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Sample records for amidines

  1. Amidinate Ligands in Zinc coordination sphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 6. Amidinate Ligands in Zinc coordination sphere: Synthesis and structural diversity. SRINIVAS ANGA INDRANI BANERJEE TARUN K PANDA. Regular Article Volume 128 Issue 6 June 2016 pp ... Keywords. Zinc; carbodiimides; amidinate; alkyl migration.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of five-coordinated indium amidinates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riahi, Yasaman

    2016-07-29

    The focus of this work is synthesis, characterization and exploring the reactivity of new indium amidinate compounds of the type R{sub 2}InX (R = R''NCR'NR''; R' = Ph, R'' = SiMe{sub 3}, iPr, dipp; X = Br, Cl) with the coordination number of five and R{sub 3}In (R = Me{sub 3}SiNCPhNSiMe{sub 3}) with the coordination number of six. By using amidinates as chelating ligands the electron deficiency of indium atom will be resolved. Additionally, by using different substituents the study of the different synthesized indium amidinates has become possible. The selected method for the synthesis allows the carbodiimides to react with organolithium compounds to get the corresponding lithium amidinates. Afterwards the resulting lithium amidinates take part in transmetalation reactions with InBr{sub 3} and InCl{sub 3}. The study of the reactivity of indium amidinate complexes including nucleophilic reactions as well as their reduction were also examined. Beside crystal structure analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as elemental analysis has been applied to characterize the compounds.

  3. Amidinate Ligands in Zinc coordination sphere: Synthesis and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 6. Amidinate Ligands in Zinc coordination sphere: Synthesis and structural diversity. SRINIVAS ANGA INDRANI BANERJEE TARUN K PANDA. Regular Article Volume 128 Issue 6 June 2016 pp 867-873 ...

  4. Amidinate Ligands in Zinc coordination sphere: Synthesis and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amidinate Ligands in Zinc coordination sphere: Synthesis and structural diversity. SRINIVAS ANGA, INDRANI BANERJEE and TARUN K PANDA. ∗. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Kandi 502 285,. Sangareddy, Telangana, India e-mail: tpanda@iith.ac.in. MS received 25 February 2016; ...

  5. Oxidative Additions of Homoleptic Tin(II) Amidinate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlupatý, T.; Růžičková, Z.; Horáček, Michal; Alonso, M.; de Proft, F.; Kampová, H.; Brus, Jiří; Růžička, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 3 (2015), s. 606-615 ISSN 0276-7333 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : oxidative additions * homoleptic Tin(II) amidinate * DFT methods Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 4.186, year: 2015

  6. Amidine Sulfonamides and Benzene Sulfonamides: Synthesis and Their Biological Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Abdul Qadir; Mahmood Ahmed; Hina Aslam; Sadia Waseem; Muhammad Imtiaz Shafiq

    2015-01-01

    New amidine and benzene sulfonamide derivatives were developed and structures of the new products were confirmed by elemental and spectral analysis (FT-IR, ESI-MS, 1HNMR, and 13CNMR). In vitro, developed compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against medically important bacterial strains, namely, S. aureus, B. subtilis, and E. coli, and fungi, namely, A. flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. sp. The antibacterial and antifungal activities have been determined by me...

  7. Protective effect of Cl-amidine against CLP-induced lethal septic shock in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ting; Pan, Baihong; Alam, Hasan B; Liu, Baoling; Bronson, Roderick T; Deng, Qiufang; Wu, Erxi; Li, Yongqing

    2016-11-07

    Production of innate and adaptive immune cells from hematopoietic stem cells, and maturation of T lymphocytes are effective immune responses to fight severe microbial infection. In sepsis, this emergency myelopoiesis is damaged, leading to failure of bacterial clearance, and excessive stress-induced steroids cause immature T-lymphocyte apoptosis in thymus. We recently found that Cl-amidine, a peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) inhibitor, improves survival in a mouse model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced septic shock. In the present study we investigated how Cl-amidine promotes survival, focusing on protective effects of Cl-amidine on immune response. We confirmed survival-improving effect of Cl-amidine and are the first to explore the role of Cl-amidine in immune response. CLP caused bone marrow (BM) and thymus atrophy, decreased innate immune cells in BM. CLP increased levels of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) and bacteria load in blood/liver. In primary splenocyte culture, lipopolysaccharide increased TNF-α production. In contrast, Cl-amidine attenuated these CLP and lipopolysaccharide-induced alterations. Moreover, Cl-amidine increased circulating monocytes. Collectively, our results demonstrate Cl-amidine plays protective roles by significantly decreasing BM and thymus atrophy, restoring innate immune cells in BM, increasing blood monocytes and blood/liver bacteria clearance, and attenuating pro-inflammatory cytokine production in a murine model of lethal sepsis.

  8. The Peptidylarginine Deiminase Inhibitor Cl-Amidine Suppresses Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression in Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byungki Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of peptidylarginine into peptidylcitrulline by calcium-dependent peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases, identifying PADs as therapeutic targets for various diseases. The PAD inhibitor Cl-amidine ameliorates the disease course, severity, and clinical manifestation in multiple disease models, and it also modulates dendritic cell (DC functions such as cytokine production, antigen presentation, and T cell proliferation. The beneficial effects of Cl-amidine make it an attractive compound for PAD-targeting therapeutic strategies in inflammatory diseases. Here, we found that Cl-amidine inhibited nitric oxide (NO generation in a time- and dose-dependent manner in maturing DCs activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. This suppression of NO generation was independent of changes in NO synthase (NOS enzyme activity levels but was instead dependent on changes in inducible NO synthase (iNOS transcription and expression levels. Several upstream signaling pathways for iNOS expression, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 pathways, were not affected by Cl-amidine. By contrast, the LPS-induced signal transducer and the activator of transcription (STAT phosphorylation and activator protein-1 (AP-1 transcriptional activities (c-Fos, JunD, and phosphorylated c-Jun were decreased in Cl-amidine-treated DCs. Inhibition of Janus kinase/STAT signaling dramatically suppressed iNOS expression and NO production, whereas AP-1 inhibition had no effect. These results indicate that Cl-amidine-inhibited STAT activation may suppress iNOS expression. Additionally, we found mildly reduced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production in Cl-amidine-treated DCs. Our findings indicate that Cl-amidine acts as a novel suppressor of iNOS expression, suggesting that Cl-amidine has the potential to ameliorate the effects of

  9. A CO2-switchable amidine monomer: synthesis and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanbin; Yin, Hongyao; Feng, Yujun

    2017-01-01

    Smart system employed CO 2 gas as new trigger has been attracting enormous attention in recent years, but few monomers that are capable of switching their hydrophobicity/hydrophility upon CO 2 stimulation have been reported. A novel CO 2 responsive monomer, 4-vinylbenzyl amidine, is designed and synthesized in this work with N,N -dimethylacetamide dimethyl acetal and 4-vinylbenzyl amine that is prepared through the Gabriel reaction. In bi-phase solvent of n -hexane and water, the monomer dissolves in n -hexane first and then transforms into water upon the CO 2 treatment, indicating a hydrophobic to hydrophilic transition. This transformation is demonstrated as reversible by monitoring the conductivity variation of its wet dimethyl formamide solution during alternate bubbling/removing CO 2 . The protonation of 4-vinylbenzyl amidine upon CO 2 treatment is demonstrated by 1 H NMR which also accounts for the dissolubility change. The reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization of this monomer is also performed, finding the reaction only occurs in glacial acetic acid. The reason can be ascribed to the different radical structure produced in different solvent.

  10. Intramolecular cascade rearrangements of enynamine derived ketenimines: access to acyclic and cyclic amidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Dinesh Pratapsinh; Varma, Sreejith J; Gudem, Mahesh; Panigrahi, Nihar; Singh, Khushboo; Hazra, Anirban; Talukdar, Pinaki

    2017-06-07

    Copper-catalyzed reaction of enynamines with sulfonylazides provides acyclic and cyclic amidines. Nucleophilic addition of the tethered amino group on the in situ generated ketenimine forms a six-membered cyclic zwitterionic intermediate which facilitates migration of the tethered amino group to the C 5 -center giving the acyclic amidine. On the other hand, migration of a substituent on the amino group to C 2 - and C 4 -centers results in the formation of cyclic amidines. Computational studies were carried out to validate the mechanism which indicates that the product distribution of the process depends on the substitutions on the enynamine backbone.

  11. Synthesis of Amidines from Amides Using a Nickel-Catalyzed Decarbonylative Amination through CO Extrusion Intramolecular Recombination Fragment Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangqian; Yue, Huifeng; Jia, Jiaqi; Guo, Lin; Rueping, Magnus

    2017-09-04

    A catalytic synthesis of amidines from amides has been established for the first time. The newly developed CO extrusion recombination process takes advantage of an inexpensive nickel(II) catalyst and provides the corresponding amidines with high efficiency. The intramolecular fragment coupling shows excellent chemoselectivity, starts from readily available amides, and provides a valuable alternative amidine synthesis protocol. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Amidine Sulfonamides and Benzene Sulfonamides: Synthesis and Their Biological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdul Qadir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available New amidine and benzene sulfonamide derivatives were developed and structures of the new products were confirmed by elemental and spectral analysis (FT-IR, ESI-MS, 1HNMR, and 13CNMR. In vitro, developed compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against medically important bacterial strains, namely, S. aureus, B. subtilis, and E. coli, and fungi, namely, A. flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. sp. The antibacterial and antifungal activities have been determined by measuring MIC values (μg/mL and zone of inhibitions (mm. Among the tested compounds, it was found that compounds 3b, 9a, and 9b have most potent activity against S. aureus, A. flavus, and A. parasiticus, respectively, and were found to be more active than sulfamethoxazole and itraconazole with MIC values 40 μg/mL. In contrast, all the compounds were totally inactive against the A. sp. except 10b and 15b to show activity to some extent.

  13. Lanthanide amidinates and guanidinates in catalysis and materials science: a continuing success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Frank T

    2012-12-07

    Today the rare-earth elements play a critical role in numerous high-tech applications. This is why various areas of rare-earth chemistry are currently thriving. In organolanthanide chemistry the search for new ligand sets which are able to satisfy the coordination requirements of the large lanthanide cations continues to be a hot topic. Among the most successful approaches in this field is the use of amidinate and guanidinate ligands of the general types [RC(NR')(2)](-) (R = H, alkyl, aryl; R' = alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, SiMe(3)) and [R(2)NC(NR')(2)](-) (R = alkyl, SiMe(3); R' = alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, SiMe(3)), which can both be regarded as steric cyclopentadienyl equivalents. Mono-, di- and trisubstituted lanthanide amidinate and guanidinate complexes are all readily available. Various rare earth amidinates and guanidinates have turned out to be very efficient homogeneous catalysts e.g. for the polymerization of olefins and dienes, the ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters or the guanylation of amines. Moreover, certain alkyl-substituted lanthanide tris(amidinates) and tris(guanidinates) were found to be highly volatile and are thus promising precursors for ALD (= atomic layer deposition) and MOCVD (= metal-organic chemical vapor deposition) processes in materials science, e.g. for the production of lanthanide nitride thin layers. This tutorial review covers the continuing success story of lanthanide amidinates and guanidinates which have undergone an astonishing transition from mere laboratory curiosities to efficient homogeneous catalysts as well as ALD and MOCVD precursors within the past 10 years.

  14. New monodentate amidine superbasic ligands with a single configuration in fac-[Re(CO)3(5,5'- or 6,6'-Me2bipyridine)(amidine)]BF4 complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhayawardhana, Pramuditha; Marzilli, Patricia A; Perera, Theshini; Fronczek, Frank R; Marzilli, Luigi G

    2012-07-02

    Treatment of two precursors, fac-[Re(CO)(3)(L)(CH(3)CN)]BF(4) [L = 5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (5,5'-Me(2)bipy) (1) and 6,6'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (6,6'-Me(2)bipy) (2)], with five C(2)-symmetrical saturated heterocyclic amines yielded 10 new amidine complexes, fac-[Re(CO)(3)(L)(HNC(CH(3))N(CH(2)CH(2))(2)Y)]BF(4) [Y = CH(2), (CH(2))(2), (CH(2))(3), NH, or O]. All 10 complexes possess the novel feature of having only one isomer (amidine E configuration), as established by crystallographic and (1)H NMR spectroscopic methods. We are confident that NMR signals of the other possible isomer (amidine Z configuration) would have been detected, if it were present. Isomers are readily detected in closely related amidine complexes because the double-bond character of the amidine C-N3 bond (N3 is bound to Re) leads to slow E to Z isomer interchange. The new fac-[Re(CO)(3)(L)(HNC(CH(3))N(CH(2)CH(2))(2)Y)]BF(4) complexes have C-N3 bonds with essentially identical double-bond character. However, the reason that the Z isomer is so unstable as to be undetectable in the new complexes is undoubtedly because of unfavorable clashes between the equatorial ligands and the bulky N(CH(2)CH(2))(2)Y ring moiety of the axial amidine ligand. The amidine formation reactions in acetonitrile (25 °C) proceeded more easily with 2 than with 1, indicating that the distortion in 6,6'-Me(2)bipy resulting from the proximity of the methyl substituents to the inner coordination sphere enhanced the reactivity of the coordinated CH(3)CN. Reaction times for 1 and 2 exhibited a similar dependence on the basicity and ring size of the heterocyclic amine reactants. Moreover, when the product of the reaction of 1 with piperidine, fac-[Re(CO)(3)(5,5'-Me(2)bipy)(HNC(CH(3))N(CH(2)CH(2))(2)CH(2))]BF(4), was challenged in acetonitrile-d(3) or CDCl(3) with a 5-fold excess of the strong 4-dimethylaminopyridine ligand, there was no evidence for replacement of the amidine ligand after two months, thus establishing

  15. Lanthanide amidinates and guanidinates: from laboratory curiosities to efficient homogeneous catalysts and precursors for rare-earth oxide thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Frank T

    2009-08-01

    For decades, the organometallic chemistry of the rare earth elements was largely dominated by the cyclopentadienyl ligand and its ring-substituted derivatives. A hot topic in current organolanthanide chemistry is the search for alternative ligand sets which are able to satisfy the coordination requirements of the large lanthanide cations. Among the most successful approaches in this field is the use of amidinate ligands of the general type [RC(NR')(2)](-) (R = H, alkyl, aryl; R' = alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, SiMe(3)) which can be regarded as steric cyclopentadienyl equivalents. Closely related are the guanidinate anions of the general type [R(2)NC(NR')(2)](-) (R = alkyl, SiMe(3); R' = alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, SiMe(3)). Two amidinate or guanidinate ligands can coordinate to a lanthanide ion to form a metallocene-like coordination environment which allows the isolation and characterization of stable though very reactive amide, alkyl, and hydride species. Mono- and trisubstituted lanthanide amidinate and guanidinate complexes are also readily available. Various rare earth amidinates and guanidinates have turned out to be very efficient homogeneous catalysts e.g. for ring-opening polymerization reactions. Moreover, certain alkyl-substituted lanthanide tris(amidinates) and tris(guanidinates) were found to be highly volatile and could thus be promising precursors for ALD (= Atomic Layer Deposition) and MOCVD (= Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition) processes in materials science and nanotechnology. This tutorial review covers the success story of lanthanide amidinates and guanidinates and their transition from mere laboratory curiosities to efficient homogeneous catalysts as well as ALD and MOCVD precursors.

  16. Superbasic amidine monodentate ligands in fac-[Re(CO)3(5,5'-Me2bipy)(amidine)]BF4 complexes: dependence of amidine configuration on the remote nitrogen substituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Theshini; Fronczek, Frank R; Marzilli, Patricia A; Marzilli, Luigi G

    2010-08-02

    Addition of various RNH(2) to fac-[Re(CO)(3)(5,5'-Me(2)bipy)(CH(3)CN)]BF(4) (1) converts the acetonitrile ligand to the amidine ligand (a superbase) in fac-[Re(CO)(3)(5,5'-Me(2)bipy)(HNC(CH(3))NHR)]BF(4) products. Each complex has four conceivable isomers (E, E', Z, and Z') because the amidine CN bonds have double-bond character, and the two remote NHR group substituents are different. The reaction of 1 in acetonitrile is complete in 6 to 96 h (25 degrees C) and forms fac-[Re(CO)(3)(5,5'-Me(2)bipy)(HNC(CH(3))NHR)]BF(4) E' and Z isomers. Only the E' isomer formed crystals (R = methyl, isopropyl, isobutyl, tert-butyl, and benzyl). Upon dissolution of such crystals in acetonitrile-d(3), NMR spectra with highly dominant E' signals gradually changed (approximately 15 min at room temperature) to spectra with signals for an equilibrium mixture of E' and Z isomers. Such slow E'-to-Z isomer interchange is also indicated by 2D ROESY NMR data used primarily to assign solution structure. Equilibrium ratios (E':Z) of approximately 65:35 for R = methyl, isopropyl, and isobutyl and 83:17 for R = tert-butyl demonstrate that increasing the remote NHR group steric bulk above a threshold size favors the E' isomer. Consistent with this trend, fac-[Re(CO)(3)(5,5'-Me(2)bipy)(HNC(CH(3))NH(2))]BF(4), with a remote NH(2) (low bulk) group, favors the Z isomer. In contrast, although the remote NH(benzyl) group in fac-[Re(CO)(3)(5,5'-Me(2)bipy)(HNC(CH(3))NH(CH(2)C(6)H(5))]BF(4) has only moderate bulk, the E' isomer has high abundance as a result of favorable 5,5'-Me(2)bipy/benzyl stacking, evidence for which is present in both solid and solution states. The fac-[Re(CO)(3)(5,5'-Me(2)bipy)(HNC(CH(3))NHR)]BF(4) E isomer can be detected in solvents of low polarity. However, the Z' isomer was not observed, undoubtedly because unfavorable remote-group clashes with the equatorial ligands destabilize this isomer. Challenge studies with a 5-fold excess of 4-dimethylaminopyridine in acetonitrile-d(3

  17. Novel amidines and analogues as promising agents against intracellular parasites: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeiro, M. N. C.; Werbovetz, K.; Boykin, D.W.; Wilson, W. D.; Wang, M. Z.; Hemphill, A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Parasitic protozoa comprise diverse aetiological agents responsible for important diseases in humans and animals including sleeping sickness, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis and others. They are major causes of mortality and morbidity in tropical and subtropical countries, and are also responsible for important economic losses. However, up to now, for most of these parasitic diseases, effective vaccines are lacking and the approved chemotherapeutic compounds present high toxicity, increasing resistance, limited efficacy and require long periods of treatment. Many of these parasitic illnesses predominantly affect low-income populations of developing countries for which new pharmaceutical alternatives are urgently needed. Thus, very low research funding is available. Amidine-containing compounds such as pentamidine are DNA minor groove binders with a broad spectrum of activities against human and veterinary pathogens. Due to their promising microbicidal activity but their rather poor bioavailability and high toxicity, many analogues and derivatives, including pro-drugs, have been synthesized and screened in vitro and in vivo in order to improve their selectivity and pharmacological properties. This review summarizes the knowledge on amidines and analogues with respect to their synthesis, pharmacological profile, mechanistic and biological effects upon a range of intracellular protozoan parasites. The bulk of these data may contribute to the future design and structure optimization of new aromatic dicationic compounds as novel antiparasitic drug candidates. PMID:23561006

  18. Phenotypic Screening In Vitro of Novel Aromatic Amidines against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Silva, M R; Nefertiti, A S G; De Araújo, J S; Batista, M M; Da Silva, P B; Bahia, M T; Menna-Barreto, R S; Pavão, B P; Green, J; Farahat, A A; Kumar, A; Boykin, D W; Soeiro, M N C

    2016-08-01

    The current treatment of Chagas disease (CD), based on nifurtimox and benznidazole (Bz), is unsatisfactory. In this context, we performed the phenotypic in vitro screening of novel mono- and diamidines and drug interaction assays with selected compounds. Ten novel amidines were tested for their activities against bloodstream trypomastigote (BT) and amastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi (Y and Tulahuen strains) and their toxicities for mammalian host cells (L929 cells and cardiac cells). Seven of 10 molecules were more active than Bz against BT, with the most active compound being the diamidine DB2267 (50% effective concentration [EC50] = 0.23 μM; selectivity index = 417), which was 28-fold more active and about 3 times more selective than the standard drug. Five of the six monoamidines were also more active than Bz. The combination of DB2267 and DB2236 in fixed-ratio proportions showed an additive effect (sum of fractional inhibitory concentrations nucleus. Our present data encourage further studies regarding the activities of amidines and provide information which will help with the identification of novel agents for the treatment of CD. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Interception of amide ylides with sulfonamides: synthesis of (E)-N-sulfonyl amidines catalyzed by Zn(OTf)2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jijun; Long, Wenhao; Fang, Shangwen; Yang, Yonggang; Wan, Xiaobing

    2017-12-12

    Through the interception of amide ylides with sulfonamides, we herein report the first general example of an intermolecular condensation reaction between sulfonamides and amides. Beyond formamides, this approach was successfully applied to a variety of lactams and linear amides, giving rise to a broad array of (E)-N-sulfonyl amidines.

  20. Histological comparison of arterial thrombi in mice and men and the influence of Cl-amidine on thrombus formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Novotny

    Full Text Available Medical treatment of arterial thrombosis is mainly directed against platelets and coagulation factors, and can lead to bleeding complications. Novel antithrombotic therapies targeting immune cells and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs are currently being investigated in animals. We addressed whether immune cell composition of arterial thrombi induced in mouse models of thrombosis resemble those of human patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI.In a prospective cohort study of patients suffering from AMI, 81 human arterial thrombi were harvested during percutaneous coronary intervention and subjected to detailed histological analysis. In mice, arterial thrombi were induced using two distinct experimental models, ferric chloride (FeCl3 and wire injury of the carotid artery. We found that murine arterial thrombi induced by FeCl3 were highly concordant with human coronary thrombi regarding their immune cell composition, with neutrophils being the most abundant cell type, as well as the presence of NETs and coagulation factors. Pharmacological treatment of mice with the protein arginine deiminase (PAD-inhibitor Cl-amidine abrogated NET formation, reduced arterial thrombosis and limited injury in a model of myocardial infarction.Neutrophils are a hallmark of arterial thrombi in patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction and in mouse models of arterial thrombosis. Inhibition of PAD could represent an interesting strategy for the treatment of arterial thrombosis to reduce neutrophil-associated tissue damage and improve functional outcome.

  1. Copper-Catalyzed Oxidative C(sp(3))-H Functionalization for Facile Synthesis of 1,2,4-Triazoles and 1,3,5-Triazines from Amidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huawen; Guo, Wei; Wu, Wanqing; Li, Chao-Jun; Jiang, Huanfeng

    2015-06-19

    A facile and versatile catalytic system involving copper catalyst, K3PO4 as the base, and O2 as the oxidant has been developed to enable efficient synthesis of 2,4,6-trisubstituted and 2,6-disubstituted 1,3,5-triazines and 1,3-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazoles from amidines with trialkylamines, DMSO, and DMF as the reaction partners, respectively. This protocol features inexpensive metal catalyst, green oxidant, good functional group tolerance, and high regioselectivity, providing an efficient entry to those products that are challenging to prepare by traditional methods. A single-electron-transfer (SET) mechanism is proposed for these transformations.

  2. Highly fluorescent amidine/schiff base dual-modified polyacrylonitrile nanoparticles for selective and sensitive detection of copper ions in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inkyu; Kim, Sojin; Kim, Seh-Na; Jang, Yoonsun; Jang, Jyongsik

    2014-10-08

    Highly fluorescent surface modified polyacrylonitrile nanoparticles (PAN NPs) of 50 nm diameter were fabricated for selective Cu(2+) sensing. After surface modification, the PAN NPs were converted to amidine/Schiff base dual-modified PAN nanoparticles (tPAN NPs) with a Cu(2+) sensing property and high QY (0.19). The selectivity of tPAN NPs for Cu(2+) is much higher than that of other metal ions due to the fact that amidine group on the surface of tPAN NPs has a higher binding affinity with Cu(2+). The effect of other metal ions on the fluorescence intensity of the tPAN NPs was also studied, and other metal ions showed a low interference response in the detection of Cu(2+). Furthermore, as a metal ion chelator, ethylenediaminetetraacetate can competitively interact with Cu(2+) to recover the quenched fluorescence of tPAN NPs. The tPAN NPs are easily introduced into cells and exhibit low toxicity, enabling their use as a fluorescence sensor for Cu(2+) in living cells. The tPAN NPs provide a new direction for the development of copper ion sensors in living cells.

  3. Conflict of interest: use of pyrethroids and amidines against tsetse and ticks in zoonotic sleeping sickness endemic areas of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardosh, Kevin; Waiswa, Charles; Welburn, Susan C

    2013-07-10

    Caused by trypanosomes and transmitted by tsetse flies, Human African Trypanosomiasis and bovine trypanosomiasis remain endemic across much of rural Uganda where the major reservoir of acute human infection is cattle. Following elimination of trypanosomes by mass trypanocidal treatment, it is crucial that farmers regularly apply pyrethroid-based insecticides to cattle to sustain parasite reductions, which also protect against tick-borne diseases. The private veterinary market is divided between products only effective against ticks (amidines) and those effective against both ticks and tsetse (pyrethroids). This study explored insecticide sales, demand and use in four districts of Uganda where mass cattle treatments have been undertaken by the 'Stamp Out Sleeping Sickness' programme. A mixed-methods study was undertaken in Dokolo, Kaberamaido, Serere and Soroti districts of Uganda between September 2011 and February 2012. This included: focus groups in 40 villages, a livestock keeper survey (n = 495), a veterinary drug shop questionnaire (n = 74), participatory methods in six villages and numerous semi-structured interviews. Although 70.5% of livestock keepers reportedly used insecticide each month during the rainy season, due to a variety of perceptions and practices nearly half used products only effective against ticks and not tsetse. Between 640 and 740 litres of insecticide were being sold monthly, covering an average of 53.7 cattle/km(2). Sales were roughly divided between seven pyrethroid-based products and five products only effective against ticks. In the high-risk HAT district of Kaberamaido, almost double the volume of non-tsetse effective insecticide was being sold. Factors influencing insecticide choice included: disease knowledge, brand recognition, product price, half-life and mode of product action, product availability, and dissemination of information. Stakeholders considered market restriction of non-tsetse effective products the most

  4. Models for B12-conjugated radiopharmaceuticals. Cobaloxime binding to new fac-[Re(CO)3(Me2bipyridine)(amidine)]BF4 complexes having an exposed pyridyl nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nerissa A; Marzilli, Patricia A; Fronczek, Frank R; Marzilli, Luigi G

    2014-10-20

    New mononuclear amidine complexes, fac-[Re(CO)3(Me2bipy)(HNC(CH3)(pyppz))]BF4 [(4,4'-Me2bipy (1), 5,5'-Me2bipy (2), and 6,6'-Me2bipy (3)] (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine), were synthesized by treating the parent fac-[Re(I)(CO)3(Me2bipy)(CH3CN)]BF4 complex with the C2-symmetrical amine 1-(4-pyridyl)piperazine (pyppzH). The axial amidine ligand has an exposed, highly basic pyridyl nitrogen. The reaction of complexes 1-3 with a B12 model, (py)Co(DH)2Cl (DH = monoanion of dimethylglyoxime), in CH2Cl2 yielded the respective dinuclear complexes, namely, fac-[Re(CO)3(Me2bipy)(μ-(HNC(CH3)(pyppz)))Co(DH)2Cl]BF4 [(4,4'-Me2bipy (4), 5,5'-Me2bipy (5), and 6,6'-Me2bipy (6)]. (1)H NMR spectroscopic analysis of all compounds and single-crystal X-ray crystallographic data for 2, 3, 5, and 6 established that the amidine had only the E configuration in both the solid and solution states and that the pyridyl group is bound to Co in 4-6. Comparison of the NMR spectra of 1-3 with spectra of 4-6 reveals an unusually large "wrong-way" upfield shift for the pyridyl H2/6 signal for 4-6. The wrong-way H2/6 shift of (4-Xpy)Co(DH)2Cl (4-Xpy = 4-substituted pyridine) complexes increased with increasing basicity of the 4-Xpy derivative, a finding attributed to the influence of the magnetic anisotropy of the cobalt center on the shifts of the (1)H NMR signals of the pyridyl protons closest to Co. Our method of employing a coordinate bond for conjugating the fac-[Re(I)(CO)3] core to a vitamin B12 model could be extended to natural B12 derivatives. Because B12 compounds are known to accumulate in cancer cells, such an approach is a very attractive method for the development of (99m)Tc and (186/188)Re radiopharmaceuticals for targeted tumor imaging and therapy.

  5. Synthesis of Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn brass alloy nanoparticles from metal amidinate precursors in ionic liquids or propylene carbonate with relevance to methanol synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Kai; Meyer, Hajo; Gemel, Christian; Barthel, Juri; Fischer, Roland A; Janiak, Christoph

    2014-03-21

    Microwave-induced decomposition of the transition metal amidinates {[Me(C(N(i)Pr)2)]Cu}2 (1) and [Me(C(N(i)Pr)2)]2Zn (2) in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIm][BF4]) or in propylene carbonate (PC) gives copper and zinc nanoparticles which are stable in the absence of capping ligands (surfactants) for more than six weeks. Co-decomposition of 1 and 2 yields the intermetallic nano-brass phases β-CuZn and γ-Cu3Zn depending on the chosen molar ratios of the precursors. Nanoparticles were characterized by high-angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), dynamic light scattering and powder X-ray diffractometry. Microstructure characterizations were complemented by STEM with spatially resolved energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Synthesis in ILs yields significantly smaller nanoparticles than in PC. β-CuZn alloy nanoparticles are precursors to catalysts for methanol synthesis from the synthesis gas H2/CO/CO2 with a productivity of 10.7 mol(MeOH) (kg(Cu) h)(-1).

  6. The Influence of pH and Temperature on the Stability of N-[(Piperidinemethylene]daunorubicin Hydrochloride and a Comparison of the Stability of Daunorubicin and Its Four New Amidine Derivatives in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołaj Piekarski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of pH and temperature on the stability of N-[(piperidinemethylene]daunorubicin hydrochloride (PPD was investigated. Degradation was studied using an HPLC method. Specific acid-base catalysis of PPD involves hydrolysis of protonated molecules of PPD catalyzed by hydrogen ions and spontaneous hydrolysis under the influence of water zwitterions, unprotonated molecules, and monoanions of PPD. The thermodynamic parameters of these reactions, energy, enthalpy, and entropy, were calculated. Also, the stability of daunorubicin and its new amidine derivatives (piperidine, morpholine, pyrrolidine, and hexahydroazepin-1-yl in aqueous solutions was compared and discussed.

  7. New amidines from intramolecular cyclization in triflic acid of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marie2 Adima A Augustin1. Laboratoire des Procédés Industriels de Synthèse et d'Environnement, Institut National Polytechnique Félix Houphouët-Boigny, BP 991 Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire; Laboratoire `Synthèse et Réactivité des Substances ...

  8. Amidinate Ligands in Zinc coordination sphere: Synthesis and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Kandi 502 285,. Sangareddy, Telangana, India e-mail: tpanda@iith.ac. ..... All the new zinc complexes 1-3 were characterized using standard analytical and .... the adoption of a distorted tetrahedral geometry around the zinc ion. Supplementary Information ...

  9. New amidines from intramolecular cyclization in triflic acid of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    2007-05-22

    May 22, 2007 ... or the conversion of esters deriva- tives. 15 have also been reported. Recently, we reported the cyclization of 1-benzyl- amino-1-methylsulfanyl-2-nitroethenes in triflic acid leading to formation of the corresponding diazadi- hydroacenaphthylene derivatives with an isoxazo- line ring. 16. In the present paper ...

  10. Aminolysis of an N-diazeniumdiolated amidine as an approach to diazeniumdiolated ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Debanjan; Hrabie, Joseph A; Saavedra, Joseph E; Cao, Zhao; Keefer, Larry K; Ivanic, Joseph; Holland, Ryan J

    2014-05-16

    Recent theoretical studies have suggested that the parent diazeniumdiolate ion, H2N-N(O)═NO(-) ("diazeniumdiolated ammonia"), might be stable enough to be isolated and that it could potentially serve as a uniquely advantageous prodrug form of bioactive nitroxyl (HNO). Here, we report on an attempt to isolate its O(2)-benzylated derivative by aminolysis of the C═N bond in PhC(NH2)═N-N(O)═NOBn. The reaction proved remarkably sluggish in comparison to aminolysis of unsubstituted benzamidine, and the desired product could not be isolated, apparently because of base sensitivity of the NH2 group. Consistent with this interpretation, O-benzylhydroxylamine and N2O were recovered from the reaction mixture in high yields, along with N,N'-dibutylbenzamidine. Theoretical calculations rationalize the observed slow aminolysis by demonstrating that the diazeniumdiolate group greatly suppresses the electrophilicity of the adjacent C═N carbon center, rendering attack at that position endothermic. The data provide significant insights into the challenges inherent to the pursuit of diazeniumdiolated ammonia.

  11. Bisbenzamidines as Antifungal Agents. Are Both Amidine Functions Required to Observe an Anti-Pneumocystis carinii Activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Laurent

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A library of 19 novel 4-(4-phenylpiperazine-1-ylbenzamidines has been synthesized and evaluated in vitro against Pneumocystis carinii. Among these compounds, N-ethyl- and N-hexyl-4-(4-phenylpiperazine-1-ylbenzamidines emerged as the most promising compounds, with inhibition percentages at 10.0 µg/mL of 87% and 96%, respectively. Those compounds remained active at 0.1 µg/mL.

  12. Experimental Chemotherapy for Chagas Disease: A Morphological, Biochemical, and Proteomic Overview of Potential Trypanosoma cruzi Targets of Amidines Derivatives and Naphthoquinones

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Solange L.; Batista, Denise G. J.; Batista, Marcos M.; Batista, Wanderson; Daliry, Anissa; de Souza, Elen M.; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F. S.; Oliveira, Gabriel M.; Salomão, Kelly; Silva, Cristiane F.; Silva, Patricia B.; Soeiro, Maria de Nazaré C.

    2011-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD), caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, affects approximately eight million individuals in Latin America and is emerging in nonendemic areas due to the globalisation of immigration and nonvectorial transmission routes. Although CD represents an important public health problem, resulting in high morbidity and considerable mortality rates, few investments have been allocated towards developing novel anti-T. cruzi agents. The available therapy for CD is based on two nitro derivatives (benznidazole (Bz) and nifurtimox (Nf)) developed more than four decades ago. Both are far from ideal due to substantial secondary side effects, limited efficacy against different parasite isolates, long-term therapy, and their well-known poor activity in the late chronic phase. These drawbacks justify the urgent need to identify better drugs to treat chagasic patients. Although several classes of natural and synthetic compounds have been reported to act in vitro and in vivo on T. cruzi, since the introduction of Bz and Nf, only a few drugs, such as allopurinol and a few sterol inhibitors, have moved to clinical trials. This reflects, at least in part, the absence of well-established universal protocols to screen and compare drug activity. In addition, a large number of in vitro studies have been conducted using only epimastigotes and trypomastigotes instead of evaluating compounds' activities against intracellular amastigotes, which are the reproductive forms in the vertebrate host and are thus an important determinant in the selection and identification of effective compounds for further in vivo analysis. In addition, due to pharmacokinetics and absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion characteristics, several compounds that were promising in vitro have not been as effective as Nf or Bz in animal models of T. cruzi infection. In the last two decades, our team has collaborated with different medicinal chemistry groups to develop preclinical studies for CD and investigate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy, toxicity, selectivity, and parasite targets of different classes of natural and synthetic compounds. Some of these results will be briefly presented, focusing primarily on diamidines and related compounds and naphthoquinone derivatives that showed the most promising efficacy against T. cruzi. PMID:22091400

  13. Experimental Chemotherapy for Chagas Disease: A Morphological, Biochemical, and Proteomic Overview of Potential Trypanosoma cruzi Targets of Amidines Derivatives and Naphthoquinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange L. de Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease (CD, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, affects approximately eight million individuals in Latin America and is emerging in nonendemic areas due to the globalisation of immigration and nonvectorial transmission routes. Although CD represents an important public health problem, resulting in high morbidity and considerable mortality rates, few investments have been allocated towards developing novel anti-T. cruzi agents. The available therapy for CD is based on two nitro derivatives (benznidazole (Bz and nifurtimox (Nf developed more than four decades ago. Both are far from ideal due to substantial secondary side effects, limited efficacy against different parasite isolates, long-term therapy, and their well-known poor activity in the late chronic phase. These drawbacks justify the urgent need to identify better drugs to treat chagasic patients. Although several classes of natural and synthetic compounds have been reported to act in vitro and in vivo on T. cruzi, since the introduction of Bz and Nf, only a few drugs, such as allopurinol and a few sterol inhibitors, have moved to clinical trials. This reflects, at least in part, the absence of well-established universal protocols to screen and compare drug activity. In addition, a large number of in vitro studies have been conducted using only epimastigotes and trypomastigotes instead of evaluating compounds' activities against intracellular amastigotes, which are the reproductive forms in the vertebrate host and are thus an important determinant in the selection and identification of effective compounds for further in vivo analysis. In addition, due to pharmacokinetics and absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion characteristics, several compounds that were promising in vitro have not been as effective as Nf or Bz in animal models of T. cruzi infection. In the last two decades, our team has collaborated with different medicinal chemistry groups to develop preclinical studies for CD and investigate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy, toxicity, selectivity, and parasite targets of different classes of natural and synthetic compounds. Some of these results will be briefly presented, focusing primarily on diamidines and related compounds and naphthoquinone derivatives that showed the most promising efficacy against T. cruzi.

  14. Experimental Chemotherapy for Chagas Disease: A Morphological, Biochemical, and Proteomic Overview of Potential Trypanosoma cruzi Targets of Amidines Derivatives and Naphthoquinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Solange L; Batista, Denise G J; Batista, Marcos M; Batista, Wanderson; Daliry, Anissa; de Souza, Elen M; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F S; Oliveira, Gabriel M; Salomão, Kelly; Silva, Cristiane F; Silva, Patricia B; Soeiro, Maria de Nazaré C

    2011-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD), caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, affects approximately eight million individuals in Latin America and is emerging in nonendemic areas due to the globalisation of immigration and nonvectorial transmission routes. Although CD represents an important public health problem, resulting in high morbidity and considerable mortality rates, few investments have been allocated towards developing novel anti-T. cruzi agents. The available therapy for CD is based on two nitro derivatives (benznidazole (Bz) and nifurtimox (Nf)) developed more than four decades ago. Both are far from ideal due to substantial secondary side effects, limited efficacy against different parasite isolates, long-term therapy, and their well-known poor activity in the late chronic phase. These drawbacks justify the urgent need to identify better drugs to treat chagasic patients. Although several classes of natural and synthetic compounds have been reported to act in vitro and in vivo on T. cruzi, since the introduction of Bz and Nf, only a few drugs, such as allopurinol and a few sterol inhibitors, have moved to clinical trials. This reflects, at least in part, the absence of well-established universal protocols to screen and compare drug activity. In addition, a large number of in vitro studies have been conducted using only epimastigotes and trypomastigotes instead of evaluating compounds' activities against intracellular amastigotes, which are the reproductive forms in the vertebrate host and are thus an important determinant in the selection and identification of effective compounds for further in vivo analysis. In addition, due to pharmacokinetics and absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion characteristics, several compounds that were promising in vitro have not been as effective as Nf or Bz in animal models of T. cruzi infection. In the last two decades, our team has collaborated with different medicinal chemistry groups to develop preclinical studies for CD and investigate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy, toxicity, selectivity, and parasite targets of different classes of natural and synthetic compounds. Some of these results will be briefly presented, focusing primarily on diamidines and related compounds and naphthoquinone derivatives that showed the most promising efficacy against T. cruzi.

  15. Importance of energy level matching for bonding in Th(3+)-Am(3+) actinide metallocene amidinates, (C(5)Me(5))(2)[(i)PrNC(Me)N(i)Pr]An.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walensky, Justin R; Martin, Richard L; Ziller, Joseph W; Evans, William J

    2010-11-01

    The synthesis of a rare trivalent Th(3+) complex, (C(5)Me(5))(2)[(i)PrNC(Me)N(i)Pr]Th, initiated a density functional theory analysis on the electronic and molecular structures of trivalent actinide complexes of this type for An = Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, and Am. While the 6d orbital is found to accommodate the unpaired spin in the Th(3+) species, the next member of the series, Pa, is characterized by an f(2) ground state, and later actinides successively fill the 5f shell. In this report, we principally examine the evolution of the bonding as one advances along the actinide row. We find that the early actinides (Pa-Np) are characterized by localized f orbitals and essentially ionic bonding, whereas the f orbitals in the later members of the series (Pu, Am) exhibit significant interaction and spin delocalization into the carbon- and nitrogen-based ligand orbitals. This is perhaps counter-intuitive since the f orbital radius and hence metal-ligand overlap decreases with increasing Z, but this trend is counter-acted by the fact that the actinide contraction also leads to a stabilization of the f orbital manifold that leads to a near degeneracy between the An 5f and cyclopentadienyl π-orbitals for Pu and Am, causing a significant orbital interaction.

  16. Coupling reaction of thioamides with sulfonyl azides: an efficient catalyst-free click-type ligation under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswad, Muhammad; Chiba, Junya; Tomohiro, Takenori; Hatanaka, Yasumaru

    2013-11-11

    We report a coupling reaction of thioamides and sulfonyl azides to generate sulfonyl amidines in the absence of any activation additives. The reaction progresses in various solvents under mild conditions. Water exhibits the highest performance with respect to efficiency.

  17. Simple and Efficient Procedure for Synthesis of N'-Arylamidines Using Trimethylaluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korbad, Balaji L.; Lee, Sanghyeup [Catholic Univ., of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    In conclusion, we have developed simple and efficient procedure for the synthesis of N'-arylamidines using tri-methylaluminum, nitriles and aryl amines under mild condition. Aliphatic, aromatic nitriles were reacted well with a variety of aromatic amine to afford corresponding amidines in good to high yields. Amidines are an important class of compounds that have wide range of application in the fields of catalyst design, material science, medicinal chemistry and also shown the promising anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. They are valuable synthons for synthesis of various heterocyclic compounds. In addition, recent studies have demonstrated their capacity to fix carbon dioxide.

  18. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis of 2-(oxadiazolo, pyrimido, imidazolo, and benzimidazolo) substituted analogues of 1,4-benzodiazepin-5-carboxamides linked through a phenoxyl bridge ... Exceedingly facile single-step expedient protocols based on the versatility and reactivity of corresponding intermediates amidine and imidate (8 and 9), ...

  19. Negishi Coupling of Pteridine-O-sulfonates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    tively (Scheme 2).4–6 A number of natural pterin compounds have been synthesised following these procedures but, a number of problems such as selectivity of ... These results demonstrated that the organometallic reagent was not interfering with the amidine protecting group. We then turned our attention to a polar aprotic ...

  20. Carbon-14 labelled nitrogen heterocycles; the syntheses of three phosphodiesterase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrie, K.W.M.; Novelli, C.E.A.; Saunders, David

    1995-01-01

    The syntheses of three heterocyclic phosphodiesterase inhibitors are described from a common radiolabelled precursor, namely 2-propoxybenzo[cyano- 14 C] nitrile. Conversion of the nitrile to the corresponding methyl ketone or amidine allows elaboration of the heterocycles radiolabelled within the ring systems. (Author)

  1. Synthesis of 2-(oxadiazolo, pyrimido, imidazolo, and benzimidazolo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Exceedingly facile single-step expedient protocols based on the versatility and reactivity of corresponding intermediates amidine and imidate (8 and 9), derived from 5-carboxamido-1,4-benzodiazepin-5-(4'-methylpiperazinyl)-carboxamide have been developed to provide an easy installation of the oxadiazole, pyrimidine, ...

  2. Reaction of Tosylmethyl Isocyanide with N-Heteroaryl Formamidines: an Alternative Approach to the Synthesis of N-Heteroaryl Tosylimidazoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomezgarcia, Omar; Salgadozamora, Hector; Reyesarellano, Aliciam; Camposaldrete, Elena; Peraltacruz, Javier [Departamento Quimica Organica, Colonia (Mexico)

    2013-09-15

    In conclusion, an alternative procedure was developed under mild conditions for the synthesis of 2-(4-tosylimidazo-1-yl)pyridines and pyrimidines by the reaction of TosMIC with the corresponding heteroaryl N,N'-dimethyl form-amidines. This approach does not involve a nucleophilic displacement of a leaving group and constitutes a further application of amidines, in which TosMIC acts as both a nucleophile and an electrophile on the heteroaryl formamidine. This process offers advantages over previously reported procedures. Tosyl methyl isocyanide (TosMIC), a multipurpose commercially available 3-unit synthon introduced by Van Leusen, reacts with a variety of groups to give heterocycles. It is important to emphasize that treatment of TosMIC with various functional groups leads to the formation of the imidazole nucleus, such as is the case with imines, imidoyl chlorides, isothiocyanates, nitrile and ethoxy methylene amino. However, only the latter group yields N-heterocycle imidazoles.

  3. Tetrachlorido[N2,N2′-(dimethylsilanediylbis(N-tert-butyl-3-methylbenzimidamidato-κ2N2,N2′]hafnium(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Di Bai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The symmetric title molecule, [Hf(C26H40N4SiCl4], lies about a twofold rotation axis. The HfIV and Si atoms lie on the rotation axis with all other atoms being in general positions. The HfIV atom is six-coordinated by two N atoms from the N2,N2′-(dimethylsilanediylbis(N-tert-butyl-3-methylbenzimidamidate ligand and four Cl− ions in a slightly distorted octahedral geometry. The two amidinate moieties are connected through the central Si atom with Si—N bond length of 1.762 (3 Å, generating the characteristic N—C—N—Si—N—C—N skeleton of a silyl-linked ansa-bis(amidine species.

  4. Protein arginine deiminase 4: a target for an epigenetic cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Jessica L; Causey, Corey P; Thompson, Paul R

    2011-02-01

    The recent approvals of anticancer therapeutic agents targeting the histone deacetylases and DNA methyltransferases have highlighted the important role that epigenetics plays in human diseases, and suggested that the factors controlling gene expression are novel drug targets. Protein arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is one such target because its effects on gene expression parallel those observed for the histone deacetylases. We demonstrated that F- and Cl-amidine, two potent PAD4 inhibitors, display micromolar cytotoxic effects towards several cancerous cell lines (HL-60, MCF7 and HT-29); no effect was observed in noncancerous lines (NIH 3T3 and HL-60 granulocytes). These compounds also induced the differentiation of HL-60 and HT29 cells. Finally, these compounds synergistically potentiated the cell killing effects of doxorubicin. Taken together, these findings suggest PAD4 inhibition as a novel epigenetic approach for the treatment of cancer, and suggest that F- and Cl-amidine are candidate therapeutic agents for this disease.

  5. Regiochemistry of cyclocondensation reactions in the synthesis of polyazaheterocycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick T. Campos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The syntheses of several polyazaheterocycles are demonstrated. The cyclocondensation reactions between β-enaminodiketones [CCl3C(OC(=CNMe2C(O-CO2Et] and aromatic amidines resulted in glyoxalate-substituted pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinone, thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidinone and pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole. Pyrazinones and quinoxalinones were obtained through the reaction of these glyoxalates with ethylenediamine and 1,2-phenylenediamine derivatives. On the other hand, the reaction of glyoxalates with amidines did not lead to the formation of imidazolones, but rather N-acylated products were obtained. All the products were isolated in good yields. DFT-B3LYP calculations provided HOMO/LUMO coefficients, charge densities, and the stability energies of the intermediates, and from these data it was possible to explain the regiochemistry of the products obtained. Additionally, the data were a useful tool for elucidating the reaction mechanisms.

  6. Copper-catalyzed C(sp2)-H amidation with azides as amino sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiangling; Xie, Zeqiang; Chen, Ming; Wang, Jian; Zhu, Qiang

    2014-09-19

    A copper-catalyzed C-H amidation process, with azides as amino sources under oxidant-free conditions, has been developed. When N-heterocycles were employed as directing groups, sulfonylazide and benzoylazide could be used as amidating reagents to provide corresponding N-arylamides. When amidines or imine were used, tandem C-N/N-N bond formation occurred to afford indazole derivatives in one pot.

  7. Electrochemical and calorimetric investigation of interaction of novel biscationic anticancer agents with DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Láuris Lucia da; Donnici, Claudio Luis; Lopes, Júlio César Dias; Goulart, Marília Oliveira Fonseca; Abreu, Fabiane Caxico de; Paula, Francine Santos de; Bravo, Carlos E. Salas; Santoro, Marcelo Matos; Denadai, Ângelo Márcio Leite; Santos, Alexandre Martins Costa; Montanari, Carlos Alberto

    2012-01-01

    ELECTROCHEMICAL AND CALORIMETRIC INVESTIGATION OF INTERACTION OF NOVEL BISCATIONIC ANTICANCER AGENTS WITH DNA. Biscationic amidines bind in the DNA minor groove and present biological activity against a range of infectious diseases. Two new biscationic compounds (bis-alpha,omega-S-thioureido, amino and sulfide analogues) were synthesized in good yields and fully characterized, and their interaction with DNA was also investigated. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to measure the ...

  8. The Study of Release of Chlorhexidine from Preparations with Modified Thermosensitive Poly-N-isopropylacrylamide Microspheres

    OpenAIRE

    Musial, Witold; Voncina, Bojana; Pluta, Janusz; Kokol, Vanja

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the release rates of chlorhexidine (CX) base entrapped in the polymeric beads of modified poly-N-isopropylacrylamides (pNIPAMs) at temperatures below and over the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of synthesized polymers: pNIPAM-A with terminal anionic groups resulting from potassium persulfate initiator, pNIPAM-B with cationic amidine terminal groups, and pNIPAM-C comprising anionic terminals, but with increased hydrophobicity mai...

  9. Evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis Pathogenicity for a Strain of the Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, Resistant to Chemical Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Fern?ndez-Ruvalcaba, Manuel; Pe?a-Chora, Guadalupe; Romo-Mart?nez, Armando; Hern?ndez-Vel?zquez, V?ctor; de Parra, Alejandra Bravo; De La Rosa, Diego P?rez

    2010-01-01

    The pathogenicity of four native strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrine) (Acari: Ixodidae) was evaluated. A R. microplus strain that is resistant to organophosphates, pyrethroids, and amidines, was used in this study. Adult R. microplus females were bioassayed using the immersion test of Drummond against 60 B. thuringiensis strains. Four strains, GP123, GP138, GP130, and GP140, were found to be toxic. For the immersion test, the total protein...

  10. Fabrication of CO2 Facilitated Transport Channels in Block Copolymer through Supramolecular Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the molecule 12-amidine dodecanoic acid (M with ending groups of carboxyl and amidine groups respectively was designed and synthesized as CO2-responsive guest molecules. The block copolymer polystyrene-b-polyethylene oxide (PS-b-PEO was chosen as the host polymer to fabricate a composite membrane through H-bonding assembly with guest molecule M. We attempted to tune the phase separation structure of the annealed film by varying the amount of M added, and investigated the nanostructures via transmission electron microscope (TEM, fourier transform infrared (FT-IR etc. As a result, a reverse worm-like morphology in TEM image of bright PS phase in dark PEO/M matrix was observed for PS-b-PEO/M1 membrane in which the molar ratio of EO unit to M was 1:1. The following gas permeation measurement indicated that the gas flux of the annealed membranes dramatically increased due to the forming of ordered phase separation structure. As we expected, the obtained composite membrane PS-b-PEO/M1 with EO:M mole ratio of 1:1 presented an evident selectivity for moist CO2 permeance, which is identical with our initial proposal that the guest molecule M in the membranes will play the key role for CO2 facilitated transportation since the amidine groups of M could react reversibly with CO2 molecules in membranes. This work provides a supramolecular approach to fabricating CO2 facilitated transport membranes.

  11. Identification of PADI2 as a potential breast cancer biomarker and therapeutic target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McElwee John L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently reported that the expression of peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PADI2 is regulated by EGF in mammary cancer cells and appears to play a role in the proliferation of normal mammary epithelium; however, the role of PADI2 in the pathogenesis of human breast cancer has yet to be investigated. Thus, the goals of this study were to examine whether PADI2 plays a role in mammary tumor progression, and whether the inhibition of PADI activity has anti-tumor effects. Methods RNA-seq data from a collection of 57 breast cancer cell lines was queried for PADI2 levels, and correlations with known subtype and HER2/ERBB2 status were evaluated. To examine PADI2 expression levels during breast cancer progression, the cell lines from the MCF10AT model were used. The efficacy of the PADI inhibitor, Cl-amidine, was tested in vitro using MCF10DCIS cells grown in 2D-monolayers and 3D-spheroids, and in vivo using MCF10DCIS tumor xenografts. Treated MCF10DCIS cells were examined by flow-cytometry to determine the extent of apoptosis and by RT2 Profiler PCR Cell Cycle Array to detect alterations in cell cycle associated genes. Results We show by RNA-seq that PADI2 mRNA expression is highly correlated with HER2/ERBB2 (p = 2.2 × 106 in luminal breast cancer cell lines. Using the MCF10AT model of breast cancer progression, we then demonstrate that PADI2 expression increases during the transition of normal mammary epithelium to fully malignant breast carcinomas, with a strong peak of PADI2 expression and activity being observed in the MCF10DCIS cell line, which models human comedo-DCIS lesions. Next, we show that a PADI inhibitor, Cl-amidine, strongly suppresses the growth of MCF10DCIS monolayers and tumor spheroids in culture. We then carried out preclinical studies in nude (nu/nu mice and found that Cl-amidine also suppressed the growth of xenografted MCF10DCIS tumors by more than 3-fold. Lastly, we performed cell cycle array analysis of

  12. Identification of PADI2 as a potential breast cancer biomarker and therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwee, John L; Mohanan, Sunish; Griffith, Obi L; Breuer, Heike C; Anguish, Lynne J; Cherrington, Brian D; Palmer, Ashley M; Howe, Louise R; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Causey, Corey P; Thompson, Paul R; Gray, Joe W; Coonrod, Scott A

    2012-10-30

    We have recently reported that the expression of peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PADI2) is regulated by EGF in mammary cancer cells and appears to play a role in the proliferation of normal mammary epithelium; however, the role of PADI2 in the pathogenesis of human breast cancer has yet to be investigated. Thus, the goals of this study were to examine whether PADI2 plays a role in mammary tumor progression, and whether the inhibition of PADI activity has anti-tumor effects. RNA-seq data from a collection of 57 breast cancer cell lines was queried for PADI2 levels, and correlations with known subtype and HER2/ERBB2 status were evaluated. To examine PADI2 expression levels during breast cancer progression, the cell lines from the MCF10AT model were used. The efficacy of the PADI inhibitor, Cl-amidine, was tested in vitro using MCF10DCIS cells grown in 2D-monolayers and 3D-spheroids, and in vivo using MCF10DCIS tumor xenografts. Treated MCF10DCIS cells were examined by flow-cytometry to determine the extent of apoptosis and by RT2 Profiler PCR Cell Cycle Array to detect alterations in cell cycle associated genes. We show by RNA-seq that PADI2 mRNA expression is highly correlated with HER2/ERBB2 (p = 2.2 × 106) in luminal breast cancer cell lines. Using the MCF10AT model of breast cancer progression, we then demonstrate that PADI2 expression increases during the transition of normal mammary epithelium to fully malignant breast carcinomas, with a strong peak of PADI2 expression and activity being observed in the MCF10DCIS cell line, which models human comedo-DCIS lesions. Next, we show that a PADI inhibitor, Cl-amidine, strongly suppresses the growth of MCF10DCIS monolayers and tumor spheroids in culture. We then carried out preclinical studies in nude (nu/nu) mice and found that Cl-amidine also suppressed the growth of xenografted MCF10DCIS tumors by more than 3-fold. Lastly, we performed cell cycle array analysis of Cl-amidine treated and control MCF10DCIS cells, and

  13. Identification of PADI2 as a potential breast cancer biomarker and therapeutic target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElwee, John L; Causey, Corey P; Thompson, Paul R; Gray, Joe W; Coonrod, Scott A; Mohanan, Sunish; Griffith, Obi L; Breuer, Heike C; Anguish, Lynne J; Cherrington, Brian D; Palmer, Ashley M; Howe, Louise R; Subramanian, Venkataraman

    2012-01-01

    We have recently reported that the expression of peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PADI2) is regulated by EGF in mammary cancer cells and appears to play a role in the proliferation of normal mammary epithelium; however, the role of PADI2 in the pathogenesis of human breast cancer has yet to be investigated. Thus, the goals of this study were to examine whether PADI2 plays a role in mammary tumor progression, and whether the inhibition of PADI activity has anti-tumor effects. RNA-seq data from a collection of 57 breast cancer cell lines was queried for PADI2 levels, and correlations with known subtype and HER2/ERBB2 status were evaluated. To examine PADI2 expression levels during breast cancer progression, the cell lines from the MCF10AT model were used. The efficacy of the PADI inhibitor, Cl-amidine, was tested in vitro using MCF10DCIS cells grown in 2D-monolayers and 3D-spheroids, and in vivo using MCF10DCIS tumor xenografts. Treated MCF10DCIS cells were examined by flow-cytometry to determine the extent of apoptosis and by RT 2 Profiler PCR Cell Cycle Array to detect alterations in cell cycle associated genes. We show by RNA-seq that PADI2 mRNA expression is highly correlated with HER2/ERBB2 (p = 2.2 × 10 6 ) in luminal breast cancer cell lines. Using the MCF10AT model of breast cancer progression, we then demonstrate that PADI2 expression increases during the transition of normal mammary epithelium to fully malignant breast carcinomas, with a strong peak of PADI2 expression and activity being observed in the MCF10DCIS cell line, which models human comedo-DCIS lesions. Next, we show that a PADI inhibitor, Cl-amidine, strongly suppresses the growth of MCF10DCIS monolayers and tumor spheroids in culture. We then carried out preclinical studies in nude (nu/nu) mice and found that Cl-amidine also suppressed the growth of xenografted MCF10DCIS tumors by more than 3-fold. Lastly, we performed cell cycle array analysis of Cl-amidine treated and control MCF10DCIS cells

  14. Structural analysis of d(GCAATTGC)2 and its complex with berenil by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Mitsuru; Banville, D.L.; Shafer, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The structures of d(GCAATTGC) 2 and its complex with berenil in solution were analyzed by two-dimensional 1 H NMR spectroscopy. Intra- and internucleotide nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) connectivities demonstrate that the octanucleotide duplex is primarily in the B conformation. Binding with berenil stabilizes the duplex with respect to thermal denaturation by about 10 degree C, based on the appearance of the imino proton signals. The berenil-d(GCAATTGC) 2 system is in fast exchange on the NMR time scale. The two-dimensional NMR data reveal that berenil binds in the minor groove of d(GCAATTGC) 2 . The aromatic drug protons are placed within 5 angstrom of the H2 proton of both adenines, the H1', H5', and H5 double-prime of both thymidines, and the H4', H5', and H5 double-prime of the internal guanosine. The amidine protons on berenil are also close to the H2 proton of both adenines. The duplex retains an overall B conformation in the complex with berenil. At 18 degree C, NOE contacts at longer mixing times indicate the presence of end-to-end association both in the duplex alone and also in its complex with berenil. These intermolecular contacts either vanished or diminished substantially at 45 degree C. Two molecular models are proposed for the berenil-(GCAATTGC) 2 complex; one has hydrogen bonds between the berenil amidine protons and the carbonyl oxygen, O2, of the external thymines, and the other has hydrogen bonds between the drug amidine protons and the purine nitrogen, N3, of the internal adenines. Quantitative analysis of the NOE data favors the second model

  15. A straightforward and efficient synthesis of 3-(pyrimidinyl)propanoates from levulinic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Flores,Alex F. C.; Malavolta,Juliana L.; Souto,Alynne A.; Goularte,Rayane B.; Flores,Darlene C.; Piovesan,Luciana A.

    2013-01-01

    The cyclocondensation of methyl 7,7,7-trifluoro-4-methoxy-6-oxo-4-heptenoate and methyl 7,7,7-trichloro-4-methoxy-6-oxo-4-heptenoate, derived from levulinic acid with amidines [NH2CONH2, NH2CR(NH) (R = H, Me, Ph, NH2, SMe and 1H-pyrazol-1-yl), 5-amino-3-methyl1H-pyrazol and 2-aminothiazole] into pyrimidine and pyrimidine-like derivatives as a new type of glutamate-like 3-(trihalomethylatedpyrimidinyl)propanoate is reported. Preparation of 3-(trihalomethylatedpyrimidinyl) propanohydrazides is ...

  16. Synthesis of pentamidine labelled with tritium and carbon-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesk, D.; Jones, J.R. (Surrey Univ., Guildford (UK). Dept. of Chemistry); Lockley, W.J.S.; Wilkinson, D.J. (Fisons plc, Loughborough (UK). Pharmaceutical Div.)

    1990-11-01

    Tritium labelled pentamidine has been prepared with a specific activity of 90 mCi mmol{sup -1} using a one-step exchange reaction between the unlabelled drug and tritiated water. The labelling utilised a homogeneous rhodium trichloride catalyst and yielded pentamidine regiospecifically labelled in the positions ortho to the amidine groups. Carbon-14 labelled pentamidine was prepared via a seven-step procedure in which the isotope was introduced via a nucleophilic substitution of 4-bromo-phenol with copper(I) ({sup 14}C)cyanide. (author).

  17. Switchable solvents and methods of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessop, Philip G [Kingston, CA; Eckert, Charles A [Atlanta, GA; Liotta, Charles L [Atlanta, GA; Heldebrant, David J [Richland, WA

    2011-07-19

    A solvent that reversibly converts from a nonionic liquid mixture to an ionic liquid upon contact with a selected trigger, e.g., contact with CO.sub.2, is described. In preferred embodiments, the ionic solvent is readily converted back to the nonionic liquid mixture. The nonionic liquid mixture includes an amidine or guanidine or both, and water, alcohol, or a combination thereof. Single component amine solvents that reversibly convert between ionic and non-ionic states are also described. Some embodiments require increased pressure to convert; others convert at 1 atmosphere.

  18. Synthesis and properties of the para-trimethylammonium analogues of green fluorescence protein (GFP) chromophore: The mimic of protonated GFP chromophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanjiang, Ming-Wei; Li, Ming-Ju; Sung, Robert; Sung, Kuangsen

    2018-04-01

    At low pH, protons from the external, bulk solution can protonate the phenoxide group of the p-HBDI chromophore in wild-type green fluorescent protein (wtGFP) and its mutants, and likely continue to tentatively protonate the phenol hydroxyl group of the same chromophores. Because the protonated GFP chromophore is a transient, we prepare the stable p-trimethylammonium analogues (2a and 2b) of the GFP chromophore to mimic it and explore their properties. What we found is that the p-trimethylammonium analogues of the GFP chromophore have the highly electrophilic amidine carbon, blue-shifted electronic absorption, smaller molar absorptivity, smaller fluorescent quantum yield, and faster E-Z thermoisomerization rate. The amidine carbon of the p-trimethylammonium analogue (2b) of the GFP chromophore is the only site that is attacked by very weak nucleophile of water, resulting in ring-opening of the imidazolinone moiety. The half-life of its decay rate in D 2 O is around 33 days. Actually, acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of p-HBDI also results in ring-opening of the imidazolinone moiety. The ratio of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis rate constants [k obs (p-HBDI)/k obs (1b)] between p-HBDI and 1b (p-dimethylammonium analogue of the GFP chromophore) is dramatically increased from 0.30 at pH = 2 to 0.63 at pH = 0. This is the evidence that more and more phenol hydroxyl groups of p-HBDI are tentatively protonated in a low-pH aqueous solution and that accelerates hydrolysis of p-HBDI in the way similar to the quaternary ammonium derivatives 2a and 2b in water. With this view point, 2a and 2b still can partially mimic the cationic p-HBDI with the protonated phenol hydroxyl group. Implication of the experiment is that the amidine carbon of the chromophore in wtGFP and its mutants at very low pH should be highly electrophilic. Whether ring-opening of the imidazolinone moiety of the GFP chromophore would occur or not depends on if water molecules can reach the amidine carbon of

  19. The synthesis of [3-14C]indirubin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Meiying; Zhang Xiuwen; Tian Shuhao

    1995-01-01

    [3- 14 C]indirubin is synthesized in three steps from potassium [ 14 C]cyanide. Firstly, Potassium [ 14 C]cyanide reacts with N,N'-diphenylthiourea to get N,N'-diphenyl [ 14 C]cyanoamidine. Then, cyclizated in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride and hydrolizated with hydrochloric acid, amidine is leaded to [3- 14 C]isatin. Finally, [3- 14 C]isatin is condensed with excess potassium 3-indolelate to yield [3- 14 C]indirubin in 20.34% overall radiochemical yield from K 14 CN with a specific activity of 2 GBq/mmol and a radiochemical purity of 99.9% (TLC)

  20. Chemistry of polyhalogenated nitrobutadienes, 10: Synthesis of highly functionalized heterocycles with a rigid 6-amino-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor A. Zapol’skii

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The nitropolychlorobutadienes 3, 4 are valuable building blocks for various amination and successive heterocyclization products. Nucleophilic substitution reactions of the partially protected, bioactive amines 1, 2 with either vinyl, imidoyl or carbonyl chlorides result in the formation of the enamines 11, 12, 13, 16, 25, the amidine 6, and the amides 20, 21, respectively. In the following, cyclization to the highly functionalized pyrazoles 27, 28, pyrimidine 26 and pyridopyrimidine 24 succeeded. Deprotection of 21, 12 and 28 proved to be only partially feasible.

  1. Cyclic compounds of tetracoordinated boron from 5-amino-1,2,4-triazole and aromatic nitriles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorokhov, V.A.; Amamchyan, A.R.; Bochkareva, M.N.; Teslya, I.A.; Starikova, Z.A.

    1987-01-01

    New cyclic compounds of tetracoordinated boron - dialkylboryl-[(1,2,4-triazole-5-yl)-amidinate] from 5-amino-1,2,4-triazole, aromatic nitriles and trialkylborane have been synthesized. It is shown that in dialkylboryl derivatives of 5-amino-1,2,4-triazole forming crystalline dimers, R 2 B (R=Pr, Bu) groups are bonded to circular nitrogen atoms. The X-ray diffraction method was used to determine crystalline and molecular structures of dipropylboryl-[(1,2,4-triazole-5-yl)benzamidinate

  2. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Acaricides Used to Control the Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, in Dairy Herds Raised in the Brazilian Southwestern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana G. Brito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The adult immersion test (AIT was used to evaluate the efficacy of acaricide molecules used for control of Rhipicephalus microplus on 106 populations collected in five municipalities in the state of Rondônia in the Brazilian South Occidental Amazon region. The analysis of the data showed that the acaricide formulations had different efficacies on the tick populations surveyed. The synthetic pyrethroids (SPs acaricides were the least effective (48.35–76.84%, followed by SP + organophosphate (OP associations (68.91–81.47% and amidine (51.35–100%. For the macrocyclic lactones (MLs, the milbemycin (94.84–100% was the most effective, followed by spinosad (93.21–100% and the avermectins (81.34–100%. The phenylpyrazole (PZ group had similar efficacy (99.90% to the MLs. Therefore, SP acaricides, including associations with OP, and formulations based on amidine presented low in vitro efficacy to control the R. microplus populations surveyed.

  3. Surprisingly Different Reaction Behavior of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metal Bis(trimethylsilyl)amides toward Bulky N-(2-Pyridylethyl)-N'-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)pivalamidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalden, Diana; Oberheide, Ansgar; Loh, Claas; Görls, Helmar; Krieck, Sven; Westerhausen, Matthias

    2016-07-25

    N-(2,6-Diisopropylphenyl)-N'-(2-pyridylethyl)pivalamidine (Dipp-N=C(tBu)-N(H)-C2 H4 -Py) (1), reacts with metalation reagents of lithium, magnesium, calcium, and strontium to give the corresponding pivalamidinates [(tmeda)Li{Dipp-N=C(tBu)-N-C2 H4 -Py}] (6), [Mg{Dipp-N=C(tBu)-N-C2 H4 -Py}2 ] (3), and heteroleptic [{(Me3 Si)2 N}Ae{Dipp-N=C(tBu)-N-C2 H4 -Py}], with Ae being Ca (2 a) and Sr (2 b). In contrast to this straightforward deprotonation of the amidine units, the reaction of 1 with the bis(trimethylsilyl)amides of sodium or potassium unexpectedly leads to a β-metalation and an immediate deamidation reaction yielding [(thf)2 Na{Dipp-N=C(tBu)-N(H)}] (4 a) or [(thf)2 K{Dipp-N=C(tBu)-N(H)}] (4 b), respectively, as well as 2-vinylpyridine in both cases. The lithium derivative shows a similar reaction behavior to the alkaline earth metal congeners, underlining the diagonal relationship in the periodic table. Protonation of 4 a or the metathesis reaction of 4 b with CaI2 in tetrahydrofuran yields N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)pivalamidine (Dipp-N=C(tBu)-NH2 ) (5), or [(thf)4 Ca{Dipp-N=C(tBu)-N(H)}2 ] (7), respectively. The reaction of AN(SiMe3 )2 (A=Na, K) with less bulky formamidine Dipp-N=C(H)-N(H)-C2 H4 -Py (8) leads to deprotonation of the amidine functionality, and [(thf)Na{Dipp-N=C(H)-N-C2 H4 -Py}]2 (9 a) or [(thf)K{Dipp-N=C(H)-N-C2 H4 -Py}]2 (9 b), respectively, are isolated as dinuclear complexes. From these experiments it is obvious, that β-metalation/deamidation of N-(2-pyridylethyl)amidines requires bases with soft metal ions and also steric pressure. The isomeric forms of all compounds are verified by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis and are maintained in solution. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Electrochemical and calorimetric investigation of interaction of novel biscationic anticancer agents with DNA; Investigacao eletroquimica e calorimetrica da interacao de novos agentes antitumorais biscationicos com DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lauris Lucia da; Donnici, Claudio Luis; Lopes, Julio Cesar Dias, E-mail: cdonnici@terra.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Goulart, Marilia Oliveira Fonseca; Abreu, Fabiane Caxico de; Paula, Francine Santos de [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Campus A.C. Simoes. Inst. de Quimica e Biotecnologia; Bravo, Carlos E. Salas; Santoro, Marcelo Matos [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia; Denadai, Angelo Marcio Leite [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica, Timoteo, MG (Brazil). Campus VII; Santos, Alexandre Martins Costa [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Fisiologicas; Montanari, Carlos Alberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Biscationic amidines bind in the DNA minor groove and present biological activity against a range of infectious diseases. Two new biscationic compounds (bis-{alpha}-{omega}-S-thioureido, amino and sulfide analogues) were synthesized in good yields and fully characterized, and their interaction with DNA was also investigated. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to measure the thermodynamic properties of binding interactions between DNA and these ligands. A double stranded calf thymus DNA immobilized on an electrode surface was used to study the possible DNA-interacting abilities of these compounds towards dsDNA in situ. A remarkable interaction of these compounds with DNA was demonstrated and their potential application as anticancer agents was furthered. (author)

  5. A straightforward and efficient synthesis of 3-(pyrimidinyl)propanoates from levulinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Alex F.C.; Malavolta, Juliana L.; Souto, Alynne A.; Goularte, Rayane B.; Flores, Darlene C., E-mail: alex.fcf@ufsm.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM/NUQUIMHE), RS (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica. Nucleo de Quimica de Heterociclos

    2013-04-15

    The cyclocondensation of methyl 7,7,7-trifluoro-4-methoxy-6-oxo-4-heptenoate and methyl 7,7,7-trichloro-4-methoxy-6-oxo-4-heptenoate, derived from levulinic acid with amidines [NH{sub 2}CONH{sub 2}, NH{sub 2}CR(NH) (R = H, Me, Ph, NH{sub 2}, SMe and 1H-pyrazol-1-yl), 5-amino-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol and 2-aminothiazole] into pyrimidine and pyrimidine-like derivatives as a new type of glutamate-like 3-(trihalomethylatedpyrimidinyl)propanoate is reported. Preparation of 3-(trihalomethylatedpyrimidinyl) propanohydrazides is also described. The synthetic potential of this straightforward protocol was established by the synthesis of fourteen new 3-(pyrimidinyl) propanoates in regular to good yields (38-92%). The structural assignments were based on the analysis of their {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data. (author)

  6. An improved synthesis of α-13C glycine and heteronuclear NMR studies of its incorporation into thioredoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wishart, D.S.; Sykes, B.D.; Richards, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    We present an improved method to easily prepare gram quantities of α- 13 C glycine beginning from K 13 CN. The four step synthesis involves the production of an N, N-diphenyl-cyanoformamidine intermediate through the coupling of cyanide to N, N-diphenylcarbodiimide. Subsequent reduction by LiAlH 4 and hydrolysis of the resulting amidine produces fully enriched α- 13 C labelled glycine with a 45-50% yield. This relatively fast and simple synthesis uses only commonly available compounds and requires no special equipment, making the process easy to perform in any well equipped biochemistry laboratory. We further demonstrate that the product may be used, without extensive purification, to specifically label bacterially expressed proteins (E. coli thioredoxin) through standard biosynthetic procedures. We also show that the 13 C glycine-labelled protein may be readily analyzed using commonly available heteronuclear NMR techniques. Complete assignments for all 9 glycines of native E. coli thoredoxin are presented. (Author)

  7. Construction of double-stranded metallosupramolecular polymers with a controlled helicity by combination of salt bridges and metal coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masato; Tanaka, Yoshie; Hasegawa, Takashi; Furusho, Yoshio; Yashima, Eiji

    2006-05-31

    We describe the construction of the first double-stranded metallosupramolecular helical polymers. We designed and synthesized a supramolecular duplex comprised of complementary m-terphenyl-based strands bearing a chiral amidine or achiral carboxylic acid together with two pyridine groups at the four ends. Supramolecular polymerization of the duplex with cis-PtPh2(DMSO)2 in 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane produced the double-stranded metallosupramolecular polymer with a controlled helicity of which the two complementary metallostrands are intertwined through the amidinium-carboxylate salt bridges. The structures and hydrodynamic dimensions of the metallosupramolecular polymers were characterized by 1H NMR, diffusion-ordered NMR, dynamic light scattering, absorption, and CD measurements. The polymeric structure was also visualized by atomic force microscopy.

  8. Evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis Pathogenicity for a Strain of the Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, Resistant to Chemical Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ruvalcaba, Manuel; Peña-Chora, Guadalupe; Romo-Martínez, Armando; Hernández-Velázquez, Víctor; de Parra, Alejandra Bravo; De La Rosa, Diego Pérez

    2010-01-01

    The pathogenicity of four native strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrine) (Acari: Ixodidae) was evaluated. A R. microplus strain that is resistant to organophosphates, pyrethroids, and amidines, was used in this study. Adult R. microplus females were bioassayed using the immersion test of Drummond against 60 B. thuringiensis strains. Four strains, GP123, GP138, GP130, and GP140, were found to be toxic. For the immersion test, the total protein concentration for each bacterial strain was 1.25 mg/ml. Mortality, oviposition, and egg hatch were recorded. All of the bacterial strains had significant effects compared to the controls, but no significant differences were seen between the 4 strains. It is evident that these B. thuringiensis strains have a considerable detrimental effect on the R. microplus strain that is resistant to pesticides. PMID:21062139

  9. Zolpidem, A Clinical Hypnotic that Affects Electronic Transfer, Alters Synaptic Activity Through Potential Gaba Receptors in the Nervous System Without Significant Free Radical Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kovacic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Zolpidem (trade name Ambien has attracted much interest as a sleep-inducing agent and also in research. Attention has been centered mainly on receptor binding and electrochemistry in the central nervous system which are briefly addressed herein. A novel integrated approach to mode of action is presented. The pathways to be discussed involve basicity, reduction potential, electrostatics, cell signaling, GABA receptor binding, electron transfer (ET, pharmacodynamics, structure activity relationships (SAR and side effects. The highly conjugated pyridinium salt formed by protonation of the amidine moiety is proposed to be the active form acting as an ET agent. Extrapolation of reduction potentials for related compounds supports the premise that zolpidem may act as an ET species in vivo. From recent literature reports, electrostatics is believed to play a significant role in drug action.

  10. Fabrication of cationic chitin nanofiber/alginate composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Koki; Tanaka, Kohei; Takata, Yusei; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Kadokawa, Jun-Ichi

    2016-10-01

    We have already found that an amidinated chitin, which was prepared by the reaction of a partially deacetylated chitin with N,N-dimethylacetamide dimethyl acetal, was converted into an amidinium chitin bicarbonate with nanofiber morphology by CO2 gas bubbling and ultrasonic treatments in water. In this study, we performed the fabrication of composite materials of such cationic chitin nanofibers with an anionic polysaccharide, sodium alginate, by ion exchange. When the amidinium chitin bicarbonate nanofiber aqueous dispersion was added to an aqueous solution of sodium alginate, the composite material was agglomerated, which was isolated by centrifugation, filtration, and lyophilization, to form a manipulatable sheet. The morphology of the resulting sheet at nano-scale was evaluated by SEM measurement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrogen--deuterium exchanges in nucleosides and nucleotides. A mechanism for exchange of the exocyclic amino hydrogens of adenosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, D.G.; Brown, A.; Fisher, H.F.

    1975-01-01

    The pH dependence of the apparent first-order rate constant for the exchange of the exocyclic amino hydrogens of adenosine with deuterium from the solvent was measured by stopped-flow ultraviolet spectroscopy. This dependence shows acid catalysis, base catalysis, and spontaneous exchange at neutral pH values. A study of the effect of several buffers on the rates of exchange reveals both general acid and general base catalytic behavior for the exchange process. We propose a general mechanism for the exchange which requires N-1 protonated adenosine as an intermediate for the acid-catalyzed exchange and amidine anion for the base-catalyzed exchange. In both cases the rate-limiting step is the base-catalyzed abstraction of a proton from the exocyclic amino moiety. Evaluation of the rate constants predicts the equilibrium for the exocyclic amino/imino tautomers to be 6.3 x 10 3 :1. (U.S.)

  12. Recent advances in the ruthenium(ii)-catalyzed chelation-assisted C-H olefination of substituted aromatics, alkenes and heteroaromatics with alkenes via the deprotonation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Rajendran; Jeganmohan, Masilamani

    2017-08-08

    The transition-metal-catalyzed chelation-assisted alkenylation at the inert C-H bond of aromatics with alkenes is one of the efficient methods to synthesize substituted vinylarenes in a highly regio- and stereoselective manner. Palladium, rhodium and ruthenium complexes are frequently used as catalysts for this type of transformation. The present review describes the recent advances in the ruthenium-catalyzed chelation-assisted alkenylation at the C-H bond of aromatics, alkenes and heteroaromatics with alkenes via the deprotonation pathway. Several directing groups including 2-pyridyl, carbonyl, amidine, amide, amine, imidate, sulphonic acid, triazole, cyano, oxazolidinone and hydontoin are widely used in the reaction. The scope, limitation and mechanistic investigation of the alkenylation reactions are discussed elaborately. This feature article includes all the reported ruthenium-catalyzed alkenylation reactions via the deprotonation pathway until the end of March 2017.

  13. Antiproliferative activity of synthesized some new benzimidazole carboxamidines against MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaaslan, Cigdem; Bakar, Filiz; Goker, Hakan

    2018-02-23

    Breast cancer is the most endemic cause of cancer among women in both developed and developing countries. Benzimidazole derivatives exemplify one of the chemical classes that show strong cytotoxic activity especially against breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Aromatic amidine derivatives are known as a group of DNA interactive compounds that bind minor groove of the genome, especially A-T base pairs, and show significant in vitro and in vivo toxicity toward cancer cells. In light of these studies, some new mono/dicationic amidino benzimidazole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxic activity on cultured MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Some of these compounds have strongly inhibited MCF-7 cell viability in a dose-dependent manner compared with clinically used reference compounds, imatinib mesylate and docetaxel. Among them, 4-[(5(6)-bromo-1H-benzimidazole-2-yl)amino]benzene-1-carboxamidine (30) showed the best inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 4.6 nM.

  14. Synthesis and Spectral Analysis of 3,4,5-trichloro-6-(dibenzo[d,f][1,3]diazepin-5-yl-[1,2]-benzoquinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen A. M. Gomaa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reaction of N1,N2-di-(4-methoxyphenyl- or N1,N2-di-(4-hydroxyphenyl -amidines (1a-d with 3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-1,2-benzoquinone (2 in ethyl acetate at room temperature led to formation of new 3,4,5-trichloro-6-(2-hydroxy-6-methyldibenzo[d,f][1,3]diazepin-5-yl[1,2]-benzoquinones (3a-d in addition to N-aryl-N'-(6,7,8,9-tetrachloro-4-hydroxydibenzo-[1,4]dioxin-2-ylacetamidines (4a,b. The rational of formation of products 3a-d and 4a,b was discussed and structures were confirmed on the basis of elemental analysis and spectral data.

  15. A Four-step Synthesis of Novel (S)-1-(heteroaryl)-1-aminoethanes from (S)-Boc-alanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šenica, Luka; Petek, Nejc; Grošelj, Uroš; Svete, Jurij

    2015-01-01

    A series of (S)-1-(pyrimidin-4-yl)-, and regioisomeric (S)-1-(pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-yl)-, and (S)-1-(pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-5-yl)ethan-1-amines were prepared by cyclisation of (S)-N-Boc-alanine-derived ynone with N,N-1,3-dinucleophiles, such as amidines and α-aminoazoles, followed by acidolytic removal of the Boc group. Stereoselective catalytic hydrogenation of (S)-1-(pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-yl)ethanamines lead to saturation of the pyrimidine ring to afford ~4:1 mixture of diastereomeric 4,5,6,7-tetrahydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines. The structures of novel compounds were elucidated with NMR.

  16. Peptidylarginine deiminases: novel drug targets for prevention of neuronal damage following hypoxic ischemic insult (HI) in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Sigrun; Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Thei, Laura; Mawjee, Priyanka; Bennett, Kate; Thompson, Paul R; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Nicholas, Anthony P; Peebles, Donald; Hristova, Mariya; Raivich, Gennadij

    2014-08-01

    Neonatal hypoxic ischaemic (HI) injury frequently causes neural impairment in surviving infants. Our knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms is still limited. Protein deimination is a post-translational modification caused by Ca(+2) -regulated peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs), a group of five isozymes that display tissue-specific expression and different preference for target proteins. Protein deimination results in altered protein conformation and function of target proteins, and is associated with neurodegenerative diseases, gene regulation and autoimmunity. In this study, we used the neonatal HI and HI/infection [lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation] murine models to investigate changes in protein deimination. Brains showed increases in deiminated proteins, cell death, activated microglia and neuronal loss in affected brain areas at 48 h after hypoxic ischaemic insult. Upon treatment with the pan-PAD inhibitor Cl-amidine, a significant reduction was seen in microglial activation, cell death and infarct size compared with control saline or LPS-treated animals. Deimination of histone 3, a target protein of the PAD4 isozyme, was increased in hippocampus and cortex specifically upon LPS stimulation and markedly reduced following Cl-amidine treatment. Here, we demonstrate a novel role for PAD enzymes in neural impairment in neonatal HI Encephalopathy, highlighting their role as promising new candidates for drug-directed intervention in neurotrauma. Hypoxic Ischaemic Insult (HI) results in activation of peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) because of calcium dysregulation. Target proteins undergo irreversible changes of protein bound arginine to citrulline, resulting in protein misfolding. Infection in synergy with HI causes up-regulation of TNFα, nuclear translocation of PAD4 and change in gene regulation as a result of histone deimination. Pharmacological PAD inhibition significantly reduced HI brain damage. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry

  17. Modification of dispersibility of nanodiamond by grafting of polyoxyethylene and by the introduction of ionic groups onto the surface via radical trapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, I. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 8050, Ikarashi, 2-no-cho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Hashimoto, K. [Department of Material Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University, 8050, Ikarashi, 2-no-cho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-218 (Japan); Fujiki, K. [Department of Environmental Science, Niigata Institute of Technology, 1719, Fujihashi, Kashiwazaki, Niigata 945-1195 (Japan); Yamauchi, T. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 8050, Ikarashi, 2-no-cho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Department of Material Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University, 8050, Ikarashi, 2-no-cho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-218 (Japan); Tsubokawa, N., E-mail: ntsuboka@eng.niigata-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 8050, Ikarashi, 2-no-cho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Department of Material Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University, 8050, Ikarashi, 2-no-cho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-218 (Japan)

    2014-02-14

    To improve the dispersibility of polycrystalline nanodiamond (ND) in solvents, the grafting of polymers and introduction of ionic groups onto ND surface via radical trapping by ND surface were investigated. The grafting of polyoxyethylene (POE) onto ND surface by trapping of POE radicals formed by the thermal decomposition of POE macro azo-initiator (Azo-POE) was examined. The polymer radicals formed by the thermal decomposition of Azo-POE were successfully trapped by ND surface to give POE-grafted ND. The effect of temperature on the grafting of POE onto ND was discussed. In addition, the introduction of cationic protonated amidine groups onto ND was achieved by the trapping of radicals bearing protonated amidine groups formed by thermal decomposition of 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine)dihydrochloride (AMPA). The anionic carboxylate groups was introduced onto ND surface by the trapping of the radicals bearing carboxyl groups formed by thermal decomposition of 4,4′-azobis(4-cyonovaleric acid) (ACVA) followed by the treatment with NaOH aqueous solution. The dispersibility of ND in water was remarkably improved by the grafting of POE, based on the steric hindrance of polymer chains and by the introduction of ionic groups, based on the ionic repulsion, onto ND surface. - Highlights: • Grafting of PEG onto nanodiamond was achieved by radical trapping. • Introduction of ionic groups onto nanodiamond was achieved by radical trapping. • Nanodiamond was dispersed by PEG grafting based on steric hindrance of PEG chains. • Nanodiamond was dispersed by introduction of ionic groups based on ionic repulsion.

  18. Modification of dispersibility of nanodiamond by grafting of polyoxyethylene and by the introduction of ionic groups onto the surface via radical trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, I.; Hashimoto, K.; Fujiki, K.; Yamauchi, T.; Tsubokawa, N.

    2014-01-01

    To improve the dispersibility of polycrystalline nanodiamond (ND) in solvents, the grafting of polymers and introduction of ionic groups onto ND surface via radical trapping by ND surface were investigated. The grafting of polyoxyethylene (POE) onto ND surface by trapping of POE radicals formed by the thermal decomposition of POE macro azo-initiator (Azo-POE) was examined. The polymer radicals formed by the thermal decomposition of Azo-POE were successfully trapped by ND surface to give POE-grafted ND. The effect of temperature on the grafting of POE onto ND was discussed. In addition, the introduction of cationic protonated amidine groups onto ND was achieved by the trapping of radicals bearing protonated amidine groups formed by thermal decomposition of 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine)dihydrochloride (AMPA). The anionic carboxylate groups was introduced onto ND surface by the trapping of the radicals bearing carboxyl groups formed by thermal decomposition of 4,4′-azobis(4-cyonovaleric acid) (ACVA) followed by the treatment with NaOH aqueous solution. The dispersibility of ND in water was remarkably improved by the grafting of POE, based on the steric hindrance of polymer chains and by the introduction of ionic groups, based on the ionic repulsion, onto ND surface. - Highlights: • Grafting of PEG onto nanodiamond was achieved by radical trapping. • Introduction of ionic groups onto nanodiamond was achieved by radical trapping. • Nanodiamond was dispersed by PEG grafting based on steric hindrance of PEG chains. • Nanodiamond was dispersed by introduction of ionic groups based on ionic repulsion

  19. Further classification of skin alkaloids from neotropical poison frogs (Dendrobatidae), with a general survey of toxic/noxious substances in the amphibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J W; Myers, C W; Whittaker, N

    1987-01-01

    , decahydroquinolines, gephyrotoxins, 2,6-disubstituted piperidines, 2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidines, pyridyl-piperidines, indole alkaloids, azatricyclododecenes and amidine alkaloids. Except for the steroidal batrachotoxins, and the minor classes of pyrrolidine alkaloids, indole alkaloids and amidine alkaloids, all the above contain a piperidine ring. A large number of piperidine-based alkaloids occur mainly as trace compounds in Dendrobates and remain unclassified; the only water-soluble toxin so far discovered in a dendrobatid (Colostethus) is structurally unknown, but conceivably an alkaloid.

  20. Exploiting subsite S1 of trypsin-like serine proteases for selectivity: potent and selective inhibitors of urokinase-type plasminogen activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackman, R L; Katz, B A; Breitenbucher, J G; Hui, H C; Verner, E; Luong, C; Liu, L; Sprengeler, P A

    2001-11-08

    A nonselective inhibitor of trypsin-like serine proteases, 2-(2-hydroxybiphenyl-3-yl)-1H-indole-5-carboxamidine (1) (Verner, E.; Katz, B. A.; Spencer, J.; Allen, D.; Hataye, J.; Hruzewicz, W.; Hui, H. C.; Kolesnikov, A.; Li, Y.; Luong, C.; Martelli, A.; Radika. K.; Rai, R.; She, M.; Shrader, W.; Sprengeler, P. A.; Trapp, S.; Wang, J.; Young, W. B.; Mackman, R. L. J. Med. Chem. 2001, 44, 2753-2771) has been optimized through minor structural changes on the S1 binding group to afford remarkably selective and potent inhibitors of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). The trypsin-like serine proteases(1) that comprise drug targets can be broadly categorized into two subfamilies, those with Ser190 and those with Ala190. A single-atom modification, for example, replacement of hydrogen for chlorine at the 6-position of the 5-amidinoindole P1 group on 1, generated up to 6700-fold selectivity toward the Ser190 enzymes and against the Ala190 enzymes. The larger chlorine atom displaces a water molecule (H(2)O1(S1)) that binds near residue 190 in all the complexes of 1, and related inhibitors, in uPA, thrombin, and trypsin. The water molecule, H(2)O1(S1), in both the Ser190 or Ala190 enzymes, hydrogen bonds with the amidine N1 nitrogen of the inhibitor. When it is displaced, a reduction in affinity toward the Ala190 enzymes is observed due to the amidine N1 nitrogen of the bound inhibitor being deprived of a key hydrogen-bonding partner. In the Ser190 enzymes the affinity is maintained since the serine hydroxyl oxygen O gamma(Ser190) compensates for the displaced water molecule. High-resolution crystallography provided evidence for the displacement of the water molecule and validated the design rationale. In summation, a novel and powerful method for engineering selectivity toward Ser190 proteases and against Ala190 proteases without substantially increasing molecular weight is described.

  1. A Sustainable Multicomponent Pyrimidine Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibl, Nicklas; Ament, Kevin; Kempe, Rhett

    2015-10-14

    Since alcohols are accessible from indigestible biomass (lignocellulose), the development of novel preferentially catalytic reactions in which alcohols are converted into important classes of fine chemicals is a central topic of sustainable synthesis. Multicomponent reactions are especially attractive in organic chemistry as they allow the synthesis of large libraries of diversely functionalized products in a short time when run in a combinatorial fashion. Herein, we report a novel, regioselective, iridium-catalyzed multicomponent synthesis of pyrimidines from amidines and up to three (different) alcohols. This reaction proceeds via a sequence of condensation and dehydrogenation steps which give rise to selective C-C and C-N bond formations. While the condensation steps deoxygenate the alcohol components, the dehydrogenations lead to aromatization. Two equiv of hydrogen and water are liberated in the course of the reactions. PN5P-Ir-pincer complexes, recently developed in our laboratory, catalyze this sustainable multicomponent process most efficiently. A total of 38 different pyrimidines were synthesized in isolated yields of up to 93%. Strong points of the new protocol are its regioselectivity and thus the immediate access to pyrimidines that are highly and unsymmetrically decorated with alkyl or aryl substituents. The combination of this novel protocol with established methods for converting alcohols to nitriles now allows to selectively assemble pyrimidines from four alcohol building blocks and 2 equiv of ammonia.

  2. Amitraz poisoning treatment: still supportive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Yaraghi, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Amitraz is a triazapentadiene, an α2 adrenergic agonist and a member of the amidine chemical family. A limited number of human intoxication cases have been published in the literature. Lack of a clear and specific protocol for the therapy of amitraz intoxication may make its successfully managed case reports useful and valuable for other clinical practitioners in poisoning departments. The case is about a 22 years old female, single, university student, ingested a glass of amitraz poison (about 100 mL of a 20% solution) as a suicidal attempt on 11:30 am which was about 3.5 h before her hospital admission. She found nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Immediately, her family took her to a clinic near their house. At that clinic (13:30 pm) she had miosis and they did gastric lavage , one adult dose of activated charcoal (50 g) and referred her to our Poisoning Emergency Department, where she was managed supportively and successfully. Amitraz is a poisonous chemical which may cause central nervous system depression and also respiratory/cardiovascular symptoms as well. Several studies reported that using atropine for those amitraz poisoned patients with both miosis and bradycardia resolved the problem and recommend it as the first line of drug therapy when bradycardia occurs from vagal stimulation and atrioventricular block. Management of amitraz poisoning is still considered to be supportive and symptomatic. Although the effects of activated charcoal and cathartics have not been studied, they may still be considered for treatment.

  3. Laccase-polyacrylonitrile nanofibrous membrane: highly immobilized, stable, reusable, and efficacious for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ran; Chi, Chenglong; Li, Fengting; Zhang, Bingru

    2013-12-11

    Increasing attention has been given to nanobiocatalysis for commercial applications. In this study, laccase was immobilized on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membranes through ethanol/HCl method of amidination reaction and successfully applied for removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) from water. PAN membranes with fiber diameters from 200 nm to 300 nm were fabricated via electrospinning and provided a large surface area for enzyme immobilization and catalytic reactions. Images of scanning electron microscope demonstrated the enzyme molecules were aggregated on the nanofiber surface. The immobilized laccase exhibited 72% of the free enzyme activity and kept 60% of its initial activity after 10 operation cycles. Moreover, the storage stability of the immobilized laccase was considered excellent because they maintained more than 92% of the initial activity after 18 days of storage, whereas the free laccase retained only 20%. The laccase-PAN nanofibrous membranes exhibited high removal efficiency of TCP under the combined actions of biodegradation and adsorption. More than 85% of the TCP was removed under optimum conditions. Effects of various factors on TCP removal efficiency of the immobilized laccase were analyzed. Results suggest that laccase-PAN nanofibrous membranes can be used in removing TCP from aqueous sources and have potential for use in other commercial applications.

  4. The first proton sponge-based amino acids: synthesis, acid-base properties and some reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeryanskii, Valery A; Gorbacheva, Anastasia Yu; Pozharskii, Alexander F; Vlasenko, Marina P; Tereznikov, Alexander Yu; Chernov'yants, Margarita S

    2015-08-21

    The first hybrid base constructed from 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (proton sponge or DMAN) and glycine, N-methyl-N-(8-dimethylamino-1-naphthyl)aminoacetic acid, was synthesised in high yield and its hydrobromide was structurally characterised and used to determine the acid-base properties via potentiometric titration. It was found that the basic strength of the DMAN-glycine base (pKa = 11.57, H2O) is on the level of amidine amino acids like arginine and creatine and its structure, zwitterionic vs. neutral, based on the spectroscopic (IR, NMR, mass) and theoretical (DFT) approaches has a strong preference to the zwitterionic form. Unlike glycine, the DMAN-glycine zwitterion is N-chiral and is hydrolytically cleaved with the loss of glycolic acid on heating in DMSO. This reaction together with the mild decarboxylative conversion of proton sponge-based amino acids into 2,3-dihydroperimidinium salts under air-oxygen was monitored with the help of the DMAN-alanine amino acid. The newly devised amino acids are unique as they combine fluorescence, strongly basic and redox-active properties.

  5. Evaluation of phytotherapy alternatives for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pablo Villarreal Villarreal

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to identify the main chemical components of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. (cumin and of the fixed oils of Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut and of Helianthus annuus (sunflower seed. As well as testing the three oils and three different commercial synthetic acaricides against engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in order to explore their acaricidal efficacy. Six different concentrations of the oils (200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg/mL and the active principles were evaluated with the Adult Immersion Test (AIT. The two main chemicals components of C. cyminum L. were the cuminaldehyde and the γ-terpinene. In both B. excelsa and H. annuus were the linoleic and oleic acid. C. cyminum L. showed high acaricidal activity (100% over the engorged females and on their reproductive characteristat from the concentration of 100 mg/mL. B. excelsa and H. annuus had low acaricidal activity (39.39% and 58.75% in the concentration of 200 mg/mL respectively. The amidine and the pyrethroid (35.12% and 1.50% respectively. It can be concluded that the oil of C. cyminum L. may be a phytoterapic alternative for the cattle's tick control.

  6. S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase inhibitors: new aryl and heteroaryl analogues of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, J; Caravatti, G; Capraro, H G; Furet, P; Mett, H; Schneider, P; Regenass, U

    1993-01-08

    A series of 3-acylbenzamidine (amidino)hydrazones 7a-h, the corresponding (hetero)aromatic congeners 7i-p, and 3,3'-bis-amidino-biaryls 25a-e were synthesized. The hydrazones 7a-p were prepared by conversion of the corresponding acyl nitriles 1a,c-d,i,n-p to the imido esters 3a,c-d,i and the amidines 5a,c-d,h-i, followed by a reaction with aminoguanidine, or vice versa. Similarly, the biaryl 3,3'-dinitriles 23a-e were converted, via the imino esters 24a-c or the imino thioesters 27d-e, to the diamidines 25a-e. These new products are conformationally constrained analogues of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG). They are up to 100 times more potent as inhibitors of rat liver S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SMDC) and generally less potent inhibitors of rat small intestine diamine oxidase (DAO) than MGBG. Some of these SAMDC inhibitors, e.g., compounds 7a, 7e, 7i, 25a, and 25d, have shown antiproliferative effects against T24 human bladder carcinoma cells. These products, whose structure-activity relationships are discussed, are of interest as potential anticancer agents and drugs for the treatment of protozoal and Pneumocystis carinii infections.

  7. Chemical composition and acaricide activity of an essential oil from a rare chemotype of Cinnamomum verum Presl on Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Ildenice Nogueira; Monteiro, Odair Dos Santos; Costa-Junior, Lívio Martins; da Silva Lima, Aldilene; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Mouchrek Filho, Victor Elias

    2017-04-30

    The Essential Oils (EOs) from the leaves of species Cinnamomum verum J. Presl are used in the pharmaceutical industry for their numerous biological activities. Currently, the main compound of C. verum EO is eugenol which has acaricidal activity; however, a rare chemotype with benzyl benzoate as the main component can be found. Benzyl benzoate is recognized as an acaricide; however, studies of the C. verum EOs benzyl benzoate chemotype on Rhipicephalus microplus were not reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricide activity of an EO from a rare chemotype of C. verum, as well as purified benzyl benzoate, against larvae and engorged females of R. microplus resistant to amidines and pyrethroids. The EO was extracted from C. verum leaves and the compounds present were identified using a gas phase chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. Efficacy against R. microplus was assessed by the larval packet and the engorged female immersion tests. A rare chemotype of C. verum was found to produce EOs with benzyl benzoate (65.4%) as the main compound. The C. verum essential oil was 3.3 times more efficient on the R. microplus larvae than was benzyl benzoate. However, no differences were found on the R. microplus engorged females. This is the first report regarding the acaricidal activity of C. verum with chemotype benzyl benzoate, and this compound showed acaricidal activity on R. microplus larvae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Klebsazolicin inhibits 70S ribosome by obstructing the peptide exit tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metelev, Mikhail; Osterman, Ilya A.; Ghilarov, Dmitry; Khabibullina, Nelli F.; Yakimov, Alexander; Shabalin, Konstantin; Utkina, Irina; Travin, Dmitry Y.; Komarova, Ekaterina S.; Serebryakova, Marina; Artamonova, Tatyana; Khodorkovskii, Mikhail; Konevega, Andrey L.; Sergiev, Petr V.; Severinov, Konstantin; Polikanov, Yury S.

    2017-08-28

    Whereas screening of the small-molecule metabolites produced by most cultivatable microorganisms often results in the rediscovery of known compounds, genome-mining programs allow researchers to harness much greater chemical diversity, and result in the discovery of new molecular scaffolds. Here we report the genome-guided identification of a new antibiotic, klebsazolicin (KLB), from Klebsiella pneumoniae that inhibits the growth of sensitive cells by targeting ribosomes. A ribosomally synthesized post-translationally modified peptide (RiPP), KLB is characterized by the presence of a unique N-terminal amidine ring that is essential for its activity. Biochemical in vitro studies indicate that KLB inhibits ribosomes by interfering with translation elongation. Structural analysis of the ribosome–KLB complex showed that the compound binds in the peptide exit tunnel overlapping with the binding sites of macrolides or streptogramin-B. KLB adopts a compact conformation and largely obstructs the tunnel. Engineered KLB fragments were observed to retain in vitro activity, and thus have the potential to serve as a starting point for the development of new bioactive compounds.

  9. SPHINGOSINE KINASE TYPE 1 INHIBITION REVEALS RAPID TURNOVER OF CIRCULATING SPHINGOSINE 1-PHOSPHATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharel, Yugesh; Mathews, Thomas P.; Gellett, Amanda M.; Tomsig, Jose L.; Kennedy, Perry C.; Moyer, Morgan L.; Macdonald, Timothy L.; Lynch, Kevin R.

    2012-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a signaling molecule involved in a host of cellular and physiological functions – most notably cell survival and migration. S1P, which signals via a set of five G protein coupled receptors (S1P1–5), is formed by the action of two sphingosine kinases (SphKs) from sphingosine. Interfering RNA strategies and SphK1 null mouse studies implicate SphK1 in multiple signaling cascades, yet there is a paucity of potent and selective SphK1 inhibitors necessary to evaluate the effects of rapid onset inhibition of this enzyme. We have identified a set of sub-micromolar, amidine-based SphK1 inhibitors and herein report using a pair of these compounds to probe the cellular and physiological functions of SphK1. In doing so, we demonstrate that our inhibitors effectively lower S1P levels in cell based assays, but we have been unable to correlate SphK1 inhibition with changes in cell survival. However, SphK1 inhibition did diminish epidermal growth factor-driven increases in S1P levels and Akt/ERK phosphorylation. Finally, administration of the SphK1 inhibitor to wild type, but not Sphk1−/−, mice resulted in a rapid decrease in blood S1P levels indicating that circulating S1P is rapidly turning over. PMID:21848514

  10. The Study of Release of Chlorhexidine from Preparations with Modified Thermosensitive Poly-N-isopropylacrylamide Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Musial

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the release rates of chlorhexidine (CX base entrapped in the polymeric beads of modified poly-N-isopropylacrylamides (pNIPAMs at temperatures below and over the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT of synthesized polymers: pNIPAM-A with terminal anionic groups resulting from potassium persulfate initiator, pNIPAM-B with cationic amidine terminal groups, and pNIPAM-C comprising anionic terminals, but with increased hydrophobicity maintained by the N-tert-butyl functional groups. The preparations, assessed in vitro below the VPTT, release an initial burst of CX at different time periods between 120 and 240 min, followed by a period of 24 h, when the rate of release remains approximately constant, approaching the zero-order kinetics; the release rates for the polymers beads are as follows: pNIPAM-C>pNIPAM-B>pNIPAM-A. The pattern of release rates at temperature over the VPTT is as follows: pNIPAM-C>pNIPAM-A>pNIPAM-B. In the presence of pNIPAM-C, the duration between the start of the release and the attained minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC for most of the microbes, in conditions over the VPTT, increased from 60 to 90 min. The release prolongation could be ascribed to some interactions between the practically insoluble CX particle and the hydrophobic functional groups of the polymer.

  11. Total Syntheses and Initial Evaluation of [Ψ[C(=S)NH]Tpg4]vancomycin, [Ψ[C(=NH)NH]Tpg4]vancomycin, [Ψ[CH2NH]Tpg4]vancomycin and their (4-Chlorobiphenyl)methyl Derivatives: Synergistic Binding Pocket and Peripheral Modifications for the Glycopeptide Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Akinori; Nakayama, Atsushi; Wu, Kejia; Lindsey, Erick A.; Schammel, Alex W.; Feng, Yiqing; Collins, Karen C.

    2015-01-01

    Full details of studies are disclosed on the total synthesis of binding pocket analogues of vancomycin, bearing the peripheral L-vancosaminyl-1,2-D-glucosyl disaccharide, that contain changes to a key single atom in the residue 4 amide (residue 4 carbonyl O → S, NH, H2) designed to directly address the underlying molecular basis of resistance to vancomycin. Also disclosed are studies piloting the late stage transformations conducted on the synthetically more accessible C-terminus hydroxymethyl aglycon derivatives and full details of the peripheral chlorobiphenyl functionalization of all the binding pocket modified vancomycin analogues designed for dual D-Ala-D-Ala/D-Ala-D-Lac binding are reported. Their collective assessment indicate that combined binding pocket and chlorobiphenyl peripherally modified analogues exhibit a remarkable spectrum of antimicrobial activity (VSSA, MRSA, VanA and VanB VRE) and impressive potencies against both vancomycin-sensitive and vancomycin-resistant bacteria (MICs = 0.06–0.005 μg/mL and 0.5–0.06 μg/mL for the amidine and methylene analogues, respectively) and likely benefit from two independent and synergistic mechanisms of action, only one of which is dependent on D-Ala-D-Ala/D-Ala-D-Lac binding. Such analogues are likely to display especially durable antibiotic activity not prone to rapidly acquired clinical resistance. PMID:25750995

  12. Antitumor activity of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene derivatives and quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, Marijana; Rastija, Vesna; Opačak-Bernardi, Teuta; Stolić, Ivana; Krstulović, Luka; Bajić, Miroslav; Glavaš-Obrovac, Ljubica

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate nine newly synthesized amidine derivatives of 3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene (3,4-EDOT) for their cytotoxic activity against a panel of human cancer cell lines and to perform a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis for the antitumor activity of a total of 27 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene derivatives. Induction of apoptosis was investigated on the selected compounds, along with delivery options for the optimization of activity. The best obtained QSAR models include the following group of descriptors: BCUT, WHIM, 2D autocorrelations, 3D-MoRSE, GETAWAY descriptors, 2D frequency fingerprint and information indices. Obtained QSAR models should be relieved in elucidation of important physicochemical and structural requirements for this biological activity. Highly potent molecules have a symmetrical arrangement of substituents along the x axis, high frequency of distance between N and O atoms at topological distance 9, as well as between C and N atoms at topological distance 10, and more C atoms located at topological distances 6 and 3. Based on the conclusion given in the QSAR analysis, a new compound with possible great activity was proposed.

  13. An Amidinohydrolase Provides the Missing Link in the Biosynthesis of Amino Marginolactone Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hui; Samborskyy, Markiyan; Lindner, Frederick; Leadlay, Peter F

    2016-01-18

    Desertomycin A is an aminopolyol polyketide containing a macrolactone ring. We have proposed that desertomycin A and similar compounds (marginolactones) are formed by polyketide synthases primed not with γ-aminobutanoyl-CoA but with 4-guanidinylbutanoyl-CoA, to avoid facile cyclization of the starter unit. This hypothesis requires that there be a final-stage de-amidination of the corresponding guanidino-substituted natural product, but no enzyme for such a process has been described. We have now identified candidate amidinohydrolase genes within the desertomycin and primycin clusters. Deletion of the putative desertomycin amidinohydrolase gene dstH in Streptomyces macronensis led to the accumulation of desertomycin B, the guanidino form of the antibiotic. Also, purified DstH efficiently catalyzed the in vitro conversion of desertomycin B into the A form. Hence this amidinohydrolase furnishes the missing link in this proposed naturally evolved example of protective-group chemistry. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  14. The Uses of 2-Ethoxy-(4H)-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one in the Synthesis of Some Quinazolinone Derivatives of Antimicrobial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hashash, Maher A.; Darwish, Khalid M.; Rizk, Sameh A.; El-Bassiouny, Fakhry A.

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of 2-ethoxy-(4H)-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one (1) towards nitrogen nucleophiles, e.g. ethanolamine, aromatic amines (namely: p-toluidine, p-anisidine, p-hydroxyaniline, o-hydroxyaniline, o-bromoaniline, o-phenylenediamine, p-phenylenediamine, o-tolidinediamine) p-aminobenzoic acid, glucosamine hydrochloride, 2-aminonicotinic acid, 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid hydrazide, n-decanoic acid hydrazide, benzoic acid hydrazide, semicarbazide, aminoacids (e.g. D,L-alanine, L-asparagine, L-arginine) and derivatives of 2-aminothiodiazole has been investigated. The behavior of the benzoxazinone towards a selected sulfur nucleophile, L-cysteine, has also been discussed. Formation of an amidine salt as a reaction intermediate has been assumed. The effect of solvent in some reactions has been elucidated. The structures of all the novel quinazoline and quinazolinone derivatives, obtained by heterocyclic ring opening and ring closure were inferred by the IR, MS as well as 1H-NMR spectral analysis. Moreover, the antimicrobial potential of some of the new synthesized derivatives has been evaluated.

  15. The Uses of 2-Ethoxy-(4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one in the Synthesis of Some Quinazolinone Derivatives of Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhry A. El-Bassiouny

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of 2-ethoxy-(4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one (1 towards nitrogen nucleo-philes, e.g. ethanolamine, aromatic amines (namely: p-toluidine, p-anisidine, p-hydroxyaniline, o-hydroxyaniline, o-bromoaniline, o-phenylenediamine, p-phenylene- diamine, o-tolidinediamine p-aminobenzoic acid, glucosamine hydrochloride,  2-amino- nicotinic acid, 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid hydrazide, n-decanoic acid hydrazide, benzoic acid hydrazide, semicarbazide, aminoacids (e.g. D,L-alanine, L-asparagine, L-arginine and derivatives of 2-aminothiodiazole has been investigated. The behavior of the benzoxazinone towards a selected sulfur nucleophile, L-cysteine, has also been discussed. Formation of an amidine salt as a reaction intermediate has been assumed. The effect of solvent in some reactions has been elucidated. The structures of all the novel quinazoline and quinazolinone derivatives, obtained by heterocyclic ring opening and ring closure were inferred by the IR, MS as well as 1H-NMR spectral analysis. Moreover, the antimicrobial potential of some of the new synthesized derivatives has been evaluated.

  16. Insertion, isomerization, and cascade reactivity of the tethered silylalkyl uranium metallocene (η(5)-C5Me4SiMe2CH2-κC)2U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siladke, Nathan A; Ziller, Joseph W; Evans, William J

    2011-03-16

    Investigation of the insertion reactivity of the tethered silylalkyl complex (η(5)-C(5)Me(4)SiMe(2)CH(2)-κC)(2)U (1) has led to a series of new reactions for U-C bonds. Elemental sulfur reacts with 1 by inserting two sulfur atoms into each of the U-C bonds to form the bis(tethered alkyl disulfide) complex (η(5):η(2)-C(5)Me(4)SiMe(2)CH(2)S(2))(2)U (2). The bulky substrate N,N'-diisopropylcarbodiimide, (i)PrN═C═N(i)Pr, inserts into only one of the U-C bonds of 1 to produce the mixed-tether complex (η(5)-C(5)Me(4)SiMe(2)CH(2)-κC)U[η(5)-C(5)Me(4)SiMe(2)CH(2)C((i)PrN)(2)-κ(2)N,N'] (3). Carbon monoxide did not exclusively undergo a simple insertion into the U-C bond of 3 but instead formed {μ-[η(5)-C(5)Me(4)SiMe(2)CH(2)C(═N(i)Pr)O-κ(2)O,N]U[OC(C(5)Me(4)SiMe(2)CH(2))CN((i)Pr)-κ(2)O,N](2) (4) in a cascade of reactions that formally includes U-C bond cleavage, C-N bond cleavage of the amidinate ligand, alkyl or silyl migration, U-O, C-C, and C-N bond formations, and CO insertion. The reaction of 3 with isoelectronic tert-butyl isocyanide led to insertion of the substrate into the U-C bond, but with a rearrangement of the amidinate ligand binding mode from κ(2) to κ(1) to form [η(5):η(2)-C(5)Me(4)SiMe(2)CH(2)C(═N(t)Bu)]U[η(5)-C(5)Me(4)SiMe(2)CH(2)C(═N(i)Pr)N((i)Pr)-κN] (5). The product of double insertion of (t)BuN≡C into the U-C bonds of 1, namely [η(5):η(2)-C(5)Me(4)SiMe(2)CH(2)C(═N(t)Bu)](2)U (6), was found to undergo an unusual thermal rearrangement that formally involves C-H bond activation, C-C bond cleavage, and C-C bond coupling to form the first formimidoyl actinide complex, [η(5):η(5):η(3)-(t)BuNC(CH(2)SiMe(2)C(5)Me(4))(CHSiMe(2)C(5)Me(4))]U(η(2)-HC═N(t)Bu) (7).

  17. Lowering relative humidity level increases epidermal protein deimination and drives human filaggrin breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau, Laura; Pendaries, Valérie; Lhuillier, Emeline; Thompson, Paul R; Serre, Guy; Takahara, Hidenari; Méchin, Marie-Claire; Simon, Michel

    2017-05-01

    Deimination (also known as citrullination), the conversion of arginine in a protein to citrulline, is catalyzed by a family of enzymes called peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs). Three PADs are expressed in the epidermis, one of their targets being filaggrin. Filaggrin plays a central role in atopic dermatitis and is a key protein for the epidermal barrier. It aggregates keratins and is cross-linked to cornified envelopes. Following its deimination, it is totally degraded to release free amino acids, contributing to the natural moisturizing factor (NMF). The mechanisms controlling this multistep catabolism in human are unknown. To test whether external humidity plays a role, and investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. Specimens of reconstructed human epidermis (RHEs) produced in humid or dry conditions (>95% or 30-50% relative humidity) were compared. RHEs produced in the dry condition presented structural changes, including a thicker stratum corneum and a larger amount of keratohyalin granules. The transepidermal water loss and the stratum corneum pH were decreased whereas the quantity of NMF was greater. This highly suggested that filaggrin proteolysis was up-regulated. The expression/activity of the proteases involved in filaggrin breakdown did not increase while PAD1 expression and the deimination rate of proteins, including filaggrin, were drastically enhanced. Partial inhibition of PADs with Cl-amidine reversed the effect of dryness on filaggrin breakdown. These results demonstrate the importance of external humidity in the control of human filaggrin metabolism, and suggest that deimination plays a major role in this regulation. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis of metal-fluoride nanoparticles supported on thermally reduced graphite oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Schmitz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Metal-fluoride nanoparticles, (MFx-NPs with M = Fe, Co, Pr, Eu, supported on different types of thermally reduced graphite oxide (TRGO were obtained by microwave-assisted thermal decomposition of transition-metal amidinates, (M{MeC[N(iPr]2}n or [M(AMDn] with M = Fe(II, Co(II, Pr(III, and tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionatoeuropium, Eu(dpm3, in the presence of TRGO in the ionic liquid (IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIm][BF4]. The crystalline phases of the metal fluorides synthesized in [BMIm][BF4] were identified by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD to be MF2 for M = Fe, Co and MF3 for M = Eu, Pr. The diameters and size distributions of MFx@TRGO were from (6 ± 2 to (102 ± 41 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS were used for further characterization of the MFx-NPs. Electrochemical investigations of the FeF2-NPs@TRGO as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries were evaluated by galvanostatic charge/discharge profiles. The results indicate that the FeF2-NPs@TRGO as cathode material can present a specific capacity of 500 mAh/g at a current density of 50 mA/g, including a significant interfacial charge storage contribution. The obtained nanomaterials show a good rate capacity as well (220 mAh/g and 130 mAh/g at a current density of 200 and 500 mA/g, respectively.

  19. Amoebicidal efficiencies of various diamidines against two strains of Acanthamoeba polyphaga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrine, D; Chenu, J P; Georges, P; Lancelot, J C; Saturnino, C; Robba, M

    1995-02-01

    The first medical cure of Acanthamoeba keratitis was obtained by use of propamidine isethionate. Since then, it has been the basic drug recommended for use in treatment. Because some Acanthamoeba strains have been reported to be resistant to propamidine and propamidine was found to be only weakly cysticidal, superior homologs such as butamidine, pentamidine, hexamidine, heptamidine, octamidine, and nonamidine were tested for their amoebicidal effects on two Acanthamoeba strains isolated from patients with keratitis. Trophozoicidal and cysticidal efficiencies were found to be increased from propamidine to nonamidine; i.e., when the alkyl chain connecting the two benzene rings in their molecular structures was elongated, in comparison with propamidine, hexamidine and octamidine were the most amoebicidal molecules. As a result of these data, a kinetic study carried out on propamidine, hexamidine, and octamidine demonstrated that the amoebicidal effects resulted from two events: the diffusion of molecules through the plasma membrane or the double wall of trophozoites or cysts, respectively, and the lethal effects of molecules on amoebic protoplasm. The diffusion kinetics were increased when the alkyl chain was elongated, i.e., with an increase in the lipophilic properties of molecules. In contrast, the lethal effect kinetics were found to be unchanged by this elongation, indicating that they originated from the cationic surface-active properties induced by the protonated amidine groups attached to each benzene ring, which themselves remained unchanged from one molecule to the other. These results strongly advocate the immediate replacement of propamidine by hexamidine in the medical treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis; in France, 0.1% hexamidine eyedrops are available (Desomedine). The results also advocate clinical investigations on the efficiency and toxicity of octamidine, which appears to be the most amoebicidal diamidine in vitro.

  20. Synthesis and radiofluorination of putative NMDA receptor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, U.

    2011-01-01

    In the course of this work on the synthesis of radioligands for the NMDA receptor the authentic standards and labeling precursors of four compounds with an amidine structure was performed. Synthesis of the precursors followed reaction conditions given in the literature and was successful. The imidoesters used for the synthesis were obtained from their nitriles in a Pinner synthesis, while 2-hydroxybenzylamine was synthesized in a reduction of 2-hydroxybenzonitrile using borane as a reducing agent. After a coupling reaction of the amine and the imidoester in DMF using triethylamine as base the precursors were obtained in good yields and purified by crystallization from methanol. The cyclic standard compound was synthesized directly from 2-(bromomethyl)- benzonitrile and 2-hydroxybenzylamine in a ring closing reaction. Similar to the other precursors, crystallization from methanol produced a pure compound. The authentic standards were synthesized starting from salicylaldehyde. In a four step synthesis the desired ortho-fluoroethoxybenzylamine was obtained in good yield. Coupling of the amine with the respective imidoester or in the case of the cyclic compound 2-(bromomethyl)-benzonitrile gave the desired product which was then purified by column chromatography or by crystallization from ethanol and water. For the labeling procedure 1-bromo-2-[ 18 F]fluoroethane was synthesized following a previously published pathway starting from 1,2-dibromoethane. An alternative route of radiosynthesis for this prosthetic group was tested using ethyleneglycole- 1,2-ditosylate. The labeling reaction was performed on one of the precursors testing both DMF and DMSO as solvents and using NaOH as base. Yields of N-(2-fluoroethoxybenzyl)- cinnamamidine were about 78 % at 80 C after 30 minutes in DMSO. The desired product can now be synthesized in sufficient yields for in vitro and in vivo evaluation studies. Labeling on the cyclic precursor was attempted utilizing DMSO as solvent, but no

  1. Roles of UGT, P450, and Gut Microbiota in the Metabolism of Epacadostat in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Jason; Young-Sciame, Ruth; Lee, Fiona; Bowman, Kevin J; Yang, Xiaoqing; Shi, Jack G; Nedza, Frank M; Frietze, William; Galya, Laurine; Combs, Andrew P; Yeleswaram, Swamy; Diamond, Sharon

    2016-10-01

    Epacadostat (EPA, INCB024360) is a first-in-class, orally active, investigational drug targeting the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1). In Phase I studies, EPA has demonstrated promising clinical activity when used in combination with checkpoint modulators. When the metabolism of EPA was investigated in humans, three major, IDO1-inactive, circulating plasma metabolites were detected and characterized: M9, a direct O-glucuronide of EPA; M11, an amidine; and M12, N-dealkylated M11. Glucuronidation of EPA to form M9 is the dominant metabolic pathway, and in vitro, this metabolite is formed by UGT1A9. However, negligible quantities of M11 and M12 were detected when EPA was incubated with a panel of human microsomes from multiple tissues, hepatocytes, recombinant human cytochrome P450s (P450s), and non-P450 enzymatic systems. Given the reductive nature of M11 formation and the inability to define its source, the role of gut microbiota was investigated. Analysis of plasma from mice dosed with EPA following pretreatment with either antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) to inhibit gut bacteria or 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT) to systemically inhibit P450s demonstrated that gut microbiota is responsible for the formation of M11. Incubations of EPA in human feces confirmed the role of gut bacteria in the formation of M11. Further, incubations of M11 with recombinant P450s showed that M12 is formed via N-dealkylation of M11 by CYP3A4, CYP2C19, and CYP1A2. Thus, in humans three major plasma metabolites of EPA were characterized: two primary metabolites, M9 and M11, formed directly from EPA via UGT1A9 and gut microbiota, respectively, and M12 formed as a secondary metabolite via P450s from M11. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  2. Synthesis and radiofluorination of putative NMDA receptor ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronenberg, U.

    2011-01-15

    In the course of this work on the synthesis of radioligands for the NMDA receptor the authentic standards and labeling precursors of four compounds with an amidine structure was performed. Synthesis of the precursors followed reaction conditions given in the literature and was successful. The imidoesters used for the synthesis were obtained from their nitriles in a Pinner synthesis, while 2-hydroxybenzylamine was synthesized in a reduction of 2-hydroxybenzonitrile using borane as a reducing agent. After a coupling reaction of the amine and the imidoester in DMF using triethylamine as base the precursors were obtained in good yields and purified by crystallization from methanol. The cyclic standard compound was synthesized directly from 2-(bromomethyl)- benzonitrile and 2-hydroxybenzylamine in a ring closing reaction. Similar to the other precursors, crystallization from methanol produced a pure compound. The authentic standards were synthesized starting from salicylaldehyde. In a four step synthesis the desired ortho-fluoroethoxybenzylamine was obtained in good yield. Coupling of the amine with the respective imidoester or in the case of the cyclic compound 2-(bromomethyl)-benzonitrile gave the desired product which was then purified by column chromatography or by crystallization from ethanol and water. For the labeling procedure 1-bromo-2-[{sub 18}F]fluoroethane was synthesized following a previously published pathway starting from 1,2-dibromoethane. An alternative route of radiosynthesis for this prosthetic group was tested using ethyleneglycole- 1,2-ditosylate. The labeling reaction was performed on one of the precursors testing both DMF and DMSO as solvents and using NaOH as base. Yields of N-(2-fluoroethoxybenzyl)- cinnamamidine were about 78 % at 80 C after 30 minutes in DMSO. The desired product can now be synthesized in sufficient yields for in vitro and in vivo evaluation studies. Labeling on the cyclic precursor was attempted utilizing DMSO as solvent

  3. Selectivity in ligand binding to uranyl compounds: A synthetic, structural, thermodynamic and computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, John

    2015-01-01

    The uranyl cation (UO 2 2+ ) is the most abundant form of uranium on the planet. It is estimated that 4.5 billion tons of uranium in this form exist in sea water. The ability to bind and extract the uranyl cation from aqueous solution while separating it from other elements would provide a limitless source of nuclear fuel. A large body of research concerns the selective recognition and extraction of uranyl. A stable molecule, the cation has a linear O=U=O geometry. The short U-O bonds (1.78 Å) arise from the combination of uranium 5f/6d and oxygen 2p orbitals. Due to the oxygen moieties being multiply bonded, these sites were not thought to be basic enough for Lewis acidic coordination to be a viable approach to sequestration. The goal of this research is thus to broaden the coordination chemistry of the uranyl ion by studying new ligand systems via synthetic, structural, thermodynamic and computational methods. It is anticipated that this fundamental science will find use beyond actinide separation technologies in areas such as nuclear waste remediation and nuclear materials. The focus of this study is to synthesize uranyl complexes incorporating amidinate and guanidinate ligands. Both synthetic and computational methods are used to investigate novel equatorial ligand coordination and how this affects the basicity of the oxo ligands. Such an understanding will later apply to designing ligands incorporating functionalities that can bind uranyl both equatorially and axially for highly selective sequestration. Efficient and durable chromatography supports for lanthanide separation will be generated by (1) identifying robust peptoid-based ligands capable of binding different lanthanides with variable affinities, and (2) developing practical synthetic methods for the attachment of these ligands to Dowex ion exchange resins.

  4. Selectivity in ligand binding to uranyl compounds: A synthetic, structural, thermodynamic and computational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, John [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-21

    The uranyl cation (UO₂²⁺) is the most abundant form of uranium on the planet. It is estimated that 4.5 billion tons of uranium in this form exist in sea water. The ability to bind and extract the uranyl cation from aqueous solution while separating it from other elements would provide a limitless source of nuclear fuel. A large body of research concerns the selective recognition and extraction of uranyl. A stable molecule, the cation has a linear O=U=O geometry. The short U-O bonds (1.78 Å) arise from the combination of uranium 5f/6d and oxygen 2p orbitals. Due to the oxygen moieties being multiply bonded, these sites were not thought to be basic enough for Lewis acidic coordination to be a viable approach to sequestration. The goal of this research is thus to broaden the coordination chemistry of the uranyl ion by studying new ligand systems via synthetic, structural, thermodynamic and computational methods. It is anticipated that this fundamental science will find use beyond actinide separation technologies in areas such as nuclear waste remediation and nuclear materials. The focus of this study is to synthesize uranyl complexes incorporating amidinate and guanidinate ligands. Both synthetic and computational methods are used to investigate novel equatorial ligand coordination and how this affects the basicity of the oxo ligands. Such an understanding will later apply to designing ligands incorporating functionalities that can bind uranyl both equatorially and axially for highly selective sequestration. Efficient and durable chromatography supports for lanthanide separation will be generated by (1) identifying robust peptoid-based ligands capable of binding different lanthanides with variable affinities, and (2) developing practical synthetic methods for the attachment of these ligands to Dowex ion exchange resins.

  5. Tracers development for the PET study of nicotinic receptors: [11C]-mecamylamine and [11C]-SIB 1553A. Tritium and carbon-11 radiolabelling of a serine proteinase inhibitor: the t-PAstop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrio, F.

    2002-12-01

    In order to develop radiotracers for the Positron Emission Tomography (PET), we labelled both the mecamylamine and SIB-1553A with carbon-11 to study the nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChRs). The radiosynthesis of [ 11 C]-t-PA stop and the labelling with tritium of one analogue were realized for cerebral ischemia PET studies. The [ 11 C]-mecamylamine, a non-competitive and non-selective nAChRs antagonist was synthesized in 45 min via a N-[ 11 C]-methylation reaction. In the rat brain, the ex vivo studies showed no radio-metabolite 45 min after the injection of [ 11 C]-mecamylamine. The uptake kinetics in the rat brain or in vivo by PET in the anesthetized baboon or in the conscious monkey, reached a plateau around 45-50 min after injection. However, the saturation or displacement experiments did not permit to exhibit nor a significant difference of labelling between the different cerebral regions nor a specific uptake. In consequence, the [ 11 C]-mecamylamine was not an appropriate radioligand for nAChRs PET study. The labelling of [ 11 C]-SIB 1553A, a selective agonist for the nicotinic β4 subunit, required the synthesis in 5 steps (56% overall yield) of precursor for the incorporation of carbon-11. The radiosynthesis was performed in 36 min by a N-[ 11 C]-methylation reaction (yield: 75%). The [ 11 C]-t-PA stop was obtained from [ 11 C]-KCN with yields from 80 to 90%. For the first time with carbon-11, the formation of an amidine group was realized from a nitrile group. The labelling by isotopic exchange of hydrogen by tritium of the t-PA stop did not permit to obtain the [ 3 H]-t-PA stop but a tritiated analogue. This compound will be used to study its vectorization by micro-encapsulation. (author)

  6. Structurally homologous beta- and meso-alkynyl amidinium porphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Joel; Young, Elizabeth R; Nocera, Daniel G

    2007-10-15

    Alkynylamidinium groups have been introduced at the beta and meso positions of a nickel(II) porphyrin (PNi(II)) framework. The modification permits the distance between the amidinium-amidine acid-base group and porphyrin to be increased while effectively maintaining pi conjugation between the porphyrin macrocycle and the acid-base functionality. Use of an ethynyl spacer as a linker (i) extends the amidinium functionality away from the sterically bulky mesityl groups of the porphyrin, allowing it to be nearly planar with respect to the porphyrin ring, and (ii) draws the pi-orbital character of the porphyrin out toward the amidinium functionality, thereby engendering sensitivity of the electronic properties of the porphyrin macrocycle to the protonation state of the amidinium. The barrier for rotation of the amidinium group, as calculated by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), is approximately 8.5 kT (5 kcal/mol) for both porphyrins. Analysis of UV-visible absorption profiles for the beta- and meso-alkynylamidinium PNi(II) upon deprotonation enables accurate determination of the amidinium acidity constants for the ground state (pK(a)(beta) = 7.03 +/- 0.1, pK(a)(meso) = 7.74 +/- 0.1 in CH(3)CN) and excited state (pK(a)*(beta) = 6.89 +/- 0.1, pK(a)*(meso) = 8.37 +/- 0.1 in CH(3)CN) porphyrins. Whereas pK(a)* pK(a) for the meso-alkynylamidinium porphyrin, indicating that beta-alkynylamidinium PNi(II) is a photoacid and meso-alkynylamidinium PNi(II) is a photobase. These divergent behaviors are supported by analysis of the frontier molecular orbitals of the homologous pair with TDDFT.

  7. ESTUDO DA EFICÁCIA “IN VITRO” DO AMITRAZ E DA DELTAMETRINA COMO CARRAPATICIDA NO CONTROLE DE Boophilus microplus (CANESTRINI, 1887 NA BACIA LEITEIRA DA MICRORREGIÃO DE GOIÂNIA - GOIÁS STUDY ON THE EFFICACY OF AMITRAZ AND DELTAMETHRIN AS ACARACIDES AGAINST Boophilus microplus (CAMESTRINI, 1887 IN THE DAIRY AREA OF GOIÂNIA - GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Fontgalland Coelho Linhares

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Para avaliar a eficácia antiixodídica do amitraz e da deltametrina sobre o Boophilus microplus na bacia leiteira da microrregião de Goiânia - Goiás, foram realizados testes in vitro por imersão de teleóginas, colhidas diretamente de bovinos da região. Os princípios ativos foram ensaiados na concentração de 250 ppm, através da avaliação da percentagem de inibição da reprodução (%INR. Entre eles o amitraz apresentou a melhor eficácia, com valor de 97,11%, estando acima do valor mínimo exigido pelo Ministério da Agricultura para produtos carrapaticidas. A deltametrina apresentou o valor de 70,86%, revelando uma eficácia insatisfatória.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Boophilus microplus; carrapaticida; amidinas; piretróides; bovinos.

    The efficacy of amitraz and deltamethrin as acaricides against Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 was evaluated through an in vitro immersion test using engorged female ticks collected in the dairy area of the microrregion of Goiânia, State of Goiás. The effectiveness of the experimental compounds, on concentrations of 250 ppm, was determined by the effect as measured in percentages of inhibited reproduction (%INR after treatments of the ticks with liquid formulations. The results were: amitraz showed the best efficacy with a percentage of inhibited reproduction (%ITR of 97.11%; for deltamethrin such value was 70.86%, which was considered very low to be used as an acaricide.

    KEY-WORDS: Boophilus microplus; acaricides; amidines; pyrethroids; cattle.

  8. Tracers development for the PET study of nicotinic receptors: [{sup 11}C]-mecamylamine and [{sup 11}C]-SIB 1553A. Tritium and carbon-11 radiolabelling of a serine proteinase inhibitor: the t-PA{sub stop}; Developpement de traceurs pour l'etude des recepteurs nicotiniques par TEP: la [{sup 11}C]-mecamylamine et le [{sup 11}C]SIB 1553A. Radiomarquages par le tritium et le carbone-11 d'un inhibiteur d'une serine protease: le t-PA{sub stop}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrio, F.

    2002-12-15

    In order to develop radiotracers for the Positron Emission Tomography (PET), we labelled both the mecamylamine and SIB-1553A with carbon-11 to study the nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChRs). The radiosynthesis of [{sup 11}C]-t-PA{sub stop} and the labelling with tritium of one analogue were realized for cerebral ischemia PET studies. The [{sup 11}C]-mecamylamine, a non-competitive and non-selective nAChRs antagonist was synthesized in 45 min via a N-[{sup 11}C]-methylation reaction. In the rat brain, the ex vivo studies showed no radio-metabolite 45 min after the injection of [{sup 11}C]-mecamylamine. The uptake kinetics in the rat brain or in vivo by PET in the anesthetized baboon or in the conscious monkey, reached a plateau around 45-50 min after injection. However, the saturation or displacement experiments did not permit to exhibit nor a significant difference of labelling between the different cerebral regions nor a specific uptake. In consequence, the [{sup 11}C]-mecamylamine was not an appropriate radioligand for nAChRs PET study. The labelling of [{sup 11}C]-SIB 1553A, a selective agonist for the nicotinic {beta}4 subunit, required the synthesis in 5 steps (56% overall yield) of precursor for the incorporation of carbon-11. The radiosynthesis was performed in 36 min by a N-[{sup 11}C]-methylation reaction (yield: 75%). The [{sup 11}C]-t-PA{sub stop} was obtained from [{sup 11}C]-KCN with yields from 80 to 90%. For the first time with carbon-11, the formation of an amidine group was realized from a nitrile group. The labelling by isotopic exchange of hydrogen by tritium of the t-PA{sub stop} did not permit to obtain the [{sup 3}H]-t-PA{sub stop} but a tritiated analogue. This compound will be used to study its vectorization by micro-encapsulation. (author)

  9. Radiosynthesis of (E)-N-(2-[{sup 11}C]methoxybenzyl)-3-phenyl-acrylamidine, a novel subnanomolar NR2B subtype-selective NMDA receptor antagonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thominiaux, Cyrille [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Bruin, Beatrice de [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Bramoulle, Yann [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Hinnen, Francoise [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Demphel, Stephane [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Valette, Heric [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Bottlaender, Michel [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Besret, Laurent [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Departement de Recherche Medicale, URA CEA/CNRS 2210, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, CEA/DSV, 4 Place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Kassiou, Michael [Department of PET and Nuclear Medicine, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Missenden Road, Camperdown, NSW 2050 (Australia); Department of Pharmacology, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Dolle, Frederic [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France)]. E-mail: frederic.dolle@cea.fr

    2006-03-15

    Recently, a novel series of amidines has been described, exhibiting high NR2B-subtype selective N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist activity with nanomolar or subnanomolar affinity. Within the styrylamidine subclass (E)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-3-phenyl-acrylamidine (1), displayed the highest affinity (Ki=0.7nM versus [{sup 3}H]ifenprodil) and was considered an appropriate candidate for isotopic labelling with carbon-11 (T{sub 1/2}: 20.38min) at its methoxy group for imaging of NMDA receptors with PET. Derivative 1 has been labelled from the corresponding nor-analogue using [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate and the following experimental conditions : (1) trapping at -10{sup o}C of [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate in 300{mu}L of acetone containing 0.6-0.8mg of precursor 5 (2.4-3.2{mu}mol) and 5{mu}L of a 3M solution of NaOH in water (about 5eq.); (2) concentration to dryness of the reaction mixture (at 110{sup o}C, using a helium stream for 1-2min); (3) taking up the residue with 0.5mL of the HPLC mobile phase and (4) purification using semi-preparative HPLC (SymmetryPrep{sup (}R) C-18, Waters, 300x7.8mm). Typically, starting from a 1.5 Ci (55.5GBq) [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} production batch, 120-240m Ci (4.44-8.88GBq) of [{sup 11}C]-1 (20-40% decay-corrected radiochemical yield, n=5) was obtained within a total synthesis time of 25-30min. Specific radioactivities ranged from 0.8 to 1.2Ci/{mu}mol (29.6-44.4GBq/{mu}mol) at the end of radiosynthesis. No attempts were made to further optimise these reactions, as sufficient material was obtained to allow for preliminary pharmacological characterisation.

  10. Solution-state NMR spectroscopy of famotidine revisited: spectral assignment, protonation sites, and their structural consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marosi, Attila; Szalay, Zsófia; Béni, Szabolcs; Szakács, Zoltán; Gáti, Tamás; Rácz, Ákos; Noszál, Béla; Demeter, Ádám

    2012-02-01

    Multinuclear one (1D-) and two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic investigations of famotidine, the most potent and widely used histamine H(2)-receptor antagonist, were carried out in dimethyl sulfoxide-d(6) (DMSO-d(6)) and water. Previous NMR assignments were either incomplete or full assignment was based only on 1D spectra and quantum-chemical calculations. Our work revealed several literature misassignments of the (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N NMR signals and clarified the acid-base properties of the compound at the site-specific level. The erroneous assignment of Baranska et al. (J. Mol. Struct. 2001, 563) probably originates from an incorrect hypothesis about the major conformation of famotidine in DMSO-d(6). A folded conformation similar to that observed in the solid-state was also assumed in solution, stabilized by an intramolecular hydrogen bond involving one of the sulphonamide NH(2) protons and the thiazole nitrogen. Our detailed 1D and 2D NMR experiments enabled complete ab initio (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N assignments and disproved the existence of the sulphonamide NH hydrogen bond in the major conformer. Rather, the molecule is predominantly present in an extended conformation in DMSO-d(6). The aqueous acid-base properties of famotidine were studied by 1D (1)H- and 2D (1)H/(13)C heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC) NMR-pH titrations. The experiments identified its basic centers including a new protonation step at highly acidic conditions, which was also confirmed by titrations and quantum-chemical calculations on a model compound, 2-[4-(sulfanylmethyl)-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]guanidine. Famotidine is now proved to have four protonation steps in the following basicity order: the sulfonamidate anion protonates at pH = 11.3, followed by the protonation of the guanidine group at pH = 6.8, whereas, in strong acidic solutions, two overlapping protonation processes occur involving the amidine and thiazole moieties.

  11. Avaliação in vitro da eficácia de acaricidas sobre Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae de bovinos no município de Ilhéus, Bahia, Brasil In vitro valuation of acaricides efficiency to Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae from bovines at the region of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunezeu Alves Campos Júnior

    2005-12-01

    were performed with engorged females of B. microplus collected from 30 farms randomly chosen in a group of 96 interviewed at the region. The current study showed the existence of resistance or sensibility of the populations of B. microplus to the contact acaricides commonly used at cattle properties of the region of Ilhéus. The four acaricides tested showed the following levels of efficiency: Amidin - 30.95%; Deltamethrin - 65.04%; Cipermethrin / diclorvos - 75.73%; and Triclorfon / coumaphos / cyfluthrin - 75.13%.

  12. Suscetibilidade de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus a carrapaticidas em Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Susceptibility of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus to acaricides in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gomes

    2011-08-01

    demonstrada aos distintos produtos testados sugere que a resistência do carrapato a diferentes classes esteja amplamente disseminada no Estado, motivo pelo qual recomenda-se a realização rotineira de testes de suscetibilidade antes da seleção e aplicação de produtos acaricidas para controle do carrapato.The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, is one of the most important ectoparasites of bovines, requiring adoption of control measures mainly in Bos taurus herds and its crossbreeds. Its control has becoming increasingly difficult due to selection of resistant populations by commercial products. This study aimed to know the status of cattle tick resistance to acaricides in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. From October 2003 to October 2006 acaricide bioassays were conducted on cattle ticks from eleven of the most important livestock regions of the state. Adult immersion tests using regular commercial products according to label recommendations were followed by the evaluation of biological parameters. Twelve acaricide products containing one or more of seven active ingredients, from three chemical classes: amidine (amitraz, synthetic pyrethroid (cypermethrin, and organophosphates (chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyriphos, diazinon, dichlorvos, and ethion were tested. Low tick susceptibility was observed in all ranches, with several populations showing virtually no susceptibility to one or more products. Despite the great variation of susceptibility shown by the populations to each acaricide, a gradient of efficacy of these products was observed. Regardless of the acaricide class, the average efficacy of products containing a single active ingredient (19.94%-64.27% was generally lower than that showed by the mixtures, pyrethroid-organophosphate (46.38%-82.68% and between organophosphates (85.28%-97.68%. The mixture containing pyrethroid + OF + synergist + repellent (cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos + citronellal + piperonyl butoxide showed 100% efficacy, although it was

  13. Bulk gold catalyzed oxidation reactions of amines and isocyanides and iron porphyrin catalyzed N-H and O-H bond insertion/cyclization reactions of diamines and aminoalcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klobukowski, Erik [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    conditions, it was found that the oxidative dehydrogenation of dibenzylamine to Nbenzylidenebenzylamine, with N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO), was nearly quantitative (96%) within 24 h. However, the reaction with oxygen was much slower, with only a 52% yield of imine product over the same time period. Moreover, the rate of reaction was found to be influenced by the nature of the amine N-oxide. For example, the use of the weakly basic pyridine N-oxide (PyNO) led to an imine yield of only 6% after 24 h. A comparison of amine N-oxide and O2 was also examined in the oxidation of PhCH{sub 2}OH to PhCHO catalyzed by bulk gold. In this reaction, a 52% yield of the aldehyde was achieved when NMMO was used, while only a 7% product yield was afforded when O{sub 2} was the oxidant after 48 h. The bulk gold-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenation of cyclic amines generates amidines, which upon treatment with Aerosil and water were found to undergo hydrolysis to produce lactams. Moreover, 5-, 6-, and 7-membered lactams could be prepared through a one-pot reaction of cyclic amines by treatment with oxygen, water, bulk gold, and Aerosil. This method is much more atom economical than industrial processes, does not require corrosive acids, and does not generate undesired byproducts. Additionally, the gold and Aerosil catalysts can be readily separated from the reaction mixture. The second project involved studying iron(III) tetraphenylporphyrin chloride, Fe(TPP)Cl, as a homogeneous catalyst for the generation of carbenes from diazo reagents and their reaction with heteroatom compounds. Fe(TPP)Cl, efficiently catalyzed the insertion of carbenes derived from methyl 2-phenyldiazoacetates into O-H bonds of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols. Fe(TPP)Cl was also found to be an effective catalyst for tandem N-H and O-H insertion/cyclization reactions when 1,2-diamines and 1,2-alcoholamines were treated with diazo reagents. This approach provides a one-pot process for synthesizing piperazinones and