metagenomic library belongs to the recently classified glycoside hydrolase subfamily GH13_37. AmyP is raw starch degrading enzyme, exhibiting a remarkable ability to digest raw corn starch. The specific activity of raw corn starch was reached (39. 6 ± 1.4) U/mg under the optimum pH 7. 5 and temperature 40 ℃. The hydrolysis curve showed that AmyP could hydrolyze raw corn starch at a very high speed. The final hydrolysis degrees were obtained in 30min for 1% raw corn starch and 3h for 4% and 8% concentration. The enzyme's activity was greatly increased in the presence of DTT. 1% DTT led to a twofold-enhanced activity. The results of scanning electron microscopy and thin-layer chromatography show that AmyP attacks sites on raw corn starch granules with a mode of endo-corrosion, and releases glucose, maltose and maltotriose as end products.

  6. CFRP platform and hexapod mount for the Array of MIcrowave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffin, Philippe A.; Martin, Robert N.; Huang, Yau-De; Patt, Ferdinand; Romeo, Robert C.; Chen, Ming-Tang; Kingsley, Jeffrey S.

    2004-09-01

    AMiBA consists of a 90 GHz interferometric array telescope with dishes ranging in size from 0.3 to 2.4 meter in diameter, mounted on a 6-meter fully steerable platform. The dishes are attached to the receivers, which are mounted on a platform controlled by a six degree of freedom hexapod mount. The hexapod mount is a parallel connection manipulator also called Stewart Platform. The basic reference for this mechanism is a paper by Stewart. The Stewart Platform is a unique kinematically constrained work platform. It can be manipulated through the six degrees of freedom. The hexapod also provides better accuracy, rigidity, load to weight ratio and load distribution than a serial manipulator or traditional manipulator. The advantages of the hexapod shows that it is a great choice for the AMiBA project. Vertex Antennentechnik GmbH fabricates the hexapod. Testing has started in Germany. The telescope will be delivered in the summer of 2004. The 6m in diameter hexagonal platform is made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) and consists of seven pieces of three different unique types. The platform can be disassembled and fits in a container for transportation. The mounting plane flatness is an important issue for the platform assembly. The deflection angle of the mounting plane relative to any other mounting position must be less than 20 arcsec. Meanwhile, the platform must endure a loading of 3 tons. The platform has been built by Composite Mirror Applications, Inc. (CMA) in Tucson, and mounted on the Hexapod in Germany. This report describes the design and testing of platform and mount for the AMiBA telescope.

  7. Air microwave yield (AMY): an experiment for measuring the GHz emission from air shower plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AMY experiment aim is to measure and characterize the microwave emission from plasmas induced in air by an electron beam. The study of this phenomenon could provide the development of new techniques for detecting high-energy cosmic rays over large area with a 100% duty cycle. We present the results of a first test beam done at the electron Beam Test Facility (BTF) of the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF, Roma Italy) in November 2011. The measurements were performed with an electron beam of 510MeV energy. A frequency range between 1 and 20 GHz has been investigated.

  8. The Air Microwave Yield (AMY experiment to measure the GHz emission from air shower plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smida R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The AMY experiment aims to measure the Microwave Bremsstrahlung Radiation (MBR emitted by air-showers secondary electrons accelerating in collisions with neutral molecules of the atmosphere. The measurements are performed at the Beam Test Facility (BTF of Frascati INFN National Laboratories and the final purpose is to characterize the process to be used in a next generation detectors of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (up to 1020eV. We describe the experimental set-up and the first test measurement performed in November 2011.

  9. Book review: Presence: bringing your boldest self to your biggest challenges by Amy Cuddy

    OpenAIRE

    Koob, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Have you ever wished for a second chance at a job interview, performance or difficult conversation? Drawing upon her popular TED talk, in Presence: Bringing Your Boldest Self to Your Biggest Challenges, Harvard Business School Professor Amy Cuddy encourages readers to see transformative power in small ‘nudges’ in behaviour, body language and mind-set that can generate a better sense of ‘presence’ in our everyday lives. Marion Koob finds much in the way of useful advice within the book but won...

  10. Towards Efficient Energy Management: Defining HEMS, AMI and Smart Grid Objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Soler, José;

    2011-01-01

    electricity in the grid will also help to reduce the increase of energy consumption in the future. In order to reduce energy consumption in home environments, researches have been designing Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS). In addition, Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and smart grids are also......Energy consumption has increased considerably in the recent years. The way to reduce and make energy consumption more efficient has become of great interest for researchers. One of the research areas is the reduction of energy consumption in users’ residences. Efficiently managing and distributing...

  11. GelTouch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miruchna, Viktor; Walter, Robert; Lindlbauer, David;

    2015-01-01

    We present GelTouch, a gel-based layer that can selectively transition between soft and stiff to provide tactile multi-touch feedback. It is flexible, transparent when not activated, and contains no mechanical, electromagnetic, or hydraulic components, resulting in a compact form factor (a 2mm thin...... touchscreen layer for our prototype). The activated areas can be morphed freely and continuously, without being limited to fixed, predefined shapes. GelTouch consists of a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gel layer which alters its viscoelasticity when activated by applying heat (>32 C). We present three different...

  12. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall S. Seright

    2003-09-01

    This report describes work performed during the second year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' The project has two objectives. The first objective is to identify gel compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective is to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the gel must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil. Pore-level images from X-ray computed microtomography were re-examined for Berea sandstone and porous polyethylene. This analysis suggests that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than a gel-ripping mechanism. This finding helps to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil. We analyzed a Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel treatment in a production well in the Arbuckle formation. The availability of accurate pressure data before, during, and after the treatment was critical for the analysis. After the gel treatment, water productivity was fairly constant at about 20% of the pre-treatment value. However, oil productivity was stimulated by a factor of 18 immediately after the treatment. During the six months after the treatment, oil productivity gradually decreased to approach the pre-treatment value. To explain this behavior, we proposed that the fracture area open to oil flow was increased substantially by the gel treatment, followed by a gradual closing of the fractures during subsequent production. For a conventional Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel, the delay between gelant preparation and injection into a fracture impacts the placement, leakoff, and permeability reduction behavior. Formulations placed as partially formed gels showed relatively low pressure gradients during placement, and yet substantially reduced the

  13. Diasporic Authenticity Assertions: Analysis of Amy Tan’s The Bonesetter’s Daughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeimeh Tabatabaei Lotfi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an attempt to examine the active interaction of history and memory, in formulation of a diasporic authentic picture of past, in Amy Tan’s The Bonesetter’s Daughter (2001. Amongst discursive disciplines, memory and history perform vitally, in picturing past; both attempt to reproduce events, by emblematic narrative acts. However, their erratic quality endorses the existence of counter- stories that endangers displaying a homogeneous past. Among miscellaneous categories of memories, autobiographical memory asserts to obtain an authentic presentation, but as any other forms of accounts, it exhibits an imprecise fictional image. This psychological alleviation ensures the future mental integrity of trauma victims. In memory narratives, the contingent temperament of power network and continual formulation of resisting frameworks might be explored. Tan’s diasporic assertion of authenticity, as a migrant writer, amalgamated with employment of fantasy is to obtain a shared diasporic identity, among her characters, although personal accounts of characters undergo an extensive amount of contingency. The newly forged identity is collective in nature and defies the geographical and temporal borders and grants a humane picture rather than a diasporic one; an identity that is established to venerate the cardinal role of personal memory, in endowing legitimate truth.Keywords: Amy Tan- Authenticity Assertion- Memory- History- Diasporic Narrative

  14. AMI radio continuum observations of young stellar objects with known outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Ainsworth, Rachael E; Ray, Tom P; Buckle, Jane V; Davies, Matthew; Franzen, Thomas M O; Grainge, Keith J B; Hobson, Michael P; Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Lasenby, Anthony N; Olamaie, Malak; Perrott, Yvette C; Pooley, Guy G; Richer, John S; Rodriguez-Gonzalvez, Carmen; Schammel, Michel P; Scott, Paul F; Shimwell, Timothy; Saunders, Richard D E; Titterington, David; Waldram, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    We present 16 GHz (1.9 cm) deep radio continuum observations made with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI) of a sample of low-mass young stars driving jets. We combine these new data with archival information from an extensive literature search to examine spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for each source and calculate both the radio and sub-mm spectral indices in two different scenarios: (1) fixing the dust temperature (Td) according to evolutionary class; (2) allowing Td to vary. We use the results of this analysis to place constraints on the physical mechanisms responsible for the radio emission. From AMI data alone, as well as from model fitting to the full SED in both scenarios, we find that 80 per cent of the objects in this sample have spectral indices consistent with free-free emission. We find an average spectral index in both Td scenarios consistent with free-free emission. We examine correlations of the radio luminosity with bolometric luminosity, envelope mass, and outflow force and find that...

  15. Failure Impact Analysis of Key Management in AMI Using Cybernomic Situational Assessment (CSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Hauser, Katie R [ORNL; Lantz, Margaret W [ORNL; Mili, Ali [New Jersey Insitute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    In earlier work, we presented a computational framework for quantifying the security of a system in terms of the average loss a stakeholder stands to sustain as a result of threats to the system. We named this system, the Cyberspace Security Econometrics System (CSES). In this paper, we refine the framework and apply it to cryptographic key management within the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) as an example. The stakeholders, requirements, components, and threats are determined. We then populate the matrices with justified values by addressing the AMI at a higher level, rather than trying to consider every piece of hardware and software involved. We accomplish this task by leveraging the recently established NISTR 7628 guideline for smart grid security. This allowed us to choose the stakeholders, requirements, components, and threats realistically. We reviewed the literature and selected an industry technical working group to select three representative threats from a collection of 29 threats. From this subset, we populate the stakes, dependency, and impact matrices, and the threat vector with realistic numbers. Each Stakeholder s Mean Failure Cost is then computed.

  16. Platform Deformation Phase Correction for the AMiBA-13 Co-planar Interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Yu-Wei; Huang, Yau-De; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Ho, Paul T P; Chen, Ming-Tang; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Koch, Patrick M; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Cheng, Tai-An; Fu, Szu-Yuan; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Chang, Yu-Yen; Han, Chih-Chiang; Li, Chao-Te; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter; 10.1088/0004-637X/769/1/71

    2013-01-01

    We present a new way to solve the platform deformation problem of co-planar interferometers. The platform of a co-planar interferometer can be deformed due to driving forces and gravity. A deformed platform will induce extra components into the geometric delay of each baseline, and change the phases of observed visibilities. The reconstructed images will also be diluted due to the errors of the phases. The platform deformations of The Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) were modelled based on photogrammetry data with about 20 mount pointing positions. We then used the differential optical pointing error between two optical telescopes to fit the model parameters in the entire horizontal coordinate space. With the platform deformation model, we can predict the errors of the geometric phase delays due to platform deformation with given azimuth and elevation of the targets and calibrators. After correcting the phases of the radio point sources in the AMiBA interferometric data, we reco...

  17. Platform deformation refined pointing and phase correction for the AMiBA hexapod telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Patrick; Kesteven, Michael; Chang, Yu-Yen; Huang, Yau-De; Raffin, Philippe; Chen, Ke-Yung; Chereau, Guillaume; Chen, Ming-Tang; Ho, Paul T. P.; Huang, Chih-Wie; Ibañez-Romano, Fabiola; Jiang, Homin; Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chiao-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Han, Chi-Chiang; Kubo, Derek; Li, Chao-Te; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter

    2008-07-01

    The Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) is a radio interferometer for research in cosmology, currently operating 7 0.6m diameter antennas co-mounted on a 6m diameter platform driven by a hexapod mount. AMiBA is currently the largest hexapod telescope. We briefly summarize the hexapod operation with the current pointing error model. We then focus on the upcoming 13-element expansion with its potential difficulties and solutions. Photogrammetry measurements of the platform reveal deformations at a level which can affect the optical pointing and the receiver radio phase. In order to prepare for the 13-element upgrade, two optical telescopes are installed on the platform to correlate optical pointing tests. Being mounted on different locations, the residuals of the two sets of pointing errors show a characteristic phase and amplitude difference as a function of the platform deformation pattern. These results depend on the telescope's azimuth, elevation and polarization position. An analytical model for the deformation is derived in order to separate the local deformation induced error from the real hexapod pointing error. Similarly, we demonstrate that the deformation induced radio phase error can be reliably modeled and calibrated, which allows us to recover the ideal synthesized beam in amplitude and shape of up to 90% or more. The resulting array efficiency and its limits are discussed based on the derived errors.

  18. AMI Communication Requirements to Implement Demand-Response: Applicability of Hybrid Spread Spectrum Wireless

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Mark D.; Clements, Samuel L.; Carroll, Thomas E.

    2011-09-30

    While holistically defining the smart grid is a challenge, one area of interest is demand-response. In 2009, the Department of Energy announced over $4 billion in grant and project funding for the Smart Grid. A significant amount of this funding was allotted to utilities for cost sharing projects to deploy Smart Grid technologies, many of whom have deployed and are deploying advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). AMI is an enabler to increase the efficiency of utilities and the bulk power grid. The bulk electrical system is unique in that it produces electricity as it is consumed. Most other industries have a delay between generation and consumption. This aspect of the power grid means that there must be enough generation capacity to meet the highest demand whereas other industries could over produce during off-peak times. This requires significant investment in generation capacity to cover the few days a year of peak consumption. Since bulk electrical storage doesn't yet exist at scale another way to curb the need for new peak period generation is through demand-response; that is to incentivize consumers (demand) to curtail (respond) electrical usage during peak periods. Of the various methods proposed for enabling demand-response, this paper will focus on the communication requirements for creating an energy market using transactional controls. More specifically, the paper will focus on the communication requirements needed to send the peak period notices and receive the response back from the consumers.

  19. Post-MI depression and levels of serum IL-6 and CRP in AMI patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the presence and severity of post-MI depression and the increased inflammatory activity, as marked by the serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) after myocardial infarction. Methods: Serum IL-6 and CRP levels were measured in 58 AMI patients within 36 hours after onset of event. Depression was evaluated by self-reporting standardized questionnaire, using a validated Chinese version of Hospiatla Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)-Depression Subscale (7 items) within 7 days. Demographic and medical data including LVEF, NYHA cardiac function grading, atherosclerosis severity shown from angiography as well as cardiac risk factors were recorded. Results: Serum levels of IL-6 and CRP were higher in depressive AMI patients than those in non-depressive ones (0.93 ± 0.64 vs 0.48 ± 0.37 ng/L, P<0.05 and 0.96 ± 0.41 vs 0.47 ± 0.26 mg/dL, P<0.05). Neither levels of IL-6 nor HADS-D scores were found to be correlated to the severity of atherosclerosis shown in angiography. Conclusion: Presence and severity of post-MI depression is associated with increased activity of inflammation in patients after myocardial infarction. (authors)

  20. Advances in Autonomous Mini Robots : Proceedings of the 6-th AMiRE Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Joaquin, Sitte; Felix, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous robots must carry out useful tasks all by themselves relying entirely on their own perceptions of their environment. The cognitive abilities required for autonomous action are largely independent of robot size, which makes mini robots attractive as artefacts for research, education and entertainment. Autonomous mini robots must be small enough for experimentation on a desktop or a small laboratory.  They must be easy to carry and safe for interaction with humans. They must not be expensive. Mini robot designers have to work at the leading edge of technology so that their creations can carry out purposeful autonomic action under these constraints. Since 2001 researchers have met every two years for an international symposium to report on the advances achieved in Autonomous Mini  Robots for Research and Edutainment (AMiRE). The AMiRE Symposium is a single track conference that offers ample opportunities for discussion and exchange of ideas. This volume contains the contributed papers of the 2011 AM...

  1. Constraining Intra-cluster Gas Models with AMiBA13

    CERN Document Server

    Molnar, Sandor M; Birkinshaw, Mark; Bryan, Greg; Haiman, Zoltan; Hearn, Nathan; Ho, Paul T P; Huang, Chih-Wei L; Koch, Patrick M; Liao, Yu-Wei V; Linh, Kai-Yang; Liuh, Guo-Chin; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wu, Jiun-Huei P; Astronomy, Institute of; Astrophysics,; Sinica, Academia; 23-141, P O Box; 106, Taipei; Taiwan,; ROC,; Laboratory, H H Wills Physics; Bristol, University of; Ave, Tyndall; 1TL, Bristol BS8; UK,; Astronomy, Department of; University, Columbia; Street, 550 West 120th; York, New; 10027, NY; Flashes, ASC/Alliances Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear; Chicago, University of; 60637, Chicago IL; Astrophysics, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for; Street, 60 Garden; Cambridge,; 02138, MA; Physics, Department of; Astrophysics, Institute of; University, National Taiwan; 10617, Taipei; Taiwan,; ROC,; Physics, Department of; University, Tamkang; 251-37,; Tamsui,; County, Taipei; Taiwan,; ROC,

    2010-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies have been used extensively to determine cosmological parameters. A major difficulty in making best use of Sunyaev--Zel'dovich (SZ) and X-ray observations of clusters for cosmology is that using X-ray observations it is difficult to measure the temperature distribution and therefore determine the density distribution in individual clusters of galaxies out to the virial radius. Observations with the new generation of SZ instruments are a promising alternative approach. We use clusters of galaxies drawn from high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) cosmological simulations to study how well we should be able to constrain the large-scale distribution of the intra-cluster gas (ICG) in individual massive relaxed clusters using AMiBA in its configuration with 13 1.2-m diameter dishes (AMiBA13) along with X-ray observations. We show that non-isothermal beta models provide a good description of the ICG in our simulated relaxed clusters. We use simulated X-ray observations to estimate the qua...

  2. AMiBA: Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect derived properties and scaling relations of massive galaxy clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Yu-Wei; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Ho, Paul T. P.; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Koch, Patrick M.; Lin, Kai-Yang; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Altamirano, Pablo; Birkinshaw, Mark; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao

    2010-01-01

    The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect (SZE) has been observed toward six massive galaxy clusters, at redshifts 0.091 \\leq z \\leq 0.322 in the 86-102 GHz band with the Y. T. Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA). We modify an iterative method, based on the isothermal \\beta-models, to derive the electron temperature T_e, total mass M_t, gas mass M_g, and integrated Compton Y within r_2500, from the AMiBA SZE data. Non-isothermal universal temperature profile (UTP) \\beta models are also ...

  3. MR tomography of focal liver lesions using the superparamagnetic contrast agent AMI-25 at 1.5 tesla; MR-Tomographie fokaler Leberlaesionen mit dem superparamagnetischen Kontrastmittel AMI-25 bei 1,5 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duda, S.H. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Laniado, M. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Kopp, A.F. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Groenewaeller, E. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Aicher, K.P. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Pavone, P. [Univ. `La Sapienza`, Rome (Germany). Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Jehle, E. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Allgemeinchirurgie; Claussen, C.D. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    1994-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (AMI-25) were evaluated as a liver contrast agent in high-field MR imaging (1.5 T). 16 patients with up to 5 presumed focal liver lesions (liver metastases n=8, HCC n=5, Klatskin tumours n=2, FNH n=1) received 15 {mu}mol Fe/kg BW intravenously and were examined via standard T{sub 1}- and T{sub 2}-weighted spin-echo sequences. Quantitative image analysis showed a post-contrast increase of the contrast-to-noise ratio (C/N) from 1.6 to 7.4 on SE 2,500/15 images (p<.05). However, C/N was in the same range on plain SE 2,500/90 scans. Blind evaluation by two independent readers revealed that AMI-25-enhanced images did not provide a significantly increased number of lesions. Two patients reported minor, self-limited side-effects (flush, back pain). We conclude that in contrast to reports at mid-field MR imagers, the use of AMI-25 at 1.5 T does not significantly improve the detection of focal liver lesions on conventional SE images. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Vertraeglichkeit und diagnostische Wirksamkeit eines superparamagnetischen MR-Leberkontrastmittels wurde untersucht. Die Eisenoxidpartikel (AMI-25, Guerbet, Frankreich) wurden 16 Patienten (Lebermetastasen n=8, HCC n=5, Klatskin-Tumor n=2, FNH n=1) mit bis zu 5 vermuteten fokalen Leberlaesionen in einer Dosis von 15 {mu}mol Fe/kg i.v. verabreicht. Vor und 60 Minuten nach Infusionsbeginn erfolgten T{sub 1}- und T{sub 2}-gewichtete SE-Aufnahmen bei 1,5 T. Die quantitative Auswertung ergab einen Anstieg des KRV von 1,6{+-}6,3 auf 7,4{+-}4,9 nach Gabe von AMI-25 (p<0,05) (SE 2500/15). Das KRV nativer T{sub 2}-gewichteter Aufnahmen lag jedoch mit 6,3{+-}3,1 in derselben Groessenordnung (SE 2500/90). Die Blindanalyse der Prae- und Postkontrastbilder durch zwei Auswerter ergab keinen signifikanten Anstieg der Sensitivitaet nach AMI-25. Zwei der 16 Patienten berichteten jeweils eine voruebergehende Nebenwirkung (Flush, Rueckenschmerzen). Bei 1,5 T liess sich an unserem kleinen

  4. 1971 : Association des Amis des Archives du Haut-Rhin

    OpenAIRE

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Créée le 29 juin 1971, l’Association des Amis des Archives du Haut‑Rhin a été enregistrée au registre des associations du Tribunal d’Instance de Colmar le 3 août 1971 (vol. 23 N° 31). Ses statuts précisent ses buts : favoriser la connaissance des archives du Haut-Rhin et des services qu’elles rendent à l’administration et à la recherche scientifique. établir des échanges d’informations entre les chercheurs. faciliter la fréquentation des cours du service éducatif. promouvoir ou aider les acti...

  5. « Mes amies les Fées »

    OpenAIRE

    Mainil, Jean

    2007-01-01

    « “Mes amies les Fées” » traite d’un des premiers recueils de contes de fées littéraires en langue française, Les Œuvres meslées (1695) de Marie-Jeanne Lhéritier qui paraîtront l’année suivante sous un nouveau titre, Les Bigarrures ingénieuses. Plus précisément, cet essai analyse comment dans ces « bigarrures » Lhéritier propose à la fois une réponse théorique à la Querelle des Anciens et des Modernes et une nouvelle pratique narrative. Le style de Lhéritier a souvent été qualifié de long et ...

  6. Progress of the array of microwave background anisotropy (AMiBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffin, Philippe; Koch, Patrick; Huang, Yau-De; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Joshua; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chen, Ke-Yung; Ho, Paul T. P.; Huang, Chih-Wie; Ibañez Roman, Fabiola; Jiang, Homin; Kesteven, Michael; Lin, Kai-Yang; Liu, Guo-Chin; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi

    2006-06-01

    The Academia Sinica, Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA) is installing the AMiBA interferometric array telescope at the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. The 6-meter carbon fiber fully steerable platform is mounted on the Hexapod Mount. After integration and equipment with dummy weights, the platform has been measured by photogrammetry to verify its behavior predicted by Finite Element Analysis. The Hexapod servo control is now operational and equipment of the platform with the initial 7 60-cm dishes, the correlator and electronics is underway. Pointing has started with the aid of the optical telescope. We present the status of the telescope after the servo and initial pointing tests have been carried out. We also present the results of platform measurements by photogrammetry.

  7. Conformance Improvement Using Gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, Randall S.; Schrader, Richard; II Hagstrom, John; Wang, Ying; Al-Dahfeeri, Abdullah; Gary, Raven; Marin; Amaury; Lindquist, Brent

    2002-09-26

    This research project had two objectives. The first objective was to identify gel compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective was to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the gel must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil.

  8. Crystallization from Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana Kalkura, S.; Natarajan, Subramanian

    Among the various crystallization techniques, crystallization in gels has found wide applications in the fields of biomineralization and macromolecular crystallization in addition to crystallizing materials having nonlinear optical, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and other properties. Furthermore, by using this method it is possible to grow single crystals with very high perfection that are difficult to grow by other techniques. The gel method of crystallization provides an ideal technique to study crystal deposition diseases, which could lead to better understanding of their etiology. This chapter focuses on crystallization in gels of compounds that are responsible for crystal deposition diseases. The introduction is followed by a description of the various gels used, the mechanism of gelling, and the fascinating phenomenon of Liesegang ring formation, along with various gel growth techniques. The importance and scope of study on crystal deposition diseases and the need for crystal growth experiments using gel media are stressed. The various crystal deposition diseases, viz. (1) urolithiasis, (2) gout or arthritis, (3) cholelithiasis and atherosclerosis, and (4) pancreatitis and details regarding the constituents of the crystal deposits responsible for the pathological mineralization are discussed. Brief accounts of the theories of the formation of urinary stones and gallstones and the role of trace elements in urinary stone formation are also given. The crystallization in gels of (1) the urinary stone constituents, viz. calcium oxalate, calcium phosphates, uric acid, cystine, etc., (2) the constituents of the gallstones, viz. cholesterol, calcium carbonate, etc., (3) the major constituent of the pancreatic calculi, viz., calcium carbonate, and (4) cholic acid, a steroidal hormone are presented. The effect of various organic and inorganic ions, trace elements, and extracts from cereals, herbs, and fruits on the crystallization of major urinary stone and gallstone

  9. Preparation of chitosan gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerge S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerogel conditioning of the chitosan makes it possible to prepare porous solids of significant specific surface. The increase in the chitosan concentration or the degree of acetylation decreases the specific surface of the synthesized chitosan gel. Whereas drying with supercritical CO2 more effectively makes it possible to preserve the volume of the spheres of gel and to have a more significant specific surface in comparison with evaporative drying.

  10. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of Amy1: An Alpha-Amylase from Cryptococcus flavus Expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdino, Alexsandro Sobreira; Silva, Roberto Nascimento; Lottermann, Muriele Taborda; Álvares, Alice Cunha Morales; de Moraes, Lídia Maria Pepe; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves; de Freitas, Sonia Maria; Ulhoa, Cirano José

    2011-01-01

    An extracellular alpha-amylase (Amy1) whose gene from Cryptococcus flavus was previously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was purified to homogeneity (67 kDa) by ion-exchange and molecular exclusion chromatography. The enzyme was activated by NH4+ and inhibited by Cu+2 and Hg+2. Significant biochemical and structural discrepancies between wild-type and recombinant α-amylase with respect to Km values, enzyme specificity, and secondary structure content were found. Far-UV CD spectra analysis at pH 7.0 revealed the high thermal stability of both proteins and the difference in folding pattern of Amy1 compared with wild-type amylase from C. flavus, which reflected in decrease (10-fold) of enzymatic activity of recombinant protein. Despite the differences, the highest activity of Amy1 towards soluble starch, amylopectin, and amylase, in contrast with the lowest activity of Amy1w, points to this protein as being of paramount biotechnological importance with many applications ranging from food industry to the production of biofuels. PMID:21490699

  11. Phosphorylation of DegU is essential for activation of amyE expression in Bacillus subtilis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monica Gupta; K Krishnamurthy Rao

    2014-12-01

    Alpha ()-amylase (amyE) is one of the major exo-enzymes secreted by Bacillus subtilis during the post-exponential phase. The DegS-DegU two-component system regulates expression of majority of post-exponentially expressed genes in B. subtilis. It has been demonstrated that varying levels of the phosphorylated form of DegU (DegU-P) control different cellular processes. Exo-protease production is observed when effective concentration of DegU-P rises in the cell, whereas swarming motility is favoured at very low amounts of DegU-P. In this study we show that like other exo-proteases, expression of amyE is positively regulated by increase in DegU-P levels in the cell. We also demonstrate that residues at the DNA-binding helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif of DegU are necessary for the amyE expression. This observation is further reinforced by demonstrating the direct interaction of DegU on amyE promoter.

  12. Determination Of Frequency Rate Of Chlamydia Pneumonia Infection In Two Groups Of Patients With And Without AMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghaddam M

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: ‏Today, coronary artery disease is a leading cause of death and morbidity in the world and recognition of all aspects of this problem appears to be necessary and important. In recent years in addition to traditional coronary risk factors, other new risk factors are presented that can affect coronary arteries and accelerate atherosclerosis process. One of the most important of these, are infections, specially with Chlamydia pneumonia. We aimed to study this possibility that is whether correlation between infection with Chlamydia pneumonia and Acute Myocardial Infarction. (AMI. Materials and Methods: This research is a descriptive case-control study which evaluates frequency of infection with Chlamydia pneumonia in the 100 patients with AMI and 105 patients without any history or evidence of CAD admitted in sections of CCU and surgery, in Dr. SHARIATI and SINA hospitals in 2001. For this purpose we took 5ml blood sample from all of the patients, and tested for specific anti Chlamydia pneumonia antibodies (IgG & IgM by ELISA method. Results: Our study showed that 38 percent of control group patients and 54 percent of patients with AMI had positive titer of anti Chlamydia pneumonia antibody and so they were infected with Chlamydia pneumonia {OR= 1.9 (95% CI: 1.34 to 2.46} (P< 0/001. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that, there is significant correlation between infection with Chlamydia pneumonia and occurrence of AMI so treatment of this infection could be of profit.

  13. What Belongs in a Montessori Primary Classroom? Results from a Survey of AMI and AMS Teacher Trainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S.

    2011-01-01

    There are two major types of Montessori teacher education in the United States: (1) AMI-USA (the American branch of the Association Montessori Internationale, founded by Dr. Montessori to carry on her work); and (2) AMS (American Montessori Society, founded by Nancy Rambusch to represent Montessori in America). This article presents the results…

  14. Investigations of Possible Low-Level Temperature and Moisture Anomalies During the AMIE Field Campaign on Manus Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, CN; Holdridge, DJ

    2012-11-19

    This document discusses results stemming from the investigation of near-surface temperature and moisture “oddities” that were brought to light as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment (AMIE), Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO), and Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011) campaigns.

  15. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall S. Seright

    2004-09-30

    This report describes work performed during the third and final year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' Corefloods revealed throughput dependencies of permeability reduction by polymers and gels that were much more prolonged during oil flow than water flow. This behavior was explained using simple mobility ratio arguments. A model was developed that quantitatively fits the results and predicts ''clean up'' times for oil productivity when production wells are returned to service after application of a polymer or gel treatment. X-ray computed microtomography studies of gels in strongly water-wet Berea sandstone and strongly oil-wet porous polyethylene suggested that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than gel-ripping or gel-displacement mechanisms. In contrast, analysis of data from the University of Kansas suggests that the gel-ripping or displacement mechanisms are more important in more permeable, strongly water-wet sandpacks. These findings help to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil under different conditions. Since cement is the most commonly used material for water shutoff, we considered when gels are preferred over cements. Our analysis and experimental results indicated that cement cannot be expected to completely fill (top to bottom) a vertical fracture of any width, except near the wellbore. For vertical fractures with apertures less than 4 mm, the cement slurry will simply not penetrate very far into the fracture. For vertical fractures with apertures greater than 4 mm, the slurry may penetrate a substantial distance into the bottom part of the fracture. However, except near the wellbore, the upper part of the fracture will remain open due to gravity segregation. We compared various approaches to plugging fractures using gels, including (1) varying polymer content, (2) varying placement (extrusion) rate

  16. Consideration for primary angioplasty: impact on the door-to-drug time in AMI patients ultimately treated with thrombolytic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, W J; Esterowitz, D; Syverud, S A

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if consideration for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) delays administration of thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Retrospective medical record review of patients ultimately diagnosed with AMI who presented to the ED with chest pain and ST segment elevation on the electrocardiogram; these patients also received acute reperfusion therapy (PTCA or thrombolytic agent). AMI was diagnosed by abnormal elevations in the creatinine phosphokinase MB fraction. The study period covered 2 years (July 1, 1994 to June 30, 1996) in a university hospital ED with an annual volume of 60,000 patient-visits. The use of reperfusion therapies, time intervals, and times of presentation were recorded. Patients were divided into two groups based on cardiac catheterization laboratory (CATH) availability: (group I, CATH currently in operation, Monday to Friday, 7 am to 7 pm and group II, CATH currently not in-operation, all other times). Fifty-two patients with AMI met entry criteria. Patients were treated with thrombolytic therapy in 25 cases; PTCA in 27 cases. Patients received thrombolytic agents within statistically equivalent time intervals regardless of the period of presentation; time to thrombolytic therapy for group I patients was 38 +/- 16 minutes compared with 36 +/- 26 minutes for group II patients (P =. 891). A trend toward significance was noted in the use of PTCA compared with thrombolytic agent; Group I patients were more often treated with PTCA (19) compared with group II patients (11, P =.067). Patients were more rapidly treated with PTCA during CATH operation; the mean time to PTCA for group I patients was 73.5 minutes compared with PTCA for group II patients with 107.8 minutes (P =.033). The consideration for PTCA did not significantly delay the administration of thrombolytic therapy at the study site institution. PTCA was initiated more rapidly in patients presenting with

  17. Review of Fricke gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The innovation of adding a gel matrix to the traditional Fricke dosimeter to stabilize geometric information established the field of gel dosimetry for radiation therapy. A discussion of Fricke gels provides an overview of the issues that determine the dose response of all gel dosimeters in general. In this paper we review some of the features of Fricke systems to illustrate these issues and, in addition, to motivate renewed clinical interest in Fricke gels

  18. Design of Autonomous Gel Actuators

    OpenAIRE

    Shuji Hashimoto; Shingo Maeda; Yusuke Hara; Satoshi Nakamaru

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce autonomous gel actuators driven by chemical energy. The polymer gels prepared here have cyclic chemical reaction networks. With a cyclic reaction, the polymer gels generate periodical motion. The periodic motion of the gel is produced by the chemical energy of the oscillatory Belouzov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. We have succeeded in making synthetic polymer gel move autonomously like a living organism. This experimental fact represents the great possibility of the c...

  19. Design of Autonomous Gel Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Hashimoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce autonomous gel actuators driven by chemical energy. The polymer gels prepared here have cyclic chemical reaction networks. With a cyclic reaction, the polymer gels generate periodical motion. The periodic motion of the gel is produced by the chemical energy of the oscillatory Belouzov-Zhabotinsky (BZ reaction. We have succeeded in making synthetic polymer gel move autonomously like a living organism. This experimental fact represents the great possibility of the chemical robot.

  20. Gel-silica science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sol-gel techniques can be used to produce two new types of optical silicas, termed Type V for the full density material and Type VI for the optically transparent porous material. This paper summarizes the processing differences between these six types of commercial silicas. The primary emphasis of this paper is to discuss the scientific basis for the processing of Types V and VI optical silica. First, however, the use of sol-gel processing of other systems will be briefly reviewed. The controlled hydrolysis of alkoxides has also been used to produce submicrometer TiO2, doped TiO2 (17), ZrO2 (18), doped ZrO2 (18), doped SiO2 (19), SrTiO3 (20), and corderite (20) powders. Emulsions have been employed to produce spherical powders of mixed cation oxides, such as yttrium aluminum garnets (YAG) and many other systems (20). Sol-gel powder processes have also been applied to fissile elements (21) where spray form sols UO2, and rigid gel spheres of UO-PuO2 are formed during passage through a column of heated liquid. Both crystalline and vitreous ceramic fibers have been prepared using the sol-gel method. Compositions include TiO2-SiO2 and ZrO2-SiO2 glass fibers (22), high purity SiO2 waveguide fibers (23), Al2O3, ZrO2, ThO2, MgO, TiO2, ZrSiO4, 3AlO3-2SiO2 fibers (24). Sol-gel derived alumina grains are important commercial products (25)

  1. The study of the reasons for the similarities and differences of narration in the stories of Shahnameh and the History of Bal’ami

    OpenAIRE

    روحاني/عنايتي روحاني/عنايتي

    2008-01-01

    Shahnameh and the History of Bal’ami are great and important literary works in Iranian culture. These two works have many similarities and embody the history of Iran from its beginning up to the authors’ time. The researches show that the sources and references that Ferdowsi and Bal’ami consulted were different. Ferdowsi consulted the prose Shahnameh of Abou Mansouri and the oral narratives; while Bal’ami consulted the History of Tabari and prose Shahnameh of Abolmo’ayed-e-Balkhi. In spite of...

  2. Enhancement of the Alcoholytic Activity of α-Amylase AmyA from Thermotoga maritima MSB8 (DSM 3109) by Site-Directed Mutagenesis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Damián-Almazo, Juanita Yazmin; Moreno, Alina; López-Munguía, Agustin; Soberón, Xavier; González-Muñoz, Fernando; Saab-Rincón, Gloria

    2008-01-01

    AmyA, an α-amylase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima, is able to hydrolyze internal α-1,4-glycosidic bonds in various α-glucans at 85°C as the optimal temperature. Like other glycoside hydrolases, AmyA also catalyzes transglycosylation reactions, particularly when oligosaccharides are used as substrates. It was found that when methanol or butanol was used as the nucleophile instead of water, AmyA was able to catalyze alcoholysis reactions. This capability has been evalu...

  3. Off-line Tracking of Series Parameters in Distribution Systems using AMI Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Tess L.; Sun, Yannan; Schneider, Kevin P.

    2016-05-01

    Electric distribution systems have historically lacked measurement points, and equipment is often operated to its failure point, resulting in customer outages. The widespread deployment of sensors at the distribution level is enabling observability. This paper presents an off-line parameter value tracking procedure that takes advantage of the increasing number of measurement devices being deployed at the distribution level to estimate changes in series impedance parameter values over time. The tracking of parameter values enables non-diurnal and non-seasonal change to be flagged for investigation. The presented method uses an unbalanced Distribution System State Estimation (DSSE) and a measurement residual-based parameter estimation procedure. Measurement residuals from multiple measurement snapshots are combined in order to increase the effective local redundancy and improve the robustness of the calculations in the presence of measurement noise. Data from devices on the primary distribution system and from customer meters, via an AMI system, form the input data set. Results of simulations on the IEEE 13-Node Test Feeder are presented to illustrate the proposed approach applied to changes in series impedance parameters. A 5% change in series resistance elements can be detected in the presence of 2% measurement error when combining less than 1 day of measurement snapshots into a single estimate.

  4. Reduction of Driver Stress Using AmI Technology while Driving in Motorway Merging Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Kashif; Riener, Andreas; Ferscha, Alois

    High average intensity of traffic and problems like traffic congestions, road safety, etc. are challenging problems striking highway operators in these days. With the broad application of intelligent transport systems (ITS), particularly for the most dense street sections, some of these problems can be minimized or even solved; supplementary great potential is attributed to applications based on state-of-the art technology like car-to-x communication, for instance by extending an individuals "field of vision" by observations taken from all the vehicles in front. In this work we present a simulation based approach for improving driving experience and increasing road safety in merging sections by redirecting vehicles in advance according to a negotiation of requirements and desires of the flowing traffic on the main road and cars merging from the entrance lane. The simulation experiments performed in a cellular automaton based environment were data driven and on real scale, using traffic flow data on a minute-by-minute basis from a large urban motorway in a main city of the European Union. Our results have shown that the application of AmI technology has potential to influence driver's behavior (seamlessly invoking for a lane change well before an abrupt merging point) resulting in a reduction of panic, particularly for sections with limited range of view.

  5. Development of aerosol models for NPP applications (AMY). Aerosol model development for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMY-project concentrates on understanding and modelling on deposition-resuspension phenomena of aerosols in pipe flow. The aim is to develop a calculation model that could resolve the current deficiencies in the aerosol deposition modelling in turbulent flows, and to implement the models into the tools that are used for calculating the fission product behaviour and release in severe reactor accidents. These tools are APROS SA, which is used for simulating the severe accident phenomena and progression of the accident, and SaTu (support system for radiation experts), which is originally designed to estimate radiation levels and radioactive releases during the accident situation. In addition to the deposition-resuspension model, other important models are to be implemented in the tools mentioned above. Revaporisation of deposited fission products from primary circuit surfaces may increase the releases into the reactor containment and further into the environment, and thus the phenomenon should be taken into account. To the SaTu system, models for estimating the environmental consequences will be implemented, as well, and the system will be modified to be able to describe nuclear power plants other than the Loviisa plant. Another important feature for source term calculations in PSA level 2 analyses is implementation of the uncertainty calculation environment in SaTu. (orig.)

  6. AMiBA: Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich Effect-derived Properties and Scaling Relations of Massive Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yu-Wei; Proty Wu, Jiun-Huei; Ho, Paul T. P.; Locutus Huang, Chih-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Lin, Kai-Yang; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Altamirano, Pablo; Birkinshaw, Mark; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chiueh, Tzihong; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Jiang, Homin; Kesteven, Michael; Kubo, Derek Y.; Li, Chao-Te; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter; Raffin, Philippe; Wei, Tashun; Wilson, Warwick

    2010-04-01

    The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect (SZE) has been observed toward six massive galaxy clusters, at redshifts 0.091 AMiBA). We modify an iterative method, based on the isothermal β models, to derive the electron temperature T e, total mass M t, gas mass M g, and integrated Compton Y within r 2500, from the AMiBA SZE data. Non-isothermal universal temperature profile (UTP) β models are also considered in this paper. These results are in good agreement with those deduced from other observations. We also investigate the embedded scaling relations, due to the assumptions that have been made in the method we adopted, between these purely SZE-deduced T e, M t, M g, and Y. Our results suggest that cluster properties may be measurable with SZE observations alone. However, the assumptions built into the pure-SZE method bias the results of scaling relation estimations and need further study.

  7. AMiBA: Scaling Relations Between the Integrated Compton-y and X-ray-derived Temperature, Mass, and Luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Ho, Paul T. P.; Koch, Patrick M.; Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Altamirano, Pablo; Birkinshaw, Mark; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chiueh, Tzihong; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Jiang, Homin; Kesteven, Michael; Kubo, Derek; Li, Chao-Te; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter; Raffin, Philippe; Wei, Tashun; Wilson, Warwick

    2010-06-01

    We investigate the scaling relations between the X-ray and the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect properties of clusters of galaxies, using data taken during 2007 by the Y. T. Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) at 94 GHz for the six clusters A1689, A1995, A2142, A2163, A2261, and A2390. The scaling relations relate the integrated Compton-y parameter Y 2500 to the X-ray-derived gas temperature T e, total mass M 2500, and bolometric luminosity LX within r 2500. Our results for the power-law index and normalization are both consistent with the self-similar model and other studies in the literature except for the Y 2500-LX relation, for which a physical explanation is given though further investigation may be still needed. Our results not only provide confidence for the AMiBA project but also support our understanding of galaxy clusters.

  8. AMI observations of ten CLASH galaxy clusters: SZ and X-ray data used together to determine cluster dynamical states

    CERN Document Server

    Rumsey, Clare; Perrott, Yvette C; Russell, Helen R; Feroz, Farhan; Grainge, Keith J B; Handley, Will J; Hobson, Michael P; Saunders, Richard D E; Schammel, Michel P

    2016-01-01

    Using Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI) SZ observations towards ten CLASH clusters we investigate the influence of cluster mergers on observational galaxy cluster studies. Although selected to be largely relaxed, there is disagreement in the literature on the dynamical states of CLASH sample members. We analyse our AMI data in a fully Bayesian way to produce estimated cluster parameters and consider the intrinsic correlations in our NFW/GNFW-based model. Varying pressure profile shape parameters, illustrating an influence of mergers on scaling relations, induces small deviations from the canonical self-similar predictions -- in agreement with simulations of Poole et al. 2007 who found that merger activity causes only small scatter perpendicular to the relations. We demonstrate this effect observationally using the different dependencies of SZ and X-ray signals to $n_{\\rm e}$ that cause different sensitivities to the shocking and/or fractionation produced by mergers. Plotting $Y_{\\rm X}$--$M_{\\rm gas}$ relati...

  9. Studierende, Google, die Welt der Bibliotheken und deren kulturelle Bedeutung. Ein Essay zu einem Aufsatz von Amy Bruckman

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Hapke

    2006-01-01

    Amy S. Bruckman skizziert in ihrem Artikel „Student research and the internet“ die Welt der Information für Studierende und weist auf die Notwendigkeit einer ernsthaften Reflexion über Information sowie die erkenntnistheoretische Problematik der Bewertung und Gültigkeit von Wissen und damit über die soziale Konstruktion von Wissen und Wissenschaft hin. Informationskompetenz umfasst – mehr als Recherchekompetenz – vor allem Kreativität, den eigenen Informationsprozess bewusst und bedarfsgerech...

  10. AMI observations of 10 CLASH galaxy clusters: SZ and X-ray data used together to determine cluster dynamical states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Clare; Olamaie, Malak; Perrott, Yvette C.; Russell, Helen R.; Feroz, Farhan; Grainge, Keith J. B.; Handley, Will J.; Hobson, Michael P.; Saunders, Richard D. E.; Schammel, Michel P.

    2016-07-01

    Using Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI) Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) observations towards 10 CLASH (Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble) clusters, we investigate the influence of cluster mergers on observational galaxy cluster studies. Although selected to be largely relaxed, there is disagreement in the literature on the dynamical states of CLASH sample members. We analyse our AMI data in a fully Bayesian way to produce estimated cluster parameters and consider the intrinsic correlations in our Navarro, Frenk and White/generalized Navarro, Frenk and White-based model. Varying pressure profile shape parameters, illustrating an influence of mergers on scaling relations, induces small deviations from the canonical self-similar predictions - in agreement with simulations of Poole et al. (2007) who found that merger activity causes only small scatter perpendicular to the relations. We demonstrate this effect observationally using the different dependences of SZ and X-ray signals to ne that cause different sensitivities to the shocking and/or fractionation produced by mergers. Plotting YX-Mgas relations (where YX = MgasT) derived from AMI SZ and from Chandra X-ray gives ratios of AMI and Chandra YX and Mgas estimates that indicate movement of clusters along the scaling relation, as predicted by Poole et al. (2007). Clusters that have moved most along the relation have the most discrepant TSZ and TX estimates: all the other clusters (apart from one) have SZ and X-ray estimates of Mgas, T and YX that agree within r500. We use SZ versus X-ray discrepancies in conjunction with Chandra maps and TX profiles, making comparisons with simulated cluster merger maps in Poole et al. (2006) to identify disturbed members of our sample and estimate merger stages.

  11. Amy1, the alpha-Amylase Gene of Aspergillus flavus: Involvement in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Maize Kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhoury, A M; Woloshuk, C P

    1999-10-01

    ABSTRACT Aspergillus flavus is the causal agent of an ear and kernel rot in maize. In this study, we characterized an alpha-amylase-deficient mutant and assessed its ability to infect and produce aflatoxin in wounded maize kernels. The alpha-amylase gene Amy1 was isolated from A. flavus, and its DNA sequence was determined to be nearly identical to Amy3 of A. oryzae. When Amy1 was disrupted in an aflatoxigenic strain of A. flavus, the mutant failed to produce extracellular alpha-amylase and grew 45% the rate of the wild-type strain on starch medium. The mutant produced aflatoxin in medium containing glucose but not in a medium containing starch. The alpha-amylase-deficient mutant produced aflatoxin in maize kernels with wounded embryos and occasionally produced aflatoxin only in embryos of kernels with wounded endosperm. The mutant strain failed to produce aflatoxin when inoculated onto degermed kernels. In contrast, the wild-type strain produced aflatoxin in both the endosperm and embryo. These results suggest that alpha-amylase facilitates aflatoxin production and growth of A. flavus from a wound in the endosperm to the embryo. A 14-kDa trypsin inhibitor associated with resistance to A. flavus and aflatoxin in maize also inhibited the alpha-amylase from A. flavus, indicating that it is a bifunctional inhibitor. The inhibitor may have a role in resistance, limiting the growth of the fungus in the endosperm tissue by inhibiting the degradation of starch. PMID:18944734

  12. SZ observations with AMI of the hottest galaxy clusters detected in the XMM-Newton Cluster Survey

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Rodriguez-Gonzalvez, Carmen; Feroz, Farhan; Franzen, Thomas M O; Grainge, Keith J B; Hobson, Michael P; Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Lasenby, Anthony N; Lloyd-Davies, E J; Olamaie, Malak; Perrott, Yvette C; Pooley, Guy G; Rumsey, Clare; Romer, A Kathy; Saunders, Richard D E; Scaife, Anna M M; Schammel, Michel P; Scott, Paul F; Titterington, David J; Waldram, Elizabeth M

    2013-01-01

    We have obtained deep SZ observations towards 15 of the apparently hottest XMM Cluster Survey (XCS) clusters that can be observed with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI). We use a Bayesian analysis to quantify the significance of our SZ detections. We detect the SZ effect at high significance towards three of the clusters and at lower significance for a further two clusters. Towards the remaining ten clusters, no clear SZ signal was measured. We derive cluster parameters using the XCS mass estimates as a prior in our Bayesian analysis. For all AMI-detected clusters, we calculate large-scale mass and temperature estimates while for all undetected clusters we determine upper limits on these parameters. We find that the large- scale mean temperatures derived from our AMI SZ measurements (and the upper limits from null detections) are substantially lower than the XCS-based core-temperature estimates. For clusters detected in the SZ, the mean temperature is, on average, a factor of 1.4 lower than temperatures ...

  13. The Incidence and Risk Factors of Associated Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) in Acute Cerebral Ischemic (ACI) Events in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Seifi; Kevin Carr; Mitchell Maltenfort; Michael Moussouttas; Lee Birnbaum; Augusto Parra; Owoicho Adogwa; Rodney Bell; Fred Rincon

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between myocardial infarction (AMI) and clinical outcome in patients with primary admissions diagnosis of acute cerebral ischemia (ACI) in the US. METHODS: Data from Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) was queried from 2002-2011 for inpatient admissions of patients with a primary diagnosis of ACI with and without AMI using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification coding (ICD-9). A multivariate stepwise regression an...

  14. The incidence and risk factors of associated acute myocardial infarction (AMI in acute cerebral ischemic (ACI events in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Seifi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between myocardial infarction (AMI and clinical outcome in patients with primary admissions diagnosis of acute cerebral ischemia (ACI in the US. METHODS: Data from Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS was queried from 2002-2011 for inpatient admissions of patients with a primary diagnosis of ACI with and without AMI using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification coding (ICD-9. A multivariate stepwise regression analysis was performed to assess the correlation between identifiable risk factors and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: During 10 years the NIS recorded 886,094 ACI admissions with 17,526 diagnoses of AMI (1.98%. The overall cumulative mortality of cohort was 5.65%. In-hospital mortality was associated with AMI (aOR 3.68; 95% CI 3.49-3.88, p≤0.0001, rTPA administration (aOR 2.39 CI, 2.11-2.71, p<0.0001, older age (aOR 1.03, 95% CI, 1.03-1.03, P<0.0001 and women (aOR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.08, P<0.0001. Overall, mortality risk declined over the course of study; from 20.46% in 2002 to 11.8% in 2011 (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.96, P<0.0001. Survival analysis demonstrated divergence between the AMI and non-AMI sub-groups over the course of study (log-rank p<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that although the prevalence of AMI in patients hospitalized with primary diagnosis of ACI is low, it negatively impacts survival. Considering the high clinical burden of AMI on mortality of ACI patients, a high quality monitoring in the event of cardiac events should be maintained in this patient cohort. Whether prompt diagnosis and treatment of associated cardiovascular diseases may improve outcome, deserves further study.

  15. CCM-AMI, a Polyethylene Glycol Micelle with Amifostine, as an Acute Radiation Syndrome Protectant in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Hung; Kuo, Min-Liang; Wang, Jen-Ling; Liao, Wei-Chuan; Chang, Li-Ching; Chan, Leong-Perng; Lin, Johnson

    2015-09-01

    Acute radiation syndrome results from radiation exposure, such as in accidental nuclear disasters. Safe and effective radioprotectants, mitigators, and treatment drugs must be developed as medical countermeasures against radiation exposure. Here, the authors evaluated CCM-Ami, a novel polyethylene glycol micelle encapsulated with amifostine, for its radioprotective properties after total-body irradiation from a 60Co source. Male C57BL/6 mice (6-8 wk old) were intravenously injected with 45 mg kg(-1) of CCM-Ami 90 min before exposure to 7.2 and 8.5 Gy irradiation at a dose rate of 0.04 Gy min(-1). Both survival benefit and hematopoietic protection were observed after prophylactic CCM-Ami administration when compared with the effects measured in excipient control and amifostine groups. Pharmacokinetic results showed that after the intravenous injection, the plasma concentration of WR-1065, the active form of amifostine, was higher in CCM-Ami-treated mice than in amifostine-treated mice. These findings suggest that CCM-Ami-mediated hematopoietic protection plays a key role in enhancing survival of mice exposed to radiation toxicity and thus indicate that CCM-Ami is a radioprotectant that can be used safely and effectively in nuclear disasters. PMID:26222219

  16. Linear electrochemical gel actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Shailesh; McAdam, C. John; Hanton, Lyall R.; Moratti, Stephen C.

    2012-04-01

    By using electroactive monomers it is possible to produce gels that respond to oxidation or reduction by swelling and deswelling in the presence of solvent. By the inclusion of an appropriate biasing element such as a spring, it is possible to produce linear, reversible actuation. The process can be driven electrochemically in a standard cell, with driving voltages under +/- 1 V. For many systems, the intrinsic conductivity of the gel, leading to poor or no performance. This can be overcome by blending conductive carbon nanotubes at 1% concentration, which give reasonable conductivity without affecting mechanical performance. Extensions of up to 40% are possible, against an external pressure of 30 kPa. The process is slow, taking up to 160 minutes per cycle due to slow ionic diffusion. The electrochemical cell can be cycled many times without degradation.

  17. Bayesian binary regression model: an application to in-hospital death after AMI prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida D. P. Souza

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A Bayesian binary regression model is developed to predict death of patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC methods are used to make inference and to evaluate Bayesian binary regression models. A model building strategy based on Bayes factor is proposed and aspects of model validation are extensively discussed in the paper, including the posterior distribution for the c-index and the analysis of residuals. Risk assessment, based on variables easily available within minutes of the patients' arrival at the hospital, is very important to decide the course of the treatment. The identified model reveals itself strongly reliable and accurate, with a rate of correct classification of 88% and a concordance index of 83%.Um modelo bayesiano de regressão binária é desenvolvido para predizer óbito hospitalar em pacientes acometidos por infarto agudo do miocárdio. Métodos de Monte Carlo via Cadeias de Markov (MCMC são usados para fazer inferência e validação. Uma estratégia para construção de modelos, baseada no uso do fator de Bayes, é proposta e aspectos de validação são extensivamente discutidos neste artigo, incluindo a distribuição a posteriori para o índice de concordância e análise de resíduos. A determinação de fatores de risco, baseados em variáveis disponíveis na chegada do paciente ao hospital, é muito importante para a tomada de decisão sobre o curso do tratamento. O modelo identificado se revela fortemente confiável e acurado, com uma taxa de classificação correta de 88% e um índice de concordância de 83%.

  18. Stratiform and Convective Precipitation Observed by Multiple Radars during the DYNAMO/AMIE Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Min; Kollias, Pavlos; Feng, Zhe; Zhang, Chidong; Long, Charles N.; Kalesse, Heike; Chandra, Arunchandra; Kumar, Vickal; Protat, Alain

    2014-11-01

    The motivation for this research is to develop a precipitation classification and rain rate estimation method using cloud radar-only measurements for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) long-term cloud observation analysis, which are crucial and unique for studying cloud lifecycle and precipitation features under different weather and climate regimes. Based on simultaneous and collocated observations of the Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR), two precipitation radars (NCAR S-PolKa and Texas A&M University SMART-R), and surface precipitation during the DYNAMO/AMIE field campaign, a new cloud radar-only based precipitation classification and rain rate estimation method has been developed and evaluated. The resulting precipitation classification is equivalent to those collocated SMART-R and S-PolKa observations. Both cloud and precipitation radars detected about 5% precipitation occurrence during this period. The convective (stratiform) precipitation fraction is about 18% (82%). The 2-day collocated disdrometer observations show an increased number concentration of large raindrops in convective rain compared to dominant concentration of small raindrops in stratiform rain. The composite distributions of KAZR reflectivity and Doppler velocity also show two distinct structures for convective and stratiform rain. These indicate that the method produces physically consistent results for two types of rain. The cloud radar-only rainfall estimation is developed based on the gradient of accumulative radar reflectivity below 1 km, near-surface Ze, and collocated surface rainfall (R) measurement. The parameterization is compared with the Z-R exponential relation. The relative difference between estimated and surface measured rainfall rate shows that the two-parameter relation can improve rainfall estimation.

  19. MAGIC Gel Dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifflin, Rachel; Shahnazi, Kambiz; Jesseph, Rick

    2008-10-01

    Proton therapy has proven a very successful tool in treating certain tumors, but a three dimensional view of this fact has not yet been clearly demonstrated. In this experiment we have used MAGIC (Methacrylic and Ascorbic Acid in Gelatin Initiated by Copper) gel to represent brain tissue and gone through normal treatment planning for an Acoustic Neuroma to show the three dimensional dose distributions associated with such a tumor.

  20. The Gel Generator option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a national policy for guaranteeing an ample supply of 99mTc to nuclear medicine, involves issues which go beyond the means by which radioactivation is achieved. Indeed, in such an exercise the pragmatic dictates of business and the sensitivities of politics must also be taken into account. Furthermore where a preference towards the nuclear reactor or the potential of cyclotrons is being questioned, the debate is incomplete if the only options that are considered are the fission-based 99Mo generator versus the direct cyclotron production of 99mTc. There is a third option (also neutron γ-based), an alternative to the fission 99Mo generator, which ought not be overlooked. The application of low specific activity (n,γ) 99Mo to a new type of generator, the Gel Generator, has been the focus of much research, particularly in Australia and more recently in China. After the initial concept had been established in the laboratory, the Australian researchers then undertook a comprehensive program of tests on the Gel Generator to assess its potential, either in the clinical laboratory or the centralised radiopharmacy, for supplying 99mTc suitable for nuclear medicine. The outcome of this program was a clear indication that the Gel Generator innovation had the capability to provide both technical and economic advantages to the nuclear medicine industry. These advantages are described. Since that time the Gel Generator has been selected for routine use in China where it now satisfies more than 30% of the 99mTc demand. (author)

  1. Aprotic gel polymer electrolytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jiří; Sedlaříková, M.; Krejza, O.

    Brno : University of Technology Brno, 2008, s. 71-72. ISBN 978-80-214-3659-6. [International Conference Advanced Batteries and Accumulators /9./. Brno (CZ), 29.06.2008-03.07.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/06/1471; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB208130604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : gel polymer electrolytes Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  2. Staining Proteins in Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Sean; Chakavarti, Deb

    2008-01-01

    Following separation by electrophoretic methods, proteins in a gel can be detected by several staining methods. This unit describes protocols for detecting proteins by four popular methods. Coomassie blue staining is an easy and rapid method. Silver staining, while more time consuming, is considerably more sensitive and can thus be used to detect smaller amounts of protein. Fluorescent staining is a popular alternative to traditional staining procedures, mainly because it is more sensitive th...

  3. Radiotherapy gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    shapes and sizes while sparing normal tissue. The situation is further complicated if the normal tissues are critical organs or are particularly sensitive to radiation. Radiotherapy techniques employed to obtain a closer conformation of the dose distribution to the tumour volume are referred to as conformal radiotherapy techniques. The clinical implementation of conformal therapy has been delayed by limitations in the verification of conformal dose distributions calculated by treatment planning systems prior to the irradiation of the patient and the verification of complex treatments during its delivery to the patient. There are several aspects of conformal therapy that complicate dose verification. To achieve the dose distributions conforming to complex 3D volumes, high dose gradients arise in the treatment volume. Further, overdose or underdose regions can exist when separate radiation fields are used to deliver additional radiation. These aspects require that practical dose measurement (dosimetry) techniques be able to integrate dose over time and easily measure dose distributions in 3D with high spatial resolution. Traditional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, thermoluminescent dosimeters and radiographic film do not fulfil these requirements. Novel gel dosimetry techniques are being developed in which dose distributions can potentially be determined in vitro in 3D using anthropomorphic phantoms to simulate a clinically irradiated situation. As long ago as the 1950's, radiation-induced colour change in dyes was used to investigate radiation doses in gels. It was subsequently shown that radiation induced changes in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation properties of gels infused with conventional Fricke dosimetry solutions could be measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In Fricke gels, Fe2+ ions in ferrous sulphate solutions are usually dispersed throughout a gelatin, agarose or PVA matrix. Radiation-induced changes in the dosimeters are considered to

  4. An acute coronary intervention to an AMI patient caused by embolism with dilated cardiomyopathy%栓塞致扩张型心肌病患者 AMI 急诊干预一例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敬锐; 林文华

    2013-01-01

    Acute coronary embolism caused by acute myocardial infarction ( AMI ) is common in clinical work However , it often be misdiagnosed due to its non-specific clinical symptoms.The most frequently misdiagnosis is ischemic heart disease complicated AMI.In this article, we described an old female patient , who has an clinic history of dilated cardiomyopathy and atrial fibrillation , and meet an acute chest pain which is diagnosed non-ST-elevator myocardial infarction ( NSTEMI ).She was diagnosed as ischemic heart disease combined with AMI at first time.Then, she was diagnosed as Dilated cardiomyopathy with acute coronary artery thrombosis after the coronary intervention.We further analyzed and elaborated how to identify and intervene this class of patients.The case prompted the emergency interventional doctor should take account the possibility of coronary embolism when meet an AMI patient with high risks of embolism.%冠状动脉急性栓塞导致的AMI在临床工作中并不少见,但常因临床症状的非特异性而导致误诊,最常误诊为缺血性心肌病合并AMI。该文报道1例因突发胸痛就诊于急诊的老年女性,急性非ST段抬高型心肌梗死( NSTEMI )诊断明确,合并心脏扩大、心房颤动。初诊为缺血性心肌病合并AMI,后经急诊介入干预,修正诊断为扩张型心肌病合并冠状动脉急性血栓栓塞。并根据其临床及介入干预特点,对该类患者如何识别及如何干预进行了分析和阐述。该例提示急诊介入医生,对于栓塞高危患者发生AMI时,应考虑到冠状动脉栓塞的可能性。

  5. Calcium-Sensing Receptor in Human Peripheral Blood T Lymphocytes Is Involved in the AMI Onset and Progression through the NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jing-Ya; Du, Jing-Jing; Pan, Ying; Wu, Jian; Bi, Hai-Liang; Cui, Bao-Hong; Zhai, Tai-Yu; Sun, Yong; Sun, Yi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a condition triggered by an inflammatory process that seriously affects human health. Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) in T lymphocytes is involved during the inflammation reaction. However, the relationship between them is not very clear. In this study, we collected human peripheral blood T lymphocytes from patients with AMI and in different stages of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (at the onset of AMI, the first day after PCI (PCI-1), PCI-3, and PCI-5) to study the CaSR and NF-κB pathway protein expression, cytokine release and T cell apoptosis. The results showed that the expressions of CaSR, P-p65, Caspase-12, and the secretions of Th-1 and Th-2 type cytokines were increased at the onset of AMI, especially on the PCI-1. Meanwhile, the apoptosis rate of CD(3+), CD(4+) and CD(8+) T lymphocytes also increased. However, from PCI-3, all the indicators began to decline. In addition, we also found that positive CaSR small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection in T lymphocytes and NF-κB pathway blocker Bay-11-7082 reversed the increased expressions of CaSR, P-p65, Caspase-12, reduced the secretions of Th-1 and Th-2 type cytokines, and decreased T lymphocytes apoptosis rate not only in the AMI patients but also in the normal controls. All of these results indicated that CaSR in the human peripheral blood T lymphocytes were involved in the AMI onset and progression, which probably was related to the NF-κB pathway. Our study demonstrated the relationship between AMI and CaSR, and will provide new effective prevention theory and new targets for drug treatment. PMID:27563892

  6. Purification of Titania Gels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějová, Lenka; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Klusoň, P.; Benada, Oldřich; Matěj, Z.; Šolcová, Olga

    Bratislava : Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering, 2008 - (Markoš, J.), s. 166 ISBN 978-80-227-2903-1. [35th International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering. Tatranské Matliare (SK), 26.05.2008-30.05.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400720701; GA AV ČR IAA4072404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : sol-gel * TiO2 powder * supercritic fluid extraction Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  7. Individual differences in AMY1 gene copy number, salivary α-amylase levels, and the perception of oral starch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail L Mandel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The digestion of dietary starch in humans is initiated by salivary α-amylase, an endo-enzyme that hydrolyzes starch into maltose, maltotriose and larger oligosaccharides. Salivary amylase accounts for 40 to 50% of protein in human saliva and rapidly alters the physical properties of starch. Importantly, the quantity and enzymatic activity of salivary amylase show significant individual variation. However, linking variation in salivary amylase levels with the oral perception of starch has proven difficult. Furthermore, the relationship between copy number variations (CNVs in the AMY1 gene, which influence salivary amylase levels, and starch viscosity perception has not been explored. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that saliva containing high levels of amylase has sufficient activity to rapidly hydrolyze a viscous starch solution in vitro. Furthermore, we show with time-intensity ratings, which track the digestion of starch during oral manipulation, that individuals with high amylase levels report faster and more significant decreases in perceived starch viscosity than people with low salivary amylase levels. Finally, we demonstrate that AMY1 CNVs predict an individual's amount and activity of salivary amylase and thereby, ultimately determine their perceived rate of oral starch viscosity thinning. CONCLUSIONS: By linking genetic variation and its consequent salivary enzymatic differences to the perceptual sequellae of these variations, we show that AMY1 copy number relates to salivary amylase concentration and enzymatic activity level, which, in turn, account for individual variation in the oral perception of starch viscosity. The profound individual differences in salivary amylase levels and salivary activity may contribute significantly to individual differences in dietary starch intake and, consequently, to overall nutritional status.

  8. Adaptive significance of amylase polymorphism in drosophila, XV: Examination of genotype-by-environment interactions on the viability, developmental time and stability of drosophila subobscura homozygous for Amy during exposure to nutritional changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the direct interaction between enzyme and substrate, the amylase system can provide valuable information on the relationship between homozygosity and developmental homeostasis under a changing environment in several Drosophila species, The adaptive significance of the relationship between genetic variability and environmental change manifests through the well-known polymorphism of the amylase locus (Amy. We examined the effect of gradual and abrupt changes in starch concentration in the nutritional substrate, on the developmental time, egg-to-adult viability and phenotypic plasticity in the progeny of Drosophila subobscura that was homozygous for “fast” (AmyF/AmyF and “slow” (AmyS/AmyS Amy alleles. Our findings show that gradual and abrupt nutritional changes exert a significant effect on developmental time and viability. A high heterogeneity among genotypes in fluctuating asymmetry (FA and no direct association between FA and fitness components under the two experimental regimes of environmental change were observed.

  9. Application of AMI 207A automatic welding to the erection engineering of electric instrument tube of nuclear powre plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial application of automatic, intelligent and high-precision parameter-controlled welding equipment has become true long age in the western developed countries. However, this kind of equipment has been seldom used in China, especially on the erection site of nuclear power construction. In the Phase III of Qinshan Nuclear Power Project, we used the American AMI (Arc Machines, Inc.) 208A automatic welding equipment and technology to have all grooves of the electric instrument tubes automatically welded. The practice has proved that the automatic welding is more advanced, highly effective and more economic compared with other welding processes. (authors)

  10. AMiBA: scaling relations between the integrated Compton-y and X-ray derived temperature, mass, and luminosity

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Ho, Paul T. P.; Koch, Patrick M.; Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Altamirano, Pablo; Birkinshaw, Mark; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the scaling relations between the X-ray and the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect (SZE) properties of clusters of galaxies, using data taken during 2007 by the Y.T. Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) at 94 GHz for the six clusters A1689, A1995, A2142, A2163, A2261, and A2390. The scaling relations relate the integrated Compton-y parameter Y_{2500} to the X-ray derived gas temperature T_{e}, total mass M_{2500}, and bolometric luminosity L_X within r_{2500}. O...

  11. Mass and Hot Baryons in Massive Galaxy Clusters from Subaru Weak Lensing and AMiBA SZE Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Umetsu, Keiichi; Birkinshaw, Mark; Liu, Guo-Chin; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Medezinski, Elinor; Broadhurst, Tom; Lemze, Doron; Zitrin, Adi; Ho, Paul T. P.; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Koch, Patrick M.; Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Molnar, Sandor M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength analysis of a sample of four hot (T_X>8keV) X-ray galaxy clusters (A1689, A2261, A2142, and A2390) using joint AMiBA Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) and Subaru weak lensing observations, combined with published X-ray temperatures, to examine the distribution of mass and the intracluster medium (ICM) in massive cluster environments. Our observations show that A2261 is very similar to A1689 in terms of lensing properties. Many tangential arcs are visible around A226...

  12. Capillary fracture of soft gels

    OpenAIRE

    Bostwick, Joshua B.; Daniels, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    A liquid droplet resting on a soft gel substrate can deform that substrate to the point of material failure, whereby fractures develop on the gel surface that propagate outwards from the contact-line in a starburst pattern. In this paper, we characterize i) the initiation process in which the number of arms in the starburst is controlled by the ratio of surface tension contrast to the gel's elastic modulus and ii) the propagation dynamics showing that once fractures are initiated they propaga...

  13. THE PROPERTIES OF CARRAGEENAN GELS

    OpenAIRE

    Grubnik I.M., Gladukh Ye.V., Chernyaev S.V.

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the results of studies on the functional properties of carrageenan, depending on the concentration of sodium chloride and xanthan in gels. It is established that the main factors in the syneresis of carrageenan gels are its concentration, the presence of ions and gums in solution. If using sodium chloride there is a change in the structure of mesh of the resulting gel, which leads to an increase in syneresis.

  14. THE PROPERTIES OF CARRAGEENAN GELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubnik I.M., Gladukh Ye.V., Chernyaev S.V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on the functional properties of carrageenan, depending on the concentration of sodium chloride and xanthan in gels. It is established that the main factors in the syneresis of carrageenan gels are its concentration, the presence of ions and gums in solution. If using sodium chloride there is a change in the structure of mesh of the resulting gel, which leads to an increase in syneresis.

  15. Colloidal thermoresponsive gel forming hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruixue; Tirelli, Nicola; Cellesi, Francesco; Saunders, Brian R

    2010-09-15

    Colloidal hybrids comprise organic and inorganic components and are attracting considerable attention in the literature. Recently, we reported hybrid anisotropic microsheets that formed thermoresponsive gels in polymer solutions [Liu et al., Langmuir, 25, 490, 2009]. Here, we investigate the composition and properties of these hybrid colloids themselves in detail for the first time. Three different cationic PNIPAm (N-isopropylacrylamide) graft copolymers and two inorganic nanoparticle types (laponite and Ludox silica) were used to prepare a range of hybrids. Anisotropic microsheets only formed when laponite particles were added to the copolymer implying directed self-assembly. Aqueous dispersions of the microsheets spontaneously formed gels at room temperature and these gels were thermoresponsive. They represent a new class of gel forming colloid and are termed thermoresponsive gel forming hybrids. The compositions of the hybrids were determined from thermogravimetric analysis and those that gave gel forming behaviour identified. Variable-temperature rheology experiments showed that the elasticity of the gels increased linearly with temperature. The reversibility of the thermally-triggered changes in gel elasticity was investigated. The concentration dependence of the rheology data was well described by elastic percolation scaling theory and the data could be collapsed onto a master curve. The concentration exponent for the elastic modulus was 2.5. The strong attractive interactions that exist between the dispersed gel forming hybrids was demonstrated by the formation of stable thermoresponsive hybrid hydrogels through casting of hybrid dispersions. PMID:20561633

  16. Truncation of the unique N-terminal domain improved the thermos-stability and specific activity of alkaline α-amylase Amy703.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenghui; Wang, Qinhong; Jiang, Sijing; Zhang, Guimin; Ma, Yanhe

    2016-01-01

    High pH condition is of special interest for the potential applications of alkaline α-amylase in textile and detergent industries. Thus, there is a continuous demand to improve the amylase's properties to meet the requirements set by specific applications. Here we reported the systematic study of modular domain engineering to improve the specific activity and stability of the alkaline α-amylase from Bacillus pseudofirmus 703. The specific activity of the N-terminal domain truncated mutant (N-Amy) increased by ~35-fold with a significantly improved thermo-stability. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that the Kcat and Kcat/Kmof N-Amy were enhanced by 1300-fold and 425.7-fold, respectively, representing the largest catalytic activity improvement of the engineered α-amylases through the methods of domain deletion, fusion or swapping. In addition, different from the wild-type Amy703, no exogenous Ca(2+) were required for N-Amy to maintain its full catalytic activity, implying its superior potential for many industrial processes. Circular dichroism analysis and structure modeling revealed that the increased compactness and α-helical content were the main contributors for the improved thermo-stability of N-Amy, while the improved catalytic efficiency was mainly attributed by the increased conformational flexibility around the active center. PMID:26926401

  17. Automated rapid follow-up of Swift gamma-ray burst alerts at 15 GHz with the AMI Large Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, T. D.; Titterington, D. J.; Fender, R. P.; Swinbank, J. D.; van der Horst, A. J.; Rowlinson, A.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Grainge, K. J. B.; Pooley, G. G.

    2013-02-01

    We present 15-GHz follow-up radio observations of 11 Swift gamma-ray burst (GRB) sources, obtained with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager Large Array (AMI-LA). The initial follow-up observation for each source was made in a fully automated fashion; as a result four observations were initiated within 5 min of the GRB alert time stamp. These observations provide the first millijansky-level constraints on prolonged radio emission from GRBs within the first hour post-burst. While no radio emission within the first six hours after the GRB is detected in this preliminary analysis, radio afterglow is detected from one of the GRBs (GRB 120326A) on a time-scale of days. The observations were made as part of an ongoing programme to use AMI-LA as a systematic follow-up tool for transients at radio frequencies. In addition to the preliminary results, we explain how we have created an easily extensible automated follow-up system, describing new software tools developed for astronomical transient alert distribution, automatic requesting of target-of-opportunity observations and robotic control of the observatory.

  18. FTT-MA: A Flexible Time-Triggered Middleware Architecture for Time Sensitive, Resource-Aware AmI Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Pérez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing number of Ambient Intelligence (AmI systems that are time-sensitive and resource-aware. From healthcare to building and even home/office automation, it is now common to find systems combining interactive and sensing multimedia traffic with relatively simple sensors and actuators (door locks, presence detectors, RFIDs, HVAC, information panels, etc.. Many of these are today known as Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS. Quite frequently, these systems must be capable of (1 prioritizing different traffic flows (process data, alarms, non-critical data, etc., (2 synchronizing actions in several distributed devices and, to certain degree, (3 easing resource management (e.g., detecting faulty nodes, managing battery levels, handling overloads, etc.. This work presents FTT-MA, a high-level middleware architecture aimed at easing the design, deployment and operation of such AmI systems. FTT-MA ensures that both functional and non-functional aspects of the applications are met even during reconfiguration stages. The paper also proposes a methodology, together with a design tool, to create this kind of systems. Finally, a sample case study is presented that illustrates the use of the middleware and the methodology proposed in the paper.

  19. Mass and Hot Baryons in Massive Galaxy Clusters from Subaru Weak Lensing and AMiBA SZE Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Umetsu, K; Liu, G -C; Wu, J -H P; Medezinski, E; Broadhurst, T; Lemze, D; Zitrin, A; Ho, P T P; Huang, C -W L; Koch, P M; Liao, Y -W; Lin, K -Y; Molnár, S M; Nishioka, H; Wang, F -C; Altamirano, P; Chang, C -H; Chang, S -H; Chang, S -W; Chen, M -T; Han, C -C; Huang, Y -D; Hwang, Y -J; Jiang, H; Kesteven, M; Kubo, D Y; Li, C -T; Martin-Cocher, P; Oshiro, P; Raffin, P; Wei, T; Wilson, W

    2008-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength analysis of a sample of four hot (T_X>8keV) X-ray galaxy clusters (A1689, A2261, A2142, and A2390) using joint AMiBA Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) and Subaru weak lensing observations, combined with published X-ray temperatures, to examine the distribution of mass and the intracluster medium (ICM) in massive cluster environments. Our observations establish that A2261 is very similar to A1689 in terms of both weak and strong lensing properties. Many tangential arcs are visible around A2261, with an effective Einstein radius \\sim 40 arcsec (at z \\sim 1.5), which when combined with our weak lensing measurements implies a mass profile well fitted by an NFW model with a high concentration c_{vir} \\sim 10, similar to A1689 and to other massive clusters. The cluster A2142 shows complex mass substructure, and displays a shallower profile (c_{vir} \\sim 5), being well traced by the SZE in the AMiBA map, and consistent with detailed X-ray observations which imply recent interaction. For A2...

  20. AMiBA: scaling relations between the integrated Compton-y and X-ray derived temperature, mass, and luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Paul T P; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Altamirano, Pablo; Birkinshaw, Mark; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Ming-Tang; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Jiang, Homin; Kesteven, Michael; Kubo, Derek; Li, Chao-Te; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter; Raffin, Philippe; Wei, Tashun; Wilson, Warwick

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the scaling relations between the X-ray and the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect (SZE) properties of clusters of galaxies, using data taken during 2007 by the Y.T. Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) at 94 GHz for the six clusters A1689, A1995, A2142, A2163, A2261, and A2390. The scaling relations relate the integrated Compton-y parameter Y_{2500} to the X-ray derived gas temperature T_{e}, total mass M_{2500}, and bolometric luminosity L_X within r_{2500}. Our results for the power-law index and normalization are both consistent with the self-similar model and other studies in the literature except for the Y_{2500}-L_X relation, for which a physical explanation is given though further investigation may be still needed. Our results not only provide confidence for the AMiBA project but also support our understanding of galaxy clusters.

  1. AMiBA: Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect derived properties and scaling relations of massive galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Paul T P; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Altamirano, Pablo; Birkinshaw, Mark; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Ming-Tang; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Jiang, Homin; Kesteven, Michael; Kubo, Derek; Li, Chao-Te; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter; Raffin, Philippe; Wei, Tashun; Wilson, Warwick

    2010-01-01

    The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect (SZE) has been observed toward six massive galaxy clusters, at redshifts 0.091 \\leq z \\leq 0.322 in the 86-102 GHz band with the Y. T. Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA). We modify an iterative method, based on the isothermal \\beta-models, to derive the electron temperature T_e, total mass M_t, gas mass M_g, and integrated Compton Y within r_2500, from the AMiBA SZE data. Non-isothermal universal temperature profile (UTP) \\beta models are also considered in this paper. These results are in good agreement with those deduced from other observations. We also investigate the embedded scaling relations, due to the assumptions that have been made in the method we adopted, between these purely SZE-deduced T_e, M_t, M_g and Y. Our results suggest that cluster properties may be measurable with SZE observations alone. However, the assumptions built into the pure-SZE method bias the results of scaling relation estimations and need further study.

  2. Effects of Polymorphisms in Pepsinogen (PEP, Amylase (AMY and Trypsin (TRY Genes on Food Habit Domestication Traits in Mandarin Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilin Yi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi have a peculiar feeding habit of only accepting live fish prey and refusing dead prey and artificial diets. However, previous research has shown that some individuals accept dead prey after gradual domestication. Digestive enzymes are correlated with feeding habits in fish. In the current study, SNPs in the mandarin fish genes for pepsinogen (PEP, amylase (AMY, and trypsin (TRY were evaluated for associations with feeding habits in domesticated mandarin fish by scanning their complete genomic sequence. In total, two SNPs were found in PEP, one was found in TRY, and none were found in AMY. The D1(CTCC and D5(TTTT diplotypes in the PEP gene tended to show strong effects on the feeding habits of domesticated fish (p < 0.01. The results indicate that PEP may be associated with the genetic mechanism for feeding habits in mandarin fish, and the D1(CTCC and D5(TTTT diplotypes in the PEP gene may be useful markers for selecting mandarin fish with appropriate feeding habits for domestication.

  3. Antimicrobial Graft Copolymer Gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Amanda C; Madsen, Jeppe; Douglas, C W Ian; MacNeil, Sheila; Armes, Steven P

    2016-08-01

    In view of the growing worldwide rise in microbial resistance, there is considerable interest in designing new antimicrobial copolymers. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between antimicrobial activity and copolymer composition/architecture to gain a better understanding of their mechanism of action. Specifically, the antibacterial activity of several copolymers based on 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine [MPC] and 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) toward Staphylococcus aureus was examined. Both block and graft copolymers were synthesized using either atom transfer radical polymerization or reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and characterized via (1)H NMR, gel permeation chromatography, rheology, and surface tensiometry. Antimicrobial activity was assessed using a range of well-known assays, including direct contact, live/dead staining, and the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), while transmission electron microscopy was used to study the morphology of the bacteria before and after the addition of various copolymers. As expected, PMPC homopolymer was biocompatible but possessed no discernible antimicrobial activity. PMPC-based graft copolymers comprising PHPMA side chains (i.e. PMPC-g-PHPMA) significantly reduced both bacterial growth and viability. In contrast, a PMPC-PHPMA diblock copolymer comprising a PMPC stabilizer block and a hydrophobic core-forming PHPMA block did not exhibit any antimicrobial activity, although it did form a biocompatible worm gel. Surface tensiometry studies and LDH release assays suggest that the PMPC-g-PHPMA graft copolymer exhibits surfactant-like activity. Thus, the observed antimicrobial activity is likely to be the result of the weakly hydrophobic PHPMA chains penetrating (and hence rupturing) the bacterial membrane. PMID:27409712

  4. Rheology and structure of milk protein gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Visschers, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies on gel formation and rheology of milk gels are reviewed. A distinction is made between gels formed by aggregated casein, gels of `pure` whey proteins and gels in which both casein and whey proteins contribute to their properties. For casein' whey protein mixtures, it has been shown th

  5. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruska, Melissa A.; Klimov, Victor L.

    2012-06-12

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites

  6. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruska, Melissa A.; Klimov, Victor L.

    2007-06-05

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites.

  7. Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Fang, Yapeng

    2016-05-18

    Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels has been studied extensively because it is expected to be useful in understanding flavour release from solid foods and to find a new processing method which produces more palatable and healthier foods. We provide an overview of the release of sucrose and other sugars from gels of agar and related polysaccharides. The addition of sucrose to agar solutions leads to the increase in transparency of the resulting gels and the decrease in syneresis, which is attributed to the decrease in mesh size in gels. The syneresis occurring in the quiescent condition and fluid release induced by compression is discussed. The relationship between the sugar release and the structural, rheological and thermal properties of gels is also discussed. Finally, the future research direction is proposed. PMID:26952168

  8. The effect of acute Lithium and AMI-193, a new 5HT2 antagonist, on Apomorphine-induced pecking in pigeon

    OpenAIRE

    Bagheri T; Ejtemaei Mehr Sh; Shamshirgaran Sh

    2002-01-01

    Intramascular (IM) administration of apomorphine (a mixed D1/D2 dopamine receptors agonist 0.2-1.6 mg/kg) induced pecking, a stereotype behavior in pigeons in a dose- dependent manner. In this study the effect of lithium (Li+, 240 mg/kg, IM) and AMI-193 (a new 5-HT2 antagonist, 0.003 mg/pigeon) on apomorphine-induced peking (AIP) were investigated. This study showed that Li+ and AMI-193 did not induce pecking by itself but administration of each of these agents before apomorphine increased an...

  9. Effect of Recipe of Supplementing Qi and Activating Blood (RSA) on NO3-、ONOO-、MDA、GLU、AMY in Faeces of High Fat Diet Rats%补气活血法对高脂饮食大鼠粪便NO-3 、ONOO- 、MDA、GLU、AMY的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马月梅; 刘晓秋; 张永斌

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of high fat diet on NO3-、 ONOO - ,MDA,glucose,amylase activity. PNA,PSA binding rates af amylase, amylase isoenzyme profile in rat faeces and the effect of recipe of supplementing Qi and activating blood ( RSA )Methods Male rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal group( feeding ordinary diet) ; model group( feeding high fat diet) ;RSA Ⅰ ( feeding RSAI ( S: A =2: 1) by gastrogavage) ; RSA 2 ( feeding RSA2 ( S: A = 1 : 2) by gastrogavage) . N03- , ONOO- , MDA , glucose and amylase activity in rat faeces were determined by colorimetric method. N -glycan patterns of amylase were determined with lectin ( PSA and PNA) affinity precipitation method, and faeces amylase isoenzyme profile was separated by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels electrophoresis ( PAGE). Results High fat diet rats showed the symptoms of polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia and weight loss. These abnormal signs were improved after treatment with RSA. In high fat diet rats, amylase activity, N03 - , P - Amy.S - Amy in faeces were decreased, while PSA, PNA binding rates of amylase, glucose, ONOO - in faeces were increased. After treatment with RSA, all of these indicators were improved. There was difference between RSA1 action and RSA 2 action. Conclusion Supplementing Qi and activating blood method can improve N - glycan deficiency in faeces amylase and up - regulate faeces amylase activity , and increase N03- , also decrease glucose, ONOO- in faeces, thus can regulate the digestion/absorption and glucose metabolism, can reduce oxygen free radicalinduced intestinal damage. This study also showed the different impacts of two different RSA.%目的 研究高脂饮食对大鼠粪便NO3-、ONOO-、MDA、GLU、AMY活性、AMY PSA、PNA结合率、AMY谱的影响,同时研究补气活血中药的作用.方法 雄性SD大鼠随机分为正常组,喂饲普通饲料;模型组,喂饲高脂饲料;补气活血1组(RSA 1),2∶ 1补气

  10. Chemical Gel for Surface Decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many chemical decontamination processes operate by immersing components in aggressive chemical solutions. In these applications chemical decontamination technique produce large amounts of radioactive liquid waste. Therefore it is necessary to develop processes using chemical gels instead of chemical solutions, to avoid the well-known disadvantages of chemical decontamination techniques while retaining their high efficiency. Chemical gels decontamination process consists of applying the gel by spraying it onto the surface of large area components (floors, walls, etc) to be decontaminated. The gel adheres to any vertical or complex surface due to their thixotropic properties and operates by dissolving the radioactive deposit, along with a thin layer of the gel support, so that the radioactivity trapped at the surface can be removed. Important aspects of the gels are that small quantities can be used and they show thixitropic properties : liquid during spraying, and solid when stationary, allowing for strong adherence to surfaces. This work investigates the decontamination behaviors of organic-based chemical gel for SS 304 metallic surfaces contaminated with radioactive materials

  11. AMIE (ARM MJO Investigation Experiment): Observations of the Madden-Julian Oscillation for Modeling Studies Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, C; Del Genio, A; Gustafson, W; Houze, R; Jakob, C; Jensen, M; Klein, S; Leung, L Ruby; Liu, X; Luke, E; May, P; McFarlane, S; Minnis, P; Schumacher, C; Vogelmann, A; Wang, Y; Wu, X; Xie, S

    2010-03-22

    Deep convection in the tropics plays an important role in driving global circulations and the transport of energy from the tropics to the mid-latitudes. Understanding the mechanisms that control tropical convection is a key to improving climate modeling simulations of the global energy balance. One of the dominant sources of tropical convective variability is the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), which has a period of approximately 30–60 days. There is no agreed-upon explanation for the underlying physics that maintain the MJO. Many climate models do not show well-defined MJO signals, and those that do have problems accurately simulating the amplitude, propagation speed, and/or seasonality of the MJO signal. Therefore, the MJO is a very important modeling target for the ARM modeling community geared specifically toward improving climate models. The ARM MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) period coincides with a large international MJO initiation field campaign called CINDY2011 (Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011) that will take place in and around the Indian Ocean from October 2011 to January 2012. AMIE, in conjunction with CINDY2011 efforts, will provide an unprecedented data set that will allow investigation of the evolution of convection within the framework of the MJO. AMIE observations will also complement the long-term MJO statistics produced using ARM Manus data and will allow testing of several of the current hypotheses related to the MJO phenomenon. Taking advantage of the expected deployment of a C-POL scanning precipitation radar and an ECOR surface flux tower at the ARM Manus site, we propose to increase the number of sonde launches to eight per day starting in about mid-October of the field experiment year, which is climatologically a period of generally suppressed conditions at Manus and just prior to the climatologically strongest MJO period. The field experiment will last until the end of the MJO

  12. sol-gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto A. Monreal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo sintetizamos nanocilindros de dióxido de titanio de 30 a 400 nm por medio de ADN del plásmido pBR322 de 4,362 pares de bases y el uso de isopropóxido de titanio como precursor por medio del proceso sol-gel. Los geles resultantes fueron calcinados y los polvos caracterizados por medio de Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido (MEB, Espectroscopía de Energía Dispersiva, Microscopio Electrónico de Transmisión (MET y Difracción de Rayos X. Los resultados muestran que la síntesis in vitro de nanorods en presencia de ADN, puede ser activada. Muchas otras moléculas sintéticas pueden producirse por medio del uso de sistemas orgánicos, es así como reportamos la síntesis de híbridos hechos de ácidos nucleicos en materiales inorgánicos que pueden tener diversas aplicaciones en sistemas catalíticos, biomateriales y materiales nanoestructurados.

  13. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is worthwhile considering that only some 30 species make up the bulk of the bacterial population in human faeces at any one time based on the classical cultivation-based approach. The situation in the rumen is similar. Thus, it is practical to focus on specific groups of interest within the complex community. These may be the predominant or the most active species, specific physiological groups or readily identifiable (genetic) clusters of phylogenetically related organisms. Several 16S rDNA fingerprinting techniques can be invaluable for selecting and monitoring sequences or phylogenetic groups of interest and are described below. Over the past few decades, considerable attention was focussed on the identification of pure cultures of microbes on the basis of genetic polymorphisms of DNA encoding rRNA such as ribotyping, amplified fragment length polymorphism and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. However, many of these methods require prior cultivation and are less suitable for use in analysis of complex mixed populations although important in describing cultivated microbial diversity in molecular terms. Much less attention was given to molecular characterization of complex communities. In particular, research into diversity and community structure over time has been revolutionized by the advent of molecular fingerprinting techniques for complex communities. Denaturing or temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE/TGGE) methods have been successfully applied to the analysis of human, pig, cattle, dog and rodent intestinal populations

  14. Field inversion gel electrophoresis in denaturing polyacrylamide gels.

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, C.; Beck, S

    1992-01-01

    The velocities of single stranded DNA molecules in denaturing polyacrylamide gels during symmetric and asymmetric field inversion were measured at different pulse times and gel concentrations. Under the conditions chosen in our study, pulse times as short as a few milliseconds lead to a retardation of DNA molecules larger than 400 bases. We found that a field inversion with an electric field in the forward direction of about double the strength of that applied in the backward direction is a g...

  15. Participation in the ARGUS experiment at the DORIS Collider at Desy, Hamburg, Germany and participation in the AMY experiment at the TRISTAN Collider in Tsukuba, Japan: 1986 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on the AMY and ARGUS detectors, as well as plans for the next funding period. The AMY detector is reported as well on the way to completion, but not yet ready to take data. The ARGUS detector is reported to have completed its fourth year of operation. Some upsilon 1S decay data are discussed. 37 refs

  16. Betwixt and Between Past and Present: Cultural and Generic Hybridity in the Fiction of Amy Tan and Mary Yukari Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Youssef

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Amy Tan and Mary Yukari Waters are both Asian-Americans who portray hybridity in their short stories which depict the shifting identities of the self. But do the internal categories of gender, race and ethnicity help in the coherence or do they add to the fragmentation of diverse identities? It is the dynamics of this critique of multiple identification and hybrid cultures that is being traced here in this study and how all this is reflected in narrative responses to such conditions of the examination of the self and, on a broader scale, community. The study builds on Victor Turner’s theory of liminality. Key words Hybridity, liminality, multiple identity, race, culture.

  17. Studierende, Google, die Welt der Bibliotheken und deren kulturelle Bedeutung. Ein Essay zu einem Aufsatz von Amy Bruckman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hapke

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Amy S. Bruckman skizziert in ihrem Artikel „Student research and the internet“ die Welt der Information für Studierende und weist auf die Notwendigkeit einer ernsthaften Reflexion über Information sowie die erkenntnistheoretische Problematik der Bewertung und Gültigkeit von Wissen und damit über die soziale Konstruktion von Wissen und Wissenschaft hin. Informationskompetenz umfasst – mehr als Recherchekompetenz – vor allem Kreativität, den eigenen Informationsprozess bewusst und bedarfsgerecht zu gestalten. In einem Exkurs werden Aktivitäten der Suchmaschine Google hinsichtlich ihrer Bedeutung für den Informationsprozess beleuchtet und der bleibende kulturelle Einfluss von Bibliotheken betont. Über Informationskompetenz hinaus sollten wissenschaftstheoretische und wissenschaftsgeschichtliche Aspekte von Wissenschaft aber auch Methoden und Techniken wissenschaftlichen Arbeitens verpflichtender Teil jedes Studiums sein. Ein Teil, der durchaus auch zur Informationskompetenz-Förderung durch Bibliotheken gehören kann.

  18. Silica reinforced triblock copolymer gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theunissen, E.; Overbergh, N.; Reynaers, H.;

    2004-01-01

    scattering at very low q, but no structure and formfactor information. However, on heating above the viscoelastic to plastic transition, the 'typical' scattering pattern of the copolymer gel builds-up. All reinforced gels are strengthened by the addition of the reinforcing agent. The transitions from a...... viscoclastic rubber to a plastic fluid and from a plastic fluid to a viscoelastic liquid are shifted to more elevated temperatures when silica is added to the triblock copolymer gel. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......The effect of silica and polymer coated silica particles as reinforcing agents on the structural and mechanical properties of polystyrene-poly(ethylene/butylene)-polystyrene (PS-PEB-PS) triblock gel has been investigated. Different types of chemically modified silica have been compared in order to...

  19. Raft Instability of Biopolymer Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Borukhov, I.; Bruinsma, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    Following recent X-ray diffraction experiments by Wong, Li, and Safinya on biopolymer gels, we apply Onsager excluded volume theory to a nematic mixture of rigid rods and strong ``$\\pi/2$'' cross-linkers obtaining a long-ranged, highly anisotropic depletion attraction between the linkers. This attraction leads to breakdown of the percolation theory for this class of gels, to breakdown of Onsager's second-order virial method, and to formation of heterogeneities in the form of raft-like ribbons.

  20. Topical Review: Polymer gel dosimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Baldock, C; De Deene, Y; Doran, S.; Ibbott, G; Jirasek, A.; Lepage, M.; McAuley, K B; Oldham, M; Schreiner, L J

    2010-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose ...

  1. The study of the reasons for the similarities and differences of narration in the stories of Shahnameh and the History of Bal’ami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    روحاني/عنايتي روحاني/عنايتي

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Shahnameh and the History of Bal’ami are great and important literary works in Iranian culture. These two works have many similarities and embody the history of Iran from its beginning up to the authors’ time. The researches show that the sources and references that Ferdowsi and Bal’ami consulted were different. Ferdowsi consulted the prose Shahnameh of Abou Mansouri and the oral narratives; while Bal’ami consulted the History of Tabari and prose Shahnameh of Abolmo’ayed-e-Balkhi. In spite of the difference of the sources, the research shows that the similarities between these two texts are much more than the differences. The reason for the similarity of the texts is the honesty of the authors in narrating the stories and the reasons for the differences can be the followings: a-differences in the sources consulted, b- Ferdowsi as a poet, c- differences in methods, d- Ferdowsi’s religious and Islamic believes, e- The authors different opinions in narration. Keywords: Shahnameh, The History of Bal’ami, religious believes, prose Shahnameh

  2. Impact of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Chronic Total Occlusion in Non-Infarct-Related Arteries in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction (from the COREA-AMI Registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ik Jun; Koh, Yoon-Seok; Lim, Sungmin; Choo, Eun Ho; Kim, Jin Jin; Hwang, Byung-Hee; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Seo, Suk Min; Kim, Chan Joon; Park, Mahn-Won; Shin, Dong Il; Choi, Yun-Seok; Park, Hun-Jun; Her, Sung-Ho; Kim, Dong-Bin; Park, Chul Soo; Lee, Jong-Min; Moon, Keon Woong; Chang, Kiyuk; Kim, Hee Yeol; Yoo, Ki-Dong; Jeon, Doo Soo; Chung, Wook-Sung; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Seung, Ki-Bae; Kim, Pum-Joon

    2016-04-01

    Chronic total occlusion (CTO) in a non-infarct-related artery (IRA) is an independent predictor of clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study evaluated the impact of successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for CTO of a non-IRA on the long-term clinical outcomes in patients with AMI. A total of 4,748 patients with AMI were consecutively enrolled in the Convergent Registry of Catholic and Chonnam University for AMI registry from January 2004 to December 2009. We enrolled 324 patients with CTO in a non-IRA. To adjust for baseline differences, propensity matching (96 matched pairs) was used to compare successful PCI and occluded CTO for the treatment of CTO in non-IRA. The primary clinical end points were all-cause mortality and a composite of the major adverse cardiac events, including cardiac death, MI, stroke, and any revascularization during the 5-year follow-up. Patients who received successful PCI for CTO of non-IRA had lower rates of all-cause mortality (16.7% vs 32.3%, hazard ratio 0.459, 95% CI 0.251 to 0.841, p = 0.012) and major adverse cardiac events (21.9% vs 55.2%, hazard ratio 0.311, 95% CI 0.187 to 0.516, p <0.001) compared with occluded CTO group. Subgroup analyses revealed that successful PCI resulted in a better mortality rate in patients with normal renal function compared to patients with chronic kidney disease (p = 0.010). In conclusion, successful PCI for CTO of non-IRA is associated with improved long-term clinical outcomes in patients with AMI. PMID:26993974

  3. Alternative imaging modalities for polymer gel dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirasek, Andrew, E-mail: jirasek@uvic.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2010-11-01

    This review summarizes recent work in the area of imaging polymer gel dosimeters using x-ray CT imaging, ultrasound, and radiation-induced changes in gel mechanical properties. In addition, recent work in the area of Raman tomographic imaging of canine bone, in conjunction with past efforts in Raman imaging of polymer gel dosimeters, raises new possibilities for new polymer gel imaging techniques.

  4. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riha, Brian D.; Looney, Brian B.

    2015-10-27

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  5. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhia, Brian D.

    2011-03-01

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  6. Surface grafted chitosan gels. Part II. Gel formation and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chao; Thormann, Esben; Claesson, Per M.;

    2014-01-01

    Responsive biomaterial hydrogels attract significant attention due to their biocompatibility and degradability. In order to make chitosan based gels, we first graft one layer of chitosan to silica, and then build a chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) multilayer using the layer-by-layer approach. After...... cross-linking the chitosan present in the polyelectrolyte multilayer, poly(acrylic acid) is partly removed by exposing the multilayer structure to a concentrated carbonate buffer solution at a high pH, leaving a surface-grafted cross-linked gel. Chemical cross-linking enhances the gel stability against...... detachment and decomposition. The chemical reaction between gluteraldehyde, the cross-linking agent, and chitosan was followed in situ using total internal reflection Raman (TIRR) spectroscopy, which provided a molecular insight into the complex reaction mechanism, as well as the means to quantify the cross...

  7. Association of platelet-SDF-1 with hemodynamic function and infarct size using cardiac MR in patients with AMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Platelet-derived stromal-cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) plays an important role in trafficking hematopoetic progenitor cells for tissue regeneration and neovascularisation. The aim was to evaluate platelet-SDF-1 and CD34+ progenitor cells in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared with hemodynamic function and infarct size using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Materials and methods: We consecutively evaluated 40 patients with AMI, who received coronary angiography for primary coronary intervention. Blood was sampled for flow cytometry to determine mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of platelet-SDF-1 and for isolation of CD34+ progenitor cells. 48 h and three months after coronary stenting, all patients underwent 1.5 T CMR for volumetric assessment and LGE. Results: Patients with enhanced platelet-SDF-1 expression (median ≥ 68.5 MFI) showed a significant amelioration of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (baseline vs. follow-up mean ± SD: 45 ± 6% vs. 56 ± 6%; P = 0.018) and of stroke volume (73.1 ± 19.1 mL vs. 89.9 ± 21.3 mL; P = 0.032) at three-month follow-up in contrast to patients with a decreased platelet-SDF-1 expression level (LVEF: 53 ± 8% vs. 56 ± 10%; P = 0.267; stroke volume: 85.6 ± 23.1 mL vs. 87.4 ± 23.2 mL; P = 0.803). Inversely, LGE infarct size showed significantly reduced in patients with enhanced platelet-SDF-1 expression at three months (18.9 ± 12 mL vs. 6.3 ± 5.1 mL; P = 0.002) compared to patients with decreased platelet-SDF-1 (12.7 ± 12.7 mL vs. 7.6 ± 8.4 mL; P = 0.156). Time-dependent autocorrelation coefficients shifted for both SV (lag 1: r = −0.368; P = 0.001) and the number of CD34+ cells (lag 1: r = 0.633; P = 0.001) to a positive autocorrelation (SV; lag 2: r = 0.295; P = 0.001; CD34+ cells; lag 2: r = 0.287; P = 0.001). Patients with increased number of CD34+ cells (median ≥ 420 cells/hpf) showed a significant amelioration of stroke volume in

  8. Opportunistic routing in AMI mesh network%智能电表网状网中的机会路由

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华峰; 党倩; 崔亮; 曾玮妮

    2015-01-01

    The main challenges of wireless mesh network with automated metering infrastructure (AMI)are signal fading, noise,and path loss,leading to high packet loss.Opportunistic routing was introduced into AMI mesh network to ensure the transmission performance.According to the data character of smart grid,to finish the transmission of collected data as quickly as possible,an opportunistic routing problem in smart grid (ORSG)was proposed and formulated to solve the optimal candidate forwarder set.The simulation results show that the completion time of minimum flow of ORSG are 39%,30% and 400% lower than those of OR with expected transmission number (ETX),expected anycast transmission (EAX)metrics,and opportunistic routing for multi-flow (ORMf),respectively.The average delay of ORSG is 21%,12% and 36% lower than those of OR with ETX,EAX metrics and ORMf,respectively.%为解决智能电表无线网状网中信号衰减、噪音和路径损耗导致链路高丢失率的问题,引入机会路由来保障数据传输的性能。根据智能电网的数据传输特性,提出尽快完成采集数据传输的机会路由问题并建模,求解模型得到最优的候选节点集。仿真结果表明,与基于期望传输次数、期望任意传输次数和多并发流的机会路由协议相比,该方法在最小流的完成时间上分别降低39%、30%和400%,汇聚延时分别降低21%、12%和36%。

  9. 3-dimensional polymer gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently developed techniques in conformal radiotherapy demand special properties of radiation dosimeters. Polymer gel dosimeter evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is promising tool which can be used for measuring rather complicated 3-dimensional dose distributions with required precision of ± 5 %. This system is based on radiation-induced polymerisation and cross-linking of acrylic monomers which are uniformly dispersed in aqueous gel. The formation of cross-linked polymers in the irradiated regions of the gel increases the NMR relaxation rates of neighbouring water protons. BANG-2 type polymer gel was prepared. The composition of gel dosimeter was as follows: 3 % N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide, 3 % acrylic acid, 1 % sodium hydroxide, 5 % gelatine, and 88 % water, where all percentages are by weight. The dosimeters in glass vessels were homogeneously irradiated by 60Co gamma photons in a Gammacell 220 unit and by 4 MV, 6 MV and 18 MV X ray photons on Varian Clinac 600C and 2100 C linear accelerators by doses in the range of 0-50 Gy. Evaluation of dosimeters was performed on Siemens EXPERT 1 T and Siemens VISION 1,5 T scanners. Multi-echo CPMG sequence with 16 echoes was used for the evaluation of T2-relaxation times in irradiated gel dosimeters. The dependence of 1/T2 response of dosimeters was studied on following factors: absorbed dose, energy of applied radiation, temperature during NMR evaluation, time since irradiation to NMR evaluation and strength of the magnetic field. An exponential dependence of 1/T2 response on absorbed dose in the range of 0-50 Gy was observed, in the range 0-10 Gy the data could be fitted by a linear function. There was observed no dependence of 1/T2 response on: energy (for three different photon energies used in this study), strength of magnetic field of NMR scanner, time from irradiation of the dosimeters to NMR evaluation. Increase of gel dosimeter 1/T2 response with the decrease of the temperature during NMR evaluation

  10. Yield stress determination of a physical gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Pluronic F127 solutions form gels in water with high elastic moduli. Pluronic gels can, however, only withstand small deformations and stresses. Different steady shear and oscillatory methods traditionally used to determine yield stress values are compared. The results show that the yield stresse...... values of these gels depend on test type and measurement time, and no absolute yield stress value can be determined for these physical gels.......Pluronic F127 solutions form gels in water with high elastic moduli. Pluronic gels can, however, only withstand small deformations and stresses. Different steady shear and oscillatory methods traditionally used to determine yield stress values are compared. The results show that the yield stresses...

  11. Screening effect on nanostructure of charged gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiyama, M; Annaka, M; Hino, M;

    2004-01-01

    Charge screening effects on nanostructures of N-isopropylacrylamide-sodium acrylate (NIPA-SA) and -acrylic acid (NIPA-AAc) gels are investigated with small-angle neutron scattering. The NIPA-SA and NIPA-AAc gels with low water content exhibit microphase separations with different dimensions. The...... dehydrated NIPA-SA gel also makes the microphase separation but the dehydrated NIPA-AAc gel does not. These results indicate that ionic circumstance around charged bases strongly affects the nanostructures both of the dehydrated gel and the gel with low water content. (C) 2004 Elsevier B. V. All rights...

  12. Moist process biases in simulations of the Madden-Julian Oscillation episodes observed during the AMIE/DYNAMO field campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Feng, Zhe; Burleyson, Casey D.; Zhao, Chun; Martini, Matus; Berg, Larry K.

    2016-02-01

    Two Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) episodes observed during the 2011 AMIE/DYNAMO field campaign are simulated using a regional cloud-permitting model, a regional model with various cumulus parameterizations, and a global variable-resolution model with a high-resolution region centered over the tropical Indian Ocean. Model biases associated with moisture mode instability, wind-induced surface heat exchange (WISHE), and convective momentum transport (CMT) are examined and their relative contributions to the overall model errors are quantified using a linear statistical model. Linear relationships are found among the normalized root mean square errors of precipitation, saturation fraction, evaporation, and surface wind speed suggesting that errors may propagate across the processes involving these variables. Analysis using a linear statistical model shows the relationship between convection and local surface wind speed (related to CMT processes) is the source of the largest uncertainty. In comparison, WISHE processes in the simulations tend to be biased consistently, with excess evaporation for the same wind speeds as the observations, which suggests they are likely related to biases in boundary layer and/or surface schemes. The relationship between precipitation and saturation fraction (which is associated with moisture mode instability) is captured relatively well with slightly larger model precipitation in the simulations in comparison to observations for the same saturation fraction, especially for weak rain rates. By linking developments in theoretical understanding of MJO processes and cumulus parameterizations, this study provides guidance to future improvements of MJO simulation by in high-resolution regional and global models.

  13. Experimental study of fast and ultrafast T2-weighted imaging sequences using AMI-25 superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurokawa H

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate fast and ultrafast T2-weighted images (T2WI, including echo planar imaging (EPI, using an AMI-25 agar phantom. Image quality for conventional spin echo (CSE and turbo spin echo (TSE was almost equivalent. In high-resolution TSE, image quality was highest due to the use of a 512 x 256 matrix. Half-Fourier single-shot turbo SE (HASTE was associated with blurring of images, and turbo-gradient SE (TGSE showed a deterioration of image quality. EPI also suffered from poor image quality because this method is very sensitive to magnetic field inhomogeneity. CSE showed good signal-to-noise ratio (S/N and contrast ratio (CR, but also required the longest imaging times. Among the TSE sequences, TSE with a short echo train length (ETL was superior in terms of S/N. The CR of EPI and fast low angle shot (FLASH images were improved in proportion to the effective echo time (TE. At present, TSE is inferior to CSE in terms of S/N and CR. However, taking into consideration scanning time, TSE with a short ETL is thought to be suitable for routine examinations. Effective TE is an important factor in gradient echo (GRE examinations.

  14. Assessment of ionospheric Joule heating by GUMICS-4 MHD simulation, AMIE, and satellite-based statistics: towards a synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Palmroth

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the Northern Hemisphere Joule heating from several observational and computational sources with the purpose of calibrating a previously identified functional dependence between solar wind parameters and ionospheric total energy consumption computed from a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD simulation (Grand Unified Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling Simulation, GUMICS-4. In this paper, the calibration focuses on determining the amount and temporal characteristics of Northern Hemisphere Joule heating. Joule heating during a substorm is estimated from global observations, including electric fields provided by Super Dual Auroral Network (SuperDARN and Pedersen conductances given by the ultraviolet (UV and X-ray imagers on board the Polar satellite. Furthermore, Joule heating is assessed from several activity index proxies, large statistical surveys, assimilative data methods (AMIE, and the global MHD simulation GUMICS-4. We show that the temporal and spatial variation of the Joule heating computed from the GUMICS-4 simulation is consistent with observational and statistical methods. However, the different observational methods do not give a consistent estimate for the magnitude of the global Joule heating. We suggest that multiplying the GUMICS-4 total Joule heating by a factor of 10 approximates the observed Joule heating reasonably well. The lesser amount of Joule heating in GUMICS-4 is essentially caused by weaker Region 2 currents and polar cap potentials. We also show by theoretical arguments that multiplying independent measurements of averaged electric fields and Pedersen conductances yields an overestimation of Joule heating.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Auroral ionosphere; Modeling and forecasting; Electric fields and currents

  15. DRAMA TRAGEDI TRISAKTI 1998 Analisis Struktur Naratif Seymour Chatman Pada Laporan Utama Majalah GATRA 23 Mei 1998 “Bau Mesiu dan Amis Darah di Trisakti”

    OpenAIRE

    Widya, Raymundus Rikang Rinangga

    2013-01-01

    Didasarkan oleh upaya rekoreksi dan re-evaluasi terhadap berita yang memiliki peran strategis dalam dinamika komunitas dan masyarakat, serta perannya untuk mengkonstruksi narasi pemahaman masyarakat tentang suatu realitas, khususnya soal Peristiwa Trisakti 1998, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membedah struktur naratif teks berita majalah Gatra berjudul “Bau Mesiu dan Amis Darah di Trisakti” berikut dengan intensi dramatisasi yang terkandung di dalamnya. Dengan mendasarkan pada ...

  16. Capillary fracture of soft gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, Joshua B; Daniels, Karen E

    2013-10-01

    A liquid droplet resting on a soft gel substrate can deform that substrate to the point of material failure, whereby fractures develop on the gel surface that propagate outwards from the contact line in a starburst pattern. In this paper, we characterize (i) the initiation process, in which the number of arms in the starburst is controlled by the ratio of the surface tension contrast to the gel's elastic modulus, and (ii) the propagation dynamics showing that once fractures are initiated they propagate with a universal power law L[proportional]t(3/4). We develop a model for crack initiation by treating the gel as a linear elastic solid and computing the deformations within the substrate from the liquid-solid wetting forces. The elastic solution shows that both the location and the magnitude of the wetting forces are critical in providing a quantitative prediction for the number of fractures and, hence, an interpretation of the initiation of capillary fractures. This solution also reveals that the depth of the gel is an important factor in the fracture process, as it can help mitigate large surface tractions; this finding is confirmed with experiments. We then develop a model for crack propagation by considering the transport of an inviscid fluid into the fracture tip of an incompressible material and find that a simple energy-conservation argument can explain the observed material-independent power law. We compare predictions for both linear elastic and neo-Hookean solids, finding that the latter better explains the observed exponent. PMID:24229192

  17. The effect of acute Lithium and AMI-193, a new 5HT2 antagonist, on Apomorphine-induced pecking in pigeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri T

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Intramascular (IM administration of apomorphine (a mixed D1/D2 dopamine receptors agonist 0.2-1.6 mg/kg induced pecking, a stereotype behavior in pigeons in a dose- dependent manner. In this study the effect of lithium (Li+, 240 mg/kg, IM and AMI-193 (a new 5-HT2 antagonist, 0.003 mg/pigeon on apomorphine-induced peking (AIP were investigated. This study showed that Li+ and AMI-193 did not induce pecking by itself but administration of each of these agents before apomorphine increased and decreased the AIP (apomor-phine 0.8 mg/kg respectively whereas concomitant use of Li+ (240 mg/kg IM and AMI-193 decreased AIP significantly. These results suggested that 5-HT2 antagonists inhibit the inhibitory effect of serotonin on the dopamine release in the raphe-striatal pathway but Li+ can modulate dopamine and serotonin function by different mechanisms and decrease this effect. As a result, it is mechanisms and decrease this effect. As a result, it is concluded serotonin can decrease the AIP through 5-HT2 receptors indirectly by decrease the dopamine release.

  18. Calculating Percent Gel For Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Charles Neal; Scott, Robert O.

    1988-01-01

    Reaction state of thermosetting resin tracked to assure desired properties. Rate of gel determined as function of temperature by measuring time to gel of part of graphite fabric impregnated with Hexcel R120 (or equivalent) phenolic resin.

  19. A method for labeling polyacrylamide gels

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Have you ever struggled with the identification of your polyacrylamide gels after running a few of them at once? Here is a new method for labeling gels which is easy, free and does not interfere with your protein samples. You will be intrigued once you learn how you can add a label to your laboratory-made gels and will have no problem identifying your gels any more.

  20. Consolidation of Inorganic Precipitated Silica Gel

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Kind; Hussein Sahabi

    2011-01-01

    Colloidal gels are possible intermediates in the generation of highly porous particle systems. In the production process the gels are fragmented after their formation. These gel fragments compact to particles whose application-technological properties are determined by their size and porosity. In the case of precipitated silica gels, this consolidation process depends on temperature and pH, among other parameters. It is shown that these dependencies can be characterized by oedometer measureme...

  1. Hybrid Materials of Polymer Gels with Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yan; Kaoru Tsujii

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Polymer gels have been extensively studied[1~17] since the discovery of volume phase-transition of a gel by Tanaka[1~5]. As a unique soft material, gels attract much attention and are tried to be applied for drug-delivery systgems[6], actuators or chemo-mechanical devices[7~9] and so on. In particular, controlled-release of small molecules from a gel is now a subject of special interest[10].

  2. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinpoor, M.

    1995-02-14

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications. 5 figs.

  3. Gender differences in presentation, management, and in-hospital outcomes for patients with AMI in a lower-middle income country: evidence from Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neel M Butala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies in high-income countries have investigated gender differences in the care and outcomes of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. However, little evidence exists on gender differences among patients with AMI in lower-middle-income countries, where the proportion deaths stemming from cardiovascular disease is projected to increase dramatically. This study examines gender differences in patients in the lower-middle-income country of Egypt to determine if female patients with AMI have a different presentation, management, or outcome compared with men. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using registry data collected over 18 months from 5 Egyptian hospitals, we considered 1204 patients (253 females, 951 males with a confirmed diagnosis of AMI. We examined gender differences in initial presentation, clinical management, and in-hospital outcomes using t-tests and χ(2 tests. Additionally, we explored gender differences in in-hospital death using multivariate logistic regression to adjust for age and other differences in initial presentation. We found that women were older than men, had higher BMI, and were more likely to have hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. Women were less likely to receive aspirin upon admission (p<0.01 or aspirin or statins at discharge (p = 0.001 and p<0.05, respectively, although the magnitude of these differences was small. While unadjusted in-hospital mortality was significantly higher for women (OR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.54 to 2.87, this difference did not persist in the fully adjusted model (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.55 to 2.55. CONCLUSIONS: We found that female patients had a different profile than men at the time of presentation. Clinical management of men and women with AMI was similar, though there are small but significant differences in some areas. These gender differences did not translate into differences in in-hospital outcome, but

  4. Gel dosimetry for conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the continuum development of conformal radio therapies, aimed at delivering high dose to tumor tissue and low dose to the healthy tissue around, the necessities has appeared of suitable improvement of dosimetry techniques giving the possibility of obtaining dose images to be compared with diagnostic images. Also if wide software has been developed for calculating dose distributions in the fields of various radiotherapy units, experimental verifications are necessary, in particular in the case of complex geometries in conformal radiotherapy. Gel dosimetry is a promising method for imaging the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent phantoms, with the possibility of 3D reconstruction of the spatial dose distribution, with milli metric resolution. Optical imaging of gel dosimeters, based on visible light absorbance analysis, has shown to be a reliable technique for achieving dose distributions. (Author)

  5. The Swelling of Olympic Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Michael; Fischer, Jakob; Werner, Marco; Sommer, Jens-Uwe

    2014-03-01

    The swelling equilibrium of Olympic gels is studied by Monte Carlo Simulations. We observe that gels consisting of flexible cyclic molecules of a higher degree of polymerization N show a smaller equilibrium swelling degree Q ~N - 0 . 28φ0- 0 . 72 for the same monomer volume fraction φ0 at network preparation. This observation is explained by a disinterpenetration process of overlapping non-concatenated polymers upon swelling. In the limit of a sufficiently large number of concatenations per cyclic molecule we expect that the equilibrium degree of swelling becomes proportional to φ0- 1 / 2 independent of N. Our results challenge current textbook models for the equilibrium degree of swelling of entangled polymer networks. Now at: Bio Systems Analysis Group, Jena Centre for Bioinformatics (JCB) and Department for Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, 07743 Jena, Germany.

  6. Mechanisms of Convective Cloud Organization by Cold Pools over Tropical Warm Ocean during the AMIE/DYNAMO Field Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Zhe; Hagos, Samson M.; Rowe, Angela; Burleyson, Casey D.; Martini, Matus; de Szoeke, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates the mechanisms of convective cloud organization by precipitation-driven cold pools over the warm tropical Indian Ocean during the 2011 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment / Dynamics of the MJO (AMIE/DYNAMO) field campaign. A high-resolution regional model simulation is performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting model during the transition from suppressed to active phases of the November 2011 MJO. The simulated cold pool lifetimes, spatial extent and thermodynamic properties agree well with the radar and ship-borne observations from the field campaign. The thermodynamic and dynamic structures of the outflow boundaries of isolated and intersecting cold pools in the simulation and the associated secondary cloud populations are examined. Intersecting cold pools last more than twice as long, are twice as large, 41% more intense (measured by buoyancy), and 62% deeper than isolated cold pools. Consequently, intersecting cold pools trigger 73% more convective clouds than isolated ones. This is possibly due to stronger outflows that enhance secondary updraft velocities by up to 45%. However, cold pool-triggered convective clouds grow into deep convection not because of the stronger secondary updrafts at cloud base, but rather due to closer spacing (aggregation) between clouds and larger cloud clusters that formed along the cold pool boundaries when they intersect. The close spacing of large clouds moistens the local environment and reduces entrainment drying, allowing the clouds to further develop into deep convection. Implications to the design of future convective parameterization with cold pool-modulated entrainment rates are discussed.

  7. The Gel Electrophoresis Markup Language (GelML) from the Proteomics Standards Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Frank; Hoogland, Christine; Martinez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Medina-Aunon, J. Alberto; Albar, Juan Pablo; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Wipat, Anil; Hermjakob, Henning; Almeida, Jonas S; Stanislaus, Romesh; Paton, Norman W.; Jones, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    The Human Proteome Organisation’s Proteomics Standards Initiative (HUPO-PSI) has developed the GelML data exchange format for representing gel electrophoresis experiments performed in proteomics investigations. The format closely follows the reporting guidelines for gel electrophoresis, which are part of the Minimum Information About a Proteomics Experiment (MIAPE) set of modules. GelML supports the capture of metadata (such as experimental protocols) and data (such as gel images) resulting f...

  8. Electrophoresis of DNA in agarose gels, polyacrylamide gels and in free solution

    OpenAIRE

    Stellwagen, Nancy C.

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the electrophoresis of curved and normal DNA molecules in agarose gels, polyacrylamide gels and in free solution. These studies were undertaken to clarify why curved DNA molecules migrate anomalously slowly in polyacrylamide gels but not in agarose gels. Two milestone papers are cited, in which Ferguson plots were used to estimate the effective pore size of agarose and polyacrylamide gels. Subsequent studies on the effect of the electric field on agarose and polyacrylami...

  9. Water equivalence of polymer gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the water equivalence and radiation transport properties of polymer gel dosimeters over the wide range of photon and electron energies 14 different types of polymer gels were considered. Their water equivalence was evaluated in terms of effective atomic number (Zeff), electron density (ρe), photon mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), photon mass energy absorption coefficient (μen/ρ) and total stopping power (S/ρ)tot of electrons using the XCOM and the ESTAR database. The study showed that the effective atomic number of polymer gels were very close (en/ρ for all polymer gels were in close agreement (tot of electrons in polymer gel dosimeters were within 1% agreement with that of water. From the study we conclude that at lower energy (<80keV) the polymer gel dosimeters cannot be considered water equivalent and study has to be carried out before using the polymer gel for clinical application

  10. Gel fire suppressants for controlling underground heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Sheng-gen; XUE Sheng

    2011-01-01

    One of the major safety issues in coal mining is heatings and the resultant spontaneous combustion in underground coal mines.CSIRO researchers have developed a number of polymer gels suitable for controlling heatings in coal mines.These gels were developed to meet strict selection criteria including easy preparation,no or low toxicity,controllable gelation time,adaptable to mine water chemistry,adjustable viscosity,relatively long gel life,thermally and chemically stable and low cost.The HPAM-Aluminum Citrate gel system was identified to be the most favourable gel system for fire suppression in underground coal mines.These gels can be applied to the areas undergoing coal heating or gas leakage at a controllable gelation time and impermeable gel barriers can be formed in the areas to block ingress of air.

  11. Consolidation of Inorganic Precipitated Silica Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Kind

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal gels are possible intermediates in the generation of highly porous particle systems. In the production process the gels are fragmented after their formation. These gel fragments compact to particles whose application-technological properties are determined by their size and porosity. In the case of precipitated silica gels, this consolidation process depends on temperature and pH, among other parameters. It is shown that these dependencies can be characterized by oedometer measurements. Originally, the oedometer test (one-dimensional compression test stemmed from soil mechanics. It has proven to be an interesting novel examination method for gels. Quantitative data of the time-dependent shrinkage of gel samples can be obtained. The consolidation of the gels shows a characteristic dependence on the above parameters.

  12. Aspects of dosimetry using radiation sensitive gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radiation sensitive gels for dosimetry measurements was first suggested in the 1950s. It was subsequently shown that radiation induced changes in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation properties of gels infused with conventional Fricke dosimetry solutions could be measured. However, due to predominantly diffusion-related limitations, alternative polymer gel dosimeters were suggested. Clinical applications of these radiologically tissue equivalent gel dosimeters using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have subsequently been reported in the literature. In Fricke gels, Fe2+ ions in ferrous sulphate solutions are usually dispersed throughout a gelatin or agarose hydrogel matrix. Radiation-induced changes in the dosimeters are considered to be either through direct absorption of ionising radiation or via intermediate water free radicals. Fe2+ ions are converted to Fe3+ ions with a corresponding change in paramagnetic properties that may be quantified using NMR relaxation measurements. In polymer gels, monomers are also dispersed in a gelatin or agarose hydrogel matrix. Monomers undergo a polymerisation reaction as a function of absorbed dose resulting in a three-dimensional polymer gel matrix. The radiation-induced formation of polymer influences NMR relaxation properties. The growth in polymer also results in other physical changes that may be used to quantify absorbed radiation dose. This thesis investigates various aspects of radiation dosimetry using radiation sensitive gels. Image processing software was developed to calculate NMR relaxation images of dosimetry gels. Measurements were undertaken to investigate the diffusion problem in Fricke gels. Radiological properties were theoretically modelled for both Fricke and polymer gels. A methodology was developed for the preparation of polymer gels. Vibrational spectroscopic studies were undertaken to investigate the underlying mechanism involved in the radiation-induced formation of polymer. MRI pulse

  13. Luminosity measurement at AMY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A precise measurement of a luminosity is required by experiments with high statistics. The largest sources of a systematic error of a luminosity measurement are an alignment of the tube chambers which measure a polar angle of Bhabha events and a higher order correction for the Bhabha cross section calculation. We describe a resent study for these uncertainties and how to reduce the systematic errors from these sources. The total systematic error of the luminosity measurement of 1.8% can be reduced to 1.0% by this study. (author)

  14. Angiotensinkonverterende enzym efter AMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, C T; Køber, L

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to calculate the improvement in life expectancy by treating patients with left ventricular dysfunction after a myocardial infarction with an ACE inhibitor. Life expectancy was estimated as median lifetime and follow up in the TRACE study was prolonged until median li...

  15. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH SEKAM PADI MENJADI SILIKA GEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Astuti Handayani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sekam padi merupakan salah satu sumber penghasil silika terbesar, berpotensi sebagai bahan pembuatan silika gel. Abu sekam padi mengandung silika sebanyak 87%-97% berat kering. Sintesis silika gel dari abu sekam padi dilakukan dengan mereaksikan abu sekam padi menggunakan larutan NaOH 1N pada suhu 800C selama 1 jam dan dilanjutkan dengan penambahan larutan asam hingga pH=7. Gel yang dihasilkan selanjutnya didiamkan selama 18 jam kemudian dikeringkan pada suhu dikeringkan menggunakan oven pada suhu 800C hingga beratnya konstan. Hasil percobaan diperoleh bahwa silika gel dengan penambahan CH3COOH menghasilkan yield yang lebih besar dibandingkan penambahan HCl. Berdasarkan analisis FT-IR silika gel yang diperoleh memiliki gugus Si-O-Si dan gugus Si-OH. Silika gel dengan penambahan HCl memiliki surface area sebesar 65,558 m2/g, total pore volume 0,1935 cc/g, dan average pore size sebesar 59,0196 Å. Sedangkan silika gel dengan penambahan CH3COOH memiliki surface area sebesar 9,685 m2/g, total pore volume 0,02118 cc/g, dan average pore size sebesar 43,7357Å. Silika gel dengan penambahanCH3COOH memiliki kemampuan menyerap kelembaban udara yang lebih baik dibanding silika gel dengan penambahan HCl. Rice hull ash (RHA is one of the biggest source of silica, potential for sintesis silica gel. RHA contains silica as many as 87 % -97 %. Synthesis of silica gel from rice hull ash was done by reaction using NaOH solution at temperature 800C for 1 hour and followed by the addition of an acid solution until pH=7. The gel were rested with time aging 18 hour, and then dried using oven at temperature 800C until constant weigh. The results obtained that the silica gel with the addition of CH3COOH produce higher yields than the addition of HCl. Based on FT-IR analysis, silica gel has a group of silanol (Si-`OH and siloxan (Si-O-Si group. Silica gel with the addition of HCl has a surface area 65,558 m2/g, a total pore volume 0,1935 cc/g, and average pore size 59

  16. Metal-silica sol-gel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegman, Albert E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a single phase metal-silica sol-gel glass formed by the co-condensation of a transition metal with silicon atoms where the metal atoms are uniformly distributed within the sol-gel glass as individual metal centers. Any transition metal may be used in the sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to sensor materials where the sensor material is formed using the single phase metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The sensor materials may be in the form of a thin film or may be attached to an optical fiber. The present invention also relates to a method of sensing chemicals using the chemical sensors by monitoring the chromatic change of the metal-silica sol-gel glass when the chemical binds to the sensor. The present invention also relates to oxidation catalysts where a metal-silica sol-gel glass catalyzes the reaction. The present invention also relates to a method of performing oxidation reactions using the metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to organopolymer metal-silica sol-gel composites where the pores of the metal-silica sol-gel glasses are filled with an organic polymer polymerized by the sol-gel glass.

  17. Chitosan: Gels and Interfacial Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Nilsen-Nygaard; Strand, Sabina P.; Kjell M. Vårum; Kurt I. Draget; Catherine T. Nordgård

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a unique biopolymer in the respect that it is abundant, cationic, low-toxic, non-immunogenic and biodegradable. The relative occurrence of the two monomeric building units (N-acetyl-glucosamine and d-glucosamine) is crucial to whether chitosan is predominantly an ampholyte or predominantly a polyelectrolyte at acidic pH-values. The chemical composition is not only crucial to its surface activity properties, but also to whether and why chitosan can undergo a sol–gel transition. T...

  18. Motility initiation in active gels

    CERN Document Server

    Recho, Pierre; Truskinovsky, Lev

    2015-01-01

    Motility initiation in crawling cells requires a symmetry breaking mechanism which transforms a symmetric state into a polarized state. Experiments on keratocytes suggest that polarization is triggered by increased contractility of motor proteins. In this paper we argue that contraction can be responsible not only for the symmetry breaking transition but also for the incipient translocation of the segment of an active gel mimicking the crawling cell. Our model suggests that when the contractility increases sufficiently far beyond the motility initiation threshold, the cell can stop and re-symmetrizes. The proposed theory reproduces the motility initiation pattern in fish keratocytes and the behavior of keratocytes prior to cell division.

  19. Automated apparatus for producing gradient gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, N.L.

    1983-11-10

    Apparatus for producing a gradient gel which serves as a standard medium for a two-dimensional analysis of proteins, the gel having a density gradient along its height formed by a variation in gel composition, with the apparatus including first and second pumping means each including a plurality of pumps on a common shaft and driven by a stepping motor capable of providing small incremental changes in pump outputs for the gel ingredients, the motors being controlled, by digital signals from a digital computer, a hollow form or cassette for receiving the gel composition, means for transferring the gel composition including a filler tube extending near the bottom of the cassette, adjustable horizontal and vertical arms for automatically removing and relocating the filler tube in the next cassette, and a digital computer programmed to automatically control the stepping motors, arm movements, and associated sensing operations involving the filling operation.

  20. Research on pre-staining gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Gel electrophoresis is a powerful biochemical separation technique. Most biological molecules are completely transparent in the visible region of light, so it is necessary to use staining to show the results after gel electrophoresis, and the general steps of conventional staining methods are time-consuming. Purpose: We try to develop a novel approach to simplify the gel electrophoresis: Pre-Staining Gel Electrophoresis (PSGE), which can make the gel electrophoresis results monitored in real time. Methods: Pre-stain the protein samples with Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) for 30 min before loading the sample into the gel well. Results and Conclusion: PSGE can be successfully used to analyze the binding efficiency of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and amphiphilic polymer via chemical coupling and physical absorption, and the double PSGE also shows a great potential in bio-analytical chemistry. (authors)

  1. Active Gel Model of Amoeboid Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Callan-Jones, A C

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model of amoeboid cell motility based on active gel theory. Modeling the motile apparatus of a eukaryotic cell as a confined layer of finite length of poroelastic active gel permeated by a solvent, we first show that, due to active stress and gel turnover, an initially static and homogeneous layer can undergo a contractile-type instability to a polarized moving state in which the rear is enriched in gel polymer. This agrees qualitatively with motile cells containing an actomyosin-rich uropod at their rear. We find that the gel layer settles into a steadily moving, inhomogeneous state at long times, sustained by a balance between contractility and filament turnover. In addition, our model predicts an optimal value of the gel-susbstrate adhesion leading to maximum layer speed, in agreement with cell motility assays. The model may be relevant to motility of cells translocating in complex, confining environments that can be mimicked experimentally by cell migration through microchannels.

  2. Evolution in Cloud Population Statistics of the MJO. From AMIE Field Observations to Global-Cloud Permitting Models final report Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Min [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2016-01-08

    Methods of convective/stratiform precipitation classification and surface rain rate estimation based on the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program cloud radar measurements were developed and evaluated. Simultaneous and collocated observations of the Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR), two scanning precipitation radars (NCAR S-PolKa and Texas A&M University SMART-R), and surface precipitation during the DYNAMO/AMIE field campaign were used. The motivation of this study is to apply the unique long-term ARM cloud radar observations without accompanying precipitation radars to the study of cloud lifecycle and precipitation features under different weather and climate regimes.

  3. GEM printer: 3D gel printer for free shaping of functional gel engineering materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Muroi, Hisato; Yamamoto, Kouki; Serizawa, Ryo; Gong, Jin

    2013-04-01

    In the past decade, several high-strength gels have been developed. These gels are expected to use as a kind of new engineering materials in the fields of industry and medical as substitutes to polyester fibers, which are materials of artificial blood vessels. The gels have both low surface friction and well permeability due to a large amount of water absorbed in the gels, which are superiority of the gels compering to the polyester fibers. It is, however, difficult for gels to be forked structure or cavity structure by using cutting or mold. Consequently, it is necessary to develop the additive manufacturing device to synthesize and mode freely gels at the same time. Here we try to develop an optical 3D gel printer that enables gels to be shaped precisely and freely. For the free forming of high-strength gels, the 1st gels are ground to particles and mixed with 2nd pregel solution, and the mixed solution is gelled by the irradiation of UV laser beam through an optical fiber. The use of the optical fiber makes one-point UV irradiation possible. Since the optical fiber is controlled by 3D-CAD, the precise and free molding in XYZ directions is easily realized. We successfully synthesized tough gels using the gel printer.

  4. Characteristics of polyacrylamide gel with THPC and Turnbull Blue gel dosimeters evaluated using optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilařová (Vávrů), Kateřina; Kozubíková, Petra; Šolc, Jaroslav; Spěváček, Václav

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare characteristics of radiochromic gel - Turnbull Blue gel (TB gel) with polymer gel - polyacrylamide gel and tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride (PAGAT) using optical tomography. Both types of gels were examined in terms of dose sensitivity, dose response linearity and background value of spectrophotometric absorbance. The calibration curve was obtained for 60Co irradiation performed on Gammacell 220 at predefined gamma dose levels between 0 and 140 Gy for TBG and 0-15 Gy for PAGAT. To measure relative dose distributions from stereotactic irradiation, dosimeters were irradiated on Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion. The cylindrical glass housings filled with gel were attached to the stereotactic frame. They were exposed with single shot and 16 mm collimator by 65 Gy to a 50% prescription isodose for TB gel and 4 Gy to a 50% prescription isodose for PAGAT. Evaluations of dosimeters were performed on an UV-vis Spectrophotometer Helios β and an optical cone beam homemade tomography scanner with a 16-bit astronomy CCD camera with a set of color filters. The advantages and potential disadvantages for both types of gel dosimeters were summarized. Dose distribution in central slice and measured profiles of 16 mm shot shows excellent correspondence with treatment planning system Leksell GammaPlan® for both PAGAT and Turnbull Blue gels. Gel dosimeters are suitable for steep dose gradient verification. An optical tomography evaluation method is successful. Dose response characteristics of TB gel and PAGAT gel are presented.

  5. Characteristics of polyacrylamide gel with THPC and Turnbull Blue gel dosimeters evaluated using optical tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare characteristics of radiochromic gel – Turnbull Blue gel (TB gel) with polymer gel – polyacrylamide gel and tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride (PAGAT) using optical tomography. Both types of gels were examined in terms of dose sensitivity, dose response linearity and background value of spectrophotometric absorbance. The calibration curve was obtained for 60Co irradiation performed on Gammacell 220 at predefined gamma dose levels between 0 and 140 Gy for TBG and 0–15 Gy for PAGAT. To measure relative dose distributions from stereotactic irradiation, dosimeters were irradiated on Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion. The cylindrical glass housings filled with gel were attached to the stereotactic frame. They were exposed with single shot and 16 mm collimator by 65 Gy to a 50% prescription isodose for TB gel and 4 Gy to a 50% prescription isodose for PAGAT. Evaluations of dosimeters were performed on an UV–vis Spectrophotometer Helios β and an optical cone beam homemade tomography scanner with a 16-bit astronomy CCD camera with a set of color filters. The advantages and potential disadvantages for both types of gel dosimeters were summarized. Dose distribution in central slice and measured profiles of 16 mm shot shows excellent correspondence with treatment planning system Leksell GammaPlan® for both PAGAT and Turnbull Blue gels. - highlights: • Gel dosimeters are suitable for steep dose gradient verification. • An optical tomography evaluation method is successful. • Dose response characteristics of TB gel and PAGAT gel are presented

  6. Self-Pumping Active Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun-Ta; Hishamunda, Jean Bernard; Fraden, Seth; Dogic, Zvonimir

    Isotropic active gels are the network which is consist of cross-linked building blocks and the structure of which changes randomly and isotropically with time. Dogic et. al. show that pairs of anti-parallel microtubules form extensile bundles, which merge, extend, and buckle. In an unconfined system, the dynamics of these bundles causes spontaneous turbulent-like flow driven by motion of microscopic molecular motors. We found that confining these active gels in a millimeter sized toroids causes a transition into a new dynamical state characterized by circulation currents persisting for hours until ATP is depleted. We show how toroid dimensions impact the properties of self-organized circular currents, how directions of circulation can be designed by engineering ratchet-shaped boundaries, and how circulations of connected toroids can be either synchronized or antisynchronized. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the flow rate in the circulation is independent of curvature and length of flow path. The flow rate persists for centimeters without decay, disregarding conventional pipe flow resistance. Such findings pave the path to self-pumping pipe transport and performing physical work with biological system.

  7. Microfluidics of soft granular gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Ryan; Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Sawyer, W. Gregory; Angelini, Thomas E.

    Microfluidic methods for encapsulating cells and particles typically involve drop making with two immiscible fluids. The main materials constraint in this approach is surface tension, creating inherent instability between the two fluids. We can eliminate this instability by using miscible inner and outer phases. This is achieved by using granular micro gels which are chemically miscible but physically do not mix. These microgels are yield stress materials, so they flow as solid plugs far from shear gradients, and fluidize where gradients are generated - near an injection nozzle for example. We have found that tuning the yield stress of the material by varying polymer concentration, device performance can be controlled. The solid like behavior of the gel allows us to produces infinitely stable jets that maintain their integrity and configuration over long distances and times. These properties can be combined and manipulated to produce discrete particulate bunches of an inner phase, flowing inside of an outer phase, well enough even to print a Morse code message suspended within flow chambers about a millimeter in diameter moving at millimeters a second.

  8. Stabilized aqueous gels and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, B.L.

    1978-08-29

    New improved aqueous gels, and methods of using same in contacting subterranean formations, are provided. The gels are prepared by gelling an aqueous brine having incorporated therein a water-soluble cellulose ether such as a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), and are rendered more stable to decomposition by incorporating a sulfoalkylated tannin stabilizing agent, such as a sulfomethylated quebracho (SMQ), in the gel during the preparation thereof.

  9. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tong-Chun

    2004-08-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerization reaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reaction kinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time of calcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and an example is provided to verify the proposed formula. PMID:15236477

  10. Structure and Frictional Properties of Colloid Gel

    OpenAIRE

    Masayuki Tokita

    2014-01-01

    Polymer gels are known to be opaque when the preparation conditions, such as the reaction temperature and the composition, are changed. The increase of the opaqueness of the gel suggests strongly the change of network structure. Here, we are going to review the recent studies on the structure and the frictional study of the opaque poly(acrylamide) gel. The results indicate that the opaque poly(acrylamide) gel consists of the fractal aggregate of the colloidal particles of sub-micrometer in si...

  11. Structure of chitosan gels mineralized by sorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrzejewska, Z.; Skwarczyńska, A.; Douglas, T. E. L.; Biniaś, D.; Maniukiewicz, W.; Sielski, J.

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents the structural studies of mineralized chitosan hydrogels. Hydrogels produced by using sodium beta-glycerophosphate (Na-β-GP) as a neutralizing agent. Mineralization was performed method "post loading", which consisted in sorption to the gels structure Ca ions. In order to obtain - in the structure of gels - compounds similar to the hydroxyapatites present naturally in bone tissue, gels after sorption were modified in: pH 7 buffer and sodium hydrogen phosphate. In order to determine the structural properties of the gels, the following methods were used: infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transformation, FTIR, X-ray diffractometry, XRD, scanning electron microscopy, SEM.

  12. The relationship of agarose gel structure to the sieving of spheres during agarose gel electrophoresis.

    OpenAIRE

    Griess, G A; Guiseley, K B; Serwer, P

    1993-01-01

    To understand the organization of fibers in an agarose gel, digitized electron micrographs are used here to determine the frequency distribution of interfiber distance (2Pc) in thin sections of agarose gels. For a preparation of underivatized agarose, a 1.5% gel has a Pc distribution that is indistinguishable from the Pc distribution of a computer-generated, random-fiber gel; the log of the occurrence frequency (F) decreases linearly as a function of Pc. As the agarose concentration decreases...

  13. A Synergistic, Balanced Antioxidant Cocktail, Protects Aging Rats from Insulin Resistance and Absence of Meal-Induced Insulin Sensitization (AMIS Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Helen Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of in vivo and in vitro studies using animal and human models in the past 15 years have demonstrated that approximately 55% (~66% in humans of the glucose disposal effect of an i.v. injection of insulin in the fed state is dependent on the action of a second hormone, hepatic insulin sensitizing substance (HISS, which is released from the liver and stimulates glucose uptake in muscle, heart and kidneys. Sensitization of the insulin response by a meal through release of HISS is called meal-induced insulin sensitization (MIS. Absence of HISS action results in postprandial hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, adiposity, increased free radical stress and a cluster of progressive metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunctions referred to as the AMIS (absence of meal-induced insulin sensitization syndrome. Reduced HISS release accounts for the insulin resistance that occurs with aging and is made worse by physical inactivity and diets high in sucrose or fat. This brief review provides an update of major metabolic disturbances associated with aging due to reduction of HISS release, and the protection against these pathological changes in aging animals using a balanced synergistic antioxidant cocktail SAMEC (S-adenosylmethionine, vitamins E and C. The synergy amongst the components is consistent with the known benefits of antioxidants supplied by a mixed diet and acting through diverse mechanisms. Using only three constituents, SAMEC appears suitable as an antioxidant specifically targeting the AMIS syndrome.

  14. Chitosan: Gels and Interfacial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Nilsen-Nygaard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a unique biopolymer in the respect that it is abundant, cationic, low-toxic, non-immunogenic and biodegradable. The relative occurrence of the two monomeric building units (N-acetyl-glucosamine and d-glucosamine is crucial to whether chitosan is predominantly an ampholyte or predominantly a polyelectrolyte at acidic pH-values. The chemical composition is not only crucial to its surface activity properties, but also to whether and why chitosan can undergo a sol–gel transition. This review gives an overview of chitosan hydrogels and their biomedical applications, e.g., in tissue engineering and drug delivery, as well as the chitosan’s surface activity and its role in emulsion formation, stabilization and destabilization. Previously unpublished original data where chitosan acts as an emulsifier and flocculant are presented and discussed, showing that highly-acetylated chitosans can act both as an emulsifier and as a flocculant.

  15. Topological characteristics of model gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Euler characteristic of an object is a topological invariant determined by the number of handles and holes that it contains. Here, we use the Euler characteristic to profile the topology of model three-dimensional gel-forming fluids as a function of increasing length scale. These profiles act as a 'topological fingerprint' of the structure, and can be interpreted in terms of three types of topological events. As model fluids we have considered a system of dipolar dumbbells, and suspensions of adhesive hard spheres with isotropic and patchy interactions in turn. The correlation between the percolation threshold and the length scale on which the Euler characteristic passes through zero is examined and found to be system-dependent. A scheme for the efficient calculation of the Euler characteristic with and without periodic boundary conditions is described.

  16. Radiation sensitive polymer gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiation sensitive gels are studied for their potential to retain a permanent 3D dose distribution for applications in radiotherapy. Co-monomers dissolved in a tissue-equivalent hydrogel undergo a polymerization reaction upon absorption of ionizing radiation. The polymer formed influences the local spin-spin relaxation time (T2) of the dosimeter that can be determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The relationship between T2 and the absorbed dose was studied for different initial chemical compositions. The aim was to find a model linking the changes in T2 with absorbed dose to the initial composition of the dosimeter. It is believed this will help designing new gel dosimeters having desired properties to minimize the uncertainty in the determination of the dose distribution. 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and FT-Raman spectroscopy were used to quantify the amount of monomers still remaining after the absorption of a given dose of radiation. This data is used to model the changes of T2 as a function of the absorbed dose. A model of fast exchange of magnetization between three proton pools was used, where the fraction of protons (fxH ) in the xth pool is obtained from the chemical composition of the dosimeter and the apparent T2 of each pool is determined for a given composition. Initially, the protons are contained in two pools; a mobile (mob), which contains the water protons and the monomers protons, and a gelatin (gela) proton pool. The mobile pool is partially depleted as polymer is formed, the protons are transferred into the polymer (pol) pool. In the figure, the experimental data along with the calculated values are plotted for three different monomer concentrations, with the gelatin concentration fixed. The model is seen to provide a good fit to the experimental data

  17. Recrystallization of amylopectin in concentrated starch gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keetels, CJAM; Oostergetel, GT; vanVliet, T

    1996-01-01

    The relation between the recrystallization of amylopectin and the increase in stiffness of starch gels during storage was studied by various techniques. From transmission electron microscopy it was concluded that the size of the crystalline domains in retrograded 30% w/w potato starch gels was about

  18. Serum release boosts sweetness intensity in gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Stieger, M.A.; Velde, van de F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of serum release on sweetness intensity in mixed whey protein isolate/gellan gum gels. The impact of gellan gum and sugar concentration on microstructure, permeability, serum release and large deformation properties of the gels was determined. With increasing gellan g

  19. Cracking silica gels for surface decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of silica based gels, oxidising and non-oxidising, have been developed and investigated for decontamination of fixed α, β, and γ contamination from contaminated surfaces of glove boxes, PVC floors, fume hood glass doors. Ceric ammonium nitrate dissolved in nitric acid was used as oxidant in oxidising gel. In non-oxidising gel, water soluble reagent; tetra ethyl diglycolamide (TEDGA) in nitric acid was used as complexing agent. Silica gel and PEG-400 was base material in both the cases. The gels were brushed on a stainless steel surface, on drying; these gels crack to yield flakes that were easily scrubbed from the surfaces. The flakes, concentrated in activity, was immobilised in cement for storage. Studies were carried out to investigate the effect of concentrations of oxidant, TEDGA and nitric acid for effective decontamination. Oxidising gels with 0.75 M Ce (IV) and 1 M Nitric acid have shown a maximum DF of 90 for fixed Pu contaminated SS surface. Non-oxidising gel showed a DF of 7 for similar surfaces with 0.075 M TEDGA, 1 M nitric acid and 1 M phosphoric acid. (author)

  20. Structure and Frictional Properties of Colloid Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Tokita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymer gels are known to be opaque when the preparation conditions, such as the reaction temperature and the composition, are changed. The increase of the opaqueness of the gel suggests strongly the change of network structure. Here, we are going to review the recent studies on the structure and the frictional study of the opaque poly(acrylamide gel. The results indicate that the opaque poly(acrylamide gel consists of the fractal aggregate of the colloidal particles of sub-micrometer in size. The density of the colloid particle is calculated from the structural parameters and is found to be of the order of about 1 g/cm3. The results indicate that the main chain component and the cross-linker is densely cross-linked into the particle. The frictional property of poly(acrylamide gel is analyzed in terms of the structural parameters of the gel. It is found that the frictional property of the opaque gel is well explained in terms of the structural parameters of the opaque gel.

  1. A new polymer gel dosimeter composed of methacrylic acid, agarose gel and THPC with gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a new type of methacrylic acid based gel dosimeter is presented. This gel contains both agarose and gelatin with deferent roles respectively. The agarose conducts itself as a gelling agent, while the gelatin relates to the graft reaction of methacrylic acid. This new type of gel excels in the long-term stability of R2 after irradiation. The characteristics of this gel were studied by the measurements of R2 with MRI and the direct measurements of temperature in the gel during the irradiation.

  2. Intelligent gels and cryogels with entrapped emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Galina A; Starodubtsev, Sergey G; Lozinsky, Vladimir I; Kalinina, Elena V; Landfester, Katharina; Khokhlov, Alexei R

    2008-05-01

    Smart thermoresponsive gels and cryogels with incorporated emulsions have been synthesized and studied. The gels were obtained by three-dimensional copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide and N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide or N,N'-bis(acryloyl)cystamine in the presence of dispersion of tetradecane stabilized with sodium dodecylsulfate. Polymerization was performed at room temperature and below the water crystallization temperature. Both composite gels and cryogels were capable of heat-induced collapse. The extent of the collapse of the composite gel prepared at room temperature was much smaller and without squeezing of the lipophilic phase out of the shrunk composite gel. In contrast, shrinking of the composite cryogel was accompanied by release of tetradecane emulsion. PMID:18386880

  3. Radiological properties of normoxic polymer gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological properties of the normoxic polymer gel dosimeters MAGIC, MAGAS, and MAGAT [methacrylic and ascorbic acid in gelatin initiated by copper; methacrylic acid gelatine gel with ascorbic acid; and methacrylic acid gelatine and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride, respectively] have been investigated. The radiological water equivalence was determined by comparing the polymer gel macroscopic photon and electron interaction cross sections over the energy range from 10 keV to 20 MeV and by Monte Carlo modeling of depth doses. Normoxic polymer gel dosimeters have a high gelatine and monomer concentration and therefore mass density (kg m-3) up to 3.8% higher than water. This results in differences between the cross-section ratios of the normoxic polymer gels and water of up to 3% for the attenuation, energy absorption, and collision stopping power coefficient ratios through the Compton dominant energy range. The mass cross-section ratios were within 2% of water except for the mass attenuation and energy absorption coefficients ratios, which showed differences with water of up to 6% for energies less than 100 keV. Monte Carlo modeling was undertaken for the polymer gel dosimeters to model the electron and photon transport resulting from a 6 MV photon beam. The absolute percentage differences between gel and water were within 1% and the relative percentage differences were within 3.5%. The results show that the MAGAT gel formulation is the most radiological water equivalent of the normoxic polymer gel dosimeters investigated due to its lower mass density measurement compared with MAGAS and MAGIC gels

  4. Ionic liquid gel materials: applications in green and sustainable chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Marr, Patricia C.; Marr, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquid gel materials offer a way to further utilise ionic liquids in technological applications. Combining the controlled and directed assembly of gels, with the diverse applications of ionic liquids, enables the design of a heady combination of functional tailored materials, leading to the development of task specific / functional ionic liquid gels. This review introduces gels and gel classification, focusing on ionic liquid gels and their potential roles in a more sustainable future. ...

  5. Water equivalence of polymer gel dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellakumar, P. [Bangalore Institute of Oncology, 44-45/2, II Cross, RRMR Extension, Bangalore-560 027 (India)]. E-mail: psellakumar@rediffmail.com; James Jebaseelan Samuel, E. [School of Science and Humanities, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore-632 014 (India); Supe, Sanjay S. [Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Hosur Road, Bangalore-560 027 (India)

    2007-07-15

    To evaluate the water equivalence and radiation transport properties of polymer gel dosimeters over the wide range of photon and electron energies 14 different types of polymer gels were considered. Their water equivalence was evaluated in terms of effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}), electron density ({rho}{sub e}), photon mass attenuation coefficient ({mu}/{rho}), photon mass energy absorption coefficient ({mu}{sub en}/{rho}) and total stopping power (S/{rho}){sub tot} of electrons using the XCOM and the ESTAR database. The study showed that the effective atomic number of polymer gels were very close (<1%) to that of water except PAGAT, MAGAT and NIPAM which had the variation of 3%, 2% and 3%, respectively. The value of {mu}/{rho} and {mu}{sub en}/{rho} for all polymer gels were in close agreement (<1%) with that of water beyond 80keV. The value of (S/{rho}){sub tot} of electrons in polymer gel dosimeters were within 1% agreement with that of water. From the study we conclude that at lower energy (<80keV) the polymer gel dosimeters cannot be considered water equivalent and study has to be carried out before using the polymer gel for clinical application.

  6. Halogen-bonding-triggered supramolecular gel formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meazza, Lorenzo; Foster, Jonathan A.; Fucke, Katharina; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Resnati, Giuseppe; Steed, Jonathan W.

    2013-01-01

    Supramolecular gels are topical soft materials involving the reversible formation of fibrous aggregates using non-covalent interactions. There is significant interest in controlling the properties of such materials by the formation of multicomponent systems, which exhibit non-additive properties emerging from interaction of the components. The use of hydrogen bonding to assemble supramolecular gels in organic solvents is well established. In contrast, the use of halogen bonding to trigger supramolecular gel formation in a two-component gel (‘co-gel’) is essentially unexplored, and forms the basis for this study. Here, we show that halogen bonding between a pyridyl substituent in a bis(pyridyl urea) and 1,4-diiodotetrafluorobenzene brings about gelation, even in polar media such as aqueous methanol and aqueous dimethylsulfoxide. This demonstrates that halogen bonding is sufficiently strong to interfere with competing gel-inhibitory interactions and create a ‘tipping point’ in gel assembly. Using this concept, we have prepared a halogen bond donor bis(urea) gelator that forms co-gels with halogen bond acceptors.

  7. Phantom for moving organ dosimetry with gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindran, Paul; Babu, Ebenezer Suman [Department of Radiation Oncology, Christian Medical College, Vellore India (India); Mahata, Anurupa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indo-American Cancer Hospital and Research Institute, Hyderabad (India)], E-mail: paul@cmcvellore.ac.in

    2009-05-01

    The displacements caused by the cardiac and respiratory motions cause smearing of the dose distribution that defeats the purpose of high precision radiotherapy. A phantom that holds a gel cylinder and radiochromic film, was designed and developed to simulate the respiratory motion in the superior and inferior directions. The effect of lung movement on dose distribution was studied by exposing gel as well as a radiochromic film using the phantom. The results obtained with Gel was comparable to those obtained with the radiochromic films.

  8. Phantom for moving organ dosimetry with gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Paul; Mahata, Anurupa; Suman Babu, Ebenezer

    2009-05-01

    The displacements caused by the cardiac and respiratory motions cause smearing of the dose distribution that defeats the purpose of high precision radiotherapy. A phontom that holds a gel cylinder and radiochromic film, was designed and developed to simulate the respiratory motion in the superior and inferior directions. The effect of lung movement on dose distribution was studied by exposing gel as well as a radiochromic film using the phantom. The results obtained with Gel was comparable to those obtained with the radiochromic films.

  9. Applications of sol gel ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sol gel method is a chemical technique in which polycrystalline ceramic films are fabricated from a solution of organometallic precursors. The technique is attractive for many industrial applications because it is a simple (films are processed in air), flexible (can be used to coat complex geometries) and cost effective (does not require expensive equipment) process. In addition, dense, high quality coatings can be achieved at much lower temperatures than is generally required for sintering bulk ceramics. In this paper the conventional sol gel method and the new datec process are reviewed and potential applications of sol gel coatings in automotive, aerospace, petrochemical, nuclear and electronic industries are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Critical behavior of modulus of gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokita, Masayuki; Niki, Ryoya; Hikichi, Kunio

    1985-09-01

    The critical behavior of the shear modulus of casein gel is studied. The shear modulus of casein gel scales with the conductivity exponent in the immediate vicinity of the sol-gel transition point. The asymptotic behavior of the modulus in the region far above the transition point is governed by a different exponent which is much larger than the conductivity exponent. These results are explainable by the crossover behavior of the percolation process. This study shows that the gelation of the casein micelle solution is a realization of the percolation process.

  11. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Birren, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis: A Practical Guide is the first laboratory manual to describe the theory and practice of this technique. Based on the authors' experience developing pulsed field gel instruments and teaching procedures, this book provides everything a researcher or student needs to know in order to understand and carry out pulsed field gel experiments. Clear, well-tested protocols assume only that users have a basic familiarity with molecular biology. Thorough coverage of useful data, theory, and applications ensures that this book is also a lasting resource for more adv

  12. Fan fictions eller adaptioner? : Om Amy Heckerlings spelfilm Clueless (1996) och Debra White Smiths roman Amanda (2006) mot Jane Austens roman Emma (1815)

    OpenAIRE

    Sundqvist, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Det huvudsakliga syftet med min uppsats var att utifrån originalverket Emma (1815) avJane Austen kunna bedöma vad två verk som inspirerats av romanen bör klassificeras som.De två verken var romanen Amanda (2006) av författaren Debra White Smith ochspelfilmen Clueless (1995) av regissören Amy Heckerling. Till min hjälp har jag lästaktuell forskning inom de två termerna adaption och fanfiction och utifrån detta gjort enjämförande analys på verken. Resultatet blev oväntat vagt, det visade sig at...

  13. Constructing a Merged Cloud-Precipitation Radar Dataset for Tropical Convective Clouds during the DYNAMO/AMIE Experiment at Addu Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Zhe; McFarlane, Sally A.; Schumacher, Courtney; Ellis, Scott; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Bharadwaj, Nitin

    2014-05-16

    To improve understanding of the convective processes key to the Madden-Julian-Oscillation (MJO) initiation, the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) collected four months of observations from three radars, the S-band Polarization Radar (S-Pol), the C-band Shared Mobile Atmospheric Research & Teaching Radar (SMART-R), and Ka-band Zenith Radar (KAZR) on Addu Atoll in the tropical Indian Ocean. This study compares the measurements from the S-Pol and SMART-R to those from the more sensitive KAZR in order to characterize the hydrometeor detection capabilities of the two scanning precipitation radars. Frequency comparisons for precipitating convective clouds and non-precipitating high clouds agree much better than non-precipitating low clouds for both scanning radars due to issues in ground clutter. On average, SMART-R underestimates convective and high cloud tops by 0.3 to 1.1 km, while S-Pol underestimates cloud tops by less than 0.4 km for these cloud types. S-Pol shows excellent dynamic range in detecting various types of clouds and therefore its data are well suited for characterizing the evolution of the 3D cloud structures, complementing the profiling KAZR measurements. For detecting non-precipitating low clouds and thin cirrus clouds, KAZR remains the most reliable instrument. However, KAZR is attenuated in heavy precipitation and underestimates cloud top height due to rainfall attenuation 4.3% of the time during DYNAMO/AMIE. An empirical method to correct the KAZR cloud top heights is described, and a merged radar dataset is produced to provide improved cloud boundary estimates, microphysics and radiative heating retrievals.

  14. Optical analysis of gel dosimeters: Comparison of Fricke and normoxic polymer gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G. [Department of Physics of University, Milan (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Milan (Italy)], E-mail: grazia.gambarini@mi.infn.it; Carrara, M. [Department of Physics of University, Milan (Italy); Department of Physics, National Cancer Institute of Milan (Italy); Mariani, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic of Milan (Italy); Pirola, L. [Department of Physics of University, Milan (Italy); Tomatis, S. [Department of Physics, National Cancer Institute of Milan (Italy); Valente, M. [Department of Physics of University, Milan (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Milan (Italy); Vanossi, E. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic of Milan (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Milan (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    The dosimetry method based on optical analysis of gel layers has been experienced utilising both Fricke and polymer (normoxic) gels. The aim of the work was that of investigating the potentiality of a normoxic polymer gel and of performing a further verification of the reliability of Fricke gel dosimeters. Optical absorbance was measured, both with a spectrophotometer and by imaging light transmittance detected with a CCD camera. The results of the study of sensitivity, linearity of the response and reproducibility of the polymer gel dosimeter have shown acceptable performances, except for doses below 2 Gy. The linearity range extends up to 20 Gy. On the other side, dose images and profiles have shown noticeable differences when compared to those calculated or measured with ionisation chambers or Fricke gel dosimeters. Such Fricke dosimeters have given further confirmation of their reliability.

  15. Coordination Polymer Gels by Electron Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Ha; Cho, Young Je; Jung, Jong Hwa [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Hydrogenation of a pyridine derivative possessing tetrazole moieties as end groups, without long alkyl chain groups, results in the formation of a Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} coordination polymer gel. The polymer exhibits a strong fluorescence enhancement upon gel formation. 1 can also be gloated with a variety of magnesium anions such as SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, Br{sup -} and I{sup -}, indicating that the coordination polymer gel formation of 1 does not strongly depends on anions. The Seam and ABM images of Mg{sup 2+} coordination polymer gel 1 display a flabbier network with several micrometers long, widths in the range 60-70 nm and thicknesses of about 3 nm. In addition, photophysical studies show that the hydrogel exhibits a typical {pi}-{pi} transition and gives rise to high fluorescence behavior. The coordination polymer hydrogel exhibits viscoelastic behavior as evidenced from the rheological studies.

  16. Coordination Polymer Gels by Electron Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogenation of a pyridine derivative possessing tetrazole moieties as end groups, without long alkyl chain groups, results in the formation of a Mg(NO3)2 coordination polymer gel. The polymer exhibits a strong fluorescence enhancement upon gel formation. 1 can also be gloated with a variety of magnesium anions such as SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, Br- and I-, indicating that the coordination polymer gel formation of 1 does not strongly depends on anions. The Seam and ABM images of Mg2+ coordination polymer gel 1 display a flabbier network with several micrometers long, widths in the range 60-70 nm and thicknesses of about 3 nm. In addition, photophysical studies show that the hydrogel exhibits a typical π-π transition and gives rise to high fluorescence behavior. The coordination polymer hydrogel exhibits viscoelastic behavior as evidenced from the rheological studies

  17. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Carol S.; Reed, Scott T.

    1990-01-01

    An antireflection film made from a reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  18. K-Basin gel formation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A key part of the proposed waste treatment for K Basin sludge is the elimination of reactive uranium metal by dissolution in nitric acid (Fkirnent, 1998). It has been found (Delegard, 1998a) that upon nitric acid dissolution of the sludge, a gel sometimes forms. Gels are known to sometimes impair solid/liquid separation and/or material transfer. The purpose of the work reported here is to determine the cause(s) of the gel formation and to determine operating parameters for the sludge dissolution that avoid formation of gel. This work and related work were planned in (Fkunent, 1998), (Jewett, 1998) and (Beck, 1998a). This report describes the results of the tests in (Beck, 1998a) with non-radioactive surrogates

  19. Procedure to prepare transparent silica gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Patrick G. (Inventor); Simpson, Norman R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to the production of silica gels and in particular to a process for the preparation of silica gels which can be used as a crystal growth medium that simulates the convectionless environment of space to produce structurally perfect crystals. Modern utilizations of substances in electronics, such as radio transmitters and high frequency microphones, often require single crystals with controlled purity and structural perfection. The near convectionless environment of silica gel suppresses nucleation, thereby reducing the competitive nature of crystal growth. This competition limits the size and perfection of the crystal; and it is obviously desirable to suppress nucleation until, ideally, only one crystal grows in a predetermined location. A silica gel is not a completely convectionless environment like outer space, but is the closest known environment to that of outer space that can be created on Earth.

  20. Maize Arabinoxylan Gels as Protein Delivery Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Martínez-López

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The laccase induced gelation of maize bran arabinoxylans at 2.5% (w/v in the presence of insulin or β-lactoglobulin at 0.1% (w/v was investigated. Insulin and β-lacto-globulin did not modify either the gel elasticity (9 Pa or the cross-links content (0.03 and 0.015 mg di- and triferulic acids/mg arabinoxylan, respectively. The protein release capability of the gel was also investigated. The rate of protein release from gels was dependent on the protein molecular weight. The apparent diffusion coefficient was 0.99 × 10-7 and 0.79 × 10-7 cm2/s for insulin (5 kDa and β-lactoglobulin (18 kDa, respectively. The results suggest that maize bran arabinoxylan gels can be potential candidates for the controlled release of proteins.

  1. Thixotropic corrosive gels for nuclear decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this thesis was the development of corrosive gels for metallic surface decontamination. These gels formulation, based on a powerful oxidant (the cerium IV), the nitric acid, a mineral charge (silica) and a non ionic surface-active, has been developed according to the specific constraints of the nuclear industry. The objective was to prepare thixotropic gels becoming liquid after shacking to allow an easy pulverization and coming again solid to permit a perfect adhesion on the metallic surface. This rheological study of the gels has been completed by an evaluation of their corrosive properties. The last part of the work presents an industrial utilization during two years. (A.L.B.)

  2. Radiation protection on polysaccharide solutions and gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of ionizing radiation on solutions of (1) sodium alginate, (2) alginate gels (wet and dry), (3) xanthan glum, (4), locust bean gum (LBG) and (5) carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), have been investigated. Problems arise in the radiation sterilization of these gums (either as a solution or gel) due to reduction in their viscosity and the gel strength, caused by the high doses (25kGy) commonly used for the purpose of sterilization. The alginates used here were manugel DMB, manugel DPB and manucol DMF. The irradiations were carried out using 60Co-γ-source and the gels and solutions were analysed by measurement of their apparent viscosities using a Brookfield viscometer L.V.T. (author)

  3. GEL criteria for moment condition models

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    GEL methods which generalize and extend previous contributions are defined and analysed for moment condition models specified in terms of weakly dependent data. These procedures offer alternative one-step estimators and tests that are asymptotically equivalent to their efficient two-step GMM counterparts. The basis for GEL estimation is via a smoothed version of the moment indicators using kernel function weights which incorporate a bandwidth parameter. Examples for the choice of bandwidth pa...

  4. Denaturing Urea Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (Urea PAGE)

    OpenAIRE

    Summer, Heike; Grämer, René; Dröge, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Urea PAGE or denaturing urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis employs 6-8 M urea, which denatures secondary DNA or RNA structures and is used for their separation in a polyacrylamide gel matrix based on the molecular weight. Fragments between 2 to 500 bases, with length differences as small as a single nucleotide, can be separated using this method1. The migration of the sample is dependent on the chosen acrylamide concentration. A higher percentage of polyacrylamide resolves lower molecula...

  5. Halogen-bonding-triggered supramolecular gel formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Meazza, L.; Foster, J. A.; Fucke, K.; Metrangolo, P.; Resnati, G.; Steed, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Supramolecular gels are topical soft materials involving the reversible formation of fibrous aggregates using non-covalent interactions. There is significant interest in controlling the properties of such materials by the formation of multicomponent systems, which exhibit non-additive properties emerging from interaction of the components. The use of hydrogen bonding to assemble supramolecular gels in organic solvents is well established. In contrast, the use of halogen bonding to trigger sup...

  6. Preprocessing of 1D gel electrophoresis image

    OpenAIRE

    Hlavatý, Matej

    2015-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis is an important method used for separation and analysis of macromolecules with electric potential. This well-established method has a big potential in medicine and science, however, the output images often suffer from distortion. This work describes several known sources of distortion and elaborates on existing methods of the track detection in gel electrophoresis. The core of this thesis introduces a new method to detect individual tracks and image pre-processing based on...

  7. Conducting Polymer Electrodes for Gel Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Katarina; Nilsson, Sara; Robinson, Nathaniel D

    2014-01-01

    In nearly all cases, electrophoresis in gels is driven via the electrolysis of water at the electrodes, where the process consumes water and produces electrochemical by-products. We have previously demonstrated that p-conjugated polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) can be placed between traditional metal electrodes and an electrolyte to mitigate electrolysis in liquid (capillary electroosmosis/electrophoresis) systems. In this report, we extend our previous result to gel ...

  8. Sol-Gels for Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podbielska, Halina; Ulatowska-Jarża, Agnieszka; Müller, Gerhard; Eichler, Hans J.

    Sol-gel process allows for formation of glassy and ceramics materials in temperatures much lower than offered by conventional melting techniques. The first paper on sol-gels was published over 150 years ago by Ebelmen, however, the rapid development of this technology and applications occurred in the last few years. There is a broad range of possible applications of solgel derived materials, what marked this technology as one of the most promising fields of contemporary material sciences

  9. Rheological Characterization of Ethanolamine Gel Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. S Jyoti, Botchu; Baek, Seung Wook

    2016-07-01

    Ethanolamine is considered to be an environmentally friendly propellant system because it has low toxicity and is noncarcinogenic in nature. In this article, efforts are made to formulate and prepare ethanolamine gel systems, using pure agarose and hybrids of paired gelling agents (agarose + polyvinylpyrrolidine (PVP), agarose + SiO2, and PVP + SiO2), that exhibit a measurable yield stress, thixotropic behavior under shear rate ranges of 1-1,000 s-1 and a viscoelastic nature. To achieve these goals, multiple rheological experiments (including flow and dynamic studies) are performed. In this article, results are presented from experiments measuring the apparent viscosity, yield stress, thixotropy, dynamic strain, frequency sweep, and tan δ behaviors, as well as the effects of the test temperature, in the gel systems. The results show that the formulated ethanolamine gels are thixotropic in nature with yield stress between 30 and 60 Pa. The apparent viscosity of the gel decreases as the test temperature increases, and the apparent activation energy is the lowest for the ethanolamine-(PVP + SiO2) gel system. The dynamic rheology study shows that the type of gellant, choice of hybrid gelling materials and their concentration, applied frequencies, and strain all vitally affect the viscoelastic properties of the ethanolamine gel systems. In the frequency sweep experiment, the ethanolamine gels to which agarose, agarose + PVP, and agarose + SiO2 were added behave like linear frequency-dependent viscoelastic liquids, whereas the ethanolamine gel to which PVP + SiO2 was added behaves like a nearly frequency-independent viscoelastic solid. The variation in the tan δ of these gelled propellants as a function of frequency is also discussed.

  10. Sol-gel derived PZT fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sol-gel routes were developed to prepare densified PZT fibers. The effects of the degree of hydrolysis and the addition of an organic polymer to the precursor sol on fiber forming ability were investigated. In this paper results on the crystalline and microstructural development of gels and fibers are presented. The effects of the incorporation of excess PbO and sintering atmosphere are also discussed, particularly in relation to densification

  11. Dynamic Scaling of Polymer Gels Comprising Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Alvaro V. N. C.; Geissler, Erik; Licinio, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    We present dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements of soft polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) and polyacrylamide(PA) polymer gels prepared with trapped bodies (latex spheres or maghemite nanoparticles). We show that the anomalous diffusivity of the trapped particles can be analyzed in terms of a fractal Gaussian network gel model for the entire time range probed by DLS technique. This model is a generalization of the Rouse model for linear chains extended for structures with power law network...

  12. Structure Formation in Acid Milk Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Heertje, I.; Visser, J.; Smits, P

    1985-01-01

    The structure formation in acid milk gels is influenced by many factors such as heat, salt system, pH, culture and thickening agents. Understanding of the mechanism of structure formation is important in order to be able to influence the final texture of these products. In the present study the network formation in acid milk gels during acidification is monitored by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Network formation appears to be a much more complex process than just an aggregation of ...

  13. Carbon gels derived from natural resources

    OpenAIRE

    Celzard, A.; Fierro, V.; Amaral-Labat, G.; Szczurek, A.; Braghiroli, F.; Parmentier, J.; Pizzi, A.; Grishechko, L. I.; Kuznetsov, B. N.

    2012-01-01

    [EN] Most carbon gels investigated so far and reported in the literature were prepared from resorcinol crosslinked with formaldehyde in water, and were generally dried with supercritical CO2 before being pyrolysed. In the present paper, through some selected examples, we show how valuable carbon gels can be derived from other phenolic resources having a natural origin. Special emphasis is given to tannin and lignin, both derived from wood, as potential precursors of...

  14. Optimized MR imaging for polyacrylamide gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyacrylamide gels are a powerful tool to measure radiation dose by quantifying the NMR T2 relaxation times of the irradiated gel. The exploitation of these radiation sensitive gels in clinical radiotherapy requires accurate mapping of T2 values. This paper describes the optimization strategy used to identify accurate and practical methods of measuring the range of T2 values typical of gel dosimeters (140-700 ms). The MR imaging techniques used to measure T2 values and the choice of image acquisition parameters are described. Four sequences are compared and the results are analysed in terms of accuracy, signal-to-noise ratio and acquisition time. A multiple spin echo sequence was found to yield the most accurate results (98.9%). Single spin echo sequences, such as Hahn spin echo and EPI spin echo, were found to measure gel T2 values with an accuracy of 90.1%. This paper reports the importance of careful selection and optimization of the MR imaging sequences for accurate and reliable polyacrylamide gel dosimetry. (author)

  15. Treatment of osteochondral injuries with platelet gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Danieli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Treatments for injured articular cartilage have not advanced to the point that efficient regeneration is possible. However, there has been an increase in the use of platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of several orthopedic disorders, including chondral injuries. Our hypothesis is that the treatment of chondral injuries with platelet gel results in higher-quality repair tissue after 180 days compared with chondral injuries not treated with gel. METHODS: A controlled experimental laboratory study was performed on 30 male rabbits to evaluate osteochondral injury repair after treatment with or without platelet gel. Osteochondral injuries were surgically induced in both knees of each rabbit at the medial femoral condyle. The left knee injury was filled with the platelet gel, and the right knee was not treated. Microscopic analysis of both knee samples was performed after 180 days using a histological grading scale. RESULTS: The only histological evaluation criterion that was not significantly different between treatments was metachromasia. The group that was treated with platelet gel exhibited superior results in all other criteria (cell morphology, surface regularity, chondral thickness and repair tissue integration and in the total score. CONCLUSION: The repair tissue was histologically superior after 180 days in the study group treated with platelet gel compared with the group of untreated injuries.

  16. Cavitation of a Physically Associating Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Satish; Kundu, Santanu

    Self-assembly of block copolymers in selective solvents form ordered structures such as micelles, vesicles, and physically crosslinked gels due to difference in their interaction with solvents. These gels have wide range of applications in tissue engineering, food science and biomedical field due to their tunable properties and responsiveness with changing environmental conditions. Pressurization of a defect inside a physically associating gel can lead to elastic instability (cavitation) leading to failure of the gel. The failure behavior involves dissociation of physical networks. A thermoreversible, physically associating gel with different volume fractions of a triblock copolymer, poly (methyl methacrylate)-poly (n-butyl acrylate)-poly (methyl methacrylate) [PMMA-PnBA-PMMA] in 2-ethyl 1-hexanol, a midblock selective solvent, is considered here. Mechanical properties were investigated using shear rheology and cavitation experiments. The experimental data is fitted with a constitutive model that captures the stiffening behavior followed by softening behavior of a physical gel. Finite element analysis has been performed on cavitation rheology geometry to capture the failure behavior and to calculate energy release rate during cavitation experiments.

  17. Study of nuclear glasses alteration gel and synthesis of some model gels; Etude du gel d`alteration des verres nucleaires et synthese de gels modeles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricol, S.

    1995-10-05

    This work deals with the general problem of alteration of the reference nuclear glass R7T7. Attention is paid particularly to the altered layer formed at the glass surface during alteration process. In opposition to previous works, related essentially to glass dissolution kinetics based on chemical analyses of lixiviated elements, this thesis deals with alteration problems through structural studies of the reference glass and derived gel. This approach allows the determination of mechanisms for the gel formation and a better understanding of the behaviour of glasses towards lixiviation. Both approaches appeared complementary. Based on several spectroscopic techniques, this work showed the particular role of cations such as calcium, zirconium and iron. Studies of silica-based synthetic gels showed the synergic effect of formers cation and of one highly coordinated cation. The variation of the wavenumber related to Si-O-Si asymmetric stretching vibration can be correlated to O/Si ratio for ternary systems Si/Na/Zr. On the contrary, the Si losses of the materials depend on the number of non-bridging oxygen atoms. In the perspective of long-term behaviour, the alteration gel presents better characteristics than initial glass. It is therefore a highly stable material in static conditions. In the same way, synthetic gels are materials with very low solubilities (much lower than the alteration gel) and could be used as confining matrices. (authors). refs., 71 figs., 37 tabs.

  18. Gel electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, K. [Chemical Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Zhang, L.Z.; West, R. [Organosilicon Research Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2008-03-10

    The electrochemical performance of gel electrolytes based on crosslinked poly[ethyleneoxide-co-2-(2-methoxyethyoxy)ethyl glycidyl ether-co-allyl glycidyl ether] was investigated using graphite/Li{sub 1.1}[Ni{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}]{sub 0.9}O{sub 2} lithium-ion cells. It was found that the conductivity of the crosslinked gel electrolytes was as high as 5.9 mS/cm at room temperature, which is very similar to that of the conventional organic carbonate liquid electrolytes. Moreover, the capacity retention of lithium-ion cells comprising gel electrolytes was also similar to that of cells with conventional electrolytes. Despite of the high conductivity of the gel electrolytes, the rate capability of lithium-ion cells comprising gel electrolytes is inferior to that of the conventional cells. The difference was believed to be caused by the poor wettability of gel electrolytes on the electrode surfaces. (author)

  19. Gel electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zonghai [Chemical Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Zhang, L.Z.; West, R. [Organosilicon Research Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Amine, K. [Chemical Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: amine@cmt.anl.gov

    2008-03-10

    The electrochemical performance of gel electrolytes based on crosslinked poly[ethyleneoxide-co-2-(2-methoxyethyoxy)ethyl glycidyl ether-co-allyl glycidyl ether] was investigated using graphite/Li{sub 1.1}[Ni{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}]{sub 0.9}O{sub 2} lithium-ion cells. It was found that the conductivity of the crosslinked gel electrolytes was as high as 5.9 mS/cm at room temperature, which is very similar to that of the conventional organic carbonate liquid electrolytes. Moreover, the capacity retention of lithium-ion cells comprising gel electrolytes was also similar to that of cells with conventional electrolytes. Despite of the high conductivity of the gel electrolytes, the rate capability of lithium-ion cells comprising gel electrolytes is inferior to that of the conventional cells. The difference was believed to be caused by the poor wettability of gel electrolytes on the electrode surfaces.

  20. Preparation of continuous alumina gel fibres by aqueous sol–gel process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hongbin Tan; Xiaoling Ma; Mingxing Fu

    2013-02-01

    Continuous alumina gel fibres were prepared by sol–gel method. The spinning sol was prepared by mixing aluminum nitrate, lactic acid and polyvinylpyrrolidone with a mass ratio of 10:3:1.5. Thermogravimetry–differential scanning calorimetry (TG–DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the properties of the gel and ceramic fibres. The Al2O3 fibres with a uniform diameter can be obtained by sintering gel fibres at 1200 °C.

  1. The fundamental radiation properties of normoxic polymer gel dosimeters: a comparison between a methacrylic acid based gel and acrylamide based gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer gel dosimeters offer a wide range of applications in the three-dimensional verification of complex dose distributions such as in intensity-modulated radiotherapy. One of the major difficulties with polymer gel dosimeters is their sensitivity to oxygen, as oxygen inhibits the radiation-induced polymerization reaction. For several years, oxygen was removed from the gels by bubbling the sol with inert gases for several hours during the gel fabrication. Also, the gel had to be poured in containers with low oxygen permeability and solubility. Recently, it was found that these technical difficulties can easily be solved by adding an antioxidant to the gel. These gels are called 'normoxic' gels as they can be produced under normal atmospheric conditions. In this study several properties of polymer gel dosimeters have been investigated: the dose sensitivity, the temporal and spatial stability of the gel, the sensitivity of the dose response to temperature during irradiation and during MR imaging, the energy dependence and the dose-rate dependence. This study reveals that the normoxic polymer gel dosimeter based on methacrylic acid (nMAG) studied in this work has inferior radiation properties as compared to the polyacrylamide gelatine (PAG) gel dosimeters. It is shown that from the three different gel dosimeters investigated in this study, the nPAG gel dosimeter results in a less sensitive gel dosimeter but with superior radiation properties as compared to the nMAG gel dosimeter. The importance of investigating relevant radiation properties of gel dosimeters apart from the radiation sensitivity-prior to their use for dosimetric validation experiments-is illustrated and emphasized throughout this study. Other combinations of monomer and gelling agent may result in more reliable normoxic polymer gel dosimeters

  2. Clinical Impact of Rapid Reduction of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level on Long-Term Outcome of Acute Myocardial Infarction in the Statin Era: Subanalysis of the ALPS-AMI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Miura

    Full Text Available The optimal period to achieve target percent reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C level for secondary prevention of acute myocardial infarction (AMI is not well established.The Assessment of Lipophilic vs. Hydrophilic Statin Therapy in AMI (ALPS-AMI study enrolled 508 patients (mean age, 66.0± 11.6 years; 80.6% male who were hospitalized for AMI and underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Of these patients, 81 were excluded because of the absence of LDL-C measurements at 4 weeks after randomization. In the remaining 427 patients, the target LDL-C level reduction of ≥30% was achieved and not reached within 4 weeks after randomization in 204 cases (early reduction group and 223 cases (late reduction group. The groups were formed prospectively and analyzed with regard to the composite end point (major adverse cardiovascular event [MACE]: all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and stroke and clinical outcomes.MACE were significantly more frequent in the late reduction group compared to the early reduction group (9.4% vs. 3.4%, P = 0.013. The incidence of cardiac deaths was also significantly higher in the late reduction group (3.1% vs. 0.5%, P = 0.044. On age-adjusted Cox proportional hazards analysis in statin-naïve patients, percent reduction of LDL-C level during the initial 4 weeks (HR, 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97-0.99, P = 0.042 and baseline LDL-C level (HR, 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97-0.99, P = 0.033 predicted adverse events.Rapid reduction of LDL-C level is strongly associated with favorable outcome in patients with AMI.

  3. Natural gels in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relict gels at Yucca Mountain include pore- and fracture-fillings of silica and zeolite related to diagenetic and hydrothermal alternation of vitric tuffs. Water-rich free gels in fractures at Rainier Mesa consist of smectite with or without silica-rich gel fragments. Gels are being studied for their potential role in transport of radionuclides from a nuclear-waste repository

  4. Uncertainty in 3D gel dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deene, Yves; Jirasek, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) gel dosimetry has a unique role to play in safeguarding conformal radiotherapy treatments as the technique can cover the full treatment chain and provides the radiation oncologist with the integrated dose distribution in 3D. It can also be applied to benchmark new treatment strategies such as image guided and tracking radiotherapy techniques. A major obstacle that has hindered the wider dissemination of gel dosimetry in radiotherapy centres is a lack of confidence in the reliability of the measured dose distribution. Uncertainties in 3D dosimeters are attributed to both dosimeter properties and scanning performance. In polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout, discrepancies in dose response of large polymer gel dosimeters versus small calibration phantoms have been reported which can lead to significant inaccuracies in the dose maps. The sources of error in polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout are well understood and it has been demonstrated that with a carefully designed scanning protocol, the overall uncertainty in absolute dose that can currently be obtained falls within 5% on an individual voxel basis, for a minimum voxel size of 5 mm3. However, several research groups have chosen to use polymer gel dosimetry in a relative manner by normalizing the dose distribution towards an internal reference dose within the gel dosimeter phantom. 3D dosimetry with optical scanning has also been mostly applied in a relative way, although in principle absolute calibration is possible. As the optical absorption in 3D dosimeters is less dependent on temperature it can be expected that the achievable accuracy is higher with optical CT. The precision in optical scanning of 3D dosimeters depends to a large extend on the performance of the detector. 3D dosimetry with X-ray CT readout is a low contrast imaging modality for polymer gel dosimetry. Sources of error in x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry (XCT) are currently under investigation and include inherent

  5. Hexagonal phase based gel-emulsion (O/H1 gel-emulsion): formation and rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Mydul; Aramaki, Kenji

    2008-11-01

    The formation, stability, and rheological behavior of a hexagonal phase based gel-emulsion (O/H1 gel-emulsion) have been studied in water/C12EO8/hydrocarbon oil systems. A partial phase behavior study indicates that the oil nature has no effect on the phase sequences in the ternary phase diagram of water/C12EO8/oil systems but the domain size of the phases or the oil solubilization capacity considerably changes with oil nature. Excess oil is in equilibrium with the hexagonal phase (H1) in the ternary phase diagram in the H1+O region. The O/H1 gel-emulsion was prepared (formation) and kept at 25 degrees C to check stability. It has been found that the formation and stability of the O/H1 gel-emulsion depends on the oil nature. After 2 min observation (formation), the results show that short chain linear hydrocarbon oils (heptane, octane) are more apt to form a O/H1 gel-emulsion compared to long chain linear hydrocarbon oils (tetradecane, hexadecane), though the stability is not good enough in either system, that is, oil separates within 24 h. Nevertheless, the formation and stability of the O/H1 gel-emulsion is appreciably increased in squalane and liquid paraffin. It is surmised that the high transition temperature of the H1+O phase and the presence of a bicontinuous cubic phase (V1) might hamper the formation of a gel-emulsion. It has been pointed out that the solubilization of oil in the H1 phase could be related to emulsion stability. On the other hand, the oil nature has little or no effect on the formation and stability of a cubic phase based gel-emulsion (O/I1 gel-emulsion). From rheological measurements, it has found that the rheogram of the O/H1 gel-emulsion indicates gel-type structure and shows shear thinning behavior similar to the case of the O/I1 gel-emulsion. Rheological data infer that the O/I1 gel-emulsion is more viscous than the O/H1 gel-emulsion at room temperature but the O/H1 gel-emulsion shows consistency at elevated temperature. PMID:18847293

  6. Different Applications of Rheological Techniques in Studies of Physical Gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    Physical gels are of both great scientific and practical interest. The cytoplasm of cells, which consists of a complex physical gel of protein filaments, is important for most of the cellular processes including cell division and cell motility. Nature has developed this complex system of...... biopolymer and physical gels [1,2]. The nature of physical gels has been debated for many years. In contrast to chemically crosslinked gels physical gels are often thermoreversible and small changes in e.g. temperature, pH or ionic strength may shift the system from a gel state to a sol state. Ole Kramer [3......] pointed out the importance of time scales for physical gels. According to him the characteristic property of a gel is the presence of two components and a constant elastic storage modulus on time scales of 1 s or frequencies of 1 rad/s. His definition of gels relies on their rheological properties...

  7. Fabricating porous materials using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Volosin, Alex

    2016-06-14

    Porous materials are fabricated using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels. A mixture or precursor solution including an inorganic gel precursor, an organic polymer gel precursor, and a solvent is treated to form an inorganic wet gel including the organic polymer gel precursor and the solvent. The inorganic wet gel is then treated to form a composite wet gel including an organic polymer network in the body of the inorganic wet gel, producing an interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gel. The composite wet gel is dried to form a composite material including the organic polymer network and an inorganic network component. The composite material can be treated further to form a porous composite material, a porous polymer or polymer composite, a porous metal oxide, and other porous materials.

  8. Pouring and Running a Protein Gel by reusing Commercial Cassettes

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Alexander C.; Grey, Paris H.; Cuddy, Katrina; Oppenheimer, David G.

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of proteins using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis is a common technique used by biochemistry and molecular biology researchers1-4. For laboratories that perform daily analyses of proteins, the cost of commercially available polyacrylamide gels (˜$10/gel) can be considerable over time. To mitigate this cost, some researchers prepare their own polyacrylamide gels. Traditional methods of pouring these gels typically utilize specialized...

  9. Interaction between hepatocytes and collagen gel in hollow fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Jing; Zhang, Guo-Liang; Meng, Qin

    2009-01-01

    Gel entrapment culture of primary mammalian cells within collagen gel is one important configuration for construction of bioartificial organ as well as in vitro model for predicting drug situation in vivo. Gel contraction in entrapment culture, resulting from cell-mediated reorganization of the extracellular matrix, was commonly used to estimate cell viability. However, the exact influence of gel contraction on cell activities has rarely been addressed. This paper investigated the gel contrac...

  10. Characterization of schistosome antigens by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separation of polypeptides by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is based upon the relationship between the electrophoretic mobility of SDS-protein complexes and their molecular weights. Tegumental proteins extracted from Schistosoma mansoni have been analyzed by SDS-PAGE using slab gels by a number of investigators. Valuable information has also been obtained using tube gels to analyze radiolabeled proteins. The procedures for electrophoresis using tube gels and electrophoresis using gradient slab gels are described

  11. Optimal processing for gel electrophoresis images: Applying Monte Carlo Tree Search in GelApp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phi-Vu; Ghezal, Ali; Hsueh, Ya-Chih; Boudier, Thomas; Gan, Samuel Ken-En; Lee, Hwee Kuan

    2016-08-01

    In biomedical research, gel band size estimation in electrophoresis analysis is a routine process. To facilitate and automate this process, numerous software have been released, notably the GelApp mobile app. However, the band detection accuracy is limited due to a band detection algorithm that cannot adapt to the variations in input images. To address this, we used the Monte Carlo Tree Search with Upper Confidence Bound (MCTS-UCB) method to efficiently search for optimal image processing pipelines for the band detection task, thereby improving the segmentation algorithm. Incorporating this into GelApp, we report a significant enhancement of gel band detection accuracy by 55.9 ± 2.0% for protein polyacrylamide gels, and 35.9 ± 2.5% for DNA SYBR green agarose gels. This implementation is a proof-of-concept in demonstrating MCTS-UCB as a strategy to optimize general image segmentation. The improved version of GelApp-GelApp 2.0-is freely available on both Google Play Store (for Android platform), and Apple App Store (for iOS platform). PMID:27251892

  12. Sol-gel processing of metal sulfides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanic, Vesha

    Metal sulfides were synthesised via a sol-gel process using various metal alkoxides and hydrogen sulfide in toluene. Colloidal gels were prepared from germanium ethoxide, germanium isopropoxide, zinc tert-butoxide and tungsten (VI) ethoxide, whereas colloidal powder was produced from tungsten (V) dichloride ethoxide. Special precautions were necessary to protect the reaction mixture from water contamination which produced metal oxides. Results indicated that the main source of water is the hydrogen sulfide gas. In addition, synthesis of metal sulfides from a mixture of metal oxide and sulfide was demonstrated by the example of monoclinic germanium disulfide. It was produced by reaction of the sol-gel product with sulfur. Heat treatment of the sol-gel product and sulfur yielded single phase GeSsb2. The sol-gel prepared materials and their heat treated products were characterized by various methods. A chemical kinetics study of the functional groups -OR, -SH and Ssp{2-} was carried out for the sol-gel processing of GeSsb2 from of hydrogen sulfide and two different alkoxides, germanium ethoxide and germanium isopropoxide. The study was performed for different concentrations of precursors at different molar ratios and temperatures. The results indicate that the proposed reaction mechanism was simplified under appropriate reaction conditions. Experimentally determined rate constants of thiolysis and condensations demonstrate that thiolysis is slow and that condensations are fast steps, regardless of the studied reaction conditions. A study of the temperature effect on the reaction rate constant shows that it increases with temperature in accord with both Arrhenius law and transition-state theory. Activation energies, Esba, and activation parameters DeltaSsp{ddagger}, DeltaHsp{ddagger} and DeltaGsp{ddagger}, were determined for thiolysis and condensation reactions. The potentiometric tiration method was used for quantitative determination of germanium sulfide and

  13. DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2004-03-24

    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

  14. Continuum Models of Stimuli-responsive Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei

    Immersed in a solution of small molecules and ions, a network of long-chain polymers may imbibe the solution and swell, resulting in a polymeric gel. Depending on the molecular structure of the polymers, the amount of swelling can be regulated by moisture, mechanical forces, ionic strength, electric field, pH value, and many other types of stimuli. Starting from the basic principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, this chapter formulates a field theory of the coupled large deformation and mass transportation in a neutral polymeric gel. The theory is then extended to study polyelectrolyte gels with charge-carrying networks by accounting for the electromechanical coupling and migration of solute ions. While the theoretical framework is adaptable to various types of material models, some representative ones are described through specific free-energy functions and kinetic laws. A specific material law for pH-sensitive gels—a special type of polyelectrolyte gels—is introduced as an example of incorporating chemical reactions in modeling stimuli-responsive gels. Finally, a simplified theory for the equilibrium but inhomogeneous swelling of a polymeric gel is deduced. The theory and the specific material models are illustrated through several examples.

  15. Structural evolution of Colloidal Gels under Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boromand, Arman; Maia, Joao; Jamali, Safa

    Colloidal suspensions are ubiquitous in different industrial applications ranging from cosmetic and food industries to soft robotics and aerospace. Owing to the fact that mechanical properties of colloidal gels are controlled by its microstructure and network topology, we trace the particles in the networks formed under different attraction potentials and try to find a universal behavior in yielding of colloidal gels. Many authors have implemented different simulation techniques such as molecular dynamics (MD) and Brownian dynamics (BD) to capture better picture during phase separation and yielding mechanism in colloidal system with short-ranged attractive force. However, BD neglects multi-body hydrodynamic interactions (HI) which are believed to be responsible for the second yielding of colloidal gels. We envision using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) with modified depletion potential and hydrodynamic interactions, as a coarse-grain model, can provide a robust simulation package to address the gel formation process and yielding in short ranged-attractive colloidal systems. The behavior of colloidal gels with different attraction potentials under flow is examined and structural fingerprints of yielding in these systems will be discussed.

  16. Mucosal effects of tenofovir 1% gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Florian; Burgener, Adam; Ballweber, Lamar; Gottardo, Raphael; Vojtech, Lucia; Fourati, Slim; Dai, James Y; Cameron, Mark J; Strobl, Johanna; Hughes, Sean M; Hoesley, Craig; Andrew, Philip; Johnson, Sherri; Piper, Jeanna; Friend, David R; Ball, T Blake; Cranston, Ross D; Mayer, Kenneth H; McElrath, M Juliana; McGowan, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Tenofovir gel is being evaluated for vaginal and rectal pre-exposure prophylaxis against HIV transmission. Because this is a new prevention strategy, we broadly assessed its effects on the mucosa. In MTN-007, a phase-1, randomized, double-blinded rectal microbicide trial, we used systems genomics/proteomics to determine the effect of tenofovir 1% gel, nonoxynol-9 2% gel, placebo gel or no treatment on rectal biopsies (15 subjects/arm). We also treated primary vaginal epithelial cells from four healthy women with tenofovir in vitro. After seven days of administration, tenofovir 1% gel had broad-ranging effects on the rectal mucosa, which were more pronounced than, but different from, those of the detergent nonoxynol-9. Tenofovir suppressed anti-inflammatory mediators, increased T cell densities, caused mitochondrial dysfunction, altered regulatory pathways of cell differentiation and survival, and stimulated epithelial cell proliferation. The breadth of mucosal changes induced by tenofovir indicates that its safety over longer-term topical use should be carefully monitored. PMID:25647729

  17. Superconductive ceramics obtained with sol gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several sol gel routes have been considered, studied and developed to produce large quantities of granulates which can be processed to obtain ceramics having good superconducting characteristics. In the considered process a mixture of commercial nitrates is atomized, at room temperature, in a solution 1:1 of Primene JMT and Benzene and a pale blue gel of the starting elements is suddently formed. The granulates obtained are free flowing, very reactive and well suited for pressing. For their intrinsic characteristics they could be very good precursors for the production of large quantities of superconductive ceramics in different forms. The precipitated gel is dried, calcinated, pressed in the form of cylindrical pellets which are sintered up to 960 degrees C. No griding or different thermal treatments are needed. The sintered material has low electric resistence, shows a clear Meissner effect and has a transition temperature of between 91 and 95 K

  18. Carbon gels derived from natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Celzard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most carbon gels investigated so far and reportedin the literature were prepared from resorcinolcrosslinked with formaldehyde in water, and weregenerally dried with supercritical CO2 before beingpyrolysed. In the present paper, through someselected examples, we show how valuable carbongels can be derived from other phenolic resourceshaving a natural origin. Special emphasis is givento tannin and lignin, both derived from wood, aspotential precursors of carbon aero- and cryogels.However, natural compounds not obeying the usualconcepts of sol-gel chemistry may also be used forpreparing carbon gels, such as cellulose, and evenglucose. In the latter case, hydrothermal treatmentforces the phase separation to occur, and leads tomonoliths which can be advantageously convertedinto carbon aerogels by supercritical drying andsubsequent pyrolysis.

  19. On the scattering properties of polyelectrolyte gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrat, Jean-Louis; Joanny, Jean-François; Pincus, Phil

    1992-08-01

    We present a simple model for scattering properties of polyelectrolyte gels at swelling equilibrium. In the weak screening limit where the Debye-Hückel screening length is larger than the mesh size of the gel, the direct electrostatic interactions are negligible and the swelling is driven by the osmotic pressure of the counterions. The tension created by this pressure is transmitted through the crosslinks to the elastic chains which behave as isolated chains with an applied force at their end points. The structure factor of the gel can be split into a frozen component due to the average concentration heterogeneities and a thermodynamic component due to concentration fluctuations. The frozen component has a peak at a wavevector of the order of the mesh size of the gel, the thermodynamic component has a peak at a higher wavevector of the order of the inverse transverse radius of the chains. At infinite times the dynamic structure factor relaxes towards the frozen component of the static structure factor. In the limit of small wavevectors the relaxation is diffusive with a diffusion constant equal to the Stokes diffusion constant of the Pincus blobs of the stretched chains. The diffusion constant shows a minimum at a wavevector of the order of the inverse transverse radius of the chains. Nous présentons un modèle simple pour étudier la diffusion de rayonnement par des gels polylectrolytes à l'équilibre de gonflement. Dans la limite d'écrantage faible où la longueur d'écran de Debye-Hückel est plus grande que la maille du gel, les interactions électrostatiques directes sont négligeables et le gonflement est dû à la pression osmotique des contreions. La tension créée par cette pression est transmise par les noeuds du gel aux chaines élastiques qui se comportent comme des chaines isolées avec une force extérieure appliquée aux extrémités. Le facteur de structure du gel est la somme d'une composante gelée due aux hétérogénéités de concentration

  20. SURFACE DYNAMIC FRICTION OF POLYMER GELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.P.Gong; G.Kagata; Y.Iwasaki; Y.Osada

    2000-01-01

    The sliding friction of various kinds of hydrogels has been studied and it was found that the frictional behaviors of the hydrogels do not conform to Amonton's law F =μW which well describes the friction of solids. The frictional force and its dependence on the load are quite different depending on the chemical structures of the gels, surface properties of the opposing substrates, and the measurement condition. The gel friction is explained in terms of interfacial interaction, either attractive or repulsive, between the polymer chain and the solid surface. According to this model, the friction is ascribed to the viscous flow of solvent at the interface in the repulsive case. In the attractive case, the force to detach the adsorbing chain from the substrate appears as friction. The surface adhesion between glass particles and gels measured by AFM showed a good correlation with the friction, which supported the repulsion-adsorption model proposed by the authors.

  1. Mass and Hot Baryons in Massive Galaxy Clusters from Subaru Weak-Lensing and AMiBA Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich Effect Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umetsu, Keiichi; Birkinshaw, Mark; Liu, Guo-Chin; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Medezinski, Elinor; Broadhurst, Tom; Lemze, Doron; Zitrin, Adi; Ho, Paul T. P.; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Koch, Patrick M.; Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Molnar, Sandor M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Ming-Tang; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Jiang, Homin; Kesteven, Michael; Kubo, Derek Y.; Li, Chao-Te; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter; Raffin, Philippe; Wei, Tashun; Wilson, Warwick

    2009-04-01

    We present a multiwavelength analysis of a sample of four hot (TX > 8 keV) X-ray galaxy clusters (A1689, A2261, A2142, and A2390) using joint AMiBA Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) and Subaru weak-lensing observations, combined with published X-ray temperatures, to examine the distribution of mass and the intracluster medium (ICM) in massive cluster environments. Our observations show that A2261 is very similar to A1689 in terms of lensing properties. Many tangential arcs are visible around A2261, with an effective Einstein radius ~40'' (at z ~ 1.5), which when combined with our weak-lensing measurements implies a mass profile well fitted by a Navarro-Frenk-White model with a high concentration c vir ~ 10, similar to A1689 and to other massive clusters. The cluster A2142 shows complex mass substructure, and displays a shallower profile (c vir ~ 5), consistent with detailed X-ray observations which imply recent interaction. The AMiBA map of A2142 exhibits an SZE feature associated with mass substructure lying ahead of the sharp northwest edge of the X-ray core suggesting a pressure increase in the ICM. For A2390 we obtain highly elliptical mass and ICM distributions at all radii, consistent with other X-ray and strong-lensing work. Our cluster gas fraction measurements, free from the hydrostatic equilibrium assumption, are overall in good agreement with published X-ray and SZE observations, with the sample-averaged gas fraction of langf gas(

  2. Effect of Drug modification on properties of Ketoprofen Transdermal Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Ahmed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop Ketoprofen (KPF gel for tansdermal delivery that could enhance dissolution and permeability of KPFand to study the change in release and permeation of transdermal gel after formulating KPF as niosomes and solid dispersions. KPF gels were prepared using Carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC, hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC and methyl cellulose (MC with and without permeation enhancers (Tween 80 and Oleic acid. The effect of the polymers and permeation enhancers on the in vitro release and permeation was tested. The best formula was formulated as niosomal and solid dispersion gels. The effect of drug modification on the properties of KPF gel was examined. The results showed that both polymers and permeation enhancers affect release and permeation of KPF transdermal gel. The release and permeation from the niosomal gel were highly prolonged when compared to conventional gel .On the other hand, they were enhanced from the solid dispersion gel.

  3. Process for encapsulating active agents in gels

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, G.; Jongboom, R.O.J.; Oosterhaven, J.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for encapsulating an active agent in a biopolymer in the form of a gel, comprising the steps of: a) forming a dispersion or solution of the biopolymer in water; and b) adding the active agent to the dispersion or solution obtained in step a); wherein the biopolymer is at least partially dissolved before and/or after addition of the active agent. The gels obtained with the present invention are particularly suitable for coating or impregnating packagi...

  4. Alignment and nonlinear elasticity in biopolymer gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jingchen; Levine, Herbert; Mao, Xiaoming; Sander, Leonard M.

    2015-04-01

    We present a Landau-type theory for the nonlinear elasticity of biopolymer gels with a part of the order parameter describing induced nematic order of fibers in the gel. We attribute the nonlinear elastic behavior of these materials to fiber alignment induced by strain. We suggest an application to contact guidance of cell motility in tissue. We compare our theory to simulation of a disordered lattice model for biopolymers. We treat homogeneous deformations such as simple shear, hydrostatic expansion, and simple extension, and obtain good agreement between theory and simulation. We also consider a localized perturbation which is a simple model for a contracting cell in a medium.

  5. Free forming of the gel by 3D gel printer SWIM-ER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Koji; Tase, Taishi; Saito, Azusa; Makino, Masato; Gong, Jin; Kawakami, Masaru; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2015-04-01

    Gels, soft and wet materials, have unique properties such as material permeability, biocompatibility and low friction, which are hardly found in hard and dry materials. These superior characteristics of hydrogels promise to expand the medical applications. In recent years, the optical 3D gel printer named SWIM-ER (Soft and Wet Industrial - Easy Realizer) was developed by our team in order to fabricate tough gels with free form. We are aiming to create artificial blood vessel of the gel material by 3D gel printer. Artificial blood vessel is expected to be used for vascular surgery practice. The artificial blood vessel made by 3D gel printer can be create to free form on the basis of the biological data of the patient. Therefore, we believe it is possible to contribute to increasing the success rate and safety of vascular surgery by creating artificial blood vessel with 3D gel printer. The modeling method of SWIM-ER is as follow. Pregel solution is polymerized by one-point UV irradiation with optical fiber. The irradiation area is controlled by computer program, so that exact 3D free forming is realized. In this study, synthesis conditions are re-examined in order to improve the degree of freedom of fabrication. The dimensional accuracy in height direction is improved by increasing the cross linker concentration. We examined the relationship of resolution to the pitch and UV irradiation time in order to improve the modeling accuracy.

  6. Effect of gel matrix confinement on the solvent dynamics in supramolecular gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, Joanna; Rachocki, Adam; Bielejewski, Michał; Tritt-Goc, Jadwiga

    2016-06-15

    Supramolecular gels formed by the sugar gelator of methyl-4,6-O-(p-nitrobenzylidene)-α-d-glucopyranoside (1) with 1,3-propanediol (PG) and 1-butanol (BU) were prepared with different gelator concentrations. The solvent dynamics within gels, characterized by the diffusion coefficient (D) and the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1), was the subject of NMR diffusometry and relaxometry studies. The diffusion was studied as a function of diffusion time and gelator concentrations. The relaxation time was measured as a function of Larmor frequency. The decrease of the diffusion coefficient was observed as a function of diffusion time for both gels and for all studied gelator concentrations. It is indicative of the confinement effect due to the geometrical restrictions of the gel matrix. The relaxation data for PG solvent confined in 1/PG gel revealed the low frequency dispersion (in kHz region) which is a fingerprint of a specific interaction experienced by PG solvents in the presence of the rigid structure of gelator 1 aggregates. The relaxation model, well known from the interpretation of liquid confined in nanopores as reorientations mediated by translational displacements (RMTD), was successfully applied to analyze the data of studied solvents confined in matrices of supramolecular gels. The microstructures of gel matrices were imaged by Polarized Microscopy. PMID:27003500

  7. The mechanism and properties of acid-coagulated milk gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanokphat Phadungath

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Acid-coagulated milk products such as fresh acid-coagulated cheese varieties and yogurt areimportant dairy food products. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms involved in gel formation, physical properties of acid gels, and the effects of processing variables such as heat treatment and gelation temperature on the important physical properties of acid milk gels. This paper reviews the modern concepts of possible mechanisms involved in the formation of particle milk gel aggregation, along with recent developments including the use of techniques such as dynamic low amplitude oscillatory rheology to observe the gel formation process, and confocal laser scanning microscopy to monitor gel microstructure.

  8. Multiple-phase behavior and memory effect of polymer gel

    CERN Document Server

    Annaka, M; Nakahira, T; Sugiyama, M; Hara, K; Matsuura, T

    2002-01-01

    A poly(4-acrylamidosalicylic acid) gel (PASA gel) exhibits multiple phases as characterized by distinct degrees of swelling; the gel can take one of four different swelling values, but none of the intermediate values. The gel has remarkable memory: the phase behavior of the gel depends on whether the gel has experienced the most swollen phase or the most collapsed phase in the immediate past. The information is stored and reversibly erased in the form of a macroscopic phase transition behavior. The structure factors corresponding to these four phases were obtained by SANS, which indicated the presence of characteristic structures depending on pH and temperature, particularly in the shrunken state. (orig.)

  9. Formation of macroporous gel morphology by phase separation in the silica sol-gel system containing nonionic surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junsheng Wu; Xiaogang Li; Wei Du; Hua Chen

    2005-01-01

    The phase separation and gel formation behavior in an alkoxy-derived silica sol-gel system containing Ci6EOi5 has been investigated. Various gel morphologies similar to other sol-gel systems containing organic additives were obtained by changing the preparation conditions. Micrometer-range interconnected porous gels were obtained by freezing transitional structures of phase separation in the sol-gel process. The dependence of the resulting gel morphology on several important reaction parameters such as the starting composition, reaction temperature and acid catalyst concentration was studied in detail. The experimental results indicate that the gel morphology is mainly determined by the time relation between the onset of phase separation and gel formation.

  10. Synthesis of porphyrin-introduced silica gels by sol-gel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hidekazu; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Sugiyama, Shinichiro; Shiratori, Hideo; Hino, Ryozi

    2005-06-15

    Using a hydroxyl group appended free base porphyrin derivative (HP), porphyrin-introduced silica gels were synthesized by a sol-gel process. The HP content in the materials linearly increased with increasing the HP concentration. Meanwhile, free base tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) with no hydroxyl groups were almost not incorporated into the silica gels. These facts suggested that the interaction between hydroxyl groups of the HP molecules and silica network is considerably strong. The UV-vis characters of HP-introduced materials were almost the same as pure HP molecules. The Beer's plot indicated that the HP molecules in the materials are dispersed. PMID:15897099

  11. Construction and deconstruction of Orientalism in Amy Tan's novels%论谭恩美对东方主义的构建与解构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰

    2012-01-01

    Amy Tan is one of the most powerful figures among Chinese-American female writers,whose novels abound in oriental elements.Her perspective of a woman with Chinese descent and dual identities on the one hand,overstate the differences between the oriental and the occidental cultures,on the other expresses her desire for equal multi-cultural communications,which has deconstructed Orientalism to some extent.%谭恩美是当今最有影响力的美籍华裔作家之一,她小说中存在着大量的较为典型的东方主义元素,她以华裔女性的视角和双重文化身份夸大了东方与西方文化的差异,同时又表达了多元文化平等交流的愿望,在一定程度解构了东方主义。

  12. Polyacrylamide gel polymerization with adjustable gelation rate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiesner, Ivo; Wiesnerová, Dana

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 32, - (2002), s. 740-742. ISSN 0736-6205 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK5052113; GA ČR GA521/00/0075 Keywords : polyacrylamide gel Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.173, year: 2002

  13. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of soybean seed proteins

    OpenAIRE

    W. Lassocińsk; J. S. Knypl

    2015-01-01

    Four major and 14 minor protein bands were detected when total salt soluble proteins of soybean (Glycine max cultivar Warszawska) seed were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under nondissociating conditions, and 16 protein bands were detected under dissociating conditions. Molecular weights of three major protein fractions in PAGE SDS were determined for around 18 500, 36 000 and 80 000 daltons.

  14. Calcium Impact on Milk Gels Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutina, Glykeria

    of temperature and pH may result in different final structure properties in dairy products such as cheese. A significant amount of calcium remained in the micelles between pH 4.8 and 4.6, this can contribute to the final strength of acid milk gels, such as in yogurt or in cream cheeses. After the gelation point...

  15. Sol-gel Application in the Environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaštánek, František; Šolcová, Olga; Maléterová, Ywetta

    Maribor: Univerza v Mariboru, 2013. [Nanofuture. Maribor (SI), 03.02.2013-07.02.2013] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020804 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : sol-gel methods * biosenzors * environment monitoring Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  16. Bioluminescent Bioreporters Encapsulated in Silica Gel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuncová, Gabriela; Trögl, J.; Demnerová, K.; Ripp, S.; Sayler, G. S.

    -: -, 2008, O08-2 - 1-O08-2 - 4. [XVI International Conference on Bioencapsulation. Dublin (IE), 04.09.2008-06.09.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : bioluminescent bioreporter * silica gel * biosensor Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  17. The repton model of gel electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Barkema, G. T.; Newman, M. E. J.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the repton model of agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA. We review previous results, both analytic and numerical, as well as presenting a new numerical algorithm for the efficient simulation of the model, and suggesting a new approach to the model's analytic solution.

  18. Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza;

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar...

  19. Mechanical properties and morphology of polymer gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliozberg, Yelena; Sirk, Timothy; Brennan, John; Andzelm, Jan; Mrozek, Randy; Lenhart, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Understanding morphology and mechanical response of polymeric gels is of particular importance to design materials with required energy dissipation characteristics. We will present our latest results for polymer gels based on 1) self-assembled block copolymers and 2) chemically cross-linked polymers. The dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) was used to predict morphology in good agreement with atomic force microscopy. We have performed DPD non-equilibrium oscillatory shear calculations predicting elastic modulus of unentangled gels that correlates well with experimental rheology data. However, this methodology fails to predict mechanics of entangled polymer networks due to unphysical chain crossing brought by the soft potentials used in DPD simulations. Recently, we have introduced an improved segmental repulsion potential that removes the bond crossing allowing for reptation dynamics. The improved DPD method was used in simulations for entangled gels to explore impact of branched architecture of solvent on the mechanical response to the tensile deformation. Novel architectures of solvent resulting in a dramatic increase of the elastic modulus were identified. The topological analysis was applied to understand contributions of chemical cross-links and entanglements to the stress.

  20. The charge transport in polymeric gel electrolytes

    CERN Document Server

    Reiche, A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present thesis consisted in the study of the charge transport in gel electrolytes, which were obtained by photopolymerization of oligo(ethylene glycol) sub n -dimethacrylates with n=3, 9, and 23, and the survey of structure and property relations for the optimization of the electrolyte composition. The pressure dependence of the electric conductivity was measured. (HSI)

  1. Ordering phenomena in ABA triblock copolymer gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynders, K.; Mischenko, N.; Kleppinger, R.; Reynaers, H.; Koch, M.H.J.; Mortensen, K.

    1997-01-01

    Temperature and concentration dependencies of the degree of order in ABA triblock copolymer gels are discussed. Two factors can influence the ordering phenomena: the conformation of the midblocks (links of the network) and the polydispersity of the endblock domains (nodes of the network). The...

  2. Simple Cloud Chambers Using Gel Ice Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Kubota, Miki

    2012-01-01

    Although cloud chambers are highly regarded as teaching aids for radiation education, school teachers have difficulty in using cloud chambers because they have to prepare dry ice or liquid nitrogen before the experiment. We developed a very simple and inexpensive cloud chamber that uses the contents of gel ice packs which can substitute for dry…

  3. Effectiveness of Gel Repellents on Feral Pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte Stock

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Millions of feral pigeons (Columba livia live in close association with the human population in our cities. They pose serious health risks to humans and lead to high economic loss due to damage caused to buildings. Consequently, house owners and city authorities are not willing to allow pigeons on their buildings. While various avian repellents are regularly introduced onto the market, scientific proof of efficacy is lacking. This study aimed at testing the effectiveness of two avian gel repellents and additionally examined their application from animal welfare standpoint. The gels used an alleged tactile or visual aversion of the birds, reinforced by additional sensory cues. We mounted experimental shelves with the installed repellents in a pigeon loft and observed the behavior of free-living feral pigeons towards the systems. Both gels showed a restricted, transient repellent effect, but failed to prove the claimed complete effectiveness. Additionally, the gels’ adhesive effect remains doubtful in view of animal welfare because gluing of plumage presents a risk to feral pigeons and also to other non-target birds. This study infers that both gels lack the promised complete efficacy, conflict with animal welfare concerns and are therefore not suitable for feral pigeon management in urban areas.

  4. Growth of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on silica gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Muñoz, E M; Huirache-Acuña, R; Velázquez, R; Alonso-Núñez, G; Eguía-Eguía, S

    2011-06-01

    Synthetic, hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were grown on the surface of silica gels. The synthesis of those nanoparticles was obtained by immersing silica gels in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 degrees C. The SBF was replaced every week to keep constant the Ca and P ion concentration and subsequent growth of hydroxyapatite was evaluated after 1-6 weeks of total soaking time in SBF. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the surface of silica gel samples and confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) and powder X-ray Diffractometry (XRD) analysis. These particles show a regular shape and uniform size every week, keeping within the nanoscale always. Both the size and morphology of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles obtained are the result of the use of different chemical additives in the synthesis of silica gels, since they affect the liquid-to-solid interface, and the growth could correspond to a diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) process. A more detailed analysis, with higher magnifications, showed that hydroxyapatite nanoparticles are not solid spheres, showing a branched texture and their size depends on the scale and resolution of the measure instrument. PMID:21770224

  5. Screening of mucoadhesive vaginal gel formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ochoa Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rational design of vaginal drug delivery formulations requires special attention to vehicle properties that optimize vaginal coating and retention. The aim of the present work was to perform a screening of mucoadhesive vaginal gels formulated with carbomer or carrageenan in binary combination with a second polymer (carbomer, guar or xanthan gum. The gels were characterised using in vitroadhesion, spreadability and leakage potential studies, as well as rheological measurements (stress and frequency sweep tests and the effect of dilution with simulated vaginal fluid (SVF on spreadability. Results were analysed using analysis of variance and multiple factor analysis. The combination of polymers enhanced adhesion of both primary gelling agents, carbomer and carrageenan. From the rheological point of view all formulations presented a similar behaviour, prevalently elastic and characterised by loss tangent values well below 1. No correlation between rheological and adhesion behaviour was found. Carbomer and carrageenan gels containing the highest percentage of xanthan gum displayed good in vitro mucoadhesion and spreadability, minimal leakage potential and high resistance to dilution. The positive results obtained with carrageenan-xanthan gum-based gels can encourage the use of natural biocompatible adjuvants in the composition of vaginal products, a formulation field that is currently under the synthetic domain.

  6. 3D gel printing for soft-matter systems innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Kawakami, Masaru; Gong, Jin; Makino, Masato; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Saito, Azusa

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, several high-strength gels have been developed, especially from Japan. These gels are expected to use as a kind of new engineering materials in the fields of industry and medical as substitutes to polyester fibers, which are materials of artificial blood vessels. We consider if various gel materials including such high-strength gels are 3D-printable, many new soft and wet systems will be developed since the most intricate shape gels can be printed regardless of the quite softness and brittleness of gels. Recently we have tried to develop an optical 3D gel printer to realize the free-form formation of gel materials. We named this apparatus Easy Realizer of Soft and Wet Industrial Materials (SWIM-ER). The SWIM-ER will be applied to print bespoke artificial organs, including artificial blood vessels, which will be possibly used for both surgery trainings and actual surgery. The SWIM-ER can print one of the world strongest gels, called Double-Network (DN) gels, by using UV irradiation through an optical fiber. Now we also are developing another type of 3D gel printer for foods, named E-Chef. We believe these new 3D gel printers will broaden the applications of soft-matter gels.

  7. Disulfide-Functionalized Diblock Copolymer Worm Gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Nicholas J; Rosselgong, Julien; Madsen, Jeppe; Armes, Steven P

    2015-08-10

    Two strategies for introducing disulfide groups at the outer surface of RAFT-synthesized poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PGMA-PHPMA, or Gx-Hy for brevity) diblock copolymer worms are investigated. The first approach involved statistical copolymerization of GMA with a small amount of disulfide dimethacrylate (DSDMA, or D) comonomer to afford a G54-D0.50 macromolecular chain transfer agent (macro-CTA); this synthesis was conducted in relatively dilute solution in order to ensure mainly intramolecular cyclization and hence the formation of linear chains. Alternatively, a new disulfide-based bifunctional RAFT agent (DSDB) was used to prepare a G45-S-S-G45 (or (G45-S)2) macro-CTA. A binary mixture of a non-functionalized G55 macro-CTA was utilized with each of these two disulfide-based macro-CTAs in turn for the RAFT aqueous dispersion polymerization of 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA). By targeting a PHPMA DP of 130 and systematically varying the molar ratio of the two macro-CTAs, a series of disulfide-functionalized diblock copolymer worm gels were obtained. For both formulations, oscillatory rheology studies confirmed that higher disulfide contents led to stronger gels, presumably as a result of inter-worm covalent bond formation via disulfide/thiol exchange. Using the DSDB-based macro-CTA led to the strongest worm gels, and this formulation also proved to be more effective in suppressing the thermosensitive behavior that is observed for the nondisulfide-functionalized control worm gel. However, macroscopic precipitation occurred when the proportion of DSDB-based macro-CTA was increased to 50 mol %, whereas the DSDMA-based macro-CTA could be utilized at up to 80 mol %. Finally, the worm gel modulus could be reduced to that of a nondisulfide-containing worm gel by reductive cleavage of the inter-worm disulfide bonds using excess tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) to yield thiol groups. These new biomimetic worm gels are

  8. Adaptive significance of amylase polymorphism in drosophila, XV: Examination of genotype-by-environment interactions on the viability, developmental time and stability of drosophila subobscura homozygous for Amy during exposure to nutritional changes

    OpenAIRE

    Savić Tatjana; Patenković Aleksandra; Stamenković-Radak Marina; Anđelković M.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the direct interaction between enzyme and substrate, the amylase system can provide valuable information on the relationship between homozygosity and developmental homeostasis under a changing environment in several Drosophila species, The adaptive significance of the relationship between genetic variability and environmental change manifests through the well-known polymorphism of the amylase locus (Amy). We examined the effect of gradual and abrupt changes in starch concentratio...

  9. Diffusion measurement in ferrous infused gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The compositions of Ferrous sulphate, Agarose and Xylenol orange dye and Ferrous sulphate, Gelatin and Xylenol orange dye in solution of distilled water and sulphuric acid are two tissue-equivalent gel dosimeters. Ionizing radiation causes oxidation of Fe2+ ion to Fe3+ ions which diffuse through the gel matrix and blur the image of absorbed dose over a period of hours after irradiation. Materials and methods: 25 m M sulphuric acid, 0.4 mm ferrous ammonium sulphate, 0.2 mm xylenol orange dye and 1% by weight agarose in distilled water named Agarose and Xylenol orange dye and 0.1 mm ferrous ammonium sulphate, 0.1 mm xylenol orange dye, 50 mm sulphuric acid and 5% by weight gelatin in distilled water named Gelatin and Xylenol orange dye are used as two gel dosimeters. All chemicals were supplied by Sigma Ald ridge Company, Germany. The gels were poured in Perspex casts and were irradiated to a beam of X ray from linear accelerators or X ray machine. Results: In this study diffusion coefficients of Agarose and Xylenol orange dye and Gelatin and Xylenol orange dye dosimeters have been measured through a computer program for different temperature. The ferric ion diffusion coefficient (D) for the Agarose and Xylenol orange dye and Gelatin and Xylenol orange dye dosimeters were measured as (1.19.±0.03) x 10-2 cm2.hr -1 and (0.83±0.03) x 10-2 cm2.hr-1 respectively at room temperature. Conclusion: For both dosimeters the diffusion coefficients decreased with gel storage temperatures down to 6 digC. Gelatin and Xylenol orange dye dosimeters have advantage of lower diffusion coefficient for a specified temperature

  10. Ultraviolet absorption detection of DNA in gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and apparatus for the detection and quantification of large fragments of unlabelled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in agarose gels is presented. The technique is based on ultra-violet (UV) absorption by nucleotides. A deuterium lamp was used to illuminate regions of an electrophoresis gel. As DNA bands passed through the illuminated region of the gel the amount of UV light transmitted was reduced due to DNA absorption. Two detection systems were investigated. In the first system, synthetic chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond strip detectors were used to locate regions of DNA in the gels by detecting the transmitted light. CVD diamond has a high indirect band gap of 5.45 eV and is therefore sensitive to UV photons of wavelengths < 224 nm. A number of CVD diamond samples were characterised to investigate their suitability as detectors for this application. The detectors' quantum efficiency, UV response and time response were measured. DNA bands containing as little as 20 ng were detected by the diamond. In a second system, a deuterium lamp was used to illuminate individual sample lanes of an electrophoresis gel via an array of optical fibres. During electrophoresis the regions of DNA were detected with illumination at 260 nm, using a UV-sensitive charge coupled device (CCD). As the absorption coefficient of a DNA sample is approximately proportional to its mass, the technique is inherently quantitative. This system had a detection limit of 0.25 ng compared with 2-10 ng for the most popular conventional technique, ethidium bromide (EtBr) staining. Using this detection technique, the DNA sample remains in its native state. The removal of carcinogenic dyes from the detection procedure greatly reduces associated biological hazards. (author)

  11. Sol-Gel Synthesis of Au-Nanoparticle Dispersed Bicontinuous Macroporous Siloxane Gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Y; Nishi, M; Shimotsuma, Y; Miura, K; Hirao, K, E-mail: west@collon1.kuic.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Material Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    We synthesized Au-nanoparticle dispersed siloxane gel with well-defined bicontinuous macroporous morphologies. We employed methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) as a precursor of the gel skeleton, and also employed hydrogen tetrachloroaurate(III) as both a precursor of Au nanoparticles and an acid catalyst for hydrolysis/condensation of methoxysilanes. The effect of adding (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) as a starting material on the obtained structure was also investigated. It is found that Au nanoparticles of 20-30 nm in grain size are uniformly dispersed on the gel surface in the system containing MPTMS; in contrast, Au nanoparticles assembled in the pits in the MPTMS-free system. All the heat-treated MPTMS-containing gels showed surface plasmon absorption, and the peaks shifted from 550 to 520 nm with increasing the calcination temperature.

  12. Influência do conteúdo vaginal de gestantes sobre a recuperação do estreptococo do grupo B nos meios de transporte Stuart e Amies Influence of vaginal environment of pregnant women on the recovery of group B streptococcus in Stuart and Amies transport media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Simões

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência do meio vaginal de gestantes na sobrevivência do estreptococo do grupo B (EGB mantido por 8, 24 e 48 horas nos meios de transporte Amies e Stuart. MÉTODOS: foram coletados três swabs vaginais de 30 gestantes atendidas no Ambulatório de Pré-Natal do Centro de Atenção Integral à Saúde da Mulher (CAISM, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP. O primeiro swab foi mergulhado diretamente no meio seletivo de Todd-Hewitt; o segundo foi utilizado para a realização da bacterioscopia corada pelo Gram e o terceiro foi mergulhado em 2 mL de solução salina à qual foram acrescentados 200 µL de uma suspensão contendo EGB na concentração de 1-2 x 10(8 unidades formadoras de colônia. Desta última suspensão de EGB, foram colhidos três swabs do meio Amies e três do meio Stuart, os quais foram mantidos em temperatura ambiente por 8, 24 e 48 horas, para posterior semeadura em ágar sangue. A leitura do crescimento das placas foi realizada após 24 horas de incubação e classificada semiquantitativamente (0-3 cruzes de acordo com o número de colônias observadas. A análise estatística foi efetuada com o teste exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: a recuperação do EGB nos meios de transporte Amies e Stuart após 48 horas de estocagem foi de 97 e 87%, respectivamente. Em um dos quatro casos em que não houve a recuperação do EGB após 48 horas de armazenamento, o pH vaginal foi superior a 4,5 e em dois casos havia a presença de vaginose citolítica. CONCLUSÕES: ambos os meios de transporte mostraram-se adequados para a recuperação do EGB em gestantes até 48 horas após a coleta. As características do meio vaginal não influenciaram a recuperação do EGB no presente estudo.PURPOSE: to evaluate the influence of vaginal environment of pregnant women on group B streptococcus (GBS survival after 8, 24 e 48 h in Amies and Stuart transport media. METHODS: Three vaginal samples were collected from 30 pregnant

  13. A C {r_arrow} T transition at nucleotide 592 accounts for the most frequent mutation of G6PD gene in Taiwanese aboriginal Ami tribe: detection by mutagenically separated PCR (MS-PCR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, S.P.; Sun, W. [Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Chang, J.G. [Municipal Jen-Ai Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1994-09-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest known enzymopathy in Taiwan. It is estimated to affect 3% of our population, and its molecular defects have been characterized recently. There are 9 point mutations identified with a C {r_arrow} T substitution at nucleotide (nt) 592 in exon VI, the least frequently seen (0.8%) of all mutations. To characterize mutations of the G6PD gene in the Ami people, the most populous of Taiwanese minorities, we studied 21 G6PD-deficient Ami infants and their family members. Natural and amplification-created restriction sites were generated by PCR technique with 10 pairs of primers applied for the screening. By studying the first 7 cases, we found an identical C {r_arrow} T transition at nt 592. MS-PCR was then designed to rapidly detect the nt 592 mutation. As a result, 17 infants are disclosed as having the C {r_arrow} T transition at nt 592, and 2 have a G {r_arrow} T substitution at nt 1376, which were finally verified to be derived from a Chinese Min-Nan ancestor. The genetic defect of the remaining 2 infants remains unidentified. This study has shown that MS-PCR is a feasible and highly sensitive technique for screening mutation carriers in pooled DNA samples. The homogeneity of the nt 592 mutation in the Ami people has proved to be a good indicator for anthropological research.

  14. X-ray computed tomography of gel dosimeters: characterization of gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A recent study has shown that polymer gel dosimeters can successfully be imaged using X-ray CT. As an imaging method. X-ray CT has been shown to be fast, relatively temperature insensitive, and does not suffer from image non uniformities to the extent which can occur with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This paper examines the dose response of various polyacrylamide gel (PAG) dosimeter compositions and presents an empirical model relating dosimeter sensitivity and CT number (H) to the composition of the polymer gel dosimeter. Polymer gels were manufactured with varying concentrations of acrylamide and N,N'- methylene-bis-acrylamide monomers, gelatin and water. The gels were stored in 25 ml plastic VapexTM vials and sealed in BarexTM pouches to prevent oxygen contamination through the plastic walls of the vials. The gels were irradiated within 2 hours of manufacture, exposed to oxygen 2 days later, and then left for 2 days prior to imaging. To image the gels the highest kV setting of the scanner was used together with the highest mAs available for that kV. Total imaging time was less than 5 minutes and 20 slices per image were taken. The dose sensitivity was found to be 0.23m H.Gy-1, where m is the concentration of each monomer by percentage weight. The linear dose range was 0-10 Gy for all compositions. A qualitative examination of the dose resolution, i.e. the ability to resolve the measured absorbed doses to a certain level of confidence, was improved with increasing sensitivity of the gels. However, this was subject to many factors such as machine settings and phantom width. The composition of PAG dosimeters can be optimised for evaluation using x-ray CT and this was found to improve the quality of the method significantly. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  15. Gel2DE - A software tool for correlation analysis of 2D gel electrophoresis data

    OpenAIRE

    Øye, Ola Kristoffer; Jørgensen, Katarina Mariann; Hjelle, Sigrun Margrethe; Sulen, André; Ulvang, Dag Magne; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore

    2013-01-01

    Background: Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) is a powerful technique for studying protein isoforms and their modifications. Existing commercial 2D image analysis tools rely on spot detection that limits analysis of complex protein profiles, e.g. spot appearance/disappearance or overlapping spots. Pixel-by-pixel correlation analysis, an analysis technique for identifying relations between protein patterns in gel images and external variables, can overcome such limitations ...

  16. Gel polymer electrolytes based on PMMA III. PMMA gels containing cadmium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jiří; Sedlaříková, M.; Velická, Jana; Klápště, Břetislav; Novák, V.; Reiter, Jakub

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 8 (2003), s. 1001-1004. ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4032002; GA ČR GA104/02/0731; GA MŠk ME 216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918; CEZ:MSM 262200010 Keywords : gel polymer electrolytes * polymethylmethacrylate * cadmium gel electrolyte Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.996, year: 2003

  17. On the Structure and Dynamics of Polyelectrolyte Gel Systems and Gel-surfactant Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Råsmark, Per Johan

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of experimental work on polyelectrolyte gels and their interaction with oppositely charged surfactants, and presents two new algorithms applicable to the simulation of colloid and polymer systems. The model systems investigated were crosslinked poly(acrylate) (PA) and poly(styrene sulphonate) (PSS), and the surfactant was dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DoTAB). Pure gel materials were studied using dynamic light scattering. It was shown that the diffusion ...

  18. Accumulation of humic acid in DET/DGT gels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Van der Veeken, P.L.R.; Chakraborty, P.; Van Leeuwen, H.P.

    Gel layer based sensors are increasingly employed for dynamic trace metal speciation analysis in aquatic and soil media. In DGT (Diffusive Gradient in Thin film), polyacrylamide hydrogels are commonly used for the diffusive gel layer. While some...

  19. Covalent Fusion of layered Incompatible Gels in Immiscible Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Santidan; Singh, Awaneesh; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Balazs, Anna C.

    We carry out dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations to model a two layered stackable gel where the gels are incompatible and are present in immiscible solvent. The bottom layer of the gel is created first and then a solution of new initiators, monomers and cross-linkers is introduced on top of it. These components then undergo polymerization and form the second gel layer. We study all possible combinations of free radical polymerization (FRP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) mechanisms with the two layers of the gel. For example, the bottom layer gel is created via ATRP, whereas the top layer gel follows FRP. Our focus is to do a systematic study of all these combinations and find out the factors responsible for combining two incompatible gels in immiscible solvents.

  20. Silicone Gel-Filled Breast Implants: Updated Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Silicone Gel-Filled Breast Implants: Updated Safety Information Share ... Español When the Food and Drug Administration allowed silicone gel-filled breast implants back on the market ...

  1. Monolithic diphasic gels of mullite by sol-gel process under ultrasound stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollet, D R; Donatti, D A; Domingos, R N; de Oliveira, I

    1998-06-01

    Diphasic gel in the mullite composition was prepared from a colloidal sol of boehmite mixed with a hydrolyzed tetraethoxisilane (TEOS) solution. The boehmite sol was obtained by peptization of a poorly crystallized or very small mean crystallite size (approximately 34 A) precipitate, resulting from the reaction between solutions of aluminum sulfate and sodium hydroxide. Ultrasound was utilized in the processes of the TEOS hydrolysis and the boehmite peptization, and also for complete homogenization of the mixture to gel. The wet gel is almost clear and monolithic. The gel transparency is lost on drying, when syneresis has ended, so that the interlinked pore structure starts to empty and is recovered upon water re-absorption. Cracking closely accompanies this critical drying process. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) show that the solid structure of the gel is composed of an amorphous silica phase, as a matrix, and a colloidal sized crystalline phase of boehmite. Upon heat treatment, the boehmite phase within the gel closely follows the same transition sequence as in pure alumina shifted towards higher temperatures. Orthorhombic mullite formation was detected at 1300 degrees C. PMID:11270341

  2. Study of nuclear glasses alteration gel and synthesis of some model gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the general problem of alteration of the reference nuclear glass R7T7. Attention is paid particularly to the altered layer formed at the glass surface during alteration process. In opposition to previous works, related essentially to glass dissolution kinetics based on chemical analyses of lixiviated elements, this thesis deals with alteration problems through structural studies of the reference glass and derived gel. This approach allows the determination of mechanisms for the gel formation and a better understanding of the behaviour of glasses towards lixiviation. Both approaches appeared complementary. Based on several spectroscopic techniques, this work showed the particular role of cations such as calcium, zirconium and iron. Studies of silica-based synthetic gels showed the synergic effect of formers cation and of one highly coordinated cation. The variation of the wavenumber related to Si-O-Si asymmetric stretching vibration can be correlated to O/Si ratio for ternary systems Si/Na/Zr. On the contrary, the Si losses of the materials depend on the number of non-bridging oxygen atoms. In the perspective of long-term behaviour, the alteration gel presents better characteristics than initial glass. It is therefore a highly stable material in static conditions. In the same way, synthetic gels are materials with very low solubilities (much lower than the alteration gel) and could be used as confining matrices. (authors). refs., 71 figs., 37 tabs

  3. Relationship between texture of gels and flavour release

    OpenAIRE

    Koliandris, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    To provide further insight into the relationship between the structure of hydrocolloid solutions and gels and perception of taste and flavour, solutions of gelatin and locust bean gum, and gels prepared from mixtures of (a) high acyl and low acyl gellan (b) carrageenan and locust bean gum were studied. Both solutions contained sodium chloride and the gels were flavoured with ethyl butyrate. The gels were classified from rheological measurements into 3 categories: strong/brittle, intermedi...

  4. Comparison Between the Elasticity of Polyacrylamide and Polyacrylic Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Benguigui, L.

    1995-01-01

    We measured the Young modulus E of polyacrylamide and polyacrylic gels as a function of the crosslink and polymer concentrations. We found that the variation of E with these two parameters is completely different for the two kinds of gels. For the polyacrylic gels, E is an increasing function of the crosslink and polymer concentrations. However, in the case of the polyacrylamide gels, E increases with polymer concentration but not always with the crosslink concentration. For low polymer conce...

  5. Gel Mobility Shift Assays to Detect Protein–RNA Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Yakhnin, Alexander V.; Yakhnin, Helen; Babitzke, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The gel mobility shift assay is a powerful technique for detecting and quantifying protein–RNA interactions. While other techniques such as filter binding and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) are available for quantifying protein–RNA interactions, gel shift analysis provides the added advantage that you can visualize the protein–RNA complexes. In the gel shift assay, protein–RNA complexes are typically separated from the unbound RNA using native polyacrylamide gels in Tris/borate/EDTA b...

  6. Sol-gel Technology for Sensor Applications (Review Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhury, N. K.; R. Gupta; S Gulia

    2007-01-01

    Sol-gel processes refer to the transition of predefined compositions of inorganic alkoxidesprecursors from liquid sol phase to solid gel phase. The phenomenon of sol-gel was known tomankind for more than 150 years. It is because of concerted efforts of researchers frommultidisciplinary fields, sol-gel science transformed to technology. Several products are alreadycommercially available for applications in optical coatings, nanocomposites, and public healthcare.Potential applications in the ar...

  7. Gel dosimetry for HDR Brachytherapy 3-D distribution through MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gel dosimetry using MRI is increasingly being utilized in contemporary literature. In our work we investigated the calibration of an acrylic gel by means of imaging with magnetic resonance and its application to the dose measurement in a 3D distribution 192Ir HDR brachytherapy treatment. Early gel dosimetry used Fricke gels and T1 relaxation time. In 2001 Fong et al. introduced a new normoxic gel known as ''MAGIC'' gel, the main components of which are Metacrylic Acid (polymer) and Hydroquinone ( polymerizing inhibitor). For this material, the evidence of radiation dose is indicated by a change in the T2 relaxation time on an MR image. Later studies varied concentrations of the MAGIC gel components in order to observe its effect and the behavior of the gel sensitivity, for magnetic fields over 0.5 T. In the 1980s a series of studies on dose quantification using magnetic resonance images and Fricke gels were performed by evaluating T1 signal through means of an Inversion Recovery technique. Polymer gels have been developed to avoid the adverse effects of oxygen that plague Fricke gels. Normoxic gels have a component which helps to capture the oxygen dissolved in the gel (MAGIC). For these type of gels, measurements of T2 are made using a Spin-Echo technique. For both groups of gels, the Relaxativity compared to either T1 or T2 varies linearly with the absorbed dose. Novotny et al. has obtained a dose response curve for BANG-2 gel showing a linear relationship of 1/T2 vs D[Gy]. In the work presented here we tested and found the same linear relation between spin-spin relaxation (R2=1/T2) versus dose up to 8.0Gy

  8. Methods of Manufacturing Bioactive Gels from Extracellular Matrix Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentner, Kimberly A. (Inventor); Stuart, Katherine A. (Inventor); Janis, Abram D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is directed to methods of manufacturing bioactive gels from ECM material, i.e., gels which retain bioactivity, and can serve as scaffolds for preclinical and clinical tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches to tissue reconstruction. The manufacturing methods take advantage of a new recognition that bioactive gels from ECM material can be created by digesting particularized ECM material in an alkaline environment and neutralizing to provide bioactive gels.

  9. CURRENT COLLOIDAL DISPERSION GELS ARE NOT SUPERIOR TO POLYMER FLOODING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seright Randy; Han Peihui; Wang Dongmei

    2006-01-01

    The suggestion that the colloidal-dispersion-gel (CDG) process is superior to normal polymer flooding is misleading and generally incorrect. Colloidal dispersion gels, in their present state of technological development, should not be advocated as an improvement to, or substitute for, polymer flooding. Gels made from aluminum-citrate crosslinked polyacrylamides can act as conventional gels and provide effective conformance improvement in treating some types of excess water production problems if sound scientific and engineering principles are respected.

  10. Polymer gel dosimetry system for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: Recently developed treatment modalities such as stereotactic and conformal radiation therapy produce complex dose distributions which are difficult or impractical to measure with conventional dosimetry instrumentation. Three-dimensional treatment planning systems which purport to calculate these complex dose distributions should be compared to experimental results before being routinely applied to clinical problems. There is a need for a new class of tissue-equivalent dosimeters capable of providing accurate, high resolution, time-integrated and three dimensional dose distributions. The recently developed BANG polymer gel dosimetry system (MGS Research, Inc., Guilford, CT) is ideally suited for the task described above. Physico-chemical principles of the polymer gel dosimetry are presented, together with examples of its application to radiation therapy. Data analysis and display program, written for Macintosh computer, is demonstrated. Materials and Methods: Radiation-induced polymerization of acrylic monomers, which are dispersed in tissue-equivalent gelatin, has been shown to be dependent on the dose, but independent of the dose rate or photon energy. Therefore, the spatial distribution of polymer in the gel is precisely representative of the dose distribution. As the polymeric microparticles reduce the water proton NMR relaxation times in the gel, the dose distribution can be measured with high resolution and accuracy using magnetic resonance imaging. Also, as these microparticles cannot diffuse through the gelatin matrix, their distribution is permanent. An improved formulation of the BANG dosimeter consists of 3% w/v acrylic acid, 3% N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide, 1% sodium hydroxide, 5% gelatin, and 88% water. MR images are transferred via a local network to a Macintosh computer, and R2 maps constructed on the basis of multiple TE images, using a non-linear least squares fit based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. A dose-to-R2

  11. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L.

    2014-06-17

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  12. 21 CFR 520.1453 - Moxidectin and praziquantel gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Moxidectin and praziquantel gel. 520.1453 Section... and praziquantel gel. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of gel contains 20 milligrams (mg) (2.0 percent) moxidectin and 125 mg (12.5 percent) praziquantel. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c)...

  13. Modification of gel architecture and TBE/TAE buffer composition to minimize heating during agarose gel electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson, Brian A.; Araki, Naoko; Lilley, Jennifer L.; Guerrero, Gilberto; Lewis, L. Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA and RNA is routinely performed using buffers containing either Tris, acetate and EDTA (TAE) or Tris, borate and EDTA (TBE). Gels are run at a low, constant voltage (~ 10 V/cm) to minimize current and asymmetric heating effects, which can induce band artifacts and poor resolution. In this study, alterations of gel structure and conductive media composition were analyzed to identify factors causing higher electrical currents during horizontal slab gel electrop...

  14. Variations in the polar cap area during intervals of substorm activity on 20-21 March 1990 deduced from AMIE convection patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Taylor

    Full Text Available The dynamic behaviour of the northern polar cap area is studied employing Northern Hemisphere electric potential patterns derived by the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE procedure. The rate of change in area of the polar cap, which can be defined as the region of magnetospheric field lines open to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, has been calculated during two intervals when the IMF had an approximately constant southward component (1100–2200 UT, 20 March 1990 and 1300–2100 UT, 21 March 1990. The estimates of the polar cap area are based on the approximation of the polar cap boundary by the flow reversal boundary. The change in the polar cap area is then compared to the predicted expansion rate based on a simple application of Faraday's Law. Furthermore, timings of magnetospheric substorms are also related to changes in the polar cap area. Once the convection electric field reconfigures following a southward turning of the IMF, the growth rate of the observed polar cap boundary is consistent with that predicted by Faraday's Law. A delay of typically 20 min to 50 min is observed between a substorm expansion phase onset and a reduction in the polar cap area. Such a delay is consistent with a synthesis between the near Earth neutral line and current disruption models of magnetospheric substorms in which the dipolarisation in the magnetotail may act as a trigger for reconnection. These delays may represent a propagation time between near geosynchronous orbit dipolarisation and subsequent reconnection further down tail. We estimate, from these delays, that the neutral X line occurs between ~35RE and ~75RE downstream in the tail.

  15. Carbon Redox-Polymer-Gel Hybrid Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, A.; Singh, N.; Melinte, S.; Gohy, J.-F.; Ajayan, P. M.

    2016-02-01

    Energy storage devices that provide high specific power without compromising on specific energy are highly desirable for many electric-powered applications. Here, we demonstrate that polymer organic radical gel materials support fast bulk-redox charge storage, commensurate to surface double layer ion exchange at carbon electrodes. When integrated with a carbon-based electrical double layer capacitor, nearly ideal electrode properties such as high electrical and ionic conductivity, fast bulk redox and surface charge storage as well as excellent cycling stability are attained. Such hybrid carbon redox-polymer-gel electrodes support unprecedented discharge rate of 1,000C with 50% of the nominal capacity delivered in less than 2 seconds. Devices made with such electrodes hold the potential for battery-scale energy storage while attaining supercapacitor-like power performances.

  16. Optical-CT scanning of polymer gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of optical-CT scanning to achieve accurate high-resolution 3D dosimetry is a subject of current interest. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of past research and achievements in optical-CT polymer gel dosimetry, and to review current issues and challenges. The origins of optical-CT imaging of light-scattering polymer gels are reviewed. Techniques to characterize and optimize optical-CT performance are presented. Particular attention is given to studies of artifacts in optical-CT imaging, an important area that has not been well studied to date. The technique of optical-CT simulation by Monte-Carlo modeling is introduced as a tool to explore such artifacts. New simulation studies are presented and compared with experimental data

  17. Comparative proteomics and difference gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minden, Jonathan

    2007-12-01

    The goal of comparative proteomics is to analyze proteome changes in response to development, disease, or environment. This is a two-step process in which proteins within cellular extracts are first fractionated to reduce sample complexity, and then the proteins are identified by mass spectrometry. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) is the long-time standard for protein separation, but it has suffered from poor reproducibility and limited sensitivity. Difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE), in which two protein samples are separately labeled with different fluorescent dyes and then co-electrophoresed on the same 2DE gel, was developed to overcome the reproducibility and sensitivity limitations. In this essay, I discuss the principles of comparative proteomics and the development of DIGE. PMID:18251249

  18. Sol-gel preparation of ceramic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle is described of a method based on the homogeneous hydrolysis of a uranyl nitrate solution in the presence of urea and urotropin. The procedure is given and the equipment described for the production of particles having 0.5 to 4.0 mm in dia. The gelation column (capacity 1.5 kg of gel U/hour) consists of a glass tube 50 mm in dia and 2,000 mm in length through which ascends hot oil. The finished gel is washed in ammonia water, dried, calcinated and reduced in a N2+6%H2 atmosphere. Sintering of the undamaged microspheres is carried out at temperatures between 1,200 to 1,500 degC. (M.K.)

  19. Ceramica sphere production by a gel casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology of (Th,U)O2 microspheres production by gel casting and subsequente thermal treatment has been transferred from NUKEM GmbH assisted by Kraftwerk Union A.G., both West Germany, to NUCLEBRAS, where it was jointly adapted to produce microspheres suitable for pressing. As a result, there are now available various possibilities to produce ceramic spheres with different characteristics that can be used in different applications. Examples of these characteristics are the range of gel sphere diameters (200 to 5000 μmm) and the value of the specific surface (about 50m2/g for calcined (Th, U)O2 and potentially higher than m2/g for other ceramic materials) (Author)

  20. Diagnostic Value of MicroRNA-499 for Acute Myocardial Infarction:a Meta-Analysis%循环 microRNA-499诊断 AMI 的 Meta 分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张高明; 张国明; 夏永杰

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic value of microRNA-499 (miR-499)levels in acute myocardial infarction (AMI)diagnosis.Methods Retrieve Articles,Wanfang,China Knowledge Network,NCBI PubmMed,EMBSASE database 2010~2015 years met the inclusion criteria published abroad in relation to miR-499 diagnosis ten cases of human AMI litera-ture.The quality of the sudies was evaluated by QUADAS tools through a comprehensive analysis of the random effects model effect size,the use of meta-disc 1.4 software for statistical analysis software.Results Ten studies met the included criteria.The summary estimates for miR-499 diagnosis of MI sensitivity was 83% (95% CI,0.81 ~ 0.85),specificity of 81% (95% CI,0.78~0.83),positive predictive value of 4.53 (95% CI,3.12~ 6.58),negative predictive value was 0.22 (95% CI,0.14~0.33),diagnostic odds ratio 22.73 (95% CI,10.78~47.93).The area under the curve (AUC)for miR-499 was 0.90 with Q value of 0.84.Conclusion MiR-499 has high diagnostic value for acute myocardial infarction.%目的:评价循环 microRNA-499(miR-499)对急性心肌梗死(acute myocardial infarction,AMI)的诊断价值。方法检索万方,中国知网,NCBI,PubmMed,EMBSASE 数据库2015年5月以前发表的关于 miR-499诊断 AMI 的文献。以QUADAS 工具对文献进行质量评价,采用 meta-disc1.4软件进行统计分析 miR-499诊断 AMI 的总体敏感度、特异度、阳/阴性似然比和诊断优势比。以 SROC 曲线分析 miR-499诊断 AMI 的总体性能。结果该次 meta 分析共纳入10项研究,其中国人研究7项,SCI 文献7项。miR-499诊断 AMI 总体诊断敏感度为83%(95%CI:0.81~0.85),总体诊断特异度为81%(95%CI:0.78~0.83),总体诊断阳性似然比为4.53(95%CI:3.12~6.58),总体诊断阴性似然比为0.22(95% CI:0.14~0.33),总体诊断优势比为22.73(95%CI:10.78~47.93)。综合 SROC 曲线下面积(AUC)为0.90,Q 值为0.84

  1. 3D dosimetry fundamentals: gels and plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, M.; Jordan, K.

    2010-11-01

    Many different materials have been developed for 3D radiation dosimetry since the Fricke gel dosimeter was first proposed in 1984. This paper is intended as an entry point into these materials where we provide an overview of the basic principles for the most explored materials. References to appropriate sources are provided such that the reader interested in more details can quickly find relevant information.

  2. Diffusion of polyelectrolytes in polyelectrolyte gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahalkar, Anand; Muthukumar, Murugappan

    2015-03-01

    Using dynamic light scattering, we have investigated the diffusion coefficient of sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) in a matrix of poly(acrylamide-co-acrylate) gels. The diffusion coefficient of the probe polyelectrolyte exhibits a crossover behavior from a particle-diffusion to entropic-barrier dominated diffusion, as the molecular weight is increased. The effect of electrostatics, by varying the charge density of the matrix, on probe diffusion constant will be presented.

  3. Gel Polymer Electrolytes Based on PMMA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jiří; Klápště, Břetislav; Velická, Jana; Reiter, Jakub

    Vol. 1. Brno: Akademické nakladatelství CERM, 2000 - (Vondrák, J.; Sedlaříková, M.), s. 1.1-1.4 ISBN 80-214-1614-9. [Advanced Batteries and Accumulators /1./. Brno (CZ), 28.08.2000-01.09.2000] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4032002; GA MŠk ME 216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : PMMA * gel * electrolytes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  4. Rheology of Biopolymer Solutions and Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Picout

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheological techniques and methods have been employed for many decades in the characterization of polymers. Originally developed and used on synthetic polymers, rheology has then found much interest in the field of natural (bio polymers. This review concentrates on introducing the fundamentals of rheology and on discussing the rheological aspects and properties of the two major classes of biopolymers: polysaccharides and proteins. An overview of both their solution properties (dilute to semi-dilute and gel properties is described.

  5. Il Gel Piastrinico in chirurgia orale

    OpenAIRE

    Sacchi M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Obiettivi: L’utilizzo topico di emocomponenti autologhi, il concentrato piastrinico (CP) ed il plasma povero di piastrine, rappresenta una delle strategie più innovative per modulare ed amplificare i processi di guarigione e di rigenerazione tessutale. Con questo studio si è dimostrato che l’applicazione del gel piastrinico, quando viene applicato in chirurgia orale ed in particolare nell’implantologia, è in grado di migliorare ed accelerare i processi osteogenetici;Metodologia: il CP, prepar...

  6. Effectiveness of Gel Repellents on Feral Pigeons

    OpenAIRE

    Birte Stock; Daniel Haag-Wackernagel

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Feral pigeons live in close association in urban areas. They constitute serious health risks to humans and also lead to high economic loss due to costly damage to buildings, historic monuments, statues and even vegetation. While numerous avian repellent systems are regularly introduced onto the market, scientific proof of efficacy and their use from the point of view of animal welfare is lacking. Therefore, two avian gel repellents were studied on free-living feral pigeons in t...

  7. Sol-gel processes in catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Volovych, Iryna

    2014-01-01

    Palladium-, Rhodium- und Mangankatalysatoren wurden auf hydrophil und hydrophob modifizierten Silika mittels der Sol-Gel Methode immobilisiert und in einer Vielfalt von Reaktionen in wässrigen Lösungen angewendet. In diesem Zusammenhang wurden umweltfreundlichere und kostensparendere Konzepte zur Reaktionsführung entwickelt. Einerseits wurden tensidhaltige wässrige Lösungen mit organischen Zusatzstoffen eingesetzt, welche eine grüne Alternative zu konventionellen Lösungsmittelsystemen darstel...

  8. Silver staining of proteins in polyacrylamide gels

    OpenAIRE

    Chevallet, Mireille; Luche, Sylvie; Rabilloud, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    International audience Silver staining is used to detect proteins after electrophoretic separation on polyacrylamide gels. It combines excellent sensitivity (in the low nanogram range) with the use of very simple and cheap equipment and chemicals. It is compatible with downstream processing, such as mass spectrometry analysis after protein digestion. The sequential phases of silver staining are protein fixation, then sensitization, then silver impregnation and finally image development. Se...

  9. Exploratory data analysis groupware for qualitative and quantitative electrophoretic gel analysis over the Internet-WebGel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemkin, P F; Myrick, J M; Lakshmanan, Y; Shue, M J; Patrick, J L; Hornbeck, P V; Thornwal, G C; Partin, A W

    1999-12-01

    Many scientists use quantitative measurements to compare the presence and amount, of various proteins and nucleotides among series of one- and two-dimensional (1-D and 2-D) electrophoretic gels. These gels are often scanned into digital image files. Gel spots are then quantified using stand-alone analysis software. However, as more research collaborations take place over the Internet, it has become useful to share intermediate quantitative data between researchers. This allows research group members to investigate their data and share their work in progress. We developed a World Wide Web group-accessible software system, WebGel, for interactively exploring qualitative and quantitative differences between electrophoretic gels. Such Internet databases are useful for publishing quantitative data and allow other researchers to explore the data with respect to their own research. Because intermediate results of one user may be shared with their collaborators using WebGel, this form of active data-sharing constitutes a groupware method for enhancing collaborative research. Quantitative and image gel data from a stand-alone gel image processing system are copied to a database accessible on the WebGel Web server. These data are then available for analysis by the WebGel database program residing on that server. Visualization is critical for better understanding of the data. WebGel helps organize labeled gel images into montages of corresponding spots as seen in these different gels. Various views of multiple gel images, including sets of spots, normalization spots, labeled spots, segmented gels, etc. may also be displayed. These displays are active and may be used for performing database operations directly on individual protein spots by simply clicking on them. Corresponding regions between sets of gels may be visually analyzed using Flicker-comparison (Electrophoresis 1997, 18, 122-140) as one of the WebGel methods for qualitative analysis. Quantitative exploratory data

  10. Role of gel dosimeters in boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gel dosimeters have acquired a unique status in radiotherapy, especially with the advent of the new techniques in which there is a need for three-dimensional dose measurement with high spatial resolution. One of the techniques in which the use of gel dosimeters has drawn the attention of the researchers is the boron neutron capture therapy. Exploring the history of gel dosimeters, this paper sets out to study their role in the boron neutron capture therapy dosimetric process. - Highlights: • Gel dosimeters have been investigated. • Conventional dosimetric proses of BNCT has been investigated. • Role of gel dosimeters in BNCT has been investigated

  11. Sol-gel Technology for Sensor Applications (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Chaudhury

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Sol-gel processes refer to the transition of predefined compositions of inorganic alkoxidesprecursors from liquid sol phase to solid gel phase. The phenomenon of sol-gel was known tomankind for more than 150 years. It is because of concerted efforts of researchers frommultidisciplinary fields, sol-gel science transformed to technology. Several products are alreadycommercially available for applications in optical coatings, nanocomposites, and public healthcare.Potential applications in the areas of biosensors and environmental monitoring are expected.Newer applications with nanotechnology appear too exciting. An attempt has been made toaddress important applications of sol-gel technology, particularly in sensing techniques fromthe defence perspective.

  12. Micro-size polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, W. G.; Pipkin, J. L.; Anson, J. F.; Casciano, D. A.; Burns, E. R.

    1987-09-01

    The development and characterization of a micro-size two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system is described. Some of the techniques which have evolved with use of the system are also discussed. This apparatus has unique features which provide advantages over other small scale units. Up to ten first- and second-dimension gels can be processed simultaneously with excellent resolution of protein regions. Consistent reproducibility is possible from protein samples as small as 400 ng and individual protein regions as small as 1 pg can be visualized by silver staining of the two-dimensional gels. Similar sensitivities are achieved in autoradiographs of 3H-labeled proteins extracted from the nuclei of cultured cells. The application of this system in conjunction with flow cytometric examination of nuclear DNA and electrostatic cell sorting of specific cell nuclei to provide homogeneous sample populations, allows subtle variations in isotope incorporation in proteins to be detected; whereas many times in generalized tissue samples these changes are masked. Also, these techniques elucidate the effects of external stimuli (chemicals, drugs, or environment) on protein synthesis and phosphorylation for analyses and comparison. Fabrication drawings are available upon request.

  13. Gel Electrophoresis of Gold-DNA Nanoconjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pellegrino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold-DNA conjugates were investigated in detail by a comprehensive gel electrophoresis study based on 1200 gels. A controlled number of single-stranded DNA of different length was attached specifically via thiol-Au bonds to phosphine-stabilized colloidal gold nanoparticles. Alternatively, the surface of the gold particles was saturated with single stranded DNA of different length either specifically via thiol-Au bonds or by nonspecific adsorption. From the experimentally determined electrophoretic mobilities, estimates for the effective diameters of the gold-DNA conjugates were derived by applying two different data treatment approaches. The first method is based on making a calibration curve for the relation between effective diameters and mobilities with gold nanoparticles of known diameter. The second method is based on Ferguson analysis which uses gold nanoparticles of known diameter as reference database. Our study shows that effective diameters derived from gel electrophoresis measurements are affected with a high error bar as the determined values strongly depend on the method of evaluation, though relative changes in size upon binding of molecules can be detected with high precision. Furthermore, in this study, the specific attachment of DNA via gold-thiol bonds to Au nanoparticles is compared to nonspecific adsorption of DNA. Also, the maximum number of DNA molecules that can be bound per particle was determined.

  14. Sol–gel processing of carbidic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L M Manocha; E Yasuda; Y Tanabe; S Manocha; D Vashistha

    2000-02-01

    Carbon incorporation into the silicate network results in the formation of rigid carbidic glasses with improved physical, mechanical and thermal properties. This generated great interest in the development of these heteroatom structured materials through different processing routes. In the present studies, sol–gel processing has been used to prepare silicon based glasses, especially oxycarbides through organic–inorganic hybrid gels by hydrolysis–condensation reactions in silicon alkoxides, 1,4-butanediol and furfuryl alcohol with an aim to introduce Si–C linkages in the precursors at sol level. The incorporation of these linkages has been studied using IR and NMR spectroscopy. These bonds, so introduced, are maintained throughout the processing, especially during pyrolysis to high temperatures. In FFA–TEOS system, copolymerization with optimized mol ratio of the two results in resinous mass. This precursor on pyrolysis to 1000°C results in Si–O–C type amorphous solid black mass. XRD studies on the materials heated to 1400°C exhibit presence of crystalline Si–C and cristobalites in amorphous Si–O–C mass. In organic–inorganic gel system, the pyrolysed mass exhibits phase stability up to much higher temperatures. The carbidic materials so produced have been found to exhibit good resistance against oxidation at 1000°C.

  15. A reproducible, high throughput method for fabricating fibrin gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Kaitlin C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibrin gels are a promising biomaterial for tissue engineering. However, current fabrication methods are time intensive with inherent variation. There is a pressing need to develop new and consistent approaches for producing fibrin-based hydrogels for examination. Findings We developed a high throughput method for creating fibrin gels using molds fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS. Fibrin gels were produced by adding solutions of fibrinogen and thrombin to cylindrical defects in a PDMS sheet. Undisturbed gels were collected by removing the sheet, and fibrin gels were characterized. The characteristics of resulting gels were compared to published data by measuring compressive stiffness and osteogenic response of entrapped human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Gels exhibited compressive moduli nearly identical to our previously reported fabrication method. Trends in alkaline phosphatase activity, an early marker of osteogenic differentiation in MSCs, were also consistent with previous data. Conclusions These findings demonstrate a streamlined approach to fibrin gel production that drastically reduces the time required to make fibrin gels, while also reducing variability between gel batches. This fabrication technique provides a valuable tool for generating large numbers of gels in a cost-effective manner.

  16. Fabrication, modeling and optimization of an ionic polymer gel actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modeling of the electro-active behavior of ionic polymer gel is studied and the optimum conditions that maximize the deflection of the gel are investigated. The bending deformation of polymer gel under an electric field is formulated by using chemo-electro-mechanical parameters. In the modeling, swelling and shrinking phenomena due to the differences in ion concentration at the boundary between the gel and solution are considered prior to the application of an electric field, and then bending actuation is applied. As the driving force of swelling, shrinking and bending deformation, differential osmotic pressure at the boundary of the gel and solution is considered. From this behavior, the strain or deflection of the gel is calculated. To find the optimum design parameter settings (electric voltage, thickness of gel, concentration of polyion in the gel, ion concentration in the solution, and degree of cross-linking in the gel) for bending deformation, a nonlinear constrained optimization model is formulated. In the optimization model, a bending deflection equation of the gel is used as an objective function, and a range of decision variables and their relationships are used as constraint equations. Also, actuation experiments are conducted using poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid) (PAMPS) gel and the optimum conditions predicted by the proposed model have been verified by the experiments

  17. Colloid molecular weight estimation by gel chromatography/acrylamide gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Size or molecular weight (MW) estimation of radiolabeled collides in aqueous solutions has long been a problem. The authors have prepared several minimicroaggregated albumin colloids (mμAA) by heat denaturation of stannous-containing HSA solutions at pH 7.0, 7.5, and 8.5). The resulting colloids were labeled with Tc-99m and compared with Au-198 colloid and Tc-99m-antimony sulfide colloid (Tc-99m-Sb/sub 2/S3) by gel chromatography and gel electrophoresis. Tc-99mm-mμAA aggregated at pH 7.0 and the Au-198 colloid appeared in the external void volume of a BioRad A5.0 agarose column indicating an apparent MW of > 5 x 10/sup 6/ daltons. The pH7.5 Tc-99m-mμAA, migrated within the filtration range of the column as did a small fraction of Tc-99m-Sb/sub 2/S/sub 3/, suggesting that the MW is between 6 x 10/sup 4/ - 5 x 10/sup 6/ daltons. The Tc-99m-mμAA, aggregated at pH 8.5, had an apparent MW on gel filtration similar to that of untreated albumin, MW 6.6 x 10-/sup 4/ daltons. The mobilities of the colloids, on acrylamide disc gel electrophoresis, were consistent with the results on gel chromatography. The largest colloids, Au-198 colloid and pH 7.0 Tc-99m-mμAA, barely entered the separating gel; intermediate sized colloids, a small fraction of Tc-99m-Sb/sub 2/S/sub 3/ and pH 7.5 Tc-99m-mμAA migrated farther into the separating gel; while pH 8.5 Tc-99m-mμAA had mobility approaching that of untreated albumin. Lymphoscintigraphy studies using these colloids in animals showed the predicted, particle size-related differences in migration and clearance. The authors conclude that gel chromatography and gel electrophoresis are useful methods for estimating the apparent size of the colloidal particles

  18. Formation of magnetite nanoparticles in poly(acrylamide) gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starodubtsev, Sergey G [Physics Department, M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninsky Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Saenko, Evheniy V [Physics Department, M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninsky Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Dokukin, Maxim E [Physics Department, M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninsky Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Aksenov, Viktor L [Physics Department, M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninsky Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Klechkovskaya, Vera V [Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, 59 Leninsky Prospekt, Moscow 117333 (Russian Federation); Zanaveskina, Irina S [Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, 59 Leninsky Prospekt, Moscow 117333 (Russian Federation); Khokhlov, Alexei R [Physics Department, M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninsky Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2005-03-16

    Magnetic gels with magnetite nanoparticles incorporated in a matrix of poly(acrylamide) gel were studied. Magnetite was synthesized through coprecipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in the gel phase, in the solution of linear polymer and in aqueous solution without polymer in alkaline media. The effects of network structure and of the concentration of iron salts in the swollen networks on the composition, structure and properties of magnetic gels have been studied by electron diffraction, XRD, transmission electron microscopy and vibration sample magnetometry. The average size of magnetite nanoparticles, D, is of the order of 10 nm. It decreases with the increase of polymer concentration in the gel phase. In the dried gels the particles form spherical aggregates (diameter about 150 nm), whereas in the solution of linear polymer, in the aqueous solution of iron salts and in the gel with high content of polymer the aggregates have irregular shape.

  19. Antioxidant effect of green tea on polymer gel dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, E. J. J.; Sathiyaraj, P.; Deena, T.; Kumar, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Extract from Green Tea (GTE) acts as an antioxidant in acrylamide based polymer gel dosimeter. In this work, PAGAT gel was used for investigation of antioxidant effect of GTE.PAGAT was called PAGTEG (Polyacrylamide green tea extract gel dosimeter) after adding GTE. Free radicals in water cause pre polymerization of polymer gel before irradiation. Polyphenols from GTE are highly effective to absorb the free radicals in water. THPC is used as an antioxidant in polymer gel dosimeter but here we were replaced it by GTE and investigated its effect by spectrophotometer. GTE added PAGAT samples response was lower compared to THPC added sample. To increase the sensitivity of the PAGTEG, sugar was added. This study confirmed that THPC was a good antioxidant for polymer gel dosimeter. However, GTE also can be used as an antioxidant in polymer gel if use less quantity (GTE) and add sugar as sensitivity enhancer.

  20. Antioxidant effect of green tea on polymer gel dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extract from Green Tea (GTE) acts as an antioxidant in acrylamide based polymer gel dosimeter. In this work, PAGAT gel was used for investigation of antioxidant effect of GTE.PAGAT was called PAGTEG (Polyacrylamide green tea extract gel dosimeter) after adding GTE. Free radicals in water cause pre polymerization of polymer gel before irradiation. Polyphenols from GTE are highly effective to absorb the free radicals in water. THPC is used as an antioxidant in polymer gel dosimeter but here we were replaced it by GTE and investigated its effect by spectrophotometer. GTE added PAGAT samples response was lower compared to THPC added sample. To increase the sensitivity of the PAGTEG, sugar was added. This study confirmed that THPC was a good antioxidant for polymer gel dosimeter. However, GTE also can be used as an antioxidant in polymer gel if use less quantity (GTE) and add sugar as sensitivity enhancer

  1. Responsive Gel-Gel Phase Transitions in Artificially Engineered Protein Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, B. D.

    2012-02-01

    Artificially engineered protein hydrogels provide an attractive platform for biomedical materials due to their similarity to components of the native extracellular matrix. Engineering responsive transitions between shear-thinning and tough gel phases in these materials could potentially enable gels that are both shear-thinning and tough to be produced as novel injectable biomaterials. To engineer a gel with such transitions, a triblock copolymer with thermoresponsive polymer endblocks and an artificially engineered protein gel midblock is designed. Temperature is used to trigger a transition from a single network protein hydrogel phase to a double network phase with both protein and block copolymer networks present at different length scales. The thermodynamics of network formation and resulting structural changes are established using small-angle scattering, birefringence, and dynamic scanning calorimetry. The formation of the second network is shown to produce a large, nonlinear increase in the elastic modulus as well as enhancements in creep compliance and toughness. Although the gels show yielding behavior in both the single and double network regimes, a qualitative change in the deformation mechanism is observed due to the structural changes.

  2. Time-dependent gel to gel transformation of a peptide based supramolecular gelator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Abhishek; Basak, Shibaji; Basu, Kingshuk; Dehsorkhi, Ashkan; Hamley, Ian W; Banerjee, Arindam

    2015-06-28

    A dipeptide with a long fatty acid chain at its N-terminus gives hydrogels in phosphate buffer in the pH range 7.0-8.5. The hydrogel with a gelator concentration of 0.45% (w/v) at pH 7.46 (physiological pH) provides a very good platform to study dynamic changes within a supramolecular framework as it exhibits remarkable change in its appearance with time. Interestingly, the first formed transparent hydrogel gradually transforms into a turbid gel within 2 days. These two forms of the hydrogel have been thoroughly investigated by using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopic (FE-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HR-TEM) imaging, FT-IR and rheometric analyses. The SAXS and low angle PXRD studies substantiate different packing arrangements for the gelator molecules for these two different gel states (the freshly prepared and the aged hydrogel). Moreover, rheological studies of these two gels reveal that the aged gel is stiffer than the freshly prepared gel. PMID:26016677

  3. Investigation of the Peroxovanadate Sol-Gel Process and Characterization of the Gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Joseph Fontenot

    2001-12-31

    In general, the peroxovanadate solution sol-gel process can be thought of as consisting of two parts: (1) the decomposition of the peroxo species and (2) cation hydrolysis leading to gelation. By controlling the synthesis conditions, both layered and amorphous compounds can be created. However, the type of water coordination observed in these gels was found to be identical no matter what the long-range order. The current work clarified many of the discrepancies found in the literature and offered much new valuable information. Highlights include the types of vanadium environments present at various stages of hydration, the role of adsorbed water, oxygen exchange from adsorbed water into the gel sites, and the ability to create metastable VMoO solid solution phases. These results could have a variety of impacts on future catalysis research.

  4. AMiBA: System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai-Yang; Li, Chao-Te; Ho, Paul T. P.; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Liao, Yu-Wei; Liu, Guo-Chin; Koch, Patrick M.; Molnar, Sandor M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Kestevan, Michael; Birkinshaw, Mark; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Ming-Tang; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Ibañez-Roman, Fabiola; Jiang, Homin; Kubo, Derek Y.; Oshiro, Peter; Raffin, Philippe; Wei, Tashun; Wilson, Warwick; Chen, Ke-Jung; Chiueh, Tzihong

    2009-04-01

    The Y.T. Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy started scientific operation in early 2007. This work describes the optimization of the system performance for the measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect for six massive galaxy clusters at redshifts 0.09-0.32. We achieved a point-source sensitivity of 63 ± 7 mJy with the seven 0.6 m dishes in 1 hr of on-source integration in two-patch differencing observations. We measured and compensated for the delays between the antennas of our platform-mounted interferometer. Beam switching was used to cancel instrumental instabilities and ground pick up. Total power and phase stability were good on timescales of hours, and the system was shown to integrate down on equivalent timescales of 300 hr per baseline/correlation, or about 10 hr for the entire array. While the broadband correlator leads to good sensitivity, the small number of lags in the correlator resulted in poorly measured bandpass response. We corrected for this by using external calibrators (Jupiter and Saturn). Using Jupiter as the flux standard, we measured the disk brightness temperature of Saturn to be 149+5 -12 K.

  5. Un ami qui est toujours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳

    2012-01-01

    Un jour,pendant la récréation,je suis descendue dans le bureau du secrétariat.Quand je préparais un café,une femme professeur d'espagnol s'est exclamée:《Tiens! Tu es de bonne humeur ce matin ! 》 (E)tonnée,je lui ai demandé pourquoi.Elle a répondu:《 Parce que tu prends un ca fé.》Quelle réponse inattendue! Ce n'est qu'un café instantané,un peu fade,pas très bon,à dire vrai.Si j'en prends une petite tasse,ce n'est pas que je suis de bonne humeur.C'est plut(o)t mon habitude,ou bien c'est que le café me donne une belle humeur.

  6. Deuterium isotope effect on swelling process in aqueous polymer gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deuterium isotope effects on the swelling process of typical aqueous polymer gels (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gel and polyacrylamide gel) have been investigated in this study. The swelling times of both the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gel and the polyacrylamide gel in heavy water are longer than those in water. The deuterium isotope effect in the swelling process of gels is mainly arising from the higher viscosity in heavy water than in water. The additional deuterium isotope effect on the diffusion coefficient related to the swelling process should be due to the larger microscopic friction arising from the stronger polymer-solvent interaction in heavier water than in water. We also discuss in this paper the deuterium isotope effects on the size of the aqueous gels in the equilibrium state. Interestingly, the size in the equilibrium state of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gel in heavy water is larger than that in water. In contrast to poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gel, the size in the equilibrium state of polyacrylamide gel in heavy water is smaller than that in water. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Fluorescent thin gel films using organic dyes and pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazumi, Hiroyuki; Takashi, Tarao; Taniguchi, Shin-ichi; Nanto, Hidehito

    1997-10-01

    New organic-inorganic fluorescent thin gel films included with laser dyes or fluorescent organic pigments have been prepared for display application. The florescent dyes (benzoxazolium, pyrromethene, and rhodamine dyes) and super-fine particles of fluorescent pigments (coumarin and perylene) were successfully incorporated into thin silicate gel films prepared from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), methyltriethoxysilane (MTES), and methoxysilane oligomer (MTSO) under acid catalyzed hydrolysis. The blue, green, and red luminescence were observed from these thin films (thickness: 100 - 400 nm), respectively. Fluorescence spectra, fluorescent quantum yield and lifetime of thin gel films are examined. Fluorescent peaks for most of dyes and pigments used in gel films were similar to those in solution, and fluorescent lifetime for dyes and pigments used in gel films were 2.9 - 4.5 ns. Photostability of fluorescent gel films is dependent on fluorescent organic dyes and pigments used and/or silicate gel matrixes. Coumarin and perylene pigments have higher fluorescent quantum yield in gel film prepared from MTSO. The large Stokes shift was observed in fluorescent gel film using coumarin and benzoxazolium dyes. The coumarin and perylene pigments are significantly photo- stable in gel film prepared from MTSO, and photodegradation of perylene red after irradiation of 500 W Xi-lamp for 30 min is below 20%.

  8. Platelet gel for healing cutaneous chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovetti, Giovanni; Martinelli, Giovanna; Issi, Marwan; Barone, Marilde; Guizzardi, Marco; Campanati, Barbara; Moroni, Marco; Carabelli, Angelo

    2004-04-01

    Wound healing is a specific host immune response for restoration of tissue integrity. Experimental studies demonstrated an alteration of growth factors activity due to their reduced synthesis, increased degradation and inactivation. In wound healing platelets play an essential role since they are rich of alpha-granules growth factors (platelet derived growth factor--PDGF; transforming growth factor-beta--TGF-beta; vascular endothelial growth factor--VEGF). Topical use of platelet gel (PG), hemocomponent obtained from mix of activated platelets and cryoprecipitate, gives the exogenous and in situ adding of growth factors (GF). The hemocomponents are of autologous or homologous origin. We performed a technique based on: multicomponent apheretic procedure to obtain plasma rich platelet and cryoprecipitate; manual processing in an open system, in sterile environment, for gel activation. Every step of the gel synthesis was checked by a quality control programme. The therapeutic protocol consists of the once-weekly application of PG. Progressive reduction of the wound size, granulation tissue forming, wound bed detersion, regression and absence of infective processes were considered for evaluating clinical response to hemotherapy. 24 patients were enrolled. They had single or multiple cutaneous ulcers with different ethiopathogenesis. Only 3 patients could perform autologous withdrawal; in the others homologous hemocomponent were used, always considering suitability and traceability criteria for transfusional use of blood. Complete response was observed in 9 patients, 2 were subjected to cutaneous graft, 4 stopped treatment, 9 had partial response and are still receiving the treatment. In each case granulation tissue forming increased following to the first PG applications, while complete re-epithelization was obtained later. Pain was reduced in every treated patient. Topical haemotherapy with PG may be considered as an adjuvant treatment of a multidisciplinary process

  9. Higher Gel'fand-Dikii structures

    CERN Document Server

    Enriquez, B; Rubtsov, V N

    1993-01-01

    We apply the procedure of Magri and Weinstein to produce an infinity of compatible Poisson structures on a bihamiltonian manifold, to the case of the KdV phase space. The higher Gel'fand-Dikii structures thus obtained contain non local terms, which we express with the help of the r.h.s. of the KdV hierarchy. We also give a generating function for all these Poisson structues, in terms of the Baker-Akhiezer functions. Finally we describe the symplectic leaves of these Poisson structures.

  10. Electrochemical Study of Conductive Gel Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaohui Li; Jing Jiang; Gangtie Lei

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Conventional ion-conducting polymer consists of electrolyte salt and polymer matrix, so-called salt-inpolymer. It possesses lower conductivity because the migration of ions depends on the motion of polymer segmental. To increase the ionic conductivity, a kind of gel polymer film (GPF) was prepared by in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer in room-temperature ionic liquid(RTIL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIPF6). Due to immeasurably low vapor pressure, high ionic conductivity, and greater thermal and electrochemical stability, BMIPF6 is suitable electrolyte salts for ion-conducting polymer.

  11. Application of individualized nursing to pre-hospital emergency care of patients with AMI%个性化护理在急性心肌梗死患者院前急诊护理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖; 赵婷

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the application effect of the individualized nursing in pre -hospital emergency care of patients with acute myocardial infarction(AMI).Methods:92 AMI patients treated in our hospital from Sept.2011 to Sept.2012 were taken as the obser-vation group and the individualized nursing in pre -hospital nursing care was given to the patients;other 92 AMI patients treated from Sept.2010 to Aug.2011 were taken as the control group and routine nursing care in pre -hospital emergency care was taken in this group . The clinical nursing effects were compared between the two groups .Results:The out -call reaction time,emergency time and admission time was shorter in the observation group than the control group (P<0.05);the emergency diagnosis rate ,transferring success rate and res-cue success rate was higher in the observation group than the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion:The individualized nursing has a good effect in pre-hospital emergency care of patients with AMI and it can reduce the fatality rate .%目的:探讨个性化护理在急性心肌梗死患者院前急诊护理中的应用效果。方法:选择2011年9月~2012年9月我院接诊的92例急性心肌梗死患者作为观察组,院前急诊护理中采取个性化护理;选择2010年9月~2011年8月接诊的92例急性心肌梗死患者作为对照组,院前急诊护理中采取常规护理。观察比较两组的临床护理效果。结果:观察组出诊反应时间、急救时间和入院时间短于对照组(P<0.05),观察组急救诊断率、转运成功率和急救成功率高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:个性化护理在急性心肌梗死患者院前急诊护理中应用效果明显,可降低病死率。

  12. Deux représentations de l'arrivisme dans le roman français du XIXe si\\`{e}cle: Horace de George Sand et Bel-Ami de Guy de Maupassant

    OpenAIRE

    VYKYPĚLOVÁ, Klára

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the literary work is to put near a production of two important french writers, George Sand and Guy de Maupassant, in the kontext of epoch. The literary work apprises of the life and piece of the both authors, main literary tendences of 19th century (realism and naturalism) and a romance, as a genre in general. The literary work addresses the analysis of George Sand{\\crq}s piece {--} Horace and Guy de Maupassant{\\crq}s piece {--} Bel-Ami. In the both romances appears the theme of "a...

  13. Comparison effect of azithromycin gel 2% with clindamycin gel 1% in patients with acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Faghihi, Gita; Basiri, Akram; Farhadi, Sadaf; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammadali; Behfar, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease. Local and systemic antimicrobial drugs are used for its treatment. But increasing resistance of Propionibacterium acnes to antibiotics has been reported. Materials and Methods: In a double-blind clinical trial, 40 patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris were recruited. one side of the face was treated with Clindamycin Gel 1% and the other side with Azithromycin Topical Gel 2% BID for 8 weeks and then they were assessed. Results: Average age was 21. 8 ± 7 years. 82.5% of them were female. Average number of papules, pustules and comedones was similarly reduced in both groups and, no significant difference was observed between the two groups (P > 0.05, repeated measurs ANOVA). The mean indexes of ASI and TLC also significantly decreased during treatment in both groups, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. (P > 0.05, repeated measurs ANOVA). Also, impact of both drugs on papules and pustules was 2-3 times greater than the effect on comedones. Average satisfaction score was not significant between the two groups (P = 0.6, repeated measurs ANOVA). finally, frequency distribution of complications was not significant between the two groups (P > 0.05, Fisher Exact test). Conclusion: Azithromycin gel has medical impact at least similar to Clindamycin Gel in treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris, and it may be consider as suitable drug for resistant acne to conventional topical therapy. PMID:27169103

  14. Role and properties of the gel formed during nuclear glass alteration: importance of gel formation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A French SON 68 nuclear glass sample was experimentally altered to assess the mechanisms limiting the glass alteration kinetics, especially during the transition phase between the initial rate r0 and the final rate under silicon saturation conditions. A glass specimen was altered at the initial rate for one week to form a silicon-depleted non-protective gel; the specimen was then leached under static conditions at a glass-surface-to-solution-volume (S/V) ratio of 500 m-1 and the alteration kinetics were compared with those of a pristine glass specimen altered under the same conditions. Unexpectedly, after static leaching the previously leached glass was 2.7 times as altered as the pristine specimen, and the steady-state silicon concentration was twice as high for the previously leached specimen. STEM characterization of the alteration films showed that the initial non-protective gel constituted a silicon pump with respect to the glass, and that the glass alteration kinetics were limited only when a fraction of the gel became saturated with silicon, and exhibited protective properties. This work also shows that silicon recondensation was uniform at micrometer scale: the silicon hydrolyzed at the reaction interface then diffused before recondensing over a length comparable to the gel thickness. In addition to these findings, this investigation suggests a reinterpretation of the effect of the S/V ratio on the glass alteration kinetics and on the steady-state dissolved silicon concentration

  15. A simple gel electrophoresis method for separating polyhedral gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suhee; Lee, Hye Jin

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a simple approach to separate differently shaped and sized polyhedral gold nanoparticles (NPs) within colloidal solutions via gel electrophoresis is described. Gel running parameters for separating efficiently gold NPs including gel composition, added surfactant types and applied voltage were investigated. The plasmonic properties and physical structure of the separated NPs extracted from the gel matrix were then investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectrophotometry respectively. Data analysis revealed that gel electrophoresis conditions of a 1.5 % agarose gel with 0.1 % sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant under an applied voltage of 100 V resulted in the selective isolation of ~ 50 nm polyhedral shaped gold nanoparticles. Further efforts are underway to apply the method to purify biomolecule-conjugated polyhedral Au NPs that can be readily used for NP-enhanced biosensing platforms.

  16. Explorative data analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, J.; Gottlieb, D.M.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine;

    2004-01-01

    Methods for classification of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis gels based on multivariate data analysis are demonstrated. Two-dimensional gels of ten wheat varieties are analyzed and it is demonstrated how to classify the wheat varieties in two qualities and a method for initial screening of...... gels is presented. First, an approach is demonstrated in which no prior knowledge of the separated proteins is used. Alignment of the gels followed by a simple transformation of data makes it possible to analyze the gels in an automated explorative manner by principal component analysis, to determine...... if the gels should be further analyzed. A more detailed approach is done by analyzing spot volume lists by principal components analysis and partial least square regression. The use of spot volume data offers a mean to investigate the spot pattern and link the classified protein patterns to distinct...

  17. G-Quadruplex Guanosine Gels and Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehua Yu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Solubilization of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs in aqueous gel phases formed by reversible, G-quadruplex self-assembly of guanosine monophosphate (GMP alone or with guanosine (Guo is described. Unlike other media and methods for aqueous solubilization of SWNTs, the guanosine gels (“G-gels” are found to readily disperse high (>mg/mL concentrations of individual rather than bundled SWNTs. SWNT dispersions in GMP alone precipitate in several hours and re-form upon shaking; however, dispersions in the binary GMP/Guo gels are indefinitely stable. Increasing GMP or KCl concentration in the binary gels increased the relative abundance of large diameter and semi-conducting SWNTs. Different gel compositions also displayed different selectivities toward SWNTs of different chiralities. These results indicate a strong connection between the self-assembled G-gels and the dimensions and structures of the SWNTs that they solubilize.

  18. A NOVEL OPHTHALMIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: IN-SITU GEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Patil*, A.A. Tagalpallewar, G.M. Rasve, A.V. Bendre, P.G. Khapekar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ophthalmic in-situ gels now days proved an palpable sustained drug delivery in various eye diseases. The formulation of in-situ gels for eye which carries the advantages like easy for administration, reduces frequency of dose and improves patient compliance. The formation of in-situ gels depends on phase transition system or sol-gel transition system. The formulation approaches like temperature intonation, pH change and presence of ions from which the drug gets released in a sustained and controlled manner are utilised for in-situ gels. Various polymers that are used for the formulation of in-situ gels include chitosan, Pluronic F-127, poly-caprolactone, gellan gum, alginic acid, xyloglucan, pectin etc.

  19. Porphyrin gels reinforced by sol-gel reaction via the organogel phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Takanori; Fujita, Norifumi; Sada, Kazuki; Shinkai, Seiji

    2005-10-11

    Porphyrins bearing four urea-linked dodecyl groups (3a) or four urea-linked triethoxysilylpropyl groups (3TEOS) at their peripheral positions were synthesized. 3a tends to assemble into a sheetlike two-dimensional structure due to the predominant hydrogen-bonding interaction among the urea groups and acts as a moderate gelator of organic solvents. On the other hand, its Cu(II) compelx (3a.Cu) tends to assemble into a fibrous one-dimensional structure due to the predominant porphyrin-porphyrin pi-pi stacking interaction and acts as an excellent gelator of many organic solvents. 3TEOS and 3TEOS.Cu, which also act as gelators, afforded similar superstructures as those of 3a and 3a.Cu, respectively, and as evidenced by SEM and TEM observations and XRD measurements, the original superstructures could be precisely immobilized by in situ sol-gel polycondensation of the triethoxysilyl groups. The TEM images of 3a gels and 3TEOS gels after sol-gel polycondensation showed a fine striped structure, the periodical distance of which was either 2 or 4 nm. X-ray crystallographic analysis of a single crystal obtained from a reference porphyrin bearing four urea-linked butyl groups revealed that there are two different porphyrin-stacked columns in the crystal and both the 2 nm distance and the 4 nm distance can appear, depending on the observation tilting angle. The hybrid gel prepared from 3TEOS.Cu by sol-gel polycondensation showed unique physicochemical properties such as a high sol-gel phase-transition temperature (>160 degrees C), sufficient elasticity, high mechanical strength, etc. Thus, the present study has established new concepts for molecular design of porphyrin-based gelators on the basis of cooperative and/or competitive actions of hydrogen-bonding and pi-pi stacking interactions and for immobilization of their superstructures leading to development of new functional organic/inorganic hybrid materials. PMID:16207018

  20. Block copolymer ion gels for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuanyan; Lodge, Timothy

    2012-02-01

    Carbon dioxide removal from light gases (eg. N2, CH4, and H2) is a very important technology for industrial applications such as natural gas sweetening, CO2 capture from coal-fire power plant exhausts and hydrogen production. Current CO2 separation method uses amine-absorption, which is energy-intensive and requires frequent maintenance. Membrane separation is a cost-effective solution to this problem, especially in small-scale applications. Ionic liquids have recently received increasing interest in this area because of their selective solubility for CO2 and non-volatility. However, ionic liquid itself lacks the persistent structure and mechanical integrity to withstand the high pressure for gas separation. Here, we report the development and gas separation performances of physically crosslinked ion gels based on self-assembly of ABA-triblock copolymers in ionic liquids. Three different types of polymers was used to achieve gelation in ionic liquids. Specifically, a triblock copolymer ion gel with a polymerized ionic liquid mid-block shows performances higher than the upper bound of well-known ``Robeson Plot'' for CO2/N2.

  1. Purification of radiolabeled RNA products using denaturing gel electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Adachi, Hironori; Yu, Yi-Tao

    2014-01-01

    This unit discusses a basic method for purification of radiolabeled RNAs using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The method consists of a number of experimental procedures, including total RNA preparation from yeast cells, isolation of a specific RNA from total yeast RNA, RNA 3' terminal labeling using nucleotide (5’[32P]pCp) addition (via ligation), denaturing (8 M urea) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and RNA extraction from the gel slice. Key points for achieving good elec...

  2. Guidelines for reporting the use of gel electrophoresis in proteomics.

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Frank; Anderson, Leigh; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Baker, Mark; Berth, Matthias; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Borthwick, Andy; Cash, Phil; Day, Billy W.; Friedman, David B; Garland, Donita; Gutstein, Howard B.; Hoogland, Christine; Jones, Neil A.; Khan, Alamgir

    2008-01-01

    the MIAPE Gel Electrophoresis (MIAPE-GE) guidelines specify the minimum information that should be provided when reporting the use of n-dimensional gel electrophoresis in a proteomics experiment. Developed through a joint effort between the gel-based analysis working group of the Human Proteome Organisation's Proteomics Standards Initiative (HUPO-PSI; http://www.psidev.info/) and the wider proteomics community, they constitute one part of the overall Minimum Information about a Proteomics Exp...

  3. Cervical Ripening With Prostaglandin Gel and Hygroscopic Dilators

    OpenAIRE

    J. U. Hibbard; A. Shashoua; Adamczyk, C.; Ismail, M

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To study the effectiveness and morbidity of adding hygroscopic cervical dilators to prostaglandin gel for cervical ripening and labor induction.Study design: Patients of at least 34 weeks’ gestation with a medical indication for induction of labor and with a modified Bishop score of 5 or less were randomized to receive either prostaglandin gel or prostaglandin gel with hygroscopic cervical dilators. Primary outcomes were time to delivery, change in cervical score, and infection. Se...

  4. Cervical ripening with prostaglandin gel and hygroscopic dilators.

    OpenAIRE

    J. U. Hibbard; A. Shashoua; Adamczyk, C.; Ismail, M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effectiveness and morbidity of adding hygroscopic cervical dilators to prostaglandin gel for cervical ripening and labor induction. STUDY DESIGN: Patients of at least 34 weeks' gestation with a medical indication for induction of labor and with a modified Bishop score of 5 or less were randomized to receive either prostaglandin gel or prostaglandin gel with hygroscopic cervical dilators. Primary outcomes were time to delivery, change in cervical score, and infection. S...

  5. Stability of the gel formed during nuclear glass alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is divided in two parts. The first part is dedicated to the study of the protective properties of the gels formed during the alteration of nuclear glass and the second part the stability of these gels after drying and the effect of the sulfate ions are studied. The protective properties of the gel of SON68 glass are assessed at different alteration progress and related to their morphology analyzed by X-ray reflectometry and gas adsorption. Initially a depleted glass layer is obtained, followed by the formation of a gel with an open porosity. Subsequently the gel densifies as the glass alteration rate decreases and finally the pore size increases upon the formation of a dense and thin zone within the film on the glass surface. The increase of the gradient density zone could explain the increase of the protective properties of the gel. A high reaction progress, when the thin and dense zone within the gel is formed, the protective properties are constant. Various simplified glasses are also studied. At high reaction progress there is a dense zone within the gel. The location of this zone depends on the glass composition which control the competition between the species diffusion in solution and their recondensation. The gel morphology, the protective properties, its stability and the glass composition are correlated. The drying induces some modifications of the morphology of the SON68 glass alteration layer (density, thickness and porosity) and of the mechanical properties (cracks, adhesion on glass). For protective gels these modifications are limited and don't raise the protective properties of the gel. The effect of the sulfate ions in a closed system is essentially to complex calcium. For sulfate ions concentrations in geological repository, the stability of the gel is not raised. (author)

  6. Theory of volume transition in polyelectrolyte gels with charge regularization

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Jing; Mitra, Mithun K; Muthukumar, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a theory for polyelectrolyte gels that allow the effective charge of the polymer backbone to self-regulate. Using a variational approach, we obtain an expression for the free energy of gels that accounts for the gel elasticity, free energy of mixing, counterion adsorption, local dielectric constant, electrostatic interaction among polymer segments, electrolyte ion correlations, and self-consistent charge regularization on the polymer strands. This free energy is then minimized to p...

  7. Agarose Gel Electrophoresis for the Separation of DNA Fragments

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Pei Yun; Costumbrado, John; Hsu, Chih-Yuan; Kim, Yong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Agarose gel electrophoresis is the most effective way of separating DNA fragments of varying sizes ranging from 100 bp to 25 kb1. Agarose is isolated from the seaweed genera Gelidium and Gracilaria, and consists of repeated agarobiose (L- and D-galactose) subunits2. During gelation, agarose polymers associate non-covalently and form a network of bundles whose pore sizes determine a gel's molecular sieving properties. The use of agarose gel electrophoresis revolutionized the separation of DNA....

  8. The Substitute Brain and the Potential of the Gel Model

    OpenAIRE

    Pomfret, Roland; Miranpuri, Gurwattan; Sillay, Karl

    2013-01-01

    This purpose of this paper is to review the recent history of the use of agarose gels. Although originally confined to electrophoresis work, agarose gels have proven themselves useful to a number of disciplines in the modern world, which includes brain infusion studies for research involving the treatment of various neurological conditions, such as Parkinson’s Disease. In reviewing the relevant research leading up to the modern day, this paper attempts to track agarose gels through their stag...

  9. Antimicrobial activity and the mechanism of silver nanoparticle thermosensitive gel

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Meiwan; Yang, Zhiwen; Wu, Hongmei; Pan, Xin; XIE, XIAOBAO; Wu, Chuanbin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the antimicrobial activity and mechanism of silver nanoparticles incorporated into thermosensitive gel (S-T-Gel) on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Patients and methods This study investigated the growth, permeability, and morphology of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells in order to observe the action of S-T-Gel on the membrane structure of these three bacteria...

  10. Electrophoretic properties of the scrapie agent in agarose gels.

    OpenAIRE

    Prusiner, S B; Groth, D F; Bildstein, C; Masiarz, F R; McKinley, M P; Cochran, S P

    1980-01-01

    The molecular properties of the scrapie agent were investigated by subjecting partially purified preparations to electrophoresis on agarose gels. When electrophoresis was performed at room temperature in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (NaDodSO4), most of the recoverable agent was found at the top of the gel, consistent with previous studies indicating aggregation of the agent upon exposure to elevated temperatures. In addition, less than 5% of the agent applied to the gel was found af...

  11. A systematic study of field inversion gel electrophoresis.

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, C.; Pohl, F M

    1989-01-01

    The mobilities of oligomers of phage lambda DNA and of yeast chromosomes in agarose gels during field inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE) were measured at different pulse times and electric fields. Also the ratios between forward and backward pulse times and/or field gradients were varied. The problem of 'band inversion' during FIGE, leading to an ambiguity in the mobility of large DNA fragments, was solved by using two dimensional gel electrophoresis with different parameters in the first a...

  12. Controlled Release Gel Formulations for Mucosal Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Paulsson, Mattias

    2001-01-01

    Drug delivery to nasal or ocular mucosa for either local or systemic action faces many obstacles – these routes are protected by effective mechanisms. Gel formulations with suitable rheological and mucoadhesive properties increase the contact time at the site of absorption. However, drug release from the gel must be sustained if benefits are to be gained from the prolonged contact time. The work presented here is the characterization of gels and the determination of the mucoadhesive propertie...

  13. Burns and injuries resulting from the use of gel candles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickus, E J; Lionelli, G T; Parmele, J B; Lawrence, W T; Korentager, R A

    2001-01-01

    Scented gel candles are common decorative household items composed of gelled mineral oil, fragrances, and dye. Like traditional wax candles, they have an open flame. Because of defective design, there have been several burns and injuries caused by these products. Here we report our experience with a scald burn from a gel candle and describe 34 additional injuries attributed to gel candles previously unreported in the medical literature. PMID:11403248

  14. Engineering new supramolecular gels: From catalysis to drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Bachl, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The present dissertation evaluates the design, characterization and potential applications of functional supramolecular gel-materials. Gels have attracted tremendous scientific interest as they can be obtained from natural sources or derive from readily available building blocks by facile preparation methods. They have conquered our daily life appearing as constituents of commercial products in the fields of biomedicine, agriculture, cosmetics, food thickeners and many more. Gel-materials exh...

  15. Volume Phase Transition of Polyelectrolyte Gels: Effects of Ionic Size

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Li-Jian; Zhang, Xinghua; Tang, Jiuzhou; Yan, Dadong

    2013-01-01

    Although the volume transition of the polyelectrolyte gel has been studied for decades, little research on the effects of size of the mobile ions has been conducted. In the present paper, Tanaka classical theory of polyelectrolyte gel is extended to the cases of mobile ions of finite volume. In the salt free limit, the theoretical results show that the discontinuous volume transition of the polyelectrolyte gel will become a continuous one with an increase of the counter-ionic size. An increas...

  16. Preparation of a novel composition-gradient thermosensitive gel

    OpenAIRE

    Tokuyama, Hideaki; Sasaki, Masahiro; Sakohara, Shuji

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of a novel composition-gradient copolymer gel, in which the composition gradually changes with the distance, was examined. The slab-shaped copolymer gels of a thermosensitive primary component, N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) and an ionic secondary component, 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) or acrylic acid (AA), were prepared between two substrates of hydrophilic glass and hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon). In the NIPA-co-AMPS gels, prepared at 40°C...

  17. Manual for starch gel electrophoresis: A method for the detection of genetic variation

    OpenAIRE

    Aebersold, Paul B.; Winans, Gary A.; David J Teel; Milner, George B.; Utter, Fred M

    1987-01-01

    The procedure to conduct horizontal starch gel electrophoresis on enzymes is described in detail. Areas covered are (I) collection and storage of specimens, (2) preparation of tissues, (3) preparation of a starch gel, (4) application of enzyme extracts to a gel, (5) setting up a gel for electrophoresis, (6) slicing a gel, and (7) staining a gel. Recipes are also included for 47 enzyme stains and 3 selected gel buffers. (PDF file contains 26 pages.)

  18. Biochemical Identification of the Two Races of Radopholus similis by Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Huettel, R. N.; Dickson, D. W.; Kaplan, D. T.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of proteins of the banana and citrus race of Radopholus similis was carried out by several different types of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These included standard slab gel, SDS slab gel, gradient slab gel, and two-ditnensional slab gel electrophoresis. A major band difference was detected between the two races by slab gel electrophoresis. However, several other poorly resolved but consistent hands of high molecular weight proteins near the gel origin also were considered as di...

  19. Silica scintillating materials prepared by sol-gel methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silica was investigated as a rad-hard alternative to organic polymer hosts for organic scintillators. Silica sol-gels were prepared by hydrolysis of tetramethoxysilane in alcohol solutions. organic dyes were incorporated into the gels by dissolving in methanol at the sol stage of gel formation. The silica sol-gel matrix is very rad-hard. The radiation stability of silica scintillators prepared by this method is dye-limited. Transient radioluminescence was measured following excitation with 30 ps pulses of 20 MeV electrons

  20. Nonlinear dynamics of self-oscillating polymer gels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Self-oscillating polymer gels driven by Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) chemical reaction are a new class of functional gels that have a wide range of potential applications (e.g., autonomously functioning membranes, actuate artificial muscles). However, the precise control of these gels has been an issue due to limited investigations of the influences of key system parameters on the characteristics of BZ gels. To address this deficiency, we studied the self-oscillating behavior of BZ gels using the nonline-ar dynamics theory and an Oregonator-like model, with focus placed upon the influences of various system parameters. The analysis of the oscillation phase indicated that the dynamic response of BZ gels represents the classical limit cycle oscillation. We then investigated the characteristics of the limit cycle oscillation and quantified the influences of key parameters (i.e., ini-tial reactant concentration, oxidation and reduction rate of catalyst, and response coefficient) on the self-oscillating behavior of BZ gels. The results demonstrated that sustained limit cycle oscillation of BZ gels can be achieved only when these key pa-rameters meet certain requirements, and that the pattern, period and amplitude of the oscillation are significantly influenced by these parameters. The results obtained in this study could enable the controlled self-oscillation of BZ gels system. This has several potential applications such as controlled drug delivery, miniature peristaltic pumps and microactuators.

  1. Polyacrylamide gel miniaturization improves protein visualization and autoradiographic detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyacrylamide gels shrink to one-quarter of their original area when soaked in a 50% (w/v) solution of polyethylene glycol. Gel miniaturization improves the contrast of protein bands, with four valuable consequences. (i) A 5- to 10-fold increase in sensitivity for Coomassie blue is observed. (ii) Gels are more durable; i.e., they resist tearing when wet and they do not crack during drying under vacuum. (iii) Shrunken gels give sharper photographic images and provide better interlane protein band comparisons. (iv) Condensed protein bands lead to an increased sensitivity for detecting low-abundance, radioactively-labeled proteins by fluorography

  2. Effect of bloom strength on radiochromic gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fricke gel dosimeter has been the widely used dosimeter among the gel dosimeters because of its dose response characteristics and easy preparation. The ferrous to ferric conversion that happens in this gel dosimeter on irradiation, corresponds to the absorbed dose of radiation. Gel dosimetry in India is not moving forward because of the import restrictions on the commercially available high bloom strength gelatin (imported 300 bloom). The feasibility of using Fricke gel dosimeter prepared with the locally available gelatin of 240 bloom and 200 bloom were compared with the 300 bloom gelatin taken as standard. The gel samples were prepared with 5% gelatin by weight and irradiated with 60Co gamma radiation for a dose range from 0-3 Gy used clinically. The optical absorption of gel samples were analyzed using spectrophotometer at 585 nm and dose response curves were generated. The results indicate that Fricke gels prepared with 240 bloom have linear dose response and comparable with those prepared with 300 bloom but the use of gels prepared with 200 bloom was found to be limited because of its poor optical transmittance

  3. Study of polymer gel for dose imaging in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanossi, E. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Nucleare del Politecnico, Ce.S.N.E.F., Milano (Italy); INFN, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milano (Italy); Carrara, M. [S.C. Fisica Sanitaria, Fondazione IRCCS ' Istituto Nazionale Tumori' , Milano (Italy); Gambarini, G. [INFN, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Milano (Italy)], E-mail: Grazia.Gambarini@mi.infn.it; Mariani, M. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Nucleare del Politecnico, Ce.S.N.E.F., Milano (Italy); Valente, M. [INFN, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Milano (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    Gel dosimeters in the form of layers are a promising tool for in-phantom absorbed dose imaging in radiotherapy, either with high gradient X-ray or electron radiation fields, as in conformal radiotherapies, or with neutron beams, as in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A normoxic polymer gel has been studied, and the results are compared with those obtained with Fricke gel dosimeters exposed to the same fields and in the same phantom configuration. Although promising, polymer gel layers need further improvements in order to obtain higher reliability.

  4. Optimized Benzalkonium Chloride Gel: A Potential Vaginal Microbicides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun-cheng DING; Wei-hua LI; Jie-fei LI; Qiang-yi WANG

    2007-01-01

    Objective To develop an optimized BZK gel with good pharmaceutical effect and less toxicity to vaginal mucosa.Methods Four methods as below were used to research the spermicidal activity of BZK gel: 1)in vitro spermicidal test; 2) in vivo spermicidal test in rabbits; 3) anti-fertility test in rabbits; 4)contraceptive test in rabbits. Mucosal irritation test was used in rats to evaluate the safety of optimized BZK gel. Microbiological assessments were used to research anti-STI pathogens (including treponema pallidum, neisseria gonorrhoeae, trichomona vaginalis, candida albicans,ureaplama urealyticum, herpes simplex virus type-2, chlamydiae trachomatis) effect of optimized BZK gel.Results In vitro spermicidal test, EC50 of BZK gel was 0.029 mg/ml, a little higher than that of N-9 (0.019 mg/ml). The MIC of BZK gel was 0.25 mg/ml, similar to that of N-9 (0.20 mg/ml).The vaginal mucosal irritation test in rats showed that 0.429% BZK gel showed only minimal vaginal irritation, and did not damage the vaginal epithelium or cause local inflammation in rats. Microbiological assessments showed that optimized BZK gel could inhibit or inactivate common STI pathogens even after 3-fold or 5-fold dilution.Conclusion Optimized BZK gel was an effective microbicides.

  5. Aging and nonlinear rheology of thermoreversible colloidal gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Norman; Gordon, Melissa; Kloxin, Christopher

    Colloidal dispersions are found in a wide variety of consumer products such as paint, food and pharmaceuticals. We investigate gel formation and aging in a thermoreverible gel consisting of octadecyl-coated silica nanoparticles suspended in n-tetradecane. In this system, the octadecyl brush can undergo a phase change allowing the attractions between particles to be tuned by temperature (1,2). By probing the system with steady shear and large amplitude oscillatory shear, we have studied the effect of thermal history and shear history on gel formation and gel mechanical properties during aging. Gels were formed by approaching a common temperature from above and below to determine a reference state from which creep tests were conducted. Creep ringing was observed as expected for the viscoelastic gel. The rheological aging is interpreted in terms of the gel microstructure formed with differing thermal and shear histories to determine how processing affects structure. Recently proposed scaling laws for the rheology and structure under flow are explored within the context of gel aging (3). Through rheological and microstructural measurements, we will further the understanding of gel formation and aging in this model system which may be applied to processing conditions in an industrial setting.

  6. Application of CMPO containing gels to metal extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immersed in solubility-consistent organic solvents, high polymers can swell and form gels. Choosing the organic solvent among metal extracting solvents, metal extracting gels can be prepared. The advantages of the liquid-gel extraction process, in comparison with the liquid-liquid one, are to allow the extraction of metal cations from diluted aqueous solutions by using high aqueous-organic volume ratios (metal concentration in a few stages) with easy phase separations. Various CMPO (Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide) containing gels have been prepared, and the extraction of europium (and related actinides) has been studied. (author)

  7. Sol-gel Characteristics for Corrosion Resistance of Anodised Aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Michael; Cassidy, John; Duffy, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    Conventional anodising electrolytes based on sulphuric acid, oxalic acid and phosphoric acid have been used to form nanoporous layers on AA3003-H14 and sealed with silane based sol-gel sealers. It is shown that the sol-gel chemistries have varying levels of pore penetration depending on the synthesis conditions. The extent of sol-gel penetration and pore sealing is analysed by electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. To describe the sealing phenomena observed a sol-gel pe...

  8. High Impulse Nanoparticulate-Based Gel Propellants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase I addresses the development of advanced gel propellants and determination of their suitability for...

  9. Multiwalled carbon nanotube reinforced biomimetic bundled gel fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Takahashi, Haruko; Sasaki, Naruo; Matsunaga, Yukiko T

    2016-08-19

    This work describes the fabrication and characterization of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC)-based biomimetic bundled gel fibres. The bundled gel fibres were reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). A phase-separated aqueous solution with MWCNT and HPC was transformed into a bundled fibrous structure after being injected into a co-flow microfluidic device and applying the sheath flow. The resulting MWCNT-bundled gel fibres consist of multiple parallel microfibres. The mechanical and electrical properties of MWCNT-bundled gel fibres were improved and their potential for tissue engineering applications as a cell scaffold was demonstrated. PMID:27200527

  10. Inclusion type radiochromic gel dosimeter for threedimensional dose verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the verification of 3D dose distributions in modern radiation therapy, a new inclusion type radiochromic gel detector has been developed. In this gel, a hydrophobic leuco dye (leucomalachite green: LMG) was dissolved in water as an inclusion complex with highly branched cyclic dextrin. The radiation induced radical oxidation property of the LMG gel with various sensitizers was investigated. As a result, the optical dose responses were enhanced by the addition of bromoacetic acid and manganese (II) chloride. Unfavorable auto-oxidation of the gel was reduced when it was stored at 4°C

  11. PCR amplification on microarrays of gel immobilized oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizhkov, Boris; Tillib, Sergei; Mikhailovich, Vladimir; Mirzabekov, Andrei

    2003-11-04

    The invention relates two general methods for performing PCR amplification, combined with the detection and analysis of the PCR products on a microchip. In the first method, the amplification occurs both outside and within a plurality of gel pads on a microchip, with at least one oligonucleotide primer immobilized in a gel pad. In the second method, PCR amplification also takes place within gel pads on a microchip, but the pads are surrounded by a hydrophobic liquid such as that which separates the individual gel pads into environments which resemble micro-miniaturized test tubes.

  12. Gel-eletroforese no diagnóstico da varíola Gel-electrophoresis in the smallpox diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Mesquita

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available O emprego de gel-eletroforese no diagnóstico da varíola, demonstrou ser ao menos trinta vezes (30X mais sensível que o teste de agar-gel, nas condições descritas (tabela I. Doze (12 espécimes, cujos testes convencionais de inoculação em ovos embrionados e de agar-gel resultaram positivos, foram testados em suas diluições originais congeladas por mais de um ano, sendo seis deles revelados por gel-eletroforese enquanto nenhum o foi por agar-gel (tabela II. Trinta e três (33 amostras isoladas no laboratório, foram testadas com material colhido de membrana cório-alantóica da primeira inoculação para o diagnóstico, conservado em glicerina 50%, resultando 15 positivas em gel-eletroforese e apenas 3 em agar-gel (tabela II. Os últimos 60 espécimes recebidos para diagnóstico, através a Campanha de Erradicação da Varíola, também resultaram negativos em gel-eletroforese, que não mostrou falsos-positivos nas condições descritas.The test of gel-electrophoresis applied to the pox virus group showed to be at least thirth times (30X more sensitive than agar-gel test on the described conditions (Table I. Twelve specimens, which were positives form Smallpox in the conventional tests of egg inoculation and agar-gel difusion test, have been screened in their original dilutions frozen for more than 1 year and six of them were still detectable by gel-eletrophoresis, while by agar-gel test any of them was positive (Table II. Thirty three Smallpox isolates have been tested with material from first egg inoculation (chorioallantoic membranes which have been stored in glycerin 50%, at - 15ºC. Fifteen of them were still positive by gel-electrophoresis and only 3 by agar-gel (Table II. The last 60 specimens received for diagnosis from Smallpox Erradication Campaign (CEV, were negatives by both tests. The gel-electrophoresis, did not show false-positives on described conditions.

  13. Influence of Uranium and Polivinyl Alcohol Concentration in the Feed of Sol Gel Process on the Gel Spherical Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gel particles have been made at various uranium and polyvinyl alcohol concentration in the sol gel process. The variables of uranium concentration were 0.3; 0.5; 0.7; 0.9; 1.1; 1.3; 1.5; 1.7; 1.9 and 2.1 M The variables of polyvinyl alcohol concentration were 0.3; 0.6; 0.9; 1.2; 1.5; 1.8; 2.1 and 2.4 M After drying the sol gel process products were heated at 300, 500 and 750°C during 4 hours. The gel particles were characterized using an optic microscope to know the shape and condition morphology of gel. From experimental result using uranium concentration of 0.3 until 2.1 M and polyvinyl alcohol of 1.8 until 2.4 M spherical and gel was formed elastic, after heating at 750°C it was unbreakable. At the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol from 0.3 to 0.5 M, the gel product was soft and broken after being dried. At the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol from 0.6 to 0.8 M, the dried gel product was not perfect. At the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol from 0.9 to 1.7 M, the gel product of gelation process was spherical and it was broken after being heated up to 300°C. (author)

  14. Coupling of gelation and glass transition in a biphasic colloidal mixture--from gel-to-defective gel-toglass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, He; Jia, Di; Han, Charles

    The state transition from gel to glass is studied in a biphasic mixture of polystyrene core/poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) shell (CS) microgels and sulfonated polystyrene (PSS) particles. At 35 °C, the interaction between CS is due to short-range Van der Waals attraction while that between PSS is from long-range electrostatic repulsion. During variation of the relative ratio of the two species at a fixed apparent total volume fraction, the mixture exhibits a gel-to-defective gel-to-glass transition. When small amounts of PSS are introduced into the CS gel network, some of them are kinetically trapped, causing a change in its fractal structure, and act as defects to weaken the macroscopic gel strength. An increase of PSS content in the mixture promotes the switch from gel to defective gel, e . g . , the typical two-step yielding gel merges into one-step yielding. This phenomenon is an indication that inter-cluster bond breakage coincides with intra-cluster bond fracture. As the relative volume fraction of PSS exceeds a critical threshold, the gel network can no longer be formed; hence, the mixture exhibits characteristics of glass. A state diagram of the biphasic mixture is constructed, and the landscape of the different transitions will be described in future studies The financial support from the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program, 2012CB821500) is gratefully acknowledged.

  15. Influence of application of chlorhexidine gel and curcumin gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing: A interventional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugar, Shweta S.; Patil, Suvarna; Metgud, Renuka; Nanjwade, Basavraj; Hugar, Shivayogi M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Currently, the most common therapy for periodontal diseases consists of professional scaling and root planing (SRP). However, it was found to be of limited efficacy especially in areas which are inaccessible to periodontal instrumentation. Therefore, treatment strategies using antimicrobials in conjunction with conventional therapy have evolved. Thus, the study was undertaken with an. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of application of chlorhexidine gel and curcumin gel as an adjunct to SRP. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on thirty chronic periodontitis patients who were divided into two groups as control and experimental groups using a split-mouth design. After SRP chlorhexidine gel was applied in control and curcumin gel in experimental groups. The plaque index, gingival index, sulcus bleeding index, probing pocket depth were recorded at baseline and subsequently after 1 month and 45 days. Results: The results revealed that both chlorhexidine gel and curcumin gel have an effect on mild to moderate periodontal pockets in chronic periodontitis patients, but greater reduction was observed in the experimental group than the control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that both control and experimental gel can be used as an adjunct to SRP, but the curcumin gel was more effective than the chlorhexidine gel in the treatment of mild to moderate periodontal pockets with a significant reduction in the indice scores when compared to the baseline values. PMID:27433065

  16. A basic study of some normoxic polymer gel dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Deene, Y. [Centre for Medical, Health and Environmental Physics, Queensland University of Technology (Australia) and Radiotherapy Department, Ghent University Hospital, Gent (Belgium)]. E-mail: y.dedeene@qut.edu.au; Hurley, C.; Venning, A.; Mather, M.; Baldock, C. [Centre for Medical, Health and Environmental Physics, Queensland University of Technology (Australia); Vergote, K. [Radiotherapy Department, Ghent University Hospital, Gent (Belgium); Healy, B.J. [Department for Radiotherapy, QRI Mater Centre, Brisbane (Australia)

    2002-10-07

    Polymer gel dosimeters offer a wide range of potential applications in the three-dimensional verification of complex dose distribution such as in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Until now, however, polymer gel dosimeters have not been widely used in the clinic. One of the reasons is that they are difficult to manufacture. As the polymerization in polymer gels is inhibited by oxygen, all free oxygen has to be removed from the gels. For several years this was achieved by bubbling nitrogen through the gel solutions and by filling the phantoms in a glove box that is perfused with nitrogen. Recently another gel formulation was proposed in which oxygen is bound in a metallo-organic complex thus removing the problem of oxygen inhibition. The proposed gel consists of methacrylic acid, gelatin, ascorbic acid, hydroquinone and copper(II)sulphate and is given the acronym MAGIC gel dosimeter. These gels are fabricated under normal atmospheric conditions and are therefore called 'normoxic' gel dosimeters. In this study, a chemical analysis on the MAGIC gel was performed. The composition of the gel was varied and its radiation response was evaluated. The role of different chemicals and the reaction kinetics are discussed. It was found that ascorbic acid alone was able to bind the oxygen and can thus be used as an anti-oxidant in a polymer gel dosimeter. It was also found that the anti-oxidants N-acetyl-cysteine and tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium were effective in scavenging the oxygen. However, the rate of oxygen scavenging is dependent on the anti-oxidant and its concentration with tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium being the most reactive anti-oxidants. Potentiometric oxygen measurements in solution provide an easy way to get a first impression on the rate of oxygen scavenging. It is shown that cupper(II)sulphate operates as a catalyst in the oxidation of ascorbic acid. We, therefore, propose some new normoxic gel formulations that have a less

  17. A basic study of some normoxic polymer gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer gel dosimeters offer a wide range of potential applications in the three-dimensional verification of complex dose distribution such as in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Until now, however, polymer gel dosimeters have not been widely used in the clinic. One of the reasons is that they are difficult to manufacture. As the polymerization in polymer gels is inhibited by oxygen, all free oxygen has to be removed from the gels. For several years this was achieved by bubbling nitrogen through the gel solutions and by filling the phantoms in a glove box that is perfused with nitrogen. Recently another gel formulation was proposed in which oxygen is bound in a metallo-organic complex thus removing the problem of oxygen inhibition. The proposed gel consists of methacrylic acid, gelatin, ascorbic acid, hydroquinone and copper(II)sulphate and is given the acronym MAGIC gel dosimeter. These gels are fabricated under normal atmospheric conditions and are therefore called 'normoxic' gel dosimeters. In this study, a chemical analysis on the MAGIC gel was performed. The composition of the gel was varied and its radiation response was evaluated. The role of different chemicals and the reaction kinetics are discussed. It was found that ascorbic acid alone was able to bind the oxygen and can thus be used as an anti-oxidant in a polymer gel dosimeter. It was also found that the anti-oxidants N-acetyl-cysteine and tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium were effective in scavenging the oxygen. However, the rate of oxygen scavenging is dependent on the anti-oxidant and its concentration with tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium being the most reactive anti-oxidants. Potentiometric oxygen measurements in solution provide an easy way to get a first impression on the rate of oxygen scavenging. It is shown that cupper(II)sulphate operates as a catalyst in the oxidation of ascorbic acid. We, therefore, propose some new normoxic gel formulations that have a less complicated chemical

  18. Kinetics of swelling of polyelectrolyte gels: Fixed degree of ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Swati; Kundagrami, Arindam

    2015-12-01

    The swelling kinetics of uncharged and charged polymer (polyelectrolyte) gels in salt-free conditions is studied in one dimension by solving the constitutive equation of motion (Newton's law for the elementary gel volume) of the displacement variable by two theoretical methods: one in which the classical definition of stress is used with the bulk modulus taken as a parameter, and the other in which a phenomenological expression of the osmotic stress as a function of polymer density and degree of ionization is taken as an input to the dynamics. The time-evolution profiles for spatially varying polymer density and stress, along with the location of the gel-solvent interface, are obtained from the two methods. We show that both the polymer density (volume fraction) and stress inside the gel follow expected behaviours of being maximum for the uniformly shrunken gel, and relaxing slowly to the lowest values as the gel approaches equilibrium. We further show that, by comparing the temporal profiles of the gel-solvent interface and other variables between the two methods, one may attempt to assign an effective bulk modulus to the polyelectrolyte gel as a function of the degree of ionization and other parameters of the gel such as hydrophobicity, cross-link density, and the temperature. The major result we get is that the effective bulk modulus of a polyelectrolyte gel increases monotonically with its degree of ionization. In the process of identifying the parameters for a monotonic swelling, we calculated using a well-known expression of the free energy the equilibrium results of two-phase co-existence and the critical point of a polyelectrolyte gel with a fixed degree of ionization.

  19. Kinetics of swelling of polyelectrolyte gels: Fixed degree of ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The swelling kinetics of uncharged and charged polymer (polyelectrolyte) gels in salt-free conditions is studied in one dimension by solving the constitutive equation of motion (Newton’s law for the elementary gel volume) of the displacement variable by two theoretical methods: one in which the classical definition of stress is used with the bulk modulus taken as a parameter, and the other in which a phenomenological expression of the osmotic stress as a function of polymer density and degree of ionization is taken as an input to the dynamics. The time-evolution profiles for spatially varying polymer density and stress, along with the location of the gel-solvent interface, are obtained from the two methods. We show that both the polymer density (volume fraction) and stress inside the gel follow expected behaviours of being maximum for the uniformly shrunken gel, and relaxing slowly to the lowest values as the gel approaches equilibrium. We further show that, by comparing the temporal profiles of the gel-solvent interface and other variables between the two methods, one may attempt to assign an effective bulk modulus to the polyelectrolyte gel as a function of the degree of ionization and other parameters of the gel such as hydrophobicity, cross-link density, and the temperature. The major result we get is that the effective bulk modulus of a polyelectrolyte gel increases monotonically with its degree of ionization. In the process of identifying the parameters for a monotonic swelling, we calculated using a well-known expression of the free energy the equilibrium results of two-phase co-existence and the critical point of a polyelectrolyte gel with a fixed degree of ionization

  20. Reversible adsorption of calcium ions by imprinted temperature sensitive gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Guney, Orhan; Oya, Taro; Sakai, Yasuzo; Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Enoki, Takashi; Takeoka, Yukikazu; Ishibashi, Toru; Kuroda, Kenichi; Tanaka, Kazunori; Wang, Guoqiang; Grosberg, Alexander Yu.; Masamune, Satoru; Tanaka, Toyoichi

    2001-02-01

    With the aim of developing polymeric gels sensitive to external stimuli and able to reversibly adsorb and release divalent ions, copolymer gels of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) and methacrylic (MAA) monomers were prepared. We chose calcium as a target divalent ion. Two MAAs form a complex with a calcium ion, and the NIPA component allows the polymers to swell and shrink reversibly in response to temperature. The adsorbing site develops an affinity to target ions when the adsorbing molecules come into proximity, but when they are separated, the affinity diminishes. To enhance the affinity to calcium, an imprinting technique was applied using Ca2+ and Pb2+ ions as templates in methylsulfoxide and dioxane media, respectively. The adsorption capacity of the imprinted gels was compared with that of the nonimprinted gels, and the effects of the templates, the solvents, and the amount of methacrylic monomers used in the synthesis and the medium temperature over the Ca2+ adsorption capacity of the gels from aqueous solutions were evaluated. The analysis of the adsorption revealed that (a) the adsorption can be described by the Langmuir isotherms; (b) there is an approximately linear relationship between saturation and methacrylic monomer concentration; (c) the affinity depends on the degree of gel swelling or shrinkage that can be switched on and off by temperature; (d) in the shrunken state, the affinity depends approximately linearly on the MAA concentration in the imprinted gels, whereas in the nonimprinted gels it is proportional to the square of MAA concentration; (e) the imprinted gels adsorb more than the nonimprinted gels when MAA concentration is less than that of permanent cross linkers. The success of imprinting of CaMAA2 and PbMAA2 complex is evidence for memory of such complex onto the weakly cross-linked gel.

  1. Kinetics of swelling of polyelectrolyte gels: Fixed degree of ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Swati; Kundagrami, Arindam, E-mail: arindam@iiserkol.ac.in [Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, Mohanpur 741246, West Bengal (India)

    2015-12-14

    The swelling kinetics of uncharged and charged polymer (polyelectrolyte) gels in salt-free conditions is studied in one dimension by solving the constitutive equation of motion (Newton’s law for the elementary gel volume) of the displacement variable by two theoretical methods: one in which the classical definition of stress is used with the bulk modulus taken as a parameter, and the other in which a phenomenological expression of the osmotic stress as a function of polymer density and degree of ionization is taken as an input to the dynamics. The time-evolution profiles for spatially varying polymer density and stress, along with the location of the gel-solvent interface, are obtained from the two methods. We show that both the polymer density (volume fraction) and stress inside the gel follow expected behaviours of being maximum for the uniformly shrunken gel, and relaxing slowly to the lowest values as the gel approaches equilibrium. We further show that, by comparing the temporal profiles of the gel-solvent interface and other variables between the two methods, one may attempt to assign an effective bulk modulus to the polyelectrolyte gel as a function of the degree of ionization and other parameters of the gel such as hydrophobicity, cross-link density, and the temperature. The major result we get is that the effective bulk modulus of a polyelectrolyte gel increases monotonically with its degree of ionization. In the process of identifying the parameters for a monotonic swelling, we calculated using a well-known expression of the free energy the equilibrium results of two-phase co-existence and the critical point of a polyelectrolyte gel with a fixed degree of ionization.

  2. Radiological properties of MAGIC normoxic polymer gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a polymer gel dosimeter to be of use in radiation dosimetry, it should display water-equivalent radiological properties. In this study, the radiological properties of the MAGIC (Methacrylic and Ascorbic acid in Gelatin Initiated by Copper) normoxic polymer gels were investigated. The mass density (ρ) was determined based on Archimedes' principle. The weight fraction of elemental composition and the effective atomic number (Zeff) were calculated. The electron density was also measured with 90° scattering angle at room temperature. The linear attenuation coefficient (μ) of unirradiated gel, irradiated gel, and water were determined using Am-241 based on narrow beam geometry. Monte Carlo simulation was used to calculate the depth doses response of MAGIC gel and water for 6MV photon beam. The weight fractions of elements composition of MAGIC gel were close to that for water. The mass density was found to be 1027 ± 2 kg m−3, which is also very close to mass density of muscle tissue (1030 kg m−3) and 2.7% higher than that of water. The electron density (ρe) and atomic number (Zeff) were found to be 3.43 × 1029 e m−3 and 7.105, respectively. The electron density measured was 2.6% greater than that for water. The atomic number was very close to that for water. The prepared MAGIC gel was found to be water equivalent based on the study of element composition, mass density, electron density and atomic number. The linear attenuation coefficient of unirradiated gel was very close to that of water. The μ of irradiated gel was found to be linear with dose 2-40 Gy. The depth dose response for MAGIC gel from a 6 MV photon beam had a percentage dose difference to water of less than 1%. Therefore it satisfies the criteria to be a good polymer gel dosimeter for radiotherapy.

  3. One-Year Safety Analysis of the COMPARE-AMI Trial: Comparison of Intracoronary Injection of CD133+ Bone Marrow Stem Cells to Placebo in Patients after Acute Myocardial Infarction and Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Mansour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising approach to improve healing of the infarcted myocardium. Despite initial excitement, recent clinical trials using non-homogenous stem cells preparations showed variable and mixed results. Selected CD133+ hematopoietic stem cells are candidate cells with high potential. Herein, we report the one-year safety analysis on the initial 20 patients enrolled in the COMPARE-AMI trial, the first double-blind randomized controlled trial comparing the safety, efficacy, and functional effect of intracoronary injection of selected CD133+ cells to placebo following acute myocardial infarction with persistent left ventricular dysfunction. At one year, there is no protocol-related complication to report such as death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or sustained ventricular arrhythmia. In addition, the left ventricular ejection fraction significantly improved at four months as compared to baseline and remained significantly higher at one year. These data indicate that in the setting of the COMPARE-AMI trial, the intracoronary injection of selected CD133+ stem cells is secure and feasible in patients with left ventricle dysfunction following acute myocardial infarction.

  4. Novel macroporous amphoteric gels: Preparation and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kudaibergenov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Macroporous amphoteric gels based on allylamine, methacrylic acid and acrylamide crosslinked by N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide were synthesized by radical copolymerization of monomers in cryoconditions. The composition of cryogels was determined by combination of potentiometric and conductimetric titrations. The morphology of cryogels was evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Cryogels exhibited sponge-like porous structure with pore size ranging from 50 to 200 μm. The values of the isoelectric points (IEPs determined from the swelling experiments arranged between 3.5 and 4.3. The high adsorption-desorption capacity of amphoteric cryogels with respect to mM and trace concentrations of copper, nickel, and cobalt ions was demonstrated. It was shown that the macroporous amphoteric cryogels are able to adsorb up to 99.9% of copper, nickel, and cobalt ions from 10–3 mol•L–1 aqueous solution.

  5. The Gelså River Restoration Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Nikolai; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Kristensen, Esben; Kronvang, Brian; Larsen, Søren Erik; Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Skriver, Jens; Thodsen, Hans; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The study was undertaken on the River Gelså, Denmark, where a 1.8 km meandering course was estab-lished in 1989 to replace a channelized river reach. This restoration project was the first of its kind inDenmark and has the longest time-series of post-intervention data of any restoration project...... conductedworld-wide. Additionally, a 0.5 km upstream (control) reach that remained channelized has been sampledsince 1989. In this paper, we examined macroinvertebrate assemblages in distinct habitats in 2008, 19years after the restoration, and community persistence between two years, 1997 and 2008, to...... investigatethe longer-term effects of restoration on the biota. We found that habitat type influenced macroinverte-brate community composition to some degree, while there were no clear effects on - and -diversity ofhabitat or reach type. Stony substrate habitats introduced as part of the restoration could...

  6. Photoluminescence of sol-gel-prepared hafnia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiisk, Valter, E-mail: kiisk@ut.e [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia Str. 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Lange, Sven; Utt, Kathriin; Taette, Tanel; Maendar, Hugo; Sildos, Ilmo [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia Str. 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia)

    2010-01-15

    We employed a sol-gel route followed by a thermal treatment (up to 1000 deg. C) to prepare crystalline (monoclinic) hafnium dioxide. Thorough steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence characterization of the material within the temperature range of 10-300 K was conducted by using various excitation sources. The most prominent spectroscopic feature of the material was an intense broad emission band centered at 2.3-2.5 eV with an associated excitation band centered at 4.2-4.4 eV (well below the bandgap of monoclinic hafnia). The emission was characterized by an essentially non-exponential, thermally stimulated decay and exposed a marked blue shift with the increase of temperature from 10 to 300 K. Relation of the emission to the intrinsic defects of hafnia is discussed.

  7. Electrochemistry of polyamidoamine dendrimers ester gel electrolytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong; MO Zunli

    2004-01-01

    This paper described the first example of polyamidoamine dendrimers ester (PAMAM) used as a gel electrolyte with a short-chain polyethylene glycol (MPEG-400) as a plasticizer. The polymer films are solid and sticky. Background cyclic voltammetry (CV) shows a potential window between +0.7 and -0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The voltammetry of ferrocene and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) indicates that diffusion coefficients are in the range of 10-a-10-9 cm2/s.Ionic conductivities are approximately 10-6 S/cm. Similar films using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a plasticizer instead of MPEG-400 have demonstrated ionic conductivities of 10-4 S/cra and reversible voltammetry. However, UV spectrophotometry shows that 70% of the DMSO is lost under vacuum, indicating the difficulty in quantifying the DMSO content when exposed to vacuum.

  8. How to scan polymer gels with MRI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deene, Y.

    2013-06-01

    The absorbed radiation dose fixated in a polymer gel dosimeter can be read out by several methods such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical CT, X-ray CT and ultrasound with MRI being the first method that was explored. Although MRI was considered as an elegant scanning technique, readily available in most hospitals, it was later found that using a non-optimized imaging protocol may result in unacceptable deviations in the obtained dose distribution. Although most medical physicists have an understanding of the basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the optimization of quantitative imaging sequences and protocols is often perceived as the work of MRI experts. In this paper, we aim at providing the reader with some easy guidelines in how to obtain reliable quantitative MRI maps.

  9. Clotrimazole nanoparticle gel for mucosal administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Elisabetta, E-mail: ese@unife.it [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Ravani, Laura [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Contado, Catia [Department of Chemistry, University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Costenaro, Andrea [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Drechsler, Markus [Macromolecular Chemistry II, University of Bayreuth (Germany); Rossi, Damiano [Department of Biology and Evolution, LT Terra and Acqua Tech UR7, University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Menegatti, Enea [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Grandini, Alessandro [Department of Biology and Evolution, LT Terra and Acqua Tech UR7, University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Cortesi, Rita [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2013-01-01

    In this study a formulation suitable to be applied on oral and/or vaginal mucosa has been developed for the treatment of fungal infections. The aim of the research is a comparison between clotrimazole (CLO) containing semisolid formulations based on monoolein aqueous dispersion (MAD) or nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC). MAD and NLC have been characterized in terms of morphology and dimensional distribution by cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy (cryo-TEM) and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS). CLO was encapsulated with high entrapment efficiency both in MAD and in NLC, according to Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF) combined with HPLC. CLO recovery in MAD and NLC has been investigated by time. In order to obtain formulations with suitable viscosity for mucosal application, MAD was diluted with a carbomer gel, while NLC was directly viscosized by the addition of poloxamer 407 in the dispersion. The rheological properties of MAD and NLC after viscosizing have been investigated. Franz cell has been employed to study CLO diffusion from the different vehicles, evidencing diffusion rates from MAD and NLC superimposable to that obtained using Canesten{sup Registered-Sign }. An anticandidal activity study demonstrated that both CLO-MAD and CLO-NLC were more active against Candida albicans with respect to the pure drug. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison between monoolein aqueous dispersion (MAD) and nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Clotrimazole (CLO) encapsulated with high entrapment efficiency both in MAD and in NLC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solid matrix of NLC controls CLO degradation better than MAD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CLO containing MAD and NLC exhibits a higher anticandidal activity than the free drug. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple production of CLO-NLC based poloxamer gel, suitable for industry scaling up.

  10. Modelling of erosion of bentonite gel by gel/sol flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Luis; Neretnieks, Ivars; Longcheng Liu (Chemical Engineering and Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    Bentonite intrusion into a fracture intersecting the canister deposition hole is modelled. The model describes the expansion of the bentonite within the fracture. It accounts for the repulsive electrostatic double-layer forces, the attractive van der Waals forces and friction forces between the particles and the water. The model also takes into account the diffusion of the colloid particles in the smectite sol. Diffusion of a counterion, sodium, is accounted for as this strongly influences the double layer force and the viscosity of the gel/sol. The gel/sol is considered to be a fluid with a varying viscosity that is strongly dependent on the bentonite volume fraction in the gel and the sodium concentration in the water. Two different geometries were modelled; a rectangular and a cylindrical. The rectangular geometry was used to gain experience with the processes and mechanisms and how they interact since the cylindrical geometry was somewhat less stable numerically and more time consuming. In the rectangular geometry a fracture 1 metre long in the flow direction was modelled. In both geometries the fracture size was selected sufficiently large to ensure that the water velocity, near the distant border was nearly the same as the approaching water velocity and that the smectite concentration there was vanishingly small. It was found that the velocity of the fluid drops considerably where the bentonite volume fraction is larger than 1-2%. This is due to the strong increase in viscosity with increasing bentonite volume fraction. The loss of smectite by the slowly flowing fluid was found to be proportional to the square root of the seeping water velocity for the rectangular geometry. For the cylindrical geometry, the dependence is somewhat lower (exponent about 0.4) since the length of the gel/water interface decreases with increasing water flow rate. The penetration depth of the gel/water interface decreases with increasing water flow rate. For water velocity of the

  11. Modelling of erosion of bentonite gel by gel/sol flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentonite intrusion into a fracture intersecting the canister deposition hole is modelled. The model describes the expansion of the bentonite within the fracture. It accounts for the repulsive electrostatic double-layer forces, the attractive van der Waals forces and friction forces between the particles and the water. The model also takes into account the diffusion of the colloid particles in the smectite sol. Diffusion of a counterion, sodium, is accounted for as this strongly influences the double layer force and the viscosity of the gel/sol. The gel/sol is considered to be a fluid with a varying viscosity that is strongly dependent on the bentonite volume fraction in the gel and the sodium concentration in the water. Two different geometries were modelled; a rectangular and a cylindrical. The rectangular geometry was used to gain experience with the processes and mechanisms and how they interact since the cylindrical geometry was somewhat less stable numerically and more time consuming. In the rectangular geometry a fracture 1 metre long in the flow direction was modelled. In both geometries the fracture size was selected sufficiently large to ensure that the water velocity, near the distant border was nearly the same as the approaching water velocity and that the smectite concentration there was vanishingly small. It was found that the velocity of the fluid drops considerably where the bentonite volume fraction is larger than 1-2%. This is due to the strong increase in viscosity with increasing bentonite volume fraction. The loss of smectite by the slowly flowing fluid was found to be proportional to the square root of the seeping water velocity for the rectangular geometry. For the cylindrical geometry, the dependence is somewhat lower (exponent about 0.4) since the length of the gel/water interface decreases with increasing water flow rate. The penetration depth of the gel/water interface decreases with increasing water flow rate. For water velocity of the

  12. Characterization of a humic gel synthesized from an activated epoxy silica gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purified humic acid has been covalently bound on activated epoxy silica gel particles. Determination of physical properties and chemical properties was conducted in order to characterize the material at different stages of the preparation. FTIR spectra and the PEC of the surface bound humic acid is very similar to that of humic acid starting material. This shows that the humic acid was not deteriorated during the surface binding process. This humic gel can be used as an analogue for sediment associated humic acid, with the advantage that covalently bound humic acid does not desorb, and thus allows for simple species separation between non-complexed and humic bound metal ions in batch and column experiments

  13. Transfer printing of thermoreversible ion gels for flexible electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun Hyung; Zhang, Sipei; Gu, Yuanyan; Lodge, Timothy P; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2013-10-01

    Thermally assisted transfer printing was employed to pattern thin films of high capacitance ion gels on polyimide, poly(ethylene terephthalate), and SiO2 substrates. The ion gels consisted of 20 wt % block copolymer poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide-b-styrene and 80 wt % ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethyl sulfonyl)amide. Patterning resolution was on the order of 10 μm. Importantly, ion gels containing the block polymer with short PS end blocks (3.4 kg/mol) could be transfer-printed because of thermoreversible gelation that enabled intimate gel-substrate contact at 100 °C, while gels with long PS blocks (11 kg/mol) were not printable at the same temperature due to poor wetting contact between the gel and substrates. By using printed ion gels as high-capacitance gate insulators, electrolyte-gated thin-film transistors were fabricated that operated at low voltages (<1 V) with high on/off current ratios (∼10(5)). Statistical analysis of carrier mobility, turn-on voltage, and on/off ratio for an array of printed transistors demonstrated the excellent reproducibility of the printing technique. The results show that transfer printing is an attractive route to pattern high-capacitance ion gels for flexible thin-film devices. PMID:24028461

  14. Inexpensive and Safe DNA Gel Electrophoresis Using Household Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ens, S.; Olson, A. B.; Dudley, C.; Ross, N. D., III; Siddiqi, A. A.; Umoh, K. M.; Schneegurt, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis is the single most important molecular biology technique and it is central to life sciences research, but it is often too expensive for the secondary science classroom or homeschoolers. A simple safe low-cost procedure is described here that uses household materials to construct and run DNA gel electrophoresis. Plastic…

  15. Self-Healing Corrosion Protective Sol-Gel Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdolah Zadeh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the state of the art and the recent advances in the field of self-healing corrosion protective coatings, the thesis entitled “Self-healing corrosion protective sol-gel coatings” addresses novel routes to self-healing corrosion protective sol-gel coatings via extrinsic and intrinsic heali

  16. Separation of Protein Oligomers by Blue Native Gel Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Braz, Valerie A.; Howard, Kathryn J.

    2009-01-01

    Native gel electrophoresis is used as a tool to assess structural differences in proteins. This note presents an application to separate oligomeric forms of proteins, such as HIV-1 reverse transcriptase monomers and homodimers. Technical difficulties encountered with various native gel techniques and ways to circumvent them are described.

  17. Gel Electrophoresis--The Easy Way for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanRooy, Wilhelmina; Sultana, Khalida

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a simple, inexpensive, easy to conduct gel-electrophoresis activity using food dyes. It is an alternative to the more expensive counterparts which require agarose gel, DNA samples, purchased chamber and Tris-borate-EDTA buffer. We suggest some learning activities for senior biology students along with comments on several…

  18. Physical gels based on charge-driven co-assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmers, M.

    2012-01-01

    Gels are used in a variety of products ranging from personal care products and food products to explosives. An important area where aqueous physical gels are applied is the water-based coatings industry. Currently, classical associative thickeners are used to form transient networks based on hydroph

  19. Compensation Of Smile Effect Distortion In Electrophoretic Gel Image

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáček, T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is engaged in the issue of automatic detection and removal of smile effect geometrical distortion in agarose gel electrophoresis images. Based on created databank of electrophoretic phantoms, an algorithm that is able to repair mentioned smile effect distortion was created. In this paper, two gel images with applied removal algorithm are shown with percentage description of reparation level.

  20. A comparative study of new type polymer gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we have investigated and evaluated some dosimetric properties of polymer gel dosimeter encountered when using gels in clinical radiation therapy environment. Four different compositions of polymer gel dosimeter were manufactured. Two compositions (A and D) represent widely recognized gels prepared following literature instructions. In case of MAGIC type dosimeter (D), gelatin weight fraction was decreased to 5%. During our previous research, we have experienced some substantial changes in behavior when lowering amount of sodium hydroxide and when potassium aluminum sulfate was added. Therefore another two gels were prepared (B and C). Gel dosimeters were evaluated using transversal relaxation rate R2. Details of the used acquisition sequence may be found in Spevacek V. et.al. (2001), only eight echo times were used for R2 calculation in this case. The following properties have been investigated for the four gel compositions: dose response; temperature dependence of dose response; short and long term stability; behavior of gels in a region of steep dose gradient; and uniformity of homogeneously irradiated region. (authors)

  1. Comparison of Two Types of Gels in Improving Burn Wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimzadeh Golnar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Kefir are natural probiotic compounds with anti-inflammatory properties, which were tested in experimental burn injury. Kefir gels were prepared from an extract of continuously cultured kefir in Man, Rogosa and Sharpe Broth medium for 48 and 96 h. Their extracts were used for evaluation of antibacterial effect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in standard sample (ATCC 27853 and samples taken from patients with burns. The antibacterial effect of different kefir extract was assessment of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. The density of bacteria and percentage of organic acids (lactic and acetic acids were also determined. Materials and Methods: Similar burn injuries were made on dorsal skin surface of 40 rats. The rats were divided into 5 groups of 8 rats each. The base gel, silver sulfadiazine ointment, kefir 48 h gel, kefir 96 h gel were applied twice daily. Burn wound area was measured at baseline, 1 and 2 weeks. Results: Results indicated that by increasing the time of fermentation, concentration of lactic and acetic acid increased in orders of: Kefir 48 h < kefir 96 h, the end of the 2nd week the percentage of wound size were lowest in order of kefir 96 h gel < kefir grains 48 h gel < silver sulfadiazine 1% < untreated and based gel groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, the kefir gel therapy was an effective therapeutic approach to improve outcomes after severe burn when compared with conventional silver sulfadiazine treatment.

  2. SYNTHESIS OF HIGH THERMOSTABLE SILICONE GELS CONSTRUCTED WITH LADDERLIKE POLYSILSESQUIOXANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huai-zhong Pan; Ming Cao; Jian-hua Luo; Ping Xie; Rong-ben Zhang; Yu-hui Lin; Neal Tai-sheng Chung

    2000-01-01

    Heat-resistant silicone gels were synthesized by replacing the single main chain polymethylhydrosiloxane with reactive ladderlike polyhydrosilsesquioxane copolymers. Because of the interaction between polydimethylsiloxane chains and the ladderlike polysilsesquioxanes chains, the cyclization of the polydimethylsiloxane chains is hindered. The high thermal stability of the ladderlike polymers can improve the thermal stability of the silicone gels without sacrificing their good comprehensive properties.

  3. Maintenance of Bacterial Cultures on Anhydrous Silica Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, John E.

    1977-01-01

    Suspensions of 20 different cultures were grown on appropriate media, then pipetted into sterile anhydrous silica gel. Silica gel cultures after incubation and refrigerated storage were tested for viability. Results showed little mutation, low replication, low contamination, minimal expenses, and survival up to two years. (CS)

  4. Spectroscopic studies of triethoxysilane sol-gel and coating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Sing; Ba, Abdul

    2008-10-01

    Silica sol-gels have been prepared under different conditions using triethoxysilane (TES) as precursor. The prepared sol-gels have been used to coat aluminum for corrosion protection. Vibrational assignments have been made for most vibration bands of TES, TES sol-gel, TES sol-gel-coated aluminum and xerogel. It has been noticed that air moisture may have helped the hydrolysis of the thin coating films. Xerogels have been obtained from the sol-gel under different temperature conditions and the resulting samples have been characterized by using infrared and Raman spectroscopic methods. IR data indicate that the sol-gel process is incomplete under the ambient conditions although an aqueous condition can have slightly improved the process. Two nonequivalent silicon atoms have been identified from the collected 29Si NMR spectra for the sol-gel, supporting the result derived from the IR data. The frequency of Si sbnd H bending vibration has been found to be more sensitive to the skeletal structure than that of the Si sbnd H stretching vibration. A higher temperature condition could favor the progression of hydrolysis and condensation. A temperature higher than 300 °C would cause sample decomposition without seriously damaging the silica network. From infrared intensity measurements and thermo-gravimetric analyses, the fractions of incomplete hydrolysis and condensation species have been estimated to be 4% and 3%, respectively. Electrochemical data have shown that the sol-gel coating significantly improves the corrosion protection properties of aluminum.

  5. Multiresponsive Reversible Gels Based on Charge-Driven Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Lemmers, Marc; Sprakel, Joris; Voets, Ilja K.; van der Gucht, Jasper; Stuart, Martien A. Cohen

    2010-01-01

    Coassembly of an ABA triblock copolymer with charged end blocks and an oppositely charged polyelectrolyte yields gels that respond to changes in concentration, temperature, ionic strength, pH value, and charge composition. Above the critical gel concentration, the triblock copolymers bridge micelles, forming a sample-spanning transient network of interconnected micelles.

  6. Gravitational collapse of depletion-induced colloidal gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harich, R; Blythe, T W; Hermes, M; Zaccarelli, E; Sederman, A J; Gladden, L F; Poon, W C K

    2016-05-11

    We study the ageing and ultimate gravitational collapse of colloidal gels in which the interparticle attraction is induced by non-adsorbing polymers via the depletion effect. The gels are formed through arrested spinodal decomposition, whereby the dense phase arrests into an attractive glass. We map the experimental state diagram onto a theoretical one obtained from computer simulations and theoretical calculations. Discrepancies between the experimental and simulated gel regions in the state diagram can be explained by the particle size and density dependence of the boundary below which the gel is not strong enough to resist gravitational stress. Visual observations show that gravitational collapse of the gels falls into two distinct regimes as the colloid and polymer concentrations are varied, with gels at low colloid concentrations showing the onset of rapid collapse after a delay time. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to provide quantitative, spatio-temporally resolved measurements of the solid volume fraction in these rapidly collapsing gels. We find that during the delay time, a dense region builds up at the top of the sample. The rapid collapse is initiated when the gel structure is no longer able to support this dense layer. PMID:27001686

  7. Biocatalysis with Sol-Gel Encapsulated Acid Phosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Suhasini; Tran, Vu; Ho, Maggie K.-M.; Phan, Chieu; Chin, Elizabeth; Wemmer, Zeke; Sommerhalter, Monika

    2010-01-01

    This experiment was performed in an upper-level undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course. Students learned how to immobilize an enzyme in a sol-gel matrix and how to perform and evaluate enzyme-activity measurements. The enzyme acid phosphatase (APase) from wheat germ was encapsulated in sol-gel beads that were prepared from the precursor…

  8. Dynamical transition of heat transport in a physical gel near the sol-gel transition

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Kazuya U.; Noriko Oikawa; Rei Kurita

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally study heat transport in a gelatin solution near a reversible sol-gel transition point where viscosity strongly depends on temperature. We visualize the temperature field and velocity field using thermochromic liquid crystals and polystyrene latex particles, respectively. During the initial stages of heating, we find that heat transport undergoes a dynamical transition from conductive to convective. Subsequently, during later stages, we observe that the transport dynamics are...

  9. Formulation of Niosomal Gel for Enhanced Transdermal Lopinavir Delivery and Its Comparative Evaluation with Ethosomal Gel

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ketul K.; Kumar, Praveen; Thakkar, Hetal P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to develop niosomal gel as a transdermal nanocarrier for improved systemic availability of lopinavir. Niosomes were prepared using thin-film hydration method and optimized for molar quantities of Span 40 and cholesterol to impart desirable characteristics. Comparative evaluation with ethosomes was performed using ex vivo skin permeation, fluorescence microscopy, and histopathology studies. Clinical utility via transdermal route was acknowledged using in vivo bioavailability study ...

  10. Origin of water loss from soy protein gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbonaite, V; de Jongh, H H J; van der Linden, E; Pouvreau, L

    2014-07-30

    Water holding (WH) of soy protein gels was investigated to identify which length scales are most contributing to WH when centrifugal forces are applied. More specifically, it was attempted to differentiate between the contributions of submicron and supramicron length scales. MgSO4 and MgCl2 salt specificities on soy protein aggregation (submicron contribution) were used to create different gel morphologies (supramicron contribution). Obtained results showed that the micrometer length scale is the most important contribution to WH of gels under the applied deformation forces. WH of soy protein gels correlated negatively with Young's modulus and positively with recoverable energy. The occurrence of rupture events had only a limited impact on WH. The ease by which water may be removed from the gel, but not the total amount, seemed to be related to the initial building block size. These insights could be exploited in product development to predict and tune oral perception properties of (new) products. PMID:24972135

  11. Laser CT evaluation on normoxic PAGAT gel dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D. S.; Samuel, E. J. J.; Watanabe, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Optical computed tomography has been shown to be a potentially useful imaging tool for the radiation therapy physicists. In radiation therapy, researchers have used optical CT for the readout of 3D dosimeters. The purpose of this paper is to describe the initial evaluation of a newly fabricated laser CT scanner for 3D gel dosimetry which works using the first generation principle. A normoxic PAGAT (Polyacrylamide Gelatin and Tetrakis) gel is used as a dosimeter for this analysis. When a laser passes through the gel phantom, absorption and scattering of photon take place. The optical attenuation coefficient of the laser can be obtained by measuring its intensity after passing through the gel by a sensor. The scanner motion is controlled by a computer program written in Microsoft Visual C++. Reconstruction and data analysis on the irradiated gel phantom is performed by suitable algorithm using Matlab software.

  12. The Applications of Shape Memory Gel as a Smart Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnat Kabir, M.; Gong, Jin; Watanabe, Yosuke; Makino, Masato; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    The research to find a suitable future new material is a big challenge nowadays. The material for biocompatible or biodegradable is an important issue in human life. The environment friendly materials or in other words green materials are required for future applications. The gels are soft and wet material having several unique properties such as high water absorbent, extremely low friction, softness, shape memory, high ductility and so on. The gel consists with a large amount of solvent and a small amount of cross-linker. Due to the high water content, for instants, more than 90%, this material becomes as an environment friendly green material. The shape memory gel (SMG) is one kind of soft materials among them which bears some interesting characteristics. This gel, a smart material, can be used as lens, eyeball, artificial muscle or artificial blood vessel, smart button and so on. In this paper, we have briefly discussed the different applications of the shape memory gel.

  13. Viscoelastic nature of Au nanoparticle–PDMS nanocomposite gels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ritu Gupta; Hima K Nagamanasa; Rajesh Ganapathy; Giridhar U Kulkarni

    2015-08-01

    A stable gel of Au nanoparticles in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanocomposite is prepared by employing the curing agent of PDMS elastomer as a reducing agent for the formation of Au nanoparticles by an in-situ process. The viscoelastic nature of these gels is very sensitive to the Au nanoparticle loading and the synthetic temperature conditions. Even a very low Au content of 0.09 wt% is sufficient enough to bring in the transition from sponge state to gel state at room temperature. Higher synthetic temperature also forms sponge formation. Infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy measurements have provided insight into PDMS crosslinking and nanoparticle formation, respectively. The optimization of the gel properties can have direct influence on the processability of Au nanoparticle–PDMS nanocomposite gels, with interesting implications in electronic, optical and microfluidic devices.

  14. [Biocompatibility analysis of hyaluronic acid sodium gels for medical application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaning; Yuan, Tun; Jia, Lifang; Zou, Wen; Liang, Jie

    2012-08-01

    Hyaluronan acid sodium gels are used in ophthalmic surgery, orthopedic treatment and cosmetic surgery. In 2009,there were 12 domestic manufacturers in China producing 33 kinds of products. 23 kinds of imported products were allowed by SFDA to sale in the meantime. Since manufacturers use different production processes, product performances are quite different. According to the GB/T 16886. 1-2001, we designed a pilot program to evaluate the sodium hyaluronate gel products comprehensively in this paper. The results showed that, except chromosome aberration test of gel A and subchronic systemic toxicity of gel C appeared positive, the remaining samples of the test results were negative. This article provides a reference to write standard of cross-linked hyaluronic sodium gel and the revision of standard YY0308-2004. PMID:23016423

  15. Molecular Gels Materials with Self-Assembled Fibrillar Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Richard G

    2006-01-01

    Molecular gels and fibrillar networks – a comprehensive guide to experiment and theory Molecular Gels: Materials with Self-Assembled Fibrillar Networks provides a comprehensive treatise on gelators, especially low molecular-mass gelators (LMOGs), and the properties of their gels. The structures and modes of formation of the self-assembled fibrillar networks (SAFINs) that immobilize the liquid components of the gels are discussed experimentally and theoretically. The spectroscopic, rheological, and structural features of the different classes of LMOGs are also presented. Many examples of the application of the principal analytical techniques for investigation of molecular gels (including SANS, SAXS, WAXS, UV-vis absorption, fluorescence and CD spectroscopies, scanning electron, transmission electron and optical microscopies, and molecular modeling) are presented didactically and in-depth, as are several of the theories of the stages of aggregation of individual LMOG molecules leading to SAFINs. Several actua...

  16. The Chemistry and Applications of π-Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Samrat; Praveen, Vakayil K.; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai

    2016-07-01

    π-Gels are a promising class of functional soft materials formed out of short π-conjugated molecules. By utilizing the chemistry of noncovalent interactions, researchers have created a wide range of π-gels that are composed of supramolecular polymers. During the last two decades, supramolecular gel chemistry has been pursued with the hope of developing new materials for applications in, for example, organic electronics, energy harvesting, sensing, and imaging. The high expectations for π-gels were centered mainly around their electronic properties, such as tunable emission, energy transfer, electron transfer, charge transport, and electrical conductivity; such properties are amenable to modulation through size and shape control of molecular assemblies. Although a large number of exciting publications have appeared, a major technological breakthrough is yet to be realized. In this review, we analyze the recent advancements in the area of functional π-gels and their scope in future applications.

  17. Oscillatory and electrohydrodynamic instabilities in flow over a viscoelastic gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R M Thaokar

    2015-05-01

    The stability of oscillatory flows over compliant surfaces is studied analytically and numerically. The type of compliant surfaces studied is the incompressible viscoelastic gel model. The stability is determined using the Floquet analysis, where amplitude of perturbations at time intervals separated by one time period is examined to determine whether perturbations grow or decay. Oscillatory flows pas viscoelastic gels exhibit an instability in the limit of zero Reynolds number, and the transition amplitude of the oscillatory velocity increases with the frequency of oscillations. The transition amplitude has a minimum at a finite wavenumber for the viscoelastic gel model. The instability is found to depend strongly on the gel viscosity $\\eta_{g}$, and the effect of oscillations on the continuation of viscous modes at intermediate Reynolds number shows a complicated dependence on the oscillation frequency. Experimental studies are carried out on the stability of an oscillatory flow past a viscoelastic gel at zero Reynolds number, and these confirm the theoretical predictions.

  18. Volume phase transitions of cholesteric liquid crystalline gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Akihiko, E-mail: matuyama@bio.kyutech.ac.jp [Department of Bioscience and Bioinformatics, Faculty of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kawazu 680-4, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    We present a mean field theory to describe anisotropic deformations of a cholesteric elastomer without solvent molecules and a cholesteric liquid crystalline gel immersed in isotropic solvents at a thermal equilibrium state. Based on the neoclassical rubber theory of nematic elastomers, we derive an elastic energy and a twist distortion energy, which are important to determine the shape of a cholesteric elastomer (or gel). We demonstrate that when the elastic energy dominates in the free energy, the cholesteric elastomer causes a spontaneous compression in the pitch axis and elongates along the director on the plane perpendicular to the pitch axis. Our theory can qualitatively describe the experimental results of a cholesteric elastomer. We also predict the first-order volume phase transitions and anisotropic deformations of a gel at the cholesteric-isotropic phase transition temperature. Depending on a chirality of a gel, we find a prolate or oblate shape of cholesteric gels.

  19. Conductivity behaviour of polymer gel electrolytes: Role of polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Sekhon

    2003-04-01

    Polymer is an important constituent of polymer gel electrolytes along with salt and solvent. The salt provides ions for conduction and the solvent helps in the dissolution of the salt and also provides the medium for ion conduction. Although the polymer added provides mechanical stability to the electrolytes yet its effect on the conductivity behaviour of gel electrolytes as well as the interaction of polymer with salt and solvent has not been conclusively established. The conductivity of lithium ion conducting polymer gel electrolytes decreases with the addition of polymer whereas in the case of proton conducting polymer gel electrolytes an increase in conductivity has been observed with polymer addition. This has been explained to be due to the role of polymer in increasing viscosity and carrier concentration in these gel electrolytes.

  20. Processing and characterization of Aloe vera gel for hydrogel preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the processing and characterization of Aloe vera gel for the preparation of hydrogels through gamma radiation from polymers and natural products in order to be used in biomedical applications. Processing was carried out immersing slices of aloe in distilled water for phenolic compound extraction. Through UV-VIS spectroscopy, 48 hours was determined as the optimal soaking time, at which organoleptic characteristics of the gel as well as its pH were acceptable. An increase of pH was observed on the gel that was stored at room temperature. The non processed gel showed a pink coloration. Results of gel yield values were not high. Microbiological tests showed a high bioburden. (author)