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Sample records for amgdala preliminary evidence

  1. Preliminary evidence of hippocampal damage in chronic users of ecstasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Bjørnar; Schouw, Marieke; Groot, Paul; Huisman, Henk; Caan, Matthan; Barkhof, Frederik; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2012-01-01

    Various studies have shown that ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) users display significant memory impairments, whereas their performance on other cognitive tests is generally normal. The hippocampus plays an essential role in short-term memory. There are, however, no structural human data on the effects of ecstasy on the hippocampus. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the hippocampal volume of chronic ecstasy users is reduced when compared with healthy polydrug-using controls, as an indicator of hippocampal damage. The hippocampus was manually outlined in volumetric MRI scans in 10 male ecstasy users (mean age 25.4 years) and seven healthy age- and gender-matched control subjects (21.3 years). Other than the use of ecstasy, there were no statistically significant differences between both groups in exposure to other drugs of abuse and alcohol. The ecstasy users were on average drug-free for more than 2 months and had used on average 281 tablets over the past six and a half years. The hippocampal volume in the ecstasy using group was on average 10.5% smaller than the hippocampal volume in the control group (p=0.032). These data provide preliminary evidence that ecstasy users may be prone to incurring hippocampal damage, in line with previous reports of acute hippocampal sclerosis and subsequent atrophy in chronic users of this drug.

  2. Ramadan fasting: Evidence or expert opinion? Results of preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1Maryam Kazemi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Each year, over a billion Muslims fast worldwide during the month of Ramadan. Through this religious practice, not only will one have spiritual growth, but can improve his/her diet, which is of pivotal importance in this month. Conversely, the available evidence regarding the health benefits of Ramadan fasting is scarce and highly contentious. Although Islam exempts patients from fasting, many of them fast conceivably and their clinical condition is prone to deteriorate. This is due to the persistent gap between current expert knowledge and conclusive, strong evidence regarding the pathophysiologic and metabolic alterations by fasting, and the consensus that healthcare professionals should reach, in order to manage various patient groups during this month. In this review, we summarize the results of our initial studies regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on some clinical conditions including alterations of body composition. We also go through the important clinical results of patients who have had previous history of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, asthma and renal colic. Our studies have presented some evidence in favor of Ramadan fasting and encourage those with mentioned diseases to consult their physicians and follow medical and scientific recommendations. We attempt to present some relevant evidence clarify future scopes in this area of study, and provide suggestions for future investigations.

  3. Ramadan fasting: Evidence or expert opinion? Results of preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kazemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Each year, over a billion Muslims fast worldwide during the month of Ramadan.  Through this religious practice, not only will one have spiritual growth, but can improve his/her diet, which is of pivotal importance in this month. Conversely, the available evidence regarding the health benefits of Ramadan fasting is scarce and highly contentious. Although Islam exempts patients from fasting, many of them fast conceivably and their clinical condition is prone to deteriorate. This is due to the persistent gap between current expert knowledge and conclusive, strong evidence regarding the pathophysiologic and metabolic alterations by fasting, and the consensus that healthcare professionals should reach, in order to manage various patient groups during this month. In this review, we summarize the results of our initial studies regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on some clinical conditions including alterations of body composition. We also go through the important clinical results of patients who have had previous history of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, asthma and renal colic. Our studies have presented some evidence in favor of Ramadan fasting and encourage those with mentioned diseases to consult their physicians and follow medical and scientific recommendations. We attempt to present some relevant evidence clarify future scopes in this area of study, and provide suggestions for future investigations.

  4. Emergent Writing in Preschoolers: Preliminary Evidence for a Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers and educators use the term emergent literacy to refer to a broad set of skills and attitudes that serve as foundational skills for acquiring success in later reading and writing; however, models of emergent literacy have generally focused on reading and reading-related behaviors. Hence, the primary aim of this study was to articulate and evaluate a theoretical model of the components of emergent writing. Alternative models of the structure of individual and developmental differences of emergent writing and writing-related skills were examined in 372 preschool children who ranged in age from 3- to 5-years using confirmatory factor analysis. Results from a confirmatory factor analysis provide evidence that these emergent writing skills are best described by three correlated but distinct factors, (a) Conceptual Knowledge, (b) Procedural Knowledge, and (c) Generative Knowledge. Evidence that these three emergent writing factors show different patterns of relations to emergent literacy constructs is presented. Implications for understanding the development of writing and assessment of early writing skills are discussed. PMID:25316955

  5. School Improvement Plans and Student Achievement: Preliminary Evidence from the Quality and Merit Project in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Andrea; Rastelli, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    This study provides preliminary evidence from an Italian in-service training program addressed to lower secondary school teachers which supports school improvement plans (SIPs). It aims at exploring the association between characteristics/contents of SIPs and student improvement in math achievement. Pre-post standardized tests and text analysis of…

  6. Internet Self-Exclusion: Characteristics of Self-Excluded Gamblers and Preliminary Evidence for Its Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Tobias; Meyer, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary scientific evidence indicates that online gamblers are more likely to be problem gamblers and thus point to the need for effective protection measures. This study focuses on an online self-exclusion program and seeks to comprehensively examine the benefits of this measure. It was intended to collect detailed information on the…

  7. Deep Brain Stimulation in Huntington’s Disease—Preliminary Evidence on Pathophysiology, Efficacy and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Wojtecki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD is one of the most disabling degenerative movement disorders, as it not only affects the motor system but also leads to cognitive disabilities and psychiatric symptoms. Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the pallidum is a promising symptomatic treatment targeting the core motor symptom: chorea. This article gives an overview of preliminary evidence on pathophysiology, safety and efficacy of DBS in HD.

  8. Neuroplasticity of selective attention: Research foundations and preliminary evidence for a gene by intervention interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Courtney; Pakulak, Eric; Hampton Wray, Amanda; Bell, Theodore A.; Neville, Helen J.

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the trajectory of our research program on selective attention, which has moved from basic research on the neural processes underlying selective attention to translational studies using selective attention as a neurobiological target for evidence-based interventions. We use this background to present a promising preliminary investigation of how genetic and experiential factors interact during development (i.e., gene × intervention interactions). Our findings provide evidence on how exposure to a family-based training can modify the associations between genotype (5-HTTLPR) and the neural mechanisms of selective attention in preschool children from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds. PMID:28819066

  9. Neuroplasticity of selective attention: Research foundations and preliminary evidence for a gene by intervention interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Elif; Stevens, Courtney; Pakulak, Eric; Hampton Wray, Amanda; Bell, Theodore A; Neville, Helen J

    2017-08-29

    This article reviews the trajectory of our research program on selective attention, which has moved from basic research on the neural processes underlying selective attention to translational studies using selective attention as a neurobiological target for evidence-based interventions. We use this background to present a promising preliminary investigation of how genetic and experiential factors interact during development (i.e., gene × intervention interactions). Our findings provide evidence on how exposure to a family-based training can modify the associations between genotype (5-HTTLPR) and the neural mechanisms of selective attention in preschool children from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds.

  10. Size, Diversification and Risk: Preliminary Evidence from Commercial Banks in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Afzal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide some preliminary evidence on relation between size, diversification and risk in commercial banks of Pakistan. Using a panel of Pakistani banks, we investigated whether bigger banks are better diversified than smaller banks.The results suggested that larger banks were more diversified than their smaller counterparts mainly on account of their outreach and size of credit portfolio. On the risk side, based on accounting and market based risk measures, we explored if there is any impact of diversification on risk. We could not deduce significant result in favor of accounting risk measure of impaired lending signaling that banks find no incentive in diversification of credit books. The market based measures of VaR and Default indicator were significantly related to diversification signifying that market participants consider diversification as a relevant tool for risk mitigation. These findings have policy implications for regulators and risk management to ensure stability in financial system.

  11. The Influence of Sleep on the Consolidation of Positive Emotional Memories: Preliminary Evidence

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    Alexis M. Chambers

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have not only shown that a period of sleep following learning offers greater benefits to later memory than a period of wakefulness, but also that sleep actively promotes those components of memories that are emotionally salient. However, sleep's role in emotional memory consolidation has largely been investigated with memories that are specifically negative in content, such as memory for negative images or texts, leaving open the question of whether sleep influences positive memories in a similar manner. The current study investigated the emotional memory trade-off effect for positive versus neutral information. Scenes in which a positive or neutral object was placed on a neutral background were encoded prior to a period of polysomnographically-monitored nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness. Recognition memory was tested for the objects and backgrounds separately following the delay using the Remember/Know paradigm. Compared to wake participants, those who slept during the delay had increased recollection memory performance for positive objects, but not the neutral components of the studied scenes. Further, familiarity of positive objects was negatively correlated with REM latency. These results provide preliminary evidence that sleep contributes to the selective processing of positive memories, and point toward a role for REM sleep in positive memory formation.

  12. Preliminary evidence for a unique role of disgust-based conditioning in posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badour, Christal L; Feldner, Matthew T; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Knapp, Ashley

    2013-04-01

    Independent lines of evidence have linked posttraumatic stress symptomatology to both peritraumatic disgust (i.e., disgust experienced during a traumatic event) and posttraumatic disgust reactivity in response to traumatic event cues among individuals exposed to traumatic events. Much of this work suggests disgust, defined as a rejection/revulsion response aimed at distancing oneself from a potential source of contamination, may be important in understanding the nature of posttraumatic stress reactions even after accounting for the more frequently studied affective states of fear and anxiety. The current investigation provided a preliminary test of a model of disgust in posttraumatic stress among a sample of 54 community-recruited women with a history sexual victimization. Both peritraumatic disgust (r = .31) and posttraumatic disgust reactivity (r = .42) in response to an idiographic traumatic event script were significantly associated with posttraumatic stress symptom severity. After accounting for variability-associated peritraumatic fear and posttraumatic anxious reactivity, an indirect effect of peritraumatic disgust through posttraumatic disgust reactivity also was found, suggesting that one mechanism through which peritraumatic disgust relates to posttraumatic stress is through its relation with increased posttraumatic disgust reactivity. These findings highlight the importance of further elucidating the nature of disgust in relation to traumatic events and subsequent posttraumatic stress reactions. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  13. Addressing the Evidence Gap in Stroke Rehabilitation for Complex Patients: A Preliminary Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michelle L; McKellar, Kaileah A; Munce, Sarah; Kelloway, Linda; Hans, Parminder Kaur; Fortin, Martin; Lyons, Renee; Bayley, Mark

    2018-06-01

    Evidence suggests that a stroke occurs in isolation (no comorbid conditions) in less than 6% of patients. Multimorbidity, compounded by psychosocial issues, makes treatment and recovery for stroke increasingly complex. Recent research and health policy documents called for a better understanding of the needs of this patient population, and for the development and testing of models of care that meet their needs. A research agenda specific to complexity is required. The primary objective of the think tank was to identify and prioritize research questions that meet the information needs of stakeholders, and to develop a research agenda specific to stroke rehabilitation and patient complexity. A modified Delphi and World Café approach underpinned the think tank meeting, approaches well recognized to foster interaction, dialogue, and collaboration between stakeholders. Forty-three researchers, clinicians, and policymakers attended a 2-day meeting. Initial question-generating activities resulted in 120 potential research questions. Sixteen high-priority research questions were identified, focusing on predetermined complexity characteristics-multimorbidity, social determinants, patient characteristics, social supports, and system factors. The final questions are presented as a prioritized research framework. An emergent result of this activity is the development of a complexity and stroke rehabilitation research network. The research agenda reflects topics of importance to stakeholders working with stroke patients with increasingly complex care needs. This robust process resulted in a preliminary research agenda that could provide policymakers with the evidence needed to make improvements toward better-organized services, better coordination between settings, improved patient outcomes, and lower system costs. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reliability and preliminary evidence of validity of a Farsi version of the depression anxiety stress scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Ali Asghar

    2010-08-01

    The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the Farsi version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales were examined, with a sample of 306 undergraduate students (123 men, 183 women) ranging from 18 to 51 years of age (M age = 25.4, SD = 6.1). Participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. The findings confirmed the preliminary reliabilities and preliminary construct validity of the Farsi translation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales.

  15. Clinical utility of color-form naming in Alzheimer's disease: preliminary evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Peter; Wiig, Elisabeth H; Warkentin, Siegbert

    2004-01-01

    Performances on Alzheimer's Quick Test color-form naming and Mini-Mental State Examination were compared for 38 adults with Alzheimer's disease and 38 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Group means differed significantly and indicated longer naming times by adults with Alzheimer's disease...... associated with Alzheimer's disease, are preliminary given the relatively small sample....

  16. What is driving rates of social policy preliminary references to the CJEU? Evidence from the United Kingdom and France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigafoos, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary references to the Court of Justice for the European Union are unevenly distributed across the EU, creating differing access to justice for European citizens. This study presents case studies of the UK and France, exploring factors affecting rates of social policy preliminary references from 1996–2009. The UK had a rate twice that of France. What accounts for this difference? Analysis of documentary evidence and 25 expert interviews help to explain the differing rates. Themes were related to policy, structural factors and the agency of actors. In the UK, policy themes are the free movement of persons and the ‘Right to Reside’ test. Legal aid and legal NGOs help individuals access the Court and drive test case strategies. In France, a high degree of dualisation in the welfare state creates an insider/outsider dynamic. Coupled with the resistance of courts and a lack of comparable actors to drive preliminary references, this contributes to a lower rate of references. PMID:23565042

  17. Evidence-based emergency medicine. Creating a system to facilitate translation of evidence into standardized clinical practice: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stewart W; Trott, Alexander; Lindsell, Christopher J; Smith, Carol; Gibler, W Brian

    2008-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine, through its landmark report concerning errors in medicine, suggests that standardization of practice through systematic development and implementation of evidence-based clinical pathways is an effective way of reducing errors in emergency systems. The specialty of emergency medicine is well positioned to develop a complete system of innovative quality improvement, incorporating best practice guidelines with performance measures and practitioner feedback mechanisms to reduce errors and therefore improve quality of care. This article reviews the construction, ongoing development, and initial impact of such a system at a large, urban, university teaching hospital and at 2 affiliated community hospitals. The Committee for Procedural Quality and Evidence-Based Practice was formed within the Department of Emergency Medicine to establish evidence-based guidelines for nursing and provider care. The committee measures the effect of such guidelines, along with other quality measures, through pre- and postguideline patient care medical record audits. These measures are fed back to the providers in a provider-specific, peer-matched "scorecard." The Committee for Procedural Quality and Evidence-Based Practice affects practice and performance within our department. Multiple physician and nursing guidelines have been developed and put into use. Using asthma as an example, time to first nebulizer treatment and time to disposition from the emergency department decreased. Initial therapeutic agent changed and documentation improved. A comprehensive, guideline-driven, evidence-based approach to clinical practice is feasible within the structure of a department of emergency medicine. High-level departmental support with dedicated personnel is necessary for the success of such a system. Internet site development (available at http://www.CPQE.com) for product storage has proven valuable. Patient care has been improved in several ways; however, consistent and

  18. Transport processes for Chernobyl-labelled sediments: preliminary evidence from upland mid-Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnett, P.J.P.; Leeks, G.J.L.; Cambray, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear accident at Chernobyl in April 1986 resulted in a significant increase in the inventory of radiocaesium retained in the soil in many regions of the United Kingdom. The deposition of 134 Cs provides a convenient tool for the examination of erosional processes in upland systems. Detailed soil sampling has been undertaken within the Plynlimon experimental catchments to establish the pattern of deposition of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides. The preliminary results of a combined radiometric and mineral magnetic approach to the study of the transport of Chernobyl-labelled sediments and their source areas on these upland catchments in mid-Wales are described. (author)

  19. Preliminary Evidence for Cognitive Mediation During Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy of Panic Disorder

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    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Suvak, Michael K.; Barlow, David H.; Shear, M. Katherine; Meuret, Alicia E.; Rosenfield, David; Gorman, Jack M.; Woods, Scott W.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy are similarly effective for treating panic disorder with mild or no agoraphobia, but little is known about the mechanism through which these treatments work. The present study examined some of the criteria for cognitive mediation of treatment change in CBT alone, imipramine alone, CBT plus imipramine, and CBT plus placebo. Ninety-one individuals who received 1 of these interventions were assessed before and after acute treatment, and after a 6-month maintenance period. Multilevel moderated mediation analyses provided preliminary support for the notion that changes in panic-related cognitions mediate changes in panic severity only in treatments that include CBT. PMID:17563154

  20. Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices with Children Self-Efficacy Scale: Development and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeel, Lorri S.; Leathers, Sonya J.; Strand, Tonya C.

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews existing measures related to evidence-based practices with children and self-efficacy and describes the development and psychometric properties of the Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices With Children Efficacy Scale. This scale was developed to assess students' and clinicians' self-efficacy in their abilities to use…

  1. Recruiting for Values in Healthcare: A Preliminary Review of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Fiona; Prescott-Clements, Linda; Zibarras, Lara; Edwards, Helena; Kerrin, Maire; Cousans, Fran

    2016-01-01

    Displaying compassion, benevolence and respect, and preserving the dignity of patients are important for any healthcare professional to ensure the provision of high quality care and patient outcomes. This paper presents a structured search and thematic review of the research evidence relating to values-based recruitment within healthcare. Several…

  2. Adapting Evidence-Based Mental Health Treatments in Community Settings: Preliminary Results from a Partnership Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Hourigan, Shannon E.; Allin, Robert B., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the application of a university-community partnership model to the problem of adapting evidence-based treatment approaches in a community mental health setting. Background on partnership research is presented, with consideration of methodological and practical issues related to this kind of research. Then, a rationale for…

  3. Preliminary Evidence for the Amplification of Global Warming in Shallow, Intertidal Estuarine Waters.

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    Autumn Oczkowski

    Full Text Available Over the past 50 years, mean annual water temperature in northeastern U.S. estuaries has increased by approximately 1.2°C, with most of the warming recorded in the winter and early spring. A recent survey and synthesis of data from four locations in Southern Rhode Island has led us to hypothesize that this warming may be amplified in the shallow (<1 m, nearshore portions of these estuaries. While intertidal areas are not typically selected as locations for long-term monitoring, we compiled data from published literature, theses, and reports that suggest that enhanced warming may be occurring, perhaps at rates three times higher than deeper estuarine waters. Warmer spring waters may be one of the factors influencing biota residing in intertidal regions both in general as well as at our specific sites. We observed greater abundance of fish, and size of Menidia sp., in recent (2010-2012 seine surveys compared to similar collections in 1962. While any linkages are speculative and data are preliminary, taken together they suggest that shallow intertidal portions of estuaries may be important places to look for the effects of climate change.

  4. Preliminary Evidence for the Amplification of Global Warming in Shallow, Intertidal Estuarine Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oczkowski, Autumn; McKinney, Richard; Ayvazian, Suzanne; Hanson, Alana; Wigand, Cathleen; Markham, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, mean annual water temperature in northeastern U.S. estuaries has increased by approximately 1.2°C, with most of the warming recorded in the winter and early spring. A recent survey and synthesis of data from four locations in Southern Rhode Island has led us to hypothesize that this warming may be amplified in the shallow (<1 m), nearshore portions of these estuaries. While intertidal areas are not typically selected as locations for long-term monitoring, we compiled data from published literature, theses, and reports that suggest that enhanced warming may be occurring, perhaps at rates three times higher than deeper estuarine waters. Warmer spring waters may be one of the factors influencing biota residing in intertidal regions both in general as well as at our specific sites. We observed greater abundance of fish, and size of Menidia sp., in recent (2010-2012) seine surveys compared to similar collections in 1962. While any linkages are speculative and data are preliminary, taken together they suggest that shallow intertidal portions of estuaries may be important places to look for the effects of climate change.

  5. Recruiting for values in healthcare: a preliminary review of the evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, F.; Prescott-Clements, L.; Zibarras, L. D.; Edwards, H.; Kerrin, M.; Cousans, F.

    2016-01-01

    Displaying compassion, benevolence and respect, and preserving the dignity of patients are important for any healthcare professional to ensure the provision of high quality care and patient outcomes. This paper presents a structured search and thematic review of the research evidence relating to values-based recruitment within healthcare. Several different databases, journals and government reports were searched to retrieve studies relating to values-based recruitment published between 1998 a...

  6. Preliminary Evidence for a Unique Role of Disgust-Based Conditioning in Posttraumatic Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Badour, Christal L.; Feldner, Matthew T.; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Knapp, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Independent lines of evidence have linked posttraumatic stress symptomatology to both peritraumatic disgust (i.e., disgust experienced during a traumatic event) and posttraumatic disgust reactivity in response to traumatic event cues among individuals exposed to traumatic events. Much of this work suggests disgust, defined as a rejection/revulsion response aimed at distancing oneself from a potential source of contamination, may be important in understanding the nature of posttraumatic stress...

  7. Knowledge of evidence-based dentistry among academic dental practitioners of Bhopal, India: a preliminary survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishwarya Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the knowledge of evidence-based dentistry (EBD among dental faculty members in the city of Bhopal in central India. A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered at two dental colleges in Bhopal City. All dental faculty members who were present on the day of the study and who agreed to participate were included in the study. A total of 50 dental faculty members returned the questionnaire. Six Likert-type questions were asked, and the percentages of various responses were used for analysis. Sixteen faculty members (32.0% strongly agreed that EBD is a process of making decisions based on scientifically proven evidence. Fifteen faculty members (30.0% strongly disagreed or disagreed with the item stating that the best and quickest way to find evidence is by reading textbooks or asking experienced colleagues. Thirteen faculty members (26.0% strongly agreed that EBD allows dentists to improve their scientific knowledge and clinical skills. It is recommended that EBD be included in undergraduate and postgraduate curricula and in intensive continuing dental education programs that are conducted for dental faculty members.

  8. Preliminary evidence for a change in spectral sensitivity of the circadian system at night

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    Parsons Robert H

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that the absolute sensitivity of the suprachiasmatic nucleus to photic stimulation received through the retino-hypothalamic tract changes throughout the 24-hour day. It is also believed that a combination of classical photoreceptors (rods and cones and melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells participate in circadian phototransduction, with a spectral sensitivity peaking between 440 and 500 nm. It is still unknown, however, whether the spectral sensitivity of the circadian system also changes throughout the solar day. Reported here is a new study that was designed to determine whether the spectral sensitivity of the circadian retinal phototransduction mechanism, measured through melatonin suppression and iris constriction, varies at night. Methods Human adult males were exposed to a high-pressure mercury lamp [450 lux (170 μW/cm2 at the cornea] and an array of blue light emitting diodes [18 lux (29 μW/cm2 at the cornea] during two nighttime experimental sessions. Both melatonin suppression and iris constriction were measured during and after a one-hour light exposure just after midnight and just before dawn. Results An increase in the percentage of melatonin suppression and an increase in pupil constriction for the mercury source relative to the blue light source at night were found, suggesting a temporal change in the contribution of photoreceptor mechanisms leading to melatonin suppression and, possibly, iris constriction by light in humans. Conclusion The preliminary data presented here suggest a change in the spectral sensitivity of circadian phototransduction mechanisms at two different times of the night. These findings are hypothesized to be the result of a change in the sensitivity of the melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells to light during the night.

  9. Glycine Transporter Inhibitor Attenuates the Psychotomimetic Effects of Ketamine in Healthy Males: Preliminary Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Deepak Cyril; Singh, Nagendra; Elander, Jacqueline; Carbuto, Michelle; Pittman, Brian; de Haes, Joanna Udo; Sjogren, Magnus; Peeters, Pierre; Ranganathan, Mohini; Schipper, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Enhancing glutamate function by stimulating the glycine site of the NMDA receptor with glycine, -serine, or with drugs that inhibit glycine reuptake may have therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. The effects of a single oral dose of cis-N-methyl-N-(6-methoxy-1-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-ylmethyl) amino-methylcarboxylic acid hydrochloride (Org 25935), a glycine transporter-1 (GlyT1) inhibitor, and placebo pretreatment on ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms, perceptual alterations, and subjective effects were evaluated in 12 healthy male subjects in a randomized, counter-balanced, within-subjects, crossover design. At 2.5 h after administration of the Org 25935 or placebo, subjects received a ketamine bolus and constant infusion lasting 100 min. Psychotic symptoms, perceptual, and a number of subjective effects were assessed repeatedly before, several times during, and after completion of ketamine administration. A cognitive battery was administered once per test day. Ketamine produced behavioral, subjective, and cognitive effects consistent with its known effects. Org 25935 reduced the ketamine-induced increases in measures of psychosis (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)) and perceptual alterations (Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale (CADSS)). The magnitude of the effect of Org 25935 on ketamine-induced increases in Total PANSS and CADSS Clinician-rated scores was 0.71 and 0.98 (SD units), respectively. None of the behavioral effects of ketamine were increased by Org 25935 pretreatment. Org 25935 worsened some aspects of learning and delayed recall, and trended to improve choice reaction time. This study demonstrates for the first time in humans that a GlyT1 inhibitor reduces the effects induced by NMDA receptor antagonism. These findings provide preliminary support for further study of the antipsychotic potential of GlyT1 inhibitors. PMID:22113087

  10. Scale dependence of the effective matrix diffusion coefficient: Evidence and preliminary interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Zhang, Yingqi; Molz, Fred J.

    2006-01-01

    matrix-diffusion coefficient, and to develop a preliminary explanation for this scale-dependent behavior

  11. Preliminary evidence of apathetic-like behavior in aged vesicular monoamine transporter 2 deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aron Baumann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Apathy is considered to be a core feature of Parkinson’s disease (PD and has been associated with a variety of states and symptoms of the disease, such as increased severity of motor symptoms, impaired cognition, executive dysfunction, and dementia. Apart from the high prevalence of apathy in PD, which is estimated to be about 40%, the underlying pathophysiology remains poorly understood and current treatment approaches are unspecific and proved to be only partially effective. In animal models, apathy has been sub-optimally modeled, mostly by means of pharmacological and stress-induced methods, whereby concomitant depressive-like symptoms could not be ruled out. In the context of PD only a few studies on toxin-based models (i.e. 6-OHDA or MPTP claimed to have determined apathetic symptoms in animals. The assessment of apathetic symptoms in more elaborated and multifaceted genetic animal models of PD could help to understand the pathophysiological development of apathy in PD and eventually advance specific treatments for afflicted patients. Here we report the presence of behavioral signs of apathy in 12 months old mice that express only ~5% of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2. Apathetic-like behavior in VMAT2 deficient (LO mice was evidenced by impaired burrowing and nest building skills, and a reduced preference for sweet solution in the saccharin preference test, while the performance in the forced swimming test was normal. Our preliminary results suggest that VMAT2 deficient mice show an apathetic-like phenotype that might be independent of depressive-like symptoms. Therefore VMAT2 LO mice could be a useful tool to study of the pathophysiological substrates of apathy and to test novel treatment strategies for apathy in the context of PD.

  12. Scale Dependence of the Effective Matrix Diffusion Coefficient : Evidence and Preliminary Interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H.H. Liu; Y. Zhang

    2006-01-01

    matrix-diffusion coefficient, and to -develop a preliminary explanation for this scale-dependent behavior

  13. Associations between dopamine and serotonin genes and job satisfaction: preliminary evidence from the Add Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhaoli; Li, Wendong; Arvey, Richard D

    2011-11-01

    Previous behavioral genetic studies have found that job satisfaction is partially heritable. We went a step further to examine particular genetic markers that may be associated with job satisfaction. Using an oversample from the National Adolescent Longitudinal Study (Add Health Study), we found 2 genetic markers, dopamine receptor gene DRD4 VNTR and serotonin transporter gene 5-HTTLPR, to be weakly but significantly associated with job satisfaction. Furthermore, we found study participants' level of pay to mediate the DRD4 and job satisfaction relationship. However, we found no evidence that self-esteem mediated the relationships between these 2 genes and job satisfaction. The study represents an initial effort to introduce a molecular genetics approach to the fields of organizational psychology and organizational behavior. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Precursors to natural grammar learning: preliminary evidence from 4-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederici, Angela D; Mueller, Jutta L; Oberecker, Regine

    2011-03-22

    When learning a new language, grammar--although difficult--is very important, as grammatical rules determine the relations between the words in a sentence. There is evidence that very young infants can detect rules determining the relation between neighbouring syllables in short syllable sequences. A critical feature of all natural languages, however, is that many grammatical rules concern the dependency relation between non-neighbouring words or elements in a sentence i.e. between an auxiliary and verb inflection as in is singing. Thus, the issue of when and how children begin to recognize such non-adjacent dependencies is fundamental to our understanding of language acquisition. Here, we use brain potential measures to demonstrate that the ability to recognize dependencies between non-adjacent elements in a novel natural language is observable by the age of 4 months. Brain responses indicate that 4-month-old German infants discriminate between grammatical and ungrammatical dependencies in auditorily presented Italian sentences after only brief exposure to correct sentences of the same type. As the grammatical dependencies are realized by phonologically distinct syllables the present data most likely reflect phonologically based implicit learning mechanisms which can serve as a precursor to later grammar learning.

  15. Decreases in smoking during treatment for methamphetamine-use disorders: preliminary evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Sterling; Orr, Michael; Lederhos, Crystal; McDonell, Michael; Leickly, Emily; Hirchak, Katherine; Oluwoye, Oladunni A; Murphy, Sean M; Layton, Matthew; Roll, John M

    2018-06-01

    Despite high rates of smoking (70-90%) and the severely negative impact of smoking on physical and mental health, only 12% of individuals receiving stimulant-use disorder treatment also receive smoking-cessation treatment. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of a contingency management (CM) intervention targeting methamphetamine (MA) use on cigarette smoking. Sixty-one adults with MA-use disorders who were smokers were assigned to CM or standard psychosocial treatment. Rates of smoking-negative breath samples (carbon monoxide <3 ppm) were compared between the two groups while controlling for baseline carbon monoxide level, marijuana use, MA use, and time. This subgroup of mostly male (59%) participants included 44 participants in the CM group and 17 participants in the standard psychosocial treatment. Tobacco smoking participants who received CM targeting MA use were 140% (odds ratio: 2.395; 95% confidence interval: 1.073-5.346) more likely to submit a smoking-negative breath sample relative to standard psychosocial treatment during the treatment period, holding constant several other prespecified covariates. This study provides evidence that a behavioral treatment for MA use results in reductions in cigarette smoking in adults with MA-use disorder.

  16. Chronic sleep restriction differentially affects implicit biases toward food among men and women: preliminary evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Killgore, William D S; Smith, Ryan; Dailey, Natalie S; Bajaj, Sahil; Raikes, Adam C; Haack, Monika

    2017-11-02

    Chronic sleep restriction and obesity are two major public health concerns. This study investigated how chronic sleep restriction changes implicit attitudes towards low- and high-calorie foods. In a randomized, counterbalanced cross-over design, 17 participants (eight females, nine males) underwent two laboratory testing sessions where they were either sleep-restricted for 3 weeks (i.e. underwent three weekly cycles of 5 nights of 4 h of sleep followed by 2 nights of 8 h of sleep opportunity) or received 3 weeks of control sleep (i.e. 8 h of sleep opportunity per night for 3 weeks). There was evidence for a significant sleep condition x sex interaction (F (1, 20)  = 4.60, P = 0.04). After chronic sleep restriction, men showed a trend towards a significant decrease in their implicit attitudes favouring low-calorie foods (P = 0.08), whereas women did not show a significant change (P = 0.16). Men may be at increased risk of weight gain when sleep-deprived due to a reduced bias towards low-calorie foods. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  17. Preliminary evidence for a role of the adrenergic nervous system in generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobin; Norton, Joanna; Carrière, Isabelle; Ritchie, Karen; Chaudieu, Isabelle; Ryan, Joanne; Ancelin, Marie-Laure

    2017-02-15

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common chronic condition that is understudied compared to other psychiatric disorders. An altered adrenergic function has been reported in GAD, however direct evidence for genetic susceptibility is missing. This study evaluated the associations of gene variants in adrenergic receptors (ADRs) with GAD, with the involvement of stressful events. Data were obtained from 844 French community-dwelling elderly aged 65 or over. Anxiety disorders were assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatry Interview, according to DSM-IV criteria. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved with adrenergic function were genotyped; adrenergic receptors alpha(1A) (ADRA1A), alpha(2A) (ADRA2A), and beta2 (ADRB2) and transcription factor TCF7L2. Questionnaires evaluated recent stressful life events as well as early environment during childhood and adolescence. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses four SNPs were significantly associated with GAD. A 4-fold modified risk was found with ADRA1A rs17426222 and rs573514, and ADRB2 rs1042713 which remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Certain variants may moderate the effect of adverse life events on the risk of GAD. Replication in larger samples is needed due to the small case number. This is the first study showing that ADR variants are susceptibility factors for GAD, further highlighting the critical role of the adrenergic nervous system in this disorder.

  18. Reversing the mere exposure effect in spider fearfuls: Preliminary evidence of sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Eni S; Rinck, Mike

    2016-12-01

    A mere exposure effect (MEE) is said to occur when individuals' liking of a suboptimally and repeatedly presented stimulus increases compared to never-presented stimuli, while they are unable to indicate which stimuli were previously presented and which were not. In two experiments, we used the MEE to study automatic evaluative processes in highly spider-fearful individuals (SFs). Pictures of spiders and butterflies were repeatedly presented suboptimally to SFs and to non-anxious controls (NACs). In Experiment 1, both groups showed the MEE for butterflies, preferring previously presented butterfly pictures over new ones. For spider pictures, only NACs showed an MEE, whereas SFs showed no preference. Experiment 2 involved a more unpleasant presentation situation, because for each picture, participants had the difficult task to indicate what had been presented to them. This led to a reversed MEE for spiders in SFs: They preferred new spider pictures over previously presented ones. In both experiments, no evidence was observed for the ability to differentiate between old an new pictures. The results are tentatively explained within Zajonc' theory of the MEE, and they are related to the concept of sensitization in anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal executive functioning as a mechanism in the intergenerational transmission of parenting: Preliminary evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J; Kanya, Meghan J; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mayes, Linda C

    2017-02-01

    Multiple lines of inquiry, including experimental animal models, have recently converged to suggest that executive functioning (EF) may be one mechanism by which parenting behavior is transmitted across generations. In the current investigation, we empirically test this notion by examining relations between maternal EF and parenting behaviors during mother-infant interactions, and by examining the role of maternal EF in the intergenerational transmission of parenting behavior. Mother-infant dyads (N = 150) in a longitudinal study participated. Mothers were administered measures of EF (working memory and inhibition), reported on the parenting they received from their parents (i.e., the infants' maternal grandparents), and were observed interacting with their 8-month-old infants. SEM findings indicated that the negative parenting mothers received from their own parents was significantly related to poorer maternal EF, and that poorer maternal EF was significantly related to subsequent engagement in more negative parenting practices (e.g., intrusiveness, displays of negativity) with their own infant. A significant indirect effect, through maternal EF, was observed between maternal report of her experiences of negative parenting received while growing up and her own use of negative parenting practices. Our findings make two contributions. First, we add to existing work that has primarily considered relations between parent EF and parenting behavior while interacting with older children by showing that maternal EF affects children, via maternal parenting behavior, beginning very early in life. Second, we provide key evidence of the role of EF in the intergenerational transmission of parenting. Additional implications of these findings, as well as important future directions, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Preliminary evidence for obesity-associated insulin resistance in adolescents without elevations of inflammatory cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Jessica I

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To ascertain whether the associations between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance established in human adult studies are found among adolescents. Methods We contrasted 36 obese and 24 lean youth on fasting glucose, insulin levels, lipid profile, hemoglobin A1C, markers of hepatic function, white blood cell count, C-reactive protein (CRP and fibrinogen levels. The cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-4 and the adipokines leptin, resistin, and adiponectin were also compared between the two groups. The fasting glucose and insulin values were used to estimate the degree of insulin resistance with the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. T-tests and correlations were run to examine group differences and associations between groups. In addition, regression analyses were used to ascertain whether the markers of inflammation were predictive of the degree of insulin resistance. Results Although obese adolescents had clear evidence of insulin resistance, only CRP, fibrinogen and leptin were elevated; there were no group differences in pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines nor adiponectin and resistin. Anthropometric measures of obesity and level of insulin resistance were highly correlated to the acute phase reactants CRP and fibrinogen; however, the degree of insulin resistance was not predicted by the pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokine markers. Obese adolescents had higher white blood cell counts. In addition they had higher circulating alanine aminotransferase concentrations and lower circulating albumin and total protein than lean adolescents, possibly as a result of hepatocyte damage from fatty liver. Conclusion Unlike rodent or adult studies, we found that wide-spread systemic inflammation is not necessarily associated with insulin resistance among adolescents. This finding does not support the current paradigm that the associations between obesity and insulin resistance are, to a

  1. Preliminary evidence for genetic overlap between body mass index and striatal reward response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, T M; Ihssen, I; Brindley, L M; Linden, D E

    2018-01-10

    The reward-processing network is implicated in the aetiology of obesity. Several lines of evidence suggest obesity-linked genetic risk loci (such as DRD2 and FTO) may influence individual variation in body mass index (BMI) through neuropsychological processes reflected in alterations in activation of the striatum during reward processing. However, no study has tested the broader hypotheses that (a) the relationship between BMI and reward-related brain activation (measured through the blood oxygenation-dependent (BOLD) signal) may be observed in a large population study and (b) the overall genetic architecture of these phenotypes overlap, an assumption critical for the progression of imaging genetic studies in obesity research. Using data from the Human Connectome Project (N = 1055 healthy, young individuals: average BMI = 26.4), we first establish a phenotypic relationship between BMI and ventral striatal (VS) BOLD during the processing of rewarding (monetary) stimuli (β = 0.44, P = 0.013), accounting for potential confounds. BMI and VS BOLD were both significantly influenced by additive genetic factors (H2r = 0.57; 0.12, respectively). Further decomposition of this variance suggested that the relationship was driven by shared genetic (ρ g  = 0.47, P = 0.011), but not environmental (ρ E  = -0.07, P = 0.29) factors. To validate the assumption of genetic pleiotropy between BMI and VS BOLD, we further show that polygenic risk for higher BMI is also associated with increased VS BOLD response to appetitive stimuli (calorically high food images), in an independent sample (N = 81; P FWE-ROI  < 0.005). Together, these observations suggest that the genetic factors link risk to obesity to alterations within key nodes of the brain's reward circuity. These observations provide a basis for future work exploring the mechanistic role of genetic loci that confer risk for obesity using the imaging genetics approach.

  2. Physical Feature Encoding and Word Recognition Abilities Are Altered in Children with Intractable Epilepsy: Preliminary Neuromagnetic Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardos, Maria; Korostenskaja, Milena; Xiang, Jing; Fujiwara, Hisako; Lee, Ki H.; Horn, Paul S.; Byars, Anna; Vannest, Jennifer; Wang, Yingying; Hemasilpin, Nat; Rose, Douglas F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective evaluation of language function is critical for children with intractable epilepsy under consideration for epilepsy surgery. The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate word recognition in children with intractable epilepsy by using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Ten children with intractable epilepsy (M/F 6/4, mean ± SD 13.4 ± 2.2 years) were matched on age and sex to healthy controls. Common nouns were presented simultaneously from visual and auditory sensory inputs in “match” and “mismatch” conditions. Neuromagnetic responses M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5 with latencies of ~100 ms, ~150 ms, ~250 ms, ~350 ms, and ~450 ms, respectively, elicited during the “match” condition were identified. Compared to healthy children, epilepsy patients had both significantly delayed latency of the M1 and reduced amplitudes of M3 and M5 responses. These results provide neurophysiologic evidence of altered word recognition in children with intractable epilepsy. PMID:26146459

  3. Preliminary evidence that different mechanisms underlie the anger superiority effect in children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko eIsomura

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that angry faces capture humans’ attention more rapidly than emotionally positive faces. This phenomenon is referred to as the anger superiority effect (ASE. Despite atypical emotional processing, adults and children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD have been reported to show ASE as well as typically developed (TD individuals. So far, however, few studies have clarified whether or not the mechanisms underlying ASE are the same for both TD and ASD individuals. Here, we tested how TD and ASD children process schematic emotional faces during detection by employing a recognition task in combination with a face-in-the-crowd task. Results of the face-in-the-crowd task revealed the prevalence of ASE both in TD and ASD children. However, the results of the recognition task revealed group differences: In TD children, detection of angry faces required more configural face processing and disrupted the processing of local features. In ASD children, on the other hand, it required more feature-based processing rather than configural processing. Despite the small sample sizes, these findings provide preliminary evidence that children with ASD, in contrast to TD children, show quick detection of angry faces by extracting local features in faces.

  4. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  5. Preliminary study of mechanism of action of SN38 derivatives. Physicochemical data, evidence of interaction and alkylation of DNA octamer d(GCGATCGC)2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumczuk, Beata; Kawęcki, Robert; Bocian, Wojciech; Bednarek, Elżbieta; Sitkowski, Jerzy; Kozerski, Lech

    2017-02-01

    The synthesis of water-soluble SN38 derivatives is presented, and their stability in solutions used during drug development studies has been investigated. A preliminary study of mechanism of action of 9-aminomethyl SN38 is presented. Using NMR techniques, the interaction of the oligomer d(GCGATCGC) 2 is studied, showing that the terminal GC base pairs are the main site of interaction. Using pulsed field gradient spin echo and mass spectroscopy, evidence of a spontaneous alkylation reaction of the DNA oligomer with SN38 derivatives is presented. A proposed mechanism of reaction is suggested. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Financial decision-making abilities and financial exploitation in older African Americans: Preliminary validity evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Peter A; Ficker, Lisa J; Rahman-Filipiak, Annalise

    2016-01-01

    This study examines preliminary evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS), a new person-centered approach to assessing capacity to make financial decisions, and its relationship to self-reported cases of financial exploitation in 69 older African Americans. More than one third of individuals reporting financial exploitation also had questionable decisional abilities. Overall, decisional ability score and current decision total were significantly associated with cognitive screening test and financial ability scores, demonstrating good criterion validity. Study findings suggest that impaired decisional abilities may render older adults more vulnerable to financial exploitation, and that the LFDRS is a valid tool.

  7. Developing and Evaluating Communication Strategies to Support Informed Decisions and Practice Based on Evidence (DECIDE): protocol and preliminary results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treweek, Shaun; Oxman, Andrew D.; Alderson, Philip; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Brandt, Linn; Brożek, Jan; Davoli, Marina; Flottorp, Signe; Harbour, Robin; Hill, Suzanne; Liberati, Alessandro; Liira, Helena; Schünemann, Holger J.; Rosenbaum, Sarah; Thornton, Judith; Vandvik, Per Olav; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Hartley, Claire; Loudon, Kirsty; Slater, William; Stewart, Neil; Glenton, Claire; Kristiansen, Annette; Lewin, Simon; Moberg, Jenny; Morelli, Angela; Oxman, Andy; Ødgaard-Jensen, Jan; Martinez-García, Laura; Rigau, David; Solà, Ivan; Sanabria, Andrea Juliana; Amato, Laura; Brunetti, Massimo; Magrini, Nicola; Parmelli, Elena; Nonino, Francesco; de Palma, Rossana; Papini, Donato; Pregno, Silvia; Saitto, Carlo; Gopalakrishna, Gowri; Langendam, Miranda; Leeflang, Mariska; Scholten, Rob; Gülmezoglu, Metin; Permanand, Govin; Weerasuriyak, Krisantha; Antes, Gerd; Meerpohl, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare decision makers face challenges when using guidelines, including understanding the quality of the evidence or the values and preferences upon which recommendations are made, which are often not clear. GRADE is a systematic approach towards assessing the quality of evidence and the

  8. Developing and Evaluating Communication Strategies to Support Informed Decisions and Practice Based on Evidence (DECIDE): protocol and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treweek, Shaun; Oxman, Andrew D; Alderson, Philip; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Brandt, Linn; Brożek, Jan; Davoli, Marina; Flottorp, Signe; Harbour, Robin; Hill, Suzanne; Liberati, Alessandro; Liira, Helena; Schünemann, Holger J; Rosenbaum, Sarah; Thornton, Judith; Vandvik, Per Olav; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2013-01-09

    Healthcare decision makers face challenges when using guidelines, including understanding the quality of the evidence or the values and preferences upon which recommendations are made, which are often not clear. GRADE is a systematic approach towards assessing the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations in healthcare. GRADE also gives advice on how to go from evidence to decisions. It has been developed to address the weaknesses of other grading systems and is now widely used internationally. The Developing and Evaluating Communication Strategies to Support Informed Decisions and Practice Based on Evidence (DECIDE) consortium (http://www.decide-collaboration.eu/), which includes members of the GRADE Working Group and other partners, will explore methods to ensure effective communication of evidence-based recommendations targeted at key stakeholders: healthcare professionals, policymakers, and managers, as well as patients and the general public. Surveys and interviews with guideline producers and other stakeholders will explore how presentation of the evidence could be improved to better meet their information needs. We will collect further stakeholder input from advisory groups, via consultations and user testing; this will be done across a wide range of healthcare systems in Europe, North America, and other countries. Targeted communication strategies will be developed, evaluated in randomized trials, refined, and assessed during the development of real guidelines. Results of the DECIDE project will improve the communication of evidence-based healthcare recommendations. Building on the work of the GRADE Working Group, DECIDE will develop and evaluate methods that address communication needs of guideline users. The project will produce strategies for communicating recommendations that have been rigorously evaluated in diverse settings, and it will support the transfer of research into practice in healthcare systems globally.

  9. Preliminary findings of an adapted evidence-based woman-focused HIV intervention on condom use and negotiation among at-risk women in Pretoria, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Luseno, Winnie K; Kline, Tracy L; Browne, Felicia A; Zule, William A

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a randomized trial in South Africa of an adapted evidence-based Woman-Focused intervention on condom use with primary sex partners. The preliminary findings show that regardless of HIV status, condom negotiation was significantly associated with condom use at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. By intervention group, significant intervention effects were found at 6-month follow-up for HIV-positive and HIV-unknown status women in the Woman-Focused intervention who were more likely than women in the Standard intervention to report condom use with a primary male partner. Among HIV-positive women, those in the Woman-Focused group and those with greater sexual control were more likely to report condom use at the 6-month follow-up. The findings indicate that gender-based interventions for women may result in increased condom negotiation skills.

  10. Prospective Links between Friendship and Early Physical Aggression: Preliminary Evidence Supporting the Role of Friendship Quality through a Dyadic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvas, Marie-Claude; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Cantin, Ste´phane

    2016-01-01

    Positive friendships have been related to decreasing levels of children's physical aggression over time. While this evidence calls for interventions aimed at helping children build good-quality friendships, tests of causality through experimental manipulations are still needed. The goal of this study was to examine whether an intervention aimed to…

  11. Preliminary Evidence of Reduced Urge to Cough and Cough Response in Four Individuals following Remote Traumatic Brain Injury with Tracheostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Silverman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cough and swallow protect the lungs and are frequently impaired following traumatic brain injury (TBI. This project examined cough response to inhaled capsaicin solution challenge in a cohort of four young adults with a history of TBI within the preceding five years. All participants had a history of tracheostomy with subsequent decannulation and dysphagia after their injuries (resolved for all but one participant. Urge to cough (UTC and cough response were measured and compared to an existing database of normative cough response data obtained from 32 healthy controls (HCs. Participants displayed decreased UTC and cough responses compared to HCs. It is unknown if these preliminary results manifest as a consequence of disrupted sensory (afferent projections, an inability to perceive or discriminate cough stimuli, disrupted motor (efferent response, peripheral weakness, or any combination of these factors. Future work should attempt to clarify if the observed phenomena are borne out in a larger sample of individuals with TBI, determine the relative contributions of central versus peripheral nervous system structures to cough sensory perceptual changes following TBI (should they exist, and formulate recommendations for systematic screening and assessment of cough sensory perception in order to facilitate rehabilitative efforts. This project is identified with the National Clinical Trials NCT02240329.

  12. Preliminary evidence of altered neural response during intertemporal choice of losses in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Saori C; Yahata, Noriaki; Todokoro, Ayako; Kawakubo, Yuki; Kano, Yukiko; Nishimura, Yukika; Ishii-Takahashi, Ayaka; Ohtake, Fumio; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2018-04-30

    Impulsive behaviours are common symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although previous studies have suggested functional models of impulsive behaviour, a full explanation of impulsivity in ADHD remains elusive. To investigate the detailed mechanisms behind impulsive behaviour in ADHD, we applied an economic intertemporal choice task involving gains and losses to adults with ADHD and healthy controls and measured brain activity by functional magnetic resonance imaging. In the intertemporal choice of future gains, we observed no behavioural or neural difference between the two groups. In the intertemporal choice of future losses, adults with ADHD exhibited higher discount rates than the control participants. Furthermore, a comparison of brain activity representing the sensitivity of future loss in the two groups revealed significantly lower activity in the striatum and higher activity in the amygdala in adults with ADHD than in controls. Our preliminary findings suggest that an altered size sensitivity to future loss is involved in apparent impulsive choice behaviour in adults with ADHD and shed light on the multifaceted impulsivity underlying ADHD.

  13. How big is the gig? Assessing the preliminary evidence on the effects of digitalization on the labor market

    OpenAIRE

    Eichhorst, Werner; Hinte, Holger; Rinne, Ulf; Tobsch, Verena

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses the importance of digitalization in Germany and other developed countries with a particular attention to the potential or actual impact it may have on the labor market. Referring to available empirical evidence, we document the already developing transformation of occupations and forms of employment and the role of the platform economy, including the phenomenon of solo self-employment. We then derive current and future challenges for social protection and suggest some idea...

  14. Preliminary evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction associated with post-infective fatigue after acute infection with Epstein Barr Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickie Ian B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute infectious diseases are typically accompanied by non-specific symptoms including fever, malaise, irritability and somnolence that usually resolve on recovery. However, in some individuals these symptoms persist in what is commonly termed post-infective fatigue. The objective of this pilot study was to determine the gene expression correlates of post-infective fatigue following acute Epstein Barr virus (EBV infection. Methods We followed 5 people with acute mononucleosis who developed post-infective fatigue of more than 6 months duration and 5 HLA-matched control subjects who recovered within 3 months. Subjects had peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC samples collected at varying time points including at diagnosis, then every 2 weeks for 3 months, then every 3 months for a year. Total RNA was extracted from the PBMC samples and hybridized to microarrays spotted with 3,800 oligonucleotides. Results Those who developed post-infective fatigue had gene expression profiles indicative of an altered host response during acute mononucleosis compared to those who recovered uneventfully. Several genes including ISG20 (interferon stimulated gene, DNAJB2 (DnaJ [Hsp40] homolog and CD99, CDK8 (cyclin-dependent kinase 8, E2F2 (E2F transcription factor 2, CDK8 (cyclin-dependent kinase 8, and ACTN2 (actinin, alpha 2, known to be regulated during EBV infection, were differentially expressed in post-infective fatigue cases. Several of the differentially expressed genes affect mitochondrial functions including fatty acid metabolism and the cell cycle. Conclusion These preliminary data provide insights into alterations in gene transcripts associated with the varied clinical outcomes from acute infectious mononucleosis.

  15. Causal role for inverse reasoning on obsessive-compulsive symptoms: Preliminary evidence from a cognitive bias modification for interpretation bias study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shiu F; Grisham, Jessica R

    2017-12-01

    The inference-based approach (IBA) is a cognitive account of the genesis and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). According to the IBA, individuals with OCD are prone to using inverse reasoning, in which hypothetical causes form the basis of conclusions about reality. Several studies have provided preliminary support for an association between features of the IBA and OCD symptoms. However, there are currently no studies that have investigated the proposed causal relationship of inverse reasoning in OCD. In a non-clinical sample (N = 187), we used an interpretive cognitive bias procedure to train a bias towards using inverse reasoning (n = 64), healthy sensory-based reasoning (n = 65), or a control condition (n = 58). Participants were randomly allocated to these training conditions. This manipulation allowed us to assess whether, consistent with the IBA, inverse reasoning training increased compulsive-like behaviours and self-reported OCD symptoms. Results indicated that compared to a control condition, participants trained in inverse reasoning reported more OCD symptoms and were more avoidant of potentially contaminated objects. Moreover, change in inverse reasoning bias was a small but significant mediator of the relationship between training condition and behavioural avoidance. Conversely, training in a healthy (non-inverse) reasoning style did not have any effect on symptoms or behaviour relative to the control condition. As this study was conducted in a non-clinical sample, we were unable to generalise our findings to a clinical population. Findings generally support the IBA model by providing preliminary evidence of a causal role for inverse reasoning in OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuropsychological development of cognitive abilities: a new research strategy and some preliminary evidence for a sexual orientation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, G; Ross-Field, L

    1987-09-01

    The organizing action that prenatal sex hormones exert on the brain has been implicated in the aetiology of sex differences in cognitive abilities and cerebral asymmetries. Prenatal sex hormones are known to determine neuroendocrine responses and subsequent adult sexual behaviour in nonhuman animals and these hormones may also influence human sexual orientation. To unify these observations, we elaborate a sexual orientation model of neuropsychological development which predicts that sex differences in neuroendocrine responses, cerebral asymmetries, and cognitive abilities are related to sexual orientation rather than to sex per se. A common problem in the study of sex differences is that biological and sociocultural explanations are confounded. The sexual orientation model suggests a new research strategy, the comparison of homosexual and heterosexual groups, for which explanations in terms of sociocultural factors would be more difficult to sustain. The available evidence supports the model: In terms of a neuroendocrine response, cerebral asymmetry, and cognitive abilities, homosexual males resemble heterosexual females rather than heterosexual males. Our conclusions lead to questions that further research in this area should address, and to a consideration of problems which such research may have to face.

  17. The serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and cortisol stress responsiveness: preliminary evidence for a modulating role for sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dalfsen, Jens H; Markus, C Rob

    2018-05-23

    The short (S) allele of a functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) within the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) is found to predispose the risk for stress-related affective disorders relative to the long (L) allele. Evidence suggests that elevated stress reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis might underlie this association although there is little understanding about the origin of inconsistent findings. Since inadequate sleep is commonly known to promote HPA stress reactivity, it might well play an important modulating role. The present study tested this hypothesis by investigating whether sleep quality moderates the relationship between 5-HTTLPR and cortisol stress responsiveness. From a large 5-HTTLPR database (n = 771), a sample of healthy male and female participants homozygous for either the 5-HTTLPR S-allele (n = 25) or L-allele (n = 25) were assessed for sleep quality and salivary cortisol secretion during acute laboratory stress. Diminished sleep quality was found to exclusively potentiate cortisol stress reactivity in the homozygous L-allele genotype. Accounting for this 5-HTTLPR-dependent influence enhanced the predictive value of 5-HTTLPR on cortisol stress responsiveness, revealing greater HPA reactivity in S-allele relative to L-allele carriers. Current findings suggest that variations in sleep quality may serve as a confounding factor in the search for genetic differences in stress sensitivity and related affective disorders.

  18. Preliminary evidence of early bone resorption in a sheep model of acute burn injury: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Gordon L; Xie, Yixia; Qin, Yi-Xian; Lin, Liangjun; Hu, Minyi; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Bonewald, Lynda F

    2014-03-01

    Treatment with bisphosphonates within the first 10 days of severe burn injury completely prevents bone loss. We therefore postulated that bone resorption occurs early post burn and is the primary explanation for acute bone loss in these patients. Our objective was to assess bone for histological and biomechanical evidence of early resorption post burn. We designed a randomized controlled study utilizing a sheep model of burn injury. Three sheep received a 40 % total body surface area burn under isoflurane anesthesia, and three other sheep received cotton-smoke inhalation and served as control. Burned sheep were killed 5 days post procedure and controls were killed 2 days post procedure. Backscatter scanning electron microscopy was performed on iliac crests obtained immediately postmortem along with quantitative histomorphometry and compression testing to determine bone strength (Young's modulus). Blood ionized Ca was also determined in the first 24 h post procedure as was urinary CTx. Three of three sheep killed at 5 days had evidence of scalloping of the bone surface, an effect of bone resorption, whereas none of the three sheep killed at 2 days post procedure had scalloping. One of the three burned sheep killed at 5 days showed quantitative doubling of the eroded surface and halving of the bone volume compared to sham controls. Mean values of Young's modulus were approximately one third lower in the burned sheep killed at 5 days compared to controls, p = 0.08 by unpaired t test, suggesting weaker bone. These data suggest early post-burn bone resorption. Urine CTx normalized to creatinine did not differ between groups at 24 h post procedure because the large amounts of fluids received by the burned sheep may have diluted urine creatinine and CTx and because the urine volume produced by the burned sheep was threefold that of the controls. We calculated 24 h urinary CTx excretion, and with this calculation CTx excretion/24 h in the burned sheep was

  19. Promoting Mentalizing in Pupils by Acting on Teachers: Preliminary Italian Evidence of the "Thought in Mind" Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Valle

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mentalization research focuses on different aspects of this topic, highlighting individual differences in mentalizing and proposing programs of intervention for children and adults to increase this ability. The Thought in Mind Project (TiM Project provides training targeted to adults―teachers or parents―to increase their mentalization and, consequently, to obtain mentalization improvement in children. The present research aimed to explore for the first time ever the potential of training for teachers based on the TiM Project, regarding the enhancement of mentalizing of an adult who would have interacted as a teacher with children. For this reason, two teachers – similar for meta-cognitive and meta-emotional skills - and their classes (N=46 were randomly assigned to the training or control condition. In the first case, the teacher participated in training on the implementation of promotion of mentalizing in everyday school teaching strategies; in the second case the teacher participated in a control activity, similar to training for scheduling and methods, but without promoting the implementation of mentalization (in both conditions two meetings lasting about three hours at the beginning of the school year and two supervisions during the school year were conducted. The children were tested by tasks assessing several aspects of mentalization (2nd and 3rd order false belief understanding, Strange Stories, Reading the mind in the Eyes, Mentalizing Task both before and after the teacher participate in the TiM or control training (i.e. at the beginning and at the end of the school year. The results showed that, although some measured components of mentalization progressed over time, only the TiM training group significantly improved in 3rd order false belief understanding and changed - in a greater way compared to the control group - in two of the three components of the Mentalizing Task. These evidences are promising about the idea that the

  20. Forming Entrepreneurial Mindsets? Preliminary Evidence of Teaching Practices from Primary Schools in a Developing Area in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora N. Figueiredo-Nery

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years there has been a renewed interest by governments, companies and academics in the role of entrepreneurship in innovation and economic growth. There has also been a proliferation of studies on education for entrepreneurship in industrialised and developing countries. However, by addressing ‘entrepreneurship’ in terms of SMEs and high-tech start-ups, they overlook: (i the blurring distinctions between entrepreneurial and managerial capitalism, (ii an erosion of the Schumpeterian dichotomy between large and small firms, and (iii the growing importance of entrepreneurial management within companies as a source for economic growth. Additionally, ‘entrepreneurship’ tends to be taught as a stand-alone topic in higher education and business/non-business courses. Empirical studies related to entrepreneurship education within primary schools, especially in least developed locations in developing countries, are largely missing in this field. Drawing on first-hand empirical evidence from primary schools in a developing area in South America, this paper examines the incidence and functioning of pedagogic practices potentially related to the initial formation of entrepreneurial mindsets. The findings show that, despite some efforts, the researched schools suffered from, not surprisingly, inadequate physical conditions and, most importantly, teachers’ unawareness and deficient qualification related to the adoption of these techniques. These problems seemed to prevent children from developing important features of their initial entrepreneurial mindsets. Thus, if companies and countries want to secure their sources of revolutionary ideas and continuous and des-continuous innovation, they need to have a long-term commitment to continuously develop and nurture the seeds for their future innovative knowledge bases. Specifically, a comprehensive, long-term, geographically and socially inclusive perspective on entrepreneurship

  1. Promoting Mentalizing in Pupils by Acting on Teachers: Preliminary Italian Evidence of the "Thought in Mind" Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Annalisa; Massaro, Davide; Castelli, Ilaria; Sangiuliano Intra, Francesca; Lombardi, Elisabetta; Bracaglia, Edoardo; Marchetti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Mentalization research focuses on different aspects of this topic, highlighting individual differences in mentalizing and proposing programs of intervention for children and adults to increase this ability. The "Thought in Mind Project" (TiM Project) provides training targeted to adults-teachers or parents-to increase their mentalization and, consequently, to obtain mentalization improvement in children. The present research aimed to explore for the first time ever the potential of training for teachers based on the TiM Project, regarding the enhancement of mentalizing of an adult who would have interacted as a teacher with children. For this reason, two teachers - similar for meta-cognitive and meta-emotional skills - and their classes (N = 46) were randomly assigned to the training or control condition. In the first case, the teacher participated in training on the implementation of promotion of mentalizing in everyday school teaching strategies; in the second case the teacher participated in a control activity, similar to training for scheduling and methods, but without promoting the implementation of mentalization (in both conditions two meetings lasting about 3 h at the beginning of the school year and two supervisions during the school year were conducted). The children were tested by tasks assessing several aspects of mentalization (second and third-order false belief understanding, Strange Stories, Reading the mind in the Eyes, Mentalizing Task) both before and after the teacher participate in the TiM or control training (i.e., at the beginning and at the end of the school year). The results showed that, although some measured components of mentalization progressed over time, only the TiM Project training group significantly improved in third order false belief understanding and changed - in a greater way compared to the control group - in two of the three components of the Mentalizing Task. These evidences are promising about the idea that the creation of

  2. Safety and preliminary evidence of biologic efficacy of a mammaglobin-a DNA vaccine in patients with stable metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiriveedhi, Venkataswarup; Tucker, Natalia; Herndon, John; Li, Lijin; Sturmoski, Mark; Ellis, Matthew; Ma, Cynthia; Naughton, Michael; Lockhart, A Craig; Gao, Feng; Fleming, Timothy; Goedegebuure, Peter; Mohanakumar, Thalachallour; Gillanders, William E

    2014-12-01

    Mammaglobin-A (MAM-A) is overexpressed in 40% to 80% of primary breast cancers. We initiated a phase I clinical trial of a MAM-A DNA vaccine to evaluate its safety and biologic efficacy. Patients with breast cancer with stable metastatic disease were eligible for enrollment. Safety was monitored with clinical and laboratory assessments. The CD8 T-cell response was measured by ELISPOT, flow cytometry, and cytotoxicity assays. Progression-free survival (PFS) was described using the Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator. Fourteen subjects have been treated with the MAM-A DNA vaccine and no significant adverse events have been observed. Eight of 14 subjects were HLA-A2(+), and the CD8 T-cell response to vaccination was studied in detail. Flow cytometry demonstrated a significant increase in the frequency of MAM-A-specific CD8 T cells after vaccination (0.9% ± 0.5% vs. 3.8% ± 1.2%; P cells (41 ± 32 vs. 215 ± 67 spm; P cell responses, and preliminary evidence suggests improved PFS. Additional studies are required to define the potential of the MAM-A DNA vaccine for breast cancer prevention and/or therapy. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Recognition of the Kaweka Terrane in northern South Island, New Zealand : preliminary evidence from Rb-Sr metamorphic and U-Pb detrital zircon ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, C.J.; Mortimer, N.; Campbell, H.J.; Griffin, W.L.

    2011-01-01

    Detrital zircon U-Pb ages and Rb-Sr metamorphic ages from low-grade Torlesse Supergroup metasedimentary rocks from North Canterbury and Marlborough provide preliminary evidence for a continuation of the Kaweka Terrane of the central North Island into the Torlesse Composite Terrane of the South Island. This would extend from the south side of the Wairau Fault in the upper Wairau River valley southwards to the Lake Tennyson and Lake Sumner areas, and as far as Hawarden. Rb-Sr ages indicate Jurassic metamorphism, 170±24 Ma, with initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios at that time 0.7073 ± 0.0007 i.e. similar to their North Island counterparts. These Kaweka Terrane rocks have detrital zircon ages that follow the distinctive pattern of the Torlesse rocks in general, i.e. substantial (>30%) Permian-Triassic and Precambrian-Early Palaeozoic groupings, but they also have minor youngest age components c. 175-165 Ma which constrain a maximum Early-Middle Jurassic depositional age. In detail, significant, older zircon components are Late Permian-Early Triassic (260-240 Ma) and Late Triassic (220-210 Ma), but the Precambrian-Early Palaeozoic detrital zircon ages are more scattered. The Kaweka Terrane thus forms a linear belt (c. 500 km) along the length of the Torlesse Composite Terrane in both North and South Islands. In the South Island it coincides with the Esk Head Belt, i.e. east of the Rakaia Terrane (Triassic-Late Permian) and west of the Pahau Terrane (Early Cretaceous-Late Jurassic). (author). 61 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Memory-Focused Cognitive Therapy for Cocaine Use Disorder: Theory, Procedures and Preliminary Evidence From an External Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Marsden

    2018-03-01

    of regular cocaine use, baseline outcome score, and group estimated the effectiveness of the intervention. The trial is registered with the ISCRTN (ISRCTN16462783. Findings: Between July 15, 2015, and November 27, 2016, 58 patients were assessed for eligibility and 30 participants were randomised (14 to the control group and 16 to the intervention. With outcome data collected for all participants at the endpoint, the intervention group mean CEQ-F score (14·77; SD 21·47 was lower than the control group mean (51·75; SD 22·72; ES -1·62; 95% CI -2·45 to −0·80.MFCT was associated with more cocaine abstinence in the intervention group (PDA 85·94; SD 18·96 than the control group (PDA 54·59; SD 30·29; ES 1·19; 90% CI 0·54 to 1·84. There was also greater maximum abstinence in the intervention group (LPA 15·69; SD 10·10 than the control group (6·00; SD 7·36; ES 1·06; 90% CI 0·41 to 1·70. Exploratory, confounder-adjusted regression models for this preliminary effect supported the treatment association for reduced craving experiences (CEQ-F Coef. -28·25; 95% CI -45·15 to −11·35; more abstinence (PDA Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR] 1·56; 95% CI 1·31 to 1·88; and greater maximum abstinence (LPA IRR 2·56; 95% CI 1·96 to 3·35, although relative weak unmeasured confounding could overturn these model-adjusted exposure-outcome associations.There were four serious adverse events (among three participants. None were judged related to study procedures or interventions. Interpretation: In this first external pilot randomised controlled trial of MFCT for CUD, we have shown that the intervention and control procedures and acceptable feasible and safe, and report preliminary evidence that MFCT is associated with reduced craving and increased abstinence. These findings support progression to a substantive trial. Funding Source: UK National Institute for Health Research, Biomedical Research Centre. Keywords: Cocaine, Craving, Memory, Reconsolidation, Cognitive

  5. Preliminary analysis of the very early diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (VEDOSS) EUSTAR multicentre study: evidence for puffy fingers as a pivotal sign for suspicion of systemic sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minier, T.; Guiducci, S.; Bellando-Randone, S.; Bruni, C.; Lepri, G.; Czirjak, L.; Distler, O.; Walker, U.A.; Fransen, J.; Allanore, Y.; Denton, C.; Cutolo, M.; Tyndall, A.; Muller-Ladner, U.; Matucci-Cerinic, M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The EULAR (European League Against Rheumatism) Scleroderma Trials and Research Group (EUSTAR) has identified preliminary criteria for very early diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Our aim was to assess the prevalence of each proposed diagnostic item in a large observational patient

  6. Preliminary Evidence of the Effects of High-frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on Swallowing Functions in Post-Stroke Individuals with Chronic Dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ivy K. Y.; Chan, Karen M. K.; Wong, C. S.; Cheung, Raymond T. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence of potential benefits of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the rehabilitation of dysphagia. However, the site and frequency of stimulation for optimal effects are not clear. Aims: The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the short-term effects of high-frequency 5 Hz rTMS applied to…

  7. Preliminary evidence for association of genetic variants in pri-miR-34b/c and abnormal miR-34c expression with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martínez, I; Sánchez-Mora, C; Pagerols, M; Richarte, V; Corrales, M; Fadeuilhe, C; Cormand, B; Casas, M; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Ribasés, M

    2016-08-30

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairment to sustain attention and inability to control impulses and activity level. The etiology of ADHD is complex, with an estimated heritability of 70-80%. Under the hypothesis that alterations in the processing or target binding of microRNAs (miRNAs) may result in functional alterations predisposing to ADHD, we explored whether common polymorphisms potentially affecting miRNA-mediated regulation are involved in this psychiatric disorder. We performed a comprehensive association study focused on 134 miRNAs in 754 ADHD subjects and 766 controls and found association between the miR-34b/c locus and ADHD. Subsequently, we provided preliminary evidence for overexpression of the miR-34c-3p mature form in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of ADHD subjects. Next, we tested the effect on gene expression of single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the ADHD-associated region and found that rs4938923 in the promoter of the pri-miR-34b/c tags cis expression quantitative trait loci for both miR-34b and miR-34c and has an impact on the expression levels of 681 transcripts in trans, including genes previously associated with ADHD. This gene set was enriched for miR-34b/c binding sites, functional categories related to the central nervous system, such as axon guidance or neuron differentiation, and serotonin biosynthesis and signaling canonical pathways. Our results provide preliminary evidence for the contribution to ADHD of a functional variant in the pri-miR-34b/c promoter, possibly through dysregulation of the expression of mature forms of miR-34b and miR-34c and some target genes. These data highlight the importance of abnormal miRNA function as a potential epigenetic mechanism contributing to ADHD.

  8. How functional connectivity between emotion regulation structures can be disrupted: preliminary evidence from adolescents with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Mary R; Scheibel, Randall S; Mayer, Andrew R; Chu, Zili D; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Hanten, Gerri; Steinberg, Joel L; Lin, Xiaodi; Li, Xiaoqi; Merkley, Tricia L; Hunter, Jill V; Vasquez, Ana C; Cook, Lori; Lu, Hanzhang; Vinton, Kami; Levin, Harvey S

    2013-09-01

    Outcome of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) includes impaired emotion regulation. Emotion regulation has been associated with amygdala and rostral anterior cingulate (rACC). However, functional connectivity between the two structures after injury has not been reported. A preliminary examination of functional connectivity of rACC and right amygdala was conducted in adolescents 2 to 3 years after moderate to severe TBI and in typically developing (TD)control adolescents, with the hypothesis that the TBI adolescents would demonstrate altered functional connectivity in the two regions. Functional connectivity was determined by correlating fluctuations in the blood oxygen level dependent(BOLD) signal of the rACC and right amygdala with that of other brain regions. In the TBI adolescents, the rACC was found to be significantly less functionally connected to medial prefrontal cortices and to right temporal regions near the amygdala (height threshold T = 2.5, cluster level p functional connectivity with the rACC (height threshold T = 2.5, cluster level p = .06, FDR corrected). Data suggest disrupted functional connectivity in emotion regulation regions. Limitations include small sample sizes. Studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to characterize the persistent neural damage resulting from moderate to severe TBI during development.

  9. Stress-induced and cue-induced craving for alcohol in heavy drinkers: Preliminary evidence of genetic moderation by the OPRM1 and CRH-BP genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Lara A

    2011-01-01

    Neurobiological theories of addiction have highlighted disruption in stress pathways as a central feature of addictive disorders, and pharmacological treatments targeting stress mechanisms hold great promise. This study examines genetic determinants of stress-induced and cue-induced craving in heavy drinkers by testing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the corticotrophin-releasing hormone binding protein (CRH-BP) gene and the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene. This study combines guided imagery stress exposure and in vivo alcohol cue exposure in a sample of 64 (23 women) non-treatment-seeking heavy drinkers. Analyses, uncorrected for multiple comparisons, revealed that a tag SNP of the CRH-BP gene (rs10055255) moderated stress-induced craving in this sample. The same SNP predicted greater affective responses to the stress manipulation, including greater levels of subjective tension and negative mood. The Asp40 allele of the OPRM1 was associated with greater cue-induced alcohol craving following the neutral imagery condition. These initial results extend recent preclinical and clinical findings implicating the CRH-BP in stress-related alcoholism and confirm the role of the Asp40 allele of the OPRM1 gene in reward-driven alcohol phenotypes. Human laboratory models of stress and cue-induced craving may be useful in pharmacotherapy development targeting dysregulation of stress systems. Larger studies are needed to validate these preliminary findings, which should also be extended to clinical samples. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Preliminary evidence of HIV seroconversion among HIV-negative men who have sex with men taking non-prescribed antiretroviral medication for HIV prevention in Miami, Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P

    2017-04-01

    Background Limited information suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM) are informally obtaining antiretroviral medication (ARVs) and using them for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Data are drawn from an on-going study examining the use of non-prescribed ARVs for PrEP. To date, 24 qualitative interviews have been conducted with HIV-negative, substance-using MSM living in Miami, Florida, USA. Data are presented from two participants who reported HIV seroconversion while using non-prescribed ARVs for PrEP. Preliminary data indicate that some young MSM: (i) lack awareness of and accurate information about the efficacious use of PrEP; (ii) obtain non-prescribed ARVs from HIV-positive sex partners and use these medications for PrEP in a way that does not provide adequate protection against HIV infection or cohere with established guidelines; and (iii) engage in multiple HIV transmission risk behaviours, including condomless anal sex and injection drug use. The informal, non-prescribed and non-medically supervised use of ARVs for HIV prevention has the potential to undermine the protective benefits of PrEP and leave men unprotected against HIV transmission and at risk for ARV resistance.

  11. Preliminary evidence that negative symptom severity relates to multilocus genetic profile for dopamine signaling capacity and D2 receptor binding in healthy controls and in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Sarah A; Bogdan, Ryan; Chen, Ling; Moerlein, Stephen M; Black, Kevin J; Perlmutter, Joel S; Hershey, Tamara; Barch, Deanna M

    2017-03-01

    Deficits in central, subcortical dopamine (DA) signaling may underlie negative symptom severity, particularly anhedonia, in healthy individuals and in schizophrenia. To investigate these relationships, we assessed negative symptoms with the Schedule for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) and self-reported anhedonia with the Scales for Physical and Social Anhedonia (SPSA), Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale, and Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale in 36 healthy controls (HC), 27 siblings (SIB) of individuals with schizophrenia, and 66 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SCZ). A subset of participants (N = 124) were genotyped for DA-related polymorphisms in genes for DRD4, DRD2/ANKK1, DAT1, and COMT, which were used to construct biologically-informed multi-locus genetic profile (MGP) scores reflective of subcortical dopaminergic signaling. DA receptor type 2 (D2R) binding was assessed among a second subset of participants (N = 23) using PET scans with the D2R-selective, non-displaceable radioligand (N-[ 11 C]methyl)benperidol. Higher MGP scores, reflecting elevated subcortical dopaminergic signaling capacity, were associated with less negative symptom severity, as measured by the BNSS, across all participants. In addition, higher striatal D2R binding was associated with less physical and social anhedonia, as measured by the SPSA, across HC, SIB, and SCZ. The current preliminary findings support the hypothesis that subcortical DA function may contribute to negative symptom severity and self-reported anhedonia, independent of diagnostic status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Paleopathological evidence of the cranial remains from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). Description and preliminary inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, P J; Gracía, A; Martínez, I; Arsuaga, J L

    1997-01-01

    The large Sima de los Huesos sample provides for the first time the opportunity of performing a paleopathological study of a Middle Pleistocene population. A high frequency of bilateral temporomandibular arthropathy has been observed. We found an ear hyperostosis in Cranium 4, that probably caused deafness that we consider to be of infectious origin. Three osteomata were found in the cranial collection. One severe trauma was evident on the left supraorbital torus of an immature individual. Many cranial vault erosions, mostly restricted to the external table, are found in the sample. Cranium 5 displays thirteen of these. Cranium 5 also shows an extensive maxillary osteitis associated with a dental apical abscess, as well as another dental apical abscess in its mandible. Most of the adult frontal bones show a worm-like pattern of vascular channelling in the orbital roof, also found in modern populations.

  13. Likelihood ratio-based differentiation of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with sonographically evident diffuse hashimoto thyroiditis: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Xia, Yu; Jiang, Yu-Xin; Dai, Qing; Li, Xiao-Yi

    2012-11-01

    To assess the efficacy of sonography for discriminating nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis from papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with sonographically evident diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis. This study included 20 patients with 24 surgically confirmed Hashimoto thyroiditis nodules and 40 patients with 40 papillary thyroid carcinoma nodules; all had sonographically evident diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis. A retrospective review of the sonograms was performed, and significant benign and malignant sonographic features were selected by univariate and multivariate analyses. The combined likelihood ratio was calculated as the product of each feature's likelihood ratio for papillary thyroid carcinoma. We compared the abilities of the original sonographic features and combined likelihood ratios in diagnosing nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma by their sensitivity, specificity, and Youden index. The diagnostic capabilities of the sonographic features varied greatly, with Youden indices ranging from 0.175 to 0.700. Compared with single features, combinations of features were unable to improve the Youden indices effectively because the sensitivity and specificity usually changed in opposite directions. For combined likelihood ratios, however, the sensitivity improved greatly without an obvious reduction in specificity, which resulted in the maximum Youden index (0.825). With a combined likelihood ratio greater than 7.00 as the diagnostic criterion for papillary thyroid carcinoma, sensitivity reached 82.5%, whereas specificity remained at 100.0%. With a combined likelihood ratio less than 1.00 for nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis, sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% and 92.5%, respectively. Several sonographic features of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma in a background of diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis were significantly different. The combined likelihood ratio may be superior to original sonographic features for

  14. Preliminary evidence for an association between a dopamine D3 receptor gene variant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in patients with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Katrina J; Joyce, Peter R; Luty, Suzanne E; Mulder, Roger T; Frampton, Christropher M A; Joyce, Laura R M; Miller, Allison L; Kennedy, Martin A

    2006-06-05

    We have previously reported that the Ser9Gly dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) polymorphism was associated with increased rates of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) symptomology. We tested the replicability of this association within a further two independent groups of individuals with a history of depression, from a clinical sample (n = 149) and a family study (n = 213). The data from the replication samples and the original sample, within which the association was found, were compiled within a meta-analysis. Although the independent samples did not replicate the original finding, the meta-analysis elucidated significant evidence supporting the association. An individual with Gly/Gly genotype is 2.4 (P = 0.017) times more likely to be diagnosed with OCPD. Male gender was also found to be a significant predictor of OCPD diagnosis (OR = 2.82, P = 0.001). An exploration of an association of DRD3 with Axis I anxiety disorder diagnoses and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) traits, in particular persistence, revealed no support for an association. We conclude that DRD3 may contribute to the development of OCPD.

  15. Bridging the Gap of Practice and Research: A Preliminary Investigation of Evidence-based Practice for Library and Information Science Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    吳寂絹 Chi-Chuan Wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The gap between practice and research is commonly found in disciplines with both ofprofessional practitioners and academic researchers. How to bridge the gap is also acontinuing concern in the field of Library and Information Studies. This article describes therecent development of Evidence-based Practice for Library and Information ScienceResearch (EBLIP, and provides analysis of the journal EBLIP including its authors’backgrounds, methods, and topics. The results show that the United States and Canadaare the two major nations of contributors; more than 70% of first authors are librarians; 76%of the articles were contributed by one single institute, co-authorship by cross-nationinstitutes were rarely seen, and demonstrates local research interests; type of co-authoredagency is primarily among libraries; 60% methods employed include questionnaires,interviews and content analysis; the coverage of topics is rather broad, and the top threecategories of research topics include Information Literacy & Instruction, Information Needs& Seeking Behavior, and Reference Services / Digital Reference Services (15%, 10%, and8%; many datasets were obtained from real library practice, and 72% of articles provide specific implications for applications which highlight the value of implementation. Manylibrarians have the research capability, and this article serves as a purpose to introduce theevidence-based research and encourage more such research done in Taiwan. Hopefully itmay benefit and further enhance the quality of library decision-making and their professionalimage.

  16. Preliminary Evidence of "Other-Race Effect"-Like Behavior Induced by Cathodal-tDCS over the Right Occipital Cortex, in the Absence of Overall Effects on Face/Object Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Andrea I; Titoni, Matilde; Bossi, Francesco; Premoli, Isabella; Nitsche, Michael A; Rivolta, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Neuromodulation techniques such as tDCS have provided important insight into the neurophysiological mechanisms that mediate cognition. Albeit anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) often enhances cognitive skills, the role of cathodal tDCS (c-tDCS) in visual cognition is largely unexplored and inconclusive. Here, in a single-blind, sham-controlled study, we investigated the offline effects of 1.5 mA c-tDCS over the right occipital cortex of 86 participants on four tasks assessing perception and memory of both faces and objects. Results demonstrated that c-tDCS does not overall affect performance on the four tasks. However, post-hoc exploratory analysis on participants' race (Caucasian vs. non-Caucasians), showed a "face-specific" performance decrease (≈10%) in non-Caucasian participants only . This preliminary evidence suggests that c-tDCS can induce "other-race effect (ORE)-like" behavior in non-Caucasian participants that did not show any ORE before stimulation (and in case of sham stimulation). Our results add relevant information about the breadth of cognitive processes and visual stimuli that can be modulated by c-tDCS, about the design of effective neuromodulation protocols, and have important implications for the potential neurophysiological bases of ORE.

  17. CONSTRUCCIÓN DE UNA ESCALA DE AUTOEFICACIA PARA LA INVESTIGACIÓN: PRIMERAS EVIDENCIAS DE VALIDEZ / DEVELOPMENT OF A RESEARCH SELF-EFFICACY SCALE: PRELIMINARY EVIDENCE OF VALIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alexis Dominguez-Lara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente estudio fue examinar las primeras evidencias de validez de la Escala de Autoeficacia para Investigar (EAI, por medio del análisis del contenido de los ítems. Fue evaluada una muestra de 10 psicólogos investigadores (70% varones; Medad = 47.2 años, y de 34 estudiantes universitarios peruanos (> 70% mujeres de pregrado (n = 19 y posgrado (n = 15. Los investigadores evaluaron la relevancia y claridad de los ítems, y los estudiantes valoraron la claridad de los enunciados de la EAI. Las respuestas brindadas por los jueces fueron sistematizadas mediante la V de Aiken con intervalos de confianza, obteniendo resultados favorables. En conclusiones, la EAI presenta evidencias favorables sobre la representatividad de los ítems. Se discuten las implicancias prácticas de los hallazgos. ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the preliminary evidence of validity of the Research Self-Efficacy Scale (RSE through the analysis of item contents. A sample of ten research psychologists (70% male; Mage = 47.2 years old, and 34 Peruvian college students (> 70% female, both undergraduate (n = 19 and graduate (n = 15 was assessed. The researchers evaluated the relevance and clarity of the items, and the students, the clarity of the RSE statements. The answers given by the judges were systematized through Aiken’s V with confidence intervals, obtaining favorable results. In conclusion, the RSE exhibits favorable evidence regarding the representativity of the items. The practical implications of the findings are discussed here.

  18. Preliminary evidences of CCM operation and its down regulation in relation to increasing CO2 levels in natural phytoplankton assemblages from the coastal waters of Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Haimanti; Rahman Shaik, Aziz Ur; Bandyopadhyay, Debasmita

    2014-05-01

    Bay of Bengal (BoB), a low productive part of the North Indian Ocean, often possesses low CO2 levels in its surface water and diatoms dominate the phytoplankton communities. Virtually no studies are available from this area reporting how this diatom dominated phytoplankton community would respond any increase in dissolved CO2 levels either naturally or anthopogenically. In most of the marine phytoplankton, the inefficiency of the sole carbon fixing enzyme Rubisco necessitates the need of concentrating dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) (mostly as HCO3) inside the cell in excess of the ambient water concentrations in order to maintain high rate of photosynthesis under low CO2 levels through an energy consuming carbon concentration mechanisms (CCMs). The ubiquitous enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) plays a vital role in CCMs by converting HCO3- to CO2 and usually utilizes the trace metal zinc (Zn) as a cofactor. However, it is evident in many marine phytoplankton species that with increasing external CO2 levels, CCMs can be down-regulated leading to energetic savings which can be reallocated to growth; although exceptions occur. Hence, in order to predict their responses to the projected changes, it is imperative to understand their carbon metabolism patterns. We have conducted a series of incubation experiments in microcosms with natural phytoplankton communities from the coastal waters of BoB under different CO2 levels. Our results revealed that the rate of net photosynthetic oxygen evolution and biomass build-up increased in response to increasing CO2 levels. The depletion in δ13CPOM values were more in the high CO2 treatments relative to the low CO2 treated cells (control), indicating that dissolved CO2 uptake was higher when CO2 levels were increased. When additional Zn was added to the low CO2 treated cells, net photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate was increased significantly than that of the untreated control. It is likely that upon the supply of Zn under low CO2

  19. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  20. Recombinant pollen allergens from Dactylis glomerata: preliminary evidence that human IgE cross-reactivity between Dac g II and Lol p I/II is increased following grass pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A M; Van Ree, R; Cardy, S M; Bevan, L J; Walker, M R

    1992-07-01

    We previously described the isolation of three identical complementary DNA (cDNA) clones, constructed from Orchard/Cocksfoot grass (Dactylis glomerata) anther messenger RNA (mRNA), expressing a 140,000 MW beta-galactosidase fusion protein recognized by IgE antibodies in atopic sera. Partial nucleotide sequencing and inferred amino acid sequence showed greater than 90% homology with the group II allergen from Lolium perenne (Lol II) indicating they encode the group II equivalent, Dac g II. Western blot immunoprobing of recombinant lysates with rabbit polyclonal, mouse monoclonal and human polyclonal antisera demonstrates immunological identity between recombinant Dac g II, Lol p I and Lol p II. Similar cross-identity is observed with pollen extracts from three other grass species: Festuca rubra, Phleum pratense and Anthoxanthum odoratum. Recombinant Dac g II was recognized by species- and group-cross-reactive human IgE antibodies in 33% (4/12) of sera randomly selected from grass-sensitive individuals and in 67% (14/21) of sera from patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy, whilst 0/4 sera from patients receiving venom immunotherapy alone contained Dac g II cross-reactive IgE. Cross-reactive IgG4 antibodies were detectable in 95% of sera from grass pollen immunotherapy patients. These preliminary data suggest that conventional grass pollen allergoid desensitization immunotherapy may induce IgE responses to a cross-reactive epitope(s) co-expressed by grass pollen groups I and II (and possibly group III) allergens.

  1. A Preliminary Review of Fatigue Among Rail Staff

    OpenAIRE

    Jialin Fan; Andrew P. Smith

    2018-01-01

    Background: Fatigue is a severe problem in the rail industry, which may jeopardize train crew's health and safety. Nonetheless, a preliminary review of all empirical evidence for train crew fatigue is still lacking. The aim of the present paper is, therefore, to provide a preliminary description of occupational fatigue in the rail industry. This paper reviews the literature with the research question examining the risk factors associated with train crew fatigue, covering both papers published...

  2. Measuring social skills of children and adolescents in a Chinese population: Preliminary evidence on the reliability and validity of the translated Chinese version of the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Phoebe P P; Siu, Andrew M H; Brown, Ted

    2017-01-01

    The Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS; Gresham & Elliott, 2008) are designed to assist in the screening and classification of students (aged 5-18 years) who are suspected of presenting with social skills deficits and to offer guidelines in the development of interventions to remediate those types of problems. The objective of this study is to examine the preliminary reliability and validity of the translated Chinese version of the SSIS-RS, referred to as the SSIS-RS-C. In this study, parent-reported social skills and problem behaviors among students with typical development (n=79) were compared with those of age- and gender-matched students with a known developmental disability (n=79) using the SSIS-RS-C. The results indicated that the SSIS-RS-C subscale scores in all the disability groups were significantly different except for those in the Assertion scale for one disability group. Furthermore, the normative sample of typically developing children and adolescents (aged 5-12 and 13-18 years, n=567) from Hong Kong was established to improve the psychometric properties of the SSIS-RS-C. There were moderate to strong relationships between the common subscales across all forms of the SSIS-RS-C. Acceptable to excellent levels of internal consistency across all common subscales was also obtained. The scores for the Hong Kong sample (n=567) derived from the use of the SSIS-RS-C were then compared to the normative sample scores from the American version of the SSIS-RS. It was found that there were statistically significant differences on five out of the seven SSIS-RS-C Social Skill subscales for children aged 5-12 years and on four out of the seven SSIS-RS-C Social Skills subscales for the adolescent group (aged 13-18 years). Also, there were statistically significant differences between the American and Hong Kong samples on all of the SSIS-RS-C Problem Behavior scale scores. It was concluded that the SSIS-RS-C is a promising instrument for clinicians

  3. First derivative spectrofluorimetric determination of zopiclone and its degradation product, 2-amino-5-chloropyridine, in pharmaceutical formulations with preliminary tool in biological fluids for clinical evidence of zopiclone intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attas, Amirah S.; Nasr, Jenny Jeehan; Shalan, Shereen; Belal, Fathalla

    2017-06-01

    A simple, fast, sensitive and stability-indicating derivative spectrofluorimetric method is presented for the assay of zopiclone (ZOP), a drug with hypnotic effect, and its main degradation product and major contaminant, 2-amino-5-chloropyridine (ACP). The method is based on measuring the inherent fluorescence intensity of both drugs at λex = 300 nm in methanol, then differentiation using D1 (first derivative technique). The developed method was found to be rectilinear over a range of 0.2-4 μg/mL of ZOP and 4-100 ng/mL of ACP. The limits of detection were 0.05 μg/mL of ZOP and 0.2 ng/mL of ACP with the limit of quantitation of 0.17 μg/mL of ZOP and 0.7 ng/mL of ACP. The outcoming results of the proposed method were compared to those obtained by a reference method showing no significant statistical difference between them concerning precision and accuracy. Additionally, the developed method was applied for detecting ACP in spiked human urine and plasma specimens as a tool of clinical evidence of zopiclone intake that can be easily implemented in forensic laboratories. The proposed method was validated as per ICH guidelines.

  4. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...... of the work is also to setup the kernel of a software tool for the visibility analysis thatshould be easily expandable to consider more complex strucures for future activities.This analysis is part of the UVISS assessment study and it is meant to provide elementsfor the definition and the selection...

  5. Antares: preliminary demonstrator results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchner, A.

    2000-05-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building an undersea neutrino telescope off Toulon (Mediterranean sea) with effective area ∼ 0.1 km 2 . An extensive study of the site properties has been achieved together with software analysis in order to optimize the performance of the detector. Results are summarized here. An instrumented line, linked to shore for first time via an electro-optical cable, has been immersed late 1999. The preliminary results of this demonstrator line are reported. (author)

  6. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  7. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  8. Effectiveness of Service Dogs for Veterans with PTSD: Preliminary Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Claude; Belleville, Geneviève; Gagnon, Dany H; Dumont, Frédéric; Auger, Edouard; Lavoie, Vicky; Besemann, Markus; Champagne, Noël; Lessart, Geneviève

    2017-01-01

    Limited scientific evidence on the effectiveness of psychiatric service dogs used by Veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is available. This study investigated their short-term effectiveness among 15 Canadian veterans who received a first psychiatric service dog. Preliminary results suggest potential beneficial effects at 3 months on the psychiatric symptoms.

  9. Fraccionamiento y estudio de subpoblaciones linfocitarias en distintos grupos de amígdalas palatinas

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Rozas, José Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Se ha estudiado en linfocitos de am??gdala de distintos grupos cl??nicos de amigdalitis la expresi??n de una amplia bacteria de anticuerpos monoclonales y otros marcadores con la finalidad de investigar la existencia o no en am??gdalas de c??lulas inmaduras previrgenes y determinar la secuencia madurativa de diferenciaci??n en distintos grupos cl??nicos de am??gdala.

  10. OMEGA Upgrade preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.

    1989-10-01

    The OMEGA laser system at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester is the only major facility in the United States capable of conducting fully diagnosed, direct-drive, spherical implosion experiments. As such, it serves as the national Laser Users Facility, benefiting scientists throughout the country. The University's participation in the National Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program underwent review by a group of experts under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences (the Happer Committee) in 1985. The Happer Committee recommended that the OMEGA laser be upgraded in energy to 30 kJ. To this end, Congress appropriated $4,000,000 for the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade, spread across FY88 and FY89. This document describes the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade. The proposed enhancements to the existing OMEGA facility will result in a 30-kHJ, 351-nm, 60-beam direct-drive system, with a versatile pulse-shaping facility and a 1%--2% uniformity of target drive. The Upgrade will allow scientists to explore the ignition-scaling regime, and to study target behavior that is hydrodynamically equivalent to that of targets appropriate for a laboratory microfusion facility (LMF). In addition, it will be possible to perform critical interaction experiments with large-scale-length uniformly irradiated plasmas

  11. Conversational evidence in therapeutic dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Tom; Busch, Robbie; Couture, Shari

    2008-07-01

    Family therapists' participation in therapeutic dialogue with clients is typically informed by evidence of how such dialogue is developing. In this article, we propose that conversational evidence, the kind that can be empirically analyzed using discourse analyses, be considered a contribution to widening psychotherapy's evidence base. After some preliminaries about what we mean by conversational evidence, we provide a genealogy of evaluative practice in psychotherapy, and examine qualitative evaluation methods for their theoretical compatibilities with social constructionist approaches to family therapy. We then move on to examine the notion of accomplishment in therapeutic dialogue given how such accomplishments can be evaluated using conversation analysis. We conclude by considering a number of research and pedagogical implications we associate with conversational evidence.

  12. Preliminary evidence that glucose ingestion facilitates prospective memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Leigh M; Law, Anna S; McLaughlin, Jennifer; Murray, Jennifer

    2011-05-01

    Previous research has found that the ingestion of glucose boosts task performance in the memory domain (including tasks tapping episodic, semantic, and working memory). The present pilot study tested the hypothesis that glucose ingestion would enhance performance on a test of prospective memory. In a between-subjects design, 56 adults ranging from 17 to 80 years of age performed a computerized prospective memory task and an attention (filler) task after 25 g of glucose or a sweetness-matched placebo. Blood glucose measurements were also taken to assess the impact of individual differences on glucose regulation. After the drink containing glucose, cognitive facilitation was observed on the prospective memory task after excluding subjects with impaired fasting glucose level. Specifically, subjects receiving glucose were 19% more accurate than subjects receiving a placebo, a trend that was marginally nonsignificant, F₁,₄₁ = 3.4, P = .07, but that had a medium effect size, d = 0.58. Subjects receiving glucose were also significantly faster on the prospective memory task, F₁,₃₅ = 4.8, P glucose (indicative of poor glucose regulation) was associated with slower prospective memory responding, F₁,₃₅ = 4.4, P memory and executive functioning can benefit from the increased provision of glucose to the brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Preliminary evidence of altered biomechanics in adolescents with juvenile fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Soumitri; Thomas, Staci; DiCesare, Christopher; Strotman, Daniel; Ting, Tracy V; Myer, Gregory; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain and marked reduction in physical activity. Despite recommendations for exercise to manage juvenile FM pain, exercise adherence is poor. Because of pain and activity avoidance, adolescents with juvenile FM are at risk for altered joint mechanics that may make them susceptible to increased pain and reduced tolerance for exercise. The primary aim of this study was to assess functional deficits in patients with juvenile FM compared to healthy controls using objective biomechanical assessment. Female adolescent patients with juvenile FM (n = 17) and healthy controls (n = 14) completed biomechanical assessments, including gait analysis and tests of lower extremity strength (isokinetic knee extension/flexion and hip abduction) and functional performance (drop vertical jump test) along with self-reported measures of disability (Functional Disability Inventory), pain intensity, depressive symptoms (Children's Depression Inventory), and fear of movement (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia). Patients with juvenile FM demonstrated mild deficiencies in walking gait and functional performance (P < 0.05 for both) and significantly lower left knee extension and flexion strength (18-22% deficit) and bilateral hip abduction strength (34-38%) compared with healthy controls (P < 0.008 for all). Patients with juvenile FM reported significantly higher functional disability, pain intensity, depressive symptoms, and fear of movement relative to controls (P < 0.01 for all). This study showed that adolescents with juvenile FM exhibited objective alterations in biomechanics and self-reported fear of movement that may have reinforced their activity avoidance. Interventions for juvenile FM should include a focus on correcting functional deficits and instilling greater confidence in adolescents with juvenile FM to engage in exercise to improve functional outcomes. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  14. Preliminary evidence suggests extra-pair mating in the endangered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study utilized four microsatellite genetic markers, originally developed for the African grey parrot. Parentage testing was undertaken using genotype comparisons with the dominant pair within the breeding group as well as auxiliary males where available. Although four markers were insufficient to provide conclusive ...

  15. Macroeconomic Activity and Monetary Policy Actions: Some Preliminary Evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Haslag, Joseph H; Hein, Scott E

    1992-01-01

    Monetary policy is conducted through open market operations, loans at the discount window, and changes in the reserve requirement structure. The purpose of this paper is to formally investigate the notion that the effect of changes in reserve requirement ratios is different from the effect of other policy tools. This is accomplished by decomposing the monetary base into those changes caused by changes in reserve requirement ratios and those caused by other monetary policy actions. Some prelim...

  16. Preliminary evidence of hippocampal damage in chronic users of ecstasy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hollander, B.; Schouw, M.; Groot, P.; Huisman, H.; Caan, M.; Barkhof, F.; Reneman, L.

    2012-01-01

    Various studies have shown that ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) users display significant memory impairments, whereas their performance on other cognitive tests is generally normal. The hippocampus plays an essential role in short-term memory. There are, however, no structural human data

  17. Preliminary rail access study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site, located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site, is an undeveloped area under investigation as a potential site for nuclear waste disposal by the US Department of Energy. The site currently lacks rail service and an existing rail right-of-way. If the site is suitable and selected for development as a disposal site, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program because of the potential of rail to reduce number of shipments and costs relative to highway transportation. This preliminary report is a summary of progress to date for activities to identify and evaluate potential rail options from major rail carriers in the region to the Yucca Mountain site. It is currently anticipated that the rail spur will be operational after the year 2000. 9 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  18. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Militzer, B.

    2016-01-01

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity

  19. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, W. B. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Militzer, B. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  20. Pickering safeguards: a preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, J.L.; Hodgkinson, J.G.

    1977-05-01

    A summary is presented of thoughts relative to a systems approach for implementing international safeguards. Included is a preliminary analysis of the Pickering Generating Station followed by a suggested safeguards system for the facility

  1. Cell emulation and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report details preliminary results of the testing plan implemented by the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute to evaluate Electric Vehicle (EV) battery durability and reliability under electric utility grid operations. Commercial EV battery cells ar...

  2. Evidence logics with relational evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltag, Alexandru; Occhipinti, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a family of logics for reasoning about relational evidence: evidence that involves an ordering of states in terms of their relative plausibility. We provide sound and complete axiomatizations for the logics. We also present several evidential actions and prove soundness...

  3. Digital evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although computer makes human activities faster and easier, innovating and creating new forms of work and other kinds of activities, it also influenced the criminal activity. The development of information technology directly affects the development of computer forensics without which, it can not even imagine the discovering and proving the computer offences and apprehending the perpetrator. Information technology and computer forensic allows us to detect and prove the crimes committed by computer and capture the perpetrators. Computer forensics is a type of forensics which can be defined as a process of collecting, preserving, analyzing and presenting digital evidence in court proceedings. Bearing in mind, that combat against crime, in which computers appear as an asset or object of the offense, requires knowledge of digital evidence as well as specific rules and procedures, the author in this article specifically addresses the issues of digital evidence, forensic (computer investigation, specific rules and procedures for detecting, fixing and collecting digital evidence and use of this type of evidence in criminal proceedings. The author also delas with international standards regarding digital evidence and cyber-space investigation.

  4. Preliminary Results of the Louisiana Sex Offender Treatment Program

    OpenAIRE

    Lee A. Underwood; Frances L.L. Dailey; Carrie Merino; Yolanda Crump

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to offer preliminary support for the Louisiana Sex Offender Treatment Program (LSOTP) in addressing the needs of juvenile sex offenders. Research objectives were (1) to offer statistical evidence for reductions in anxiety, depression, cognitive distortion and negative attitudes towards women comparing a group of 21 adolescents, 12 of whom received services as usual and nine of whom participated in the LSOTP. A controlled experimental evaluation design was utilize...

  5. Preliminary lessons from GEOTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalieux, P.; Pescatore, C.; Smith, P.; Lalieux, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Geotrap project is devoted to current approaches to acquiring field data, and testing and modelling flow and transport of radionuclides in actual geological formations. Up to now, the project has given rise to a number of technical observations and recommendations regarding the characterization of heterogeneity. The project is articulated in a series of forum-style workshops. The first 4 workshops addressed topics related successively to: the roles of field tracer experiments in the prediction of radionuclide migration; the modelling of the effects of spatial variability; the characterisation and representation of water-conducting features; the confidence in models of radionuclide transport for site-specific assessment. A fifth workshop, to be held in September 2000, will address the geological evidence and theoretical bases for radionuclide retention in heterogeneous, geological media

  6. Preliminary design county plan Zeeland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The preliminary design 'Streekplan Zeeland' (Country plan Zeeland, with regard to the location of additional nuclear power plants in Zeeland, the Netherlands) has passed through a consultation and participation round. Thereupon 132 reactions have been received. These have been incorporated and answered in two notes. This proposal deals with the principal points of the preliminary design and treats also the remarks of the committees Environmental (town and country) Planning (RO), Provincial (town and country) Planning Committee (PPC) and Association of Communities of Zeeland (VZG), on the reply notes. The preliminary design with the modifications, collected in appendix 3, is proposed to be the starting point in the drawing-up of the design-country-plan. This design subsequently will pass the formal country-plan procedure. (author). 1 fig

  7. Space reactor preliminary mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis was performed on the SABRE reactor space power system to determine the effect of the number and size of heat pipes on the design parameters of the nuclear subsystem. Small numbers of thin walled heat pipes were found to give a lower subsystem mass, but excessive fuel swelling resulted. The SP-100 preliminary design uses 120 heat pipes because of acceptable fuel swelling and a minimum nuclear subsystem mass of 1875 kg. Salient features of the reactor preliminary design are: individual fuel modules, ZrO 2 block core mounts, bolted collar fuel module restraints, and a BeO central plug

  8. Technetium removal: preliminary flowsheet options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eager, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the results of a preliminary investigation into options for preliminary flowsheets for 99Tc removal from Hanford Site tank waste. A model is created to show the path of 99Tc through pretreatment to disposal. The Tank Waste Remediation (TWRS) flowsheet (Orme 1995) is used as a baseline. Ranges of important inputs to the model are developed, such as 99Tc inventory in the tanks and important splits through the TWRS flowsheet. Several technetium removal options are discussed along with sensitivities of the removal schemes to important model parameters

  9. Preliminary HECTOR analysis by Dragon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presser, W; Woloch, F

    1972-06-02

    From the different cores measured in HECTOR, only ACH 4/B-B was selected for the Dragon analysis, since it presented the largest amount of uniform fuel loading in the central test region and is therefore nearest to an infinite lattice. Preliminary results are discussed.

  10. BIPS-FS preliminary design, miscellaneous notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A compendium of flight system preliminary design internal memos and progress report extracts for the Brayton Isotope Power System Preliminary Design Review to be held July 20, 21, and 22, 1975 is presented. The purpose is to bring together those published items which relate only to the preliminary design of the Flight System, Task 2 of Phase I. This preliminary design effort was required to ensure that the Ground Demonstration System will represent the Flight System as closely as possible

  11. 45 CFR 150.217 - Preliminary determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preliminary determination. 150.217 Section 150.217... Are Failing To Substantially Enforce HIPAA Requirements § 150.217 Preliminary determination. If, at... designees). (b) Notifies the State of CMS's preliminary determination that the State has failed to...

  12. Space Elevators Preliminary Architectural View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullum, L.; Swan, P. A.

    Space Systems Architecture has been expanded into a process by the US Department of Defense for their large scale systems of systems development programs. This paper uses the steps in the process to establishes a framework for Space Elevator systems to be developed and provides a methodology to manage complexity. This new approach to developing a family of systems is based upon three architectural views: Operational View OV), Systems View (SV), and Technical Standards View (TV). The top level view of the process establishes the stages for the development of the first Space Elevator and is called Architectural View - 1, Overview and Summary. This paper will show the guidelines and steps of the process while focusing upon components of the Space Elevator Preliminary Architecture View. This Preliminary Architecture View is presented as a draft starting point for the Space Elevator Project.

  13. Radioactive waste shredding: Preliminary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.

    1994-07-01

    The critical constraints for sizing solid radioactive and mixed wastes for subsequent thermal treatment were identified via a literature review and a survey of shredding equipment vendors. The types and amounts of DOE radioactive wastes that will require treatment to reduce the waste volume, destroy hazardous organics, or immobilize radionuclides and/or hazardous metals were considered. The preliminary steps of waste receipt, inspection, and separation were included because many potential waste treatment technologies have limits on feedstream chemical content, physical composition, and particle size. Most treatment processes and shredding operations require at least some degree of feed material characterization. Preliminary cost estimates show that pretreatment costs per unit of waste can be high and can vary significantly, depending on the processing rate and desired output particle size

  14. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Permian Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Permian Basin, Texas. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references, 13 tables

  15. Preliminary Results of the Louisiana Sex Offender Treatment Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A. Underwood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to offer preliminary support for the Louisiana Sex Offender Treatment Program (LSOTP in addressing the needs of juvenile sex offenders. Research objectives were (1 to offer statistical evidence for reductions in anxiety, depression, cognitive distortion and negative attitudes towards women comparing a group of 21 adolescents, 12 of whom received services as usual and nine of whom participated in the LSOTP. A controlled experimental evaluation design was utilized. The juvenile sex offenders were randomly assigned to the experimental group for 12 weeks receiving treatment services and a control group receiving care “as usual” in a residential group care program. Participants in the experimental group experienced statistically significant decreases in cognitive distortions related specifically to rape and molestation.The results of this study offer preliminary support of the LSOTP as a best practices alternative to other treatment modalities.

  16. Evidence-Based Psychological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Robert F

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing emphasis on evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP), and as is true in most health care professions, the primary focus of EBPP has been on treatment. Comparatively little attention has been devoted to applying the principles of EBPP to psychological assessment, despite the fact that assessment plays a central role in myriad domains of empirical and applied psychology (e.g., research, forensics, behavioral health, risk management, diagnosis and classification in mental health settings, documentation of neuropsychological impairment and recovery, personnel selection and placement in organizational contexts). This article outlines the central elements of evidence-based psychological assessment (EBPA), using the American Psychological Association's tripartite definition of EBPP as integration of the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences. After discussing strategies for conceptualizing and operationalizing evidence-based testing and evidence-based assessment, 6 core skills and 3 meta-skills that underlie proficiency in psychological assessment are described. The integration of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences is discussed in terms of the complex interaction of patient and assessor identities and values throughout the assessment process. A preliminary framework for implementing EBPA is offered, and avenues for continued refinement and growth are described.

  17. Preliminaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desde el jardín de Freud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Desde el Jardín de Freud se encuentra indexada en el IBN-Publindex (Colciencias, en categoría C, y en Latindex. También se encuentra en las siguientes bases de datos y catálogos: ebsco, Dialnet, Rebiun, Doaj y e-Revistas.

  18. Preliminary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desde el Jardín de Freud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el Jardín de Freud is indexed in the IBN-Publindex (Colciencias in category C, and the following databases and catalogs: EBSCO, ProQuest, Google Scholar, CLASE, Latindex, Dialnet, Rebiun, Doaj, e-revistas and Library Luis Angel Arango virtual.

  19. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented

  20. TCA High Lift Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, G. H.; Polito, R. C.; Yeh, D. T.; Elzey, M. E.; Tran, J. T.; Meredith, Paul T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a TCA (Technology Concept Airplane) High lift Preliminary Assessment. The topics discussed are: 1) Model Description; 2) Data Repeatability; 3) Effect of Inboard L.E. (Leading Edge) Flap Span; 4) Comparison of 14'x22' TCA-1 With NTF (National Transonic Facility) Modified Ref. H; 5) Comparison of 14'x22' and NTF Ref. H Results; 6) Effect of Outboard Sealed Slat on TCA; 7) TCA Full Scale Build-ups; 8) Full Scale L/D Comparisons; 9) TCA Full Scale; and 10) Touchdown Lift Curves. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  1. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  2. Versator divertor experiment: preliminary designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Yang, T.F.

    1984-08-01

    The emergence of magnetic divertors as an impurity control and ash removal mechanism for future tokamak reactors bring on the need for further experimental verification of the divertor merits and their ability to operate at reactor relevant conditions, such as with auxiliary heating. This paper presents preliminary designs of a bundle and a poloidal divertor for Versator II, which can operate in conjunction with the existing 150 kW of LHRF heating or LH current drive. The bundle divertor option also features a new divertor configuration which should improve the engineering and physics results of the DITE experiment. Further design optimization in both physics and engineering designs are currently under way

  3. On Preliminary Test Estimator for Median

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Takeo; 岡崎, 威生

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to discuss about estimation of median with a preliminary test. Two procedures are presented, one uses Median test and the other uses Wilcoxon two-sample test for the preliminary test. Sections 3 and 4 give mathematical formulations of such properties, including mean square errors with one specified case. Section 5 discusses their optimal significance levels of the preliminary test and proposes their numerical values by Monte Carlo method. In addition to mea...

  4. Development and Preliminary Validation of the Time Management for Exercise Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellsten, Laurie-ann M.; Rogers, W. Todd

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect preliminary validity evidence for a time management scale for exercise. An initial pool of 91 items was developed from existing literature. Ten exercise/health psychologists evaluated each of the items in terms of relevance and representativeness. Forty-nine items met all criteria. Exploratory factor…

  5. Preliminary Context Analysis of Community Informatics Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary context analysis is always part of the feasibility study phase in the development of information system for Community Development (CD) purposes. In this paper, a context model and a preliminary context analysis are presented for Social Network Web Application (SNWA) for CD in the Niger Delta region of ...

  6. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a) As...

  7. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  8. KALIMER preliminary conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Do Hee; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. G. and others

    2000-08-01

    This report, which summarizes the result of preliminary conceptual design activities during Phase 1, follows the format of safety analysis report. The purpose of publishing this report is to gather all of the design information developed so far in a systematic way so that KALIMER designers have a common source of the consistent design information necessary for their future design activities. This report will be revised and updated as design changes occur and more detailed design specification is developed during Phase 2. Chapter 1 describes the KALIMER Project. Chapter 2 includes the top level design requirements of KALIMER and general plant description. Chapter 3 summarizes the design of structures, components, equipment and systems. Specific systems and safety analysis results are described in the remaining chapters. Appendix on the HCDA evaluation is attached at the end of this report.

  9. Psychohistory and Slavery: Preliminary Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kenneth Alan

    2015-01-01

    "Psychohistory and Slavery: Preliminary Issues," begins an examination of slavery in the antebellum South. The paper suggests that how slavery and the group-fantasy of white male supremacy were perpetuated among slaveholders is a question of fundamental importance for psychohistorians. The family and childrearing are the focus of attention. Given the ferocity of slavery, it is argued that the psychological and emotional consequences of this barbarism were not limited to the slaves themselves, but had significant impact on the slaveholders as well-their parenting, their children, and their children's parenting of the next generation. In each generation the trauma of slavery was injected into slaveholder children and became a fundamental component of elite Southern personality.

  10. KALIMER preliminary conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Do Hee; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. G. and others

    2000-08-01

    This report, which summarizes the result of preliminary conceptual design activities during Phase 1, follows the format of safety analysis report. The purpose of publishing this report is to gather all of the design information developed so far in a systematic way so that KALIMER designers have a common source of the consistent design information necessary for their future design activities. This report will be revised and updated as design changes occur and more detailed design specification is developed during Phase 2. Chapter 1 describes the KALIMER Project. Chapter 2 includes the top level design requirements of KALIMER and general plant description. Chapter 3 summarizes the design of structures, components, equipment and systems. Specific systems and safety analysis results are described in the remaining chapters. Appendix on the HCDA evaluation is attached at the end of this report

  11. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility's construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment

  12. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  13. Anticoagulation and high dose liver radiation. A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lightdale, C.J.; Wasser, J.; Coleman, M.; Brower, M.; Tefft, M.; Pasmantier, M.

    1979-01-01

    Two groups of patients were observed for evidence of acute radiation hepatitis during high dose radiation to the liver. The first group of 18 patients with metastatic liver disease received an average of 4,050 rad to the whole liver. Half received anticoagulation with warfarin. One patient on anticoagulation developed evidence of acute radiation hepatitis while 2 patients did so without anticoagulation. Eleven patients with Hodgkin's disease received 4,000 rad to the left lobe of the liver during extended field radiation. Four of these 11 patients were anticoagulated to therapeutic range. Only one of the fully anticoagulated patients showed changes on liver scan consistent with radiation hepatitis whereas three did so without anticoagulation. No serious sequelae from anticoagulation occurred in either group. These preliminary data suggest that anticoagulation may be safely administered with high dose hepatic radiation and that further trials with anticoagulation are warranted

  14. Preliminary nuclear decommissioning cost study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissingh, R.A.P.

    1981-04-01

    The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant may involve one or more of three possible options: storage with surveillance (SWS), restricted site release (RSR), and unrestricted site use(USU). This preliminary study concentrates on the logistical, technical and cost aspects of decommissioning a multi-unit CANDU generating station using Pickering GS as the reference design. The procedure chosen for evaluation is: i) removal of the fuel and heavy water followed by decontamination prior to placing the station in SWS for thiry years; ii) complete dismantlement to achieve a USU state. The combination of SWS and USU with an interim period of surveillance allows for radioactive decay and hence less occupational exposure in achieving USU. The study excludes the conventional side of the station, assumes waste disposal repositories are available 1600 km away from the station, and uses only presently available technologies. The dismantlement of all systems except the reactor core can be accomplished using Ontario Hydro's current operating, maintenance and construction procedures. The total decommissioning period is spread out over approximately 40 years, with major activities concentrated in the first and last five years. The estimated dose would be approximately 1800 rem. Overall Pickering GS A costs would be $162,000,000 (1980 Canadian dollars)

  15. Preliminary Iron Distribution on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of iron on the surface of the asteroid Vesta was investigated using Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1,2]. Iron varies predictably with rock type for the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites, thought to be representative of Vesta. The abundance of Fe in howardites ranges from about 12 to 15 wt.%. Basaltic eucrites have the highest abundance, whereas, lower crustal and upper mantle materials (cumulate eucrites and diogenites) have the lowest, and howardites are intermediate [3]. We have completed a mapping study of 7.6 MeV gamma rays produced by neutron capture by Fe as measured by the bismuth germanate (BGO) detector of GRaND [1]. The procedures to determine Fe counting rates are presented in detail here, along with a preliminary distribution map, constituting the necessary initial step to quantification of Fe abundances. We find that the global distribution of Fe counting rates is generally consistent with independent mineralogical and compositional inferences obtained by other instruments on Dawn such as measurements of pyroxene absorption bands by the Visual and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) [4] and Framing Camera (FC) [5] and neutron absorption measurements by GRaND [6].

  16. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker F.; Bridges, J.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, C omet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return o f contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approximately 0.1m(exp 2) in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the co llecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Col lector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m(exp 2-) day during two periods before the co metary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination ( ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using no ndestructive techniques. The ISPE consists of six interdependent proj ects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microsco py and a massively distributed, calibrated search (2) Candidate extr action and photodocumentation (3) Characterization of candidates thro ugh synchrotronbased FourierTranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), S canning XRay Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission Xray Microscopy (STXM) (4) Search for and analysis of craters in f oils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotronbased Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) (5) Modeling of interstell ar dust transport in the solar system (6) Laboratory simulations of h ypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media

  17. Preliminary design of smart fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.; Ha, D.; Park, S.; Nahm, K.; Lee, K.; Kim, J.

    2007-01-01

    SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) is a novel light water rector with a modular, integral primary system configuration. This concept has been developing a 660 MWt by Korean Nuclear Power Industry Group with KAERI. SMART is being developed for use as an energy source for small-scale power generation and seawater desalination. Although the design of SMART is based on the current pressurized water reactor technology, new technologies such as enhanced safety, and passive safety have been applied, and system simplification and modularization, innovations in manufacturing and installation technologies have been implemented culminating in a design that has enhanced safety and economy, and is environment -friendly. In this paper described the preliminary design of the nuclear Fuel for this SMART, the design concept and the characteristics of SMART Fuel. In specially this paper describe the optimization of grid span adjustment to improve the thermal performance of the SMART Fuel as well as to improve the seismic resistance performance of the SMART Fuel, it is not easy to improve the both performance simultaneously because of design parameter of each performance inversely proportional. SMART Fuel enable to extra-long extended fuel cycle length and resistance of proliferation, enhanced safety, improved economics and reduced nuclear waste

  18. Authentication by Keystroke Timing: Some Preliminary Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gaines, R. S; Lisowski, William; Press, S. J; Shapiro, Norman

    1980-01-01

    ... of an individual seeking access to the computer. This report summarizes preliminary efforts to establish whether an individual can be identified by the statistical characteristics of his or her typing...

  19. Preliminary Phytochemical and Physicochemical Characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To carry out phytochemical and physicochemical studies on the leaves of Gynura segetum. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical and physicochemical studies using chromatographic techniques,were carried out, Parameters evaluated include ash value, loss on drying and extractive value, amongst others.

  20. Original Article PRELIMINARY BIOAUTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRELIMINARY BIOAUTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF THE SEEDS OF GLYPHAEA BREVIS. (SPRENG) MONACHINO FOR ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL PRINCIPLES. Michael Lahai1, Tiwalade Adewale Olugbade2. 1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Medicine ...

  1. Preliminary engineering cost trends for highway projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    Preliminary engineering (PE) for a highway project encompasses two efforts: planning to minimize the physical, social, and human environmental impacts of projects and engineering design to deliver the best alternative. PE efforts begin years in advan...

  2. Preliminary Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Waffle Walls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shugar, Theodore

    1997-01-01

    A preliminary analytical method based upon modified plate bending theory is offered for structural analysis of a promising new construction method for walls of small buildings and residential housing...

  3. Preliminary design data package. Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-25

    The design requirements, design philosophy, method and assumptions, and preliminary computer-aided design of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle including its electric and heat power units, control equipment, transmission system, body, and overall vehicle characteristics are presented. (LCL)

  4. Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariwite, Roderick [Fallon Paiute Shoshone Tribe, NV (United States)

    2015-07-31

    This "Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report" seeks to provide an overall assessment and review of renewable energy development opportunities on the Fallon Indian Reservation and Colony Lands.

  5. Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary technical assessment. ... living in informal settlements with the effluent produced being used on agricultural land. ... Banana and taro required 3 514 mm of irrigation effluent.

  6. Dissociation - a preliminary contextual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Krüger

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM system has certain limitations when applied to two South African examples of dissociation, because it is descriptive (non-explanatory and focuses on intrapsychic (non-communal processes. Even the existing Western explanatory models of dissociation fail to accommodate fully the communal aspects of dissociation in our South African context. Objectives and methods. The aim was to explore an expanded perspective on dissociation that does not limit it to an intrapsychic phenomenon, but that accounts for the interrelatedness of individuals within their social context. Auto-ethnography was used. In this article a collective, socially orientated, contextual hermeneutic was applied to two local examples of dissociation. Three existing Western models were expanded along multicontextual, collective lines, for them to be more useful in the pluralistic South African context. Results. This preliminary contextual model of dissociation includes a person’s interpersonal, socio-cultural, and spiritual contexts, in addition to the intrapsychic context. Dissociation is considered to be a normal information-processing tool that maintains balanced, coherent selves-in-society, i.e. individuals connected to each other. In the South African context dissociation appears mostly as a normal phenomenon and seldom as a sign of mental illness. Dissociation is pivotal for the normal construction of individual and communal identities in the face of conflicting sets of information from various contexts. Dissociation may help individuals or communities to survive in a world of conflicting messages, where conflict is often interpersonal/cultural/societal in nature, rather than primarily intrapsychic. Conclusions. This model should be developed and evaluated further. Such evaluation would require suitable new local terminology.

  7. Project Rulison: A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Miles Jr [Austral Oil Company Incorporated, Houston, TX (United States); Bray, Bruce G; Mann, Robert L [CER Geonuclear Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Project Rulison was designed to use underground nuclear technology to determine the potential of this technique for commercial development of the deep, thick, lenticular, low permeability, Mesaverde Formation of the Rulison Field in Garfield County, Colorado. Since discovery in 1952, this reservoir has been tested by nine widely-spaced conventionally completed wells. A method of stimulation, far greater in magnitude and efficiency than conventional hydraulic fracturing, is needed to recover this gas at economic rates. A feasibility study completed in July 1966 indicated that nuclear explosives were a potentially economic method of stimulating recovery of natural gas from the reservoir. The gas-in-place, estimated to be between 90-125 billion cubic feet per 640 acres from earlier wells, was confirmed from information obtained on two conventional wells completed in 1966. The Project Rulison exploratory well, R-EX, was completed in May 1968. Detailed testing of this well provided data on geology, hydrology and reservoir characteristics. The data obtained from the testing have been used to determine the flow capacity of the Mesaverde reservoir. The reservoir characteristics were then used as input data to make predictions of post-shot reservoir performance in the nuclear stimulated well, using a radial, unsteady state gas flow computer model. A nuclear explosive with a design yield of 40 kilotons was emplaced in a 10-3/4 inch hole at a depth of 8426 feet below ground surface and detonated on September 10, 1969. A preliminary appraisal of the data taken at shot time indicate that the explosive behaved as predicted. The explosion was completely contained underground as predicted and no major seismic damage occurred. The post-shot drilling program, to reenter the chimney, will congruence in March 1970, approximately six months after detonation. A test program will be initiated at that time to determine the degree of reservoir stimulation achieved. (author)

  8. Time domain simulations of preliminary breakdown pulses in natural lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, B E; Liang, C; Bitzer, P; Christian, H

    2015-06-16

    Lightning discharge is a complicated process with relevant physical scales spanning many orders of magnitude. In an effort to understand the electrodynamics of lightning and connect physical properties of the channel to observed behavior, we construct a simulation of charge and current flow on a narrow conducting channel embedded in three-dimensional space with the time domain electric field integral equation, the method of moments, and the thin-wire approximation. The method includes approximate treatment of resistance evolution due to lightning channel heating and the corona sheath of charge surrounding the lightning channel. Focusing our attention on preliminary breakdown in natural lightning by simulating stepwise channel extension with a simplified geometry, our simulation reproduces the broad features observed in data collected with the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array. Some deviations in pulse shape details are evident, suggesting future work focusing on the detailed properties of the stepping mechanism. Preliminary breakdown pulses can be reproduced by simulated channel extension Channel heating and corona sheath formation are crucial to proper pulse shape Extension processes and channel orientation significantly affect observations.

  9. Births: preliminary data for 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Martin, Joyce A; Ventura, Stephanie J

    2006-12-28

    This report presents preliminary data for 2005 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, live-birth order, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, cesarean delivery, preterm births, and low birthweight (LBW) are also presented. Data in this report are based on 99.2 percent of births for 2005. The records are weighted to independent control counts of all births received in state vital statistics offices in 2005. Comparisons are made with 2004 data. The crude birth rate in 2005 was 14.0 births per 1,000 total population, unchanged from 2004. The general fertility rate, however, rose to 66.7 births per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years in 2005, the highest level since 1993. The birth rate for teenagers declined by 2 percent in 2005, falling to 40.4 births per 1,000 women aged 15-19 years, the lowest ever recorded in the 65 years for which a consistent series of rates are available. The rate declined for teenagers 15-17 years to 21.4 births per 1,000, but was essentially stable for older teenagers 18-19 years. The birth rate for women aged 20-24 years rose in 2005, whereas the rate for women aged 25-29 years was essentially unchanged. The birth rates for women aged 30 years and over rose to levels not seen in almost 40 years. Childbearing by unmarried women increased to record levels for the Nation in 2005. The birth rate rose 3 percent to 47.6 births per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15-44 years; the proportion of all births to unmarried women increased to 36.8 percent. The cesarean delivery rate rose by 4 percent in 2005 to 30.2 percent of all births, another record high for the Nation. The preterm birth rate continued to rise (to 12.7 percent in 2005) as did the rate for LBW births (8.2 percent).

  10. Births: preliminary data for 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J A; Hamilton, B E; Ventura, S J

    2001-07-24

    This report presents preliminary data for 2000 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, prenatal care, cesarean delivery, and low birthweight are also presented. Data in this report are based on more than 96 percent of births for 2000. The records are weighted to independent control counts of births received in State vital statistics offices in 2000. Comparisons are made with 1999 final data. The number of births rose 3 percent between 1999 and 2000. The crude birth rate increased to 14.8 per 1,000 population in 2000, 2 percent higher than the 1999 rate. The fertility rate rose 3 percent to 67.6 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years between 1999 and 2000. The birth rate for teenagers, which has been falling since 1991, declined 2 percent in 2000 to 48.7 births per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years, another historic low. The rate for teenagers 15-17 years fell 4 percent, and the rate for 18-19 year olds was down 1 percent. Since 1991, rates have fallen 29 percent for teenagers 15-17 years and 16 percent for teenagers 18-19 years. Birth rates for all of the older age groups increased for 1999-2000: 1 percent among women aged 20-24 years, 3 percent for women aged 25-29 years, and 5 percent for women in their thirties. Rates for women aged 40-54 years were also up for 2000. The birth rate for unmarried women increased 2 percent to 45.2 births per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15-44 years in 2000, but was still lower than the peak reached in 1994. The number of births to unmarried women was up 3 percent, the highest number ever reported in the United States. However, the number of births to unmarried teenagers declined. The proportion of women who began prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy (83.2 percent) did not improve for 2000, nor did the rate of low birthweight (7.6 percent). The total cesarean rate rose for the fourth consecutive year to 22.9 percent, the result of both a

  11. Tellurium in active volcanic environments: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Silvia; Calabrese, Sergio; D'Alessandro, Walter; Brusca, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Tellurium is a toxic metalloid and, according to the Goldschmidt classification, a chalcophile element. In the last years its commercial importance has considerably increased because of its wide use in solar cells, thermoelectric and electronic devices of the last generation. Despite such large use, scientific knowledge about volcanogenic tellurium is very poor. Few previous authors report result of tellurium concentrations in volcanic plume, among with other trace metals. They recognize this element as volatile, concluding that volcanic gases and sulfur deposits are usually enriched with tellurium. Here, we present some results on tellurium concentrations in volcanic emissions (plume, fumaroles, ash leachates) and in environmental matrices (soils and plants) affected by volcanic emissions and/or deposition. Samples were collected at Etna and Vulcano (Italy), Turrialba (Costa Rica), Miyakejima, Aso, Asama (Japan), Mutnovsky (Kamchatka) at the crater rims by using common filtration techniques for aerosols (polytetrafluoroethylene filters). Filters were both eluted with Millipore water and acid microwave digested, and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Volcanic ashes emitted during explosive events on Etna and Copahue (Argentina) were analyzed for tellurium bulk composition and after leaching experiments to evaluate the soluble fraction of tellurium. Soils and leaves of vegetation were also sampled close to active volcanic vents (Etna, Vulcano, Nisyros, Nyiragongo, Turrialba, Gorely and Masaya) and investigated for tellurium contents. Preliminary results showed very high enrichments of tellurium in volcanic emissions comparing with other volatile elements like mercury, arsenic, thallium and bismuth. This suggests a primary transport in the volatile phase, probably in gaseous form (as also suggested by recent studies) and/or as soluble salts (halides and/or sulfates) adsorbed on the surface of particulate particles and ashes. First

  12. Preliminary results of the first paleontologic investigations in Uruguayan Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perea, D.; Masquelin, E.; Verde, M.; Querequiz, R.

    1998-01-01

    Preliminary results of the first Uruguayan paleontollogic and biostratigraphical investigations in Antartica are presented. The field work was performed in fildes Peninsula, King George Island, near Uruguayan station Base Cientifica Antarctica Artigas.Some fossiliferous outcrops were geologic and paleontologically analyzed, among them Fossil Hills, situated in the center part of the peninsula, in front of Ardley Island, between the chinese and chilean stations.This hill is composed of fossil bearing piroclastic and epiclastic rocks, assigned to the fossil Hill Fm. Vegetal remains(petrified wood and leaf impronts) were observed and collected in this unit and it is remarkable the presence of Nothofagus sp. and invertebrate trace fossils, Cochlichmus isp and Helminthopsis isp.The depositional environment deduced from the fossil association in lacustrine, under a warm and humid climate.In the same deposits, other investigators have collected aquatic and ratite bird trace fossils. Paleontologic evidence is not contradictory with the Eocene age previously proposed for the studied deposits. (author)

  13. Preliminary study of varietal susceptibility to sulfur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.E.; Xerikos, P.B.

    1976-01-01

    The injury response of plants to air pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, is known to vary in severity and type for different varieties or cultivars of a species. Differences in the susceptibility of soybean varieties to sulfur dioxide have previously been noted, but sufficient information is not available concerning the sulfur dioxide resistance of varieties commonly grown in the Midwest. Results are reported from preliminary experiments concerning acute sulfur dioxide effects on 12 soybean varieties. The injury symptoms ranged from cream colored necrotic lesions (generally on younger leaves) to a reddish brown necrotic stipling (on older leaves). Differences in the severity of symptom development for the varieties was evident on both the younger and older leaves. No injury was apparent with three of the varieties

  14. Microangiographic study of the canine dental tissues: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabayashi, T.; Morgan, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    A microangiographic study of the dental tissues was performed on one adult mongrel dog to examine the usefulness of the technique. This preliminary study used 30% wt/vol Micropaque suspension which was perfused into the common carotid arteries. After the complete perfusion, the specimen was fixed into a mixture of 10% buffered neutral formalin solution and 95% ethyl alcohol. The mandibular bone with teeth in situ was decalcified. The specimen was embedded in methyl methacrylate. One mm slab sections were made, and then the microangiographs were made. Adequate filling of arterioles was evident on the microangiographs. This technique is shown to be useful in characterizing the nature of the blood supply to the bone and teeth that might be involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced injury in the canine dental and periodontal tissues

  15. The iron swords from the necropolis of Son Pellisser; preliminary advance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Fernández Mártinez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper submits the iron swords from the necropolis of Son Pellisser (Calvià-Majorca. Although the materials that we find are numerous and still under research offer a preliminary study about three imported swords, found in burial objects, also their possible origin and way of introduction on the island. These weapons could be the first archaeological evidence that the Balearic mercenaries participated in the Wars of Sicily, between Carthaginians and Greeks, from the fifth century BC.

  16. The demand factors for cesareans in Portugal – some preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Aida Isabel; Rocha, Tania

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the demand factors for cesareans in Portugal. This work is exploratory and preliminary. Data is aggregated in NUTSII , for the period 2002-10. The number of cesareans performed is count data which requires the estimation of this panel data by a negative binomial with fixed effects. The main result is the evidence that there may be induced demand for cesareans in Portugal. Further research is needed.

  17. Preliminary Report Regarding State Allocation Board Funding of the Los Angeles Unified School District's Belmont Learning Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armoudian, Maria; Carman, Georgann; Havan, Artineh; Heron, Frank

    A preliminary report of the California Legislature's Joint Legislative Audit Committee presents findings on the construction team selection process for the Los Angeles Unified School District's (LAUSD's) Belmont Learning Complex. Evidence reveals a seriously flawed process that directly conflicted with existing law and practice. The report…

  18. Evidence and evidence gaps in tinnitus therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    A nearly endless number of procedures has been tried and in particular sold for the treatment of tinnitus, unfortunately they have not been evaluated appropriately in an evidence-based way. A causal therapy, omitting the tinnitus still does not exist, actually it cannot exist because of the various mechanisms of its origin. However or perhaps because of that, medical interventions appear and reappear like fashion trends that can never be proven by stable and reliable treatment success. This contribution will discuss and acknowledge all current therapeutic procedures and the existing or non-existing evidence will be assessed. Beside external evidence, the term of evidence also encompasses the internal evidence, i.e. the experience of the treating physician and the patient’s needs shall be included. While there is no evidence for nearly all direct procedures that intend modulating or stimulating either the cochlea or specific cervical regions such as the auditory cortex, there are therapeutic procedures that are acknowledged in clinical practice and have achieved at least a certain degree of evidence and generate measurable effect sizes. Those are in particular habituation therapy and psychotherapeutic measures, especially if they are combined with concrete measures for improved audio perception (hearing aids, CI, hearing therapies). PMID:28025604

  19. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  20. Preliminary I&C Design for LORELEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkin, S.; Kaufman, Y.; Guttmann, E. B.; Levy, S.; Amidan, D.; Gdalyho, B.; Cahana, T.; Ellenbogen, A.; Arad, M.; Weiss, Y.; Sasson, A.; Ferry, L.; Bourrelly, F.; Cohen, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This document summarizes the preliminary I&C design for LORELEI experiment The preliminary design deals with considerations regarding appropriate safety and service instrumentation. The determined closed loop control rules for temperature and position will be implemented in the detailed design. The Computer Aided Operator Decisions System (CAODS) will be used for prediction of hot spot temperature and thickness of oxidation layer using Baker-Just correlation. The proposed hybrid simulation system comprising of both virtual and real hardware will be in-cooperated for LORELEI verification. It will perform both integration cold tests for a partial hardware loop and virtual tests for the final I&C design

  1. Evidence and evidence gaps - an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Gabriele; Löhler, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Medical treatment requires the implementation of existing evidence in the decision making process in order to be able to find the best possible diagnostic, therapeutic or prognostic measure for the individual patient based on the physician's own expertise. Clinical trials form the evidence base and ideally, their results are assembled, analyzed, summarized, and made available in systematic review articles. Beside planning, conducting, and evaluating clinical trials in conformity with GCP (good clinical practice), it is essential that all results of conducted studies are publicly available in order to avoid publication bias. This includes also the public registration of planned and cancelled trials. History: During the last 25 years, evidence-based medicine became increasingly important in medical care and research. It is closely associated with the names of Archibald Cochrane and David Sackett. About 15 years ago, the Deutsche Cochrane Zentrum (Cochrane Germany) and the Deutsche Netzwerk Evidenzbasierte Medizin e.V. (German Network for Evidence-based Medicine, DNEbM) were founded in Germany. In the International Cochrane Collaboration, clinicians and methodologists come together on an interdisciplinary level to further develop methods of evidence-based medicine and to discuss the topics of evidence generation and processing as well as knowledge transfer. Problem: Evidence is particularly important for physicians in the process of decision making, however, at the same time it is the base of a scientific proof of benefit for the patient and finally for the payers in health care. The closure of evidence gaps requires enormously high staff and financial resources, significant organizational efforts, and it is only successful when clinical and methodical expertise as well as specific knowledge in the field of clinical research are included. On the other hand, the knowledge has to be transferred into practice. For this purpose, practice guidelines, meetings

  2. [Evidence and Evidence Gaps - an Introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, G; Löhler, J

    2016-04-01

    Treating patients requires the inclusion of existing evidence in any health care decision, to be able to choose the best diagnosis or treatment measure or to make valid prognosis statements for a particular patient in consideration of the physician's own expertise.The basis are clinical trials, the results of which are ideally gathered in systematic reviews, rated, summarized and published. In addition to the GCP (Good Clinical Practice)-compliant planning, conducting and analysis of clinical studies it is essential, that all study results are made publicly available, in order to avoid publication bias. This includes the public registration of planned and discontinued trials. In the last 25 years, the evidence-based medicine (EbM) has increasingly found its way into clinical practice and research. Here EbM is closely associated with the names Archibald Cochrane and David Sackett. In Germany, both the German Cochrane Centre (DCZ) and the network of evidence-based medicine (DNEbM) were established approximately 15 years ago. In the international Cochrane Collaboration clinicians and other scientists like statisticians interdisciplinary work side by side to develop the methods of evidence-based medicine and to address the topics of evidence generation and processing as well as the transfer of knowledge. Challenge: Existing evidence primarily serves doctors to support their decision-making, but is also the basis for providing scientific proof for a health care intervention's benefit to patients and ultimately payers/health insurances. The closure of existing evidence gaps requires substantial human and financial resources, a complex organizational structure and can only succeed with the involvement of clinical and methodological expertise and specific knowledge in the field of clinical research. In addition, the knowledge must be transferred into practice, using journals, guidelines, conferences, databases, information portals with processed evidence and not least the

  3. Preliminary Validation of Composite Material Constitutive Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    John G. Michopoulos; Athanasios lliopoulos; John C. Hermanson; Adrian C. Orifici; Rodney S. Thomson

    2012-01-01

    This paper is describing the preliminary results of an effort to validate a methodology developed for composite material constitutive characterization. This methodology involves using massive amounts of data produced from multiaxially tested coupons via a 6-DoF robotic system called NRL66.3 developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. The testing is followed by...

  4. Phytochemical Screening and Preliminary Evaluation of Analgesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the methanolic root extract of Cissus polyantha was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening, analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies. Phytochemical studies was carried out using standard phytochemical protocol while the analgesic studies was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing tests in ...

  5. French 900 MWe PWR PSA preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanore, J.M.; Brisbois, J.

    1988-10-01

    A PSA is performed by the Safety Assessment Department of CEA for a 900 MWe standardized plant. The paper presents the objectives, the scope of the study and the relative preliminary results. Some general insights are drawn, especially the benefit related to the implementation of emergency procedures

  6. Original Article PRELIMINARY BIOAUTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sierra Leone 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, ... the seeds are used in the treatment of skin infections. ... Screening with DPPH showed prominent antioxidant spots on silica at Rf 0.8, 0.5, 0.4 .... underpins conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, ..... As a follow-up to the preliminary TLC studies.

  7. Preliminary radiation shielding design for BOOMERANG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donahue, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary radiation shielding specifications are presented here for the 3 GeV BOOMERANG Australian synchrotron light source project. At this time the bulk shield walls for the storage ring and injection system (100 MeV Linac and 3 GeV Booster) are considered for siting purposes

  8. Resumption Of Sexual Relationship After Childbirth: Preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resumption Of Sexual Relationship After Childbirth: Preliminary Observations On Husband\\'s Attitude. ... An open-ended questionnaire developed by the authors was used to elicit information on relevant aspects of husbands' reproductive behaviour. We found that husbands' preferred time of resumption of sexual ...

  9. Preliminary failure mode and effect analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addison, J.V.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) was made on the overall 5 Kwe system. A general discussion of the system and failure effect is given in addition to the tabulated FMEA and a primary block diagram of the system. (U.S.)

  10. The Adaptation Gap Report - a Preliminary Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alverson, Keith; Olhoff, Anne; Noble, Ian

    This first Adaptation Gap report provides an equally sobering assessment of the gap between adaptation needs and reality, based on preliminary thinking on how baselines, future goals or targets, and gaps between them might be defined for climate change adaptation. The report focuses on gaps...... in developing countries in three important areas: finance, technology and knowledge....

  11. Preliminary Findings on Rural Homelessness in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, Richard J.; And Others

    This report is designed to present preliminary findings from the first comprehensive study of rural homelessness in the United States. The study was conducted during the first 6 months of 1990, and data were collected from interviews with 921 homeless adults in 21 randomly selected rural counties in Ohio. The sample counties represent 26% of the…

  12. Preliminary safety analysis report for the TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, K.E.; Levine, J.D.; Howe, H.J.

    A Preliminary Safety Analysis Report has been prepared for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. No accident scenarios have been identified which would result in exposures to on-site personnel or the general public in excess of the guidelines defined for the project by DOE

  13. HTGR gas turbine power plant preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutz, S.L.; Krase, J.M.; Meyer, L.

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary reference design of the HTGR gas turbine power plant is presented. Economic and practical problems and incentives related to the development and introduction of this type of power plant are evaluated. The plant features and major components are described, and a discussion of its performance, economics, development, safety, control, and maintenance is presented. 4 references

  14. Preliminary tests of the electrostatic plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, G.; Acker, T.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the results of a program to verify an electrostatic plasma acceleration concept and to identify those parameters most important in optimizing an Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) thruster based upon this thrust mechanism. Preliminary performance measurements of thrust, specific impulse and efficiency were obtained using a unique plasma exhaust momentum probe. Reliable EPA thruster operation was achieved using one power supply.

  15. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we did some preliminary characterization of six slow growing rhizobial strains, isolated from Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. root nodules sampled from 3 sites along the coast of Oran (CapeFalcon, Bousfer and MersElHadjadj) in Northwestern Algeria. Results of this study showed that all strains had a very ...

  16. Preliminary bathymetry; approaches to Unakwik Inlet, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Austin

    1980-01-01

    A map, scale 1:20,000, shows water depths, rocks, and hazards to navigation. These data are noted on track lines run by the Research Vessel Growler in Alaskan waters, where data on navigation shown on published charts are nonexistant, preliminary, or out dated. (USGS)

  17. Preliminary designs: passive solar manufactured housing. Technical status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-12

    The criteria established to guide the development of the preliminary designs are listed. Three preliminary designs incorporating direct gain and/or sunspace are presented. Costs, drawings, and supporting calculations are included. (MHR)

  18. Epidemiological evidence of carcinogenicity of chlorinated organics in drinking water.

    OpenAIRE

    Cantor, K P

    1982-01-01

    Concern has recently been voiced over possible chronic toxicity associated with chlorination of public drinking water supplies in the United States. This paper reviews the available evidence and the studies underway to further evaluate hypothesized associations between cancer risk and byproducts of chlorination. Preliminary data from measures of halogenated volatiles and personal exposure histories from respondents in a large epidemiologic study of bladder cancer are presented. These data sup...

  19. 32 CFR 644.30 - Preliminary real estate work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Preliminary real estate work. 644.30 Section 644... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Project Planning Military (army and Air Force) and Other Federal Agencies § 644.30 Preliminary real estate work. (a) Preliminary real estate work is defined as that action taken...

  20. 28 CFR 2.48 - Revocation: Preliminary interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revocation: Preliminary interview. 2.48....48 Revocation: Preliminary interview. (a) Interviewing officer. A parolee who is retaken on a warrant issued by a Commissioner shall be given a preliminary interview by an official designated by the Regional...

  1. Adult health study. Hiroshima preliminary report, 1958-1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Anderson, Jr, P S

    1961-06-28

    The first 4151 clinical examinations of radiation exposed and nonexposed persons in the Hiroshima Adult Health Study have been tabulated and reviewed. No evident differences in past history, medical symptoms, physical examination, laboratory findings, nor disease incidence could be related to the atomic radiation in 1945. The sample is small and represents only a portion of the first cycle of an examination procedure that is planned to continue indefinitely at approximately two year intervals. This report, consisting of a review of the program and the findings in this preliminary sample, includes extensive tabular data (Tables 28-65) from the coded medical information. It was not expected that radiation induced changes would be evident from this sample unless they were of unexpected prominence. The report was prepared primarily to describe the problems inherent in an epidemiologic medical study of this sort, and to review the type of data that can be obtained for future analyses. This analysis was conducted to pinpoint some of the problems; to assist others contemplating this type of medical study; to illuminate for ABCC the data that are being collected; and to suggest ways to use these data most effectively. 16 references, 1 figure, 65 tables.

  2. Translocation of 11C from leaves of Helianthus: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fensom, D.S.; Aikman, D.; Scobie, J.; Drinkwater, A.; Ledingham, K.W.O.

    1977-01-01

    11 C fed to leaves as 11 CO 2 was used to study the dynamics of short-term translocation of photosynthate in Helianthus. As in 14 C studies small amounts of tracer were often detected in the stem close to the fed leaf in th first 5 min, followed by a larger mass flow after 15 min. The speed of mass flow of tracer movement was calculated to be 60 to 400 cm.h -1 depending on the method of calculation. There was no evidence in the premass flow for discrete spots along the stem or petiole where tracer accumulated. Neither was there firm evidence for pulses of tracer moving steadily forward, but there were point fluctuations of greater variability than would be expected by chance alone, which suggest the possibility of aberrations of movement superimposed on the mass flow. Details of these aberrations could not be assessed with certainty from these preliminary experiments owing to the rather low tracer activity. The translocation profiles were sensitive to the prior light conditioning of the plant and above all to chilling. In Helianthus the latter produced temporary restrictions in translocation which lasted for some 10-12 min. (author)

  3. Experience with PET FDG - Preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massardo, Teresa; Jofre, Josefina; Canessa, Jose; Gonzalez, Patricio; Humeres, Pamela; Sierralta, Paulina; Galaz, Rodrigo; Miranda, Karina

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The objective of this preliminary communication was to analyse the indications and data in initial group of patients studied with first dedicated PET scanner in the country at Hospital Militar in Santiago Chile. The main application of positron emission tomography (PET) with 18-Fluoro deoxyglucose (FDG) is related with oncological patients management. We studied 136 patients, 131 (97%) with known or suspected malignant disease and remaining 5 for cardiological or neuropsychiatric disease. Ten patients were controlled diabetics (1 insulin dependent). Their mean age was 51.6±18 years ranging from 6 to 84 years and 65% were females. A total of 177 scans were acquired using a dedicated PET (Siemens HR + with 4mm resolution) system. Mean F18-FDG injected dose was 477±107 MBq (12.9±2.9 mCi). Mean blood glucose levels, performed prior the injection, were 94±17mg/dl (range 62-161). F18-FDG was obtained from the cyclotron IBA Cyclone 18/9 installed in the Chilean Agency of Nuclear Energy, distant about 15 miles away from the clinical PET facility. PET studies were analyzed by at least 4 independent observers visually. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was calculated in some cases. Image fusion of FDG images with recent anatomical (CT, MRI) studies was performed where available. Data acquisition protocol consisted in 7-8 beds/study from head to mid-thighs, with 6-7-min/bed acquisitions, 36% transmission with germanium 68 rods. Data was reconstructed with standard OSEM protocol. The main indications included pulmonary lesions in 31%, gastrointestinal cancers in 21%, melanoma in 13% and lymphoma in 9% patients. The remaining were of breast, thyroid, testes, ovary, musculoskeletal (soft tissue and bone), brain tumour etc. Abnormal focal tracer uptake was observed in 83/131 oncological patients, 54% corroborating with clinical diagnosis of primary tumor or recurrence while 46% showed new metastatic localization. FDG scans were normal 36/131 patients. In 9 patients

  4. Experience with PET FDG - Preliminary analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massardo, Teresa; Jofre, Josefina; Canessa, Jose; Gonzalez, Patricio; Humeres, Pamela; Sierralta, Paulina; Galaz, Rodrigo; Miranda, Karina [Centro PET de Imagenes Moleculares, Hospital Militar de Santiago, Santiago (Chile)

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The objective of this preliminary communication was to analyse the indications and data in initial group of patients studied with first dedicated PET scanner in the country at Hospital Militar in Santiago Chile. The main application of positron emission tomography (PET) with 18-Fluoro deoxyglucose (FDG) is related with oncological patients management. We studied 136 patients, 131 (97%) with known or suspected malignant disease and remaining 5 for cardiological or neuropsychiatric disease. Ten patients were controlled diabetics (1 insulin dependent). Their mean age was 51.6{+-}18 years ranging from 6 to 84 years and 65% were females. A total of 177 scans were acquired using a dedicated PET (Siemens HR + with 4mm resolution) system. Mean F18-FDG injected dose was 477{+-}107 MBq (12.9{+-}2.9 mCi). Mean blood glucose levels, performed prior the injection, were 94{+-}17mg/dl (range 62-161). F18-FDG was obtained from the cyclotron IBA Cyclone 18/9 installed in the Chilean Agency of Nuclear Energy, distant about 15 miles away from the clinical PET facility. PET studies were analyzed by at least 4 independent observers visually. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was calculated in some cases. Image fusion of FDG images with recent anatomical (CT, MRI) studies was performed where available. Data acquisition protocol consisted in 7-8 beds/study from head to mid-thighs, with 6-7-min/bed acquisitions, 36% transmission with germanium 68 rods. Data was reconstructed with standard OSEM protocol. The main indications included pulmonary lesions in 31%, gastrointestinal cancers in 21%, melanoma in 13% and lymphoma in 9% patients. The remaining were of breast, thyroid, testes, ovary, musculoskeletal (soft tissue and bone), brain tumour etc. Abnormal focal tracer uptake was observed in 83/131 oncological patients, 54% corroborating with clinical diagnosis of primary tumor or recurrence while 46% showed new metastatic localization. FDG scans were normal 36/131 patients. In 9

  5. A Preliminary Review of Fatigue Among Rail Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialin Fan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is a severe problem in the rail industry, which may jeopardize train crew's health and safety. Nonetheless, a preliminary review of all empirical evidence for train crew fatigue is still lacking. The aim of the present paper is, therefore, to provide a preliminary description of occupational fatigue in the rail industry. This paper reviews the literature with the research question examining the risk factors associated with train crew fatigue, covering both papers published in refereed journals and reports from trade organizations and regulators. It assesses the progress of research on railway fatigue, including research on the main risk factors for railway fatigue, the association between fatigue and railway incidents, and how to better manage fatigue in the railway industry.Methods: Systematic searches were performed in both science and industry databases. The searches considered studies published before August 2017. The main exclusion criterion was fatigue not being directly measured through subjective or objective methods.Results: A total of 31 studies were included in the main review. The causes of fatigue included long working hours, heavy workload, early morning or night shifts, and insufficient sleep. Poor working environment, particular job roles, and individual differences also contributed to fatigue.Conclusion: Fatigue in the rail industry includes most of the features of occupational fatigue, and it is also subject to industry-specific factors. The effect of fatigue on well-being and the fatigued population in the railway industry are still not clear. Future studies can consider associations between occupational risk factors and perceived fatigue by examining the prevalence of fatigue and identifying the potential risk factors in staff within the railway industry.

  6. Psychometric Properties and U.S. National Norms of the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A.; Glisson, Charles; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Kelleher, Kelly; Landsverk, John; Cafri, Guy

    2010-01-01

    The Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS) assesses mental health and social service provider attitudes toward adopting evidence-based practices. Scores on the EBPAS derive from 4 subscales (i.e., Appeal, Requirements, Openness, and Divergence) as well as the total scale, and preliminary studies have linked EBPAS scores to clinic structure…

  7. LTDNA evidence on trial

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) discip...

  8. Preliminary study of mercury target structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kumasaka, Katsuyuki; Uchida, Shoji; Nakagawa, Toshi; Mori, Seiji; Nishikawa, Akira

    1997-11-01

    Development of a proton accelerator based neutron source (1.5 GeV, 5.3 mA (for neutron source 3.3 mA), thermal power 8 MW) is currently conducted by the Special Task Force for Neutron Science Initiative, JAERI. Preliminary design studies and related R and D of a solid metal target for the first stage (1.5 GeV, 1 mA) and a liquid metal target for both the first and second stages (1.5 GeV, 3.3 mA) are conducted by the Target Group to develop both solid and liquid metal target systems. A few kinds of target structures have been investigated in FY 1996 and the preliminary results for the target structures are described in this paper. Investigation results of alternative materials for the target container are also described in this paper. (author)

  9. Preliminary results from NOAMP deep drifting floats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollitrault, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is a very brief and preliminary outline of first results obtained with deep SOFAR floats in the NOAMP area. The work is now going toward more precise statistical estimations of mean and variable currents, together with better tracking to resolve submesoscales and estimate diffusivities due to mesoscale and smaller scale motions. However the preliminary results confirm that the NOAMP region (and surroundings) has a deep mesoscale eddy field that is considerably more energetic that the mean field (r.m.s. velocities are of order 5 cm s -1 ), although both values are diminished compared to the western basin. A data report containing trajectories and statistics is scheduled to be published by IFREMER in the near future. The project main task is to especially study the dispersion of radioactive substances

  10. Preliminary waste acceptance requirements - Konrad repository project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.W.; Warnecke, E.H.

    1991-01-01

    In Germany, the planned Konrad repository is proposed for the disposal of all types of radioactive wastes whose thermal influence upon the host rock is negligible. The Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz has established Preliminary Waste Acceptance Requirements (as of April 1990) for this facility. The respective requirements were developed on the basis of the results of site-specific safety assessments. They include general requirements on the waste packages to be disposed of as well as more specific requirements on the waste forms, the packaging and the radionuclide inventory per waste package. In addition, the delivery of waste packages was regulated. An outline of the structure and the elements of the Preliminary Waste Acceptance Requirements of April 1990 is given including comments on their legal status. (Author)

  11. Licensing Support System: Preliminary data scope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine the content and scope of the Licensing Support System (LSS) data base. Both user needs and currently available data bases that, at least in part, address those needs have been analyzed. This analysis, together with the Preliminary Needs Analysis (DOE, 1988d) is a first effort under the LSS Design and Implementation Contract toward developing a sound requirements foundation for subsequent design work. These reports are preliminary. Further refinements must be made before requirements can be specified in sufficient detail to provide a basis for suitably specific system specifications. This document provides a baseline for what is known at this time. Additional analyses, currently being conducted, will provide more precise information on the content and scope of the LSS data base. 23 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs

  12. Safety performance of preliminary KALIMER conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn Dohee; Kim Kyoungdoo; Kwon Youngmin; Chang Wonpyo; Suk Soodong [Korea atomic Energy Resarch Inst., Taejon (Korea)

    1999-07-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor), which is a sodium cooled, 150 MWe pool-type reactor. The safety design of KALIMER emphasizes accident prevention by using passive processes, which can be accomplished by the safety design objectives including the utilization of inherent safety features. In order to assess the effectiveness of the inherent safety features in achieving the safety design objectives, a preliminary evaluation of ATWS performance for the KALIMER design has been performed with SSC-K code, which is a modified version of SSC-L code. KAERI's modification of the code includes development of reactivity feedback models for the core and a pool model for KALIMER reactor vessel. This paper describes the models for control rod driveline expansion, gas expansion module and the thermal hydraulic model for reactor pool and the results of preliminary analyses for unprotected loss of flow and loss o heat sink. (author)

  13. Safety performance of preliminary KALIMER conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn Dohee; Kim Kyoungdoo; Kwon Youngmin; Chang Wonpyo; Suk Soodong

    1999-01-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor), which is a sodium cooled, 150 MWe pool-type reactor. The safety design of KALIMER emphasizes accident prevention by using passive processes, which can be accomplished by the safety design objectives including the utilization of inherent safety features. In order to assess the effectiveness of the inherent safety features in achieving the safety design objectives, a preliminary evaluation of ATWS performance for the KALIMER design has been performed with SSC-K code, which is a modified version of SSC-L code. KAERI's modification of the code includes development of reactivity feedback models for the core and a pool model for KALIMER reactor vessel. This paper describes the models for control rod driveline expansion, gas expansion module and the thermal hydraulic model for reactor pool and the results of preliminary analyses for unprotected loss of flow and loss o heat sink. (author)

  14. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Gulf Interior Region salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Gulf Interior Region, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility on the Richton Dome, Mississippi. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description and Construction Cost Estimate

  15. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Paradox Basin. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Paradox Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Paradox Basin, Utah. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling Method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers is included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references

  16. Preliminary list of plant invaders in Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Stešević, D.; Petrović, D.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the fact that Invasive alien species (IAS) are considered to be the second cause of global biodiversity loss after direct habitat destruction and have adverse environmental, economic and social impacts from the local level upwards, in last decades investigations of alien flora of Montenegro are intensified. In this paper we are presenting a preliminary list of IAS, with the aim to provide a basic data on IAS in Montenegro, to enable future monitoring and to draw attention o...

  17. Life cycle analysis in preliminary design stages

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo , Lina-Maria; Mejía-Gutiérrez , Ricardo; Nadeau , Jean-Pierre; PAILHES , Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In a design process the product is decomposed into systems along the disciplinary lines. Each stage has its own goals and constraints that must be satisfied and has control over a subset of design variables that describe the overall system. When using different tools to initiate a product life cycle, including the environment and impacts, its noticeable that there is a gap in tools that linked the stages of preliminary design and the stages of materialization. Differen...

  18. Preliminary safety assessment of the WIPP facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestri, R.J.; Torres, B.W.; Pahwa, S.B.; Brannen, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes the efforts to perform a safety assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility being proposed for southeastern New Mexico. This preliminary safety assessment is limited to a consequence assessment in terms of the dose to a maximally exposed individual as a result of introducing the radionuclides into the biosphere. The extremely low doses to the organs as a result of the liquid breach scenarios are contrasted with the background radiation

  19. Preliminary results from the hierarchical glitch pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Soma

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the preliminary results obtained from the hierarchical glitch classification pipeline on LIGO data. The pipeline that has been under construction for the past year is now complete and end-to-end tested. It is ready to generate analysis results on a daily basis. The details of the pipeline, the classification algorithms employed and the results obtained with one days analysis on the gravitational wave and several auxiliary and environmental channels from all three LIGO detectors are discussed

  20. Preliminary safety analysis methodology for the SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Chung, Y. J.; Kim, H. C.; Sim, S. K.; Lee, W. J.; Chung, B. D.; Song, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    This technical report was prepared for a preliminary safety analysis methodology of the 330MWt SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which has been developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) since July 1996. This preliminary safety analysis methodology has been used to identify an envelope for the safety of the SMART conceptual design. As the SMART design evolves, further validated final safety analysis methodology will be developed. Current licensing safety analysis methodology of the Westinghouse and KSNPP PWRs operating and under development in Korea as well as the Russian licensing safety analysis methodology for the integral reactors have been reviewed and compared to develop the preliminary SMART safety analysis methodology. SMART design characteristics and safety systems have been reviewed against licensing practices of the PWRs operating or KNGR (Korean Next Generation Reactor) under construction in Korea. Detailed safety analysis methodology has been developed for the potential SMART limiting events of main steam line break, main feedwater pipe break, loss of reactor coolant flow, CEA withdrawal, primary to secondary pipe break and the small break loss of coolant accident. SMART preliminary safety analysis methodology will be further developed and validated in parallel with the safety analysis codes as the SMART design further evolves. Validated safety analysis methodology will be submitted to MOST as a Topical Report for a review of the SMART licensing safety analysis methodology. Thus, it is recommended for the nuclear regulatory authority to establish regulatory guides and criteria for the integral reactor. 22 refs., 18 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  1. PLANT COMMUNITIES OF ALBANIA - A PRELIMINARY OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. DRING

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The phytosociological analysis of Albania was initiated by F. Markgraf in the 30ies, but still remains incomplete. This is a preliminary list of the plant communities resulting from the literature and from field research carried out during the last years and may represent a first contribution for further research. Many communities are described only by dominant species, other are quoted as nomina nuda. Some further syntaxa. probably present in the study area, are added.

  2. Preliminary Data on Eutrophication of Carstic Lakes

    OpenAIRE

    , B. Hoxha; , F. Cane; , M. Avdolli; , A. Dauti

    2016-01-01

    Nutrients play an important role in the health and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. However, an excess of nutrients, particularly phosphorous and nitrogen compounds, can lead to adverse effects on both ecology and uses of receiving waters. This process accelerated by human activities is termed cultural eutrophication, and is recognized as a significant environmental problem. The purpose of this paper is to represent some preliminary data on eutrophication of water bodies from a chemical poi...

  3. Preliminary Analysis of Google+'s Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Shah; Desmedt, Yvo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we provide a preliminary analysis of Google+ privacy. We identified that Google+ shares photo metadata with users who can access the photograph and discuss its potential impact on privacy. We also identified that Google+ encourages the provision of other names including maiden name, which may help criminals performing identity theft. We show that Facebook lists are a superset of Google+ circles, both functionally and logically, even though Google+ provides a better user interfac...

  4. Preliminary model for core/concrete interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murfin, W.B.

    1977-08-01

    A preliminary model is described for computing the rate of penetration of concrete by a molten LWR core. Among the phenomena included are convective stirring of the melt by evolved gases, admixture of concrete decomposition products to the melt, chemical reactions, radiative heat loss, and variation of heat transfer coefficients with local pressure. The model is most applicable to a two-phase melt (metallic plus oxidic) having a fairly high metallic content

  5. Preliminary rock mechanics laboratory: Investigation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oschman, K.P.; Hummeldorf, R.G.; Hume, H.R.; Karakouzian, M.; Vakili, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    This document presents the rationale for rock mechanics laboratory testing (including the supporting analysis and numerical modeling) planned for the site characterization of a nuclear waste repository in salt. This plan first identifies what information is required for regulatory and design purposes, and then presents the rationale for the testing that satisfies the required information needs. A preliminary estimate of the minimum sampling requirements for rock laboratory testing during site characterization is also presented. Periodic revision of this document is planned

  6. Preliminary results from film boiling destabilisation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naylor, P.

    1984-05-01

    A series of experiments to investigate the triggered destabilisation of film boiling has been undertaken. Film boiling was established on a polished brass rod immersed in water and the effects of various triggers were investigated. Preliminary results are presented and two thresholds have been observed: an impulse threshold below which triggered destabilisation will not occur and a thermal threshold above which film boiling will re-establish following triggered destabilisation. (author)

  7. Preliminary plan for treating mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Conner, C.; Hutter, J.C.; Leonard, R.A.; Nunez, L.; Sedlet, J.; Wygmans, D.G.

    1993-06-01

    A preliminary waste treatment plan was developed for disposing of radioactive inorganic liquid wastes that contain hazardous metals and/or hazardous acid concentrations at Argonne National Laboratory. This plan, which involves neutralization and sulfide precipitation followed by filtration, reduces the concentration of hazardous metals and the acidity so that the filtrate liquid is simply a low-level radioactive waste that can be fed to a low-level waste evaporator

  8. Stuttering on function words in bilingual children who stutter: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkalitsiou, Zoi; Byrd, Courtney T; Bedore, Lisa M; Taliancich-Klinger, Casey L

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests young monolingual children who stutter (CWS) are more disfluent on function than content words, particularly when produced in the initial utterance position. The purpose of the present preliminary study was to investigate whether young bilingual CWS present with this same pattern. The narrative and conversational samples of four bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking CWS were analysed. All four bilingual participants produced significantly more stuttering on function words compared to content words, irrespective of their position in the utterance, in their Spanish narrative and conversational speech samples. Three of the four participants also demonstrated more stuttering on function compared to content words in their narrative speech samples in English, but only one participant produced more stuttering on function than content words in her English conversational sample. These preliminary findings are discussed relative to linguistic planning and language proficiency and their potential contribution to stuttered speech.

  9. Preliminary risk assessments of the small HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everline, C.J.; Bellis, E.A.

    1985-05-01

    Preliminary investment and safety risk assessments were performed for a preconceptual design of a four-module 250-MW(t) side-by-side steel-vessel pebble bed HTGR plant. Broad event spectra were analyzed involving component damage resulting in unscheduled plant outages and fission product releases resulting in offsite doses. The preliminary assessment indicates at this stage of the design that two categories of events govern the investment risk envelope: primary coolant leaks which release some circulating and plate-out activity that contaminates the confinement and turbogenerator damage which involves extensive turbine blade failure. Primary coolant leaks are important contributors because associated cleanup and decontamination requirements result in longer outages that arise from other events with comparable frequencies. Turbogenerator damage is the salient low-frequency investment risk accident due to the relatively long outages being experienced in the industry. Thermal transients are unimportant investment risk contributors because pressurized core heatups cause little damage, and depressurized core heatups occur at negligible frequencies relative to the forced outage goal. These preliminary results demonstrate investment and safety risk goal compliance at this stage in the design process. Studies are continuing in order to provide valuable insights into risk-significant events to assure a balanced approach to meeting user and regulatory requirements

  10. What is Evidence? (editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lately, I have been pondering what we really mean when we say “evidence based practice”? In LIS, we all know the definitions that have been proposed (Booth 2000, Eldredge 2000, Crumley and Koufogiannakis 2002, and which have not ever really been challenged. But have we ever said explicitly what qualifies as evidence in this model? The underlying assumption seems to be that evidence is research, hence, we are really talking about research-based practice, but we don’t actually use that term.Higgs and Jones (2000 note that evidence is “knowledge derived from a variety of sources that has been subjected to testing and has found to be credible.” The Oxford English Dictionary states that evidence is “something serving as a proof” (OED, 2011. Neither of these definitions of evidence notes that evidence equals research; research is only one form of evidence. It certainly isn’t the only form of evidence – so what, then, constitutes evidence?Rycroff-Malone et al. (2004 state that that in order for evidence based practice to create a broader evidence base in nursing, “the external, scientific and the internal, intuitive” need to be brought together. The external, scientific is what evidence based practice has been focused on, in the form of scientific research, but Rycroff-Malone et al. note that other elements such as clinical experience, patient experience, and information from the local context also need to be considered.In library and information practice, what are the other forms of evidence we need to consider? I propose that while research evidence is of high importance to our profession and knowledge, LIS practitioners need to first of all consider local evidence. Local evidence is found in our working environment and specific to the context in which we carry out our work. It includes such things as our experiences with patrons in particular contexts, and what we observe to work in such situations, assessment of programs

  11. Hermeneutics, evidence ad judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Taruffo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The text analyzes several topics of the judicial process from the point of view of the important contributions offered by the hermeneutical philosophy. It deals mainly with the construction of factual narratives, the presentation of evidence and the discovery of truth made by the judge in his final judgment based upon the evidence.

  12. The Evidence Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Foss; Rieper, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    The evidence movement and the idea of systematic reviews, defined as summaries of the results of already existing evaluation and research projects, have gained considerable support in recent years as many international as well as national evidence-producing organizations have been established...

  13. Teaching with Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, Margaret; Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Jacobsen, Rebecca; Segall, Avner

    2017-01-01

    In this age of real and fake news, students need to be able to assess the trustworthiness of evidence. The authors' current research examines students' use of evidence in secondary social studies classrooms as students deliberate contemporary public policy issues. The authors found that students shifted their evaluations of the trustworthiness of…

  14. Observational Evidence for Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edwin R., Jr.; Childers, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the development of the concept of atomicity and some of the many which can be used to establish its validity. Chemical evidence, evidence from crystals, Faraday's law of electrolysis, and Avogadro's number are among the areas which show how the concept originally developed from a purely philosophical idea. (JN)

  15. Evidence-based radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafslund, Bjorg; Clare, Judith; Graverholt, Birgitte; Wammen Nortvedt, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) offers the integration of the best research evidence with clinical knowledge and expertise and patient values. EBP is a well known term in health care. This paper discusses the implementation of EBP into radiography and introduces the term evidence-based radiography. Evidence-based radiography is radiography informed and based on the combination of clinical expertise and the best available research-based evidence, patient preferences and resources available. In Norway, EBP in radiography is being debated and radiographers are discussing the challenges of implementing EBP in both academic and clinical practice. This discussion paper explains why EBP needs to be a basis for a radiography curriculum and a part of radiographers' practice. We argue that Norwegian radiographers must increase participation in research and developing practice within their specific radiographic domain

  16. Appropriateness of administration of nasogastric medication and preliminary intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Q

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ling-Ling Zhu,1 Ling-Cheng Xu,2 Hui-Qin Wang,3 Jing-Fen Jin,3 Hua-Fen Wang,3 Quan Zhou21Cadre Department, 2Department of Pharmacy, 3Division of Nursing, the Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, ChinaAbstract: A utilization study was performed in a 2200-bed tertiary care teaching hospital. Data mining was performed on all nasogastric medication prescriptions for patients hospitalized in 2011. Nurses were interviewed by questionnaire. A PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle was used for continuous quality improvement. The proportion of patients with nasogastric tubes (NGT was 3.2%. A large number of medical orders (n  6261 involved nasogastric medications with a package insert particularly noting that they should not be crushed or opened (group 1 or medications without a specific formulation recommendation in the package insert but having evidence discouraging NGT dosing (group 2. Of the nasogastrically administered sustained-release or controlled-release formulations, a sustained-release sodium valproate tablet formulation was the most prescribed drug and a sustained-release 2.5 mg felodipine tablet was prescribed with the highest proportion of NGT dosing [NGT/(NGT  oral  12.3%]. Among the nasogastrically administered enteric-coated formulations, a myrtol-standardized enteric-coated capsule formulation was the most prescribed drug and a pantoprazole tablet formulation was prescribed with the highest proportion of NGT dosing [NGT/(NGT  oral  19.3%]. Proportions of NGT dosing for amiodarone and carbamazepine (group 2 were 4.8% and 6.3%, respectively. The percentage of nurses with adequate knowledge about pharmaceutical dosage formulations was 60%. The rate of answering correctly as to whether medications in group 1 could be crushed or opened was only 30%. Awareness of evidence discouraging NGT dosing of medications in group 2 was zero. Most nurses (90% left physicians and

  17. Preliminary evidence that ketamine inhibits spreading depolarizations in acute human brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakowitz, Oliver W; Kiening, Karl L; Krajewski, Kara L

    2009-01-01

    by the noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine. This restored electrocorticographic activity. CONCLUSIONS: These anecdotal electrocorticographic findings suggest that ketamine has an inhibitory effect on spreading depolarizations in humans. This is of potential interest for future...

  18. Preliminary Evidence for the Off-Label Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa With Psychostimulants: Six Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshen, Aaron; Helson, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Psychostimulants have been assessed in bulimia nervosa patients with comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but few studies have examined the impact of psychostimulants on bulimia nervosa patients without comorbid ADHD. The aim of this study was to examine psychostimulants as a potential treatment for bulimia nervosa and to assess the concern of weight loss, given the medication's appetite-suppressing effects. This retrospective study describes 6 case reports of outpatients who were prescribed a psychostimulant specifically for their bulimia nervosa. The number of binge/purge days per months and body mass index were assessed. All patients demonstrated reductions in the number of binge/purge days per month, and 1 patient experienced total remission of bulimic symptoms. Minor fluctuations in weight were observed, but no clinically significant reductions in weight were noted. These findings support the need for clinical trials to examine the efficacy and safety of this potential treatment. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  19. Preliminary evidence of a neurophysiological basis for individual discrimination in filial imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, Stephen Michael

    2011-12-01

    Filial imprinting involves a predisposition for biologically important stimuli and a learning process directing preferences towards a particular stimulus. Learning underlies discrimination between imprinted and unfamiliar individuals and depends upon the IMM (intermediate and medial mesopallium). Here, IMM neurons responded differentially to familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics following socialization and the neurophysiological effects of social experience differed between hemispheres. Such findings may provide a neurophysiological basis for individual discrimination in imprinting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Preliminary Evidences of Biofortification with Iodine of “Carota di Polignano”, An Italian Carrot Landrace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Signore

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The “Carota di Polignano” (Polignano Carrot – PC, Daucus carota L. is a multi-colored landrace, cultivated in the Southern Italy, whose colors range from yellow to purple. Iodine is an essential micronutrient for humans, since it is a key component of thyroid hormones, which regulate the growth and development of the human body. The main source for iodine assumption is represented by diet, but its concentration in the vegetables is usually limited with respect to human needs. To this purpose, two experimental trials (in open field and in greenhouse with a soil-less system were carried out to enrich PC with iodine. Three levels of iodine (control treatment, C – 0 mg·L−1; low, L – 50 mg·L−1; and high, H – 500 mg·L−1, distributed with foliar spray fertilizations (in both open field and greenhouse or with nutrient solution (in greenhouse, at the level of 50 mg·L−1 in the form of KIO3 were compared. In open field, the H treatment showed a biofortification that was double and triple respect to L and C treatments, respectively, without influencing color and biometric parameters, such as the fresh and dry weight of roots and DM percentage. In greenhouse, the biofortification done with foliar spray fertilization followed the same trend of open field, while the biofortification by means of nutrient solution was more effective but reached very high levels that had toxic effects on the plants and could be too high for human nutrition. However, the concentrations of iodine into biofortified carrots in open field can allow to satisfy the recommended daily allowance (RDA by consuming 100 and 200 g of fresh product for the treatment H and L, respectively. Regarding the greenhouse biofortification, the RDA would be satisfied by consuming 200 g of fresh carrots (with the high level of foliar fertilization.

  1. Acute effect of whole body vibration on postural control in congenitally blind subjects: a preliminary evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Cagno, Alessandra; Giombini, Arrigo; Iuliano, Enzo; Moffa, Stefano; Caliandro, Tiziana; Parisi, Attilio; Borrione, Paolo; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Fiorilli, Giovanni

    2017-07-11

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of whole body vibration at optimal frequency, on postural control in blind subjects. Twenty-four participants, 12 congenital blind males (Experimental Group), and 12 non-disabled males with no visual impairment (Control Groups) were recruited. The area of the ellipse and the total distance of the center of pressure displacements, as postural control parameters, were evaluated at baseline (T0), immediately after the vibration (T1), after 10 min (T10) and after 20 min (T20). Whole body vibration protocol consisted into 5 sets of 1 min for each vibration, with 1 min rest between each set on a vibrating platform. The total distance of center of pressure showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) amongst groups, while the area remained constant. No significant differences were detected among times of assessments, or in the interaction group × time. No impairments in static balance were found after an acute bout of whole body vibration at optimal frequency in blind subjects and, consequently, whole body vibration may be considered as a safe application in individuals who are blind.

  2. The Meriden School Climate Survey-Student Version: Preliminary Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Nicholas A.; Larson, Alvin; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2016-01-01

    School climate has been linked with myriad positive student outcomes and the measurement of school climate is widely advocated at the national and state level. However, districts have little guidance about how to define and measure school climate. This study examines the psychometric properties of a district-developed school climate measure that…

  3. MMPI-2: Cluster Analysis of Personality Profiles in Perinatal Depression—Preliminary Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Meuti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To assess personality characteristics of women who develop perinatal depression. Methods. The study started with a screening of a sample of 453 women in their third trimester of pregnancy, to which was administered a survey data form, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2. A clinical group of subjects with perinatal depression (PND, 55 subjects was selected; clinical and validity scales of MMPI-2 were used as predictors in hierarchical cluster analysis carried out. Results. The analysis identified three clusters of personality profile: two “clinical” clusters (1 and 3 and an “apparently common” one (cluster 2. The first cluster (39.5% collects structures of personality with prevalent obsessive or dependent functioning tending to develop a “psychasthenic” depression; the third cluster (13.95% includes women with prevalent borderline functioning tending to develop “dysphoric” depression; the second cluster (46.5% shows a normal profile with a “defensive” attitude, probably due to the presence of defense mechanisms or to the fear of stigma. Conclusion. Characteristics of personality have a key role in clinical manifestations of perinatal depression; it is important to detect them to identify mothers at risk and to plan targeted therapeutic interventions.

  4. Preliminary Evidence for a Classroom Based Psychosocial Intervention for Disaster Exposed Children with Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønholt, Stine; Karsberg, Sidsel; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2004, a firework factory in a residential area of a large Danish city exploded. The children at the local school were screened for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 16 months and 3½ years after the incident. A large proportion of the children still suffered from a substantial number of symptoms 3½ years after the…

  5. The parental antagonism theory of language evolution: preliminary evidence for the proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William M

    2011-04-01

    Language--as with most communication systems--likely evolved by means of natural selection. Accounts for the genetical selection of language can usually be divided into two scenarios, either of which used in isolation of the other appear insufficient to explain the phenomena: (1) there are group benefits from communicating, and (2) there are individual benefits from being a better communicator. In contrast, it is hypothesized that language phenotypes emerged during a coevolutionary struggle between parental genomes via genomic imprinting, which is differential gene expression depending on parental origin of the genetic element. It is hypothesized that relatedness asymmetries differentially selected for patrigene-caused language phenotypes to extract resources from mother (early in development) and matrigene-caused language phenotypes to influence degree of cooperativeness among asymmetric kin (later in development). This paper reports that imprinted genes have a high frequency of involvement in language phenotypes (~36%), considering their presumed rarity in the human genome (~2%). For example, two well-studied genes associated with language impairments (FOXP2 and UBE3A) exhibit parent-of- origin effects. Specifically, FOXP2 is putatively paternally expressed, whereas UBE3A is a maternally expressed imprinted gene. It is also hypothesized that the more unique and cooperative aspects of human language emerged to the benefit of matrilineal inclusive fitness. Consistent with this perspective, it is reported here that the X-chromosome has higher involvement in loci that have associations with language than would be expected by chance. It is also reported, for the first time, that human and chimpanzee maternally expressed overlapping imprinted genes exhibit greater evolutionary divergence (in terms of the degree of overlapping transcripts) than paternally expressed overlapping imprinted genes. Finally, an analysis of global language patterns reveals that paternally but not maternally silenced Alu elements are positively correlated with language diversity. Furthermore, there is a much higher than expected frequency of Alu elements inserted into the protein-coding machinery of imprinted and X-chromosomal language loci compared with nonimprinted language loci. Taken together these findings provide some support for parental antagonism theory. Unlike previous theories for language evolution, parental antagonism theory generates testable predictions at the proximate (e.g., neurocognitive areas important for social transmission and language capacities), ontogenetic (e.g., the function of language at different points of development), ultimate (e.g., inclusive fitness), and phylogenetic levels (e.g., the spread of maternally derived brain components in mammals, particularly in the hominin lineage), thus making human capacities for culture more tractable than previously thought.

  6. Binge eating disorder and obesity: preliminary evidence for distinct cardiovascular and psychological phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatzkin, Rebecca R; Gaffney, Sierra; Cyrus, Kathryn; Bigus, Elizabeth; Brownley, Kimberly A

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated cardiovascular functioning, mood, and eating-related psychological factors at rest and in response to mental stress in three groups of women: 1) Obese women with binge eating disorder (BED; n=9); 2) obese non-BED women (n=15); and 3) normal weight (NW) non-BED women (n=15). Compared to both obese and NW non-BED women, obese women with BED showed heightened overall blood pressure and reported greater depression symptoms, perceived stress, and eating-related psychopathology. Additionally, obese women with BED reported greater overall negative affect and state anxiety compared to obese non-BED women. The heart rate response to stress was blunted in the obese BED group compared to the other groups, but this effect was no longer significant after controlling for baseline differences in depression. Correlational analyses revealed a positive association between stress-induced changes in hunger and cardiovascular measures only in obese women with BED. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if stress dysregulation and stress-induced increases in hunger contribute to the onset and/or maintenance of BED. In particular, studies utilizing an additional NW BED control group are warranted in order to further examine the impact of BED above and beyond the impact of obesity on psychophysiological functioning and to inform the growing literature regarding stress-related factors that distinguish the BED and obesity phenotypes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristic of microplastics in the atmospheric fallout from Dongguan city, China: preliminary research and first evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liqi; Wang, Jundong; Peng, Jinping; Tan, Zhi; Zhan, Zhiwei; Tan, Xiangling; Chen, Qiuqiang

    2017-11-01

    Microplastic pollution has exhibited a global distribution, including seas, lakes, rivers, and terrestrial environment in recent years. However, little attention was paid on the atmospheric environment, though the fact that plastic debris can escape as wind-blown debris was previously reported. Thus, characteristics of microplastics in the atmospheric fallout from Dongguan city were preliminarily studied. Microplastics of three different polymers, i.e., PE, PP, and PS, were identified. Diverse shapes of microplastics including fiber, foam, fragment, and film were found, and fiber was the dominant shape of the microplastics. SEM images illustrated that adhering particles, grooves, pits, fractures, and flakes were the common patterns of degradation. The concentrations of non-fibrous microplastics and fibers ranged from 175 to 313 particles/m 2 /day in the atmospheric fallout. Thus, dust emission and deposition between atmosphere, land surface, and aquatic environment were associated with the transportation of microplastics.

  8. Assessing Critical Thinking in Higher Education: The HEIghten™ Approach and Preliminary Validity Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Mao, Liyang; Frankel, Lois; Xu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Critical thinking is a learning outcome highly valued by higher education institutions and the workforce. The Educational Testing Service (ETS) has designed a next generation assessment, the HEIghten™ critical thinking assessment, to measure students' critical thinking skills in analytical and synthetic dimensions. This paper introduces the…

  9. The Galileo System of Measurement: Preliminary Evidence for Precision, Stability, and Equivalance to Traditional Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, James; Woelfel, Joseph

    1977-01-01

    Describes the Galileo system of measurement operations including reliability and validity data. Illustrations of some of the relations between Galileo measures and traditional procedures are provided. (MH)

  10. Brief Self-Efficacy Scales for use in Weight-Loss Trials: Preliminary Evidence of Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathryn E.; Harden, Samantha M.; Almeida, Fabio A.; You, Wen; Hill, Jennie L.; Goessl, Cody; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy is a commonly included cognitive variable in weight-loss trials, but there is little uniformity in its measurement. Weight-loss trials frequently focus on physical activity (PA) and eating behavior, as well as weight loss, but no survey is available that offers reliable measurement of self-efficacy as it relates to each of these targeted outcomes. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of brief, pragmatic self-efficacy scales specific to PA, healthful eating and weight-loss (4 items each). An adult sample (n=1790) from 28 worksites enrolled in a worksite weight-loss program completed the self-efficacy scale, as well as measures of PA, dietary fat intake, and weight, at baseline, 6-, and 12-months. The hypothesized factor structure was tested through confirmatory factor analysis, which supported the expected factor structure for three latent self-efficacy factors, specific to PA, healthful eating, and weight-loss. Measurement equivalence/invariance between relevant demographic groups, and over time was also supported. Parallel growth processes in self-efficacy factors and outcomes (PA, fat intake, and weight) support the predictive validity of score interpretations. Overall, this initial series of psychometric analyses supports the interpretation that scores on these scales reflect self-efficacy for PA, healthful eating, and weight-loss. The use of this instrument in large-scale weight-loss trials is encouraged. PMID:26619093

  11. Association between virtues and posttraumatic growth: preliminary evidence from a Chinese community sample after earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Duan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Relationship, vitality, and conscientiousness are three fundamental virtues that have been recently identified as important individual differences to health, well being, and positive development. This cross-sectional study attempted to explore the relationship between the three constructs and post-traumatic growth (PTG in three directions, including indirect trauma samples without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, direct trauma samples without PTSD, and direct trauma samples with PTSD.Methods. A total of 340 community participants from Sichuan Province, Mainland China involved in the study, most of which experienced Wenchuan and Lushan Earthquake. Participants were required to complete the self-reported questionnaire packages at one time point for obtaining their scores on virtues (Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, PTSD (PTSD Checklist-Specific, and PTG (Post-traumatic Growth Inventory-Chinese.Results. Significant and positive correlations between the three virtues and PTG were identified (r = .39–.56; p < .01. Further regression analysis by stepwise method reveled that: in the indirect trauma samples, vitality explained 32% variance of PTG. In reference to the direct trauma sample without PTSD, both relationship and conscientiousness explained 32% variance of PTG, whereas in the direct trauma sample with PTSD, only conscientiousness accounted for 31% the variance in PTG.Conclusion.This cross-sectional investigation partly revealed the roles of different virtues in trauma context. Findings suggest important implications for strengths-based treatment.

  12. Articulatory Changes Following Treatment of Muscle Tension Dysphonia: Preliminary Acoustic Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dromey, Christopher; Nissen, Shawn L.; Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Primary muscle tension dysphonia (MTD), a voice disturbance that occurs in the absence of structural or neurological pathology, may respond to manual circumlaryngeal techniques, which ostensibly alter the posture of the larynx and/or the configuration of the vocal folds without directly targeting supralaryngeal articulatory structures.…

  13. Development of an Online and Offline Integration Hypothesis for Healthy Internet Use: Theory and Preliminary Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoyan; Su, Wenliang; Potenza, Marc N

    2018-01-01

    The Internet has become an integral part of our daily life, and how to make the best use of the Internet is important to both individuals and the society. Based on previous studies, an Online and Offline Integration Hypothesis is proposed to suggest a framework for considering harmonious and balanced Internet use. The Integration Hypothesis proposes that healthier patterns of Internet usage may be achieved through harmonious integration of people's online and offline worlds. An online/offline integration is proposed to unite self-identity, interpersonal relationships, and social functioning with both cognitive and behavioral aspects by following the principles of communication, transfer, consistency, and "offline-first" priorities. To begin to test the hypothesis regarding the relationship between integration level and psychological outcomes, data for the present study were collected from 626 undergraduate students (41.5% males). Participants completed scales for online and offline integration, Internet addiction, pros and cons of Internet use, loneliness, extraversion, and life satisfaction. The findings revealed that subjects with higher level of online/offline integration have higher life satisfaction, greater extraversion, and more positive perceptions of the Internet and less loneliness, lower Internet addiction, and fewer negative perceptions of the Internet. Integration mediates the link between extraversion and psychological outcomes, and it may be the mechanism underlying the difference between the "rich get richer" and social compensation hypotheses. The implications of the online and offline integration hypothesis are discussed.

  14. Pickles and ice cream! Food cravings in pregnancy: hypotheses, preliminary evidence, and directions for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orloff, Natalia C.; Hormes, Julia M.

    2014-01-01

    Women in the United States experience an increase in food cravings at two specific times during their life, (1) perimenstrually and (2) prenatally. The prevalence of excess gestational weight gain (GWG) is a growing concern due to its association with adverse health outcomes in both mothers and children. To the extent that prenatal food cravings may be a determinant of energy intake in pregnancy, a better understanding of craving etiology could be crucial in addressing the issue of excessive GWG. This paper reviews the available literature to corroborate and/or dispute some of the most commonly accepted hypotheses regarding the causes of food cravings during pregnancy, including a role of (1) hormonal changes, (2) nutritional deficits, (3) pharmacologically active ingredients in the desired foods, and (4) cultural and psychosocial factors. An existing model of perimenstrual chocolate craving etiology serves to structure the discussion of these hypotheses. The main hypotheses discussed receive little support, with the notable exception of a postulated role of cultural and psychosocial factors. The presence of cravings during pregnancy is a common phenomenon across different cultures, but the types of foods desired and the adverse impact of cravings on health may be culture-specific. Various psychosocial factors appear to correlate with excess GWG, including the presence of restrained eating. Findings strongly suggest that more research be conducted in this area. We propose that future investigations fall into one of the four following categories: (1) validation of food craving and eating-related measures specifically in pregnant populations, (2) use of ecological momentary assessment to obtain real time data on cravings during pregnancy, (3) implementation of longitudinal studies to address causality between eating disorder symptoms, food cravings, and GWG, and (4) development of interventions to ensure proper prenatal nutrition and prevent excess GWG. PMID:25295023

  15. Development of an Online and Offline Integration Hypothesis for Healthy Internet Use: Theory and Preliminary Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Lin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has become an integral part of our daily life, and how to make the best use of the Internet is important to both individuals and the society. Based on previous studies, an Online and Offline Integration Hypothesis is proposed to suggest a framework for considering harmonious and balanced Internet use. The Integration Hypothesis proposes that healthier patterns of Internet usage may be achieved through harmonious integration of people’s online and offline worlds. An online/offline integration is proposed to unite self-identity, interpersonal relationships, and social functioning with both cognitive and behavioral aspects by following the principles of communication, transfer, consistency, and “offline-first” priorities. To begin to test the hypothesis regarding the relationship between integration level and psychological outcomes, data for the present study were collected from 626 undergraduate students (41.5% males. Participants completed scales for online and offline integration, Internet addiction, pros and cons of Internet use, loneliness, extraversion, and life satisfaction. The findings revealed that subjects with higher level of online/offline integration have higher life satisfaction, greater extraversion, and more positive perceptions of the Internet and less loneliness, lower Internet addiction, and fewer negative perceptions of the Internet. Integration mediates the link between extraversion and psychological outcomes, and it may be the mechanism underlying the difference between the “rich get richer” and social compensation hypotheses. The implications of the online and offline integration hypothesis are discussed.

  16. Functional Role of Internal and External Visual Imagery: Preliminary Evidences from Pilates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Montuori

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates whether a functional difference between the visualization of a sequence of movements in the perspective of the first- (internal VMI-I or third- (external VMI-E person exists, which might be relevant to promote learning. By using a mental chronometry experimental paradigm, we have compared the time or execution, imagination in the VMI-I perspective, and imagination in the VMI-E perspective of two kinds of Pilates exercises. The analysis was carried out in individuals with different levels of competence (expert, novice, and no-practice individuals. Our results showed that in the Expert group, in the VMI-I perspective, the imagination time was similar to the execution time, while in the VMI-E perspective, the imagination time was significantly lower than the execution time. An opposite pattern was found in the Novice group, in which the time of imagination was similar to that of execution only in the VMI-E perspective, while in the VMI-I perspective, the time of imagination was significantly lower than the time of execution. In the control group, the times of both modalities of imagination were significantly lower than the execution time for each exercise. The present data suggest that, while the VMI-I serves to train an already internalised gesture, the VMI-E perspective could be useful to learn, and then improve, the recently acquired sequence of movements. Moreover, visual imagery is not useful for individuals that lack a specific motor experience. The present data offer new insights in the application of mental training techniques, especially in field of sports. However, further investigations are needed to better understand the functional role of internal and external visual imagery.

  17. Development of an Online and Offline Integration Hypothesis for Healthy Internet Use: Theory and Preliminary Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoyan; Su, Wenliang; Potenza, Marc N.

    2018-01-01

    The Internet has become an integral part of our daily life, and how to make the best use of the Internet is important to both individuals and the society. Based on previous studies, an Online and Offline Integration Hypothesis is proposed to suggest a framework for considering harmonious and balanced Internet use. The Integration Hypothesis proposes that healthier patterns of Internet usage may be achieved through harmonious integration of people’s online and offline worlds. An online/offline integration is proposed to unite self-identity, interpersonal relationships, and social functioning with both cognitive and behavioral aspects by following the principles of communication, transfer, consistency, and “offline-first” priorities. To begin to test the hypothesis regarding the relationship between integration level and psychological outcomes, data for the present study were collected from 626 undergraduate students (41.5% males). Participants completed scales for online and offline integration, Internet addiction, pros and cons of Internet use, loneliness, extraversion, and life satisfaction. The findings revealed that subjects with higher level of online/offline integration have higher life satisfaction, greater extraversion, and more positive perceptions of the Internet and less loneliness, lower Internet addiction, and fewer negative perceptions of the Internet. Integration mediates the link between extraversion and psychological outcomes, and it may be the mechanism underlying the difference between the “rich get richer” and social compensation hypotheses. The implications of the online and offline integration hypothesis are discussed. PMID:29706910

  18. Immigration and Educational Inclusion: Preliminary Evidence from Three Schools in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astiz, M. Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory comparative case study examines three schools in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires that have a considerable number of recent immigrant students. The article illustrates how these schools advance ideas of inclusiveness and pluralism through the curriculum and educational opportunities, as mandated by the national education law of…

  19. Divestments in Banking. Preliminary Evidence on the Role of External Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Jackowicz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Divestment constitutes an important method of corporate restructuring. Despite this fact, the banking literature on divestment is very limited. In this text, we try to remediate partially to the shortcomings of the existing literature by examining empirically the role of external factors. Using a large sample of 313 transactions, we have established that parent companies originate from countries with relatively high accumulated wealth, slow GDP growth, stable macroeconomic situation and dominant bank intermediation in financial system. The acquirers in turn come from poorer countries with faster economic growth and relatively more market-oriented financial systems. Those results broadly conform with the predictions of three hypotheses formulated in the text, namely the weak performance hypothesis, the corporate governance hypothesis and the rebalancing hypothesis.

  20. MMPI-2: Cluster Analysis of Personality Profiles in Perinatal Depression—Preliminary Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Alessandra; Lauriola, Marco; Giacchetti, Nicoletta

    2014-01-01

    Background. To assess personality characteristics of women who develop perinatal depression. Methods. The study started with a screening of a sample of 453 women in their third trimester of pregnancy, to which was administered a survey data form, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2). A clinical group of subjects with perinatal depression (PND, 55 subjects) was selected; clinical and validity scales of MMPI-2 were used as predictors in hierarchical cluster analysis carried out. Results. The analysis identified three clusters of personality profile: two “clinical” clusters (1 and 3) and an “apparently common” one (cluster 2). The first cluster (39.5%) collects structures of personality with prevalent obsessive or dependent functioning tending to develop a “psychasthenic” depression; the third cluster (13.95%) includes women with prevalent borderline functioning tending to develop “dysphoric” depression; the second cluster (46.5%) shows a normal profile with a “defensive” attitude, probably due to the presence of defense mechanisms or to the fear of stigma. Conclusion. Characteristics of personality have a key role in clinical manifestations of perinatal depression; it is important to detect them to identify mothers at risk and to plan targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:25574499

  1. Neurophysiological correlates of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing sessions: preliminary evidence for traumatic memories integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Benedetto; Imperatori, Claudio; Quintiliani, Maria I; Castelli Gattinara, Paola; Onofri, Antonio; Lepore, Marta; Brunetti, Riccardo; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2015-11-01

    We have investigated the potential role of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in enhancing the integration of traumatic memories by measuring EEG coherence, power spectra and autonomic variables before (pre-EMDR) and after (post-EMDR) EMDR sessions during the recall of patient's traumatic memory. Thirteen EMDR sessions of six patients with post-traumatic stress disorder were recorded. EEG analyses were conducted by means of the standardized Low Resolution Electric Tomography (sLORETA) software. Power spectra, EEG coherence and heart rate variability (HRV) were compared between pre- and post-EMDR sessions. After EMDR, we observed a significant increase of alpha power in the left inferior temporal gyrus (T = 3.879; P = 0.041) and an increased EEG coherence in beta band between C3 and T5 electrodes (T = 6.358; P < 0.001). Furthermore, a significant increase of HRV in the post-EMDR sessions was also observed (pre-EMDR: 6.38 ± 6.83; post-EMDR: 2.46 ± 2.95; U-Test = 45, P = 0.043). Finally, the values of lagged coherence were negatively associated with subjective units of disturbance (r(24) = -0.44, P < 0.05) and positively associated with parasympathetic activity (r(24) = 0.40, P < 0.05). Our results suggest that EMDR leads to an integration of dissociated aspects of traumatic memories and, consequently, a decrease of hyperarousal symptoms [Correction made here after initial publication]. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Functional Role of Internal and External Visual Imagery: Preliminary Evidences from Pilates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuori, Simone; Sorrentino, Pierpaolo; Belloni, Lidia; Sorrentino, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigates whether a functional difference between the visualization of a sequence of movements in the perspective of the first- (internal VMI-I) or third- (external VMI-E) person exists, which might be relevant to promote learning. By using a mental chronometry experimental paradigm, we have compared the time or execution, imagination in the VMI-I perspective, and imagination in the VMI-E perspective of two kinds of Pilates exercises. The analysis was carried out in individuals with different levels of competence (expert, novice, and no-practice individuals). Our results showed that in the Expert group, in the VMI-I perspective, the imagination time was similar to the execution time, while in the VMI-E perspective, the imagination time was significantly lower than the execution time. An opposite pattern was found in the Novice group, in which the time of imagination was similar to that of execution only in the VMI-E perspective, while in the VMI-I perspective, the time of imagination was significantly lower than the time of execution. In the control group, the times of both modalities of imagination were significantly lower than the execution time for each exercise. The present data suggest that, while the VMI-I serves to train an already internalised gesture, the VMI-E perspective could be useful to learn, and then improve, the recently acquired sequence of movements. Moreover, visual imagery is not useful for individuals that lack a specific motor experience. The present data offer new insights in the application of mental training techniques, especially in field of sports. However, further investigations are needed to better understand the functional role of internal and external visual imagery. PMID:29849565

  3. Exchange rates and individual good's price misalignment: Some preliminary evidence of long-horizon predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Wei; Nam, Deokwoo

    2011-01-01

    When prices are sticky, movements in the nominal exchange rate have a direct impact on international relative prices. A relative price misalignment would trigger an adjustment in consumption and employment, and may help to predict future movements in the exchange rate. Although purchasing-power-parity fundamentals, in general, have only weak predictability, currency misalignment may be indicated by price differentials for some goods, which could then have predictive power for subsequent re-ev...

  4. DAT1-Genotype and Menstrual Cycle, but Not Hormonal Contraception, Modulate Reinforcement Learning: Preliminary Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Kristina; Ehrentreich, Hanna; Holtfrerich, Sarah K C; Reimers, Luise; Diekhof, Esther K

    2018-01-01

    Hormone by genotype interactions have been widely ignored by cognitive neuroscience. Yet, the dependence of cognitive performance on both baseline dopamine (DA) and current 17ß-estradiol (E2) level argues for their combined effect also in the context of reinforcement learning. Here, we assessed how the interaction between the natural rise of E2 in the late follicular phase (FP) and the 40 base-pair variable number tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) affects reinforcement learning capacity. 30 women with a regular menstrual cycle performed a probabilistic feedback learning task twice during the early and late FP. In addition, 39 women, who took hormonal contraceptives (HC) to suppress natural ovulation, were tested during the "pill break" and the intake phase of HC. The present data show that DAT1-genotype may interact with transient hormonal state, but only in women with a natural menstrual cycle. We found that carriers of the 9-repeat allele (9RP) experienced a significant decrease in the ability to avoid punishment from early to late FP. Neither homozygote subjects of the 10RP allele, nor subjects from the HC group showed a change in behavior between phases. These data are consistent with neurobiological studies that found that rising E2 may reverse DA transporter function and could enhance DA efflux, which would in turn reduce punishment sensitivity particularly in subjects with a higher transporter density to begin with. Taken together, the present results, although based on a small sample, add to the growing understanding of the complex interplay between different physiological modulators of dopaminergic transmission. They may not only point out the necessity to control for hormonal state in behavioral genetic research, but may offer new starting points for studies in clinical settings.

  5. Transport and redistribution of Chernobyl fallout radionuclides by fluvial processes: some preliminary evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walling, D.E.; Bradley, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    Several measurements of 137 Cs concentrations in suspended sediment transported by the River Severn during the post-Chernobyl period and in recent channel and floodplain deposits along the river emphasise the potential significance of fluvial processes in the transport and concentration of fallout radionuclides. (author)

  6. Outsourcing of Internal Audit Services in Australian Firms: Some Preliminary Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Divesh S. Sharma; Nava Subramaniam

    2005-01-01

    Although internal auditing (IA) services have been traditionally performed in-house, organizations are increasingly outsourcing such services. Using a Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) perspective, this study examined the influence of several organizational-level variables on the decision to outsource or in-house their internal audit functions. The study also identified the type of IA services that were likely to be out-sourced rather than in-housed, the extent to which incumbent external fina...

  7. Police Training to Align Law Enforcement and HIV Prevention: Preliminary Evidence From the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Alpna; Moreau, Bruce; Kumar, Pratima; Weiss-Laxer, Nomi; Heimer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Having identified gaps in implementation of Rhode Island's syringe access law and police occupational safety education, public health and police professionals developed police training to boost legal knowledge, improve syringe access attitudes, and address needlestick injuries. Baseline data (94 officers) confirmed anxiety about needlestick injuries, poor legal knowledge, and occupational risk overestimation. Before training, respondents believed that syringe access promotes drug use (51%), increases likelihood of police needlestick injuries (58%), and fails to reduce epidemics (38%). Pretraining to posttraining evaluation suggested significant shifts in legal and occupational safety knowledge; changes in attitudes toward syringe access were promising. Training that combines occupational safety with syringe access content can help align law enforcement with public health goals. Additional research is needed to assess street-level effect and to inform intervention tailoring. PMID:21940924

  8. Preliminary Compositional Evidence of Provenance of Ceramics from Hatahara Archaeological Site, Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred twenty four ceramic fragments and six clay samples from the Hatahara archaeological site in Amazonas state, Brazil, were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA, to determine the concentration of twenty chemical elements: Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, and Zn. The dataset was submitted to multivariate statistical analysis. The classification was done by cluster analysis and discriminant analysis. The results demonstrated the occurrence of four different groups of ceramics, which represent three archaeological phases: Paredão, Manacapuru, and Guarita. This data is consistent with previous traditional petrographic examination of the ceramic samples. Based on probability measures, the great majority of the ceramics are considered to be local in origin.

  9. Preliminary Evidence that Self-Efficacy Predicts Physical Activity in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Doerksen, Shawna; Hu, Liang; Morris, Katherine S.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) are less physically active than nondiseased people. One method for increasing physical activity levels involves the identification of factors that correlate with physical activity and that are modifiable by a well designed intervention. This study examined two types of self-efficacy as cross-sectional and…

  10. Nuclear organization in human sperm: preliminary evidence for altered sex chromosome centromere position in infertile males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, K A; Fonseka, K G L; Abogrein, A; Ioannou, D; Handyside, A H; Thornhill, A R; Hickson, N; Griffin, D K

    2008-06-01

    Many genetic defects with a chromosomal basis affect male reproduction via a range of different mechanisms. Chromosome position is a well-known marker of nuclear organization, and alterations in standard patterns can lead to disease phenotypes such as cancer, laminopathies and epilepsy. It has been demonstrated that normal mammalian sperm adopt a pattern with the centromeres aligning towards the nuclear centre. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that altered chromosome position in the sperm head is associated with male infertility. The average nuclear positions of fluorescence in-situ hybridization signals for three centromeric probes (for chromosomes X, Y and 18) were compared in normoozoospermic men and in men with compromised semen parameters. In controls, the centromeres of chromosomes X, Y and 18 all occupied a central nuclear location. In infertile men the sex chromosomes appeared more likely to be distributed in a pattern not distinguishable from a random model. Our findings cast doubt on the reliability of centromeric probes for aneuploidy screening. The analysis of chromosome position in sperm heads should be further investigated for the screening of infertile men.

  11. Blink Rate in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome: Preliminary Evidence for Altered Dopamine Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. E.; Symons, F. J.; Johnson, A.-M.; Hatton, D. D.; Boccia, M. L.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in motor and cognitive functioning, can be non-invasively measured via observation of spontaneous blink rates. Blink rates have been studied in a number of clinical conditions including schizophrenia, autism, Parkinsons, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder with results implicating either…

  12. DAT1-Genotype and Menstrual Cycle, but Not Hormonal Contraception, Modulate Reinforcement Learning: Preliminary Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Jakob

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hormone by genotype interactions have been widely ignored by cognitive neuroscience. Yet, the dependence of cognitive performance on both baseline dopamine (DA and current 17ß-estradiol (E2 level argues for their combined effect also in the context of reinforcement learning. Here, we assessed how the interaction between the natural rise of E2 in the late follicular phase (FP and the 40 base-pair variable number tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT1 affects reinforcement learning capacity. 30 women with a regular menstrual cycle performed a probabilistic feedback learning task twice during the early and late FP. In addition, 39 women, who took hormonal contraceptives (HC to suppress natural ovulation, were tested during the “pill break” and the intake phase of HC. The present data show that DAT1-genotype may interact with transient hormonal state, but only in women with a natural menstrual cycle. We found that carriers of the 9-repeat allele (9RP experienced a significant decrease in the ability to avoid punishment from early to late FP. Neither homozygote subjects of the 10RP allele, nor subjects from the HC group showed a change in behavior between phases. These data are consistent with neurobiological studies that found that rising E2 may reverse DA transporter function and could enhance DA efflux, which would in turn reduce punishment sensitivity particularly in subjects with a higher transporter density to begin with. Taken together, the present results, although based on a small sample, add to the growing understanding of the complex interplay between different physiological modulators of dopaminergic transmission. They may not only point out the necessity to control for hormonal state in behavioral genetic research, but may offer new starting points for studies in clinical settings.

  13. Preliminary Evidence for an Automatic Link between Sex and Power among Men Who Molest Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Jan H.; De Ruiter, Corine; Janssen, Bas; Spiering, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Understanding critical motivational processes of sexual offenders may ultimately provide important clues to more effective treatments. Implicit, automatic cognitive processes have received minimal attention; however, a lexical decision experiment revealed automatic links between the concepts of power and sex among participants who self-reported…

  14. EVIDENCE OF A GUADALUPIAN AGE FOR THE KHUFF FORMATION OF SOUTHEASTERN OMAN: PRELIMINARY REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIA ANGIOLINI

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The Guadalupian succession of the Huqf area (Sultanate of Oman represents a mega-sequence comprising the fluvial terrigenous Gharif Formation and the overlying marine Khuff Formation. The Khuff Fm. is subdivided into four members and is composed of marls and bioclastic limestones. The Khuff Fm. yields a rich fauna of brachiopods, conodonts, foraminifers, bivalves, gastropods, ostracods and cephalopods. The brachiopod fauna of the Khuff Fm. includes strophomenids, productids, orthids and terebratulids. The associated conodont fauna includes Hindeodus excavatus Behnken, Merrilina sp., M. praedivergens Kozur & Mostler, and Sweetina n. sp. (systematic descriptions of conodonts are given in the Paleontological Appendix. Foraminifers are represented by species of Miliolina and Rotaliina. The Khuff Fm. is given a Wordian age, based on brachiopods and conodonts. The depositional environment of the Khuff Fm. of southeastern Oman corresponds to the outer shelf of a large carbonate platform covering most of the Arabian Platform. The Khuff Fm. is interpreted as a major transgressive-regressive cycle related to differential subsidence. 

  15. Dismissing Children's Perceptions of Their Emotional Experience and Parental Care: Preliminary Evidence of Positive Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L.; David, Daryn H.; Crowley, Michael J.; Snavely, Jonathan E.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    The tendency to perceive caregivers in highly positive terms and to perceive the self as strong and problem-free are two facets of the positive bias characteristic of a dismissing attachment classification in adulthood. However, this link has not yet been examined in children. We evaluated the association between dismissing attachment and positive…

  16. Preliminary evidences of circadian fan activity rhythm in Sabella spallanzanii (Gmelin, 1791 (Polychaeta: Sabellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Aguzzi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The fan activity rhythm of Sabella spallanzanii (Gmelin, 1791 and its entrainment capability to light were studied. Animals were tested under constant darkness (DD followed by two consecutive 24 h light-darkness regimes: a first 11 h light period (LD and a second 9 h light period, with its phase inverted (DL. An infrared analogical video-camera took shots each 30 s. A number of pictures with open fan were counted every 15 min. In DD a weak free-running periodicity in the circadian range was found, thus reinforcing the matching of the 24 h period under study in both photoperiod regimes. A nocturnal activity was characterised with a consistent anticipation to lightOFF (i.e. entrainment. Moreover, this phase of entrainment differed between DL and LD. The presence of endogenous activity rhythm with a variable phase angle of entrainment is a distinctive feature of circadian pacemakers.

  17. Preliminary Evidence for Training-Induced Changes of Morphology and Phantom Limb Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Preißler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether a special prosthetic training in phantom limb pain patients aimed at increasing the functional use of the prosthesis leads to neural morphological plasticity of brain structures and a reduction in phantom limb pain. For chronic pain disorders, it was shown that morphological alterations due to pain might become at least partially reversed by pain therapies. Phantom limb pain is a chronic pain disorder that is frequently followed by neural plasticity of anatomical brain structures. In our study, 10 patients with amputation of the upper limb participated in a two-week training with a myoelectric prosthesis with somatosensory feedback. Grip strength was fed back with electrocutaneous stimulus patterns applied to the stump. Phantom limb pain was assessed before and after the two-week training. Similarly, two T1 weighted MRI scans were conducted for longitudinal thickness analyses of cortical brain structures. As result of this treatment, patients experienced a reduction in phantom limb pain and a gain in prosthesis functionality. Furthermore, we found a change of cortical thickness in small brain areas in the visual stream and the post-central gyrus ipsilateral to the amputation indicating morphological alterations in brain areas involved in vision and pain processing.

  18. Evidence for alpha-MSH binding sites on human scalp hair follicles: preliminary results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanninga, P. B.; Ghanem, G. E.; Lejeune, F. J.; Bos, J. D.; Westerhof, W.

    1991-01-01

    Alpha-MSH, considered an important pigmentation hormone, binds to melanocytes and is thought to stimulate melanogenesis through a cyclic-AMP-dependent mechanism. The binding of alpha-MSH to follicular melanocytes has been investigated in human hair of different colors, ranging from black to blond

  19. Attitudes toward elective abortion: preliminary evidence of validity for the Personal Beliefs Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embree, R A

    1998-06-01

    On the Personal Beliefs Scale of Embree and Embree item ratings obtained from 100 Midwestern undergraduates were used to classify participants into neutral, other, or second-order psychosomaticism mind-body belief types. Responses to a hypothetical abnormal pregnancy were used to measure attitude toward abortion (prochoice vs antichoice), meaning of abortion (not murder vs murder), and empathy for the unborn(low, moderate, or high). Values of chi 2 were statistically significant for students classified by mind-body belief type versus attitude toward abortion, and the meaning of abortion, but not for empathy for the unborn.

  20. Preliminary Evidence for a Second -525-545 Ma old Event of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (1995), the 630-700 Ma old event that produced the Eastern Granulites may record regional crustal thickening arising out of collision of India, Madagascar, parts of Easten Antarctica and the Kalahari craton (IMSLEK terranes) with the Congo craton and the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS). The younger granulite event recorded ...

  1. Effect of Biological Relatedness on Perfume Selection for Others: Preliminary Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotková, Markéta; Fialová, Jitka; Roberts, S Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2017-01-01

    People tend to choose perfumes to complement their body odour. As kin share some body odour qualities, their ability to select complementary perfumes for relatives might be higher compared with selection for nonrelatives. We tested this in two studies, comparing selection of a perfume for a target man by himself and by either a familiar but unrelated individual (girlfriend; Study 1) or a relative (sister; Study 2). Target men applied the two perfumes (own or other's choice) to their axillae and then wore cotton pads for 12 hr. Collected perfume-body odour blends and perfumes alone were assessed by rater panels. In Study 1, the blends were rated as nominally more pleasant when body odours were mixed with the perfumes selected by girlfriends compared with those selected by target men themselves. In Study 2, body odours mixed with perfumes selected by sisters were rated significantly more attractive than those mixed with perfumes selected by target men. No significant differences were found for attractiveness and pleasantness ratings when perfumes were rated alone, suggesting that it was the resulting blends that were uniquely different. Our results indicate that sisters might be particularly tuned to select suitable perfumes for their siblings.

  2. Do Budget Deficits Reduce Household Taxpayer Compliance? Preliminary Evidence Using the Feige Data

    OpenAIRE

    Cebula, Richard; Toma, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the hypothesis that higher federal budget deficits act to increase the degree of federal personal income tax evasion in the U.S. Using annual data on aggregate personal income tax evasion for the period 1961-1997, 1997 being the most recent year for which all of the needed data are currently available, and allowing for such factors as income tax rates, IRS tax return audit rates, the Vietnam War, and the Watergate scandal, it is found that income tax evasion is an incr...

  3. The shareholder wealth effects of insurance securitization: preliminary evidence from the catastrophe bond market

    OpenAIRE

    Hagendorff, Bjoern; Hagendorff, Jens; Keasey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Insurance securitization has long been hailed as an important tool to increase theunderwriting capacity for companies exposed to catastrophe-related risks. However, globalvolumes of insurance securitization have remained surprisingly low to date which raisesquestions over its benefits. In this paper, we examine changes in the market value ofinsurance and reinsurance firms which announce their engagement in insurance securitizationby issuing catastrophe (Cat) bonds. Consistent with the hithert...

  4. [Preliminary evidence of neurobiological and behavioral consequences of exposure to childhood maltreatment on regional brain development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Akemi

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, the topic of child abuse as an issue facing Japanese society has gained considerable attention with regard to the field of medicine and education and also in scenarios that relate to child care. The definition of child abuse includes abusing children verbally or psychologically, and is not limited to abusing children physically such as beating, sexual abuse, or neglect. Recent studies have revealed that emotional trauma during childhood development could be much more difficult to treat than physical abuse. Severe abuse during childhood can cause abnormal brain development and have a negative impact later in life. In this review, I will introduce the mechanisms of brain damage due to child abuse with consideration of how and when child abuse can have an impact on the victims' brains. The information presented is based on a collaborative study with the Psychiatry Department at Harvard University on the relationship between brain functions and the human mind.

  5. Precambrian mega lineaments across the Indian sub-continent - Preliminary evidence from offshore magnetic data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Murty, G.P.S.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; SuneetaRani, P.; Anuradha, A.

    junction/contact between two major geological provinces, viz. the Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT) and the Dharwar Craton. In addition to these two mega lineaments, major faults have been inferred, which acted as controlling parameters to create a bulge...

  6. Maternal Executive Functioning as a Mechanism in the Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting: Preliminary Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Bridgett, David J.; Kanya, Meghan J.; Rutherford, Helena J. V.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple lines of inquiry, including experimental animal models, have recently converged to suggest that executive functioning (EF) may be one mechanism by which parenting behavior is transmitted across generations. In the current investigation, we empirically test this notion by examining relations between maternal EF and parenting behaviors during mother-infant interactions, and by examining the role of maternal EF in the intergenerational transmission of parenting behavior. Mother-infant d...

  7. Pickles and Ice Cream! Food Cravings in Pregnancy: Hypotheses, Preliminary Evidence, and Directions for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia C. Orloff

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Women in the United States experience an increase in food cravings at two specific times during their life, 1 perimenstrually and 2 prenatally. The prevalence of excess gestational weight gain (GWG is a growing concern due to its association with adverse health outcomes in both mothers and children. To the extent that prenatal food cravings may be a determinant of energy intake in pregnancy, a better understanding of craving etiology could be crucial in addressing the issue of excessive GWG. This paper reviews the available literature to corroborate and/or dispute some of the most commonly accepted hypotheses regarding the causes of food cravings during pregnancy, including a role of 1 hormonal changes, 2 nutritional deficits, 3 pharmacologically active ingredients in the desired foods, and 4 cultural and psychosocial factors. An existing model of perimenstrual chocolate craving etiology serves to structure the discussion of these hypotheses. The main hypotheses discussed receive little support, with the notable exception of a postulated role of cultural and psychosocial factors. The presence of cravings during pregnancy is a common phenomenon across different cultures, but the types of foods desired and the adverse impact of cravings on health may be culture-specific. Various psychosocial factors appear to correlate with excess GWG, including the presence of restrained eating. Findings strongly suggest that more research be conducted in this area. We propose that future investigations fall into one of the four following categories: 1 validation of food craving and eating-related measures specifically in pregnant populations, 2 use of ecological momentary assessment to obtain real time data on cravings during pregnancy, 3 implementation of longitudinal studies to address causality between eating disorder symptoms, food cravings, and gestational weight gain, and 4 development of interventions to ensure proper prenatal nutrition and prevent excess GWG.

  8. Wild gudgeons (Gobio gobio) from French rivers are contaminated by microplastics: preliminary study and first evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Wilfried; Bender, Coline; Porcher, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Marine ecosystem contamination by microplastics is extensively documented. However few data is available on the contamination of continental water bodies and associated fauna. The aim of this study was to address the occurrence of microplastics in digestive tract of gudgeons (Gobio gobio) from French rivers. These investigations confirm that continental fish ingested microplastics while 12% of collected fish are contaminated by these small particles. Further works are needed to evaluate the occurence of this contamination. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Reversing the mere exposure effect in spider fearfuls: Preliminary evidence of sensitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Rinck, M.

    2016-01-01

    A mere exposure effect (MEE) is said to occur when individuals' liking of a suboptimally and repeatedly presented stimulus increases compared to never-presented stimuli, while they are unable to indicate which stimuli were previously presented and which were not. In two experiments, we used the MEE

  10. Preliminary evidence for performance enhancement following parietal lobe stimulation in Developmental Dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuculano, Teresa; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 7% of the population exhibit difficulties in dealing with numbers and performing arithmetic, a condition named Developmental Dyscalculia (DD), which significantly affects the educational and professional outcomes of these individuals, as it often persists into adulthood. Research has mainly focused on behavioral rehabilitation, while little is known about performance changes and neuroplasticity induced by the concurrent application of brain-behavioral approaches. It has been shown that numerical proficiency can be enhanced by applying a small-yet constant-current through the brain, a non-invasive technique named transcranial electrical stimulation (tES). Here we combined a numerical learning paradigm with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in two adults with DD to assess the potential benefits of this methodology to remediate their numerical difficulties. Subjects learned to associate artificial symbols to numerical quantities within the context of a trial and error paradigm, while tDCS was applied to the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). The first subject (DD1) received anodal stimulation to the right PPC and cathodal stimulation to the left PPC, which has been associated with numerical performance's improvements in healthy subjects. The second subject (DD2) received anodal stimulation to the left PPC and cathodal stimulation to the right PPC, which has been shown to impair numerical performance in healthy subjects. We examined two indices of numerical proficiency: (i) automaticity of number processing; and (ii) mapping of numbers onto space. Our results are opposite to previous findings with non-dyscalculic subjects. Only anodal stimulation to the left PPC improved both indices of numerical proficiency. These initial results represent an important step to inform the rehabilitation of developmental learning disabilities, and have relevant applications for basic and applied research in cognitive neuroscience, rehabilitation, and education.

  11. Preliminary evidence for performance enhancement following parietal lobe stimulation in Developmental Dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa eIuculano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 7% of the population exhibit difficulties in dealing with numbers and performing arithmetic, a condition named Developmental Dyscalculia (DD, which significantly affects the educational and professional outcomes of these individuals, as it often persists into adulthood. Research has mainly focused on behavioral rehabilitation, while little is known about performance changes and neuroplasticity induced by the concurrent application of brain-behavioral approaches. It has been shown that numerical proficiency can be enhanced by applying a small – yet constant – current through the brain, a non-invasive technique named transcranial electrical stimulation (tES. Here we combined a numerical learning paradigm with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in two adults with DD to assess the potential benefits of this methodology to remediate their numerical difficulties. Subjects learned to associate artificial symbols to numerical quantities within the context of a trial and error paradigm, while tDCS was applied to the posterior parietal cortex (PPC. The first subject (DD1 received anodal stimulation to the right PPC and cathodal stimulation to the left PPC, which has been associated with numerical performance’s improvements in healthy subjects. The second subject (DD2 received anodal stimulation to the left PPC and cathodal stimulation to the right PPC, which has been shown to impair numerical performance in healthy subjects. We examined two indices of numerical proficiency: (i automaticity of number processing; and (ii mapping of numbers onto space. Our results are opposite to previous findings with non-dyscalculic subjects. Only anodal stimulation to the left PPC improved both indices of numerical proficiency. These initial results represent an important step to inform the rehabilitation of developmental learning disabilities, and have relevant applications for basic and applied research in cognitive neuroscience, rehabilitation, and education.

  12. Preliminary Evidence That Growth in Productive Language Differentiates Childhood Stuttering Persistence and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Kathryn A.; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Brown, Barbara; Weber, Christine M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood stuttering is common but is often outgrown. Children whose stuttering persists experience significant life impacts, calling for a better understanding of what factors may underlie eventual recovery. In previous research, language ability has been shown to differentiate children who stutter (CWS) from children who do not stutter,…

  13. Preliminary evidence for a postsynaptic action of beta-bungarotoxin in mammalian skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storella, R. J.; Schouchoff, A. L.; Fujii, M.; Hill, J.; Fletcher, J. E.; Jiang, M. S.; Smith, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    Two hours after treatment with beta-bungarotoxin (0.34-0.4 microM), when there was complete neuromuscular block, the peak contracture response to 50 microM succinylcholine was significantly reduced by about 35% in the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. Additionally, significant phospholipase A2 activity was detected on primary cell cultures from skeletal muscle which were incubated for 2 hr with concentrations of beta-bungarotoxin greater than or equal to 0.1 microM. Thus, beta-bungarotoxin appears to have pharmacologically and biochemically detectable postsynaptic actions in mammalian muscle systems.

  14. Associations between Dopamine and Serotonin Genes and Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Evidence from the Add Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhaoli; Li, Wendong; Arvey, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous behavioral genetic studies have found that job satisfaction is partially heritable. We went a step further to examine particular genetic markers that may be associated with job satisfaction. Using an oversample from the National Adolescent Longitudinal Study (Add Health Study), we found 2 genetic markers, dopamine receptor gene DRD4 VNTR…

  15. Organizational Life Cycles and Shifting Criteria of Effectiveness: Some Preliminary Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Robert E. Quinn; Kim Cameron

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationships between stage of development in organizational life cycles and organizational effectiveness. We begin the paper by reviewing nine models of organizational life cycles that have been proposed in the literature. Each of these models identifies certain characteristics that typify organizations in different stages of development. A summary model of life cycle stages is derived that integrates each of these nine models. Next, a framework of organizational eff...

  16. Measures of Hindu Pathways: Development and Preliminary Evidence of Reliability and Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Pargament, Kenneth I.; Mahoney, Annette

    2003-01-01

    Examines religious practices of Hindus in the United States and develops measures of their religious pathways. Four religious pathways were identified: devotion, ethical action, knowledge, and physical restraint/yoga. Results indicate that the measures of the religious pathways possessed adequate psychometric properties and were predictive of…

  17. Preliminary Evidence for a Classroom Based Psychosocial Intervention for Disaster Exposed Children with Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Rønholt, Stine; Karsberg, Sidsel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2004, a firework factory in a residential area of a large Danish city exploded. The children at the local school were screened for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 16 months and 3 years after the incident. A large proportion of the children still suffered from...

  18. Experiential Avoidance and the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and PTSD Symptoms: Preliminary Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E.; Putnam, Frank W.; Noll, Jennie G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Not every adolescent exposed to child maltreatment develops symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), emphasizing the need to identify variables that explain how some maltreated children come to develop these symptoms. This study tested whether a set of variables, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cortisol reactivity as…

  19. Body Guilt: Preliminary Evidence for a Further Subjective Experience of Self-Objectification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Rachel M.; Pina, Afroditi

    2011-01-01

    Two studies investigated body guilt (i.e., feeling regret and remorse over how the body looks and a desire for reparative action to "fix" the body) within the framework of objectification theory among predominantly White British undergraduate women. In Study 1 (N = 225), participants completed self-report measures of interpersonal sexual…

  20. Preliminary Evidence for the Amplification of Global Warming in Shallow, Intertidal Estuarine Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 50 years, mean annual water temperature in northeastern U.S. estuaries has increased by approximately 1.2°C, with most of the warming recorded in the winter and early spring. We hypothesize that this warming may be amplified in the shallow (<2m), nearshore portions ...

  1. Health benefits of tai chi: What is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Patricia; McFarlane, Bruce

    2016-11-01

    To summarize the evidence on the health benefits of tai chi. A literature review was conducted on the benefits of tai chi for 25 specific conditions, as well as for general health and fitness, to update a 2014 review of systematic reviews. Systematic reviews and recent clinical trials were assessed and organized into 5 different groups: evidence of benefit as excellent, good, fair, or preliminary, or evidence of no direct benefit. During the past 45 years more than 500 trials and 120 systematic reviews have been published on the health benefits of tai chi. Systematic reviews of tai chi for specific conditions indicate excellent evidence of benefit for preventing falls, osteoarthritis, Parkinson disease, rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and improving cognitive capacity in older adults. There is good evidence of benefit for depression, cardiac and stroke rehabilitation, and dementia. There is fair evidence of benefit for improving quality of life for cancer patients, fibromyalgia, hypertension, and osteoporosis. Current evidence indicates no direct benefit for diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, or chronic heart failure. Systematic reviews of general health and fitness benefits show excellent evidence of benefit for improving balance and aerobic capacity in those with poor fitness. There is good evidence for increased strength in the lower limbs. There is fair evidence for increased well-being and improved sleep. There were no studies that found tai chi worsened a condition. A recent systematic review on the safety of tai chi found adverse events were typically minor and primarily musculoskeletal; no intervention-related serious adverse events have been reported. There is abundant evidence on the health and fitness effects of tai chi. Based on this, physicians can now offer evidence-based recommendations to their patients, noting that tai chi is still an area of active research, and patients should continue to receive medical follow-up for any

  2. The Industrious Revolution and Early Modern Colonial Goods Trade - Evidence from the Soundtoll Online Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uebele, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This article presents preliminary evidence of the volume of coffee trade tolled at the entry to the Baltic Sea, ca. 1700-1850, using the Soundtoll Registers Online Database (www.soundtoll.nl). The results are interpreted in the light of the “Industrious Revolution” hypothesis (De Vries 2008). The

  3. Evidence: Study Guide. Revision

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ...) correct application of principles of military rules of evidence. This study guide is also intended to be a convenient reference for use by Navy and Marine Corps judge advocates and Coast Guard law...

  4. A Preliminary Fire PSA on PGSFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kilyoo; Han, Sanghoon; Lee, KwiLim

    2017-01-01

    A Prototype Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactor (PGSFR) is under design with defense in depth concept with active, passive, and inherent safety features to acquire a design approval for PGSFR from Korean regulatory authority by around 2017. A preliminary fire PSA on PGSFR is done in 2016 and a final fire PSA of PGSFR will be done in 2017. The characteristics of the preliminary fire PSA on PGSFR are described in this paper. Since PGSFR is very safe reactor, it is not bad approach to use a conservative assumption in the preliminary PSA. In addition, several drawings including cable routing are not yet issued, a conservative calculation for CDF is performed. As shown in Table 2, the CDF caused by the fire in the control room takes 89% portion of total CDF. Thus, a detailed fire modeling for control room is necessary for the final fire PSA on PGSFR. Also, the increased ignition frequency due to sodium leak would be derived by considering the sodium piping complexity in the final fire PSA on PGSFR. The 4th column of Table 2 is derived the 3rd column by multiplying the factor (592/1177). The 5th column is the ignition frequency caused by the sodium leak. The 6th column is derived by summing the 4th column and the 5th column. The 7th column is the CDF portion of each fire area. The control room (fire area F-A404A) is the most important area since the control room fire takes 89% portion of total CDF.

  5. Preliminary design of a coffee harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Magalhães Gomes Moreira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Design of an agricultural machine is a highly complex process due to interactions between the operator, machine, and environment. Mountain coffee plantations constitute an economic sector that requires huge investments for the development of agricultural machinery to improve the harvesting and post-harvesting processes and to overcome the scarcity of work forces in the fields. The aim of this study was to develop a preliminary design for a virtual prototype of a coffee fruit harvester. In this study, a project methodology was applied and adapted for the development of the following steps: project planning, informational design, conceptual design, and preliminary design. The construction of a morphological matrix made it possible to obtain a list of different mechanisms with specific functions. The union between these mechanisms resulted in variants, which were weighed to attribute scores for each selected criterion. From each designated proposal, two variants with the best scores were selected and this permitted the preparation of the preliminary design of both variants. The archetype was divided in two parts, namely the hydraulically articulated arms and the harvesting system that consisted of the vibration mechanism and the detachment mechanism. The proposed innovation involves the use of parallel rods, which were fixed in a plane and rectangular metal sheet. In this step, dimensions including a maximum length of 4.7 m, a minimum length of 3.3 m, and a total height of 2.15 m were identified based on the functioning of the harvester in relation to the coupling point of the tractor.

  6. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Roberts; Paul Roberts; Paul Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. Section 1 addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materia...

  7. Preliminary list of plant invaders in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stešević, D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that Invasive alien species (IAS are considered to be the second cause of global biodiversity loss after direct habitat destruction and have adverse environmental, economic and social impacts from the local level upwards, in last decades investigations of alien flora of Montenegro are intensified. In this paper we are presenting a preliminary list of IAS, with the aim to provide a basic data on IAS in Montenegro, to enable future monitoring and to draw attention on the problems which expansion of IAS is bringing with itself. The list consists of 50 plant taxa species and supspecies level.

  8. Preliminary summary of the ETF conceptual studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikel, G. R.; Bercaw, R. W.; Pearson, C. V.; Owens, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    Power plant studies have shown the attractiveness of MHD topped steam power plants for baseload utility applications. To realize these advantages, a three-phase development program was initiated. In the first phase, the engineering data and experience were developed for the design and construction of a pilot plant, the Engineering Test Facility (ETF). Results of the ETF studies are reviewed. These three parallel independent studies were conducted by industrial teams led by the AVCO Everett Research Laboratory, the General Electric Corporation, and the Westinghouse Corporation. A preliminary analysis and the status of the critical evaluation of these results are presented.

  9. Preliminary economic evaluation of the Alkox process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.J.; Lilga, M.A.; Camaioni, D.M.; Snowden, L.J.

    1991-09-01

    A new chemical process has been invented at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories for converting alkanes to alcohols. This new chemistry has been named the ''Alkox Process.'' Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared a preliminary economic analysis for converting cyclohexane to cyclohexanol, which may be one of the most attractive applications of the Alkox process. A process flow scheme and a material balance were prepared to support rough equipment sizing and costing. The results from the economic analysis are presented in the non-proprietary section of this report. The process details, including the flow diagram and material balance, are contained in separate section of this report that is proprietary to Battelle. 7 refs., 4 tabs

  10. Vasectomy: preliminary report on 25 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, V M; Makokha, A E

    1989-05-01

    Preliminary data on 25 men who underwent vasectomy for contraception between June 1986 and May 1988 at the Marie Stopes Clinic--Nairobi is presented. The majority (76.0%) of the subjects were aged between 25 and 39 years. 68.0% had 4 living children or less. Professionals including lecturers, lawyers, teachers, engineers etc, formed 88.0% of the total. Three clients(12.0%) had documented complications; one had aseptic wound, one had haematoma and the last one had a failed vasectomy. All were treated successfully. Complications of vasectomy and the need for follow-up of vasectomised men are discussed.

  11. Danish Anaesthesia Allergy Centre - preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, L H; Roed-Petersen, J; Menné, T

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anaphylactoid reactions in anaesthesia are rare and should ideally be investigated in specialist centres. At Gentofte University Hospital, we established such a centre in 1998 as a joint venture between the Departments of Anaesthesiology and Dermatology. We present the methodology...... for chlorhexidine. Only one patient has tested positive to a neuromuscular blocking drug (NMBD) so far. DISCUSSION: Our preliminary results appear to differ in two ways from results usually found in this field. Firstly, only one patient has tested positive for a NMBD and secondly, we have had four patients...

  12. Preliminary investigations of piezoelectric based LED luminary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Meyer, Kaspar Sinding

    2011-01-01

    , modulation schemes, LEDs and LED driving conditions are analyzed. A prototype radial mode PT optimized for ZVS (Zero Voltage Switching) is designed. FEM (Final Element Method) and measurements validates the PT design. A prototype PT based AC/DC converter operating from european mains is proposed......This paper presents a preliminary study of PT (Piezoelectric Transformer) based SMPS’s (Switch Mode Power Supplies) for LED luminary. The unique properties of PTs (efficiency, power density and EMI) make them highly suitable for this application. Power stage topologies, rectifiers circuits...

  13. Preliminary study on AC superconducting machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, M.; Ishigohka, T.; Shimohka, T.; Mizukami, N.; Yamaguchi, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the issues involved in developing AC superconducting machines. In the first phase, as a preliminary experiment, a 4kVa AC superconducting coil which employs 100A class 50/60Hz superconductors is made and tested. And, in the second phase, as an extension of the 4kVa coil, a model superconducting transformer is made and examined. The transformer has a novel quench protection system with an auxiliary coil only in the low voltage side. The behavior of the overcurrent protection system is confirmed

  14. Ecological economics - a special perspective? Preliminary reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on some preliminary reflections from a research project concerning ecological economics as a special perspective. As Clive Spash noted in a presentation at the ESEE conference in Cambridge, July 2001, ecological economics has reached the age of puberty, looks into the glass...... and searches its own identity. The identity seeking processes are visible in the large number of publications discussing the characteristics of ecological economics as well as the similarities to and differences from environmental economics. The present paper is a part of this stream. The paper is work...

  15. Preliminary cost estimating for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumpar, I.V.; Soltz, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear industry has higher costs for personnel, equipment, construction, and engineering than conventional industry, which means that cost estimation procedures may need adjustment. The authors account for the special technical and labor requirements of the nuclear industry in making adjustments to equipment and installation cost estimations. Using illustrative examples, they show that conventional methods of preliminary cost estimation are flexible enough for application to emerging industries if their cost structure is similar to that of the process industries. If not, modifications can provide enough engineering and cost data for a statistical analysis. 9 references, 14 figures, 4 tables

  16. Preliminary simulation study of doppler reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yuta; Hojo, Hitoshi; Yoshikawa, Masashi; Ichimura, Makoto; Haraguchi, Yusuke; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Mase, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary simulation study of Doppler reflectometry is performed. The simulations solve Maxwell's equations by a finite difference time domain (FDTD) code method in two dimensions. A moving corrugated metal target is used as a plasma cutoff layer to study the basic features of Doppler reflectometry. We examined the effects of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the electromagnetic waves and the corrugation depth of the metal target. Furthermore, the effect of a nonuniform plasma is studied using this FDTD analysis. The Doppler shift and velocity are compared with those obtained from FDTD analysis of a uniform plasma. (author)

  17. Isotope angiocardiography. Method and preliminary own studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinska, J; Ruzyllo, W; Konieczny, W [Centrum Medyczne Ksztalcenia Podyplomowego, Warsaw (Poland)

    1979-01-01

    Method of technetium isotope 99 m pass through the heart recording with the aid of radioisotope scanner connected with seriograph and computer is being presented. Preliminary tests were carried out in 26 patients with coronary disease without or with previous myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, ventricular septal defect and in patients with artificial mitral and aortic valves. The obtained scans were evaluated qualitatively and compared with performed later contrast X-rays of the heart. Size of the right ventricle, volume and rate of left atrial evacuation, size and contractability of left ventricle were evaluated. Similarity of direct and isotope angiocardiographs, non-invasional character and repeatability of isotope angiocardiography advocate its usefulness.

  18. Preliminary Cost Model for Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Prince, F. Andrew; Smart, Christian; Stephens, Kyle; Henrichs, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Parametric cost models are routinely used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. However, great care is required. Some space telescope cost models, such as those based only on mass, lack sufficient detail to support such analysis and may lead to inaccurate conclusions. Similarly, using ground based telescope models which include the dome cost will also lead to inaccurate conclusions. This paper reviews current and historical models. Then, based on data from 22 different NASA space telescopes, this paper tests those models and presents preliminary analysis of single and multi-variable space telescope cost models.

  19. Preliminary recommendations of the Noise Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legerton, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    In 1993 the DTI set up a Working Group largely consisting of independent experts on wind turbine noise. The main objectives of the Working Group were to define a framework which can be used to measure and rate the noise from wind turbines and to provide indicative noise levels thought to offer a reasonable degree of protection to wind farm neighbours and encourage best practice in turbine design and wind farm siting and layout. This paper presents the preliminary recommendations of the Working Group. (Author)

  20. Establishment and preliminary outcomes of a palliative care research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Peter; Street, Annette; Graham, Suzanne; Aranda, Sanchia; O'Connor, Margaret; Thomas, Kristina; Jackson, Kate; Spruyt, Odette; Ugalde, Anna; Philip, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    The difficulties in conducting palliative care research have been widely acknowledged. In order to generate the evidence needed to underpin palliative care provision, collaborative research is considered essential. Prior to formalizing the development of a research network for the state of Victoria, Australia, a preliminary study was undertaken to ascertain interest and recommendations for the design of such a collaboration. Three data-collection strategies were used: a cross-sectional questionnaire, interviews, and workshops. The questionnaire was completed by multidisciplinary palliative care specialists from across the state (n = 61); interviews were conducted with senior clinicians and academics (n = 21) followed by two stakeholder workshops (n = 29). The questionnaire was constructed specifically for this study, measuring involvement of and perceptions of palliative care research. Both the interview and the questionnaire data demonstrated strong support for a palliative care research network and aided in establishing a research agenda. The stakeholder workshops assisted with strategies for the formation of the Palliative Care Research Network Victoria (PCRNV) and guided the development of the mission and strategic plan. The research and efforts to date to establish the PCRNV are encouraging and provide optimism for the evolution of palliative care research in Australia. The international implications are highlighted.

  1. Preliminary Beam Irradiation Test for RI Production Targets at KOMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sang Pil; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Han Sung; Cho, Yong Sub; Seol, Kyung Tae; Song, Young Gi; Kim, Dae Il; Jung, Myung Hwan; Kim, Kye Ryung; Min, Yi Sub [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The new beamline and target irradiation facility has been constructed for the production of therapeutic radio-isotope. Sr-82 and Cu-67 were selected as the target isotope in this facility, they are promising isotope for the PET imaging and cancer therapy. For the facility commissioning, the irradiation test for the prototype-target was conducted to confirm the feasibility of radio-isotope production, the proto-type targets are made of RbCl pellet and the natural Zn metal for Sr-82 and Cu-67 production respectively, In this paper, an introduction to the RI production targetry system and the results of the preliminary beam irradiation test are discussed. the low-flux beam irradiation tests for proto-type RI target have been conducted. As a result of the beam irradiation tests, we could obtain the evidence of Sr-82 and Cu-67 production, have confirmed the feasibility of Sr-82 and Cu-67 production at KOMAC RI production facility.

  2. Preliminary Clinical Study On Ms Treatment With Hyperbaric Oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulewicz Kazimierz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors conducted the preliminary clinical investigation on 16 multiple sclerosis (Sclerosis multiplex patients of median disease duration 9.33 years and symptoms evaluated on Kurtzke’s scale. The patients underwent between 25 and 30 hyperbaric oxygen exposures at a pressure of 2 ata in intervals spread over a few days. The patients were qualified and classified to the treatment symptomatologically according to Fisher but the obtained results were evaluated according to the standardised Disability Status Scale by Kurtzke. During the investigations the authors carried out additional quantitative immunoglobulin and complement activity determination, lymphocyte T and B determinations as well as the usually applied clinical and laboratory investigations. Evident clinical improvement was observed in 14 patients, but in the case of one patient a deterioration was observed after 15 hyperbaric expositions (resulting in the hyperbaric oxygen treatment being stopped, whilst in another case no curative effect could be observed. By utilising the 50% haemolysis method, within the examined immunological parameters the authors observed an increase of complement fractions and its activity, white lymphocytes T and B examined qualitatively did not maintain the characteristic shift. The authors are still discussing the obtained results.

  3. Preliminary Beam Irradiation Test for RI Production Targets at KOMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang Pil; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Han Sung; Cho, Yong Sub; Seol, Kyung Tae; Song, Young Gi; Kim, Dae Il; Jung, Myung Hwan; Kim, Kye Ryung; Min, Yi Sub

    2016-01-01

    The new beamline and target irradiation facility has been constructed for the production of therapeutic radio-isotope. Sr-82 and Cu-67 were selected as the target isotope in this facility, they are promising isotope for the PET imaging and cancer therapy. For the facility commissioning, the irradiation test for the prototype-target was conducted to confirm the feasibility of radio-isotope production, the proto-type targets are made of RbCl pellet and the natural Zn metal for Sr-82 and Cu-67 production respectively, In this paper, an introduction to the RI production targetry system and the results of the preliminary beam irradiation test are discussed. the low-flux beam irradiation tests for proto-type RI target have been conducted. As a result of the beam irradiation tests, we could obtain the evidence of Sr-82 and Cu-67 production, have confirmed the feasibility of Sr-82 and Cu-67 production at KOMAC RI production facility

  4. Hypoallergenic properties of donkey's milk: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vincenzetti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA is an abnormal immunological response to cow milk proteins, which results in IgE-mediated reactions. The therapeutic strategy to respond to CMPA envisages the total elimination of milk or the administration of cow's milk substitutes. For this reason the use of milk from other mammalian species was tested. Among them, donkey's milk proved to be the best alternative in feeding infants affected by CMPA, since its chemical composition is comparable to human milk. In this work an in vitro study was performed in order to analyze the IgE reactivity to milk protein allergens from cow, donkey and goat. In particular, immunoblotting experiments using sera from milk-allergic and non-allergic adult volunteers were conducted with the aim of verifying the hypoallergenic property of donkey's milk. This study provided a preliminary evidence of the hypoallergenicity of donkey's milk when compared to bovine and goat milk. Considering the obtained results, it would be possible to develop a sensitive diagnostic method for CMPA detection, based on chromatographic and immunoblotting analysis.

  5. Tissue characterization using magnetic resonance elastography: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, S.A.; Smith, J.A.; Lawrence, A.J.; Dresner, M.A.; Manduca, A.; Greenleaf, J.F.; Ehman, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    The well-documented effectiveness of palpation as a diagnostic technique for detecting cancer and other diseases has provided motivation for developing imaging techniques for non-invasively evaluating the mechanical properties of tissue. A recently described approach for elasticity imaging, using propagating acoustic shear waves and phase-contrast MRI, has been called magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). The purpose of this work was to conduct preliminary studies to define methods for using MRE as a tool for addressing the paucity of quantitative tissue mechanical property data in the literature. Fresh animal liver and kidney tissue specimens were evaluated with MRE at multiple shear wave frequencies. The influence of specimen temperature and orientation on measurements of stiffness was studied in skeletal muscle. The results demonstrated that all of the materials tested (liver, kidney, muscle and tissue-simulating gel) exhibit systematic dependence of shear stiffness on shear rate. These data are consistent with a viscoelastic model of tissue mechanical properties, allowing calculation of two independent tissue properties from multiple-frequency MRE data: shear modulus and shear viscosity. The shear stiffness of tissue can be substantially affected by specimen temperature. The results also demonstrated evidence of shear anisotropy in skeletal muscle but not liver tissue. The measured shear stiffness in skeletal muscle was found to depend on both the direction of propagation and polarization of the shear waves. (author)

  6. Preliminary results from the Chicago air shower array and the Michigan muon array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimm, H.A.; Cronin, J.W.; Fick, B.E.; Gibbs, K.G.; Mascarenhas, N.C.; McKay, T.A.; Mueller, D.; Newport, B.J.; Ong, R.A.; Rosenberg, L.J.; Wiedenbeck, M.E.; Green, K.D.; Matthews, J.; Nitz, D.; Sinclair, D.; van der Velde, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Chicago Air Shower Array (CASA) is a large area surface array designed to detect extensive air showers (EAS) produced by primaries with energy ∼100 TeV. It operates in coincidence with the underground Michigan Muon Array (MIA). Preliminary results are presented from a search for steady emission and daily emission from three astrophysical sources: Cygnus X-3, Hercules X-1, and the Crab nebula and pulsar. There is no evidence for a significant signal from any of these sources in the 1989 data

  7. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materiality; and (5) legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law's fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. The section titled LTDNA Evidence in UK Criminal Trials then examines English and Northern Irish courts' attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially

  8. LTDNA Evidence on Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materiality; and (5) legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law's fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. The section titled LTDNA Evidence in UK Criminal Trials then examines English and Northern Irish courts' attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially

  9. Preliminary results of studies of the Valea Morilor Upper Palaeolithic site (Chisinau, Republic of Moldova) : A new camp of mammoth hunters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obada, Teodor; van der Plicht, Johannes; Markova, Anastasia; Prepelitsa, Afanasie

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from the studies of a newly found Paleolithic site - Valea Morilor (Chisingu, Republic of Moldova). The excavations produced unquestionable evidence of mammoth hunting (Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach, 1799). Excavations of 2009-2010 opened an area of 1264 m(2).

  10. Preliminary impression techniques for microstomia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Aswini Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Prosthetic rehabilitation of microstomia patients presents difficulties at all the stages. The difficulty starts with the preliminary impression making. This is due to the tongue rigidity and the decreased oral opening. A maximum oral opening which is smaller than the size of the tray can make prosthetic treatment challenging. Due to the restricted mouth opening, insertion and removal of the impression trays is extremely cumbersome and various modifications of the trays have been used in the past. Among these are the flexible trays and the sectional trays used with different modes of reassembling the segments extra orally after the impression is made. This article reviews the literature published from 1971 to 2015 concerning preliminary impression techniques used in making impressions for patients with microstomia based on various tray designs. An electronic search was performed across three databases (PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scolar for relevant citations. The keywords/combinations used for the search were microstomia, limited/constricted/restricted mouth opening/oral access, trismus, sectional trays, impressions and prosthetic/prosthodontic rehabilitation. The search was limited to papers written in English which resulted in a total of 45 related articles of which 17 articles were included for discussion of this review.

  11. Preliminary Hazards Analysis Plasma Hearth Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aycock, M.; Coordes, D.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1993-11-01

    This Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) follows the requirements of United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE, 1992a), DOE Order 5480.21 (DOE, 1991d), DOE Order 5480.22 (DOE, 1992c), DOE Order 5481.1B (DOE, 1986), and the guidance provided in DOE Standards DOE-STD-1027-92 (DOE, 1992b). Consideration is given to ft proposed regulations published as 10 CFR 830 (DOE, 1993) and DOE Safety Guide SG 830.110 (DOE, 1992b). The purpose of performing a PRA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PRA then is followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title I and II design. This PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during construction, testing, and acceptance and completed before routine operation. Radiological assessments indicate that a PHP facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous material assessments indicate that a PHP facility will be a Low Hazard facility having no significant impacts either onsite or offsite to personnel and the environment

  12. Business System Planning Project, Preliminary System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EVOSEVICH, S.

    2000-01-01

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) is currently performing many core business functions including, but not limited to, work control, planning, scheduling, cost estimating, procurement, training, and human resources. Other core business functions are managed by or dependent on Project Hanford Management Contractors including, but not limited to, payroll, benefits and pension administration, inventory control, accounts payable, and records management. In addition, CHG has business relationships with its parent company CH2M HILL, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection and other River Protection Project contractors, government agencies, and vendors. The Business Systems Planning (BSP) Project, under the sponsorship of the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. Chief Information Officer (CIO), have recommended information system solutions that will support CHG business areas. The Preliminary System Design was developed using the recommendations from the Alternatives Analysis, RPP-6499, Rev 0 and will become the design base for any follow-on implementation projects. The Preliminary System Design will present a high-level system design, providing a high-level overview of the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) modules and identify internal and external relationships. This document will not define data structures, user interface components (screens, reports, menus, etc.), business rules or processes. These in-depth activities will be accomplished at implementation planning time

  13. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of thaumatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Susana C. M. [ILL-EMBL Deuteration Laboratory, Partnership for Structural Biology, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Blakeley, Matthew P. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Leal, Ricardo M. F. [ILL-EMBL Deuteration Laboratory, Partnership for Structural Biology, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Mitchell, Edward P. [EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Forsyth, V. Trevor, E-mail: tforsyth@ill.fr [ILL-EMBL Deuteration Laboratory, Partnership for Structural Biology, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); EPSAM and ISTM, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-01

    Preliminary neutron crystallographic data from the sweet protein thaumatin have been recorded using the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results illustrate the feasibility of a full neutron structural analysis aimed at further understanding the molecular basis of the perception of sweet taste. Such an analysis will exploit the use of perdeuterated thaumatin. A preliminary neutron crystallographic study of the sweet protein thaumatin is presented. Large hydrogenated crystals were prepared in deuterated crystallization buffer using the gel-acupuncture method. Data were collected to a resolution of 2 Å on the LADI-III diffractometer at the Institut Laue Langevin (ILL). The results demonstrate the feasibility of a full neutron crystallographic analysis of this structure aimed at providing relevant information on the location of H atoms, the distribution of charge on the protein surface and localized water in the structure. This information will be of interest for understanding the specificity of thaumatin–receptor interactions and will contribute to further understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the perception of taste.

  14. Defining resilience: A preliminary integrative literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Bonnie; Long, Suzanna K.; Shoberg, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    The term “resilience” is ubiquitous in technical literature; it appears in numerous forms, such as resilience, resiliency, or resilient, and each use may have a different definition depending on the interpretation of the writer. This creates difficulties in understanding what is meant by ‘resilience’ in any given use case, especially in discussions of interdisciplinary research. To better understand this problem, this research constructs a preliminary integrative literature review to map different definitions, applications and calculation methods of resilience invoked within critical infrastructure applications. The preliminary review uses a State-of-the-Art Matrix (SAM) analysis to characterize differences in definition across disciplines and between regions. Qualifying the various usages of resilience will produce a greater precision in the literature and a deeper insight into types of data required for its evaluation, particularly with respect to critical infrastructure calculations and how such data may be analyzed. Results from this SAM analysis will create a framework of key concepts as part of the most common applications for “resilient critical infrastructure” modeling.

  15. Ship design methodologies of preliminary design

    CERN Document Server

    Papanikolaou, Apostolos

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with ship design and in particular with methodologies of the preliminary design of ships. The book is complemented by a basic bibliography and five appendices with useful updated charts for the selection of the main dimensions and other basic characteristics of different types of ships (Appendix A), the determination of hull form  from the data of systematic hull form series (Appendix B), the detailed description of the relational method for the preliminary estimation of ship weights (Appendix C), a brief review of the historical evolution of shipbuilding science and technology from the prehistoric era to date (Appendix D) and finally a historical review of regulatory developments of ship's damage stability to date (Appendix E).  The book can be used as textbook for ship design courses or as additional reading for university or college students of naval architecture courses and related disciplines; it may also serve as a reference book for naval architects, practicing engineers of rel...

  16. Preliminary design for a maglev development facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, H.T.; He, J.L.; Chang, S.L.; Bouillard, J.X.; Chen, S.S.; Cai, Y.; Hoppie, L.O.; Lottes, S.A.; Rote, D.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Zhang, Z.Y. (Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States)); Myers, G.; Cvercko, A. (Sterling Engineering, Westchester, IL (United States)); Williams, J.R. (Alfred Benesch and Co., Chicago, IL (United States))

    1992-04-01

    A preliminary design was made of a national user facility for evaluating magnetic-levitation (maglev) technologies in sizes intermediate between laboratory experiments and full-scale systems. A technical advisory committee was established and a conference was held to obtain advice on the potential requirements of operational systems and how the facility might best be configured to test these requirements. The effort included studies of multiple concepts for levitating, guiding, and propelling maglev vehicles, as well as the controls, communications, and data-acquisition and -reduction equipment that would be required in operating the facility. Preliminary designs for versatile, dual 2-MVA power supplies capable of powering attractive or repulsive systems were developed. Facility site requirements were identified. Test vehicles would be about 7.4 m (25 ft) long, would weigh form 3 to 7 metric tons, and would operate at speeds up to 67 m/s (150 mph) on a 3.3-km (2.05-mi) elevated guideway. The facility would utilize modular vehicles and guideways, permitting the substitution of levitation, propulsion, and guideway components of different designs and materials for evaluation. The vehicle would provide a test cell in which individual suspension or propulsion components or subsystems could be tested under realistic conditions. The system would allow economical evaluation of integrated systems under varying weather conditions and in realistic geometries.

  17. KALIMER fuel system preliminary design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Woan; Lee, B.O.; Nam, C.; Paek, S.K.

    1998-10-01

    This document provides general design concepts, design basis, preliminary design specification and design technologies which are needed for designing the fuel/non-fuel rods and assembly ducts of the KALIMER fuel system. The core of LMFBR consists of driver fuel assembly, blanket assembly, reflector assembly, shielding assembly, control assembly and GEM (Gas Expansion Module) as well as USS, dummy assembly, detector assembly. These core components must be designed to withstand the high temperature, high flux for a long irradiation exposure time. Due to the high temperature and high flux, irradiation creep and swelling as well as thermal-mechanical deformation are occurred at the fuel/non-fuel system and cause the deformations of materials and the geometric deflections at fuel/non-fuel rods, assembly ducts and components. In order to overcome these intricate phenomena through the engineering design, the design basis including theoretical analysis methodologies and design considerations, material characteristics of fuel system, and the specifications and drawings of fuel/non-fuel rods and assembly ducts, respectively, are presented. This document is preliminary design description which is produced in the conceptual design stage, and does not present the detailed and finalized design data which can be for the manufacturing. (author). 22 refs

  18. Fabrication of preliminary fuel rods for SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Ki; Oh, Seok Jin; Ko, Young Mo; Woo, Youn Myung; Kim, Ki Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Metal fuels was selected for fueling many of the first reactors in the US, including the Experimental Breeder Reactor-I (EBR-I) and the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) in Idaho, the FERMI-I reactor, and the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR) in the UK. Metallic U.Pu.Zr alloys were the reference fuel for the US Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) program. Metallic fuel has advantages such as simple fabrication procedures, good neutron economy, high thermal conductivity, excellent compatibility with a Na coolant and inherent passive safety. U-Zr-Pu alloy fuels have been used for SFR (sodium-cooled fast reactor) related to the closed fuel cycle for managing minor actinides and reducing a high radioactivity levels since the 1980s. Fabrication technology of metallic fuel for SFR has been in development in Korea as a national nuclear R and D program since 2007. For the final goal of SFR fuel rod fabrication with good performance, recently, three preliminary fuel rods were fabricated. In this paper, the preliminary fuel rods were fabricated, and then the inspection for QC(quality control) of the fuel rods was performed

  19. Preliminary remediation goals for ecological endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efroymson, R.A.; Suter, G.W. II; Sample, B.E.; Jones, D.S.

    1996-07-01

    Preliminary remediation goals (PRGs) are useful for risk assessment and decision making at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites. PRGs are upper concentration limits for specific chemicals in specific environmental media that are anticipated to protect human health or the environment. They can be used for multiple remedial investigations at multiple facilities. In addition to media and chemicals of potential concern, the development of PRGs generally requires some knowledge or anticipation of future land use. In Preliminary Remediation Goals for Use at the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office (Energy Systems 1995), PRGs intended to protect human health were developed with guidance from Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume I - Human Health Evaluation Manual, Part B (RAGS) (EPA 1991). However, no guidance was given for PRGs based on ecological risk. The numbers that appear in this volume have, for the most part, been extracted from toxicological benchmarks documents for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and have previously been developed by ORNL. The sources of the quantities, and many of the uncertainties associated with their derivation, are described in this technical memorandum

  20. Preliminary remediation goals for ecological endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efroymson, R.A.; Suter, G.W. II.

    1995-09-01

    Preliminary remediation goals (PRGs) are useful for risk assessment and decision making at Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites. PRGs are upper concentration limits for specific chemicals in specific environmental media that are anticipated to protect human health or the environment. They can be used for multiple remedial investigations at multiple facilities. In addition to media and chemicals of potential concern, the development of PRGs generally requires some knowledge or anticipation of future land use. In Preliminary Remediation Goals for Use at the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office (Energy Systems 1995), PRGs intended to protect human health were developed with guidance from Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume I-Human Health Evaluation Manual, Part B (RAGS) (EPA 1991). However, no guidance was given for PRGs based on ecological risk. The numbers that appear in this volume have, for the most part, been extracted from toxicological benchmarks documents for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and have previously been developed by ORNL. The sources of the quantities, and many of the uncertainties associated with their derivation, are described in this technical memorandum

  1. A preliminary typology of caregivers and effects on service utilization of caregiver counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Renee; Williams, Ashley A; Anderson, Lindsay N; Qualls, Sara H

    2013-01-01

    Caregivers (CGs) of older adults have unique and diverse needs for intervention. The present studies describe the characteristics of CGs and caregiving situations and how these relate to CG therapy utilization patterns in a community mental health setting. Study 1: Through chart review, the researchers explored service utilization patterns and identified preliminary typologies of Caregiver Family Therapy (CFT) clients, N = 23. Study 2: By conducting a second chart review, the researchers sought to determine whether the categories that emerged in Study 1 applied to a second group of CFT clients, N = 36. Study 1: Four distinct categories of CGs emerged: High-Distress (high disorganization, high complexity), Resourceful but At-Risk (low disorganization, high complexity), Non-Committal (high disorganization, low complexity), and Model CGs (low disorganization, low complexity). Study 2: While the ability to classify CGs into category proved to have some inconsistencies, preliminary evidence suggests the ability to predict utilization once CGs were placed into category was good. In Study 2 a fifth category emerged: High Functioning but Static, which suggests CGs were on a continuum ranging from high to low on family organizational style and CG situation complexity. While caregiving situations vary widely among families and across time, this article provides a preliminary typology of CGs that may assist clinicians in tailoring CG interventions to meet the needs of their clients based on information garnered early in therapy, perhaps as early as the intake process.

  2. The Anaclitic-Introjective Depression Assessment: Development and preliminary validity of an observer-rated measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Felicitas; Luyten, Patrick; Fonagy, Peter

    2018-03-01

    The two-configurations model developed by Blatt and colleagues offers a comprehensive conceptual and empirical framework for understanding depression. This model suggests that depressed patients struggle, at different developmental levels, with issues related to dependency (anaclitic issues) or self-definition (introjective issues), or a combination of both. This paper reports three studies on the development and preliminary validation of the Anaclitic-Introjective Depression Assessment, an observer-rated assessment tool of impairments in relatedness and self-definition in clinical depression based on the item pool of the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure. Study 1 describes the development of the measure using expert consensus rating and Q-methodology. Studies 2 and 3 report the assessment of its psychometric properties, preliminary reliability, and validity in a sample of 128 patients diagnosed with treatment-resistant depression. Four naturally occurring clusters of depressed patients were identified using Q-factor analysis, which, overall, showed meaningful and theoretically expected relationships with anaclitic/introjective prototypes as formulated by experts, as well as with clinical, social, occupational, global, and relational functioning. Taken together, findings reported in this paper provide preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of the Anaclitic-Introjective Depression Assessment, an observer-rated measure that allows the detection of important nuanced differentiations between and within anaclitic and introjective depression. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Evidence-based dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    Both panegyric and criticism of evidence-based dentistry tend to be clumsy because the concept is poorly defined. This analysis identifies several contributions to the profession that have been made under the EBD banner. Although the concept of clinicians integrating clinical epidemiology, the wisdom of their practices, and patients' values is powerful, its implementation has been distorted by a too heavy emphasis of computerized searches for research findings that meet the standards of academics. Although EBD advocates enjoy sharing anecdotal accounts of mistakes others have made, faulting others is not proof that one's own position is correct. There is no systematic, high-quality evidence that EBD is effective. The metaphor of a three-legged stool (evidence, experience, values, and integration) is used as an organizing principle. "Best evidence" has become a preoccupation among EBD enthusiasts. That overlong but thinly developed leg of the stool is critiqued from the perspectives of the criteria for evidence, the difference between internal and external validity, the relationship between evidence and decision making, the ambiguous meaning of "best," and the role of reasonable doubt. The strongest leg of the stool is clinical experience. Although bias exists in all observations (including searches for evidence), there are simple procedures that can be employed in practice to increase useful and objective evidence there, and there are dangers in delegating policy regarding allowable treatments to external groups. Patient and practitioner values are the shortest leg of the stool. As they are so little recognized, their integration in EBD is problematic and ethical tensions exist where paternalism privileges science over patient's self-determined best interests. Four potential approaches to integration are suggested, recognizing that there is virtually no literature on how the "seat" of the three-legged stool works or should work. It is likely that most dentists

  4. Evidence-Based Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; Hartung, Thomas; Stephens, Martin

    Evidence-based toxicology (EBT) was introduced independently by two groups in 2005, in the context of toxicological risk assessment and causation as well as based on parallels between the evaluation of test methods in toxicology and evidence-based assessment of diagnostics tests in medicine. The role model of evidence-based medicine (EBM) motivated both proposals and guided the evolution of EBT, whereas especially systematic reviews and evidence quality assessment attract considerable attention in toxicology.Regarding test assessment, in the search of solutions for various problems related to validation, such as the imperfectness of the reference standard or the challenge to comprehensively evaluate tests, the field of Diagnostic Test Assessment (DTA) was identified as a potential resource. DTA being an EBM discipline, test method assessment/validation therefore became one of the main drivers spurring the development of EBT.In the context of pathway-based toxicology, EBT approaches, given their objectivity, transparency and consistency, have been proposed to be used for carrying out a (retrospective) mechanistic validation.In summary, implementation of more evidence-based approaches may provide the tools necessary to adapt the assessment/validation of toxicological test methods and testing strategies to face the challenges of toxicology in the twenty first century.

  5. Evidence-Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Systems development is replete with projects that represent substantial resource investments but result in systems that fail to meet users’ needs. Evidence-based development is an emerging idea intended to provide means for managing customer-vendor relationships and working systematically toward...... meeting customer needs. We are suggesting that the effects of the use of a system should play a prominent role in the contractual definition of IT projects and that contract fulfilment should be determined on the basis of evidence of these effects. Based on two ongoing studies of home-care management...

  6. 45 CFR 671.15 - Publication of preliminary determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication of preliminary determination 671.15... Publication of preliminary determination Prior to any designation or redesignation of substances pursuant to... Environmental Protection Agency and other federal agencies, within 30 days after the date of publication of...

  7. 37 CFR 1.480 - Demand for international preliminary examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Demand for international... Provisions International Preliminary Examination § 1.480 Demand for international preliminary examination. (a) On the filing of a proper Demand in an application for which the United States International...

  8. 46 CFR 176.635 - Preliminary examination requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preliminary examination requirements. 176.635 Section... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.635 Preliminary examination requirements. (a) If you exclusively use divers to examine the underwater hull plating, you must...

  9. Standing the Test of Time: Reference for a Preliminary Ruling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2017-01-01

    It is often too easy to forget just how important the preliminary reference procedure is for the functionality of European Union law. For the Court of Justice, there are both formal and informal means of judicial dialogue. This article focuses on the formal means of dialogue through the preliminary...

  10. Researches on Preliminary Chemical Reactions in Spark-Ignition Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-06-01

    compression type, without ignition, the resulting preliminary reactions being detectable and meas- urable thermometrically . Contents I. Influence of Preliminary...thoroughly insulated be- tween the carburettor and the engine, by aluminium foil and asbestos. -I -I " I" I ’I il i~ " !, I I 1𔃻I I’ ) To enable the

  11. Preliminary Opto-Mechanical Design for the X2000 Transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, H.; Page, N. A.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary optical design and mechanical conceptual design for a 30 cm aperture transceiver are described. A common aperture is used for both transmit and receive. Special attention was given to off-axis and scattered light rejection and isolation of the receive channel from the transmit channel. Requirements, details of the design and preliminary performance analysis of the transceiver are provided.

  12. Gait as evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Larsen, Peter Kastmand

    2014-01-01

    This study examines what in Denmark may constitute evidence based on forensic anthropological gait analyses, in the sense of pointing to a match (or not) between a perpetrator and a suspect, based on video and photographic imagery. Gait and anthropometric measures can be used when direct facial...

  13. Evidence-based policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, Nina Holm

    2013-01-01

    -makers and the research community (e.g. Boden & Epstein 2006; House of Commons 2006; Cartwright et al 2009; Rod 2010; Vohnsen 2011). This article intends to draw out some general pitfalls in the curious meeting of science and politics by focusing on a particular attempt to make evidence-based legislation in Denmark (for...

  14. Turning Evidence into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGH CRTA, Hillary Topazian, attended the National Cancer Institute’s 3rd Symposium on Global Cancer Research; a satellite meeting to the 6th Annual Consortium of Universities for Global Health (CUGH) Conference in Boston. The Symposium centered on the theme of implementation science, a field which studies the integration of research findings and evidence into healthcare policy and practice.

  15. Evidence of Absence software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalthorp, Daniel; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Dail, David; Kenyon, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of Absence software (EoA) is a user-friendly application used for estimating bird and bat fatalities at wind farms and designing search protocols. The software is particularly useful in addressing whether the number of fatalities has exceeded a given threshold and what search parameters are needed to give assurance that thresholds were not exceeded. The software is applicable even when zero carcasses have been found in searches. Depending on the effectiveness of the searches, such an absence of evidence of mortality may or may not be strong evidence that few fatalities occurred. Under a search protocol in which carcasses are detected with nearly 100 percent certainty, finding zero carcasses would be convincing evidence that overall mortality rate was near zero. By contrast, with a less effective search protocol with low probability of detecting a carcass, finding zero carcasses does not rule out the possibility that large numbers of animals were killed but not detected in the searches. EoA uses information about the search process and scavenging rates to estimate detection probabilities to determine a maximum credible number of fatalities, even when zero or few carcasses are observed.

  16. Fossil wood evidences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Climate has played a crucial role in assigning a different kind of topography to Rajasthan and Gujarat since the Cenozoic time. Evidently, three genera, namely, Dipterocarpus Gaert. f., Hopea Roxb. And Shorea Roxb. of the Dipterocarpaceae are described from the Neogene sediments of western India (Rajasthan and ...

  17. Repository Subsurface Preliminary Fire Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Richard C.

    2001-01-01

    This fire hazard analysis identifies preliminary design and operations features, fire, and explosion hazards, and provides a reasonable basis to establish the design requirements of fire protection systems during development and emplacement phases of the subsurface repository. This document follows the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (CRWMS M and O 2001c) which was prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''; Attachment 4 of AP-ESH-008, ''Hazards Analysis System''; and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''. The objective of this report is to establish the requirements that provide for facility nuclear safety and a proper level of personnel safety and property protection from the effects of fire and the adverse effects of fire-extinguishing agents

  18. Plasma brake model for preliminary mission analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Leonardo; Niccolai, Lorenzo; Mengali, Giovanni; Quarta, Alessandro A.

    2018-03-01

    Plasma brake is an innovative propellantless propulsion system concept that exploits the Coulomb collisions between a charged tether and the ions in the surrounding environment (typically, the ionosphere) to generate an electrostatic force orthogonal to the tether direction. Previous studies on the plasma brake effect have emphasized the existence of a number of different parameters necessary to obtain an accurate description of the propulsive acceleration from a physical viewpoint. The aim of this work is to discuss an analytical model capable of estimating, with the accuracy required by a preliminary mission analysis, the performance of a spacecraft equipped with a plasma brake in a (near-circular) low Earth orbit. The simplified mathematical model is first validated through numerical simulations, and is then used to evaluate the plasma brake performance in some typical mission scenarios, in order to quantify the influence of the system parameters on the mission performance index.

  19. Preliminary study of radium-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1978-10-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential radiation exposures to people from radium-226 contamination in the soil in order to provide guidance on limits to be applied in decontaminating land. Pathways included were inhalation of radium from resuspension; ingestion of radium with foods; external gamma radiation from radium daughters; inhalation of radon and daughter, both in the open air and in houses; and the intake of /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po from both inhalation and ingestion. The depth of the contaminated layer is of importance for external exposure and especially for radon emanation. The most limiting pathway was found to be emanation of the radon into buildings with limiting values comparable to those found naturally in many areas.

  20. Helminthiases in Montes Claros. Preliminary survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Girard Kaminsky

    1976-04-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary survey was conducted for the presence of helminths in the city of Montes Claros, M. G., Brazil. Three groups of persons were examined by the direct smear, Kato thick film and MIFC techniques; one group by direct smear and Kato only. General findings were: a high prevalence of hookworm, followed by ascariasis, S. mansoni, S. stercoralis and very light infections with T. trichiurá. E. vermicularis and H. nana were ranking parasites at an orphanage, with some hookworm and S. mansoni infections as well. At a pig slaughter house, the dominant parasites were hookworm and S. mansoni. Pig cysticercosis was an incidental finding worth mentioning for the health hazard it represents for humans as well as an economic loss. From the comparative results between the Kato and the MIF the former proved itself again as a more sensitive and reliable concentration method for helminth eggs, of low cost and easy performance.

  1. Small hydropower station in Lavin - Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, F.

    2008-05-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study regarding a proposed small hydropower installation on the alpine river Lavinuoz in Lavin, Switzerland. The geographical situation with mountains and glaciers in the catchment area of the proposed hydropower installation is discussed as are the appropriate water catchment installations. Possible dangers caused by avalanches and rock fall are examined. The power to be produced - 5,500,000 kWh/y - by the turbine which is nominally rated at 1350 kW is discussed, as are estimates of production costs. Figures on the investments required and the economic feasibility of the project are discussed, as are environmental factors that are to be taken into account.

  2. Preliminary Design of a Femtosecond Oscilloscope

    CERN Document Server

    Gazazyan, Edmond D; Kalantaryan, Davit K; Laziev, Edouard; Margaryan, Amour

    2005-01-01

    The calculations on motion of electrons in a finite length electromagnetic field of linearly and circularly polarized laser beams have shown that one can use the transversal deflection of electrons on a screen at a certain distance after the interaction region for the measurement of the length and longitudinal particle distribution of femtosecond bunches. In this work the construction and preliminary parameters of various parts of a device that may be called femtosecond oscilloscope are considered. The influence of various factors, such as the energy spread and size of the electron bunches, are taken into account. For CO2 laser intensity 1016 W/cm2 and field free drift length 1m the deflection is 5.3 and 0.06 cm, while the few centimeters long interaction length between 2 mirrors requires assembling accuracy 6 mm and 1.3 micron for 20 MeV to 50 keV, respectively.

  3. Atomic Energy Control Board vocabulary - preliminary edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolet, D.

    1995-09-01

    This preliminary edition was prepared at the Board's request to help it establish a standardized terminology. It was produced by scanning the 99 French and English documents listed at the end of this Vocabulary. The documents include legislation concerning atomic energy and the transportation of radioactive materials, as well as the Board's publications, such as the Consultative Documents, Regulatory Documents and Notices. The terms included from the following areas are: radiation protection, reactor technology, nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive material packaging and transportation, radioactive waste management, uranium mines, and medical and industrial applications of radioelements. Also included are the titles of publications and the names of organizations and units. The vocabulary contains 2,589 concepts, sometimes accompanied by definitions, contexts or usage examples. Where terms have been standardized by the Canadian Committee for the Standardization of Nuclear Terminology, this has been indicated. Where possible, we have verified the terms using the TERMIUM, the Government of Canada Linguistic Data Bank. (author)

  4. Preliminary conceptual studies of REX 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchie, F.; Baas, C.; Ballagny, A.; Chagrot, M.; Farny, G.; Barnier, M.; Pattou, A.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear R and D programs are, to some extent, completely dependent on research reactors availability. In France and others european countries, the major materials testings reactors were built in the sixties and are consequently ageing and reaching the end of their life, some of them having already been shut down. A situation with not a single large research reactor available in first half of next century cannot be imagined, given all the benefits drawn from the use of research reactors. The CEA has therefore started to evaluate the needs for neutron sources in the next four or five decades so as to design the most suitable new facilities to take over from the existing ones. REX 2000 is a new dedicated reactor project intended to meet the needs for fuels and materials testings after the year 2000. The preliminary conceptual studies which have been carried out along the last 18 months are presented and commented. (author)

  5. Preliminary Shielding Analysis for HCCB TBM Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Peng; Zhao, Fengchao; Cao, Qixiang; Zhang, Guoshu; Feng, Kaiming

    2015-09-01

    A preliminary shielding analysis on the transport of the Chinese helium cooled ceramic breeder test blanket module (HCCB TBM) from France back to China after being irradiated in ITER is presented in this contribution. Emphasis was placed on irradiation safety during transport. The dose rate calculated by MCNP/4C for the conceptual package design satisfies the relevant dose limits from IAEA that the dose rate 3 m away from the surface of the package containing low specific activity III materials should be less than 10 mSv/h. The change with location and the time evolution of dose rates after shutdown have also been studied. This will be helpful for devising the detailed transport plan of HCCB TBM back to China in the near future. supported by the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (973 Program) (No. 2013GB108000)

  6. Lockheed Martin T-Rex: Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    T-Rex is a robot which may be used in toxic or flammable environments. The assessment of the T-Rex conducted at the Lockheed Martin facility was limited in its scope. The scope of the assessment was directed by the type of equipment being used and the amount of accessibility to the equipment. Due to severe time constraints--the assessment was conducted in one day--human factors interface activities were limited. This should be considered a preliminary assessment. This report covers aspects of the technology that were available to the assessment team. Recommendations for future evaluation of this technology are also included. The contents are as follows: Electrical Considerations; General Electrical Consideration; Trailing Cables; Grounding; Surface High Voltage Distribution; Low and Medium Voltage Alternating Current Circuits; Potential for Harmful Human Factor Incidents and Enterprise Disablement; Exclusion Zone Emergency Maintenance; and Recommendations

  7. Transplanting the Body: Preliminary Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lantz Fleming

    2017-11-01

    A dissociated area of medical research warrants bioethical consideration: a proposed transplantation of a donor's entire body, except head, to a patient with a fatal degenerative disease. The seeming improbability of such an operation can only underscore the need for thorough bioethical assessment: Not assessing a case of such potential ethical import, by showing neglect instead of facing the issue, can only compound the ethical predicament, perhaps eroding public trust in ethical medicine. This article discusses the historical background of full-body transplantation, documents the seriousness of its current pursuit, and builds an argument for why prima facie this type of transplant is bioethically distinct. Certainly, this examination can only be preliminary, indicating what should be a wide and vigorous discussion among practitioners and ethicists. It concludes with practical suggestions for how the medical and bioethics community may proceed with ethical assessment.

  8. Involving construction in the preliminary engineering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, D.T. Jr.; Boccieri, S.V. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    With today's high cost associated with modifications in nuclear power plants, it is imperative that the authors continue to investigate ways to cut costs but at the same time improve efficiency and reduce radiation exposure to those directly associated with the implementation of modifications. The success associated with involving construction in the preliminary engineering process will not only cut costs and improve efficiency but will establish a Team Building concept to provide accountability to all those associated with the implementation of the task. This form of partnering focuses on the solutions rather than highlighting the difficulties. This paper will demonstrate techniques to implement such ideas and provide examples to corroborate actual successes already achieved

  9. Preliminary hazard classification for Building 107-N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloster, G.L.; Smith, R.L.

    1997-06-01

    Deactivation activities are planned for Building 107-N (Basin Recirculation Building). This document establishes the preliminary hazard classification (PHC) for the 100-N Area facility segment that includes this building.To establish the PHC, the inventories of radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous materials present within Building 107-N are identified and then compared to the corresponding threshold quantity values in DOE (1992) and reportable quantity values in 40 CFR 302.4. In this evaluation, no credit is taken for the form, location, and dispersibility of the materials; for their interaction with available energy sources; or for safety features that could prevent or mitigate a radioactive release. The result of this effort concluded that the PHC for Building 107-N is Nuclear Category 3

  10. Warm pre-stressing, preliminary experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedner, G.

    1984-09-01

    The beneficial effect of warm pre-stressing, WPS, on apparent fracture thoughness at low temperature is well established. Tests are usually performed with constant load during the cooling part of the load cycle. In practice load variations may occur during this part. The present paper reports a preliminary study of the influence of superimposed fatigue loads. It is found that if crack propagation occurs during cooling+fatigue loading, then the maximum load during the fatigue load cycle is the preload to be used for WPS consideration. A few tests were preformed to study the effect of preload reversal. Tensile preload was followed by a compressive load and after unloading the specimens were cooled and fractured. It was found that for the high preload level used in the tests, the beneficial effect of the tensile preload could be totally annihilated by the compressive preload. (author)

  11. The Majorana Demonstrator Status and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C.-H.; Alvis, S. I.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Barton, C. J.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Caldwell, T. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P.-H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Dunagan, C.; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Haufe, C. R.; Hehn, L.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; Lopez, A. M.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Myslik, J.; Othman, G.; Pettus, W.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Reine, A. L.; Rielage, K.; Ruof, N. W.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhu, B. Z.

    2018-05-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is using an array of high-purity Ge detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. Searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay are understood to be the only viable experimental method for testing the Majorana nature of the neutrino. Observation of this decay would imply violation of lepton number, that neutrinos are Majorana in nature, and provide information on the neutrino mass. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR comprises 44.1 kg of p-type point-contact Ge detectors (29.7 kg enriched in 76Ge) surrounded by a low-background shield system. The experiment achieved a high efficiency of converting raw Ge material to detectors and an unprecedented detector energy resolution of 2.5 keV FWHM at Qββ. The MAJORANA collaboration began taking physics data in 2016. This paper summarizes key construction aspects of the Demonstrator and shows preliminary results from initial data.

  12. Laryngeal electromyography in movement disorders: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimaid Paulo A.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes preliminary laryngeal electromyography (LEMG data and botulinum toxin treatment in patients with dysphonia due to movement disorders. Twenty-five patients who had been clinically selected for botulinum toxin administration were examined, 19 with suspected laryngeal dystonia or spasmodic dysphonia (SD, 5 with vocal tremor, and 1 with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS. LEMG evaluations were performed before botulinum toxin administration using monopolar electrodes. Electromyography was consistent with dystonia in 14 patients and normal in 5, and differences in frequency suggesting essential tremor in 3 and Parkinson tremors in 2. The different LEMG patterns and significant improvement in our patients from botulinum toxin therapy has led us to perform laryngeal electromyography as a routine in UNICAMP movement disorders ambulatory.

  13. Preliminary study of radium-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1978-10-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential radiation exposures to people from radium-226 contamination in the soil in order to provide guidance on limits to be applied in decontaminating land. Pathways included were inhalation of radium from resuspension; ingestion of radium with foods; external gamma radiation from radium daughters; inhalation of radon and daughter, both in the open air and in houses; and the intake of 210 Pb and 210 Po from both inhalation and ingestion. The depth of the contaminated layer is of importance for external exposure and especially for radon emanation. The most limiting pathway was found to be emanation of the radon into buildings with limiting values comparable to those found naturally in many areas

  14. Preliminary core design of IRIS-50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, Bojan; Franceschini, Fausto

    2009-01-01

    IRIS-50 is a small, 50 MWe, advanced PWR with integral primary system. It evolved employing the same design principles as the well known medium size (335 MWe) IRIS. These principles include the 'safety-by-design' philosophy, simple and robust design, and deployment flexibility. The 50 MWe design addresses the needs of specific applications (e.g., power generation in small regional grids, water desalination and biodiesel production at remote locations, autonomous power source for special applications, etc.). Such applications may favor or even require longer refueling cycles, or may have some other specific requirements. Impact of these requirements on the core design and refueling strategy is discussed in the paper. Trade-off between the cycle length and other relevant parameters is addressed. A preliminary core design is presented, together with the core main reactor physics performance parameters. (author)

  15. Danish Anaesthesia Allergy Centre - preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, L H; Roed-Petersen, J; Menné, T

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anaphylactoid reactions in anaesthesia are rare and should ideally be investigated in specialist centres. At Gentofte University Hospital, we established such a centre in 1998 as a joint venture between the Departments of Anaesthesiology and Dermatology. We present the methodology...... of in vitro testing and skin testing. Blood samples for tryptase analysis are taken at the time of reaction and a control sample is taken together with samples for specific IgE analysis 2-4 weeks after the reaction. Subsequent skin testing comprises both prick tests and intradermal tests in most cases...... for chlorhexidine. Only one patient has tested positive to a neuromuscular blocking drug (NMBD) so far. DISCUSSION: Our preliminary results appear to differ in two ways from results usually found in this field. Firstly, only one patient has tested positive for a NMBD and secondly, we have had four patients...

  16. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Roberts

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. Section 1 addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1 expert competence; (2 disciplinary domain; (3 methodological validity; (4 materiality; and (5 legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law’s fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. Section 2 then examines English and Northern Irish courts’ attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially concern the manner in which LTDNA profiling results are presented and explained to

  17. 78 FR 64478 - Request for Comments on the Preliminary Cybersecurity Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ...-01] Request for Comments on the Preliminary Cybersecurity Framework AGENCY: National Institute of... Cybersecurity Framework (``preliminary Framework''). The preliminary Framework was developed by NIST using... Cybersecurity'' (``Executive Order''). Under the Executive Order, the Secretary of Commerce is tasked to direct...

  18. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive 131 I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of 131 I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10 6 person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10 7 person-rem (2 x 10 5 Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs

  19. Preliminary design of RDE feedwater pump impeller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Sudadiyo

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, pumps are being widely used in the thermal power generation including nuclear power plants. Reaktor Daya Experimental (RDE) is a proposed nuclear reactor concept for the type of nuclear power plant in Indonesia. This RDE has thermal power 10 MW th , and uses a feedwater pump within its steam cycle. The performance of feedwater pump depends on size and geometry of impeller model, such as the number of blades and the blade angle. The purpose of this study is to perform a preliminary design on an impeller of feedwater pump for RDE and to simulate its performance characteristics. The Fortran code is used as an aid in data calculation in order to rapidly compute the blade shape of feedwater pump impeller, particularly for a RDE case. The calculations analyses is solved by utilizing empirical correlations, which are related to size and geometry of a pump impeller model, while performance characteristics analysis is done based on velocity triangle diagram. The effect of leakage, pass through the impeller due to the required clearances between the feedwater pump impeller and the volute channel, is also considered. Comparison between the feedwater pump of HTR-10 and of RDE shows similarity in the trend line of curve shape. These characteristics curves will be very useful for the values prediction of performance of a RDE feedwater pump. Preliminary design of feedwater pump provides the size and geometry of impeller blade model with 5-blades, inlet angle 14.5 degrees, exit angle 25 degrees, inside diameter 81.3 mm, exit diameter 275.2 mm, thickness 4.7 mm, and height 14.1 mm. In addition, the optimal values of performance characteristics were obtained when flow capacity was 4.8 kg/s, fluid head was 29.1 m, shaft mechanical power was 2.64 kW, and efficiency was 52 % at rotational speed 1750 rpm. (author)

  20. North Korean refugee doctors' preliminary examination scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Uk Chae

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Although there have been studies emphasizing the re-education of North Korean (NK doctors for post-unification of the Korean Peninsula, study on the content and scope of such re-education has yet to be conducted. Researchers intended to set the content and scope of re-education by a comparative analysis for the scores of the preliminary examination, which is comparable to the Korean Medical Licensing Examination (KMLE. Methods The scores of the first and second preliminary exams were analyzed by subject using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The passing status of the group of NK doctors for KMLE in recent 3 years were investigated. The multiple-choice-question (MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of South Korean (SK medical students by two times of the standard deviation of the scores of SK medical students were selected to investigate the relevant reasons. Results The average scores of nearly all subjects were improved in the second exam compared with the first exam. The passing rate of the group of NK doctors was 75%. The number of MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of SK medical students was 51 (6.38%. NK doctors’ lack of understandings for Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, Therapeutics, Prenatal Care, and Managed Care Programs was suggested as the possible reason. Conclusion The education of integrated courses focusing on Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures and Therapeutics, and apprenticeship-style training for clinical practice of core subjects are needed. Special lectures on the Preventive Medicine are likely to be required also.

  1. A phenomenographic investigation into Information Literacy in nursing practice - preliminary findings and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Information Literacy is essential to 'evidence-based practice'; without the ability to locate evidence, evidence-based practice is rendered extremely difficult if not impossible. There is currently little evidence to show how Information Literacy is experienced by nurses or what its parameters are within evidence-based practice and therefore whether Information Literacy educational interventions are actually promoting the correct knowledge and skills. Using phenomenographic interviews the author will attempt to discover how nurses experience Information Literacy. Insights from the findings will be used to map out its parameters and to put forward a theoretical model for a course or module to develop it effectively. This article presents preliminary findings, including 7 draft categories of description of how Information Literacy is experienced in nursing. This pilot study indicates that the complete findings may be of significant potential value in the promotion and development of Information Literacy education in nursing. It is argued that such insights into how nurses actually experience the phenomenon of Information Literacy can be used to develop potentially more effective, research-based, educational interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Coordination in contractual relations: Some preliminary findings from the Malaysian housing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraya Ismail

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional general procurement route found in many housing projects in Malaysia is conceptualized as a governance structure following the transaction cost economics (TCE approach. This approach has been used to examine governance structures in different economic sectors in several countries but evidence of its use in the context of developing countries is limited. This lack of evidence has prompted the authors to conduct a preliminary study to ascertain whether a TCE approach can explain construction governance structures in developing countries. This research does not discuss the trade-off that governs the choice of hybrids, market or hierarchies for organizing transactions. Rather, it takes advantage of existing research to substantiate the specific properties of hybrid organizations as governance structures. The main focus is coordination. Coordination is specified at two levels. At Level 1 is the coordination of specialization (i.e. the formation of the project team members and at Level 2 is the coordination mode of the contracting parties (client and contractor and the agents involved (the lead designer and project manage r. A case survey method was adopted. Preliminary findings seem to suggest that clients have used hierarchical themes in the contracts and high powered incentives to coordinate with in the contracting parties. The research findings suggest that all participants involved in the sample studied used governance structures symptomatic of a hybrid organization.

  3. Multiple Lines of Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Venzin, Alexander M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bramer, Lisa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-03

    This paper discusses the process of identifying factors that influence the contamination level of a given decision area and then determining the likelihood that the area remains unacceptable. This process is referred to as lines of evidence. These lines of evidence then serve as inputs for the stratified compliance sampling (SCS) method, which requires a decision area to be divided into strata based upon contamination expectations. This is done in order to focus sampling efforts more within stratum where contamination is more likely and to use the domain knowledge about these likelihoods of the stratum remaining unacceptable to buy down the number of samples necessary, if possible. Two different building scenarios were considered as an example (see Table 3.1). SME expertise was elicited concerning four lines of evidence factors (see Table 3.2): 1) amount of contamination that was seen before decontamination, 2) post-decontamination air sampling information, 3) the applied decontaminant information, and 4) the surface material. Statistical experimental design and logistic regression modelling were used to help determine the likelihood that example stratum remained unacceptable for a given example scenario. The number of samples necessary for clearance was calculated by applying the SCS method to the example scenario, using the estimated likelihood of each stratum remaining unacceptable as was determined using the lines of evidence approach. The commonly used simple random sampling (SRS) method was also used to calculate the number of samples necessary for clearance for comparison purposes. The lines of evidence with SCS approach resulted in a 19% to 43% reduction in total number of samples necessary for clearance (see Table 3.6). The reduction depended upon the building scenario, as well as the level of percent clean criteria. A sensitivity analysis was also performed showing how changing the estimated likelihoods of stratum remaining unacceptable affect the number

  4. Evidence on acne therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Sousa Costa

    Full Text Available Among the current treatments available for acne vulgaris, many widely practiced options lack support from studies at the best level of scientific evidence. The aim of this narrative review was to present the very latest information on topical and systemic treatments for acne vulgaris. Information from systematic reviews and well-designed clinical trials, obtained through a systematic search of the major medical databases, is emphasized. There are important issues regarding the clinical management of acne that still lack consistent grounding in scientific evidence. Among these are the optimum dose and duration of treatment with oral antibiotics that can be given without inducing bacterial resistance, and the safety of oral isotretinoin.

  5. Observational evidence for mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, F.

    1983-01-01

    Theory has long suggested that dynamical friction between colliding galaxies must lead to mergers. The problem for observers has been to find which galaxies are mergers. The author first reviews the available evidence for mergers in various kinds of galaxies, then proposes a tentative classification scheme for mergers, and finally discusses mergers in giant ellipticals and their relation to the evolution and perhaps even the formation of ellipticals. (Auth.)

  6. Evidence informed decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Tarang; Choudhury, Moni; Kaur, Bindweep

    2015-01-01

    from the literature and a combined best practice checklist has been proposed. CONCLUSIONS: As decisions often need to be made in areas where there is a lack of published scientific evidence, CE is employed. Therefore to ensure its appropriateness the development of a validated CE data quality check......-list to assist decision makers is essential and further research in this area is a priority....

  7. Evidence-based management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Sutton, Robert I

    2006-01-01

    For the most part, managers looking to cure their organizational ills rely on obsolete knowledge they picked up in school, long-standing but never proven traditions, patterns gleaned from experience, methods they happen to be skilled in applying, and information from vendors. They could learn a thing or two from practitioners of evidence-based medicine, a movement that has taken the medical establishment by storm over the past decade. A growing number of physicians are eschewing the usual, flawed resources and are instead identifying, disseminating, and applying research that is soundly conducted and clinically relevant. It's time for managers to do the same. The challenge is, quite simply, to ground decisions in the latest and best knowledge of what actually works. In some ways, that's more difficult to do in business than in medicine. The evidence is weaker in business; almost anyone can (and many people do) claim to be a management expert; and a motley crew of sources--Shakespeare, Billy Graham,Jack Welch, Attila the Hunare used to generate management advice. Still, it makes sense that when managers act on better logic and strong evidence, their companies will beat the competition. Like medicine, management is learned through practice and experience. Yet managers (like doctors) can practice their craft more effectively if they relentlessly seek new knowledge and insight, from both inside and outside their companies, so they can keep updating their assumptions, skills, and knowledge.

  8. EPR: Evidence and fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Joseph W; Bae, You Han

    2014-09-28

    The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) of nanoparticles in tumors has long stood as one of the fundamental principles of cancer drug delivery, holding the promise of safe, simple and effective therapy. By allowing particles preferential access to tumors by virtue of size and longevity in circulation, EPR provided a neat rationale for the trend toward nano-sized drug carriers. Following the discovery of the phenomenon by Maeda in the mid-1980s, this rationale appeared to be well justified by the flood of evidence from preclinical studies and by the clinical success of Doxil. Clinical outcomes from nano-sized drug delivery systems, however, have indicated that EPR is not as reliable as previously thought. Drug carriers generally fail to provide superior efficacy to free drug systems when tested in clinical trials. A closer look reveals that EPR-dependent drug delivery is complicated by high tumor interstitial fluid pressure (IFP), irregular vascular distribution, and poor blood flow inside tumors. Furthermore, the animal tumor models used to study EPR differ from clinical tumors in several key aspects that seem to make EPR more pronounced than in human patients. On the basis of this evidence, we believe that EPR should only be invoked on a case-by-case basis, when clinical evidence suggests the tumor type is susceptible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Case histories as evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herxheimer, Andrew; Healy, David; Menkes, David B

    2012-01-01

    In courts case histories play a central part when a crime may have resulted from an effect of a prescribed drug; in civil cases where a person may have suffered damage from a drug; and in coroners' enquiries into the cause of unexplained deaths. The court must decide two important questions: 1. Can the suspected medication(s) cause this kind of effect? 2. Did it (or they) do so in this particular case? Many judges and coroners have not addressed these questions clearly and have not used expert witnesses consistently, on occasion disregarding scientific evidence. Courts need to appoint experts to explain and interpret the scientific evidence. Few judges are equipped to resolve contradictions between different experts. Brief accounts of five cases from four countries illustrate these points. The reluctance of legal processes to implicate drugs as a possible cause of violent behaviour leads to injustice. Courts must be required to obtain appropriate expert evidence, and be given independent data on which drugs can cause such behaviour.

  10. Evidence-based surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Rems

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgery is setting a new ground by the reign of evidence that was brought up by the Evidence Based Medicine (EBM. While experiences and opinion of an expert count the least by the principles of EBM, randomized controlled trials (RCT and other comparative studies have gained their importance. Recommendations that were included in guidelines represent a demanding shift in surgeon’s professional thinking. Their thinking and classical education have not yet been completely based on the results of such studies and are still very very much master-pupil centred. Assessment of someone’s own experiences is threatened by objectivity as negative experiences get recorded in deeper memory. Randomized studies and meta-analyses do appear also in surgery. However, they demand an extra knowledge about critical assessment.Conclusions: Setting a patient to the foreground brings a surgeon’s decision to the field of EBM. The process has already begun and cannot be avoided. Decision hierarchy moves from the experience field to the evidence territory but to a lesser extent when compared to the rest of medicine. There exist objective restrictions with approving a new paradigm. However, these should not stop the process of EBM implementation. Finally, there is an ethic issue to be considered. Too slow activities in research, education and critical assessment can bring the surgeon to the position when a well-informed patient loses his/her trust.

  11. NSLS-II Preliminary Design Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierker, S.

    2007-01-01

    Following the CD0 approval of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) during August 2005, Brookhaven National Laboratory prepared a conceptual design for a worldclass user facility for scientific research using synchrotron radiation. DOE SC review of the preliminary baseline in December 2006 led to the subsequent CD1 approval (approval of alternative selection and cost range). This report is the documentation of the preliminary design work for the NSLS-II facility. The preliminary design of the Accelerator Systems (Part 1) was developed mostly based of the Conceptual Design Report, except for the Booster design, which was changed from in-storage-ring tunnel configuration to in external- tunnel configuration. The design of beamlines (Part 2) is based on designs developed by engineering firms in accordance with the specification provided by the Project. The conventional facility design (Part 3) is the Title 1 preliminary design by the AE firm that met the NSLS-II requirements. Last and very important, Part 4 documents the ES and H design and considerations related to this preliminary design. The NSLS-II performance goals are motivated by the recognition that major advances in many important technology problems will require scientific breakthroughs in developing new materials with advanced properties. Achieving this will require the development of new tools that will enable the characterization of the atomic and electronic structure, chemical composition, and magnetic properties of materials, at nanoscale resolution. These tools must be nondestructive, to image and characterize buried structures and interfaces, and they must operate in a wide range of temperatures and harsh environments. The NSLS-II facility will provide ultra high brightness and flux and exceptional beam stability. It will also provide advanced insertion devices, optics, detectors, and robotics, and a suite of scientific instruments designed to maximize the scientific output of the

  12. NSLS-II Preliminary Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierker, S.

    2007-11-01

    Following the CD0 approval of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) during August 2005, Brookhaven National Laboratory prepared a conceptual design for a worldclass user facility for scientific research using synchrotron radiation. DOE SC review of the preliminary baseline in December 2006 led to the subsequent CD1 approval (approval of alternative selection and cost range). This report is the documentation of the preliminary design work for the NSLS-II facility. The preliminary design of the Accelerator Systems (Part 1) was developed mostly based of the Conceptual Design Report, except for the Booster design, which was changed from in-storage-ring tunnel configuration to in external- tunnel configuration. The design of beamlines (Part 2) is based on designs developed by engineering firms in accordance with the specification provided by the Project. The conventional facility design (Part 3) is the Title 1 preliminary design by the AE firm that met the NSLS-II requirements. Last and very important, Part 4 documents the ES&H design and considerations related to this preliminary design. The NSLS-II performance goals are motivated by the recognition that major advances in many important technology problems will require scientific breakthroughs in developing new materials with advanced properties. Achieving this will require the development of new tools that will enable the characterization of the atomic and electronic structure, chemical composition, and magnetic properties of materials, at nanoscale resolution. These tools must be nondestructive, to image and characterize buried structures and interfaces, and they must operate in a wide range of temperatures and harsh environments. The NSLS-II facility will provide ultra high brightness and flux and exceptional beam stability. It will also provide advanced insertion devices, optics, detectors, and robotics, and a suite of scientific instruments designed to maximize the scientific output of the facility

  13. INADMISSIBLE EVIDENCE IN CIVIL PROCEDURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlo Dika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the exclusion of specific means of evidence as instruments for determining the object of evidence, as well as the taking of evidence in the framework of the Croatian civil procedure law. The introduction lays the grounds for classifying and qualifying exclusion of evidence (general, special; absolute, relative; removable, irremovable; direct, indirect, after which greater attention is paid to the so called absolute and relative type; exclusionary evidence of the direct relative type pertaining to the establishing of facts, and evidence dismissals. With regard to the indirect relative type, the paper examines exclusionary evidence concerning the object of evidence. The remainder of the paper focuses on illegally obtained evidence, while outlining the constitutional, statutory, judicature and doctrinaire premises of bearing for such evidence. Subsequently, the question of evidence obtained in violation of the Constitutional guarantee of respect and legal protection of private and family life, dignity, reputation and honour, as well as evidence obtained by breach of the Constitutional guarantee of freedom and secrecy of correspondence and all other forms of communication, and in violation of the right to safety and privacy of personal data, are discussed too. In addition, the paper analyses the institutions of preclusion of evidence and the so called informative evidence. Concluding, the author points to a lacking regulation of inadmissible evidence within the Croatian civil procedure law, underlining the need to determine de lege ferenda legal requirements with a view to operationalizing inadmissible evidence within the Croatian civil procedure law.

  14. Preliminary ATWS analysis for the IRIS PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddalena Barra; Marco S Ghisu; David J Finnicum; Luca Oriani

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The pressurized light water cooled, medium power (1000 MWt) IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) has been under development for four years by an international consortium of over 21 organizations from ten countries. The plant conceptual design was completed in 2001 and the preliminary design is nearing completion. The pre-application licensing process with NRC started in October, 2002. IRIS has been primarily focused on establishing a design with innovative safety characteristics. The first line of defense in IRIS is to eliminate event initiators that could potentially lead to core damage. In IRIS, this concept is implemented through the 'safety by design' approach, which allows to minimize the number and complexity of the safety systems and required operator actions. The end result is a design with significantly reduced complexity and improved operability, and extensive plant simplifications to enhance construction. To support the optimization of the plant design and confirm the effectiveness of the safety by design approach in mitigating or eliminating events and thus providing a significant reduction in the probability of severe accidents, the PRA is being used as an integral part of the design process. A preliminary but extensive Level 1 PRA model has been developed to support the pre-application licensing of the IRIS design. As a result of the Preliminary IRIS PRA, an optimization of the design from a reliability point of view was completed, and an extremely low (about 1.2 E -8 ) core damage frequency (CDF) was assessed to confirm the impact of the safety by design approach. This first assessment is a result of a PRA model including internal initiating events. During this assessment, several assumptions were necessary to complete the CDF evaluation. In particular Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) were not included in this initial assessment, because their contribution to core damage frequency was assumed

  15. Preliminary geological suitability assessment for LILW disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomse, P.; Mele, I.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the growing need for a final disposal of LILW, the final solution for the short-lived LILW is the key issue of radioactive waste management in Slovenia at the moment. ARAO - the Slovenian Agency for Radwaste Management - is intensely involved in the re-initiated site selection process for a LILW repository. In this new process we are trying to combine as best as possible the technical, geologically-led and the advocacy-site selection processes. By a combination of technical and volunteer approach to the site selection we wish to guarantee high public involvement and sufficient flexibility of the process to adapt to specific conditions or new circumstances while the project is ongoing. In the technical phase, our tendency is to retain a larger number of potential areas/sites. We also keep open the possibility of choosing the type of repository. The decision between the surface and underground option will be made only once the site has been defined. In accordance with the IAEA recommendations the site selection process is divided into four stages: the conceptual and planning stage, area survey stage, site characterisation stage and site confirmation stage. Last year the area survey stage was started. In the preliminary geological suitability assessment the required natural predisposition of Slovene territory was assessed in order to locate geologically suitable formations. The assessment of natural conditions of the system was based on consideration of the main geological, hydro-geological and seismotectonic conditions. It was performed with ARC/INFO technology. The results are compiled in a map, showing potential areas for underground and surface disposal of LILW in Slovenia. It has been established that there is a potential suitability for both surface and underground disposal on about 10 000 km 2 of the Slovenian territory, which represents almost half of the entire Slovenian territory. These preliminary results are now being carefully re-examined. As an

  16. Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxstrand, Johanna Helene; Le Blanc, Katya Lee; Spielman, Zachary Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Advanced Reactor Technologies Program sponsors research, development and deployment activities through its Next Generation Nuclear Plant, Advanced Reactor Concepts, and Advanced Small Modular Reactor (aSMR) Programs to promote safety, technical, economical, and environmental advancements of innovative Generation IV nuclear energy technologies. The Human Automation Collaboration (HAC) Research Project is located under the aSMR Program, which identifies developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces as one of four key research areas. It is expected that the new nuclear power plant designs will employ technology significantly more advanced than the analog systems in the existing reactor fleet as well as utilizing automation to a greater extent. Moving towards more advanced technology and more automation does not necessary imply more efficient and safer operation of the plant. Instead, a number of concerns about how these technologies will affect human performance and the overall safety of the plant need to be addressed. More specifically, it is important to investigate how the operator and the automation work as a team to ensure effective and safe plant operation, also known as the human-automation collaboration (HAC). The focus of the HAC research is to understand how various characteristics of automation (such as its reliability, processes, and modes) effect an operator's use and awareness of plant conditions. In other words, the research team investigates how to best design the collaboration between the operators and the automated systems in a manner that has the greatest positive impact on overall plant performance and reliability. This report addresses the Department of Energy milestone M4AT-15IN2302054, Complete Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration, by discussing the two phased development of a preliminary HAC framework. The framework developed in the first phase was used as

  17. Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna Helene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Le Blanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s Advanced Reactor Technologies Program sponsors research, development and deployment activities through its Next Generation Nuclear Plant, Advanced Reactor Concepts, and Advanced Small Modular Reactor (aSMR) Programs to promote safety, technical, economical, and environmental advancements of innovative Generation IV nuclear energy technologies. The Human Automation Collaboration (HAC) Research Project is located under the aSMR Program, which identifies developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces as one of four key research areas. It is expected that the new nuclear power plant designs will employ technology significantly more advanced than the analog systems in the existing reactor fleet as well as utilizing automation to a greater extent. Moving towards more advanced technology and more automation does not necessary imply more efficient and safer operation of the plant. Instead, a number of concerns about how these technologies will affect human performance and the overall safety of the plant need to be addressed. More specifically, it is important to investigate how the operator and the automation work as a team to ensure effective and safe plant operation, also known as the human-automation collaboration (HAC). The focus of the HAC research is to understand how various characteristics of automation (such as its reliability, processes, and modes) effect an operator’s use and awareness of plant conditions. In other words, the research team investigates how to best design the collaboration between the operators and the automated systems in a manner that has the greatest positive impact on overall plant performance and reliability. This report addresses the Department of Energy milestone M4AT-15IN2302054, Complete Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration, by discussing the two phased development of a preliminary HAC framework. The framework developed in the first phase was used as the

  18. Astor Pass Seismic Surveys Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, John [UNR; Pullammanappallil, Satish [Optim; Faulds, James; Eisses, Amy; Kell, Annie; Frary, Roxanna; Kent, Graham

    2011-08-05

    In collaboration with the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe (PLPT), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) and Optim re-processed, or collected and processed, over 24 miles of 2d seismic-reflection data near the northwest corner of Pyramid Lake, Nevada. The network of 2d land surveys achieved a near-3d density at the Astor Pass geothermal prospect that the PLPT drilled during Nov. 2010 to Feb. 2011. The Bureau of Indian Affairs funded additional seismic work around the Lake, and an extensive, detailed single-channel marine survey producing more than 300 miles of section, imaging more than 120 ft below the Lake bottom. Optim’s land data collection utilized multiple heavy vibrators and recorded over 200 channels live, providing a state-of-the-art reflection-refraction data set. After advanced seismic analysis including first-arrival velocity optimization and prestack depth migration, the 2d sections show clear fault-plane reflections, in some areas as deep as 4000 ft, tying to distinct terminations of the mostly volcanic stratigraphy. Some lines achieved velocity control to 3000 ft depth; all lines show reflections and terminations to 5000 ft depth. Three separate sets of normal faults appear in an initial interpretation of fault reflections and stratigraphic terminations, after loading the data into the OpendTect 3d seismic visualization system. Each preliminary fault set includes a continuous trace more than 3000 ft long, and a swarm of short fault strands. The three preliminary normal-fault sets strike northerly with westward dip, northwesterly with northeast dip, and easterly with north dip. An intersection of all three fault systems documented in the seismic sections at the end of Phase I helped to locate the APS-2 and APS-3 slimholes. The seismic sections do not show the faults connected to the Astor Pass tufa spire, suggesting that we have imaged mostly Tertiary-aged faults. We hypothesize that the Recent, active faults that produced the tufa through hotspring

  19. Preliminary Analysis and Selection of Mooring Solution Candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Delaney, Martin

    This report covers a preliminary analysis of mooring solutions candidates for four large floating wave energy converters. The work is part of the EUDP project “Mooring Solutions for Large Wave Energy Converters” and is the outcome of "Work Package 3: Preliminary Analysis". The report further...... compose the "Milestone 4: Report on results of preliminary analysis and selection of final candidates. The report is produced by Aalborg University with input from the partner WECs Floating Power Plant, KNSwing, LEANCON and Wave Dragon. Tension Technology International (TTI) has provided a significant...

  20. Preliminary ethical appraisal of a trial - what's it all about?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siipi, Helena

    Preliminary ethical appraisal of medical trials is often based on the following four principles: respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Preliminary ethical appraisal should, however, not be understood solely as application of these four principles to practice. Ethical committees will inevitably interpret the principles and make decisions about their reciprocal importance in connection with each trial. Reasoning does not always proceed from above towards practical recommendations of action, but can instead also be based on a moral rule or practice relating to a certain action. A good preliminary ethical appraisal will also take into account everyday standards of morality, law and shared moral values of the society.

  1. Preliminary Hazard Classification for the 105-B Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, N.R.

    1997-08-01

    This document summarizes the inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials present within the 105-B Reactor and uses the inventory information to determine the preliminary hazard classification for the surveillance and maintenance activities of the facility. The result of this effort was the preliminary hazard classification for the 105-B Building surveillance and maintenance activities. The preliminary hazard classification was determined to be Nuclear Category 3. Additional hazard and accident analysis will be documented in a separate report to define the hazard controls and final hazard classification

  2. Preliminary results of steel containment vessel model test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, T.; Komine, K.; Arai, S.

    1997-01-01

    A high pressure test of a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of a steel containment vessel (SCV), representing an improved boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II containment, was conducted on December 11-12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories. This paper describes the preliminary results of the high pressure test. In addition, the preliminary post-test measurement data and the preliminary comparison of test data with pretest analysis predictions are also presented

  3. Case Grammar in Philippine Languages. Preliminary Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Alan M.

    This paper presents evidence from Philippine languages which suggests a number of modifications in the theory of case grammar. Philippine languages and adjacent related languages mark the case relationship between the verb and one noun phrase in the sentence by a particle on the noun phrase and an affix on the verb, a phenomenon which in recent…

  4. Evidence-based librarianship: searching for the needed EBL evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, J D

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges of finding evidence needed to implement Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL). Focusing first on database coverage for three health sciences librarianship journals, the article examines the information contents of different databases. Strategies are needed to search for relevant evidence in the library literature via these databases, and the problems associated with searching the grey literature of librarianship. Database coverage, plausible search strategies, and the grey literature of library science all pose challenges to finding the needed research evidence for practicing EBL. Health sciences librarians need to ensure that systems are designed that can track and provide access to needed research evidence to support Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL).

  5. SmallWorld Behavior of the Worldwide Active Volcanoes Network: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spata, A.; Bonforte, A.; Nunnari, G.; Puglisi, G.

    2009-12-01

    We propose a preliminary complex networks based approach in order to model and characterize volcanoes activity correlation observed on a planetary scale over the last two thousand years. Worldwide volcanic activity is in fact related to the general plate tectonics that locally drives the faults activity, that in turn controls the magma upraise beneath the volcanoes. To find correlations among different volcanoes could indicate a common underlying mechanism driving their activity and could help us interpreting the deeper common dynamics controlling their unrest. All the first evidences found testing the procedure, suggest the suitability of this analysis to investigate global volcanism related to plate tectonics. The first correlations found, in fact, indicate that an underlying common large-scale dynamics seems to drive volcanic activity at least around the Pacific plate, where it collides and subduces beneath American, Eurasian and Australian plates. From this still preliminary analysis, also more complex relationships among volcanoes lying on different tectonic margins have been found, suggesting some more complex interrelationships between different plates. The understanding of eventually detected correlations could be also used to further implement warning systems, relating the unrest probabilities of a specific volcano also to the ongoing activity to the correlated ones. Our preliminary results suggest that, as for other many physical and biological systems, an underlying organizing principle of planetary volcanoes activity might exist and it could be a small-world principle. In fact we found that, from a topological perspective, volcanoes correlations are characterized by the typical features of small-world network: a high clustering coefficient and a low characteristic path length. These features confirm that global volcanoes activity is characterized by both short and long-range correlations. We stress here the fact that numerical simulation carried out in

  6. Preliminary experiments on quantification of skin condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Kenzo; Iyatomi, Hitoshi

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we investigated a preliminary assessment method for skin conditions such as a moisturizing property and its fineness of the skin with an image analysis only. We captured a facial images from volunteer subjects aged between 30s and 60s by Pocket Micro (R) device (Scalar Co., Japan). This device has two image capturing modes; the normal mode and the non-reflection mode with the aid of the equipped polarization filter. We captured skin images from a total of 68 spots from subjects' face using both modes (i.e. total of 136 skin images). The moisture-retaining property of the skin and subjective evaluation score of the skin fineness in 5-point scale for each case were also obtained in advance as a gold standard (their mean and SD were 35.15 +/- 3.22 (μS) and 3.45 +/- 1.17, respectively). We extracted a total of 107 image features from each image and built linear regression models for estimating abovementioned criteria with a stepwise feature selection. The developed model for estimating the skin moisture achieved the MSE of 1.92 (μS) with 6 selected parameters, while the model for skin fineness achieved that of 0.51 scales with 7 parameters under the leave-one-out cross validation. We confirmed the developed models predicted the moisture-retaining property and fineness of the skin appropriately with only captured image.

  7. Preliminary Test for Constitutive Models of CAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yeon Joon; Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Keo Hyung; Kim, Min Ki; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sang Jun; Choi, Hoon [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. As a part of this project, CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been developing for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (vapor, continuous liquid and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by assessment capabilities in multi-dimensional and lumped parameter thermal hydraulic cell. Thermal hydraulics solver was developed and has a significant progress now. Implementation of the well proven constitutive models and correlations are essential in other for a containment code to be used with the generalized or optimized purposes. Generally, constitutive equations are composed of interfacial and wall transport models and correlations. These equations are included in the source terms of the governing field equations. In order to develop the best model and correlation package of the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, such as GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0 and CONTEMPT-LT are reviewed. Several models and correlations were incorporated for the preliminary test of CAP's performance and test results and future plans to improve the level of execution besides will be discussed in this paper

  8. Preliminary assessment of pump IST effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiBiasio, A.; Grove, E.; Carbonaro, J.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary review of Inservice Testing (IST) effectiveness for Code Class 1, 2, and 3 pumps at nuclear power plants was performed. IST requirements are specified by ASME Section XI, and the Operations and Maintenance Standard (OM Part 6). The INPO NPRDS database was used to provide failure reports for these components for 1988 to 1992. This time frame coincides with the issuance of Generic Letter 89-04, which resulted in a more consistent application of the requirements by the licensees. For this time period, 2585 pump failures were reported. A review of these failures indicated that the majority (71.6%) were due to external leakage, and were excluded from this study since these events typically do not affect pump operability and are not detected by the measurement of IST parameters. Of the remaining 733 events, a review was performed to identify the primary failure causes, failure modes, and method of detection. Plant testing programs, consisting of IST, surveillance testing, and special testing, detected approximately 40% of these occurrences. Others were detected through operational abnormalities, routine and incidental observations, alarms, and while performing maintenance. This paper provides a discussion of the results of the study

  9. Preliminary pharmacognostic screening of Achyranthes coynei stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak Upadhya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Achyranthes coynei is a rare, endemic perennial shrub reported from Karnataka and Maharashtra states of India. The plant is used to treat various disorders by folk healers and was proven to have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The present study was undertaken to evaluate microscopic and macroscopic characters of A. coynei stem, along with its physicochemical parameters. ProgRes ® CapturePro and Microsoft Excel were used for statistical analysis. Perennial, shrubby nature and woody stem were the distinguishing morphological characters observed. Transverse section (TS illustrated quadrangular outline of the stem and showed the presence of two types of trichomes on the thick-walled epidermis. TS also showed number of rosette calcium oxalates crystals; prismatic and microsphenoid crystals; conjoint, collateral open secondary vascular bundles; and two amphixylic medullary bundles in the pith. Ash and extractive values, micro and macro elements and nutritive factors were estimated in the present study. The presence of alkaloids, saponins and triterpenoids were observed in preliminary phytochemical screening. High-performance thin layer chromatographic analysis yielded different bands and also indicated the presence of oleanolic acid. The studied parameters for A. coynei stem will be useful for identification and authentication of the plant material.

  10. Preliminary pharmacognostic screening of Achyranthes coynei stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhya, Vinayak; Ankad, Gireesh M; Pai, Sandeep R; Hegde, Shruti V; Hegde, Harsha V

    2015-01-01

    Achyranthes coynei is a rare, endemic perennial shrub reported from Karnataka and Maharashtra states of India. The plant is used to treat various disorders by folk healers and was proven to have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The present study was undertaken to evaluate microscopic and macroscopic characters of A. coynei stem, along with its physicochemical parameters. ProgRes(®) CapturePro and Microsoft Excel were used for statistical analysis. Perennial, shrubby nature and woody stem were the distinguishing morphological characters observed. Transverse section (TS) illustrated quadrangular outline of the stem and showed the presence of two types of trichomes on the thick-walled epidermis. TS also showed number of rosette calcium oxalates crystals; prismatic and microsphenoid crystals; conjoint, collateral open secondary vascular bundles; and two amphixylic medullary bundles in the pith. Ash and extractive values, micro and macro elements and nutritive factors were estimated in the present study. The presence of alkaloids, saponins and triterpenoids were observed in preliminary phytochemical screening. High-performance thin layer chromatographic analysis yielded different bands and also indicated the presence of oleanolic acid. The studied parameters for A. coynei stem will be useful for identification and authentication of the plant material.

  11. Suicide intervention training evaluation: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, R J

    1994-01-01

    To date, very little work has been done on evaluating training in suicide intervention. This study developed and piloted a comprehensive method for evaluating suicide intervention training by applying three studies of immediate training effects on (a) suicide intervention abilities, (b) attitudes to suicide and suicide intervention, and (c) knowledge about suicide. The focus of the evaluation was a broadly used 2-day suicide intervention training program. Changes in suicide intervention abilities were measured by the Suicide Intervention Response Inventory (SIRI) and by performance in simulated suicide intervention situations, scored with the Suicide Intervention Protocol (SIP). Subjects consisted of 19 workshop participants in a pre-post condition and 17 participants in a post-test only condition. Results indicated significant increases in skills in suicide intervention situations. No significant effects were noted on the SIRI. Results from the attitudes and knowledge studies were very preliminary. They are reported here so that others may become aware of the methodology being used and the status of evaluation of the target program. Implications for further research are discussed.

  12. Guidance for performing preliminary assessments under CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    EPA headquarters and a national site assessment workgroup produced this guidance for Regional, State, and contractor staff who manage or perform preliminary assessments (PAs). EPA has focused this guidance on the types of sites and site conditions most commonly encountered. The PA approach described in this guidance is generally applicable to a wide variety of sites. However, because of the variability among sites, the amount of information available, and the level of investigative effort required, it is not possible to provide guidance that is equally applicable to all sites. PA investigators should recognize this and be aware that variation from this guidance may be necessary for some sites, particularly for PAs performed at Federal facilities, PAs conducted under EPA`s Environmental Priorities Initiative (EPI), and PAs at sites that have previously been extensively investigated by EPA or others. The purpose of this guidance is to provide instructions for conducting a PA and reporting results. This guidance discusses the information required to evaluate a site and how to obtain it, how to score a site, and reporting requirements. This document also provides guidelines and instruction on PA evaluation, scoring, and the use of standard PA scoresheets. The overall goal of this guidance is to assist PA investigators in conducting high-quality assessments that result in correct site screening or further action recommendations on a nationally consistent basis.

  13. Atomic Energy Control Board vocabulary - preliminary edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolet, D [Public Works and Government Services Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Terminology and Documentation Directorate

    1995-09-01

    This preliminary edition was prepared at the Board`s request to help it establish a standardized terminology. It was produced by scanning the 99 French and English documents listed at the end of this Vocabulary. The documents include legislation concerning atomic energy and the transportation of radioactive materials, as well as the Board`s publications, such as the Consultative Documents, Regulatory Documents and Notices. The terms included from the following areas are: radiation protection, reactor technology, nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive material packaging and transportation, radioactive waste management, uranium mines, and medical and industrial applications of radioelements. Also included are the titles of publications and the names of organizations and units. The vocabulary contains 2,589 concepts, sometimes accompanied by definitions, contexts or usage examples. Where terms have been standardized by the Canadian Committee for the Standardization of Nuclear Terminology, this has been indicated. Where possible, we have verified the terms using the TERMIUM, the Government of Canada Linguistic Data Bank. (author).

  14. Preliminary safety design analysis of KALIMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, Soo Dong; Kwon, Y. M.; Kim, K. D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    The national long-term R and D program updated in 1997 requires Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) to complete by the year 2006 the basic design of Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (KALIMER), along with supporting R and D work, with the capability of resolving the issue of spent fuel storage as well as with significantly enhanced safety. KALIMER is a 150 MWe pool-type sodium cooled prototype reactor that uses metallic fuel. The conceptual design is currently under way to establish a self consistent design meeting a set of the major safety design requirements for accident prevention. Some of current emphasis include those for inherent and passive means of negative reactivity insertion and decay heat removal, high shutdown reliability, prevention of and protection from sodium chemical reaction, and high seismic margin, among others. All of these requirements affect the reactor design significantly and involve supporting R and D programs of substance. This document first introduces a set of safety design requirements and accident evaluation criteria established for the conceptual design of KALIMER and then summarizes some of the preliminary results of engineering and design analyses performed for the safety of KALIMER. 19 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  15. Tritium oxidation and exchange: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.E.; Easterly, C.E.

    1978-05-01

    The radiological hazard resulting from an exposure to either tritium oxide or tritium gas is discussed and the factors contributing to the hazard are presented. From the discussion it appears that an exposure to tritium oxide vapor is 10 4 to 10 5 times more hazardous than exposure to tritium gas. Present and future sources of tritium are briefly considered and indicate that most of the tritium has been and is being released as tritium oxide. The likelihood of gaseous releases, however, is expected to increase in the future, calling to task the present general release assumption that 100% of all tritium released is as oxide. Accurate evaluation of the hazards from a gaseous release will require a knowledge of the conversion rate of tritium gas to tritium oxide. An experiment for determining the conversion rate of tritium gas to tritium oxide is presented along with some preliminary data. The conversion rates obtained for low initial concentrations (10 -4 to 10 -1 mCi/ml) indicate the conversion may proceed more rapidly than would be expected from an extrapolation of previous data taken at higher concentrations

  16. Preliminary Assessment of a Compliant Gait Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestari, Manuel; Sanz-Merodio, Daniel; Garcia, Elena

    2017-06-01

    Current commercial wearable gait exoskeletons contain joints with stiff actuators that cannot adapt to unpredictable environments. These actuators consume a significant amount of energy, and their stiffness may not be appropriate for safe human-machine interactions. Adjustable compliant actuators are being designed and implemented because of their ability to minimize large forces due to shocks, to safely interact with the user, and to store and release energy in passive elastic elements. Introduction of such compliant actuation in gait exoskeletons, however, has been limited by the larger power-to-weight and volume ratio requirement. This article presents a preliminary assessment of the first compliant exoskeleton for children. Compliant actuation systems developed by our research group were integrated into the ATLAS exoskeleton prototype. The resulting device is a compliant exoskeleton, the ATLAS-C prototype. The exoskeleton is coupled with a special standing frame to provide balance while allowing a semi-natural gait. Experiments show that when comparing the behavior of the joints under different stiffness conditions, the inherent compliance of the implemented actuators showed natural adaptability during the gait cycle and in regions of shock absorption. Torque tracking of the joint is achieved, identifying the areas of loading response. The implementation of a state machine in the control of knee motion allowed reutilization of the stored energy during deflection at the end of the support phase to partially propel the leg and achieve a more natural and free swing.

  17. Preliminary Slope Stability Study Using Slope/ W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazran Harun; Mohd Abd Wahab Yusof; Kamarudin Samuding; Mohd Muzamil Mohd Hashim; Nurul Fairuz Diyana Bahrudin

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the stability of earth structures is the oldest type of numerical analysis in geotechnical engineering. Limit equilibrium types of analyses for assessing the stability of earth slopes have been in use in geotechnical engineering for many decades. Modern limit equilibrium software is making it possible to handle ever-increasing complexity within an analysis. It is being considered as the potential method in dealing with complex stratigraphy, highly irregular pore-water pressure conditions, various linear and nonlinear shear strength models and almost any kind of slip surface shape. It allows rapid decision making by providing an early indication of the potential suitability of sites based on slope stability analysis. Hence, a preliminary slope stability study has been developed to improve the capacity of Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in assessing potential sites for Borehole Disposal for Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources. The results showed that geometry of cross section A-A ' , B-B ' , C-C ' and D-D ' achieved the factor of safety not less than 1.4 and these are deemed acceptable. (author)

  18. PRELIMINARY SELECTION OF MGR DESIGN BASIS EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappes, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify the preliminary design basis events (DBEs) for consideration in the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). For external events and natural phenomena (e.g., earthquake), the objective is to identify those initiating events that the MGR will be designed to withstand. Design criteria will ensure that radiological release scenarios resulting from these initiating events are beyond design basis (i.e., have a scenario frequency less than once per million years). For internal (i.e., human-induced and random equipment failures) events, the objective is to identify credible event sequences that result in bounding radiological releases. These sequences will be used to establish the design basis criteria for MGR structures, systems, and components (SSCs) design basis criteria in order to prevent or mitigate radiological releases. The safety strategy presented in this analysis for preventing or mitigating DBEs is based on the preclosure safety strategy outlined in ''Strategy to Mitigate Preclosure Offsite Exposure'' (CRWMS M andO 1998f). DBE analysis is necessary to provide feedback and requirements to the design process, and also to demonstrate compliance with proposed 10 CFR 63 (Dyer 1999b) requirements. DBE analysis is also required to identify and classify the SSCs that are important to safety (ITS)

  19. SMART core preliminary nuclear design-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Chan; Ji, Seong Kyun; Chang, Moon Hee

    1997-06-01

    Three loading patterns for 330 MWth SMART core are constructed for 25, 33 and 29 CRDMs, and one loading pattern for larger 69-FA core with 45 CRDMs is also constructed for comparison purpose. In this study, the core consists of 57 reduced height Korean Optimized Fuel Assemblies (KOFAs) developed by KAERI. The enrichment of fuel is 4.95 w/o. As a main burnable poison, 35% B-10 enriched B{sub 4}C-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shim is used. To control stuck rod worth, some gadolinia bearing fuel rods are used. The U-235 enrichment of the gadolinia bearing fuel rods is 1.8 w/o as used in KOFA. All patterns return cycle length of about 3 years. Three loading patterns except 25-CRDM pattern satisfy cold shutdown condition of keff {<=} 0.99 without soluble boron. These three patterns also satisfy the refueling condition of keff {<=} 0.95. In addition to the construction of loading pattern, an editing module of MASTER PPI files for rod power history generation is developed and rod power histories are generated for 29-CRDM loading pattern. Preliminary Fq design limit is suggested as 3.71 based on KOFA design experience. (author). 9 tabs., 45 figs., 16 refs.

  20. Radiolabelling of RC-160: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdera, E.S.; Balter Binsky, H.S.; Robles, A.M.; Rodriguez, G.; Souto, B.; Laiz, J.; Oliver, P.; Leon, E.

    1998-01-01

    Vapreotide (RC-160) was labelled with 125 I using Chloramine-T and Iodogen methods and with 99m Tc by a direct method with sodium ditionite as reducing agent in the presence of ascorbic acid. Several methods of purification and quality control were evaluated. Yields of the reactions and of purification steps were calculated. The results obtained for the radioiodination reactions showed higher yields when limiting Chloramine-T method was used. Labelling of RC-160 with 99m Tc indicated better yields when high radioactivity concentration of the radionuclide was used. Stability of the products obtained was assessed at different post-labelling times by selected quality control methods: Sep-Pak cartridge as purification method and chromatography by RP-HPLC and ITLC-SG using saline solution as solvent. It was demonstrated that I-125-RC-160 and Tc-99m-RC-160 were stable during five weeks (at -20 deg. C) and 6 hours (at room temperature) respectively. Preliminary biodistribution of Tc-99m-RC-160 in normal rats and mice were done showing different biological behaviour compared with control animals injected with pertechnetate. In conclusion, RC-160 was successfully labelled with both radionuclides, with radiochemical purity higher than 95%. These results encourage further research work in animal models as well as to investigate the biochemical behaviour of radiolabelled peptide. (author)

  1. Preliminary assessment of pump IST effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiBiasio, A.; Grove, E.; Carbonaro, J.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary review of inservice testing (IST) effectiveness for Class 1, 2, and 3 pumps at nuclear power plants was performed. IST requirements are specified by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, and the Operations and Maintenance Standard (OM Part 6). The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System was used to provide failure reports for these components from 1988 to 1992. This time frame coincides with the issuance of Generic Letter 89-04, which resulted in a more consistent application of the requirements by the licensees. For this time, 2,585 pump failures were reported. A review of these failures indicated that the majority (71.6%) resulted from external leakage. These events were excluded from the study because the typically do not affect pump operability and are not detected by the measurement of IST parameters. The remaining 733 events were reviewed to identify the primary failure causes, failure modes, and method of detection. Plant testing programs, consisting of IST, surveillance testing, detected approximately 40% of these occurrences. Others were detected through operational abnormalities, routine and incidental observations, alarms, and while performing maintenance. This paper discusses the results of the study

  2. Preliminary shielding analysis of VHTR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaspoehler, Timothy M.; Petrovic, Bojan

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 20 years a number of methods have been established for automated variance reduction in Monte Carlo shielding simulations. Hybrid methods rely on deterministic adjoint and/or forward calculations to generate these parameters. In the present study, we use the FWCADIS method implemented in MAVRIC sequence of the SCALE6 package to perform preliminary shielding analyses of a VHTR reactor. MAVRIC has been successfully used by a number of researchers for a range of shielding applications, including modeling of LWRs, spent fuel storage, radiation field throughout a nuclear power plant, study of irradiation facilities, and others. However, experience in using MAVRIC for shielding studies of VHTRs is more limited. Thus, the objective of this work is to contribute toward validating MAVRIC for such applications, and identify areas for potential improvement. A simplified model of a prismatic VHTR has been devised, based on general features of the 600 MWt reactor considered as one of the NGNP options. Fuel elements have been homogenized, and the core region is represented as an annulus. However, the overall mix of materials and the relatively large dimensions of the spatial domain challenging the shielding simulations have been preserved. Simulations are performed to evaluate fast neutron fluence, dpa, and other parameters of interest at relevant positions. The paper will investigate and discuss both the effectiveness of the automated variance reduction, as well as applicability of physics model from the standpoint of specific VHTR features. (author)

  3. Two preliminary studies on sleep and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karle, W; Hopper, M; Corriere, R; Hart, J; Switzer, A

    1977-09-01

    Two preliminary studies were conducted to assess the effects of an intensive outpatient psychotherapy, Feeling Therapy, on sleep. This therapy was chosen because of its demonstrated ability to affect its patients' dreams. In the first study a newly entering female patient was recorded across the first three weeks of intensive daily therapy. In contrast to two control subjects recorded across a similar time period, she demonstrated low REM times and short REM latencies on the average, and considerably greater variability in nearly every parameter. In the second study, two patients were recorded across three days (the middle of which was the day of a therapy session) first when new in therapy and then again after two and one-half years of therapy. It was found that when new in therapy both subjects spent nights of significantly altered sleep the day of the therapy session. One subject showed no REM sleep whatsoever while the other showed a 10 min REM latency and low REM time. The significance of these findings and the direction of future research is discussed.

  4. Remote sensing using hydroacoustics preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.; Patrick, P.H.; Sim, B.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was conducted to determine the capability and accuracy of a dual beam sonar system in classifying various targets. The ability to classify fish and/or distinguish fish from debris is essential if hydroacoustics are ever to be used truly remotely for hydroelectric power plant fish passage facilities. Preliminary results indicated that considerable filtering was occurring in the sonar sounder which limited its use in target classification. A wideband sonar detection module was developed which allowed for a more detailed reflected signal which probably will be necessary for fish identification. Another advantage that this modification appears to have over the existing system is an improved spatial resolution of targets, which can be significant if biomass estimates are based on echo counting techniques rather than echo integration ones. Based on the results, it may be possible to filter out or remove the influence of air bubbles in echo returns. As a result echo counts could more accurately be defined as fish counts. Target strengths of sturgeon were estimated using both the modified and original sounder. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Cockpit task management: A preliminary, normative theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Ken

    1991-01-01

    Cockpit task management (CTM) involves the initiation, monitoring, prioritizing, and allocation of resources to concurrent tasks as well as termination of multiple concurrent tasks. As aircrews have more tasks to attend to due to reduced crew sizes and the increased complexity of aircraft and the air transportation system, CTM will become a more critical factor in aviation safety. It is clear that many aviation accidents and incidents can be satisfactorily explained in terms of CTM errors, and it is likely that more accidents induced by poor CTM practice will occur in the future unless the issue is properly addressed. The first step in understanding and facilitating CTM behavior was the development of a preliminary, normative theory of CTM which identifies several important CTM functions. From this theory, some requirements for pilot-vehicle interfaces were developed which are believed to facilitate CTM. A prototype PVI was developed which improves CTM performance and currently, a research program is under way that is aimed at developing a better understanding of CTM and facilitating CTM performance through better equipment and procedures.

  6. Preliminary High-Throughput Metagenome Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusheyko, Serge; Furman, Craig; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Shapiro, Harris; Tu, Hank

    2007-03-26

    Metagenome data sets present a qualitatively different assembly problem than traditional single-organism whole-genome shotgun (WGS) assembly. The unique aspects of such projects include the presence of a potentially large number of distinct organisms and their representation in the data set at widely different fractions. In addition, multiple closely related strains could be present, which would be difficult to assemble separately. Failure to take these issues into account can result in poor assemblies that either jumble together different strains or which fail to yield useful results. The DOE Joint Genome Institute has sequenced a number of metagenomic projects and plans to considerably increase this number in the coming year. As a result, the JGI has a need for high-throughput tools and techniques for handling metagenome projects. We present the techniques developed to handle metagenome assemblies in a high-throughput environment. This includes a streamlined assembly wrapper, based on the JGI?s in-house WGS assembler, Jazz. It also includes the selection of sensible defaults targeted for metagenome data sets, as well as quality control automation for cleaning up the raw results. While analysis is ongoing, we will discuss preliminary assessments of the quality of the assembly results (http://fames.jgi-psf.org).

  7. Preliminary design of a tandem mirror reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohmayer, J.N.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine the TARA mirror experiment as a possible tandem mirror reactor configuration. This is a preliminary study to size the coil structure based on using the smallest end cell axial length that physics and engineering allow, zeroing the central cell parallel currents and having interchange stability. The input powers are estimated for the final reactor design so a Q value may be estimated. The Q value is defined as the fusion power divided by the total injected power absorbed by the plasma. A computer study was performed on the effect of the transition size, the transition vertical spacing and transition current. These parameters affect the central cell parallel currents, the recircularization of the flux tube and the ratio of central cell beta to anchor beta needed for marginal stability. Two designs were identified. The first uses 100 keV and 13 keV neutral beams to pump the ions that trap in the thermal barrier. The Q value of this reactor is 11.3. The second reactor uses a pump beam at 40 keV. This energy is chosen because there is a resonance for the charge exchange cross section between D 0 and He 2+ at this energy, thus the alpha ash will be pumped along with the deuterium and tritium. The Q value of this reactor is 11.6

  8. National uranium resource evaluation, preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    The results of the initial phase of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) are reported. NURE is a comprehensive nationwide program to evaluate uranium resources and to identify areas favorable for uranium exploration. Part I presents estimates of uranium ore reserves and potential resources available at costs (not prices) of $10, $15, and $30 per pound U 3 O 8 (uranium oxide). These estimates comprise the national uranium resource position. They are, however, preliminary because limitations of time and available geologic data prevented adequate assessment of some areas that may be favorable for potential resources. Part II presents the potential uranium resources for each of 13 regions, whose boundaries have been drawn chiefly on geologic considerations. The general geology is summarized, and the types of uranium deposits are described. Although limited geologic reconnaissance was done in various parts of the country, the report is based primarily on the compilation and evaluation of data in ERDA files. Mining companies furnished a substantial amount of information on exploration results, development, production, and future plans. Published, manuscript, and open-file reports by government agencies, universities, and research organizations were reviewed. In addition, many individuals affiliated with universities and with state and federal agencies provided supplemental geologic information. This was particularly helpful in the eastern and central states and in Alaska, where information on uranium occurrences is limited

  9. Preliminary isodose calculation for gynecological curietherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridier, A.; Dutreix, A.; Gerbaulet, A.; Chassagne, D.

    1981-01-01

    We present a preliminary method of calculating the dimensions of the reference isodose, based upon the geometrical distribution and length of the sources used, their linear activity and the length of treatment, that does not require use of a computer. Inversely, this method can be used to determine the factors necessary to produce a given shape of isodose, and also to predict the change in shape of the isodose that will be produced by altering the various factors. This method was derived from a systematic computer study of dose distribution in which each factor was varied independently of all others. The dimensions of the isodoses, calculated by this method, were found to be in agreement with those derived from computer calculation to within an error of about 2 mm. The method is only applicable for a limited range of positions of the vaginal sources. The influence of the positions of these sources along the line of the axis of uterine catheter and of their inclination to this line, are currently being studied. The results are presented as mathematical formulae relating each dimension of the isodose curves to the features of the application, but could equally well be expressed in tabular form that would be more convenient for everyday use. An example of the calculation used is given to facilitate understanding of the method [fr

  10. Preliminary assessment of valve IST effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grove, E.; DiBiasio, A.; Carbonaro, J.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary review of inservice testing effectiveness for Code Class 1,2, and 3 valves at nuclear power plants was performed. These requirements are specified by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, and the Operations and Maintenance Standard. The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) database was used to provide failure reports for these components for 1988 to 1992. This time period coincides with the issuance of Generic Letter 89-04, which resulted in a more consistent application of the requirements by the licensees. For this time period, 8,593 valve failures were identified. From the review of the NPRDS database, the primary failure causes and failure modes for motor-operated valves (MOV), air-operated valves (AOV), and check valves (CV) were identified. Solenoid-operated valves were not reviewed in this study. Plant testing programs were effective in identifying approximately 60% of the CV failures, 46% of the AOV failures, and 44% of the MOV failures

  11. Endobronchial Occlusion Stent: A Preliminary Experimental Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yo Won; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Lee, Seoung Hoon; Heo, Jeong Nam; Jeon, Seok Chol [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Gi Young; Song, Ho Young [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    To evaluate the safety and the technical feasibility of the use of an endobronchial occlusion stent and to get preliminary data for the development of the optimal material required for endobronchial occlusions. A commercialized, self-expandable tracheobronchial stent was modified; one half had a polyurethane cover with an occluded end and the other half was uncovered with a flaring configuration. The occluded end was placed such that it would face the distal lung. Under fluoroscopic guidance, seven stents were placed at the lower lobar bronchus in 6 mini-pigs. The bronchial obstruction was examined immediately after stent placement. Chest radiographs were taken at days 1, 7, 14, and 28 after stent placement and the removed airways from two, two, one, and one mini-pigs sacrificed on corresponding days were examined for the maintenance of bronchial obstruction. Stents were successfully placed and induced the immediate bronchial obstruction in all mini-pigs. Five of seven airways with occlusion stents maintained an obstruction until the mini-pigs were sacrificed. Proximal stent migration occurred in two mini-pigs (29%), and pulmonary consolidations were observed distal to four of the stents (57%). The placement of an endobronchial occlusion stent and the obstruction of targeted bronchi seem to be feasible, but an add-on check valve should be considered to prevent stent migration and obstructive pneumonia

  12. Preliminary Test for Constitutive Models of CAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yeon Joon; Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Keo Hyung; Kim, Min Ki; Lee, Byung Chul; Ha, Sang Jun; Choi, Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. As a part of this project, CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been developing for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (vapor, continuous liquid and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by assessment capabilities in multi-dimensional and lumped parameter thermal hydraulic cell. Thermal hydraulics solver was developed and has a significant progress now. Implementation of the well proven constitutive models and correlations are essential in other for a containment code to be used with the generalized or optimized purposes. Generally, constitutive equations are composed of interfacial and wall transport models and correlations. These equations are included in the source terms of the governing field equations. In order to develop the best model and correlation package of the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, such as GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0 and CONTEMPT-LT are reviewed. Several models and correlations were incorporated for the preliminary test of CAP's performance and test results and future plans to improve the level of execution besides will be discussed in this paper

  13. Preliminary studies of the biosynthesis of Austin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicnienski, N.A.

    1979-01-01

    Aspergillus ustus is one of the most prevalent fungi in the soil. There are now two reports of the occurrence of toxin-producing strains of this fungus on stored foodstuffs. In addition, strains of A. ustus have been isolated along with Penicillium species from samples of South African cheeses. All A. ustus isolates tested were judged to be highly toxic to ducklings when grown on maize meal, however, the toxins involved were not isolated. Austin is the trivial name of one of the toxins made by the fungus found on stored food. Preliminary work to studying the biosynthesis of this compound using 13 C-labeled sodium acetate is reported here. The feasibility of the biosynthetic study was determined by feeding [1- 14 C]-sodium acetate to A. ustus cultures. The assignments made in the 13 C-nmr spectrum of Austin are shown. The lowest dilution factor obtained in [1- 14 C]-sodium acetate feeding experiments was 14. This dilution factor is sufficiently low to allow a successful feeding of [1,2- 13 C 2 ]-sodium acetate. A new metabolite of A. ustus, deacetylaustin, was isolated and identified. An alkaloid of unknown structure was also isolated from the fungus

  14. Activation analysis by filtered neutrons. Preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarnemark, G.; Rodinson, T.; Skaalberg, M.; Tokay, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    In order to investigate if measuring sensibility and precision by epithermal neutron activation analysis may be improved, different types of geological and biologic test samples were radiated. The test samples were enclosed in an extra filter of tungsten or sodium in order to reduce the flux of those neutrons that otherwise would induce interfering activity in the sample. The geological test samples consist of granites containing lanthanides which had been crushed in tung- sten carbide grinder. Normally such test samples show a interferins 1 87W-activity. By use of a tungsten filter the activity was reduced by up to 60%, which resulted in a considerable improvement of sensibility and precision of the measurement. The biologic test samples consisted of evaporated urine from patients treated with the cell poison cis-platinol. A reliable method to measure the platinum content has not existed so far. This method, however, enables platinum contents as low as about 0.1 ppm to be determined which is quite adequate. To sum up this preliminary study has demonstrated that activation analysis using filtered neutrons, correctly applied, is a satisfactory method of reducing interferences without complicated and time-consuming chemical separation procedures. (O.S.)

  15. Immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nitwara Wikan; Yupin Suputtamongkol; Sutee Yoksan; Duncan R. Smith; Prasert Auewarakul

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand. Methods: To undertake a preliminary serosurvey of possible exposure to Zika virus, 21 serum samples from cohort of acute undifferentiated fever patients were examined for immunoreactivity to Zika, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya envelope antigens by Western blot analysis. Results: Twenty of the 21 serum samples showed immunoreactivity to at least one of the antigens, with seven samples showing immunoreactivity to all antigens. Of particular note, two serum samples showed immunoreactivity only to Zika envelope antigen, with no immunoreactivity to other envelope antigens. Conclusions: This study presents the first evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand, although as yet the relationship between transmission and possible cases of Zika fever in Thailand requires further investigation.

  16. Preliminary safety assessment and preliminary safety report for the treated radwaste store, Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, A.T.

    1992-06-01

    It is the purpose of this assessment to define the categorisation of the Treated Radwaste Store, TRS, B55 at the Winfrith Technology Centre. Its further purpose is to cover all relevant sections required for a Preliminary Safety Report (PSR) encompassing the TRS and the integral Quality Assessment Unit (QUA). The TRS is designed for the interim storage of intermediate level radioactive wastes. All waste material stored in the TRS will be contained within 500 litre stainless steel drums acceptable to NIREX. It is proposed that the TRS will receive 500 litre stainless steel NIREX drums containing either irradiated DRAGON fuel or encapsulated sludge waste. (author)

  17. Evidence for homosexuality gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, R.

    1993-07-16

    A genetic analysis of 40 pairs of homosexual brothers has uncovered a region on the X chromosome that appears to contain a gene or genes for homosexuality. When analyzing the pedigrees of homosexual males, the researcheres found evidence that the trait has a higher likelihood of being passed through maternal genes. This led them to search the X chromosome for genes predisposing to homosexuality. The researchers examined the X chromosomes of pairs of homosexual brothers for regions of DNA that most or all had in common. Of the 40 sets of brothers, 33 shared a set of five markers in the q28 region of the long arm of the X chromosome. The linkage has a LOD score of 4.0, which translates into a 99.5% certainty that there is a gene or genes in this area that predispose males to homosexuality. The chief researcher warns, however, that this one site cannot explain all instances of homosexuality, since there were some cases where the trait seemed to be passed paternally. And even among those brothers where there was no evidence that the trait was passed paternally, seven sets of brothers did not share the Xq28 markers. It seems likely that homosexuality arises from a variety of causes.

  18. The ability to mentally represent action is associated with low motor ability in children: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Caçola, Priscila; Bobbio, Tatiana

    2012-05-01

    Theory and anatomical research suggest that the ability to mentally represent intended actions affect level of execution. This study presents preliminary data examining the association between children's ability to mentally represent action and general motor ability. Children aged 7- to 10 years were assessed for motor imagery ability using a simulation of reach task and motor ability via the Movement ABC-2. Motor ability values, based on percentile rank, ranged from 2 to 91, with a mean of 36. The overall correlation between mental representation and motor ability yielded a moderately positive relationship (r = .39). Interestingly, when looking at motor ability subcategories, only Balance was significant in the model, explaining 20% of the variance. These results provide preliminary evidence that children's motor ability and the ability to mentally represent action are associated in a positive direction. Furthermore, given the results for Balance, we speculate that there are clinical implications regarding work with potentially at-risk children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Preliminary, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has recent, preliminary (not quality-controlled), 6-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and...

  20. Preliminary observations on enemies of stingless bees and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary observations on enemies of stingless bees and honeybee (Apis Mellifera adansonii L.) Colonies from the Miticivanga- Tshibinda sector east of Kahuzi Biega National Park, South-Kivu Province, eastern DR Congo.

  1. Scope and purpose of the preliminary planning work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalas, P.

    1976-01-01

    The results of preliminary planning work are usually expressed in a number of recommendations covering mainly: long-term national policy in the field of energy resources and selection of projects to be further studied at the feasibility level. Moreover, recommendations on further actions are made including: inventory of generation and transmission facilities recommended for the implementation in order to meet the load forecasted for medium-term period, preparation of a preliminary calender of decisions to be taken for the implementation of the projects recommended, preparation of a preliminary construction schedule, preparation of a preliminary investment program, preparation of a program of necessary engineering works, and performance of study on electricity rates which would adjust existing tariffs to proposed development program of the utility. (HP) [de

  2. MALLARD REPRODUCTIVE TESTING IN A POND ENVIRONMENT: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 2-year preliminary study was conducted on mallard ducks to determine the feasibility of using outdoor pond enclosures for reproductive studies and to evaluate the effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos on mallard reproduction. No significant reproductive effects were observed ...

  3. Preliminary study on the dye removal efficacy of immobilized marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary study on the dye removal efficacy of immobilized marine and freshwater microalgal beads from textile wastewater. SD Kumar, P Santhanam, R Nandakumar, S Anath, B Balaji Prasath, A Shenbaga Devi, S Jeyanthi, T Jayalakshima, P Ananthi ...

  4. Preliminary thoughts on the data acquisition for the next generation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Preliminary thoughts about the data acquisition system to be developed for ... the fully processed detector information, there is a long path with different cru- ... detector to the outside, 6 GHz SCM fiber optic links are presently considered, but.

  5. A preliminary survey of the genus Buchwaldoboletus (Boletales: Boletaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatriz Ortiz-Santana; Ernst E. Both

    2011-01-01

    Buchwaldoboletus is a small genus of about a dozen species with a world-wide distribution. The boletes of this genus are non-mycorrhizal, saprophytic and lignicolous. A preliminary survey is provided and seven new combinations are proposed.

  6. rf duress alarms: market survey and preliminary characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, B.L.

    1979-05-01

    This report represents the first phase of the duress alarm studies. Presented here are the results of an extensive market survey and some preliminary observations on the effectiveness of many system components

  7. Preliminary design report for the NAC combined transport cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC) is under contract to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to design, license, develop and test models, and fabricate a prototype cask transportation system for nuclear spent fuel. The design of this combined transport (rail/barge) transportation system has been divided into two phases, a preliminary design phase and a final design phase. This Preliminary Design Package (PDP) describes the NAC Combined Transport Cask (NAC-CTC), the results of work completed during the preliminary design phase and identifies the additional detailed analyses, which will be performed during final design. Preliminary analytical results are presented in the appropriate sections and supplemented by summaries of procedures and assumptions for performing the additional detailed analyses of the final design. 60 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  8. Preliminary results of the Adone storage ring FEL experiment, LELA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbini, R.; Vignola, G.; Trillo, S.

    1983-01-01

    A short description of the LELA (Free Electron Laser on Adone) experiment is given. Results on the spontaneous radiation angle and energy spectra and preliminary results on optical gain measurements are also discussed

  9. The Scrap Tire Problem: A Preliminary Economic Analysis (1985)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the study was to conduct a preliminary economic analysis of the social benefits of EPA action to require more appropriate disposal of scrap tires versus the social costs of such an action.

  10. Synthesis, photophysical and preliminary investigation of the dye

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis, photophysical and preliminary investigation of the dye-sensitized solar ... with most reduction potential which might be due to increase in the conjugation of ... CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, ...

  11. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Preliminary, 1-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has recent, preliminary (not quality-controlled), 1-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and...

  12. Preliminary In Vivo Experiments on Adhesion of Geckos

    OpenAIRE

    Lepore, E.; Brianza, S.; Antoniolli, F.; Buono, M.; Carpinteri, A.; Pugno, N.

    2008-01-01

    We performed preliminary experiments on the adhesion of a Tokay gecko on surfaces with different roughness, with or without particles with significant different granulometry, before/after or during the moult. The results were analyzed using the Weibull statistics.

  13. 29 CFR 1601.23 - Preliminary or temporary relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or political subdivision. (b) In a case involving a government, governmental agency, or political... private individuals from exercising their rights to seek temporary or preliminary relief on their own...

  14. Evidence from the Cochrane Collaboration for Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Susan; Kimbrough, Elizabeth; Cheng, Ker; Berman, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The Cochrane Collaboration, an international not-for-profit organization that prepares and maintains systematic reviews of randomized trials of health care therapies, has produced reviews summarizing much of the evidence on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Our objective was to review the evidence base according to Cochrane systematic reviews. Methods In order to detect reviews focusing on TCM, we searched the titles and abstracts of all reviews in Issue 4, 2008 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. For each review, we extracted data on the number of trials included and the total number of participants. We provided an indication of the strength of the review findings by assessing the reviewers' abstract conclusions statement. We supplemented our assessment of the abstract conclusions statements with a listing of the comparisons and outcomes showing statistically significant meta-analyses results. Results We identified 70 Cochrane systematic reviews of TCM, primarily acupuncture (n = 26) and Chinese herbal medicine (n = 42), and 1 each of moxibustion and t'ai chi. Nineteen (19) of 26 acupuncture reviews and 22/42 herbal medicine reviews concluded that there was not enough good quality trial evidence to make any conclusion about the efficacy of the evaluated treatment, while the remaining 7 acupuncture and 20 herbal medicine reviews and each of the moxibustion and t'ai chi reviews indicated a suggestion of benefit, which was qualified by a caveat about the poor quality and quantity of studies. Most reviews included many distinct interventions, controls, outcomes, and populations, and a large number of different comparisons were made, each with a distinct forest plot. Conclusions Most Cochrane systematic reviews of TCM are inconclusive, due specifically to the poor methodology and heterogeneity of the studies reviewed. Some systematic reviews provide preliminary evidence of Chinese medicine's benefits to certain patient populations

  15. Review of Preliminary Analysis Techniques for Tension Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    however,a linear dinamic analysis can be conducted for purposes of preliminary design, relative to the static configuration. It is noted that the amount of...16 Chapter 3. PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF TENSION STRUCTURES . . .. .. .. .... 22 S.3.1 Cable Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .... 23...3.1.1 Singly-Connected Segments. .. .... ... 24 3.1.2 Multiply-Connected Segments . . .. .. .. .. 27 3.1.3 Linearized Dynamics of Cable Systems . . . . 29

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in neonates. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumoulin, M.; Legrand, M.; Gremillet, C.; Lecouffe, P.; Rousseau, J.; Pruvo, J.P.; Marchandise, X.

    1991-01-01

    The place of neonatal cerebral MRI and its specific contribution compared with conventional imaging techniques were evaluated in 36 patients. The difficulties specific to the patient population studied met during this preliminary period are described, with their local solutions. A preliminary evaluation of the diagnostic and prognostic value of MRI according to the disease state and gestational age is presented. The specific contribution of MRI compared with transfontanellar ultrasonography and CT scan is discussed [fr

  17. Preliminary seismic design of dynamically coupled structural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, N.; Dalcher, A.W.; Gluck, R.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, the analysis criteria for coupling and decoupling, which are most commonly used in nuclear design practice, are briefly reviewed and a procedure outlined and demonstrated with examples. Next, a criterion judged to be practical for preliminary seismic design purposes is defined. Subsequently, a technique compatible with this criterion is suggested. A few examples are presented to test the proposed procedure for preliminary seismic design purposes. Limitations of the procedure are also discussed and finally, the more important conclusions are summarized

  18. TITAN Legal Weight Truck cask preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Preliminary Design of the TITAN Legal Weight Truck (LWT) Cask System and Ancillary Equipment is presented in this document. The scope of this document includes the LWT cask with fuel baskets, impact limiters, and lifting and tiedown features; the cask support system for transportation; intermodal transfer skid; personnel barrier; and cask lifting yoke assembly. The results of the tradeoff studies and evaluations that were performed during the preliminary design are presented in Appendix A to this report. 51 figs., 17 tabs

  19. Preliminary design of the repository, stage 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saanio, T.; Kirkkomaeki, T.; Keto, P.; Kukkola, T.; Raiko, H.

    2007-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel from Finnish nuclear power plants will be disposed of in deep bedrock in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki. The repository is planned to be excavated at a depth of 400 - 500 metres. Access routes to the repository include a 1:10 inclined access tunnel, and vertical shafts. The fuel is encapsulated in the encapsulation plant above ground and transferred to the repository in the canister lift. Deposition tunnels, central tunnels and technical rooms are excavated at the disposal level. The canisters are deposited in deposition holes that are covered with bentonite blocks. The deposition holes are bored in the floors of the deposition tunnels. The central tunnel system consists of two parallel central tunnels that are inter-connected at certain distances. Two parallel central tunnels improve the fire safety of the rooms and also allow flexible backfilling and closing of the deposition tunnels in stages at the operational phase of the repository. An underground rock characterization facility, ONKALO, is excavated at the disposal level to support and confirm investigations carried out from above ground. ONKALO is designed so that it can later serve as part of the repository. ONKALO excavations were started in 2004. The repository will be excavated in the 2010s and operation will start in 2020. The fifth nuclear power unit makes the operational phase of the repository very long. Parts of the repository will be excavated and closed over the long operational period. The repository can be constructed at one or several levels. The one-storey alternative is the so-called reference alternative in this preliminary design report. The two-storey alternative is also taken into account in the ONKALO designs. The preliminary designs of the repository are presented as located in Olkiluoto. The location of the repository will be revised when more information on the bedrock has been gained. More detailed data of the circumstances will be obtained from above ground investigations

  20. Preliminary design of the repository. Stage 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saanio, T.; Kirkkomaeki, T.; Keto, P.; Kukkola, T.; Raiko, H.

    2007-04-01

    Spent nuclear fuel from Finnish nuclear power plants will be disposed of in deep bedrock in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki. The repository is planned to be excavated at a depth of 400 - 500 metres. Access routes to the repository include a 1:10 inclined access tunnel, and vertical shafts. The fuel is encapsulated in the encapsulation plant above ground and transferred to the repository in the canister lift. Deposition tunnels, central tunnels and technical rooms are excavated at the disposal level. The canisters are deposited in deposition holes that are covered with bentonite blocks. The deposition holes are bored in the floors of the deposition tunnels. The central tunnel system consists of two parallel central tunnels that are inter-connected at certain distances. Two parallel central tunnels improve the fire safety of the rooms and also allow flexible backfilling and closing of the deposition tunnels in stages at the operational phase of the repository. An underground rock characterization facility, ONKALO, is excavated at the disposal level to support and confirm investigations carried out from above ground. ONKALO is designed so that it can later serve as part of the repository. ONKALO excavations were started in 2004. The repository will be excavated in the 2010s and operation will start in 2020. The fifth nuclear power unit makes the operational phase of the repository very long. Parts of the repository will be excavated and closed over the long operational period. The repository can be constructed at one or several levels. The one-storey alternative is the so-called reference alternative in this preliminary design report. The two-storey alternative is also taken into account in the ONKALO designs. The preliminary designs of the repository are presented as located in Olkiluoto. The location of the repository will be revised when more information on the bedrock has been gained. More detailed data of the circumstances will be obtained from above ground investigations

  1. Evidence on Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Larsen, Michael Søgaard

    The purpose of this publication is to examine existing research on inclusion to identify strategies of inclusion that have generated positive effects. To do so it is necessary to understand the effect of the applied strategies. One approach, which is being discussed, is to use evidence to determine...... which methods have proven more effective than others. The desire to gain insight into research on inclusion forms the basis of the current systematic review. The task was to determine which strategies primary research has found to be most effective for inclusion purposes. We have solved this task...... by addressing the existing research with the following question: What is the effect of including children with special needs in mainstream teaching in basic school, and which of the applied educational methods have proved to have a positive effect?...

  2. Evidence for robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Ravikiran; Nathwani, Dinesh

    2017-01-01

    Robots have been successfully used in commercial industry and have enabled humans to perform tasks which are repetitive, dangerous and requiring extreme force. Their role has evolved and now includes many aspects of surgery to improve safety and precision. Orthopaedic surgery is largely performed on bones which are rigid immobile structures which can easily be performed by robots with great precision. Robots have been designed for use in orthopaedic surgery including joint arthroplasty and spine surgery. Experimental studies have been published evaluating the role of robots in arthroscopy and trauma surgery. In this article, we will review the incorporation of robots in orthopaedic surgery looking into the evidence in their use. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  3. Hazardous factories: Nigerian evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, Olajide

    2005-06-01

    The past 15 years have seen an increasing governmental and corporate concern for the environment worldwide. For governments, information about the environmental performance of the industrial sector is required to inform macro-level decisions about environmental targets such as those required to meet UN directives. However, in many African, Asian, and Latin American countries, researching and reporting company environmental performance is limited. This article serves as a contribution to filling the gap by presenting evidence of physical and chemical risk in Nigerian factories. One hundred and three factories with a total of 5,021 workers were studied. One hundred and twenty physical and chemical hazards were identified and the result shows a high number of workers exposed to such hazards. The study also reveals that workers' awareness level of chemical hazards was high. Yet the danger was perceived in behavioral terms, especially by manufacturing firms, which tend to see environmental investment in an increasingly global economy as detrimental to profitability.

  4. Preliminary experimental studies of waste coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Jin, Y.G.; Yu, X.X.; Worrall, R. [CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Coal Technology

    2013-07-01

    Coal mining is one of Australia's most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects from black coal mining was approximately 1.82 billion tonnes from 1960 to 2009 in Australia, and is projected to produce another one billion tonnes by 2018 at the current production rate. To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to create value from the coal waste through production of liquid fuels or power generation using produced syngas from waste coal gasification. Consequently, environmental and community impacts of the solid waste could be minimized. However, the development of an effective waste coal gasification process is a key to the new pathway. An Australian mine site with a large reserve of waste coal was selected for the study, where raw waste coal samples including coarse rejects and tailings were collected. After investigating the initial raw waste coal samples, float/sink testing was conducted to achieve a desired ash target for laboratory-scale steam gasification testing and performance evaluation. The preliminary gasification test results show that carbon conversions of waste coal gradually increase as the reaction proceeds, which indicates that waste coal can be gasified by a steam gasification process. However, the carbon conversion rates are relatively low, only reaching to 20-30%. Furthermore, the reactivity of waste coal samples with a variety of ash contents under N{sub 2}/air atmosphere have been studied by a home-made thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus that can make the sample reach the reaction temperature instantly.

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of a New Cosmology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Kimberly A.; Martin, Dominique; Hayes, Patrycia; Targett, Tom; Bailey, Janelle M.; Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2015-01-01

    Informed by our research on student understanding of cosmology, The Big Ideas in Cosmology is an immersive set of web-based learning modules that integrates text, figures, and visualizations with short and long interactive tasks and real cosmological data. This enables the transformation of general education astronomy and cosmology classes from primarily lecture and book-based courses to a more engaging format that builds important STEM skills.During the spring 2014 semester, we field-tested a subset of chapters with the general education astronomy and cosmology classes at Sonoma State University in a flipped-classroom format. We administered pre and post content and attitude assessments in the two flipped classes as well as two lecture classes. The majority of cosmology students had taken astronomy before whereas the astronomy students had not.When switching to an active mode of learning (e.g., flipped classroom instead of lecture), many instructors report pushback from students. We saw this effect from students in course evaluations, who reported dissatisfaction with "having to do more work." However, the students in the flipped section in astronomy made greater gains on the multiple choice content assessment than the students in either of the two lecture sections. On the attitude assessment (the CLASS), the cosmology students made a small shift toward more expert-like opinions. Preliminary results from open-ended content surveys indicate that, prior to instruction, students had difficulty answering 'why' or 'how do we know' questions; that post-instruction, students are less likely to respond "I don't know" or to leave an answer blank; and that students using the modules made gains in their content knowledge.Module development was supported by NASA ROSES E/PO Grant #NNXl0AC89G, the Illinois Space Grant Consortium, the Fermi E/PO program, Sonoma State University's Space Science Education and Public Outreach Group, and Great River Technology

  6. IRIS: Proceeding Towards the Preliminary Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.; Miller, K.; Lombardi, C.; Todreas, N.; Greenspan, E.; Ninokata, H.; Lopez, F.; Cinotti, L.; Collado, J.; Oriolo, F.; Alonso, G.; Morales, M.; Boroughs, R.; Barroso, A.; Ingersoll, D.; Cavlina, N.

    2002-01-01

    The IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) project has completed the conceptual design phase and is moving towards completion of the preliminary design, scheduled for the end of 2002. Several other papers presented in this conference provide details on major aspects of the IRIS design. The three most innovative features which uniquely characterize IRIS are, in descending order of impact: 1. Safety-by-design, which takes maximum advantage of the integral configuration to eliminate from consideration some accidents, greatly lessen the consequence of other accident scenarios and decrease their probability of occurring; 2. Optimized maintenance, where the interval between maintenance shutdowns is extended to 48 months; and 3. Long core life, of at least four years without shuffling or partial refueling. Regarding feature 1, design and analyses will be supplemented by an extensive testing campaign to verify and demonstrate the performance of the integral components, individually as well as interactive systems. Test planning is being initiated. Test results will be factored into PRA analyses under an overall risk informed regulation approach, which is planned to be used in the IRIS licensing. Pre-application activities with NRC are also scheduled to start in mid 2002. Regarding feature 2, effort is being focused on advanced online diagnostics for the integral components, first of all the steam generators, which are the most critical component; several techniques are being investigated. Finally, a four year long life core design is well underway and some of the IRIS team members are examining higher enrichment, eight to ten year life cores which could be considered for reloads. (authors)

  7. Metacognitions about smoking: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary research has indicated that metacognitions are involved in smoking. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether specific facets of metacognition play a role in explaining smoking initiation and perseveration. Twelve individuals, self-identified as regular smokers and scoring a positive value on the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence, were assessed using a semi-structured interview to investigate the following: (1) whether they held positive and/or negative metacognitive beliefs about smoking; (2) what their main goal in smoking was, and how they knew if they had achieved their goal; (3) how they directed their focus of attention when smoking; and (4) what they perceived the advantages and disadvantages of these attentional strategies to be. Results indicated that participants endorsed both positive and negative metacognitive beliefs about smoking and that the goal of smoking was to regulate negative emotion and/or to enhance cognitive functioning. Participants reported that they relied either on an internal signal, such as improvement in the emotional/cognitive state, or on a physical sign, in the form of a finished cigarette, to determine if they had achieved their goal. During an episode of smoking, half of the participants reported focusing their attention internally on thoughts and feelings or the sensations of smoking. The remainder of participants reported either an exclusively external focus of attention (e.g., the environment) or a varied focus of attention. Most participants were able to identify advantages to their attentional strategies, whereas two reported perceived disadvantages. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  8. Improved self-exclusion program: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Nicole; Boutin, Claude; Ladouceur, Robert

    2008-12-01

    The gambling industry has offered self-exclusion programs for quite a long time. Such measures are designed to limit access to gaming opportunities and provide problem gamblers with the help they need to cease or limit their gambling behaviour. However, few studies have empirically evaluated these programs. This study has three objectives: (1) to observe the participation in an improved self-exclusion program that includes an initial voluntary evaluation, phone support, and a mandatory meeting, (2) to evaluate satisfaction and usefulness of this service as perceived by self-excluders, (3) to measure the preliminary impact of this improved program. One hundred sixteen self-excluders completed a questionnaire about their satisfaction and their perception of the usefulness during the mandatory meeting. Among those participants, 39 attended an initial meeting. Comparisons between data collected at the initial meeting and data taken at the final meeting were made for those 39 participants. Data showed that gamblers chose the improved self-exclusion program 75% of the time; 25% preferred to sign a regular self-exclusion contract. Among those who chose the improved service, 40% wanted an initial voluntary evaluation and 37% of these individuals actually attended that meeting. Seventy percent of gamblers came to the mandatory meeting, which was a required condition to end their self-exclusion. The majority of participants were satisfied with the improved self-exclusion service and perceived it as useful. Major improvements were observed between the final and the initial evaluation on time and money spent, consequences of gambling, DSM-IV score, and psychological distress. The applicability of an improved self-exclusion program is discussed and, as shown in our study, the inclusion of a final mandatory meeting might not be so repulsive for self-excluders. Future research directives are also proposed.

  9. Preliminary Estimation of Kappa Parameter in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanko, Davor; Markušić, Snježana; Ivančić, Ines; Mario, Gazdek; Gülerce, Zeynep

    2017-12-01

    Spectral parameter kappa κ is used to describe spectral amplitude decay “crash syndrome” at high frequencies. The purpose of this research is to estimate spectral parameter kappa for the first time in Croatia based on small and moderate earthquakes. Recordings of local earthquakes with magnitudes higher than 3, epicentre distances less than 150 km, and focal depths less than 30 km from seismological stations in Croatia are used. The value of kappa was estimated from the acceleration amplitude spectrum of shear waves from the slope of the high-frequency part where the spectrum starts to decay rapidly to a noise floor. Kappa models as a function of a site and distance were derived from a standard linear regression of kappa-distance dependence. Site kappa was determined from the extrapolation of the regression line to a zero distance. The preliminary results of site kappa across Croatia are promising. In this research, these results are compared with local site condition parameters for each station, e.g. shear wave velocity in the upper 30 m from geophysical measurements and with existing global shear wave velocity - site kappa values. Spatial distribution of individual kappa’s is compared with the azimuthal distribution of earthquake epicentres. These results are significant for a couple of reasons: to extend the knowledge of the attenuation of near-surface crust layers of the Dinarides and to provide additional information on the local earthquake parameters for updating seismic hazard maps of studied area. Site kappa can be used in the re-creation, and re-calibration of attenuation of peak horizontal and/or vertical acceleration in the Dinarides area since information on the local site conditions were not included in the previous studies.

  10. Preliminary hazard analysis using sequence tree method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Huiwen; Shih Chunkuan; Hung Hungchih; Chen Minghuei; Yih Swu; Lin Jiinming

    2007-01-01

    A system level PHA using sequence tree method was developed to perform Safety Related digital I and C system SSA. The conventional PHA is a brainstorming session among experts on various portions of the system to identify hazards through discussions. However, this conventional PHA is not a systematic technique, the analysis results strongly depend on the experts' subjective opinions. The analysis quality cannot be appropriately controlled. Thereby, this research developed a system level sequence tree based PHA, which can clarify the relationship among the major digital I and C systems. Two major phases are included in this sequence tree based technique. The first phase uses a table to analyze each event in SAR Chapter 15 for a specific safety related I and C system, such as RPS. The second phase uses sequence tree to recognize what I and C systems are involved in the event, how the safety related systems work, and how the backup systems can be activated to mitigate the consequence if the primary safety systems fail. In the sequence tree, the defense-in-depth echelons, including Control echelon, Reactor trip echelon, ESFAS echelon, and Indication and display echelon, are arranged to construct the sequence tree structure. All the related I and C systems, include digital system and the analog back-up systems are allocated in their specific echelon. By this system centric sequence tree based analysis, not only preliminary hazard can be identified systematically, the vulnerability of the nuclear power plant can also be recognized. Therefore, an effective simplified D3 evaluation can be performed as well. (author)

  11. Preliminary safety analysis of the Gorleben site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracke, G.; Fischer-Appelt, K.

    2014-01-01

    The safety requirements governing the final disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste in Germany were implemented by the Federal Ministry of Environment, Natural Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) in 2010. The Ministry considers as a fundamental objective the protection of man and the environment against the hazards of radioactive waste. Unreasonable burdens and obligation for future generations shall be avoided. The main safety principles are concentration and inclusion of radioactive and other pollutants in a containment-providing rock zone. Any release of radioactive nuclides may increase the risk for men and the environment only negligibly compared to natural radiation exposure. No intervention or maintenance work shall be necessary in the post-closure phase. Retrieval/recovery of the waste shall be possible up to 500 years after closure. The Gorleben salt dome has been discussed since the 1970's as a possible repository site for heat-generating radioactive waste in Germany. The objective of the project preliminary safety analysis of the Gorleben site (VSG) was to assess if repository concepts at the Gorleben site or other sites with a comparable geology could comply with these requirements based on currently available knowledge (Fischer-Appelt, 2013; Bracke, 2013). In addition to this it was assessed if methodological approaches can be used for a future site selection procedure and which technological and conceptual considerations can be transferred to other geological situations. The objective included the compilation and review of the available exploration data of the Gorleben site and on disposal in salt rock, the development of repository designs, and the identification of the needs for future R and D work and further site investigations. (authors)

  12. Preliminary status of the CALET observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Shoji

    2016-07-01

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) space experiment, which has been developed by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, is a high-energy astroparticle physics mission to be installed on the International Space Station (ISS). The primary goals of the CALET mission include investigating possible nearby sources of high energy electrons, studying the details of galactic particle propagation and searching for dark matter signatures. During a two- year mission, extendable to five years, the CALET experiment will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (including positrons) to 20 TeV, gamma-rays to 10 TeV and nuclei with Z=1 to 40 up to several 100 TeV. The instrument consists of two layers of segmented plastic scintillators for the cosmic-ray charge identification (CHD), a 3 radiation length thick tungsten-scintillating fiber imaging calorimeter (IMC) and a 27 radiation length thick lead-tungstate calorimeter (TASC). CALET has sufficient depth, imaging capabilities and excellent energy resolution to allow for a clear separation between hadrons and electrons and between charged particles and gamma rays. The instrument was launched on Aug. 19, 2015 to the ISS with HTV-5 (H-II Transfer Vehicle 5) and was successfully berthed to the Japanese Experiment Module- Exposure Facility (JEM-EF) . After a functional check-out phase until the beginning of October, it started an initial operation phase which was completed on Nov. 17, whence it began its standard operation phase. This paper will review the preliminary status of the CALET.

  13. Preliminary analysis of B. E. C. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, H; Sato, S [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Science and Engineering Research Lab.; Saito, T; Noma, M; Matsubayashi, T

    1974-10-01

    An emulsion chamber (B.E.C.I.) with a generating layer, mounted on a baloon, was flown as preliminary experiment in May 1973. The object of this experiment was (1) the observation of high energy cosmic ray, (2) study of ultra-high energy multiple generation phenomenon, and (3) study of ultra-high energy heavy ion nuclear reaction. The emulsion chamber comprises three portions. Upper portion is 130 sheets arranged vertically at 3 mm intervals, each sheet is a 1,500 ..mu..m methacrylic base coated on one side with 200 ..mu..m emulsion. Middle portion comprises horizontally arranged 800 ..mu..m methacrylic bases coated on both sides with 50 ..mu..m emulsion, and a 1 mm methacrylic sheet is inserted every five bases. Lower portion comprises first five layers of the sandwich of 1 mm lead sheet and 800 ..mu..m methacrylic base coated on both sides with 50 ..mu..m emulsion and second ten layers of the sandwich of 2 mm lead sheet, 800 ..mu..m methacrylic base coated on one side with 50 ..mu..m emulsion, and X-ray film of N type. The cascade having energy of Esub(o)>400 GeV as the scanning efficiency of lower E.C.C., the events having incidental energy of Esub(o)>3TeV among the jets occured in lower E.C.C., and the events having incidental energy of Esub(o)>10TeV among the jets occured in generating layer have been observed. Angle distribution of the secondary charged particles of jets produced in the generating layer can be obtained accurately.

  14. Preliminary Investigation of an Active PLZT Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, W. D.; Peters, B. R.; Reardon, P. J.; Wong, J. K.

    2001-01-01

    The design, analysis and preliminary testing of a prototype Adjustable Focus Optical Correction Lens (AFOCL) is described. The AFOCL is an active optical component composed of solid state lead lanthanum-modified zirconate titanate (PLZT) ferroelectric ceramic with patterned indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent surface electrodes that modulate the refractive index of the PLZT to function as an electro-optic lens. The AFOCL was developed to perform optical re-alignment and wavefront correction to enhance the performance of Ultra-Lightweight Structures and Space Observatories (ULSSO). The AFOCL has potential application as an active optical component within a larger optical system. As such, information from a wavefront sensor would be processed to provide input to the AFOCL to drive the sensed wavefront to the desired shape and location. While offering variable and rapid focussing capability (controlled wavefront manipulation) similar to liquid crystal based spatial light modulators (SLM), the AFOCL offers some potential advantages because it is a solid-state, stationary, low-mass, rugged, and thin optical element that can produce wavefront quality comparable to the solid refractive lens it replaces. The AFOCL acts as a positive or negative lens by producing a parabolic phase-shift in the PLZT material through the application of a controlled voltage potential across the ITO electrodes. To demonstrate the technology, a 4 mm diameter lens was fabricated to produce 5-waves of optical power operating at 2.051 micrometer wavelength. Optical metrology was performed on the device to measure focal length, optical quality, and efficiency for a variety of test configurations. The data was analyzed and compared to theoretical data available from computer-based models of the AFOCL.

  15. Methodology for Preliminary Design of Electrical Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Richard P. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stamp, Jason E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eddy, John P. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, Jordan M [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Munoz-Ramos, Karina [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abdallah, Tarek [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Many critical loads rely on simple backup generation to provide electricity in the event of a power outage. An Energy Surety Microgrid TM can protect against outages caused by single generator failures to improve reliability. An ESM will also provide a host of other benefits, including integration of renewable energy, fuel optimization, and maximizing the value of energy storage. The ESM concept includes a categorization for microgrid value proposi- tions, and quantifies how the investment can be justified during either grid-connected or utility outage conditions. In contrast with many approaches, the ESM approach explic- itly sets requirements based on unlikely extreme conditions, including the need to protect against determined cyber adversaries. During the United States (US) Department of Defense (DOD)/Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS) effort, the ESM methodology was successfully used to develop the preliminary designs, which direct supported the contracting, construction, and testing for three military bases. Acknowledgements Sandia National Laboratories and the SPIDERS technical team would like to acknowledge the following for help in the project: * Mike Hightower, who has been the key driving force for Energy Surety Microgrids * Juan Torres and Abbas Akhil, who developed the concept of microgrids for military installations * Merrill Smith, U.S. Department of Energy SPIDERS Program Manager * Ross Roley and Rich Trundy from U.S. Pacific Command * Bill Waugaman and Bill Beary from U.S. Northern Command * Melanie Johnson and Harold Sanborn of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Construc- tion Engineering Research Laboratory * Experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  16. Analytical Chemistry Core Capability Assessment - Preliminary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, Mary E.; Farish, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of 'core capability' can be nebulous one. Even at a fairly specific level, where core capability equals maintaining essential services, it is highly dependent upon the perspective of the requestor. Samples are submitted to analytical services because the requesters do not have the capability to conduct adequate analyses themselves. Some requests are for general chemical information in support of R and D, process control, or process improvement. Many analyses, however, are part of a product certification package and must comply with higher-level customer quality assurance requirements. So which services are essential to that customer - just those for product certification? Does the customer also (indirectly) need services that support process control and improvement? And what is the timeframe? Capability is often expressed in terms of the currently utilized procedures, and most programmatic customers can only plan a few years out, at best. But should core capability consider the long term where new technologies, aging facilities, and personnel replacements must be considered? These questions, and a multitude of others, explain why attempts to gain long-term consensus on the definition of core capability have consistently failed. This preliminary report will not try to define core capability for any specific program or set of programs. Instead, it will try to address the underlying concerns that drive the desire to determine core capability. Essentially, programmatic customers want to be able to call upon analytical chemistry services to provide all the assays they need, and they don't want to pay for analytical chemistry services they don't currently use (or use infrequently). This report will focus on explaining how the current analytical capabilities and methods evolved to serve a variety of needs with a focus on why some analytes have multiple analytical techniques, and what determines the infrastructure for these analyses. This information will be

  17. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  18. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years sp...

  19. The cost of child health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand: a preliminary scoping study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Clair

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health inequalities have been extensively documented, internationally and in New Zealand. The cost of reducing health inequities is often perceived as high; however, recent international studies suggest the cost of “doing nothing” is itself significant. This study aimed to develop a preliminary estimate of the economic cost of health inequities between Māori (indigenous and non-Māori children in New Zealand. Methods Standard quantitative epidemiological methods and “cost of illness” methodology were employed, within a Kaupapa Māori theoretical framework. Data were obtained from national data collections held by the New Zealand Health Information Service and other health sector agencies. Results Preliminary estimates suggest child health inequities between Māori and non-Māori in New Zealand are cost-saving to the health sector. However the societal costs are significant. A conservative “base case” scenario estimate is over $NZ62 million per year, while alternative costing methods yield larger costs of nearly $NZ200 million per annum. The total cost estimate is highly sensitive to the costing method used and Value of Statistical Life applied, as the cost of potentially avoidable deaths of Māori children is the major contributor to this estimate. Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that health sector spending is skewed towards non-Māori children despite evidence of greater Māori need. Persistent child health inequities result in significant societal economic costs. Eliminating child health inequities, particularly in primary care access, could result in significant economic benefits for New Zealand. However, there are conceptual, ethical and methodological challenges in estimating the economic cost of child health inequities. Re-thinking of traditional economic frameworks and development of more appropriate methodologies is required.

  20. The cost of child health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand: a preliminary scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Clair; Reid, Papaarangi; Vaithianathan, Rhema

    2012-05-28

    Health inequalities have been extensively documented, internationally and in New Zealand. The cost of reducing health inequities is often perceived as high; however, recent international studies suggest the cost of "doing nothing" is itself significant. This study aimed to develop a preliminary estimate of the economic cost of health inequities between Māori (indigenous) and non-Māori children in New Zealand. Standard quantitative epidemiological methods and "cost of illness" methodology were employed, within a Kaupapa Māori theoretical framework. Data were obtained from national data collections held by the New Zealand Health Information Service and other health sector agencies. Preliminary estimates suggest child health inequities between Māori and non-Māori in New Zealand are cost-saving to the health sector. However the societal costs are significant. A conservative "base case" scenario estimate is over $NZ62 million per year, while alternative costing methods yield larger costs of nearly $NZ200 million per annum. The total cost estimate is highly sensitive to the costing method used and Value of Statistical Life applied, as the cost of potentially avoidable deaths of Māori children is the major contributor to this estimate. This preliminary study suggests that health sector spending is skewed towards non-Māori children despite evidence of greater Māori need. Persistent child health inequities result in significant societal economic costs. Eliminating child health inequities, particularly in primary care access, could result in significant economic benefits for New Zealand. However, there are conceptual, ethical and methodological challenges in estimating the economic cost of child health inequities. Re-thinking of traditional economic frameworks and development of more appropriate methodologies is required.

  1. Diversification: A Value-Creating or Value-Destroying Strategy? Evidence from the Eurozone Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gálvan Antonio; Pindado Julio; De La Torre Chabela

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we provide evidence on how diversification strategy impacts on excess value in a sample of Eurozone firms by using the data panel methodology. Specifically, we study the effect of the levels and types of the product diversification on the premium or discount that diversified firms trade at. Preliminary results are consistent with the value-destroying expectations and show that diversified companies trade at a discount in the Eurozone countries. However, a more accurate analysis...

  2. Proposed preliminary definition of the disturbed-zone boundary appropriate for a repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langkopf, B.S.

    1987-12-01

    Some of the calculations that support the licensing of a repository for high-level radioactive waste will use the regulatory concept of a disturbed zone. The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project must determine the location of the boundary of the disturbed zone for use in these calculations. This paper summarizes results of computer analyses and laboratory experiments and suggests a preliminary definition for the boundary of the disturbed zone for the unsaturated environment at Yucca Mountain. Although the intent of this paper is to define the boundary of the disturbed zone at the edge of significant changes in intrinsic hydrologic properties, there is no evidence of changes in intrinsic hydrologic properties that could significantly change the groundwater travel time from the repository to the water table. Such a result suggests that the disturbed zone at Yucca Mountain is of minimal extent. Because the analyses and experiments reviewed here indicate that there are a variety of changes near the waste package and because the results are subject to uncertainty, the preliminary suggestion for the extent of the disturbed zone is a value larger than the results themselves would suggest: the boundary is proposed to be a plane 10 m below the lower boundary of the waste packages. 88 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Stable isotope variations in benthic primary producers along the Bosphorus (Turkey): A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calizza, Edoardo; Aktan, Yelda; Costantini, Maria Letizia; Rossi, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nitrogen pollution along the Bosphorus Strait was investigated. • C and N isotopic and elemental analyses on benthic primary producers were performed. • δ 15 N decreased, while δ 13 C and N% increased from north to south along the Strait. • Ulva lactuca was more useful than epiphytes as indicator of nitrogen pollution. • Preliminary isotopic analyses on resident organisms are useful monitoring tools. - Abstract: The Bosphorus Strait is a dynamic and complex system. Recent evidences showed nitrogen and heavy metal concentrations to follow opposite patterns across the Strait, suggesting a complex spatial organisation of the anthropogenic disturbance in this system. Here, we provide isotopic information on the origin and transportation of dissolved nitrogen along the Bosphorus. C and N isotopic and elemental analyses were performed on specimens of Ulva lactuca and associated epiphytes sampled in five locations across the Strait. Variations in C and N isotopic signatures were observed in U. lactuca, pointing to a decrease in the availability of anthropogenic organic dissolved nitrogen along a north-south direction. Conversely, epiphytes did not show isotopic or elemental patterns across the Strait. These results suggest that preliminary stable isotope surveys in extended costal systems basing on U. lactuca can represent a valuable tool to focus meaningful targets and hypotheses for pollution studies in the Mediterranean region

  4. The Adolescent HIV Disclosure Cognition and Affect Scale: Preliminary Reliability and Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeli, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Globally, there are 2 million HIV-positive 10-19-year-olds. One challenge for this population is sharing their HIV status with others (onward HIV disclosure). There are no multi-item, multidimensional scales of HIV disclosure cognitions and affect for young people living with HIV. An 18-item measure of HIV disclosure cognition and affect was developed, administered to 65 adolescents living with HIV (aged 12-16 years). Data were explored using principal component analysis and preliminary construct and criterion validity assessed. Three factors were revealed: negative disclosure attitudes and feelings, self-efficacy, and positive disclosure attitudes and feelings. The full scale and its subscales were internally consistent. The total score showed statistically significant positive relationships with HIV disclosure in the past 6 months, HIV disclosure intention and self-perception. Preliminary evidence of the measure's good psychometric properties suggests it may be helpful in future clinical and research work. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour: An extended taxonomy and a preliminary assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    The currently used concept of personal or moral norms is ambiguous with regard to its motivational content. Therefore, a revision of the norm taxonomy is suggested, implying a distinction between three types of personal norms, called introjected, identified, and integrated norms. A preliminary as...... is also supported, with the reservation that the different behavioural references are more than just different methods of measuring the same latent construct(s). People evidently hold different norms for different environmentally responsible behaviours.......The currently used concept of personal or moral norms is ambiguous with regard to its motivational content. Therefore, a revision of the norm taxonomy is suggested, implying a distinction between three types of personal norms, called introjected, identified, and integrated norms. A preliminary...... assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...

  6. Weighing evidence: quantitative measures of the importance of bitemark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelson, J M; Kieser, J A; Buckingham, D M; Herbison, G P

    2002-12-01

    Quantitative measures of the importance of evidence such as the "likelihood ratio" have become increasingly popular in the courtroom. These measures have been used by expert witnesses formally to describe their certainty about a piece of evidence. These measures are commonly interpreted as the amount by which the evidence should revise the opinion of guilt, and thereby summarize the importance of a particular piece of evidence. Unlike DNA evidence, quantitative measures have not been widely used by forensic dentists to describe their certainty when testifying about bitemark evidence. There is, however, no inherent reason why they should not be used to evaluate bitemarks. The purpose of this paper is to describe the likelihood ratio as it might be applied to bitemark evidence. We use a simple bitemark example to define the likelihood ratio, its application, and interpretation. In particular we describe how the jury interprets the likelihood ratio from a Bayesian perspective when evaluating the impact of the evidence on the odds that the accused is guilty. We describe how the dentist would calculate the likelihood ratio based on frequentist interpretations. We also illustrate some of the limitations of the likelihood ratio, and show how those limitations apply to bitemark evidence. We conclude that the quality of bitemark evidence cannot be adequately summarized by the likelihood ratio, and argue that its application in this setting may be more misleading than helpful.

  7. Helminthiases in Montes Claros. Preliminary survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Girard Kaminsky

    1976-04-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary survey was conducted for the presence of helminths in the city of Montes Claros, M. G., Brazil. Three groups of persons were examined by the direct smear, Kato thick film and MIFC techniques; one group by direct smear and Kato only. General findings were: a high prevalence of hookworm, followed by ascariasis, S. mansoni, S. stercoralis and very light infections with T. trichiurá. E. vermicularis and H. nana were ranking parasites at an orphanage, with some hookworm and S. mansoni infections as well. At a pig slaughter house, the dominant parasites were hookworm and S. mansoni. Pig cysticercosis was an incidental finding worth mentioning for the health hazard it represents for humans as well as an economic loss. From the comparative results between the Kato and the MIF the former proved itself again as a more sensitive and reliable concentration method for helminth eggs, of low cost and easy performance.Um estudo preliminar sobre helmintos foi feito na cidade de Montes Claros, MG, Brasil. Três grupos de pessoas foram examinados pelos métodos direto, de Kato e do MIF e um grupo pelos métodos direto e Kato exclusivamente. Encontrou-se uma alta prevalência de necatorose, seguindo-se ascaríase, S. mansoni, S. stercoralis, e infecções leves pelo T. trichiura. E. vermicularis e H. nana foram osparasitos mais prevalentes num orfanato, com alguns casos de infecção pelo Necator e S. mansoni. Cisticercose dos suinos foi achado incidental e é importante ser mencionada devido ao perigo que representa no plano da Saúde Pública, bem como pela perda econômica que produz. Discutiu-se brevemente a importância do solo na transmissão dos helmintos num clima quente e seco. Da comparação dos métodos de Kato e MIF, o primeiro demonstrou ser o método mais sensível para ovos de helmintos, de baixo custo e fácil preparo.

  8. Integrated Global Nuclear Materials Management Preliminary Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E; Dreicer, M.

    2006-01-01

    The world is at a turning point, moving away from the Cold War nuclear legacy towards a future global nuclear enterprise; and this presents a transformational challenge for nuclear materials management. Achieving safety and security during this transition is complicated by the diversified spectrum of threat 'players' that has greatly impacted nonproliferation, counterterrorism, and homeland security requirements. Rogue states and non-state actors no longer need self-contained national nuclear expertise, materials, and equipment due to availability from various sources in the nuclear market, thereby reducing the time, effort and cost for acquiring a nuclear weapon (i.e., manifestations of latency). The terrorist threat has changed the nature of military and national security requirements to protect these materials. An Integrated Global Nuclear Materials Management (IGNMM) approach would address the existing legacy nuclear materials and the evolution towards a nuclear energy future, while strengthening a regime to prevent nuclear weapon proliferation. In this paper, some preliminary concepts and studies of IGNMM will be presented. A systematic analysis of nuclear materials, activities, and controls can lead to a tractable, integrated global nuclear materials management architecture that can help remediate the past and manage the future. A systems approach is best suited to achieve multi-dimensional and interdependent solutions, including comprehensive, end-to-end capabilities; coordinated diverse elements for enhanced functionality with economy; and translation of goals/objectives or standards into locally optimized solutions. A risk-informed basis is excellent for evaluating system alternatives and performances, and it is especially appropriate for the security arena. Risk management strategies--such as defense-in-depth, diversity, and control quality--help to weave together various technologies and practices into a strong and robust security fabric. Effective

  9. IRIS PRA preliminary results and future direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnicum, D.J.; Kling, C.L.; Carelli, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Westinghouse is currently conducting the pre-application licensing of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) on behalf of the IRIS Consortium. One of the key aspects of the IRIS design is the concept of safety-by-design. The PRA (Probabilistic Risk Analysis) is being used as an integral part of the design process. As part of this effort, a PRA of the initial design was generated to address 2 key areas. First, the IRIS PRA supported the evaluation of IRIS design issues by providing a solid risk basis for design and analyses required for the pre-licensing evaluation of the IRIS design. The PRA provides the tool for quantifying the benefit of the safety-by-design approach. Second, the current PRA task is beginning the preparation of the more complete PRA analyses and documentation eventually required for Design Certification. One of the key risk-related goals for IRIS is to reduce the EPZ (Emergency Protection Zone) to within the exclusion area by demonstrating that the off-site doses are consistent with the US Protective Action Guidelines (PAGs) for initiation of emergency response so that the required protective actions would be limited to the exclusion area. The results of the preliminary PRA indicated a core damage frequency of 1.2 E-08 for internal initiators. This is a very good result but much work is needed to meet the ambitious goal of no emergency response. The next phase of the PRA analyses will involve a two-fold expansion of the PRA. First, as the design and analyses approach a greater level of detail, the assumptions used for the initial PRA will be reviewed and the models will be revised as needed to reflect the improved knowledge of the system design and performance. Furthermore, as the full plant design advances, the PRA will be expanded to incorporate risk associated with external challenges such as seismic and fire, and to address low power and shutdowns modes of operation. As with the initial work, the PRA will serve as a tool to

  10. Attachment and Aggressive Manifestations in Younger Adulthood - "Preliminary Findings"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lorincová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of the contribution was comparison between retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection and aggressive manifestations (physical aggressivness, verbal aggressivness, anger and hostility among younger adulthood. Bowlby's theory of attachment was that once a core attachment style develops in an infant, it will influence and shape the nature of all intimate relations for the individual moving forward throughout the infant's life cycle. Authors Mikulincer and Shaver (2011 explain how these primary attachment experiences would affect future emotional, cognitive and behavioral processes. Secure adolescents, in comparison to insecure ones are perceived as being less aggressive. Research has pointed out that secure parental attachment promotes adaptive psychological functioning. The direct relationship between attachment security and aggressive/delinquent behaviour is in line with prior evidence that secure adolescents rate higher in terms of emotional and social adjustment, enjoy more positive relationships with their family and peers, and are less likely to engage in externalizing problems, such as antisocial and aggressive behaviours. On the other hand, insecure attachment is connected with aggressive and externalizing behaviour. Hypotheses were formulated on the base of theoretical background and our assumption was, that younger adults with emocional warmth attachment will have lower level of aggressive manifestations (physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger and hostility than younger adults with rejectional attachment. We used two standardized questionnaires for data collection, s.E.M.B.U. Questionnaire, which measured retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection and Questionnaire of Aggressivness, which measured aggressive manifestations. We used statistical analysis and we found statistically significant differencies, which are preliminary findings from broader research, between emocional warmth

  11. First fungal genome sequence from Africa: A preliminary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Sutherland

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most significant breakthroughs in the biological sciences this century will emerge from the development of next generation sequencing technologies. The ease of availability of DNA sequence made possible through these new technologies has given researchers opportunities to study organisms in a manner that was not possible with Sanger sequencing. Scientists will, therefore, need to embrace genomics, as well as develop and nurture the human capacity to sequence genomes and utilise the ’tsunami‘ of data that emerge from genome sequencing. In response to these challenges, we sequenced the genome of Fusarium circinatum, a fungal pathogen of pine that causes pitch canker, a disease of great concern to the South African forestry industry. The sequencing work was conducted in South Africa, making F. circinatum the first eukaryotic organism for which the complete genome has been sequenced locally. Here we report on the process that was followed to sequence, assemble and perform a preliminary characterisation of the genome. Furthermore, details of the computer annotation and manual curation of this genome are presented. The F. circinatum genome was found to be nearly 44 million bases in size, which is similar to that of four other Fusarium genomes that have been sequenced elsewhere. The genome contains just over 15 000 open reading frames, which is less than that of the related species, Fusarium oxysporum, but more than that for Fusarium verticillioides. Amongst the various putative gene clusters identified in F. circinatum, those encoding the secondary metabolites fumosin and fusarin appeared to harbour evidence of gene translocation. It is anticipated that similar comparisons of other loci will provide insights into the genetic basis for pathogenicity of the pitch canker pathogen. Perhaps more importantly, this project has engaged a relatively large group of scientists

  12. Archaeogeophysical investigations in Tiwanaku: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Nicola; Sileo, Maria; Lasaponara, Rosa; Leucci, Giovanni; Orefici, Giuseppe; Rizzo, Enzo

    2017-04-01

    -1450) Tiwanaku was characterized by the resurgence of regional identities and polities In spite of the rich archaeological record numerous issues, related to the function and the extension of Tiwanaku, need to be investigated especially in the monumental core which includes the pyramid of Akapana, and other ceremonial places such Kalasasaya, Putuni and Kantatallita. To this aims some geophysical investigations were performed in 2009 and 2014 in the context of multidisciplinary research including the use of satellite remote sensing [8]. This paper deals with the discussion of preliminary results of geomagnetic and GPR investigations, some of which have been verified by trial archaeological excavations which have unearthed some buried structures, improving the knowledge of the ceremonial areas of Tiwanaku. References [1] Lasaponara R., Leucci G., Masini N., Persico R., Scardozzi G., Towards an operative use of remote sensing for exploring the past using satellite data: The case study of Hierapolis (Turkey), Remote sensing of Environment, 174 (2016) : 148-164, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2015.12.016 [2] Masini N., Lasaponara R., Rizzo E., Orefici G. 2012. Integrated Remote Sensing Approach in Cahuachi (Peru): Studies and Results of the ITACA Mission (2007-2010), In: Lasaponara R., Masini N. (Eds) 2012, Satellite Remote Sensing: a new tool for Archaeology, Springer, Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, ISBN 978-90-481-8800-0, doi: 10.1007/978-90-481-8801-7_14; pp. 307-344 [3] Rizzo E., Masini N., Lasaponara R., Orefici G. 2010, ArchaeoGeophysical methods in the Templo del Escalonado (Cahuachi, Nasca, Perù), Near Surface Geophysics 8 (5), 433-439, doi:10.3997/1873-0604.2010030 [4] Masini N., Rizzo E., Lasaponara R., and Orefici G. 2008, Integrated remote sensing techniques for the detection of buried archaeological adobe structures: preliminary results in Cahuachi (Peru), Advances in Geosciences, 19, 75-82 [5] Lasaponara R., Leucci G., Masini N., Persico R. 2014. Investigating archaeological looting

  13. A preliminary study on titanium-clay interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wersin, P.; Grolimund, D.; Kumpulainen, S.; Brendle, J.; Snellman, M.

    2010-01-01

    bentonite, Opalinus Clay, Illite du Puy) were characterized by XAS. Preliminary results can be summarized as: (1) Natural clay materials contain significant but variable amounts of Ti. The standard purification procedure for bentonites to remove accessories does not or only barely removes Ti. (2) The Ti in the natural clays materials Rokle bentonite, Opalinus Clay, Illite du Puy occurs as microcrystalline TiO 2 (presumably as anatase). On the other hand, the Ti spectra in MX-80 suggest the presence of structural Ti in the smectite, but the evidence is not conclusive so far. (3) The exposure of purified MX-80 to titanium powder at room temperature within a period of five months did not lead to measurable additional Ti in the clay. This was even true for samples exposed to acidic or alkaline conditions where corrosion rates and solubility of Ti are known to be higher. Thereof, the following preliminary conclusions can be drawn: - The Ti content in natural bentonites is concentrated mainly in the so-called clay fraction. Ti occurs therein either as separate small TiO 2 particles (Rokle, Opalinus Clay, Illite du Puy) or as structural Ti. As indicated by the study of Karnland et al. (2006), the properties of natural bentonites are not affected by the presence of Ti. In that study, the bulk properties (swelling pressure, hydraulic conductivity) were very similar for the different bentonites containing variable Ti content, ranging from 0.1 to 4.8 weight % TiO 2 in the purified clay fractions. The transfer rates of Ti from the metallic source, even in reactive powder form, to the clay are very low and no enrichment above background concentrations after several months could be observed. In order to obtain measurable effects, both the corrosion process must be increased and the background concentration must be reduced. Tests with Ti-free clay material at increased temperature are still ongoing and will hopefully enable identification of reacted Ti species. (authors)

  14. Potato contract farming and ‘privileged spaces’: preliminary insights from rural Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicol, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of modern value chain schemes such as contract farming in rural India are exposing households to new forms of agricultural production. Evidently, the spread of such schemes in India will have spatial implications for rural development. This short communication offers preliminary insights of the contours of these spatial implications from a case study of potato contract farming in three villages in Maharashtra, India. It is proposed that studies that combine a local-scale livelihoods approach with global value chain analysis can strengthen understanding of agricultural change and rural development by grounding value chain analysis in the place-based everyday realities of rural households. Using this approach to adopt an evolutionary view of livelihoods and value chains will lead to a much deeper understanding of possible future development pathways for rural households under conditions of agricultural transformation.

  15. Preliminary experiment of non-induced plasma current startup on SUNIST spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yexi; Zhang Liang; Xie Lifeng; Tang Yi; Yang Xuanzong; Fu Hongjun

    2005-01-01

    Non-inductive plasma current startup is an important motivation on the SUNIST spherical tokamak. In this experiment, a 100 kW, 2.45 GHz magnetron microwave system has been applied to the plasma current startup. Besides the toroidal field, a vertical field was applied to generate a preliminary toroidal plasma current without action of the central solenoid. As the evidence of the plasma current startup by the vertical field drift effect, the direction of the plasma current is changed with the changing direction of the vertical field during ECR startup discharge. We have also observed the plasma current maximum by scanning the vertical field in both directions. Additionally, we have used electrode discharge to assist the ECR current startup. (author)

  16. Preliminary petrographic description and geologic implications of the Apollo 17 Station 7 boulder consortium samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.; Thompson, C.L.

    1974-01-01

    Preliminary petrographic description and mineral composition of four hand samples (77135, 77115, 77075 and 77215) are presented. 77135, 77115, and 77075 all crystallized from fragment-laden melts; they are similar in textures but differ in grain size. 77135 and 77115 are pigeonite feldspathic basalts. On the basis of geologic and petrographic evidence, 77115 and 77075 are related; they formed, cooled, and consolidated before being engulfed in the vesicular 77135. The impact or igneous origin of the melts from which these rocks crystallized cannot be determined. 77215 is a shocked, strongly sheared and granulated microbreccia consisting of three major lithologies dominated by mineral clasts of orthopyroxene and calcic plagioclase. The orthopyroxene clasts contain coarse exsolved blebs of augite, suggesting a deep-seated origin. The major, minor, and trace element compositions of 77135, 77115, and 77075 are in general similar. They represent a major highland rock type, perhaps more important than anorthosites. ?? 1974.

  17. Life span studies on mice exposed to heavy charged particles or photons: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the results currently available where dose-dependent mortality is compared among the single cohort that received fractionated doses of carbon ions and the first replicate that received single doses. At this time, 17% mortality has occurred in both groups and had enhanced life shortening been produced by fractionation of the carbon ion dose, somewhat higher mortality might be expected. Cautious interpretation of these preliminary results is necessary, but the mortality data available at this time provides no evidence for enhancement by dose fractionation with carbon ions. In sum, at this time, it appears the Q factor used for fission spectrum neutrons could be conservative if it were used for assessment of risk following exposure to 400 MeV carbon ions

  18. Preliminary Psychometric Analysis of the Modified Perceived Value of Certification Tool for the Nurse Educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbe, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine psychometric properties of the Perceived Value of Certification Tool© with a focus on nurse educator certification (PVCT-NE) in a sample of nurse educators. Greater understanding of faculty perceptions of certification is necessary to facilitate a strong cadre of nursing faculty; however, research around nurse educator certification is limited by a lack of reliable and valid instruments to measure such perceptions. Twenty-four nursing faculty from one university participated in the psychometric study, which involved completion of the PVCT-NE in a web-based survey format. Internal consistency reliability was excellent. Cronbach's alpha for the total PVCT-NE was .94 (.93 for the intrinsic subscale and .86 for the extrinsic subscale). A content validity index of .95 was obtained. There is preliminary evidence that the PVCT-NE is a reliable and valid instrument to measure perceived value of certification in nurse educators.

  19. A Preliminary Study of the Effectiveness of Different Recitation Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endorf, Robert J.; Koenig, Kathleen M.; Braun, Gregory A.

    2006-02-01

    We present preliminary results from a comparative study of student understanding for students who attended recitation classes which used different teaching methods. Student volunteers from our introductory calculus-based physics course attended a special recitation class that was taught using one of four different teaching methods. A total of 272 students were divided into approximately equal groups for each method. Students in each class were taught the same topic, "Changes in energy and momentum," from Tutorials in Introductory Physics. The different teaching methods varied in the amount of student and teacher engagement. Student understanding was evaluated through pretests and posttests given at the recitation class. Our results demonstrate the importance of the instructor's role in teaching recitation classes. The most effective teaching method was for students working in cooperative learning groups with the instructors questioning the groups using Socratic dialogue. These results provide guidance and evidence for the teaching methods which should be emphasized in training future teachers and faculty members.

  20. Evidence synthesis software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sophie Elizabeth; Thomas, James

    2018-06-07

    It can be challenging to decide which evidence synthesis software to choose when doing a systematic review. This article discusses some of the important questions to consider in relation to the chosen method and synthesis approach. Software can support researchers in a range of ways. Here, a range of review conditions and software solutions. For example, facilitating contemporaneous collaboration across time and geographical space; in-built bias assessment tools; and line-by-line coding for qualitative textual analysis. EPPI-Reviewer is a review software for research synthesis managed by the EPPI-centre, UCL Institute of Education. EPPI-Reviewer has text mining automation technologies. Version 5 supports data sharing and re-use across the systematic review community. Open source software will soon be released. EPPI-Centre will continue to offer the software as a cloud-based service. The software is offered via a subscription with a one-month (extendible) trial available and volume discounts for 'site licences'. It is free to use for Cochrane and Campbell reviews. The next EPPI-Reviewer version is being built in collaboration with National Institute for Health and Care Excellence using 'surveillance' of newly published research to support 'living' iterative reviews. This is achieved using a combination of machine learning and traditional information retrieval technologies to identify the type of research each new publication describes and determine its relevance for a particular review, domain or guideline. While the amount of available knowledge and research is constantly increasing, the ways in which software can support the focus and relevance of data identification are also developing fast. Software advances are maximising the opportunities for the production of relevant and timely reviews. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  1. Evaluation of the therapeutic results of actinic keratosis treated with topical 5% fluorouracil by reflectance confocal laser microscopy: preliminary study*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishioka, Priscila; Maia, Marcus; Rodrigues, Sarita Bartholomei; Marta, Alessandra Cristina; Hirata, Sérgio Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Topical treatment for actinic keratosis with 5% fluorouracil has a recurrence rate of 54% in 12 months of follow-up. This study analyzed thirteen actinic keratoses on the upper limbs through confocal microscopy, at the time of clinical diagnosis and after 4 weeks of treatment with fluorouracil. After the treatment was established and evidence of clinical cure was achieved, in two of the nine actinic keratoses, confocal microscopy enabled visualization of focal areas of atypical honeycomb pattern in the epidermis indicating therapeutic failure. Preliminary data suggest the use of confocal microscopy as a tool for diagnosis and therapeutic control of actinic keratosis. PMID:26131881

  2. Synthesizing Quantitative Evidence for Evidence-based Nursing: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eui Geum

    2016-06-01

    As evidence-based practice has become an important issue in healthcare settings, the educational needs for knowledge and skills for the generation and utilization of healthcare evidence are increasing. Systematic review (SR), a way of evidence generation, is a synthesis of primary scientific evidence, which summarizes the best evidence on a specific clinical question using a transparent, a priori protocol driven approach. SR methodology requires a critical appraisal of primary studies, data extraction in a reliable and repeatable way, and examination for validity of the results. SRs are considered hierarchically as the highest form of evidence as they are a systematic search, identification, and summarization of the available evidence to answer a focused clinical question with particular attention to the methodological quality of studies or the credibility of opinion and text. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an overview of the fundamental knowledge, principals and processes in SR. The focus of this paper is on SR especially for the synthesis of quantitative data from primary research studies that examines the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. To activate evidence-based nursing care in various healthcare settings, the best and available scientific evidence are essential components. This paper will include some examples to promote understandings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Synthesizing Quantitative Evidence for Evidence-based Nursing: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Geum Oh, PhD, RN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As evidence-based practice has become an important issue in healthcare settings, the educational needs for knowledge and skills for the generation and utilization of healthcare evidence are increasing. Systematic review (SR, a way of evidence generation, is a synthesis of primary scientific evidence, which summarizes the best evidence on a specific clinical question using a transparent, a priori protocol driven approach. SR methodology requires a critical appraisal of primary studies, data extraction in a reliable and repeatable way, and examination for validity of the results. SRs are considered hierarchically as the highest form of evidence as they are a systematic search, identification, and summarization of the available evidence to answer a focused clinical question with particular attention to the methodological quality of studies or the credibility of opinion and text. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an overview of the fundamental knowledge, principals and processes in SR. The focus of this paper is on SR especially for the synthesis of quantitative data from primary research studies that examines the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. To activate evidence-based nursing care in various healthcare settings, the best and available scientific evidence are essential components. This paper will include some examples to promote understandings.

  4. Finding and applying evidence during clinical rounds: the "evidence cart".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, D L; Straus, S E

    1998-10-21

    Physicians need easy access to evidence for clinical decisions while they care for patients but, to our knowledge, no investigators have assessed use of evidence during rounds with house staff. To determine if it was feasible to find and apply evidence during clinical rounds, using an "evidence cart" that contains multiple sources of evidence and the means for projecting and printing them. Descriptive feasibility study of use of evidence during 1 month (April 1997) and anonymous questionnaire (May 1997). General medicine inpatient service. Medical students, house staff, fellows, and attending consultant. Evidence cart that included 2 secondary sources developed by the department (critically appraised topics [CATs] and Redbook), Best Evidence, JAMA Rational Clinical Examination series, the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, a physical examination textbook, a radiology anatomy textbook, and a Simulscope, which allows several people to listen simultaneously to the same signs on physical examination. Number of times sources were used, type of sources searched and success of searches, time needed to search, and whether the search affected patient care. The evidence cart was used 98 times, but could not be taken on bedside rounds because of its bulk; hard copies of several sources were taken instead. When the evidence cart was used during team rounds and student rounds, some sources could be accessed quickly enough (10.2-25.4 seconds) to be practical on our service. Of 98 searches, 79 (81%) sought evidence that could affect diagnostic and/or treatment decisions. Seventy-one (90%) of 79 searches regarding patient management were successful, and when assessed from the perspective of the most junior team members responsible for each patient's evaluation and management, 37 (52%) of the 71 successful searches confirmed their current or tentative diagnostic or treatment plans, 18 (25%) led to a new diagnostic skill, an additional test, or a new management decision, and 16 (23

  5. Evidence based medical imaging (EBMI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Tony

    2008-01-01

    Background: The evidence based paradigm was first described about a decade ago. Previous authors have described a framework for the application of evidence based medicine which can be readily adapted to medical imaging practice. Purpose: This paper promotes the application of the evidence based framework in both the justification of the choice of examination type and the optimisation of the imaging technique used. Methods: The framework includes five integrated steps: framing a concise clinical question; searching for evidence to answer that question; critically appraising the evidence; applying the evidence in clinical practice; and, evaluating the use of revised practices. Results: This paper illustrates the use of the evidence based framework in medical imaging (that is, evidence based medical imaging) using the examples of two clinically relevant case studies. In doing so, a range of information technology and other resources available to medical imaging practitioners are identified with the intention of encouraging the application of the evidence based paradigm in radiography and radiology. Conclusion: There is a perceived need for radiographers and radiologists to make greater use of valid research evidence from the literature to inform their clinical practice and thus provide better quality services

  6. Evidence for factorization breaking in diffractive low-Q2 dijet production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasen, Michael; Kramer, Gustav

    2004-01-01

    We calculate diffractive dijet production in deep-inelastic scattering at next-to-leading order of perturbative QCD, including contributions from direct and resolved photons, and compare our predictions to preliminary data from the H1 Collaboration at DESY HERA. In contrast to recent experimental claims, evidence for factorization breaking is found only for resolved, and not direct, photon contributions. No evidence is found for large normalization uncertainties in diffractive parton densities. The results confirm theoretical expectations for the (non)cancellation of soft singularities in diffractive scattering as well as previous results for (almost) real photoproduction

  7. A preliminary placebo-controlled crossover trial of fludrocortisone for chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, P K; Pheley, A; Schroeppel, J; Schenck, C; Marshall, P; Kind, A; Haugland, J M; Lambrecht, L J; Swan, S; Goldsmith, S

    1998-04-27

    To provide a preliminary assessment of the efficacy and safety of fludrocortisone acetate treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, random-allocation crossover trial of 6 weeks of fludrocortisone. An outpatient clinical trials unit. Twenty-five participants with chronic fatigue syndrome (mean age, 40 years; 19 [76%] women; mean duration of illness, 7.0 years) were recruited from a research and clinic registry. Five patients withdrew from the trial. All participants were scheduled to receive fludrocortisone acetate (0.1-0.2 mg) or a placebo for 6 weeks in each treatment. Self-administered questionnaires were completed at the beginning and end of each treatment arm that asked patients to rate the severity of their symptoms on a visual analogue scale. The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, a reaction time test, and a treadmill exercise test were used to assess functional status. Blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma norepinephrine levels were obtained at baseline. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded at the end of the exercise test and monitored at all subsequent visits. At baseline, the study participants reported symptom severity greater than 5 for most symptoms, and all had evidence of marked functional impairments. No improvement was observed in the severity of any symptom or in any test of function for the 20 participants who completed both arms of the trial. Blood pressure and heart rate readings were unaffected by treatment, and plasma norepinephrine levels did not differ from those of a healthy control group. The incidence of adverse experiences was similar in the fludrocortisone and placebo arms of the trial. Low-dose fludrocortisone does not provide sufficient benefit to be evident in a preliminary blinded trial of unselected patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

  8. Evidence and Ethics (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brettle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the December issue of EBLIP, the final issue of my first year as Editor-in-Chief. A year which I have thoroughly enjoyed and one where the fears over what to write in my editorials haven’t materialised. This quarter, ethics has featured quite heavily in my working life so I decided to make this the topic of the editorial, sharing some of my thoughts regarding evidence, ethics and how ethical principles are implemented within the EBLIP journal.Ethics are “principles of conduct or standards of behaviour governing an individual or profession” (Library and Information Science Editorial Committee, 2010, and as individuals or professionals we may be governed by various ethical codes. As I'm sure you know, EBLIP originated in the health domain, where ethical values and ethical research feature strongly. Indeed, by its formal definition, research cannot take place unless “ethical approval” from an appropriate committee has been granted. The practicalities of taking research through the ethical approval process can often be time consuming, and those involved in research need to bear this in mind when planning a project. Each committee will have a slightly different form and process (which can add to the frustration of the researcher, but basically will make their decision to approve on the basis that the research includes obtaining informed consent from participants (i.e., participants know what the research is about and what their involvement will mean; that the research will not cause harm to participants; that confidentiality will be maintained; and that the research undertaken is methodologically rigorous and worthwhile. Preparing a proposal for ethical approval, whilst time consuming, makes the researcher think about all aspects of the research and how it is going to be operationalized, which can save lots of time and effort in the long run and may well also improve the research design. These principles are the same whatever

  9. Preliminary Phase Field Computational Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yulan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hu, Shenyang Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Ke [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suter, Jonathan D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McCloy, John S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Bradley R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    experiments, special experimental methods were devised to create similar boundary conditions in the iron films. Preliminary MFM studies conducted on single and polycrystalline iron films with small sub-areas created with focused ion beam have correlated quite well qualitatively with phase-field simulations. However, phase-field model dimensions are still small relative to experiments thus far. We are in the process of increasing the size of the models and decreasing specimen size so both have identical dimensions. Ongoing research is focused on validation of the phase-field model. Validation is being accomplished through comparison with experimentally obtained MFM images (in progress), and planned measurements of major hysteresis loops and first order reversal curves. Extrapolation of simulation sizes to represent a more stochastic bulk-like system will require sampling of various simulations (i.e., with single non-magnetic defect, single magnetic defect, single grain boundary, single dislocation, etc.) with distributions of input parameters. These outputs can then be compared to laboratory magnetic measurements and ultimately to simulate magnetic Barkhausen noise signals.

  10. Aberrations in preliminary design of ITER divertor impurity influx monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitazawa, Sin-iti, E-mail: kitazawa.siniti@jaea.go.jp [Naka Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, JAEA, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Ogawa, Hiroaki [Naka Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, JAEA, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Katsunuma, Atsushi; Kitazawa, Daisuke [Core Technology Center, Nikon Corporation, Yokohama 244-8533 (Japan); Ohmori, Keisuke [Customized Products Business Unit, Nikon Corporation, Mito 310-0843 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Divertor impurity influx monitor for ITER (DIM) is procured by JADA. • DIM is designed to observe light from nuclear fusion plasma directly. • DIM is under preliminary design phase. • The spot diagrams were suppressed within the core of receiving fiber. • The aberration of DIM is suppressed in the preliminary design. - Abstract: Divertor impurity influx monitor for ITER (DIM) is a diagnostic system that observes light from nuclear fusion plasma directly. This system is affected by various aberrations because it observes light from the fan-array chord near the divertor in the ultraviolet–near infrared wavelength range. The aberrations should be suppressed to the extent possible to observe the light with very high spatial resolution. In the preliminary design of DIM, spot diagrams were suppressed within the core of the receiving fiber's cross section, and the resulting spatial resolutions satisfied the design requirements.

  11. Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This report documents the activities and findings of the Phase I Preliminary Characterization of Abandoned Septic Tank Systems. The purpose of the preliminary characterization activity was to investigate the Tiger Team abandoned septic systems (tanks and associated leachfields) for the purpose of identifying waste streams for closure at a later date. The work performed was not to fully characterize or remediate the sites. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. A total of 20 sites were investigated for the preliminary characterization of identified abandoned septic systems. Of the 20 sites, 19 were located and characterized through samples collected from each tank(s) and, where applicable, associated leachfields. The abandoned septic tank systems are located in Areas 5, 12, 15, 25, and 26 on the Nevada Test Site

  12. Aberrations in preliminary design of ITER divertor impurity influx monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Sin-iti; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Katsunuma, Atsushi; Kitazawa, Daisuke; Ohmori, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Divertor impurity influx monitor for ITER (DIM) is procured by JADA. • DIM is designed to observe light from nuclear fusion plasma directly. • DIM is under preliminary design phase. • The spot diagrams were suppressed within the core of receiving fiber. • The aberration of DIM is suppressed in the preliminary design. - Abstract: Divertor impurity influx monitor for ITER (DIM) is a diagnostic system that observes light from nuclear fusion plasma directly. This system is affected by various aberrations because it observes light from the fan-array chord near the divertor in the ultraviolet–near infrared wavelength range. The aberrations should be suppressed to the extent possible to observe the light with very high spatial resolution. In the preliminary design of DIM, spot diagrams were suppressed within the core of the receiving fiber's cross section, and the resulting spatial resolutions satisfied the design requirements.

  13. Evidence-based clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Christian

    2002-01-01

    , and single clinics. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to improve this situation. Guidelines for Good Clinical (Research) Practice, conduct of more trials as multicentre trials, The Consort Statement, and The Cochrane Collaboration may all help in the application of the best research evidence in clinical......Evidence-based medicine combines the patient's preferences with clinical experience and the best research evidence. Randomized clinical trials are considered the most valid research design for evaluating health-care interventions. However, empirical research shows that intervention effects may...... practice. By investments in education, applied research, and The Cochrane Collaboration, evidence-based medicine may form a stronger basis for clinical practice....

  14. Energy Efficient Engine: Control system preliminary definition report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, David C.

    1986-01-01

    The object of the Control Preliminary Definition Program was to define a preliminary control system concept as a part of the Energy Efficient Engine program. The program was limited to a conceptual definition of a full authority digital electronic control system. System requirements were determined and a control system was conceptually defined to these requirements. Areas requiring technological development were identified and a plan was established for implementing the identified technological features, including a control technology demonstration. A significant element of this program was a study of the potential benefits of closed-loop active clearance control, along with laboratory tests of candidate clearance sensor elements for a closed loop system.

  15. The friction of polymers around Tg,Tm : Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V N; Persson, B N J

    We present Molecular Dynamics calculations involving polymers of different lengths. Polymers with lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms are considered. The systems are able to simulate friction between polymer surfaces and polymer against metal. The results we present are very preliminary and they......We present Molecular Dynamics calculations involving polymers of different lengths. Polymers with lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms are considered. The systems are able to simulate friction between polymer surfaces and polymer against metal. The results we present are very preliminary...

  16. Development and preliminary validation of the Opioid Abuse Risk Screener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Henrie-Barrus

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Prescription opioid drug abuse has reached epidemic proportions. Individuals with chronic pain represent a large population at considerable risk of abusing opioids. The Opioid Abuse Risk Screener was developed as a comprehensive self-administered measure of potential risk that includes a wide range of critical elements noted in the literature to be relevant to opioid risk. The creation, refinement, and preliminary modeling of the item pool, establishment of preliminary concurrent validity, and the determination of the factor structure are presented. The initial development and validation of the Opioid Abuse Risk Screener shows promise for effective risk stratification.

  17. Preliminary environmental site assessments in New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundy, P.; Gasson, D.R.; Longendyke, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary Environmental Site Assessments are often performed prior to real estate transactions or refinancing. These assessments are typically performed for real estate buyers, sellers and lending institutions. Undertaking a Preliminary Environmental Site Assessment in New York City can often be quite complex and time-consuming. This is due, in part, to the age and density of buildings in the city as well as the myriad of regulatory agencies with jurisdiction over environmental issues. This paper will discuss how environmental assessments are performed with a special emphasis on building in New York City. In includes hazardous wastes management for Radon, PCB's and asbestos

  18. A preliminary bending fatigue spectrum for steel monostrand cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the experimental study on the bending fatigue resistance of high-strength steel monostrand cables. From the conducted fatigue tests in the high-stress, low-cycle region, a preliminary bending fatigue spectrum is derived for the estimation of monostrand cable...... service life expectancy. The presented preliminary bending fatigue spectrum of high-strength monostrands is currently unavailable in the published literature. The presented results provide relevant information on the bending mechanism and fatigue characteristics of monostrand steel cables in tension...... and flexure and show that localized cable bending has a pronounced influence on the fatigue resistance of cables under dynamic excitations....

  19. Preliminary Validation and Verification Plan for CAREM Reactor Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fittipaldi, Ana; Maciel Felix

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper, is to present a preliminary validation and verification plan for a particular architecture proposed for the CAREM reactor protection system with software modules (computer based system).These software modules can be either own design systems or systems based in commercial modules such as programmable logic controllers (PLC) redundant of last generation.During this study, it was seen that this plan can also be used as a validation and verification plan of commercial products (COTS, commercial off the shelf) and/or smart transmitters.The software life cycle proposed and its features are presented, and also the advantages of the preliminary validation and verification plan

  20. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    A summary is given of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating systems. The analysis was made without site specific ata other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items in this report include systeem candidates, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and coolin systems for installation and operational test. Two-heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for Single Family Residences (SFR), Multi-Family Residences (MFR) and commercial applications.