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Sample records for americium nitrates

  1. The extraction of lanthanides and americium by benzyldiakylamines and benzyltrialkylammonium nitrates from the nitrate solutions; structure and aggregation of their salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedinakova, V.; Zilkova, J.; Dvorak, Z.; Vojtiskova, M.

    1982-01-01

    Benzyldialkylamine and benzyltrialkylammonium nitrates were used for the extraction of lanthanides and americium from aqueous nitrate solutions. The dependence of the extraction performance for Ln(III) and Am(III) on the concentration of nitric acid, the kind and concentration of salting-out agents in the aqueous phase, and the kind of solvent were investigated. The extraction of Am(III) is compared with the extraction of lanthanides. The difference in distribution coefficients for lanthanides and americium can be utilized for the separation of lanthanides and americium. Using vapor phase osmometry and cryoscopy the association of these compounds was measured at 5.5deg, 25deg and 37deg C, allowing rough estimates of ΔH and ΔS for the formation of the aggregates, monomers in the case of benzyldiethylamine, benzyldibutylamine, benzyldihexylamine and benzyldioctylamine, tetramers for the benzyldibutylamine nitrate and tetramers for benzyldimethyldodecylammonium nitrate. (author)

  2. Diluent and extractant effects on the enthalpy of extraction of uranium(VI) and americium(III) nitrates by trialkyl phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Sood, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of various diluents such as n-hexane, n-heptane n-octane, isooctane, n-decane, n-undecane, n-dodecane, n-tetradecane, n-hexadecane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, p-xylene, mesitylene and o-dichlorobenzene on the enthalpy of extraction of uranyl nitrate by tri-n-amyl phosphate (TAP) over the temperature range 283 K--333 K has been studied. The results indicate that the enthalpy of extraction does not vary significantly with the diluents studied. Also enthalpies of extraction of uranyl nitrate and americium(III) nitrate by neutral organo phosphorous extractants such as tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), tri-n-amyl phosphate (TAP), tri-sec-butyl phosphate (TsBP), tri-isoamyl phosphate (TiAP) and tri-n-hexyl phosphate (THP) have been studied. An attempt has been made to explain the trends, on the basis of the nature of the solvate formed and the different terms which contribute to the overall enthalpy change

  3. Status of Americium-241 recovery at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knighton, J.B.; Hagan, P.G.; Navratil, J.D.; Thompson, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is presented in two parts: Part I, Molten Salt Extraction of Americium from Molten Plutonium Metal, and Part II, Aqueous Recovery of Americium from Extraction Salts. The Rocky Flats recovery process used for waste salts includes (1) dilute hydrochloric acid dissolution of residues; (2) cation exchange to convert from the chloride to the nitrate system and to remove gross amounts of monovalent impurities; (3) anion exchange separation of plutonium; (4) oxalate precipitation of americium; and (5) calcination of the oxalate at 600 0 C to yield americium oxide. The aqueous process portion describes attempts to improve the recovery of americium. The first part deals with modifications to the cation exchange step; the second describes development of a solvent extractions process that will recovery americium from residues containing aluminium as well as other common impurities. Results of laboratory work are described. 3 figures, 6 tables. (DP)

  4. Americium separations from high salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, Mary E.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Schulte, Louis D.; Stark, Peter C.; Chamberlin, Rebecca M.; Abney, Kent D.; Ricketts, Thomas E.; Valdez, Yvette E.; Bartsch, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    Americium (III) exhibits an unexpectedly high affinity for anion-exchange material from the high-salt evaporator bottoms solutions--an effect which has not been duplicated using simple salt solutions. Similar behavior is observed for its lanthanide homologue, Nd(III), in complex evaporator bottoms surrogate solutions. There appears to be no single controlling factor--acid concentration, total nitrate concentration or solution ionic strength--which accounts for the approximately 2-fold increase in retention of the trivalent ions from complex solutions relative to simple solutions. Calculation of species activities (i.e., water, proton and nitrate) in such concentrated mixed salt solutions is difficult and of questionable accuracy, but it is likely that the answer to forcing formation of anionic nitrate complexes of americium lies in the relative activities of water and nitrate. From a practical viewpoint, the modest americium removal needs (ca. 50--75%) from nitric acid evaporator bottoms allow sufficient latitude for the use of non-optimized conditions such as running existing columns filled with older, well-used Reillex HPQ. Newer materials, such as HPQ-100 and the experimental bifunctional resins, which exhibit higher distribution coefficients, would allow for either increased Am removal or the use of smaller columns. It is also of interest that one of the experimental neutral-donor solid-support extractants, DHDECMP, exhibits a similarly high level of americium (total alpha) removal from EV bottoms and is much less sensitive to total acid content than commercially-available material

  5. Americium removal from nitric acid waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscatello, A.C.; Navratil, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Separations research at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) has found ways to significantly improve americium removal from nitric acid (7M) waste streams generated by plutonium purification operations. Partial neutralization of the acid waste followed by solid supported liquid membranes (SLM) are useful in transferring and concentrating americium from nitrate solutions. Specifically, DHDECMP (dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate) supported on Accurel polypropylene hollow fibers assembled in modular form transfers >95% of the americium from high nitrate (6.9M), low acid (0.1M) feeds into 0.25M oxalic acid stripping solution. Maximum permeabilities were observed to be 0.001 cm/sec, consistent with typical values for other systems. The feed:strip volume ratio shows an inverse relationship to the fraction of metal ion transferred. Cation exchangers may be used to concentrate americium from the strip solution. Furthermore, O0D (iB)CMPO (or CMPO) (octylphenyl-N-N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide) has been tested in an extraction chromatography mode. Preliminary results show CMPO to be effective in removing americium if the feed is neutralized to 1.0M acidity and iron(III) is complexed with 0.20M oxalic acid. 3 figs

  6. Americium recovery from reduction residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, W.V.; Proctor, S.G.

    1973-12-25

    A process for separation and recovery of americium values from container or bomb'' reduction residues comprising dissolving the residues in a suitable acid, adjusting the hydrogen ion concentration to a desired level by adding a base, precipitating the americium as americium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, digesting the solution, separating the precipitate, and thereafter calcining the americium oxalate precipitate to form americium oxide. (Official Gazette)

  7. Accidental exposure to americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heid, K.R.

    1985-04-01

    This report desribes an accident in which a 64-year old Hanford nuclear worker was exposed to high levels of americium while working in an americium recovery facility in 1976. As a result of the accident, he was heavily externally contaminated with americium, sustained with a substantial internal deposition of this isotope, and was burned with concentrated nitric acid and injured by flying debris about the face and neck. The immediate and longer-term treatment given the patient, including the decontamination efforts and clinical laboratory studies, are discussed. Special in-vivo equipment and techniques were used to measure the americium deposited in the patient. These and subsequent in-vivo measurements were used to estimate the dose rates and the accumulated doses to body organs. Urinary and fecal excreta were collected and analyzed for americium content. The interpretation of these data was complicated by the fact that the intake resulted both from inhalation and from solubilization of the americium embedded in facial tissues as a result of the accident. A total of 1100 μCi was excreted in urine and feces during the first 2 years following the accident. The long-term use of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), used principally as the zinc salt, is discussed including the method, route of administration, and effectiveness. To date, the patient has apparently experienced no complications attributable to this extensive course of therapy, even though he was given approximately 560 g of DTPA. 6 refs

  8. Supported extractant membranes for americium and plutonium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscatello, A.C.; Navratil, J.D.; Killion, M.E.; Price, M.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Solid supported liquid membranes(SLM) are useful in transferring and concentrating americium and plutonium from nitrate solutions. Specifically, DHDECMP(dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate) supported on Accurel or Celgard polypropylene hollow fibers assembled in modular form transfers >95% of the americium and >70% of the plutonium from high nitrate (6.9 M), low acid (0.1 M) feeds into 0.25 M oxalic acid stripping solution. Membranes supporting TBP (tri-n-butylphosphate) also transfer these metal ions. Maximum permeabilities were observed to be 1 x 10 -3 cm sec -1 , similar to the values for other systems. The feed:strip volume ratio shows an inverse relationship to the fraction of metal ion transferred. Cation exchangers may be used to concentrate americium from the strip solution

  9. Determination of americium in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvydko, N.S.; Mikhajlova, O.A.; Popov, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the determination of americium 241 in urine by a raiochemical purification of the nuclide from uranium (upon co-precipitation of americium 241 with calcium and lanthanum), plutonium, thorum, and polonium 210 (upon co-precipitation of these radionuclides with zirconium iodate). α-Radioactivity was measured either in a thick layer of the americium 241 precipitate with a nonisotope carrier or in thin-layer preparations after electrolytic precipitation of americium 241 on a cathode

  10. Chemistry of americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1976-01-01

    Essential features of the descriptive chemistry of americium are reviewed. Chapter titles are: discovery, atomic and nuclear properties, collateral reading, production and uses, chemistry in aqueous solution, metal, alloys, and compounds, and, recovery, separation, purification. Author and subject indexes are included. (JCB)

  11. 1976 Hanford americium accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heid, K.R.; Breitenstein, B.D.; Palmer, H.E.; McMurray, B.J.; Wald, N.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the 2.5-year medical course of a 64-year-old Hanford nuclear chemical operator who was involved in an accident in an americium recovery facility in August 1976. He was heavily externally contaminated with americium, sustained a substantial internal deposition of this isotope, and was burned with concentrated nitric acid and injured by flying debris about the face and neck. The medical care given the patient, including the decontamination efforts and clinical laboratory studies, are discussed. In-vivo measurements were used to estimate the dose rates and the accumulated doses to body organs. Urinary and fecal excreta were collected and analyzed for americium content. Interpretation of these data was complicated by the fact that the intake resulted both from inhalation and from solubilization of the americium embedded in facial tissues. A total of 1100 μCi was excreted in urine and feces during the first 2 years following the accident. The long-term use of diethylenetriaminepentate (DTPA), used principally as the zinc salt, is discussed including the method, route of administration, and effectiveness. To date, the patient has apparently experienced no complications attributable to this extensive course of therapy, even though he has been given approximately 560 grams of DTPA. 4 figures, 1 table

  12. On the americium oxalate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakolupin, S.A.; Korablin, Eh.V.

    1977-01-01

    The americium oxalate solubility at different nitric (0.0-1 M) and oxalic (0.0-0.4 M) acid concentrations was investigated in the temperature range from 14 to 60 deg C. The dependence of americium oxalate solubility on the oxalic acid concentration was determined. Increasing oxalic acid concentration was found to reduce the americium oxalate solubility. The dependence of americium oxalate solubility on the oxalic acid concentration was noted to be a minimum at low acidity (0.1-0.3 M nitric acid). This is most likely due to Am(C 2 O 4 ) + , Am(C 2 O 4 ) 2 - and Am(C 2 O 4 ) 3 3- complex ion formation which have different unstability constants. On the basis of the data obtained, a preliminary estimate was carried out for the product of americium oxalate solubility in nitric acid medium (10 -29 -10 -31 ) and of the one in water (6.4x10 -20 )

  13. Recycling of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagstroem, Ingela

    1999-12-01

    Separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel is a part of the process of recycling fissile material. Extracting agents for partitioning the high level liquid waste (HLLW) from conventional PUREX reprocessing is studied. The CTH-process is based on three consecutive extraction cycles. In the first cycle protactinium, uranium, neptunium and plutonium are removed by extraction with di-2-ethylhexyl-phosphoric acid (HDEHP) from a 6 M nitric acid HLLW solution. Distribution ratios for actinides, fission products and corrosion products between HLLW and 1 M HDEHP in an aliphatic diluent have been investigated. To avoid addition of chemicals the acidity is reduced by a tributylphosphate (TBP) extraction cycle. The distribution ratios of elements present in HLLW have been measured between 50 % TBP in an aliphatic diluent and synthetic HLLW in range 0.1-6 M nitric acid. In the third extraction cycle americium and curium are extracted. To separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides a method based on selective stripping of the actinides from 1 M HDEHP is proposed. The aqueous phase containing ammonia, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and lactic acid is recycled in a closed loop after reextraction of the actinides into a second organic phase also containing 1 M HDEHP. Distribution ratios for americium and neodymium have been measured at varying DTPA and lactic acid concentrations and at varying pH. Nitrogen-donor reagents have been shown to have a potential to separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides. 2,2':6,2''-terpyridine as extractant follows the CHON-principle and can in synergy with 2-bromodecanoic acid separate americium from europium. Distribution ratios for americium and europium, in the range of 0.02-0.12 M nitric acid, between nitric acid and 0.02 M terpyridine with 1 M 2-bromodecanoic acid in tert-butylbenzene (TBB) was investigated. Comparison with other nitrogen-donor reagents show that increasing lipophilicity of the molecule, by substitution of

  14. Americium-241 - ED 4308

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, M.; Frot, P.; Gambini, D.; Gauron, C.; Moureaux, P.; Herbelet, G.; Lahaye, T.; Le Guen, B.; Pihet, P.; Rannou, A.; Vidal, E.

    2012-12-01

    This sheet presents the characteristics of Americium-241, its origin, and its radio-physical and biological properties. It briefly describes its use in nuclear medicine. It indicates its dosimetric parameters for external exposure, cutaneous contamination, and internal exposure due to acute contamination or to chronic contamination. It indicates and comments the various exposure control techniques: ambient dose rate measurement, surface contamination measurement, atmosphere contamination. It addresses the means of protection: premise design, protection against external exposure and against internal exposure. It describes how areas are delimited and controlled within the premises: regulatory areas, controls to be performed. It addresses the personnel classification, training and medical survey. It addresses the issue of wastes and effluents. It briefly recalls the administrative procedures related to the authorization and declaration of possession and use of sealed and unsealed sources. It indicates regulatory aspects related to the road transport of Americium-241, describes what is to be done in case of incident or accident (for the different types of contamination or exposure)

  15. Study of the electrochemical oxidation of Am with lacunary heteropolyanions and silver nitrate; Etude de l'oxydation electrochimique de l'americium en presence d'heteropolyanions lacunaires et de nitrate d'argent en milieu aqueux acide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartier, D

    1999-07-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of Am(III) with certain lacunary heteropolyanions (LHPA {alpha}{sub 2}-P{sub 2}W{sub 17}O{sub 61}{sup 10-} or {alpha}SiW{sub 11}O{sub 39}{sup 8-}) and silver nitrate is an efficient way to prepare Am(VI). This document presents bibliographic data and an experimental study of the process. Thus, it has been established that Am(IV) is an intermediate species in the reaction and occurs in 1:1 (Amt{sup IV}LHPA) or 1:2 (Am {sup IV}(LHAP){sub 2}) complexes with the relevant LHPA. These 1:1 complexes of Am(IV) have been identified and isolated in this work whereas 1:2 complexes were known from previous studies. The reactivity of these complexes in oxidation shows that 1:1 complexes of Am(IV) are oxidised much more quickly than 1:2 complexes. Apparent stability constants of Am(III) and Am(IV) complexes with the relevant LHPA have been measured for a 1 M nitric acid medium. Thermodynamic data of the reaction are then assessed: redox potentials of Am pairs are computed for a 1 M nitric acid medium containing various amount of LHPA ligands. Those results show that the role of LHPA is to stabilize the intermediate species Am(IV) by lowering the Am(IV)/Am(III) pair potential of about 1 Volt. Nevertheless, if this stabilisation is too strong (i.e. of tungsto-silicate), the oxidation of Am(IV) requires high anodic potential (more than 2 V/ENH). Then, the faradic yield of the oxidation of americium is poor because of water oxidation. This study has also shown that the main role of silver is to catalyze the electrochemical oxidation of Am{sup IV}(LHPA){sub X} complexes. Indeed, these oxidations without silver are extremely slow. An oxygen tracer experiment has been performed during the oxidation of Am(III) in Am(VI). It has been shown that the oxygen atoms of Am(VI) (AMO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) come from water molecules of the solvent and not from the complexing oxygen atoms of the ligands. (author)

  16. Americium product solidification and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.; Campbell, D.O.; Bell, J.T.; Collins, E.D.

    1987-01-01

    The americium product from the TRUEX processing plant needs to be converted into a form suitable for ultimate disposal. An evaluation of the disposal based on safety, number of process steps, demonstrated operability of the processes, production of low-level alpha waste streams, and simplicity of maintenance with low radiation exposures to personnel during maintenance, has been made. The best process is to load the americium on a cation exchange resin followed by calcination or oxidation of the resin after loading

  17. Americium in the Finnish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehto, J. (Helsinki Univ., Lab. of Radiochemistry (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    This paper reviews studies on environmental americium,241 Am, in Finland. There are two sources of americium in the Finnish environment: fallouts from nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s and from the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the former constituting around 98% of the total environmental load. The weapons test fallout was distributed more or less uniformly over Finland, while the Chernobyl fallout was deposited on a sector from southwestern coast to northeast. The total deposition of 241 Am in Finland is approximately 20 Bq m-2 and the amount is still somewhat increasing due to decay of 241 Pu. In this paper, the distribution and migration of americium in forest and aquatic environments is described. Americium concentrations in natural waters, sediments, soils, vegetation and fishes are given. In addition, the behaviour of americium in the food chain from lichen via reindeer into man is discussed. Radiation doses to humans due to the environmental americium in Finland are of no practical importance (orig.)

  18. Americium Separations from High-Salt Solutions Using Anion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, Mary E.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Stark, Peter C.; Chamberlin, Rebecca M.; Bartsch, Richard A.; Zhang, Z.Y.; Zhao, W.

    2001-01-01

    The aging of the US nuclear stockpile presents a number of challenges, including the increasing radioactivity of plutonium residues due to the ingrowth of 241 Am from the β-decay of 241 Pu. We investigated parameters that affect the sorption of Am onto anion-exchange resins from concentrated effluents derived from nitric acid processing of plutonium residues. These postevaporator wastes are nearly saturated solutions of acidic nitrate salts, and americium removal is complicated by physical factors, such as solution viscosity and particulates, as well as by the presence of large quantities of competing metals and acid. Single- and double-contact batch distribution coefficients for americium and neodymium from simple and complex surrogate solutions are presented. Varied parameters include the nitrate salt concentration and composition and the nitric acid concentration. We find that under these extremely concentrated conditions, Am(III) removal efficiencies can surpass 50% per contact. Distribution coefficients for both neodymium and americium are insensitive to solution acidity and appear to be driven primarily by low water activities of the solutions

  19. Plutonium and americium separation from salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, P.G.; Miner, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Salts or materials containing plutonium and americium are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, heated, and contacted with an alkali metal carbonate solution to precipitate plutonium and americium carbonates which are thereafter readily separable from the solution

  20. Isolation of high purity americium metal via distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Leah N.; King, James A.; Fielding, Randall S.; Lessing, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Pure americium metal is a crucial component for the fabrication of transmutation fuels. Unfortunately, americium in pure metal form is not available; however, a number of mixed metals and mixed oxides that include americium are available. In this manuscript a method is described to obtain high purity americium metal from a mixture of americium and neptunium metals with lead impurity via distillation.

  1. Higher Americium Oxidation State Research Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincher, Bruce J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Law, Jack D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Goff, George S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shehee, Thomas C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hobbs, David T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-18

    -solvent-extraction separations are also under investigation. The first would separate Am(VI) by co-crystallization with uranium and the other oxidizable actinides as their nitrate salts. This novel idea has been successful in lab scale testing, and merits further investigation. Similarly, success has been achieved in separations using inorganic or hybrid ion exchange materials to sorb the lanthanides and actinides, while allowing pentavalent americium to elute. This is the only technique currently investigating Am(V), despite the advantages of this oxidation state with regard to its higher stability. The ultimate destination for this roadmap is to develop an americium separation that can be applied under process conditions, preferably affording a co-separation of the actinyl (VI) ions. Toward that end, emphasis is given here to selection of a solvent extraction flowsheet for testing in the INL centrifugal contactor hot test bed during FY16. A solvent extraction process will be tested mainly because solvent extraction separations of Am(VI) are relatively mature and the test bed currently exists in a configuration to support them. Thus, a major goal of FY16 is to select the oxidant/ligand combination to run such a test using the contactors. The only ligands under consideration are DAAP and DEHBA. This is not to say that ion exchange and co-crystallization techniques are unimportant. They merit continued investigation, but are not mature enough for hot test bed testing at this time.

  2. Transmutation of Americium in Fast Neutron Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Youpeng

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, the feasibility to use a medium sized sodium cooled fast reactor fully loaded with MOX fuel for efficient transmutation of americium is investigated by simulating the safety performance of a BN600-type fast reactor loaded with different fractions of americium in the fuel, using the safety parameters obtained with the SERPENT Monte Carlo code. The focus is on americium mainly due to its long-term contribution to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel and its deterioration on c...

  3. Analysis of Americium in Transplutonium Process Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    One of the more difficult analyses in the transplutonium field is the determination of americium at trace levels in a complex matrix such as a process dissolver solution. Because of these conditions a highly selective separation must precede the measurement of americium. The separation technique should be mechanically simple to permit remote operation with master-slave manipulators. For subsequent americium measurement by the mass spectroscopic isotopic-dilution technique, plutonium and curium interferences must also have been removed

  4. Metabolism of americium-241 in dairy animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, W.W.; Patzer, R.G.; Mullen, A.A.; Hahn, P.B.; Potter, G.D.

    1978-10-01

    Groups of lactating cows and goats were used to examine americium-241 metabolism in dairy animals. Following either single oral or intravenous nuclide doses, samples of milk, urine, blood, and feces were taken over a 168-hr collection period and the americium concentrations were determined by gamma counting. Gastrointestinal uptake of americium by both cows and goats was estimated to be 0.014% of the respective oral doses. The cumulative percentage of oral dose transported to milk and urine was 4.4 x 10 -4 and 1.1 x 10 -3 respectively for cows and 4.4 x 10 -3 and 1.2 x 10 -3 respectively for goats. The relatively high americium concentrations noted in caprine milk following the oral doses are discussed. Plasma concentrations of americium decreased rapidly following all intravenous injections. The average percentage of injected americium transferred to milk, urine, and feces was 3, 6, and 2% respectively for cows and 2, 4, and 2% respectively for goats. In both intravenously dosed groups, approximately 30% of all americium released from the body was found in the urine during the first 24 hrs after injection. All animals were sacrificed 8 to 9 days after dosing. Bovine bone retained the greatest fraction of the administered dose followed by the liver. However, liver retained the greatest amount of americium in the goats following both oral and intravenous doses. Comparisons are presented between americium-241 and plutonium-238 transport in dairy cows

  5. Metabolism of americium-241 in dairy animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, W.W.; Patzer, R.G.; Mullen, A.A.; Hahn, P.B.; Potter, G.D.

    1978-01-01

    Groups of lactating cows and goats were used to examine americium-241 metabolism in dairy animals. Following either single oral or intravenous nuclide doses, samples of milk, urine, blood, and feces were taken over a 168-hour collection period, and the americium concentrations were determined by gamma counting. Gastrointestinal uptake of americium by cows and goats was estimated to be 0.014 and 0.016% of the oral dose, respectively. The cumulative percentage of oral dose transported to milk and urine was 4.4 x 10 -4 and 1.1 x 10 -3 , respectively, for cows and 5.6 x 10 -4 and 1.2 x 10 -3 , respectively, for goats. Plasma concentrations of americium decreased rapidly following all intravenous injections. The average percentage of injected americium transferred to milk, urine, and feces was 3, 6, and 2%, respectively, for cows, and 2, 4, and 2%, respectively, for goats. In both intravenously dosed groups, approximately 30% of all americium released from the body was found in the urine during the first 24 hours after injection. All animals were sacrificed 8 to 9 days after dosing. Bovine bone retained the greatest fraction of the administered dose followed by liver and kidney. However, liver retained the greatest amount of americium in the goats following both oral and intravenous doses. Comparisons are presented between americium-241 and plutonium-238 transport in dairy cows

  6. Quantitative determination of americium and curium in solutions using potassium tungstophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chistyakov, V.M.; Baranov, A.A.; Erin, E.A.; Timoaeev, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Two methods of americium (4) and curium (4) titration-replacement and redox ones - have been considered. According to the replacement method thorium nitrate solution was used as a titrant and the final point of titration was determined spectophotometrically. Using the method developed, on the basis of experimental data, the composition of thorium (4) complex with potassium tungstophosphate was determined. In case of the redox titration sodium nitrite was used, and the final titration point was indicated either spectrophotometrically or potentiometrically

  7. Production of americium isotopes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehly, G.; Bourges, J.; Madic, C.; Nguyen, T.H.; Lecomte, M.

    1984-12-01

    The program of productions of americium 241 and 243 isotopes is based respectively on the retreatment of aged plutonium alloys or plutonium dioxide and on the treatment of plutonium targets irradiated either in CELESTIN reactors for Pu-Al alloys or OSIRIS reactor for plutonium 242 dioxide. All the operations, including americium final purifications, are carried out in hot cells equipped with remote manipulators. The chemical processes are based on the use of extraction chromatography with hydrophobic SiO 2 impregnated with extracting agents. Plutonium targets and aged plutonium alloys are dissolved in nitric acid using conventional techniques while plutonium dioxide dissolutions are performed routine at 300 grams scale with electrogenerated silver II in 4M HNO 3 at room temperature. The separation between plutonium and americium is performed by extraction of Pu(IV) either on TBP/SiO 2 or TOAHNO 3 /SiO 2 column. Americium recovery from waste streams rid of plutonium is realized by chromatographic extraction of Am(III) using mainly TBP and episodically DHDECMP as extractant. The final purification of both americium isotopes uses the selective extraction of Am(VI) on HDDiBMP/SiO 2 column at 60 grams scale. Using the overall process a total amount of 1000 grams of americium 241 and 100 grams of americium 243 has been produced nowadays and the AmO 2 final product indicates a purity better than 98.5%

  8. Plutonium-239 and americium-241 uptake by plants from soil. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.W.

    1979-03-01

    Alfalfa was grown in soil contaminated with plutonium-239 dioxide (239PuO2) at a concentration of 29.7 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g). In addition to alfalfa, radishes, wheat, rye, and tomatoes were grown in soils contaminated with americium-241 nitrate (241Am(NO3)3) at a concentration of 189 nCi/g. The length of exposure varied from 52 days for the radishes to 237 days for the alfalfa. The magnitude of plutonium incorporation by the alfalfa as indicated by the concentration ratio, 0.0000025, was similar to previously reported data using other chemical forms of plutonium. The results did indicate, however, that differences in the biological availability of plutonium isotopes do exist. All of the species exposed to americium-241 assimilated and translocated this radioisotope to the stem, leaf, and fruiting structures. The magnitude of incorporation as signified by the concentration ratios varied from 0.00001 for the wheat grass to 0.0152 for the radishes. An increase in the uptake of americium also occurred as a function of time for four of the five plant species. Evidence indicates that the predominant factor in plutonium and americium uptake by plants may involve the chelation of these elements in soils by the action of compounds such as citric acid and/or other similar chelating agents released from plant roots

  9. Contributions to the preparation of 241americium metal and a few 241americium silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmann, F.D.

    1980-01-01

    In order to take a closer look at the americium-silicon system, three further silicides of americium: Am 5 Si 3 , Am 2 Si 3 and AmSi 2 were prepared in addition to the already known americium monosilicide and starting from the knowledge gained from the latters preparation. Radiographic investigations were carried out into the temperature region of 900 0 C. They showed no change of structure in the three compounds. It was possible to prepare residue-free americium metal by reducing AmF 3 with Si, whereby the SiF 4 formed can be easily separated off as volatile compound, and the Am metal is brought into a very pure form by sublimation suitable for spectrochemical investigations. Attempts to prepare binary germanides and gallides of 241 americium were unsuccessful. (RB) [de

  10. Americium thermodynamic data for the EQ3/6 database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-07-01

    Existing thermodynamic data for aqueous and solid species of americium have been reviewed and collected in a form that can be used with the EQ3/6 database. Data that are important in solubility calculations for americium at a proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository were emphasized. Conflicting data exist for americium complexes with carbonates. Essentially no data are available for americium solids or complexes at temperatures greater than 25 0 C. 17 references, 4 figures

  11. Standard test method for quantitative determination of americium 241 in plutonium by Gamma-Ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of americium 241 by gamma-ray spectrometry in plutonium nitrate solution samples that do not contain significant amounts of radioactive fission products or other high specific activity gamma-ray emitters. 1.2 This test method can be used to determine the americium 241 in samples of plutonium metal, oxide and other solid forms, when the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  13. Formation of americium and europium humate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minai, Y.; Tominaga, T.; Meguro, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Binding constants of americium and europium with a humic acid were determined to study if complex formation of trivalent actinide-humates affects dissolved species of the actinides in hydrosphere. The purified humic acid was characterized by means of UV-vis, IR, and pH titration, indicating high carboxylate capacity and low aromaticity. Binding constants of americium and europium humates were determined at pH 4.6 and 6.0 by solvent extraction using 241 Am or 152 Eu as a tracer. The binding constants for americium-humate obtained preliminarily suggest that complexes with humic acid are not negligible in speciation of trivalent actinides in hydrosphere. The obtained binding constants were nearly identical with those determined previously by the same procedures, but with humic acids of different origin and compositions. (author)

  14. Biosorption of americium by alginate beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borba, Tania Regina de; Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Goes, Marcos Maciel de; Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Sakata, Solange Kazumi

    2009-01-01

    The use of biotechnology to remove heavy metals from wastes plays great potential in treatment of radioactive wastes and therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the biosorption of americium by alginate beads. Biosorption has been defined as the property of certain biomolecules to bind and remove selected ions or other molecules from aqueous solutions. The calcium alginate beads as biosorbent were prepared and analyzed for americium uptaking. The experiments were performed in different solution activity concentrations, pH and exposure time. The results suggest that biosorption process is more efficient at pH 4 and for 75, 150, 300 Bq/mL and 120 minutes were necessary to remove almost 100% of the americium-241 from the solution. (author)

  15. Transmutation of Americium in Fast Neutron Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youpeng

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, the feasibility to use a medium sized sodium cooled fast reactor fully loaded with MOX fuel for efficient transmutation of americium is investigated by simulating the safety performance of a BN600-type fast reactor loaded with different fractions of americium in the fuel, using the safety parameters obtained with the SERPENT Monte Carlo code. The focus is on americium mainly due to its long-term contribution to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel and its deterioration on core's safety parameters. Applying the SAS4A/SASSYS transient analysis code, it is demonstrated that the power rating needs to be reduced by 6% for each percent additional americium introduction into the reference MOX fuel, maintaining 100 K margin to fuel melting, which is the most limiting failure mechanism. Safety analysis of a new Accelerator Driven System design with a smaller pin pitch-to-diameter ratio comparing to the reference EFIT-400 design, aiming at improving neutron source efficiency, was also performed by simulating performance for unprotected loss of flow, unprotected transient overpower, and protected loss-of-heat-sink transients, using neutronic parameters obtained from MCNP calculations. Thanks to the introduction of the austenitic 15/15Ti stainless steel with enhanced creep rupture resistance and acceptable irradiation swelling rate, the suggested ADS design loaded with nitride fuel and cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic could survive the full set of transients, preserving a margin of 130 K to cladding rupture during the most limiting transient. The thesis concludes that efficient transmutation of americium in a medium sized sodium cooled fast reactor loaded with MOX fuel is possible but leads to a severe power penalty. Instead, preserving transmutation rates of minor actinides up to 42 kg/TWh th , the suggested ADS design with enhanced proton source efficiency appears like a better option for americium transmutation

  16. Solubility of Plutonium (IV) Oxalate During Americium/Curium Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    ay of plutonium-241) in the dissolved precipitate, a value consistent with the recovery of europium, the americium surrogate.In a subsequent experiment, the plutonium solubility following an oxalate precipitation to simulate the preparation of a slurry feed for a batch melter was 21 mg/mL at 35 degrees C. The increase in solubility compared to the value measured during the pretreatment experiment was attributed to the increased nitrate concentration and ensuing increase in plutonium complexation. The solubility of the plutonium following a precipitant wash with 0.1M oxalic acid was unchanged. The recovery of plutonium from the precipitate slurry was greater than 97 percent allowing an estimation that approximately 92 percent of the plutonium in Tank 17.1 will report to the glass. The behavior of the lanthanides and soluble metal impurities was consistent with the behavior seen during the pretreatment experiment. A trace level material balance showed that 99.9 percent of the americium w as recovered from the precipitate slurry. The overall recovery of americium from the pretreatment and feed preparation processes was greater than 97 percent, which was consistent with the measured recovery of the europium surrogate

  17. Preparation of americium source for smoke detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaswami, A.; Singh, R.J.; Manohar, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the method developed for the preparation of 241 Am source for smoke detector. Americium was electrodeposited from iso-propyl alcohol medium on silver backing. Thin layer of gold (few hundred micro gram thick) was plated on the americium source to make it safe for handling. The thickness of plated gold was such that the alpha radiations from the 241 Am source could escape out of the gold layer and cause ionisation in the surrounding air. The performance of the prepared sources were checked in a smoke detector and was found to be satisfactory and comparable to the imported sources. (author). 1 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. Redox chemistry of americium in nitric acid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picart, S.; Jobelin, I.; Armengol, G.; Adnet, JM

    2004-07-01

    The redox properties of the actinides are very important parameters for speciation studies and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing based on liquid-liquid extraction of actinides at different oxidation states (as in the Purex or Sesame process). They are also very useful for developing analytical tools including coulometry and redox titration. This study addressed the americium(IV)/americium(III) and americium(VI)/americium(V) redox couples, focusing on exhaustive acquisition of the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of americium oxidation at an electrode in a complexing nitric acid medium. (authors)

  19. Redox chemistry of americium in nitric acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picart, S.; Jobelin, I.; Armengol, G.; Adnet, JM.

    2004-01-01

    The redox properties of the actinides are very important parameters for speciation studies and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing based on liquid-liquid extraction of actinides at different oxidation states (as in the Purex or Sesame process). They are also very useful for developing analytical tools including coulometry and redox titration. This study addressed the americium(IV)/americium(III) and americium(VI)/americium(V) redox couples, focusing on exhaustive acquisition of the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of americium oxidation at an electrode in a complexing nitric acid medium. (authors)

  20. Differential nitrate accumulation, nitrate reduction, nitrate reductase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the effects of potassium nitrate were higher than sodium nitrate, which was due to the positive effects of potassium on the enzyme activity, sugars transport, water and nutrient transport, protein synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. In conclusion, potassium nitrate has better effect on the nitrate assimilatory ...

  1. 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident: psychological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Accidents involving exposure to radiation or radioactive materials may involve an unusual degree of emotional trauma. Methods that may be employed in dealing with such trauma are discussed in relation to a specific accident in which a radiation worker was injured and seriously contaminated with americium-241

  2. Transmutation of americium in critical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenius, J.

    2005-01-01

    Already in 1974, a Los Alamos report suggested that the recycling of higher actinides would be detrimental for the safety of critical reactors. Later investigations confirmed this understanding, and stringent limits on the fraction of minor actinides allowed to be present in the fuel of fast neutron reactors were established. In recent years, and in particular in connection with the generation IV initiative, it has been advocated that recycling of americium in critical reactors is not only feasible, but also a recommendable approach. In the present contribution, it is shown, to the contrary, that introduction of americium into reactors with uranium based fuels deteriorates the safety margin of these reactors to a degree that will not allow consumption of the americium sources present in any economically competitive nuclear fuel cycle. Further, it is shown that uranium and thorium free cores with plutonium based fuels may be designed, that features excellent safety characteristics, as long as americium is not present in the feed. Hence, a closed fuel cycle is suggested, that consists of commercial power production in light water reactors, plutonium burning in uranium and thorium free fast neutron critical reactors, and higher actinide consumption in accelerator driven systems with inert matrix fuel. It is argued that such a fuel cycle (being a refinement of the Double Strata fuel cycle proposed by JAERI and further developed by M. Salvatores) provides a minimum cost penalty for implementing P and T under realistic boundary conditions. (author)

  3. Decontaminaion of metals containing plutonium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.; Gerding, T.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1979-06-01

    Melt-slagging (melt-refining) techniques were evaluated as a decontamination and consolidation step for metals contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium. Experiments were performed in which mild steel, stainless steel, and nickel contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium were melted in the presence of silicate slags of various compositions. The metal products were low in contamination, with the plutonium and americium strongly fractionated to the slags. Partition coefficients (plutonium in slag/plutonium in steel) of 7 x 10 6 were measured with boro-silicate slag and of 3 x 10 6 with calcium, magnesium silicate slag. Decontamination of metals containing as much as 14,000 ppM plutonium appears to be as efficient as for metals with plutonium levels of 400 ppM. Staged extraction, that is, a remelting of processed metal with clean slag, results in further decontamination of the metal. The second extraction is effective with either resistance-furnace melting or electric-arc melting. Slag adhering to the metal ingots and in defects within the ingots is in the important contributors to plutonium retained in processed metals. If these sources of plutonium are controlled, the melt-refining process can be used on a large scale to convert highly contaminated metals to homogeneous and compact forms with very low concentrations of plutonium and americium. A conceptual design of a melt-refining process to decontaminate plutonium- and americium-contaminated metals is described. The process includes single-stage refining of contaminated metals to produce a metal product which would have less than 10 nCi/g of TRU-element contamination. Two plant sizes were considered. The smaller conceptual plant processes 77 kg of metal per 8-h period and may be portable.The larger one processes 140 kg of metal per 8-h period, is stationary, and may be near te maximum size that is practical for a metal decontamination process

  4. Americium migration in basalt and implications to repository risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickert, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were performed with americium as a minor component in groundwater. Batch adsorption, migration through column, and filtration experiments were performed. It was determined in batch experiments that americium is strongly adsorbed from solution. It was determined with filtration experiments that large percentages of the americium concentrations suspended by the contact solutions in batch experiments and suspended by the infiltrating groundwater in migration experiments were associated with particulate. Filtration was determined to be the primary mode of removal of americium from infiltrating groundwater in a column of granulated basalt (20 to 50 mesh) and an intact core of permeable basalt. Fractionally, 0.46 and 0.22 of the americium component in the infiltrating groundwater was transported through the column and core respectively. In view of these filtration and migration experiment results, the concept of K/sub d/ in the chromatographic sense is meaningless for predicting americium migration in bedrock by groundwater transport at near neutral pH

  5. Procedure for the analysis of americium in complex matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knab, D.

    1978-02-01

    A radioanalytical procedure for the analysis of americium in complex matrices has been developed. Clean separations of americium can be obtained from up to 100 g of sample ash, regardless of the starting material. The ability to analyze large masses of material provides the increased sensitivity necessary to detect americium in many environmental samples. The procedure adequately decontaminates from rare earth elements and natural radioactive nuclides that interfere with the alpha spectrometric measurements

  6. Recovery and purification of americium from molten salt extraction residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Martella, L.L.; Thompson, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Americium recovery and purification development at Rocky Flats involves the testing of a combined anion exchange - bidentate organophosphorus liquid - liquid extraction or extraction chromatography process for separating americium from molten salt extraction residues. Laboratory-scale and preliminary pilot-plant results have shown that americium can be effectively recovered and purified from impurity elements such as aluminum, calcium, magnesium, plutonium, potassium, sodium, and zinc. The purified americium oxide product from the liquid - liquid extraction process contained greater than 95% AmO 2 with less than 1% of any individual impurity element

  7. Investigation of americium-241 metal alloys for target applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.; Rockwell International Corp., Golden, CO

    1982-01-01

    Several 241 Am metal alloys have been investigated for possible use in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Radiochemical Diagnostic Tracer Program. Several properties were desired for an alloy to be useful for tracer program applications. A suitable alloy would have a fairly high density, be ductile, homogeneous and easy to prepare. Alloys investigated have included uranium-americium, aluminium-americium, and cerium-americium. Uranium-americium alloys with the desired properties proved to be difficult to prepare, and work with this alloy was discontinued. Aluminium-americium alloys were much easier to prepare, but the alloy consisted of an aluminium-americium intermetallic compound (AmAl 4 ) in an aluminum matrix. This alloy could be cast and formed into shapes, but the low density of aluminum, and other problems, made the alloy unsuitable for the intended application. Americium metal was found to have a high solid solubility in cerium and alloys prepared from these two elements exhibited all of the properties desired for the tracer program application. Cerium-americium alloys containing up to 34 wt% americium have been prepared using both co-melting and co-reduction techniques. The latter technique involves co-reduction of cerium tetrafluoride and americium tetrafluoride with calcium metal in a sealed reduction vessel. Casting techniques have been developed for preparing up to eight 2.2 cm (0.87 in) diameter disks in a single casting, and cerium-americium metal alloy disks containing from 10 to 25 wt% 241 Am have been prepared using these techniques. (orig.)

  8. Investigation of factors affecting the quality of americium electroplating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trdin, M; Benedik, L; Samardžija, Z; Pihlar, B

    2012-09-01

    Four different electrolyte solutions were used in the electrodeposition of americium and their influences on the quality of the thin layer of deposited americium isotopes in combination with three different cathode disc materials were investigated. The relations between alpha spectral resolution and disc surface properties were established. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Americium/curium bushing melter drain tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.E.; Hardy, B.J.; Smith, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    Americium and curium were produced in the past at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for research, medical, and radiological applications. They have been stored in a nitric acid solution in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years. Vitrification of the americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution will allow the material to be safely stored or transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. Oak Ridge is responsible for marketing radionuclides for research and medical applications. The bushing melter technology being used in the Am/Cm vitrification research work is also under consideration for the stabilization of other actinides such as neptunium and plutonium. A series of melter drain tests were conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center to determine the relationship between the drain tube assembly operating variables and the resulting pour initiation times, glass flowrates, drain tube temperatures, and stop pour times. Performance criteria such as ability to start and stop pours in a controlled manner were also evaluated. The tests were also intended to provide support of oil modeling of drain tube performance predictions and thermal modeling of the drain tube and drain tube heater assembly. These drain tests were instrumental in the design of subsequent melter drain tube and drain tube heaters for the Am/Cm bushing melter, and therefore in the success of the Am/Cm vitrification and plutonium immobilization programs

  10. Investigation of factors affecting the quality of americium electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trdin, M.; Benedik, L.; Samardžija, Z.; Pihlar, B.

    2012-01-01

    Four different electrolyte solutions were used in the electrodeposition of americium and their influences on the quality of the thin layer of deposited americium isotopes in combination with three different cathode disc materials were investigated. The relations between alpha spectral resolution and disc surface properties were established. - Highlights: ► Compared alpha spectra of americium radioisotopes obtained by electrodeposition. ► Various cathode materials and electrolyte solutions were used. ► Homogeneity and peak area resolution were investigated. ► Electron microscope images show surface structure of electrodeposited material.

  11. Measurement of plutonium and americium in molten salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, F.X.; Lawless, J.L.; Herren, W.E.; Hughes, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    The measurement of plutonium and americium in molten salt residues using a segmented gamma-ray scanning device is described. This system was calibrated using artificially fabricated as well as process generated samples. All samples were calorimetered and the americium to plutonium content of the samples determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. For the nine samples calorimetered thus far, no significant biases are present in the comparison of the segmented gamma-ray assay and the calorimetric assay. Estimated errors are of the order of 10 percent and is dependent on the americium to plutonium ratio determination

  12. Behavior of americium in aqueous carbonate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.J.

    1983-11-01

    The solubilities of crystalline Am(OH)/sub 3/ and AmOHCO/sub 3/ were measured at 25/sup 0/C in aqueous solutions of 0.1 M NaClO/sub 4/ by determination of the solution concentrations of Am. Prior to use in the measurements, the solid materials were characterized by their x-ray powder diffraction patterns. The solubility product quotients were calculated from the experimental data. The hydrolysis quotients of Am/sup 3 +/ were also estimated from the hydroxide solubility data. Using the thermodynamic data derived from these experiments and the recently reported formation constants for the Am/sup 3 +/ carbonate complexes, the solid phases and concentrations of solution species of americium in several aqueous carbonate systems were calculated using the computer code MINEQL. 20 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  13. Uptake of americium-241 by algae and bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisy, J P; Paine, D

    1978-01-01

    Algae and bacteria are important factors in the transport and mobilization of elements in the biosphere. These factors may be involved in trophic biomagnification, resulting in a potential human hazard or environmental degradation. Although americium, one of the most toxic elements known, is not required for plant growth, it may be concentrated by algae and bacteria. Therefore, the availability of americium-241 to algae and bacteria was studied to determine their role in the ultimate fate of this element released into the environment. Both algae and bacteria concentrated americium-241 to a high degree, making them important parts of the biomagnification process. The ability to concentrate americium-241 makes algae and bacteria potentially significant factors in cycling this element in the water column. (4 graphs, numerous references, 3 tables)

  14. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING AMERICIUM AND CURIUM FROM RARE EARTH ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baybarz, R.D.; Lloyd, M.H.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to methods of separating americium and curium values from rare earth values. In accordance with the invention americium, curium, and rare earth values are sorbed on an anion exchange resin. A major portion of the rare earth values are selectively stripped from the resin with a concentrated aqueous solution of lithium chloride, and americium, curium, and a minor portion of rare earth values are then stripped from the resin with a dilute aqueous solution of lithium chloride. The americium and curium values are further purified by increasing the concentration of lithium chloride in the solution to at least 8 molar and selectively extracting rare earth values from the resulting solution with a monoalkylphosphoric acid. (AEC)

  15. Sorption of americium and neptunium by deep-sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.W.; Rees, L.V.C.; Cronan, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    The sorption and desorption of americium and neptunium by a wide range of deep-sea sediments from natural sea water at 4 0 C has been studied using a carefully controlled batch technique. All the sediments studied should form an excellent barrier to the migration of americium since distribution coefficients were uniformly greater than 10 5 and the sorption-desorption reaction may not be reversible. The sorption of neptunium was reversible and, except for one red clay, the distribution coefficients were greater than 10 3 for all the sediments investigated. Nevertheless the migration of neptunium should also be effectively retarded by most deep-sea sediments even under relatively oxidizing conditions. The neptunium in solution remained in the V oxidation state throughout the experiments. Under the experimental conditions used colloidal americium was trapped by the sediment and solubility did not seem to be the controlling factor in the desorption of americium. (Auth.)

  16. Americium/Curium Disposition Life Cycle Planning Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, W.N.; Krupa, J.; Stutts, P.; Nester, S.; Raimesch, R.

    1998-01-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy Savannah River Office (DOE- SR), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) evaluated concepts to complete disposition of Americium and Curium (Am/Cm) bearing materials currently located at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

  17. Comparative behavior of americium and plutonium in wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetaeva, N.E.; Filin, V.M.; Ragimov, T.K.; Rudaya, L.Y.; Shapiro, K.Y.; Shcherbakov, B.Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies the behavior of trace americium and plutoniumin wastewater fed into purification systems. Activities of the elements were determined on a semiconductive alpha-ray spectrometer. the distributio nonuniformity, or heterogeneity, of americium and plutonium per unit volume of wastewater was determined quantitatively before and after passage through filter papers. The two elements were found to be in a colloidal or pseudocolloidal state in the original wastewater sample at pH 6. On acidifying the wastewater from pH 4 to 1 M nitric acid the americium passed quantitatively into the water phase but the most plutonium remained in the colloidal or pseudocolloidal state. the plutonium also passed quantitatively into the water phase in wastewater at a 1 M nitric acid acidity but only after a prolonged (12-day) hold. A knowledge of the heterogeneity of plutonium and americium in wastewaters made it possible to quickly distinguish their state, i.e., colloidal, pseudocolloidal, or in true solution

  18. Plutonium and Americium Geochemistry at Hanford: A Site Wide Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-08-23

    This report was produced to provide a systematic review of the state-of-knowledge of plutonium and americium geochemistry at the Hanford Site. The report integrates existing knowledge of the subsurface migration behavior of plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site with available information in the scientific literature regarding the geochemistry of plutonium and americium in systems that are environmentally relevant to the Hanford Site. As a part of the report, key research needs are identified and prioritized, with the ultimate goal of developing a science-based capability to quantitatively assess risk at sites contaminated with plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site and the impact of remediation technologies and closure strategies.

  19. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  20. Pyrochemical investigations into recovering plutonium from americium extraction salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, K.W.; West, M.H.

    1987-05-01

    Progress into developing a pyrochemical technique for separating and recovering plutonium from spent americium extraction waste salts has concentrated on selective chemical reduction with lanthanum metal and calcium metal and on the solvent extraction of americium with calcium metal. Both techniques are effective for recovering plutonium from the waste salt, although neither appears suitable as a separation technique for recycling a plutonium stream back to mainline purification processes. 17 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  1. 1976 Hanford americium-exposure incident: external decontamination procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jech, J.J.; Berry, J.R.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    An accident resulted in the deposition on an injured workman's skin surfaces, in acid-burned areas and in lacerations, of something in excess of 6 mCi americium-241. The external decontamination procedures used, the change in americium content of the skin during the course of treatment, and some of the unusual problems encountered from the extrusion of foreign material and flaking of skin and scar tissue are described

  2. Preparation of americium metal of high purity and determination of the heat of formation of the hydrated trivalent americium ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirlet, J.C.

    1975-10-01

    In order to redetermine some physical and chemical properties of americium metal, several grams of Am-241 have been prepared by two independent methods: lanthanum reduction of the oxide and thermal dissociation of the intermetallic compound Pt 5 Am. After its separation from excess lanthanum or alloy constituent by evaporation, americium metal was further purified by sublimation at 1100 deg C and 10 -6 Torr. Irrespective of the method of preparation, the americium samples displayed the same d.h.c.p. crystal structure. As determined by vacuum hot extraction, the oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen contents are equal to or smaller than 250, 50 and 20 ppm, respectively. The heats of solution of americium metal (d.c.h.p. structure) in aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions have been measured at 298.15+-0.05K. The standard enthalpy of formation of Am 3+ (aq) is obtained as -616.7+-1.2 kJ mol -1 [fr

  3. Kinetic of liquid-liquid extraction for uranyl nitrate and actinides (III) and lanthanides (III) nitrates by amide extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulemonde, V.; CEA Centre d'Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 -Marcoule

    1995-01-01

    The kinetics of liquid-liquid extraction by amide extractants have been investigated for uranyl nitrate (monoamide extractants), actinides (III) and lanthanides (III) nitrates (diamide extractants). The transfer of the metallic species from the aqueous phase to the organic phase was studied using two experimental devices: ARMOLLEX (Argonne Modified Lewis cell for Liquid Liquid Extraction) and RSC (Rotating Stabilized Cell). The main conclusions are: for the extraction of uranyl nitrate by DEHDMBA monoamide, the rate-controlling step is the complexation of the species at the interface of the two liquids. Thus, an absorption-desorption (according to Langmuir theory) reaction mechanism was proposed; for the extraction of actinides (III) and lanthanides (III) nitrates in nitric acid media by DMDBTDMA diamide, the kinetic is also limited by interfacial reactions. The behavior of Americium and Europium is very similar as fare as their reaction kinetics are concerned. (author)

  4. Citric complexes, neodymium citrate and americium citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhlassa, Saidati.

    1981-06-01

    The behaviour of neodymium and americium has been studied in citric aqueous medium by two methods: solvent extraction of elements at tracer scale as chelates and by potentiometry. So range of pH and concentrations of elements and citric acid never reached before have been explored: 10 -7 -1 M, 10 -10 -3 , Csub(H3 Cit) -1 M, 1 2 O; AmCit, xH 2 O; NdCit 2 Co(NH 3 ) 6 , 8H 2 O; AmCit 2 Co(NH 3 ) 6 , xH 2 O and Nd 3 (OH) 4 (Cit) 4 NH 4 (Co(NH 3 ) 6 ) 2 , 18H 2 O. Their spectroscopic and crystallographic characteristics have been listed and studied. The nephelauxetic effect has been estimated from citric complexes as well as from citrates of these elements. The structure of the complexes in solution has been discussed on the basis of analysis of hypersensitive transition in different complexes [fr

  5. Biosorption of americium-241 by Candida sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shunzhong; Zhang Taiming; Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Jin Jiannan; Liao Jiali

    2003-01-01

    As an important radioisotope in nuclear industry and other fields, americium-241 is one of the most serious contamination concerns duo to its high toxicity and long half-life. In this experiment, the biosorption of 241 Am from solution by Candida sp., and the effects of various experimental conditions on the adsorption were investigated. The preliminary results showed that the adsorption of 241 Am by Candida sp. was efficient. 241 Am could be removed by Candida sp. of 0.82 g/L (dry weight) from 241 Am solutions of 5.6-111 MBq/L (44.3-877.2 μg/L)(C 0 ), with maximum adsorption rate (R) of 98% and maximum adsorption capacities (W) of 63.5 MBq/g biomass (dry weight) (501.8 μg/g). The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 4 hour and the optimum pH was pH = 2. No significant differences on 241 Am adsorption were observed at 10 C-45 C, or in solutions containing Au 3+ or Ag + , even 1500 times or 4500 times above the 241 Am concentration, respectively. The relationship between concentrations and adsorption capacities of 241 Am indicated the biosorption process should be described by a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. (orig.)

  6. Americium-curium vitrification process development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellinger, A.P.; Baich, M.A.; Hardy, B.J

    1999-01-01

    The successful demonstration of sequentially drying, calcining and vitrifying an oxalate slurry in the Drain Tube Test Stand (DTTS) vessel provided the process basis for testing on a larger scale in a cylindrical induction heated melter. A single processing issue, that of batch volume expansion, was encountered during the initial stage of testing. The increase in batch volume centered on a sintered frit cap and high temperature bubble formation. The formation of a sintered frit cap expansion was eliminated with the use of cullet. Volume expansions due to high temperature bubble formation (oxygen liberation from cerium reduction) were mitigated in the DTTS melter vessel through a vessel temperature profile that effectively separated the softening point of the glass cullet and the evolving oxygen from cerium reduction. An increased processing temperature of 1,470 C and a two hour hold time to find any remaining bubbles successfully reduced bubbles in the poured glass to an acceptable level. The success of the preliminary process demonstrations provided a workable process basis that was directly applicable to the newly installed Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM) system, making the batch flowsheet the preferred option for vitrification of the americium-curium surrogate feed stream

  7. Nitrate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilenko, I.A.; Vinogradov, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental evidence on behaviour of nitrate glasses is reviewed in terms of relationships between the presence of water in vitrescent nitrate systems and the properties of the systems. The glasses considered belong to systems of Mg(NO 3 ) 2 - Nd(NO 3 ) 3 ; Hg(NO 3 ) 2 -Nd(NO 3 ) 3 ; NaNO 3 -Mg(NO 3 ) 2 -Nd(NO 3 ) 3 ; M-Zn(NO 3 ) 3 , where M is a mixture of 20% mass NaNO 3 and 80% mass Mg(NO 3 ) 2 , and Zn is a rare earth ion. Nitrate glass is shown to be a product of dehydration. Vitrification may be regarded as a resusl of formation of molecular complexes in the chain due to hydrogen bonds of two types, i.e. water-water, or water-nicrate group. Chain formation, along with low melting points of the nitrates, hinder crystallization of nitrate melts. Provided there is enough water, this results in vitrification

  8. Synergistic extraction behaviour of americium from simulated acidic waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, P.N.; Veeraraghavan, R.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    1998-01-01

    The extraction behaviour of americium has been investigated with mixtures of 3-phenyl-4-benzoyl-5-isoxazolone (PBI) and oxodonors viz. tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) and di-n-butyl octanamide (DBOA) using dodecane as the diluent from 1-6 M HNO 3 media. It is observed that D Am remains unaltered with PBI concentration (in the range 0.06-0.1 M) at 1.47 M TBP in the entire range of HNO 3 concentration. PBI and TBP in combination appears more promising compared to other synergistic systems. The possibility of using this mixture for americium removal from high level liquid waste solution has been explored. Extraction studies indicated that prior removal of uranium by 20% TBP in dodecane is helpful in the quantitative recovery of americium in three contacts. Effect of lanthanides on D Am is found to be marginal. (orig.)

  9. Uptake of americium-241 by algae and bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesy, Jr, J P; Paine, D [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, S.C. (USA)

    1978-01-01

    The uptake of americium by three algae, Scenedesmus obliguus, Selenastrum capricomutum and Chlorella pyrenosdosa and a bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila was studied. Live and fixed cells of each algal species and live bacterial cells were used. It is shown that algae and bacteria concentrate americium 241 to a high degree which makes them important links in the biomagnification phenomenon which may ultimately lead to a human hazard and be potentially important in recycling Am /sup 241/ in the water column and mobilization from sediments. Chemical fixation of algal cells caused increased uptake which indicated that uptake is by passive diffusion and probably due to chemical alteration of surface binding sites.

  10. The ingestion of plutonium and americium by range cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blincoe, C.; Bohman, V.R.; Smith, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The intake of plutonium and americium in the diet of cattle grazing on plutonium contaminated desert range was determined. Daily feed intake of the grazing animals was also determined so that the amount of nuclides ingested daily could be ascertained. Soil ingested by range cattle constituted the principal and possibly only source of ingested plutonium and americium and resulted in a daily intake of 3600-6600 pCi 238 Pu, 85,000-400,000 pCi 239 Pu, and 11,000-31,000 pCi 241 Am daily. Determining transuranic intake by direct measurement and from the composition and contamination of the diet gave identical results. (author)

  11. Method of isolation of traces of americium by using the +6 oxidation state properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwinta, Jean; Michel, Jean-Jacques

    1969-05-01

    The authors present a method to separate traces of americium from a solution containing fission products and actinides. This method comprises the following steps: firstly, the oxidation of americium at the +6 state by ammonium persulfate and carrying over of actinides and III and IV lanthanides by lanthanum fluoride; secondly, the reduction by hydrazine of the oxidized americium and carrying over of the reduced americium by lutetium fluoride; and thirdly, the americium-lutetium separation by selective extractions either with di 2 ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, or by fractionated elution on an anionic resin column by a mixture of nitric acid and methanol [fr

  12. On the role of different biocomponents of bile and excretions in the elimination of plutonium and americium from the body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvydko, N.S.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of the role of biocomponents of bile, urine and feces in the elimination of plutonium and americium from the organism. Plutonium 239 and americium 241 were separated in bile due to higher tropism of plutonium to low molecular weight addends, and of americium, to a protein-containing fraction. The status of plutonium excreted in feces was the same as the physicochemical status of americium. Plutonium 239 and americium 241 eliminated in urine were in a completely ultrafiltered state

  13. Determination of plutonium, americium and curium in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaut, CLaude; Germain, Pierre; Miramand, Pierre.

    1982-01-01

    The method used in the Laboratory for plutonium, americium and curium determination in marine samples (water, sediments, animals, plants) is presented. It is a modification of a procedure based on adsorption on ion exchange resins developed by other authors. The preliminary preparation of the samples, the radiochemical procedures and electrodeposition are described so as to be used as a practical handbook [fr

  14. Recovery of americium-241 from aged plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Burney, G.A.; Reilly, T.A.; Wilson, T.W.; McKibben, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    About 5 kg of ingrown 241 Am was recovered from 850 kg of aged plutonium using a process developed specifically for Savannah River Plant application. The aged plutonium metal was first dissolved in sulfamic acid. Sodium nitrite was added to oxidize the plutonium to Pu(IV) and the residual sulfamate ion was oxidized to nitrogen gas and sulfate. The plutonium and americium were separated by one cycle of solvent extraction. The recovered products were subsequently purified by cation exchange chromatography, precipitated as oxalates, and calcined to the oxides. Plutonium processng was routine. Before cation exchange purification, the aqueous americium solution from solvent extraction was concentrated and stripped of nitric acid. More than 98% of the 241 Am was then recovered from the cation exchange column where it was effectively decontaminated from all major impurities except nickel and chromium. This partially purified product solution was concentrated further by evaporation and then denitrated by reaction with formic acid. Individual batches of americium oxalate were then precipitated, filtered, washed, and calcined. About 98.5% of the americium was recovered. The final product purity averaged 98% 241 AmO 2 ; residual impurities were primarily lead and nickel

  15. 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident: overview and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Salient features of the 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident are discussed. Comparisons are made with previous human and animal exposure data, and conclusions drawn relative to the injured workman, to health physics practices, and to the adequacy of current exposure limits

  16. Thermodynamic systematics of oxides of americium, curium, and neighboring elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morss, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Recently-obtained calorimetric data on the sesquioxides and dioxides of americium and curium are summarized. These data are combined with other properties of the actinide elements to elucidate the stability relationships among these oxides and to predict the behavior of neighboring actinide oxides. 45 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

  17. Reduction Rates for Higher Americium Oxidation States in Nitric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Travis Shane [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mincher, Bruce Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schmitt, Nicholas C [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The stability of hexavalent americium was measured using multiple americium concentrations and nitric acid concentrations after contact with the strong oxidant sodium bismuthate. Contrary to our hypotheses Am(VI) was not reduced faster at higher americium concentrations, and the reduction was only zero-order at short time scales. Attempts to model the reduction kinetics using zero order kinetic models showed Am(VI) reduction in nitric acid is more complex than the autoreduction processes reported by others in perchloric acid. The classical zero-order reduction of Am(VI) was found here only for short times on the order of a few hours. We did show that the rate of Am(V) production was less than the rate of Am(VI) reduction, indicating that some Am(VI) undergoes two electron-reduction to Am(IV). We also monitored the Am(VI) reduction in contact with the organic diluent dodecane. A direct comparison of these results with those in the absence of the organic diluent showed the reduction rates for Am(VI) were not statistically different for both systems. Additional americium oxidations conducted in the presence of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ions showed that Am(VI) is reduced without the typical growth of Am(V) observed in the systems sans Ce ion. This was an interesting result which suggests a potential new reduction/oxidation pathway for Am in the presence of Ce; however, these results were very preliminary, and will require additional experiments to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. Overall, these studies have shown that hexavalent americium is fundamentally stable enough in nitric acid to run a separations process. However, the complicated nature of the reduction pathways based on the system components is far from being rigorously understood.

  18. Ammonium nitrate-potassium nitrate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cady, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    A portion of the binary phase diagram for the system ammonium nitrate-potassium nitrate has been determined from -55/sup 0/C to 185/sup 0/C. Results are presented for the ammonium-nitrate-rich end of the system up to 30 wt% potassium nitrate.

  19. Aminoethyl nitrate – the novel super nitrate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauersachs, Johann

    2009-01-01

    Long-term use of most organic nitrates is limited by development of tolerance, induction of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. In this issue of the BJP, Schuhmacher et al. characterized a novel class of organic nitrates with amino moieties (aminoalkyl nitrates). Aminoethyl nitrate was identified as a novel organic mononitrate with high potency but devoid of induction of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Cross-tolerance to nitroglycerin or the endothelium-dependent agonist acetylcholine after in vivo treatment was not observed. Like all nitrates, aminoethyl nitrate induced vasorelaxation by activation of soluble guanylate cyclase. Thus, in contrast to the prevailing view, high potency in an organic nitrate is not necessarily accompanied by induction of oxidative stress or endothelial dysfunction. This work from Daiber's group is an important step forward in the understanding of nitrate bioactivation, tolerance phenomena and towards the development of better organic nitrates for clinical use. PMID:19732062

  20. Contribution to the study of higher valency states of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlet, Jean.

    1976-01-01

    Study of the chemistry of the higher valencies of americium in aqueous solutions and especially the autoreduction phenomenon. First a purification method of americium solutions is studied by precipitation, solvent extraction and ion exchange chromatography. Studies of higher valency states chemical properties are disturbed by the autoreduction phenomenon changing Am VI and Am V in Am III more stable. Stabilization of higher valency states, characterized by a steady concentration of Am VI in solution, can be done by complexation of Am VI and Am V ions or by a protecting effect of foreign ions. The original medium used has a complexing effect by SO 4 2- ions and a protecting effect by the system S 2 O 8 2- -Ag + consuming H 2 O 2 main reducing agent produced by water radiolysis. These effects are shown by the study of Am VI in acid and basic solutions. A mechanism of the stabilization effect is given [fr

  1. Research program on development of advanced treatment technology for americium-containing aqueous waste in NUCEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineo, Hideaki; Matsumura, Tatsuro; Tsubata, Yasuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-10-01

    A research program was prepared on the development of an advanced treatment process for the americium-containing concentrated aqueous waste in NUCEF, than allows americium recovery for the reuse and the reduction of TRU waste generation. A preliminary analysis was conducted on the separation requirements based on the components estimated for the waste. An R and D strategy was proposed from the view to reduce TRU waste generated in the processing that the highest priority is given on the control of TRU leakage such as americium into the effluent stream after americium recovery and the minimization of salt used in the separation over the decontamination of impurities from americium. The extraction chromatographic method was selected as a candidate technology for americium separation under the principle to use reagents that are functional in acidic conditions such as bidentate extractants of DHEDECMP, CMPO or diamides, considering the larger flexibilities in process modification and possible multi-component separation with compact equipment and the past achievements on the recovery of kg quantities of americium. Major R and D items extracted are screening and evaluation of extractants for americium and plutonium, optimization of separation conditions, selection of denitration method, equipment developments and development of solidification methods of discarded americium after reuse and of various kinds of separation residues. In order to cope these items, four steps of R and D program were proposed, i.e., fundamental experiment in beaker-scale on screening and evaluation of extractants, flowsheet study in bench-scale using simulated and small amount of americium aqueous waste solution to evaluate candidate process, americium recovery test in iron-shielded cell to be installed in NUCEF. It is objected to make recovery of 100g orders of americium used for research on fundamental TRU fuel properties. (J.P.N.)

  2. Separation of Americium from plutonium, Annex 3; Prilog 3: Odvajanje amercijuma od plutonijuma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvjeticanin, D; Milic, N; Janicijevic, P; Ratkovic, S [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Laboratorija za visoku aktivnost, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-12-15

    Since there was the possibility of working with plutonium milligram quantities, it was possible to study plutonium with contents of americium, which was expected in the about two years old plutonium solutions. Method for separation of the micro quantities of americium and plutonium was needed as well as a multichannel alpha-pulse analyzer. Method for separation of americium from plutonium by thenol trifluoro-acetone (TTA) and anion exchange was adopted.

  3. Transfer of environmental plutonium and americium across the human gut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.; Leonard, D.R.P.; Lovett, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    Following the ingestion of winkles obtained from a coastal area near Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant, a group of volunteers provided urine for the next 7 days to be analysed for plutonium and americium. From this, estimates of the intake and gut transfer factors for these isotopes were determined. Preliminary estimates of gut transfer factors from a previous study by the same authors were then re-interpreted and combined with the results from the present study. (UK)

  4. 1976 Hanford americium-exposure incident: decontamination and treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.R.; McMurray, B.J.; Jech, J.J.; Breitenstein, B.D.; Quigley, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    An injured worker, contaminated with over 6 mCi of americium-241, required special treatment and housing for 4 months. This paper is a description of the design and management of the facility in which most of the treatment and housing occurred. The problems associated with contamination control, waste handling, supplies, and radiological concerns during the two-stage transfer of the patient from a controlled situation to his normal living environment are discussed in detail

  5. Ingestion Pathway Transfer Factors for Plutonium and Americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-01-01

    Overall transfer factors for major ingestion pathways are derived for plutonium and americium. These transfer factors relate the radionuclide concentration in a given foodstuff to deposition on the soil. Equations describing basic relationships consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.109 are followed. Updated values and coefficients from IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 364 are used when a available. Preference is given to using factors specific to the Savannah River Site

  6. Extraction separation of americium and curium. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrzilova, H.

    1976-11-01

    A survey is given of extraction systems suitable for transplutonium element separation and preparation as well as for the practical application of their nuclear properties. Methods are discussed in detail of separating the actinide and the lanthanide fractions from fission and corrosion products and of separating americium from curium. The description is completed with flowsheets showing the separation of transplutonium elements from irradiated targets and waste solutions after spent fuel reprocessing. (L.K.)

  7. Americium-241: the most useful isotope of the actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Used extensively in nuclear gauges and in many other areas, this man-made element (Atomic Number 95) was first isolated in weighable amounts during World War II. Americium is now a very useful by-product of the nuclear industry and is produced in kilogram amounts by appropriate recovery, separation and purification processes. A review will be presented of its discovery, nuclear and chemical properties, and uses, with emphasis on its production process and separations chemistry

  8. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plutonium and Americium from Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.V.; Mincher, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plutonium and americium from soil was successfully demonstrated using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide solvent augmented with organophosphorus and beta-diketone complexants. Spiked Idaho soils were chemically and radiologically characterized, then extracted with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide at 2,900 psi and 65 C containing varying concentrations of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). A single 45 minute SFE with 2.7 mol% TBP and 3.2 mol% TTA provided as much as 88% ± 6.0 extraction of americium and 69% ± 5.0 extraction of plutonium. Use of 5.3 mol% TBP with 6.8 mol% of the more acidic beta-diketone hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFA) provided 95% ± 3.0 extraction of americium and 83% ± 5.0 extraction of plutonium in a single 45 minute SFE at 3,750 psi and 95 C. Sequential chemical extraction techniques were used to chemically characterize soil partitioning of plutonium and americium in pre-SFE soil samples. Sequential chemical extraction techniques demonstrated that spiked plutonium resides primarily (76.6%) in the sesquioxide fraction with minor amounts being absorbed by the oxidizable fraction (10.6%) and residual fractions (12.8%). Post-SFE soils subjected to sequential chemical extraction characterization demonstrated that 97% of the oxidizable, 78% of the sesquioxide and 80% of the residual plutonium could be removed using SFE. These preliminary results show that SFE may be an effective solvent extraction technique for removal of actinide contaminants from soil

  9. Extraction of americium from acid aqueous solutions by diethyl-2-hexyl-pyro-phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaume, Bernard

    1971-02-01

    After having outlined the interesting properties of americium and the difficulties of its recovery, the author reports the study of the mechanism of extraction of americium from acid aqueous solutions by using the diethyl-2hexyl-pyro-phosphoric acid. Several aspects are thus discussed: influence of concentration of H 2 DEHPP, influence of the acidity of the aqueous phase, saturation of extracting agent, influence of the diluting agent, complexing of americium, influence of other cations. In a second part, the author reports the application to the recovery of americium from effluents, and discusses the obtained results

  10. Gut uptake factors for plutonium, americium and curium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Data on estimates of the absorption of plutonium, americium and curium from the human gut based on measurements of uptake in other mammalian species are reviewed. It is proposed that for all adult members of the public ingesting low concentrations of plutonium in food and water, 0.05% would be an appropriate value of absorption except when the conditions of exposure are known and a lower value can be justified. For dietary intakes of americium and curium, the available data do not warrant a change from the ICRP value of 0.05%. For newborn children ingesting americium, curium and soluble forms of plutonium, a value of 1% absorption is proposed for the first 3 months of life during which the infant is maintained on a milk diet. It is proposed that a value of 0.5% should be used for the first year of life to take account of the gradual maturation of the gut. In considering the ingestion of insoluble oxides of plutonium by infants, it is proposed that absorption is taken as 0.1% for the first 3 months and 0.05% for the first year. (author)

  11. On the structure of thorium and americium adenosine triphosphate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostapha, Sarah; Berton, Laurence; Boubals, Nathalie; Zorz, Nicole; Charbonnel, Marie-Christine; Fontaine-Vive, Fabien; Den Auwer, Christophe; Solari, Pier Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The actinides are chemical poisons and radiological hazards. One challenge to better appraise their toxicity and develop countermeasures in case of exposure of living organisms is to better assess pathways of contamination. Because of the high chemical affinity of those actinide elements for phosphate groups and the ubiquity of such chemical functions in biochemistry, nucleotides and in particular adenosine triphosphate nucleotide (ATP) may be considered critical target building blocks for actinides. Combinations of spectroscopic techniques (Fourier transformed Infra Red [FTIR], Electro-spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry [ESI-MS], and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure [EXAFS]) with quantum chemical calculations have been implemented in order to assess the actinides coordination arrangement with ATP. We describe and compare herein the interaction of ATP with thorium and americium; thorium(IV) as a representative of actinide(IV) like plutonium(IV) and americium(III) as a representative of all heavier actinides. In the case of thorium, an insoluble complex is readily formed. In the case of americium, a behavior identical to that described previously for lutetium has been observed with insoluble and soluble complexes. The comparative study of ATP complexation with Th(IV) and Am(III) shows their ability to form insoluble complexes for which a structural model has been proposed by analogy with previously described Lu(III) complexes. (authors)

  12. On the structure of thorium and americium adenosine triphosphate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostapha, Sarah; Fontaine-Vive, Fabien; Berthon, Laurence; Boubals, Nathalie; Zorz, Nicole; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Charbonnel, Marie Christine; Den Auwer, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    The actinides are chemical poisons and radiological hazards. One challenge to better appraise their toxicity and develop countermeasures in case of exposure of living organisms is to better assess pathways of contamination. Because of the high chemical affinity of those actinide elements for phosphate groups and the ubiquity of such chemical functions in biochemistry, nucleotides and in particular adenosine triphosphate nucleotide (ATP) may be considered critical target building blocks for actinides. Combinations of spectroscopic techniques (Fourier transformed Infra Red [FTIR], Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry [ESI-MS], and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure [EXAFS]) with quantum chemical calculations have been implemented in order to assess the actinides coordination arrangement with ATP. We describe and compare herein the interaction of ATP with thorium and americium; thorium(IV) as a representative of actinide(IV) like plutonium(IV) and americium(III) as a representative of all heavier actinides. In the case of thorium, an insoluble complex is readily formed. In the case of americium, a behavior identical to that described previously for lutetium has been observed with insoluble and soluble complexes. The comparative study of ATP complexation with Th(IV) and Am(III) shows their ability to form insoluble complexes for which a structural model has been proposed by analogy with previously described Lu(III) complexes.

  13. Americium-241 and -243 as an ion-engine propellant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schachter, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Commercially available americium-241 and -243 can be obtained as the mixture of the two isotopes in 100-gram quantities--a product of reprocessing spent nuclear powerplant fuel elements along with plutonium. The half-lives of the isotopes are 450 years for the -241 and 8,000 years for the -243 (the plutonium half-life isotope so obtained is 24,000 years). Americium rolled out in thin foil sheets emits alpha-rays (helium-4 ions) and beta-rays--2 valence electrons for each helium ion. Electrons are also considered as ions. As a foil, the americium radiates only a minimal amount of gamma-rays via the Curie effect. With appropriately designed permanent magnet rings insulated with Wood's alloy, the + and - ions can be accelerated from their already 5.5 million electron-Volts to billion and even trillions of electron-Volts by electronic control grids powered by the magnetohydrodynamic effect of electrons and helium ions streaming at the post-rocket nozzle of the ion engine. Protocol for the estimated thrust of this ion rocket engine is more than ten kilograms continuously sustainable for several thousand years

  14. Americium-241 radioisotope thermoelectric generator development for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, Richard; Williams, Hugo; Samara-Ratna, Piyal

    2013-01-01

    Space nuclear power systems are under development in the UK in collaboration with European partners as part of a European Space Agency (ESA) programme. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) are an important element of this new capability in Europe. RTG systems being developed in Europe are targeting the 10 W electric to 50 W electric power generation range adopting a modular scalable approach to the design. Radiogenic decay heat from radioisotopes can be converted to electrical power by using appropriate semiconductor based thermoelectric materials. The plan for Europe is to develop radioisotope space nuclear power systems based on both thermoelectric and Stirling power conversion systems. Although primarily focused on delivering up to 50 W of electrical power, the European radioisotope thermoelectric system development programme is targeting americium-241 as a fuel source and is maximizing the use of commercially available thermoelectric manufacturing processes in order to accelerate the development of power conversion systems. The use of americium provides an economic solution at high isotopic purity and is product of a separation process from stored plutonium produced during the reprocessing of civil nuclear fuel. A laboratory prototype that uses electrical heating as a substitute for the radioisotope was developed to validate the designs. This prototype has now been tested. This paper outlines the requirements for a European americium-241 fuelled RTG, describes the most recent updates in system design and provides further insight into recent laboratory prototype test campaigns. (author)

  15. Americium-241 radioisotope thermoelectric generator development for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosi, Richard; Williams, Hugo; Samara-Ratna, Piyal, E-mail: rma8@le.ac.uk [University of Leicester, (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-07-01

    Space nuclear power systems are under development in the UK in collaboration with European partners as part of a European Space Agency (ESA) programme. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) are an important element of this new capability in Europe. RTG systems being developed in Europe are targeting the 10 W electric to 50 W electric power generation range adopting a modular scalable approach to the design. Radiogenic decay heat from radioisotopes can be converted to electrical power by using appropriate semiconductor based thermoelectric materials. The plan for Europe is to develop radioisotope space nuclear power systems based on both thermoelectric and Stirling power conversion systems. Although primarily focused on delivering up to 50 W of electrical power, the European radioisotope thermoelectric system development programme is targeting americium-241 as a fuel source and is maximizing the use of commercially available thermoelectric manufacturing processes in order to accelerate the development of power conversion systems. The use of americium provides an economic solution at high isotopic purity and is product of a separation process from stored plutonium produced during the reprocessing of civil nuclear fuel. A laboratory prototype that uses electrical heating as a substitute for the radioisotope was developed to validate the designs. This prototype has now been tested. This paper outlines the requirements for a European americium-241 fuelled RTG, describes the most recent updates in system design and provides further insight into recent laboratory prototype test campaigns. (author)

  16. Plutonium and americium recovery from spent molten-salt-extraction salts with aluminum-magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusick, M.J.; Sherwood, W.G.; Fitzpatrick, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Development work was performed to determine the feasibility of removing plutonium and americium from spent molten-salt-extraction (MSE) salts using Al-Mg alloys. If the product buttons from this process are compatible with subsequent aqueous processing, the complex chloride-to-nitrate aqueous conversion step which is presently required for these salts may be eliminated. The optimum alloy composition used to treat spent 8 wt % MSE salts in the past yielded poor phase-disengagement characteristics when applied to 30 mol % salts. After a limited investigation of other alloy compositions in the Al-Mg-Pu-Am system, it was determined that the Al-Pu-Am system could yield a compatible alloy. In this system, experiments were performed to investigate the effects of plutonium loading in the alloy, excess magnesium, age of the spent salt on actinide recovery, phase disengagement, and button homogeneity. Experimental results indicate that 95 percent plutonium recoveries can be attained for fresh salts. Further development is required for backlog salts generated prior to 1981. A homogeneous product alloy, as required for aqueous processing, could not be produced

  17. Kinetic of liquid-liquid extraction for uranyl nitrate and actinides (III) and lanthanides (III) nitrates by amide extractants; Cinetique d`extraction liquide-liquide du nitrate d`uranyle et des nitrates d`actinides (III) et de lanthanides (III) par des extractants a fonction amide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toulemonde, V [CEA Centre d` Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 -Gif-sur-Yvette (France); [CEA Centre d` Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 -Marcoule (France). Dept. d` Exploitation du Retraitement et de Demantelement

    1995-12-20

    The kinetics of liquid-liquid extraction by amide extractants have been investigated for uranyl nitrate (monoamide extractants), actinides (III) and lanthanides (III) nitrates (diamide extractants). The transfer of the metallic species from the aqueous phase to the organic phase was studied using two experimental devices: ARMOLLEX (Argonne Modified Lewis cell for Liquid Liquid Extraction) and RSC (Rotating Stabilized Cell). The main conclusions are: for the extraction of uranyl nitrate by DEHDMBA monoamide, the rate-controlling step is the complexation of the species at the interface of the two liquids. Thus, an absorption-desorption (according to Langmuir theory) reaction mechanism was proposed; for the extraction of actinides (III) and lanthanides (III) nitrates in nitric acid media by DMDBTDMA diamide, the kinetic is also limited by interfacial reactions. The behavior of Americium and Europium is very similar as fare as their reaction kinetics are concerned. (author). 89 refs.

  18. Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations measured from the 125-meter Hanford Meteorological Tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations and fluxes were measured at six heights from 1.9 to 122 m on the Hanford meteorological tower. The data show that plutonium-239 was transported on nonrespirable and small particles at all heights. Airborne americium-241 concentrations on small particles were maximum at the 91 m height

  19. Nitrates of rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komissarova, L.N.; Pushkina, L.Ya.

    1984-01-01

    The systematization of experimental data with account of the last achievements in the field of studying the RE nitrate properties is realized. The methods of production, solubility in aqueous solutions structure, thermodynamic characteristics and thermal stability of nitrate hydrates, RE anhydrous and basic nitrates are considered. The data on RE nirtrate complexing in aqueous solutions are given. Binary nitrates, nitrate solvates and RE nitrate adducts with organic compounds are described. The use of RE nitrates in the course of RE production, in the processes of separation and fine cleaning of RE preparations is considered

  20. The transmutation of americium: the Ecrix experiments in Phenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, J.C.; Schmidt, N.; Croixmarie, Y.; Ottaviani, J.P.; Varaine, F.; Saint Jean, C. de

    1999-01-01

    The first americium transmutation experiment in a specific target in PHENIX will occur with the ECRIX-B and ECRIX-H experiments. Beside material testing, the objective is also to represent a concept of transmutation whose specificity is to enhance the kinetics of transmutation by using a moderated spectrum. The moderator materials will be 11 B 4 C and CaH 2 for ECRIX-B and ECRIXH respectively, the irradiation conditions have been predicted for both the neutronics and thermal. The targets (MgO-AmO X pellets) are manufactured in the ATALANTE laboratory and the design is performed according to the PHENIX operating conditions. (authors)

  1. Robotic sample preparation for radiochemical plutonium and americium analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalnaker, N.; Beugelsdijk, T.; Thurston, A.; Quintana, J.

    1985-01-01

    A Zymate robotic system has been assembled and programmed to prepare samples for plutonium and americium analyses by radioactivity counting. The system performs two procedures: a simple dilution procedure and a TTA (xylene) extraction of plutonium. To perform the procedures, the robotic system executes 11 unit operations such as weighing, pipetting, mixing, etc. Approximately 150 programs, which require 64 kilobytes of memory, control the system. The system is now being tested with high-purity plutonium metal and plutonium oxide samples. Our studies indicate that the system can give results that agree within 5% at the 95% confidence level with determinations performed manually. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Effect of 241-americium on bone marrow stroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuvel, R. van den

    1990-01-01

    The regulation of haemopoiesis occurs via complex interactions between the stroma and the haemopoietic cells. An attempt to further clarifying the mechanisms and the exact role of the stroma in the regulation was made in a study. Results revealed that the murine bone marrow stromal cells are highly radiosensitive after injection with 241-americium and can thus be considered as a target population after internal contamination. In addition, observations are made which may be important for risk estimation for the developing animal and during pregnancy. Contamination in utero and by lactation shows persistent damage up to 1 year after contamination at an average annual dose of 5 cGy. (author)

  3. Implications of plutonium and americium recycling on MOX fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, A.; Pilate, S.; Maldague, Th.; La Fuente, A.; Evrard, G.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of the multiple recycling of plutonium in power reactors on the radiation dose rates is analyzed for the most critical stage in a MOX fuel fabrication plant. The limitation of the number of Pu recycling in light water reactors would rather stem from reactor core physics features. The case of recovering americium with plutonium is also considered and the necessary additions of shielding are evaluated. A comparison between the recycling of Pu in fast reactors and in light water reactors is presented. (author)

  4. Recovery of americium-241 from aged plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Burney, G.A.; Reilly, T.A.; Wilson, T.W.; McKibben, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    After separation and purification, both actinides were precipitated as oxalates and calcined. A large-scale process was developed using dissolution, separation, purification, precipitation, and calcination. Efforts were made to control corrosion, to avoid product contamination, to keep the volume of process and waste solutions manageable, and to denitrate solutions with formic acid. The Multipurpose Processing Facility (MPPF), designed for recovery of transplutonium isotopes, was used for the first time for the precipitation and calcination of americium. Also, for the first time,, large-scale formic acid denitration was performed in a canyon vessel at SRP

  5. Americium-curium separation by means of selective extraction of hexavalent americium using a centrifugal contactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikas, C.; Germain, M.; Bathellier, A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper deals with Am (VI) - Cm (III) separation in nitrate media. The kinetics of oxidation of Am (III) by sodium persulfate in the presence of Ag + ions were reinvestigated by studying the effect of additions of small amounts of reagents which do not drastically change the distribution coefficients of Am (VI) or Cm (III) ions. Organo phosphorus solvents were selected because they are radiation resistant, possess weak reductant properties and that their affinity for hexavalent ion is high. The operating procedure was selected by consideration of the results of the two previous investigations. This can be done by using a centrifugal contactor enabling in to set organic-aqueous phase contact time in accordance with the kinetics of extraction of Am (VI), oxidation of Am (III) in aqueous phase, and reduction of Am (VI) in organic phase

  6. Analysis of americium, plutonium and technetium solubility in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Seiji

    1999-08-01

    Safety assessments for geologic disposal of radioactive waste generally use solubilities of radioactive elements as the parameter restricting the dissolution of the elements from a waste matrix. This study evaluated americium, plutonium and technetium solubilities under a variety of geochemical conditions using the geochemical model EQ3/6. Thermodynamic data of elements used in the analysis were provided in the JAERI-data base. Chemical properties of both natural groundwater and interstitial water in buffer materials (bentonite and concrete) were investigated to determine the variations in Eh, pH and ligand concentrations (CO 3 2- , F - , PO 4 3- , SO 4 2- , NO 3 - and NH 4 + ). These properties can play an important role in the complexation of radioactive elements. Effect of the groundwater chemical properties on the solubility and formation of chemical species for americium, plutonium and technetium was predicted based on the solubility analyses under a variety of geochemical conditions. The solubility and speciation of the radioactive elements were estimated, taking into account the possible range of chemical compositions determined from the groundwater investigation. (author)

  7. Plutonium and americium extraction studies with bifunctional organophosphorus extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Neutral bifunctional organophosphorus extractants, such as octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (CMP), are under study at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) to remove plutonium and americium from the 7M nitric acid waste. These compounds extract trivalent actinides from strong nitric acid, a property which distinguishes them from monofunctional organiphosphorus reagents. Furthermore, the reagents extract hydroytic plutonium (IV) polymer which is present in the acid waste stream. The compounds extract trivalent actinides with a 3:1 stoichiometry, whereas tetra- and hexavalent actinides extract with a stoichiometry of 2:1. Preliminary studies indicate that the extracted plutonium polymer complex contains one to two molecules of CMP per plutonium ion and the plutonium(IV) maintains a polymeric structure. Recent studies by Horwitz and co-workers conclude that the CMPO and CMP reagents behave as monodentate ligands. At RFP, three techniques are being tested for using CMP and CMPO to remove plutonium and americium from nitric acid waste streams. The different techniques are liquid-liquid extraction, extraction chromatography, and solid-supported liquid membranes. Recent tests of the last two techniques will be briefly described. In all the experiments, CMP was an 84% pure material from Bray Oil Co. and CMPO was 98% pure from M and T Chemicals

  8. Lifetime followup of the 1976 americium accident victim: [Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitenstein, B.D. Jr.; Palmer, H.E.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the 11 year medical course of Harold R. McCluskey, a Hanford nuclear chemical operator, who, at age 64, was involved in an accident in an americium recovery facility in August 1976. As a result of the accident, he was heavily contaminated with americium (Am-241), sustained a substantial internal deposition of this isotope, and was burned with concentrated nitric acid and injured by flying debris about the face and neck. The immediate and long-term medical care is summarized, including decontamination procedures, chelation therapy, and routine and special clinical laboratories studies. The estimates of the operator's Am-241 deposition, post accident and during the remainder of his life and the special techniques and equipment used to make the estimates, are reported. Post-accident, the total amount of Am-241 excreted in his urine and feces was 41 MBq (1.1 mCi). He died of complications of chronic coronary artery disease on August 17, 1987. 20 refs., 2 figs

  9. Plant uptake of americium, curium, and the chemical analog neodymium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.C.; Laul, J.C.; Kutt, J.C.; Bondietti, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    The plant uptake from several bulk soils has been determined for neodymium, a chemical analog to the transuranium elements americium and curium, and several other native rare earth elements as well. These investigations have demonstrated that neodymium, which has very similar chemical properties to amercium and curium and should have a similar environmental behavior, does behave indistinguishably under both laboratory and field conditions. The uptake of the weathered or mobile forms of these elements from soils is expected to be governed primarily by their identical oxidation states and nearly identical ionic radii. This hypothesis is strongly supported by the chondritic (primordial) normalized rare earth element patterns in several plants. In these samples, the entire series of rare earth elements behaves as a smooth function of the REE ionic radii, as is also seen in the contiguous soils. This behavior suggests that the plant uptake of other ions with similar chemical properties (i.e., americium and curium) would also be governed by ionic size and charge

  10. Uptake and recovery of americium and uranium by Anacystis biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.H.; Jiunntzong Wu

    1993-01-01

    The optimum conditions for the uptake of americium and uranium from wastewater solutions by Anacystis nidulans cells, and the recovery of these radionuclides were studied. The optimum pH range for both actinides was in the acidic region between 3.0 and 5.0. In a pH 3.5 solution with an algal biomass of 70 μg/mL, up to 95% of the Am and U were taken up by the cells. However, the uptake levels were lowered considerably when ethylene dinitrilotetraacetic acid (EDTA) or iron or calcium ions were present in the solutions. Most of the radionuclides taken up by the cells could also be desorbed by washing with salt solutions. Of nine salt solutions tested, ammonium carbonate was the most effective. Our experiments using algal biomass to remove radionuclides from wastewater showed that about 92% of americium and 85% of uranium in wastewater could be taken up by algal biomass, from which about 46% of the Am and 82% of the U originally present in the wastewater could be recovered by elution with a salt solution. 17 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Rare earth elements during diagenesis of abyssal sediments: analogies with a transuranic element americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boust, D.

    1987-03-01

    One of the possibilities for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes consists in burying them into abyssal sediments, the sediments being supposed to barrier out radionuclides migration. The objective of the work was to estimate the efficiency of sediment barrier with respect to americium. As there is no americium in abyssal sediments, an indirect approach was used: the behaviour of the rare earth elements, the best natural analogs of americium. They were analysed in a 15 m long core, from the Cap Verde abyssal plateau. The terrigenous phase derived from the African continent was modified by short-term processes (1-1000 years); the intermediate rare earth elements were dissolved. Mineral coatings, enriched in rare earth appeared. After burial, the evolution continued at a much slower rate (10 5 - 10 6 years). The rare elements of the mineral coatings derived from the dissolution of the terrigenous phase and from an additional source, deeper in the sediment column. The fluxes of rare earth elements from sediment to water column were estimated. In suboxic sediments, the dissolved particulate equilibrium was related to redox conditions. The short-term reactivity of americium was studied in laboratory experiments. Simple americium migration models showed that the sediments barrier was totally efficient with respect to americium. In the conditions, neptunium 237 a daughter product of americium 241 could induce fluxes of 10 16 atoms per year per ton of stored waste (10 -8 Ci y-1), during millions years, towards the water column [fr

  12. Modelling of curium and americium behaviour during separation with displacing complexing chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuveleva, Eh.A.; Kharitonov, O.V.; Firsova, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    Certain heavy rare earths, curium and americium were separated by the method of displacement complexing chromatography using DTPA solutions and solutions containing DTPA and citric acid as eluents. Separation factors of rare earths and curium (americium) were calculated. Imitators for curium and americium separation were suggested: thulium for curium elution using 0.025 mol/l DTPA, holmium-for curium elution using 0.025 mol/l DTPA in the presence of 0.025 mol/l citric acid; terbium can serve as the imitator in both cases. 5 refs., 5 figs

  13. Influence of organic components on plutonium and americium speciation in soils and soil solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolik, G.A.; Ovsyannikova, S.V.; Kimlenko, I.M.

    2003-01-01

    Group composition of humic substances of organic and mineral soils sampled in the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl accident was analyzed for studying influence of organic components on migration properties of plutonium and americium in soils and soil solutions by the method of gel-chromatography and chemical fractionation. It was ascertained that humus of organic soils binds plutonium and americium stronger than humus of mineral soils. Elevated mobility of americium compared to plutonium one stems from lower ability of the latter to from hard to solve organic and organomineral complexes, as well as from its ability to form anionic complexes in soil solutions [ru

  14. Analytical separation of americium and curium, using high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billon, A.

    1978-01-01

    Americium and curium are separated on a column of cation exchange resin (Aminex) using hydroxyisobutyric acid (α HIBA) as eluent, at a temperature of 80 0 C. Americium and curium were detected in line using their α emission: the separation was performed in a shielded glove box whose setting-up is given. Finally, the time necessary for a separation is comprised between 30 min and 1 hr. The purity of separated fractions was assayed by mass-spectrometry. An application in the determination of isotopic composition of americium and curium in fuels is described

  15. Selective leaching studies of deep-sea sediments loaded with americium, neptunium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, T.G.; Higgo, J.J.W.; Cronan, D.S.; Rees, L.V.C.

    1984-07-01

    A series of selective leaching experiments were undertaken to investigate the solid phase speciation and distribution of americium, neptunium and plutonium which had been experimentally loaded onto different marine sediment types. The chemical leaches employed showed rather poor selectivity but certain trends were evident. Adsorption was not by ion exchange. Americium showed a preferential affinity for carbonate and plutonium for organic matter. Neptunium appeared to have no preferential affinities. Americium was sorbed by acetic acid residues (CaCO 3 removed) and by unleached carbonate-rich sediments with equal efficiency. This indicates that it is able to diversify its solid phase affinity/distribution depending upon which solid phases are available. (author)

  16. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface...

  17. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources of...

  18. Nitrate accumulation in spinach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steingröver, Eveliene Geertruda

    1986-01-01

    Leafy vegetables, like spinach, may contain high concentrations of nitrate. In the Netherlands, about 75% of mean daily intake of nitrate orginates from the consumption of vegatables. Hazards to human health are associated with the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Acute nitrite poisoning causes

  19. Americium/Curium Vitrification Pilot Tests - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, J.E.; Baich, M.A.; Fellinger, A.P.; Hardy, B.J.; Herman, D.T.; Jones, T.M.; Miller, C.B.; Miller, D.H.; Snyder, T. K.; Stone, M.E.

    1998-05-01

    Isotopes of americium (Am) and curium (Cm) were produced in the past at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for research, medical, and radiological applications. These highly radioactive and valuable isotopes have been stored in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years. Vitrification of this solution will allow the material to be more safely stored until it is transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation for use in research and medical applications. A previous paper described operation results from the Am-Cm Melter 2A pilot system, a full-scale non-radioactive pilot facility. This paper presents the results from continued testing in the Pilot Facility and also describes efforts taken to look at alternative vitrification process operations and flowsheets designed to address the problems observed during melter 2A pilot testing

  20. Elimination of americium-241 after a case of accidental inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edvardsson, K.A.; Lindgren, L.

    1976-01-01

    In handling a 241 Am source one person received an internal contamination of about 140 nCi of americium oxide, which was deposited in the lung region. Elimination of the activity was followed for more than 3 months by external gamma counting and excreta analyses. During the first week after the inhalation about 80% of the total intake was eliminated with an effective half-life of less than 2 days. The remaining activity, deposited in the lung region, was eliminated with an effective half-life of about 17 days. About 15% of the activity eliminated from the lung region from the 10th to the 50th day was eliminated in the faeces. (author)

  1. Pretreatment of americium/curium solutions for vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to the heavy isotope programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Prior to vitrification, an in-tank oxalate precipitation and a series of oxalic/nitric acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Pretreatment development experiments were performed to understand the behavior of the lanthanides and the metal impurities during the oxalate precipitation and properties of the precipitate slurry. The results of these experiments will be used to refine the target glass composition allowing optimization of the primary processing parameters and design of the solution transfer equipment

  2. The biokinetics and radiotoxicology of curium: A comparison with americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menetrier, F. [CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Taylor, D.M. [School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: davtay@btinternet.com; Comte, A. [CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2008-05-15

    The human and animal data on the biokinetics of {sup 242}Cm and {sup 244}Cm are reviewed and shown to be very similar to those for {sup 241}Am. Liver and skeleton are the main organs of deposition and the retention of curium in the skeleton is very prolonged in all the species examined. Retention of both curium and americium in the liver appears to be species-dependent, being relatively rapidly removed from the liver of rats, and probably humans, but being tenaciously retained in dogs and some other species. The radiotoxicity of curium is also reviewed and it is shown that, as with {sup 241}Am, lung and bone tumour induction are the major hazards from inhaled and systemically deposited {sup 244}Cm. The use of chelating agents for the treatment of accidental contamination of the human body with {sup 242,244}Cm is also discussed.

  3. Determination of the oxygen-metal-ratio of uranium-americium mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartscher, W.

    1982-01-01

    During the dissolution of uranium-americium mixed oxides in phosphoric acid under nitrogen tetravalent uranium is oxidized by tetravalent americium. The obtained hexavalent uranium is determined by constant potential coulometry. The coulombs measured are equivalent to the oxygen in excess of the minimum composition of UO 2 x AmO 1 . 5 . The total uranium content of the sample is determined in a subsequent coulometric titration. The oxygen-metal ratio of the sample can be calculated for a given uranium-americium ratio. An excess of uranium dioxide is necessary in order to suppress the oxidation of water by tetravalent americium. The standard deviation of the method is 0.0017 O/M units. (orig.) [de

  4. Calibration procedures for in vivo sodium iodide spectrometry of plutonium and americium in the human lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.; Jett, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes the calibration techniques and associated error analysis for the in vivo measurement by NaI spectrometry of heavy elements in the lung, specifically plutonium and americium. A very brief description of the instrumentation system is included

  5. Do nitrates differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, H.-L.

    1992-01-01

    1 The organic nitrates all share a common biochemical and physiological mechanism of action. 2 The organic nitrates differ substantially in their pharmacologic potency and pharmacokinetics. In vitro potency differences appear larger than the corresponding in vivo activities. 3 The duration of action of organic nitrates, after a single immediate-release dose, is governed by the pharmacokinetics of the drug. However, the duration of action of available sustained-release preparations, whatever the nitrate or formulation, is limited to about 12 h, due to the development of pharmacologic tolerance. 4 Nitrates do not appear to differ in their production of undesirable effects. PMID:1633079

  6. Nitrate pollution of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, T.H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Concern about the possible health risks associated with the consumption of nitrate has led many countries, including South Africa, to propose that 10mg of nitrogen (as nitrate or nitrite) per liter should be the maximum allowable limit for domestic water supplies. Groundwater in certain parts of South Africa and Namibia contains nitrate in concentrations which exceed this limit. The CSIR's Natural Isotope Division has been studying the nitrogen isotope composition of the nitrate as an aid to investigation into the sources of this nitrate contamination

  7. Ammonium nitrate explosion hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Milanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (AN primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. The application of ammonium nitrate in the production of industrial explosives was related with the early era of Nobel dynamite and widely increased with the appearance of blasting agents such as ANFO and Slurry, in the middle of the last Century. Throughout the world millions of tons of ammonium nitrate are produced annually and handled without incident. Although ammonium nitrate generally is used safely, accidental explosions involving AN have high impact resulting in loss of lives and destruction of property. The paper presents the basic properties of ammonium nitrate as well as hazards in handling of ammonium nitrate in order to prevent accidents. Several accidents with explosions of ammonium nitrate resulted in catastrophic consequences are listed in the paper as examples of non-compliance with prescribed procedures.

  8. Kinetics of americium(VI) mass transfer through solid supported liquid membrane with HDEHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikheeva, M.N.; Novicoov, P.; Myasoedov, B.F.; Tikhomirov, S.V.

    1994-01-01

    The main regularities of membrane extraction of americium under conditions of different redox potentials in aqueous phases have been studied. The physico-chemical model of the process including steps of americium oxidation in feed solution, extraction by membrane, partial reduction on membrane surface, trans-membrane diffusion and reextraction to strip solution has been developed. The calculation of reduction rate constant on membrane surface has been carried out. (author) 9 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  9. In-line measurement of plutonium and americium in mixed solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.K.

    1981-01-01

    A solution assay instrument (SAI) has been developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and installed in the plutonium purification and americium recovery process area in the Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility. The instrument is designed for accurate, timely, and simultaneous nondestructive analysis of plutonium and americium in process solutions that have a wide range of concentrations and Am/Pu ratios. For a 25-mL sample, the assay precision is 5 g/L within a 2000-s count time

  10. Radiation protection data sheets for the use of Americium 241 in unsealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This radiation protection data sheet is intended for supervisors and staff in the different medical, hospital, pharmaceutical, university and industrial laboratories and departments where Americium 241 is handled, and also for all those involved in risk prevention in this field. It provides essential data on radiation protection measures during the use of Americium 241 in unsealed sources: physical characteristics, risk assessment, administrative procedures, recommendations, regulations and bibliography

  11. The transmutation of americium: the Ecrix experiments in Phenix; Transmutation de l'americium: les experiences ecrix dans Phenix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, J.C.; Schmidt, N. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles (DEC/SESC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Croixmarie, Y.; Ottaviani, J.P. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles (DEC/SPUA), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Varaine, F.; Saint Jean, C. de [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs (DER/SPRC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1999-07-01

    The first americium transmutation experiment in a specific target in PHENIX will occur with the ECRIX-B and ECRIX-H experiments. Beside material testing, the objective is also to represent a concept of transmutation whose specificity is to enhance the kinetics of transmutation by using a moderated spectrum. The moderator materials will be {sup 11}B{sub 4}C and CaH{sub 2} for ECRIX-B and ECRIXH respectively, the irradiation conditions have been predicted for both the neutronics and thermal. The targets (MgO-AmO{sub X} pellets) are manufactured in the ATALANTE laboratory and the design is performed according to the PHENIX operating conditions. (authors)

  12. The transmutation of americium: the Ecrix experiments in Phenix; Transmutation de l'americium: les experiences ecrix dans Phenix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, J C; Schmidt, N [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles (DEC/SESC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Croixmarie, Y; Ottaviani, J P [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles (DEC/SPUA), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Varaine, F; Saint Jean, C de [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs (DER/SPRC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1999-07-01

    The first americium transmutation experiment in a specific target in PHENIX will occur with the ECRIX-B and ECRIX-H experiments. Beside material testing, the objective is also to represent a concept of transmutation whose specificity is to enhance the kinetics of transmutation by using a moderated spectrum. The moderator materials will be {sup 11}B{sub 4}C and CaH{sub 2} for ECRIX-B and ECRIXH respectively, the irradiation conditions have been predicted for both the neutronics and thermal. The targets (MgO-AmO{sub X} pellets) are manufactured in the ATALANTE laboratory and the design is performed according to the PHENIX operating conditions. (authors)

  13. Biochemical fractionation and cellular distribution of americium and plutonium in the biomass of freshwater macrophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotina, T.A.; Kalacheva, G.S.; Bolsunovsky, A.Ya.

    2011-01-01

    Accumulation of americium ( 241 Am) and plutonium ( 238,242 Pu) and their distribution in cell compartments and biochemical components of the biomass of freshwater aquatic plants Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum and Myrioplyllum spicatum and aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica have been investigated in laboratory experiments. Americium and plutonium taken up from water by Elodea canadensis apical shoots were mainly absorbed by structural components of plant cells (90% for 241 Am; 89% for 238 Pu and 82-87% for 242 Pu). About 10-18% of isotope activity was recorded in the cytosol fraction. The major concentration (76-92%) of americium was bound to cell wall cellulose-like polysaccharides of Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum, Ceratophyllum demersum and Fontinalis antipyretica, 8-24% of americium activity was registered in the fraction of proteins and carbohydrates, and just a minor concentration (<1%) in the lipid fraction. The distribution of plutonium in the biomass fractions of Elodea was similar to that of americium. Hence, americium and plutonium had the highest affinity to cellulose-like polysaccharides of cell walls of freshwater submerged macrophytes. (author)

  14. Distribution of uranium, americium and plutonium in the biomass of freshwater macrophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotina, T.A.; Kalacheva, G.S.; Bolsunovsky, A.YA.

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of uranium ( 238 U), americium ( 241 Am) and plutonium ( 242 Pu) and their distribution in cell compartments and biochemical components of the biomass of aquatic plants Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Myrioplyllum spicatum and aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica have been investigated in laboratory batch experiments. Isotopes of uranium, americium and plutonium taken up from the water by Elodea canadensis apical shoots were mainly absorbed by cell walls, plasmalemma and organelles. A small portion of isotopes (about 6-13 %) could be dissolved in cytoplasm. The major portion (76-92 %) of americium was bound to cell wall cellulose-like polysaccharides of Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum, Ceratophyllum demersum and Fontinalis antipyretica, 8-23 % of americium activity was registered in the fraction of proteins and carbohydrates, and just a small portion (< 1%) in lipid fraction. The distribution of plutonium in the biomass fraction of Elodea was similar to that of americium. Hence, americium and plutonium had the highest affinity to cellulose-like polysaccharides in Elodea biomass. Distribution of uranium in the biomass of Elodea differed essentially from that of transuranium elements: a considerable portion of uranium was recorded in the fraction of protein and carbohydrates (51 %). From our data we can assume that uranium has higher affinity to carbohydrates than proteins. (authors)

  15. Distribution of uranium, americium and plutonium in the biomass of freshwater macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotina, T.A.; Kalacheva, G.S.; Bolsunovsky, A.YA. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    Accumulation of uranium ({sup 238}U), americium ({sup 241}Am) and plutonium ({sup 242}Pu) and their distribution in cell compartments and biochemical components of the biomass of aquatic plants Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Myrioplyllum spicatum and aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica have been investigated in laboratory batch experiments. Isotopes of uranium, americium and plutonium taken up from the water by Elodea canadensis apical shoots were mainly absorbed by cell walls, plasmalemma and organelles. A small portion of isotopes (about 6-13 %) could be dissolved in cytoplasm. The major portion (76-92 %) of americium was bound to cell wall cellulose-like polysaccharides of Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum, Ceratophyllum demersum and Fontinalis antipyretica, 8-23 % of americium activity was registered in the fraction of proteins and carbohydrates, and just a small portion (< 1%) in lipid fraction. The distribution of plutonium in the biomass fraction of Elodea was similar to that of americium. Hence, americium and plutonium had the highest affinity to cellulose-like polysaccharides in Elodea biomass. Distribution of uranium in the biomass of Elodea differed essentially from that of transuranium elements: a considerable portion of uranium was recorded in the fraction of protein and carbohydrates (51 %). From our data we can assume that uranium has higher affinity to carbohydrates than proteins. (authors)

  16. Effect of americium-241 on luminous bacteria. Role of peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrova, M., E-mail: maka-alexandrova@rambler.r [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Rozhko, T. [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Vydryakova, G. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kudryasheva, N. [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-15

    The effect of americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), an alpha-emitting radionuclide of high specific activity, on luminous bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum was studied. Traces of {sup 241}Am in nutrient media (0.16-6.67 kBq/L) suppressed the growth of bacteria, but enhanced luminescence intensity and quantum yield at room temperature. Lower temperature (4 {sup o}C) increased the time of bacterial luminescence and revealed a stage of bioluminescence inhibition after 150 h of bioluminescence registration start. The role of conditions of exposure the bacterial cells to the {sup 241}Am is discussed. The effect of {sup 241}Am on luminous bacteria was attributed to peroxide compounds generated in water solutions as secondary products of radioactive decay. Increase of peroxide concentration in {sup 241}Am solutions was demonstrated; and the similarity of {sup 241}Am and hydrogen peroxide effects on bacterial luminescence was revealed. The study provides a scientific basis for elaboration of bioluminescence-based assay to monitor radiotoxicity of alpha-emitting radionuclides in aquatic solutions. - Highlights: {yields} Am-241 in water solutions (A = 0.16-6.7 kBq/L) suppresses bacterial growth.{yields} Am-241 (A = 0.16-6.7 kBq/L) stimulate bacterial luminescence. {yields} Peroxides, secondary radiolysis products, cause increase of bacterial luminescence.

  17. Density of simulated americium/curium melter feed solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1997-01-01

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to Oak Ridge National Laboratory and use in heavy isotope production programs. Prior to vitrification, a series of in-tank oxalate precipitation and nitric/oxalic acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Following nitric acid dissolution and oxalate destruction, the solution will be denitrated and evaporated to a dissolved solids concentration of approximately 100 g/l (on an oxide basis). During the Am/Cm vitrification, an airlift will be used to supply the concentrated feed solution to a constant head tank which drains through a filter and an in-line orifice to the melter. Since the delivery system is sensitive to the physical properties of the feed, a simulated solution was prepared and used to measure the density as a function of temperature between 20 to 70 degrees C. The measured density decreased linearly at a rate of 0.0007 g/cm3/degree C from an average value of 1.2326 g/cm 3 at 20 degrees C to an average value of 1.1973g/cm 3 at 70 degrees C

  18. Americium/Curium Melter 2A Pilot Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.E.; Fellinger, A.P.; Jones, T.M.; Miller, C.B.; Miller, D.H.; Snyder, T.K.; Stone, M.E.; Witt, D.C.

    1998-05-01

    Isotopes of americium (Am) and curium (Cm) were produced in the past at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for research, medical, and radiological applications. These highly radioactive and valuable isotopes have been stored in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years. Vitrification of this solution will allow the material to be more safely stored until it is transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation for use in research and medical applications. To this end, the Am/Cm Melter 2A pilot system, a full-scale non- radioactive pilot plant of the system to be installed at the reprocessing facility, was designed, constructed and tested. The full- scale pilot system has a frit and aqueous feed delivery system, a dual zone bushing melter, and an off-gas treatment system. The main items which were tested included the dual zone bushing melter, the drain tube with dual heating and cooling zones, glass compositions, and the off-gas system which used for the first time a film cooler/lower melter plenum. Most of the process and equipment were proven to function properly, but several problems were found which will need further work. A system description and a discussion of test results will be given

  19. Americium adsorption on the surface of macrophytic algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, F.P.; Fowler, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Data are presented on the rates at which americium (Am) deposits upon blade surfaces of three benthic algal species (Ulva rigida, Fucus vesiculosus and Gigartina stellata) following short-term exposures (1-6 h). Am is taken up in direct proportion to the ambient radionuclide concentration in sea water. Uptake by the green alga was 3 to 5 times greater than that for the brown and red species. Experimental evidence indicated that Am accumulation is a passive process and that adsorption takes place mainly on the thin outer organic coating of the seaweed. The Am transport coefficients are quite similar to that previously found for the naturally occurring ..cap alpha..-emitter /sup 210/Po, but are an order of magnitude lower than a plutonium transport coefficient reported in the literature. Release of labelled extracellular products associated with the algal surface coating is considered to be responsible for the rapid loss of Am observed previously in macroalgae and may in fact serve as a mechanism for transferring Am to filter feeding zooplankton. (author).

  20. Americium adsorption on the surface of macrophytic algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.P.; Fowler, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Data are presented on the rates at which americium (Am) deposits upon blade surfaces of three benthic algal species (Ulva rigida, Fucus vesiculosus and Gigartina stellata) following short-term exposures (1-6 h). Am is taken up in direct proportion to the ambient radionuclide concentration in sea water. Uptake by the green alga was 3 to 5 times greater than that for the brown and red species. Experimental evidence indicated that Am accumulation is a passive process and that adsorption takes place mainly on the thin outer organic coating of the seaweed. The Am transport coefficients are quite similar to that previously found for the naturally occurring α-emitter 210 Po, but are an order of magnitude lower than a plutonium transport coefficient reported in the literature. Release of labelled extracellular products associated with the algal surface coating is considered to be responsible for the rapid loss of Am observed previously in macroalgae and may in fact serve as a mechanism for transferring Am to filter feeding zooplankton. (author)

  1. Density of simulated americium/curium melter feed solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1997-09-22

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to Oak Ridge National Laboratory and use in heavy isotope production programs. Prior to vitrification, a series of in-tank oxalate precipitation and nitric/oxalic acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Following nitric acid dissolution and oxalate destruction, the solution will be denitrated and evaporated to a dissolved solids concentration of approximately 100 g/l (on an oxide basis). During the Am/Cm vitrification, an airlift will be used to supply the concentrated feed solution to a constant head tank which drains through a filter and an in-line orifice to the melter. Since the delivery system is sensitive to the physical properties of the feed, a simulated solution was prepared and used to measure the density as a function of temperature between 20 to 70{degrees} C. The measured density decreased linearly at a rate of 0.0007 g/cm3/{degree} C from an average value of 1.2326 g/cm{sup 3} at 20{degrees} C to an average value of 1.1973g/cm{sup 3} at 70{degrees} C.

  2. Cloning and nitrate induction of nitrate reductase mRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chi-Lien; Dewdney, Julia; Kleinhofs, Andris; Goodman, Howard M.

    1986-01-01

    Nitrate is the major source of nitrogen taken from the soil by higher plants but requires reduction to ammonia prior to incorporation into amino acids. The first enzyme in the reducing pathway is a nitrate-inducible enzyme, nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.1). A specific polyclonal antiserum raised against purified barley nitrate reductase has been used to immunoprecipitate in vivo labeled protein and in vitro translation products, demonstrating that nitrate induction increases nitrate reductase p...

  3. Agricultural nitrate pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner

    2015-01-01

    Despite the passing of almost 25 years since the adoption of the EU Nitrates Directive, agricultural nitrate pollution remains a major concern in most EU Member States. This is also the case in Denmark, although a fairly strict regulatory regime has resulted in almost a 50 per cent reduction...

  4. Nitrate leaching index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nitrate Leaching Index is a rapid assessment tool that evaluates nitrate (NO3) leaching potential based on basic soil and climate information. It is the basis for many nutrient management planning efforts, but it has considerable limitations because of : 1) an oversimplification of the processes...

  5. Molecular localisation of americium, technetium and cesium in edible marine animals. Their metabolic behavior and their consequences; Localisation moleculaire de l'americium, du technetium et du cesium chez des animaux marins comestibles leur comportement metabolique et ses consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieri, J; Goudard, F; Milcent, M C [Laboratoire de Biochimie et Radiochimie, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, Nantes Cedex (France)

    1992-07-01

    We show the molecular behavior of americium, technetium and cesium on the chromatographic pattern of each cytosol in the digestive gland of eel and lobster. The contamination by cadmium seems to compete with americium in the fractions of MW 10,000. Cesium shows an ionic behavior. (author)

  6. Environmental impact of a teratogenic actinide: a case study of americium-241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Yang, J.Y.

    1985-10-16

    Americium-241 is widely used as a radiation source, but it also has some potential risk if taken into the body. Although the radiotoxicity of americium-241 is small compared to other transuranic actinides, its effects on the reproductive system and on development of the placenta are more damaging than the effects of plutonium-239. A previous report based on a worst-case scenario involving a hypothetical fire accident in a contaminated facility indicated that there could have been a significant impact on nearby residents from a unit release of americium-241 via atmospheric dispersion. However, because the facility is located in a rural region where most drinking water supplies are drawn from private wells, it is believed that deposition of americium-241 from the atmosphere might also have impacts via the groundwater pathway by infiltration of rainwater. In this analysis, a three-dimensional analytical mathematical model is used to assess several aspects of americium-241 contamination of groundwater, including radioactive transformation, advection, dispersion, and soil sorption. Simulation results indicate that no significant radiological impacts would occur to the nearby residents via the groundwater pathway. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. The availability of plutonium and americium in Irish Sea sediments for re-dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, P.; Vives i Batlle, J.; Bousher, A.; Whittall, A.; Chambers, N.

    2001-01-01

    The availability of plutonium and americium, for re-dissolution from offshore sediments into Irish Sea water, has been examined. Sediments collected from the mud-patch near the Cumbrian coast were characterized in terms of spatial location, particle size, partitioning of radionuclides with respect to physico-chemical bonds and availability of actinides for release into seawater. Sequential extraction investigations revealed that plutonium was predominantly associated with strongly bound sesquioxide and organic complex fractions. Americium was associated mainly with the organic complex fraction, but a significant fraction was in carbonate form. Sediment/water re-dissolution experiments with and without stirring were compared to simulate the effect of disturbing bed sediment. After 1 week, neither set of re-dissolution data provided significant trends between dissolved activity and time. Stirred systems appeared to release 2.5 times more plutonium and americium into seawater than unstirred systems. Measured 239,240Pu and 241Am distribution coefficients (K d values) were both typically approximately 10 5 l kg -1 . 241Am K d values are an order of magnitude lower than previously reported for the north-eastern Irish Sea, but similar to western Irish Sea values. Overall, the fractions of plutonium and americium available for re-dissolution from bed sediment are very low at <0.1%, with proportionally more plutonium being released than americium. These findings lend further support for the extrapolation of laboratory-derived information to environmental conditions

  8. Environmental impact of a teratogenic actinide: a case study of americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Yang, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Americium-241 is widely used as a radiation source, but it also has some potential risk if taken into the body. Although the radiotoxicity of americium-241 is small compared to other transuranic actinides, its effects on the reproductive system and on development of the placenta are more damaging than the effects of plutonium-239. A previous report based on a worst-case scenario involving a hypothetical fire accident in a contaminated facility indicated that there could have been a significant impact on nearby residents from a unit release of americium-241 via atmospheric dispersion. However, because the facility is located in a rural region where most drinking water supplies are drawn from private wells, it is believed that deposition of americium-241 from the atmosphere might also have impacts via the groundwater pathway by infiltration of rainwater. In this analysis, a three-dimensional analytical mathematical model is used to assess several aspects of americium-241 contamination of groundwater, including radioactive transformation, advection, dispersion, and soil sorption. Simulation results indicate that no significant radiological impacts would occur to the nearby residents via the groundwater pathway. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Mobility of plutonium and americium through a shallow aquifer in a semiarid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, W.R.; Polzer, W.L.; Essington, E.H.; Nelson, D.M.; Orlandini, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    Treated liquid wastes containing traces of plutonium and americium are released into Mortandad Canyon, within the site of Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM. The wastes infiltrate a small aquifer within the canyon. Although laboratory studies have predicted that the movement of actinides in subsurface environments will be limited to less than a few meters, both plutonium and americium are detectable in monitoring wells as far as 3,390 m downgradient from the discharge. Between the first and last monitoring wells (1.8 and 3.4 km from the discharge), plutonium concentrations decreased exponentially from 1,400 to 0.55 mBq/L. Americium concentrations ranged between 94 and 1,240 mBq/L, but did not appear to vary in a systematic way with distance. Investigation of the properties of the mobile actinides indicates that the plutonium and part of the americium are tightly or irreversibly associated with colloidal material between 25 and 450 nm in size. The colloidally bound actinides are removed only gradually from the groundwater. The fraction of the americium not associated with colloids exists in a low molecular weight form (diameter, ≤ 2 nm) and appears to be a stable, anionic complex of unknown composition. The mobile forms of these actinides defeat the forces that normally act to retard their movement through groundwater systems

  10. Preliminary results from uranium/americium affinity studies under experimental conditions for cesium removal from NPP ''Kozloduy'' simulated wastes solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforova, A.; Kinova, L.; Peneva, C.; Taskaeva, I.; Petrova, P.

    2005-01-01

    We use the approach described by Westinghouse Savannah River Company using ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) to remove elevated concentrations of radioactive cesium to facilitate handling waste samples from NPP K ozloduy . Preliminary series of tests were carried out to determine the exact conditions for sufficient cesium removal from five simulated waste solutions with concentrations of compounds, whose complexing power complicates any subsequent processing. Simulated wastes solutions contain high concentrations of nitrates, borates, H 2 C 2 O 4 , ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and Citric acid, according to the composition of the real waste from the NPP. On this basis a laboratory treatment protocol was created. This experiment is a preparation for the analysis of real waste samples. In this sense the results are preliminary. Unwanted removal of non-cesium radioactive species from simulated waste solutions was studied with gamma spectrometry with the aim to find a compromise between on the one hand the AMP effectiveness and on the other hand unwanted affinity to AMP of Uranium and Americium. Success for the treatment protocol is defined by proving minimal uptake of U and Am, while at the same time demonstrating good removal effectiveness through the use of AMP. Uptake of U and Am were determined as influenced by oxidizing agents at nitric acid concentrations, proposed by Savannah River National laboratory. It was found that AMP does not significantly remove U and Am when concentration of oxidizing agents is more than 0.1M for simulated waste solutions and for contact times inherent in laboratory treatment protocol. Uranium and Americium affinity under experimental conditions for cesium removal were evaluated from gamma spectrometric data. Results are given for the model experiment and an approach for the real waste analysis is chosen. Under our experimental conditions simulated wastes solutions showed minimal affinity to AMP when U and Am are most probably in

  11. Molecular localisation of americium, technetium and cesium in edible marine animals. Their metabolic behavior and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieri, J.; Goudard, F.; Milcent, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    We show the molecular behavior of americium, technetium and cesium on the chromatographic pattern of each cytosol in the digestive gland of eel and lobster. The contamination by cadmium seems to compete with americium in the fractions of MW 10,000. Cesium shows an ionic behavior. (author)

  12. Organic components and plutonium and americium state in soils and soil solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolik, G.A.; Ovsyannikova, S.V.; Kimlenko, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    The fraction composition of humus substances of different type soils and soil solutions have been studied. A distribution of Pu 239, 240 and Am 241 between humus substances fractions of different dispersity and mobility in soil-vegetation cover has been established. It was shown that humus of organic soils fixes plutonium and americium in soil medium in greater extent than humus of mineral soils. That leads to lower migration ability of radionuclides in organic soils. The lower ability of americium to form difficultly soluble organic and organic-mineral complexes and predomination of its anion complexes in soil solutions may be a reason of higher mobility and biological availability of americium in comparison to plutonium during soil-plant transfer (authors)

  13. Transmutation of Americium in Light and Heavy Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R.; Edwards, G.W.R. [Chalk River Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (Canada); Ellis, R.J.; Gehin, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Maldonado, G.I. [University of Tennessee (Knoxville)/ORNL, Tennessee (United States)

    2009-06-15

    There is interest worldwide in reducing the burden on geological nuclear fuel disposal sites. In most disposal scenarios the decay heat loading of the surrounding rock limits the capacity of these sites. On the long term, this decay heat is generated primarily by actinides, and a major contributor 100 to 1000 years after discharge from the reactor is {sup 241}Am. One possible approach to reducing the decay-heat burden is to reprocess spent reactor fuel and use thermal spectrum reactors to 'burn' the Am nuclides. The viability of this approach is dependent upon the detailed changes in chemical and isotopic composition of actinide-bearing fuels after irradiation in thermal reactor spectra. The currently available thermal spectrum reactor options include light water-reactors (LWRs) and heavy-water reactors (HWRs) such as the CANDU{sup R} designs. In addition, as a result of the recycle of spent LWR fuel, there would be a considerable amount of potential recycled uranium (RU). One proposed solution for the recycled uranium is to use it as fuel in Candu reactors. This paper investigates the possibilities of transmuting americium in 'spiked' bundles in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and in boiling water reactors (BWRs). Transmutation of Am in Candu reactors is also examined. One scenario studies a full core fuelled with homogeneous bundles of Am mixed with recycled uranium, while a second scenario places Am in an inert matrix in target channels in a Candu reactor, with the rest of the reactor fuelled with RU. A comparison of the transmutation in LWRs and HWRs is made, in terms of the fraction of Am that is transmuted and the impact on the decay heat of the spent nuclear fuel. CANDU{sup R} is a registered trademark of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). (authors)

  14. The rapid determination of americium curium, and uranium in urine by ultrafiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.N.; Popplewell, D.S.; Ham, G.J.; Griffin, R.

    1975-01-01

    The rapid ultrafiltration method developed for the assay of plutonium has been extended to the determination of americium, curium and uranium in urine. The limits of detection for americium and curium, and uranium are 0.09 and 0.12 dm -1 l -1 respectively, and the analysis time excluding counting less than 2 hours. The method can therefor be effectively used as a rapid screening procedure. When the reference level for plutonium is exceeded, the α activity may require to be characterised. The single ultrafiltration technique must be modified for turbid urine samples. The method is inappropriate, except for uranium, when the urine contains DTPA. (author)

  15. Carbamoyl methylphosphine oxide derivatives of adamantane as americium and europium extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babain, V.A.; Alyapyshev, M.Yu.; Novakov, I.A.; Orlinson, B.S.; Savel'ev, E.N.; Shokova, Eh.A.; Serebrayannikova, A.E.; Kovalev, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    Adamantane di-1,3-carbamoyl methylphosphine oxide (CMPO) derivatives, where CMPO-groups connect with 1,3-positions of rigid adamantane platform by methylene and ethylene bridges, are synthesized, and their efficiency as extractants of americium(III) and europium(III) from nitric acid solutions is demonstrated. Distribution function of Am 3+ and Eu + during extraction from 3M HNO 3 are measured in the investigation of extraction properties. It is noted that first synthesized adamantane CMPO derivatives are more effective for the extraction of americium(III) and europium(III) from 3MHNO 3 [ru

  16. Airborne plutonium and americium concentrations measured from the top of Rattlesnake Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne plutonium-239+240 and americium-241 blowing from offsite was measured in an initial experiment at the top of Rattlesnake Mountain. Average airborne concentration measured was similar to fallout concentrations. Airborne plutonium concentrations were independent of wind speed for seven wind speed increments between 0.5 and 31 m/sec. In contrast the airborne americium concentration was a minimum at a wind speed of approximately 7 m/sec. Similarly, the airborne solids concentration in μg/m 3 was a minimum at an intermediate wind speed increment of 7 to 11 m/sec

  17. 'Americium(III)/trivalent lanthanides' separation using organothiophosphinic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.; Madic, C.; Baron, P.; Ozawa, Masaki; Tanaka, Yasumasa.

    1997-01-01

    The present paper describes the extraction of neodymium and other lanthanides by saponified Cyanex 301 acid. The saponification of commercial Cyanex 301 acid favoured the extraction of macro concentrations of neodymium from sodium nitrate aqueous solutions (pH eq ∼ 4). The amount of lanthanide extracted in the organic phase always reached the third of the initial concentration of saponified Cyanex 301 acid, which assumed a cation exchange mechanism to occur during the extraction. No nitrate anion took part in the complex formation. This paper also compares the abilities of purified Cyanex 301, Cyanex 302 and Cyanex 272 acids to extract and separate 241 Am(III) from 152 Eu(III). Very high separation factors S.F. Am/Eu were observed in the case of purified Cyanex 301 acid. Finally some studies are presented herein using tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) as a synergistic extractant with Cyanex 301 acid to separate actinides from trivalent lanthanide. (author)

  18. Thermochemical nitrate reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.L.; Lilga, M.A.; Hallen, R.T.

    1992-09-01

    A series of preliminary experiments was conducted directed at thermochemically converting nitrate to nitrogen and water. Nitrates are a major constituent of the waste stored in the underground tanks on the Hanford Site, and the characteristics and effects of nitrate compounds on stabilization techniques must be considered before permanent disposal operations begin. For the thermochemical reduction experiments, six reducing agents (ammonia, formate, urea, glucose, methane, and hydrogen) were mixed separately with ∼3 wt% NO 3 - solutions in a buffered aqueous solution at high pH (13); ammonia and formate were also mixed at low pH (4). Reactions were conducted in an aqueous solution in a batch reactor at temperatures of 200 degrees C to 350 degrees C and pressures of 600 to 2800 psig. Both gas and liquid samples were analyzed. The specific components analyzed were nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and ammonia. Results of experimental runs showed the following order of nitrate reduction of the six reducing agents in basic solution: formate > glucose > urea > hydrogen > ammonia ∼ methane. Airnmonia was more effective under acidic conditions than basic conditions. Formate was also effective under acidic conditions. A more thorough, fundamental study appears warranted to provide additional data on the mechanism of nitrate reduction. Furthermore, an expanded data base and engineering feasibility study could be used to evaluate conversion conditions for promising reducing agents in more detail and identify new reducing agents with improved performance characteristics

  19. Experimental studies to validate model calculations and maximum solubility limits for Plutonium and Americium; Experimentelle Arbeiten zur Absicherung von Modellrechnungen und Maximalkonzentrationen fuer Plutonium und Americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-02-16

    This report focuses on studies of KIT-INE to derive a significantly improved description of the chemical behaviour of Americium and Plutonium in saline NaCl, MgCl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} brine systems. The studies are based on new experimental data and aim at deriving reliable Am and Pu solubility limits for the investigated systems as well as deriving comprehensive thermodynamic model descriptions. Both aspects are of high relevance in the context of potential source term estimations for Americium and Plutonium in aqueous brine systems and related scenarios. Americium and Plutonium are long-lived alpha emitting radionuclides which due to their high radiotoxicity need to be accounted for in a reliable and traceable way. The hydrolysis of trivalent actinides and the effect of highly alkaline pH conditions on the solubility of trivalent actinides in calcium chloride rich brine solutions were investigated and a thermodynamic model derived. The solubility of Plutonium in saline brine systems was studied under reducing and non-reducing conditions and is described within a new thermodynamic model. The influence of dissolved carbonate on Americium and Plutonium solubility in MgCl{sub 2} solutions was investigated and quantitative information on Am and Pu solubility limits in these systems derived. Thermodynamic constants and model parameter derived in this work are implemented in the Thermodynamic Reference Database THEREDA owned by BfS. According to the quality assurance approach in THEREDA, is was necessary to publish parts of this work in peer-reviewed scientific journals. The publications are focused on solubility experiments, spectroscopy of aquatic and solid species and thermodynamic data. (Neck et al., Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 81, (2009), pp. 1555-1568., Altmaier et al., Radiochimica Acta, 97, (2009), pp. 187-192., Altmaier et al., Actinide Research Quarterly, No 2., (2011), pp. 29-32.).

  20. Adsorption-desorption characteristics of plutonium and americium with sediment particles in the estuarine environment: studies using plutonium-237 and americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C.N.; Fukai, R.

    1975-01-01

    The particle formation of plutonium and americium, their adsorption onto fresh water sediments and the desorption from the sediments in sea water were studied in the Laboratory under simulated river-estuary conditions, using γ-emitting plutonium-237 and americium-241. The results of the experiments show that the particle formation of plutonium depends on its valence states, on pH and on the salinity of the medium. For river water at pH4, some 25%, 20% and 30% of the added 237 Pu was in particulate form, larger than 0.45 μm, for Pu (III), Pu (IV) and Pu (VI), respectively, while 65%, 90% and 50% of the respective valence states was associated with particles at pH 8. In sea water the general pattern remains similar, although Pu (VI) is more soluble in sea water owing to higher ligand concentrations for carbonate and bicarbonate complexes. The pH-dependency of particle formation of Am (III) is more steep than that of plutonium and seems to be influenced by colloidal substances occurring in the experimental media. The adsorption-desorption characteristics of plutonium and americium with the sediment in river water as well as sea water reflect the characteristics of their particle formation, being dependent upon such properties as valence states, the pH and salinity of the medium. A sewage effluent added to the media has small but measurable effects on the adsorption-desorption processes of plutonium. (author)

  1. Possibility of obtaining enriched americium-242g by the elution of recoil atoms from zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafiev, A I; Vityutnev, V M; Ivanov, V M; Yakovlev, G N

    1974-12-31

    On the example of production the possibility of obtaining enriched actinide isotopes by the elution of recotl atoms with the use of a zeolite- americium-241 target was shown. The enrichment factor and the recoil atoms of / sup 242g/Am yield depend on preliminary target treatment and solution composition used for elution. (auth)

  2. Environmental impacts of the release of a transuranic actinide, americium-241, from a contaminated facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Want, J.; Merry-Libby, P.

    1985-10-29

    Americium-241 is widely used as a radiation source, but it also has some potential risk if taken into the body because of its high dose conversion factor. Although the radiotoxicity of americium-241 is small compared to other transuranic actinides, its effects on the reproductive system and on development of the placenta are more damaging than the effects of plutonium-239. In Ohio, a gemologist's laboratory was contaminated with americium-241. Prior to decontamination of the laboratory, potential radiological impacts to the surrounding environment were assessed. A hypothetical fire accident resulting in a unit release (1 curie) was assumed. Potential radiological impacts were simulated using an atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry model with local meteorological data, population census data, and detailed information regarding the neighborhood. The results indicate that there could have been a significant impact on nearby residents from americium-241 via atmospheric dispersion if a major catastrophic release had occurred prior to contamination and decommissioning of the laboratory. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Explosion of cation exchange column in americium recovery service, Hanford plant, August 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This document is a collection of thirty references related to the explosion of the cation exchange column in the Americium Recovery Service of the Hanford Atomic Products Operation, Richland, Washington, on August 30, 1976. Some of the documents are related to the design and safety studies, while others refer to the accident and resulting decontamination efforts, investigations, and legal consequences

  4. Total and Compound Formation Cross Sections for Americium Nuclei: Recommendations for Coupled-Channels Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    Calculations for total cross sections and compound-nucleus (CN) formation cross sections for americium isotopes are described, for use in the 2017 NA-22 evaluation effort. The code ECIS 2006 was used in conjunction with Frank Dietrich's wrapper `runtemplate'.

  5. Plutonium and americium in arctic waters, the North Sea and Scottish and Irish coastal zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallstadius, L.; Aarkrog, Asker; Dahlgaard, Henning

    1986-01-01

    Plutonium and americium have been measured in surface waters of the Greenland and Barents Seas and in the northern North Sea from 1980 through 1984. Measurements in water and biota, Fucus, Mytilus and Patella, were carried out in North-English and Scottish waters in 1982 and Fucus samples were co...

  6. National low-level waste management program radionuclide report series, Volume 14: Americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, M.R.; Garcia, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    This report, Volume 14 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of americium-241 ( 241 Am). This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which 241 Am can be found and 241 Am behavior in the environment and in the human body

  7. Radiochemical separation and alpha-spectrometric determination of Americium in different matrixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radenkovic, M.; Joksic, J.; Paligoric, D.

    2009-01-01

    A method of separation and alpha-spectrometric determination of americium, developed in VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences is described in the paper. The procedure is convenient to be used for 241 Am determination in environmental matrixes as well as samples of human origin if a very small concentrations are expected, using 243 Am as a tracer for radiochemical yield recovery. (author) [sr

  8. Biokinetic study of plutonium and americium associated to the particulates of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, A.; Aragon, A.; Martinez, J.; Iranzo, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    The object of this study is to determine the biokinetic parameters of different Plutonium isotopes and Americium inhaled in the state in which they are found in the environment as a result of their deposition in the soil, from an aviation accident that generated different plutonium oxides. to achieve this objective, two lines of work planned. One was the determination of the mineralogical composition and associations that plutonium and americium present in that soil 22 years after the nuclear accident. Other studies were directed to determine the biokinetic of the plutonium isotopes and americium (contained in the dust) deposited tracheally and inhaled by laboratory animals (rats) and in vitro experiments by pulmonary leaching simulation. The in vivo tests have been developed in NRPB (U.K.) and the in vitro experiment, geochemical associations studies, assessment of internal doses to humans resulting from intake of plutonium and americium bearing dusts present in the contaminated area and establishment of ALIs for inhalation, were carried out in CIEMAT (Spain). In this work only determinations and experiments carried out by CIEMAT are includes as a part of the EU Project ''INHALATION AND INGESTION OF RADIONUCLIDES'' contract: FI3P-CT920064a. (Author) 10 refs

  9. Speciation and bioavailability of plutonium and americium in the Irish Sea and other marine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives i Batlle, J.

    1993-12-01

    Since the late 1960s, the Irish Sea has become a repository for a variety of radio-elements originating mainly in discharges from the British Nuclear Fuels (BNF) plc. Sellafield reprocessing complex located on the Cumbrian coast. In particular, transuranium nuclides such as plutonium, americium and curium (the main constituents of the α-emitting discharges) have become incorporated into every marine compartment by a variety of mechanisms, many of which are not well understood. Although extensive studies have been carried out in the near-field (eastern Irish Sea, especially in the vicinity of the discharge point and collateral muddy sediments), comparatively little had been done to assess the long-term behaviour and bioavailability of plutonium and americium in the far-field, e.g., the western Irish Sea, prior to the present study. In this dissertation, the results of an extensive research programme, undertaken in order to improve and refine our understanding of the behaviour of plutonium and americium in the marine environment, are presented. Specifically, the thesis details the results of (and conclusions deduced from) a series of experiments in which the physical and chemical speciation, colloidal association, mobility and bioavailability of plutonium and americium were examined in diverse environments including the Irish Sea and the Mediterranean. (author)

  10. Determination of specific activity of americium and plutonium in selected environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebunova, T.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work was development of method for determination of americium and plutonium in environmental samples. Developed method was evaluated on soil samples and after they was applied on selected samples of fishes (smoked mackerel, herring and fillet from Alaska hake). The method for separation of americium is based on liquid separation with Aliquate-336, precipitation with oxalic acid and using of chromatographic material TRU-Spec TM .The intervals of radiochemical yields were from 13.0% to 80.9% for plutonium-236 and from 10.5% to 100% for americium-241. Determined specific activities of plutonium-239,240 were from (2.3 ± 1.4) mBq/kg to (82 ± 29) mBq/kg, the specific activities of plutonium-238 were from (14.2 ± 3.7) mBq/kg to (708 ± 86) mBq/kg. The specific activities of americium-241 were from (1.4 ± 0.9) mBq/kg to (3360 ± 210) mBq/kg. The fishes from Baltic Sea as well as from North Sea show highest specific activities then fresh-water fishes from Slovakia. Therefore the monitoring of alpha radionuclides in foods imported from territories with nuclear testing is recommended

  11. Reactivity of Metal Nitrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-20

    02NOCuOH Any mechanism suggested for the nitration of aromatic systems by titanium(IV) nitrate must take into account the observed similarity, in...occurs. -26- References 1. For recent reviews see (a) R. B. Moodie and K. Schofield, Accounts Chem. Res., 1976, 9, 287; (b) G. A. Olah and S. J. Kuhn...Ithaca, N.Y., 1969, Chapter VI; L. M. Stock, Prog. Phys. Org. Chem., 1976, 12, 21; J. G. Hoggett , R. B. Moodie, J. R. Penton, and K. Schofield

  12. Interaction and diffusion transport of americium in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Guinart, Oriol; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry department, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    The final disposal of High Level Radioactive Wastes (HLRW) is based on its long-term storage in underground facilities located in geological stable sites with a multi-barrier system, the so called Deep Geological Repositories (DGR), that will keep HLRW confined for >10.000 years. After this period of time, leachates rich in long-live radioisotopes might escape from DGR and start to transport towards the biosphere. There is still a lack of information concerning the interaction and transport in soils of some radionuclides present in HLRW, especially for radionuclides that present a high sorption, such as americium (Am). Having reliable information about the mobility of radionuclides in soils is crucial in order to develop risk assessment models and to take proper decisions in case of soil contamination. The aim of the present work was, by means of laboratory scale experiments, to study the interaction and, for first time, to evaluate the diffusion transport of {sup 241}Am in soils. The {sup 241}Am interaction in soils was assessed by applying sorption batch assays to 20 soil samples with contrasted edaphic properties which allowed us to quantify the solid-liquid distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) and desorption percentage. K{sub d} (Am) values ranged from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 5} L kg{sup -1} and desorption percentages were always less than 2% which denoted a high capacity of the soil to incorporate the Am and a low reversibility of the sorption process. The influence of soil properties in {sup 241}Am interaction was studied by means of multiple linear and multivariate regressions. Although a single correlation between K{sub d} (Am) values and a soil property was not found, the main properties affecting {sup 241}Am interaction in soils were soil pH, carbonate and organic matter contents in the soil. Finally, additional batch assays at different controlled pH were done to study Am sorption as a function of the contact solution pH. A variation of the Am sorption

  13. Phase extraction equilibria in systems rare earth (3) nitrates-ammonium nitrate-water-trialkylmethylammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyartman, A.K.; Kopyrin, A.A.; Puzikov, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of rare earth metals (3) between aqueous and organic phases in the systems rare earth metal (3) (praseodymium-lutetium (3), yttrium (3)) nitrate-ammonium nitrate-water-trialkylmethylammonium (kerosene diluent nitrate has been studied. It is shown that in organic phase di- and trisolvates of metals (3) with tralkylmethylammonium nitrate are formed. The influence of concentration of rare earth metal (3) nitrate and ammonium nitrate on the values of extraction concentrational constants has been ascertained: they decrease with increase in the ordinal number of lanthanide (3). 11 refs., 4 figs. 1 tab

  14. Nitrate Leaching Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrate (NO3) leaching is a significant nitrogen (N) loss process for agriculture that must be managed to minimize NO3 enrichment of groundwater and surface waters. Managing NO3 leaching should involve the application of basic principles of understanding the site’s hydrologic cycle, avoiding excess ...

  15. Local Structure in Americium and Californium Hexa-cyanoferrates - Comparison with Their Lanthanide Analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupouy, G.; Bonhoure, I.; Dumas, Th.; Moisy, Ph.; Petit, S.; Den Auwer, Ch.; Conradson, St.D.; Hennig, Ch.; Scheinost, A.C.; Le Naour, C.; Simoni, E.

    2011-01-01

    Metal hexa-cyanoferrates are well known molecular solids for a large variety of cations, although very little has been described for actinide adducts. Two new members of actinide(III) hexa-cyanoferrates were synthesized with the cations americium and californium. They were structurally characterized by infrared and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Combined EXAFS data at the iron K edge and actinide L 3 edge provide evidence for a three-dimensional model for these two new compounds. Structural data in terms of bond lengths were compared to those reported for the parent lanthanide(III) compounds, neodymium and gadolinium hexa-cyanoferrates, respectively: the americium compound with (KNd(III)Fe(II)-Fe-III(CN) 6 .4H 2 O and the californium compound with (KGd(III)Fe(II)(CN) . 3.5H 2 O and (KGd(III)Fe(II)(CN) 6 .3H 2 O. This comparison between actinide and lanthanide homologues has been carried out on the basis of ionic radii considerations. The americium and neodymium environments appear to be very similar and are arranged in a tri-capped trigonal prism polyhedron of coordination number 9 (CN: 9), in which the americium atom is bonded to six nitrogen atoms and to three water molecules. For the californium adduct, a similar comparison and bond length and angle values derived from EXAFS studies suggest that the californium cation sits in a bi-capped trigonal prism (CN: 8) as in (KGd(III)Fe(II)(CN) 6 . 3H 2 O. This arrangement differs from that in the structure of (KGd(III)Fe(II)(CN) 6 .3.5H 2 O, in which the gadolinium atom is surrounded by 9 atoms. This is one of the rare pieces of information revealed by EXAFS spectroscopy for americium and californium in comparison to lanthanide atoms in molecular solid compounds. A discussion on the decrease in bond length and coordination number from americium to californium is also provided, on the basis of crystallographic results reported in the literature for actinide(III) and lanthanide(III) hydrate series. (authors)

  16. Waterproofing Materials for Ammonium Nitrate

    OpenAIRE

    R.S. Damse

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the possibility of overcoming the problem of hygroscopicity of ammonium nitrate by coating the particles with selected waterproofing materials. Gravimetric analysis ofthe samples of ammonium nitrate coated with eight different waterproofing materials, vis-a-vis, uncoated ammonium nitrate, were conducted at different relative humidity and exposuretime. The results indicate that mineral jelly is the promising waterproofing material for ammonium nitrate among the materials te...

  17. Electric resistivity of 241-americium and 244-curium metals. Creation of defects and isochronous annealing of 241-americium metal after self-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, R.

    1977-03-01

    The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity of thin films of bulk 241 Am metal were measured between 300 and 4.5 K. The room temperature resistivity was found to be 68.90μΩcm. At room temperature the electrical resistivity of americium increases with pressure (3% up to 13 kbar). The application of 13 kbar pressure did not change the low temperature power law in the electrical resistivity. The resistivity vs temperature curve can be explained by assuming s-d scattering of conduction electrons. The localized 5f electrons are considered to be about 5eV below the Fermi level. Americium therefore should be the first lanthanide-like element in the actinide series. The defect production due to self-irradiation damage was studied by measuring the increase of the resistivity at 4.2 K over a period of 738 h. A saturation resistivity of 16.036 μΩcm was found corresponding to a defect concentration of about 0.22 a/o. After isochronal annealing two recovery stages were observed at about 65 and 145 K. The two stages shift with increasing initial defect concentration to lower temperatures. Estimates of the activation energies and the reaction order were made and possible defect reactions suggested. The magnetic contribution to the electrical resistivity of curium, which shows an antiferromagnetic transition at 52.5 k, was obtained by subtracting the resistivity of americium (to be considered as phonon part). Comparison with theoretical models were made. At low temperatures the measurements are strongly affected by self-irradiation damage [drho/dt(t=0)=9.8μΩcm/h

  18. Structural characterisations and mechanistic investigations of the selective dissolution of americium by the ferricyanide ions in alkaline media. Application for the partitioning americium curium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouchard, Sebastien

    2000-01-01

    Americium exhibits a high solubility form in basic media under oxidant conditions, unlike the other Transplutonium elements (TPE). This property can be used in the frame of High Level Liquid Waste (HLLW) treatment in order to extract preferentially the americium element, the main responsible of the long term radiotoxicity of the nuclear waste. This soluble compound can be obtained by addition of a concentrated basic solution of Fe(CN) 6 3- ions on Am(OH) 3 precipitates. This technique enables a rapid extraction of Am by the synthesis of this soluble form in alkaline solutions. Under these conditions, the other TPE remain in the solid state as trivalent hydroxide solids, strongly insoluble. In the case of dissolutions involving large amounts of Am(OH) 3 , the formation of the soluble complex is concomitant with the appearance of a reddish precipitate in the basic solution. Dissolution experiments which were carried out on this solid in NaOH/Fe(CN) 6 3- have demonstrated the dependency of the solubility equilibria with the media. Spectroscopic studies (UV Visible, XAS) on the precipitate have enabled the determination of the chemical structure and the oxidation state of the americium in the solid: Na 2 Am(V)O 2 (OH) 3 ,nH 2 O. Electrochemical studies on the americium solution have confirmed that the oxidation of Am(OH) 3 by the Fe(CN) 6 3- ions in basic media could only lead to the pentavalent form. A stoichiometric study carries out between a AmO 2 + ion and one Fe(CN) 6 3- ion and the spectroscopic characterisation of this reaction have demonstrated that the Fe(CN) 6 3- ion didn't remain as an un-complexed form in solution after the alkaline mixing. These results tend to prove that this dissolution of Am(OH) 3 is much more complex than a simple oxidation by the Fe(CN) 6 3- ions. The existence of molecular interactions between AmO 2 + and Fe(CN) 6 3- has been postulated and a mechanistic scheme has been proposed in order to explain the appearance of the soluble

  19. Influence of biofilms on migration of uranium, americium and europium in the environment; Einfluss von Biofilmen auf das Migrationsverhalten von Uran, Americium und Europium in der Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Nils; Zirnstein, Isabel; Arnold, Thuro

    2015-07-01

    The report on the influence of biofilms on migration of uranium, americium and europium in the environment deals with the contamination problems of uranium mines such as SDAG WISMUT in Saxonia and Thuringia. In mine waters microorganisms form a complex microbiological biocoenosis in spite of low pH values and high heavy metal concentrations including high uranium concentrations. The analyses used microbiological methods like confocal laser scanning microscopy and molecular-biological techniques. The interactions of microorganism with fluorescent radioactive heavy metal ions were performed with TRLFS (time resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy).

  20. Mycoremediation. The study of transfer factor for plutonium and americium uptake from the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusan Galanda; Lubomir Matel; Jana Strisovska; Silvia Dulanska

    2014-01-01

    In our scientific research we have monitored mycoremediation's properties of oyster mushrooms in cultivation on the soil what is contaminated by solutions with radioactive isotopes of 239 Pu and 241 Am with known activity. We monitored specific activities of absorbed radionuclides in fruiting bodies and chemical forms of radionuclides which were compared to calculated specific activities of two background samples of oyster mushrooms intended for consumer purpose. We determined distributive coefficients between the ground and the fruiting body of oyster mushrooms. The average value which was obtained for the transfer factor for plutonium was 0.72 and for americium 3.97. To evaluate a quantity of absorbed radionuclides we used a method of liquid extraction. The emitting alpha radiation of alpha radionuclides was detected by spectrometry. For defining individual fractions of plutonium and americium that are contained in mushroom bodies was used the sequential leaching method. (author)

  1. Transmutation of americium and curium incorporated in zirconia-based host materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raison, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    Presented are studies involving the incorporation of americium and curium in zirconia-based materials. First explored was the pseudo ternary system AmO 2 -ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 . It was determined that selected Y-CSZ materials can incorporate significant quantities of americium oxide and remain cubic single-phase. The cell parameters of these fluorite-type products were established to be linear with the AmO 2 content. The Cm 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 system was also investigated. It was found that at 25 mol% of CmO 1.5 , the Cm(III) stabilized zirconia in its cubic form (a = 5.21 ±0.01 Angstrom). At higher and lower concentrations, diphasic materials were encountered. At 50 mol% of CmO 1.5 , a pyrochlore oxide - Cm 2 Zr 2 O 7 - is formed (a = 10.63 ±0.02 Angstrom). (author)

  2. Contemporary state of plutonium and americium in the soils of Palesse state radiation-ecological reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papenia, M.V.; Sokolik, G.A.; Ovsiannikova, S.V.; Voinikava, E.V.; Svirschevsky, S.F.; Brown, J.; Skipperud, L.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: At present, the most important alpha-emitting radionuclides of Chernobyl origin are Pu 238, Pu 239, Pu 240 and Am 241. They are classified as the most dangerous group of radionuclides in view of the long half-lives and high radiotoxicity. The main part of alpha-emitted radionuclides is located within the Palesse State Radiation-Ecological Reserve. One of the most important factors determining the radioecological situation in the contaminated ecosystems is the physicochemical forms of radionuclides in a soil medium. Radionuclide species determine the radionuclide entrance into the soil solutions, their redistribution in soil profiles and the 'soil - plant' and the 'soil - surface, ground or underground water' systems as well as spreading beyond the contaminated area. The present work is devoted to investigation of state and migration ability of plutonium and americium in soils of the Palesse state radiation-ecological reserve after more than 20 years from the Chernobyl accident. The objects of investigation were mineral and organic soils sampled in 2008 with the step of 5 cm to the depth of 25-30 cm. The forms of plutonium and americium distinguishing by association with the different components of soil and by potential for migration in the soil medium were studied using the method of sequential selective extraction according to the modified Tessier scheme. Activities of Pu 238, Pu 239, Pu 240 and Am 241 in the samples were determined by the method of radiochemical analysis with alpha-spectrometer radionuclide identification. The dominant part of plutonium and americium in the soils is in immobile forms. Nowadays, radionuclide portions in water soluble and reversibly bound forms do not exceed 9.4 % of radionuclide content in the soil. In mineral soil samples, the radionuclide portions in these fractions exceed the corresponding portions in organic ones. In both mineral and organic soils, the portions of mobile americium are higher than plutonium. The

  3. High-purity germanium detection system for the in vivo measurement of americium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyree, W.H.; Falk, R.B.; Wood, C.B.; Liskey, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    A high-purity germanium (HPGe) array, photon-counting system has been developed for the Rocky Flats Plant Body-Counter Medical Facility. The newly improved system provides exceptional resolutions of low-energy X-ray and gamma-ray spectra associated with the in vivo deposition of plutonium and americium. Described are the operational parameters of the system and some qualitative results illustrating detector performance for the photon emissions produced from the decay of plutonium and americium between energy ranges from 10 to 100 kiloelectron volts. Since large amounts of data are easily generated with the system, data storage, analysis, and computer software developments continue to be an essential ingredient for processing spectral data obtained from the detectors. Absence of quantitative data is intentional. The primary concern of the study was to evaluate the effects of the various physical and electronic operational parameters before adding those related entirely to a human subject

  4. Electrodeposition of americium on a liquid cadmium cathode from a molten salt bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplace, A.; Lacquement, J.; Maillard, C.; Donner, L.

    2004-01-01

    A high-activity experiment involving the electrode position of americium on a liquid cadmium cathode from a LiCl-KCl eutectic with about 3 g of AmO 2 was conducted in a shielded cell in the ATALANTE complex. After describing the electrolyzer and the experimental conditions, the authors discuss the preparation of the LiCl-KCl-AmCl 3 solution and briefly review its electrochemical properties. It was clearly confirmed that Am(III) reduction on an inert solid cathode occurs in two steps forming Am(II) before Am(0), whereas only one reduction step was observed on liquid cadmium. The main results of this study concern americium electrode position on the liquid cadmium cathode (recovery yields, current densities, problems encountered). The solvent properties of cadmium for actinide/lanthanide separation are discussed. (authors)

  5. Determination of americium and plutonium in autopsy tissue: methods and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, H.A.; Eutsler, B.C.; McInroy, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The current methods used by the tissue analysis program at LASL for the determination of americium and plutonium in autopsy tissue are described. Problems affecting radiochemical yield are discussed. Included are problems associated with sample preparation, separation of plutonium from large amounts of bone ash, and reagent contamination. The average 242 Pu tracer yield for 1800 Pu determinations is 78 +- 12%. The average 242 Am tracer yield is 85 +- 7% for 40 determinations

  6. Final Radiological Assessment of External Exposure for CLEAR-Line Americium Recovery Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Adam C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Belooussova, Olga N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hetrick, Lucas Duane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently planning to implement an americium recovery program. The americium, ordinarily isotopically pure 241Am, would be extracted from existing Pu materials, converted to an oxide and shipped to support fabrication of americium oxide-beryllium neutron sources. These operations would occur in the currently proposed Chloride Extraction and Actinide Recovery (CLEAR) line of glove boxes. This glove box line would be collocated with the currently-operational Experimental Chloride Extraction Line (EXCEL). The focus of this document is to provide an in-depth assessment of the currently planned radiation protection measures and to determine whether or not further design work is required to satisfy design-goal and ALARA requirements. Further, this document presents a history of americium recovery operations in the Department of Energy and high-level descriptions of the CLEAR line operations to provide a basis of comparison. Under the working assumptions adopted by this study, it was found that the evaluated design appears to mitigate doses to a level that satisfies the ALARA-in-design requirements of 10 CFR 835 as implemented by the Los Alamos National Laboratory procedure P121. The analyses indicate that extremity doses would also meet design requirements. Dose-rate calculations were performed using the radiation transport code MCNP5 and doses were estimated using a time-motion study developed in consort with the subject matter expert. A copy of this report and all supporting documentation are located on the Radiological Engineering server at Y:\\Rad Engineering\\2013 PROJECTS\\TA-55 Clear Line.

  7. Experimental studies to validate model calculations and maximum solubility limits for Plutonium and Americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This report focuses on studies of KIT-INE to derive a significantly improved description of the chemical behaviour of Americium and Plutonium in saline NaCl, MgCl 2 and CaCl 2 brine systems. The studies are based on new experimental data and aim at deriving reliable Am and Pu solubility limits for the investigated systems as well as deriving comprehensive thermodynamic model descriptions. Both aspects are of high relevance in the context of potential source term estimations for Americium and Plutonium in aqueous brine systems and related scenarios. Americium and Plutonium are long-lived alpha emitting radionuclides which due to their high radiotoxicity need to be accounted for in a reliable and traceable way. The hydrolysis of trivalent actinides and the effect of highly alkaline pH conditions on the solubility of trivalent actinides in calcium chloride rich brine solutions were investigated and a thermodynamic model derived. The solubility of Plutonium in saline brine systems was studied under reducing and non-reducing conditions and is described within a new thermodynamic model. The influence of dissolved carbonate on Americium and Plutonium solubility in MgCl 2 solutions was investigated and quantitative information on Am and Pu solubility limits in these systems derived. Thermodynamic constants and model parameter derived in this work are implemented in the Thermodynamic Reference Database THEREDA owned by BfS. According to the quality assurance approach in THEREDA, is was necessary to publish parts of this work in peer-reviewed scientific journals. The publications are focused on solubility experiments, spectroscopy of aquatic and solid species and thermodynamic data. (Neck et al., Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 81, (2009), pp. 1555-1568., Altmaier et al., Radiochimica Acta, 97, (2009), pp. 187-192., Altmaier et al., Actinide Research Quarterly, No 2., (2011), pp. 29-32.).

  8. Purification of alkali metal nitrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Gregory, Kevin M.

    1985-05-14

    A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

  9. Uptake and effects of americium-241 on a brackish-water amphipod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppenheit, M.; Murray, C.N.; Woodhead, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of experimental work undertaken using the brackish-water amphipod Gammarus duebeni duebeni and the transuranium nuclide americium-241. Data on the accumulation of this actinide showed that the larger fraction of the total body burden is associated with the exoskeleton. It was found that the body burden remained constant in the range pH 8.0-6.5 even though the water concentration changed markedly. It would thus appear that the concept of a concentration factor should be re-examined and it is proposed that a factor should be defined in terms of environmental and chemical parameters which represent the bioavailable fraction of the actinide. The effect of americium on survival and moulting was studied at two activity concentrations; the dose rates and absorbed doses under the experimental conditions employed have been estimated. The differences in survival rates between the control and irradiated groups were statistically analyzed and the significant difference at the higher concentration is believed to be due to a synergism between physiological stress and radiotoxicity of americium rather than the chemical toxicity of the element.

  10. Uptake and effects of americium-241 on a brackish-water amphipod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppenheit, M.; Murray, C.N.; Woodhead, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of experimental work undertaken using the brackish-water amphipod Gammarus duebeni duebeni and the transuranium nuclide americium-241. Data on the accumulation of this actinide showed that the larger fraction of the total body burden is associated with the exoskeleton. It was found that the body burden remained constant in the range pH 8.0-6.5 even though the water concentration changed markedly. It would thus appear that the concept of a concentration factor should be re-examined and it is proposed that a factor should be defined in terms of environmental and chemical parameters which represent the bioavailable fraction of the actinide. The effect of americium on survival and moulting was studied at two activity concentrations; the dose rates and absorbed doses under the experimental conditions employed have been estimated. The differences in survival rates between the control and irradiated groups were statistically analyzed and the significant difference at the higher concentration is believed to be due to a synergism between physiological stress and radiotoxicity of americium rather than the chemical toxicity of the element. (orig.) [de

  11. Adsorption-Desorption Characteristics of Plutonium and Americium with Sediment Particles in the Estuarine Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C.N.; Fukai, R.

    1976-01-01

    The particle formation of plutonium and americium, their adsorption onto fresh water sediments and the desorption from the sediments in sea water were studied in the Laboratory under simulated river-estuary conditions, using γ-emitting plutonium-237 and americium-241. The results of the experiments show that the particle formation of plutonium depends on its valence states, on pH and on the salinity of the medium. For river water at pH4, some 25%, 20% and 30% of the added 237 Pu was in particulate form, larger than 0.45pm, for Pu (III), Pu (IV) and Pu (VI), respectively, while 65%, 90% and 50% of the respective valence states was associated with particles at pH 8. In sea water the general pattern remains similar, although Pu (VI) is more soluble in sea water owing to higher ligand concentrations for carbonate and bicarbonate complexes. The pH-dependency of particle formation of Am (III) is more steep than that of plutonium and seems to be influenced by colloidal substances occurring in the experimental media. The adsorption-desorption characteristics of plutonium and americium with the sediment in river water as well as sea water reflect the characteristics of their particle formation, being dependent upon such properties as valence states, the pH and salinity of the medium. A sewage effluent added to the media has small but measurable effects on the adsorption-desorption processes of plutonium. (author)

  12. Development of analytical methods for the separation of plutonium, americium, curium and neptunium from environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, S.

    2009-07-01

    In this work, separation methods have been developed for the analysis of anthropogenic transuranium elements plutonium, americium, curium and neptunium from environmental samples contaminated by global nuclear weapons testing and the Chernobyl accident. The analytical methods utilized in this study are based on extraction chromatography. Highly varying atmospheric plutonium isotope concentrations and activity ratios were found at both Kurchatov (Kazakhstan), near the former Semipalatinsk test site, and Sodankylae (Finland). The origin of plutonium is almost impossible to identify at Kurchatov, since hundreds of nuclear tests were performed at the Semipalatinsk test site. In Sodankylae, plutonium in the surface air originated from nuclear weapons testing, conducted mostly by USSR and USA before the sampling year 1963. The variation in americium, curium and neptunium concentrations was great as well in peat samples collected in southern and central Finland in 1986 immediately after the Chernobyl accident. The main source of transuranium contamination in peats was from global nuclear test fallout, although there are wide regional differences in the fraction of Chernobyl-originated activity (of the total activity) for americium, curium and neptunium. The separation methods developed in this study yielded good chemical recovery for the elements investigated and adequately pure fractions for radiometric activity determination. The extraction chromatographic methods were faster compared to older methods based on ion exchange chromatography. In addition, extraction chromatography is a more environmentally friendly separation method than ion exchange, because less acidic waste solutions are produced during the analytical procedures. (orig.)

  13. Influence of dissolved organic substances in groundwater on sorption behavior of americium and neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggs, S. Jr.; Seitz, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Groundwaters typically contain dissolved organic carbon consisting largely of high molecular weight compounds of humic and fulvic acids. To evaluate whether these dissolved organic substances can enhance the tranport of radionuclides through the groundwater system, experiments were conducted to examine the sorption of americium and neptunium onto crushed basalt in the presence of dissolved humic- and fulvic-acid organic carbon introduced into synthetic groundwater. The partitioning experiments with synthetic groundwater show that increasing the concentration of either humic or fulvic acid in the water has a significant inhibiting effect on sorption of both americium and neptunium. At 22 0 C, adsorption of these radionuclides, as measured by distribution ratios (the ratio of nuclide sorbed onto the solid to nuclide in solution at the end of the experiment), decreased by 25% to 50% by addition of as little as 1 mg/L dissolved organic carbon and by one to two orders of magnitude by addition of 100 to 200 mg/L dissolved organic carbon. Distribution ratios measured in solutions reacted at 90 0 C similarly decreased with the addition of dissolved organic carbon but generally ranged from one to two orders of magnitude higher than those determined in the 22 0 C experiment. These results suggest that organic carbon dissolved in deep groundwaters may significantly enhance the mobility of radionuclides of americium and neptunium. 23 references, 5 figures, 11 tables

  14. Nitrate in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg

    is highly decentralized and fully relying on simple treated groundwater. At the same time, Denmark has an intensive agriculture, making groundwater resources prone to nitrate pollution. Drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in the public database Jupiter......Annual nationwide exposure maps for nitrate in drinking water in Denmark from the 1970s until today will be presented based on the findings in Schullehner & Hansen (2014) and additional work on addressing the issue of private well users and estimating missing data. Drinking water supply in Denmark....... In order to create annual maps of drinking water quality, these data had to be linked to 2,852 water supply areas, which were for the first time digitized, collected in one dataset and connected to the Jupiter database. Analyses of the drinking water quality maps showed that public water supplies...

  15. Nitrates and nitrites intoxications’ management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Trif

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study pointed out the major sources for clinical and subclinical intoxications with nitrates/nitrites (drinking water and nitrates containing fertilizers, circumstances that determine fertilizers to became sources of intoxication (excessive fertilization/consecutive high level of nitrates in fodders, free access of animals to the fertilizers, administration into the diet instead of natrium chloride, factors that determine high nitrates accumulation in fodders despite optimal fertilization (factors related to the plants, soil, clime, harvest methods, storage, agrotechnical measures, nitrates/nitrites toxicity (over 45 ppm nitrates in drinking water, over 0.5 g nitrate/100 g D.M fodder/diet, the factors that influence nitrates/nitrites toxicity ( species, age, rate of feeding, diet balance especially energetically, pathological effects and symptoms (irritation and congestions on digestive tract, resulting diarrhoea, transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin determining severe respiratory insufficiency, vascular collapse, low blood pressure inthe acute nitrates intoxication; hypotiroidism, hypovitaminosis A, reproductive disturbances(abortion, low rate of fertility, dead born offspring, diarrhoea and/or respiratory insufficiency in new born e.g. calves, immunosuppression, decrease of milk production in chronic intoxication. There were presented some suggestions concerning management practices to limit nitrate intoxication (analyze of nitrates/nitrites in water and fodders, good management of the situation of risk ,e .g. dilution of the diet with low nitrate content fodders, feeding with balanced diet in energy, protein, minerals and vitamins, accommodation to high nitrate level diet, avoid grazing one week after a frost period, avoid feeding chop green fodders stored a couple of days, monitoring of health status of animals fed with fodders containing nitrates at risk level, a.o..

  16. Remobilization of americium in soil columns under experimental rhizo-spheric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrier, T.; Martin-Garin, A.; Morello, M. [CEA Cadarache (DEI/SECRE/LRE), Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2004-07-01

    The biogeochemical behaviour of americium in subsurface soils plays a dominant role on the potential migration of this actinide, but is currently poorly known. The identification and understanding of these processes is of major concern for this highly (radio)toxic element and can allow the determination of its impact on the natural media. This research investigates the relevant processes controlling americium biogeochemical speciation in the rhizosphere of an agricultural soil. Lixiviation tests were performed on columns packed with a 2 mm-sieved calcareous soil contaminated with {sup 241}Am (500 Bq.g{sup -1}), under steady-state unsaturated or saturated hydric flow conditions. The columns were percolated with soil solution of varied compositions, containing citrate and/or glucose simulating root exudates in non-sterile conditions. The physico-chemical parameters of the outlet solution (pH, conductivity, major ions, organic acids) were monitored, as well as the microbial activity. Inorganic and organic speciation of {sup 241}Am is supported by geochemical modeling with JChess, using a thermodynamic database based on NEA database and the latest PSI recommendations. The percolation of a solution in equilibrium with the soil released small amount of americium (<5 mBq/cm{sup 3}), as predicted by the high {sup 241}Am K{sub d} values. 10{sup -4} M concentrations of citrate, glucose or both combined did not enhance remobilization either. Poor remobilization was also observed at high glucose concentrations (10{sup -2} M), despite an effective glucose microbial degradation, the production of ligands such as acetate, and important changes in the chemistry of the solution. On the contrary, high concentrations of citrate (10{sup -2} M) released 1000 times more americium, which is in accordance with previous studies. Even greater releases (10000 times) were observed when 10{sup -2} M glucose was added to 10{sup -2} M citrate. The remobilization of americium resulting from the

  17. Lanthanum (samarium) nitrate-4-aminoantipyrine nitrate-water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starikova, L.I.; Zhuravlev, E.F.

    1985-01-01

    Using the isothermal method of cross-sections at 50 deg C systems lanthanum nitrate-4-aminoantipyrine nitrate-water (1), samarium nitrate-4-aminoantipyrine nitrate-water (2), are studied. Isotherms of system 1 consist of two crystallization branches of initial salt components. In system 2 formation of congruently soluble compounds of the composition Sm(No) 3 ) 3 xC 11 H 13 ON 3 xHNO 3 is established. Analytical, X-ray phase and thermogravimetric analysis of the isolated binary salt are carried out

  18. Nitrate biosensors and biological methods for nitrate determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Manzar; Adeloju, Samuel B

    2016-06-01

    The inorganic nitrate (NO3‾) anion is present under a variety of both natural and artificial environmental conditions. Nitrate is ubiquitous within the environment, food, industrial and physiological systems and is mostly present as hydrated anion of a corresponding dissolved salt. Due to the significant environmental and toxicological effects of nitrate, its determination and monitoring in environmental and industrial waters are often necessary. A wide range of analytical techniques are available for nitrate determination in various sample matrices. This review discusses biosensors available for nitrate determination using the enzyme nitrate reductase (NaR). We conclude that nitrate determination using biosensors is an excellent non-toxic alternative to all other available analytical methods. Over the last fifteen years biosensing technology for nitrate analysis has progressed very well, however, there is a need to expedite the development of nitrate biosensors as a suitable alternative to non-enzymatic techniques through the use of different polymers, nanostructures, mediators and strategies to overcome oxygen interference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An experimental investigation of accumulation and transmutation behavior of americium in the MOX fuel irradiated in a fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaka, Masahiko; Koyama, Shin-ichi; Maeda, Shigetaka; Mitsugashira, Toshiaki

    2005-01-01

    Americium isotopes generated in the MOX fuel irradiated in the experimental fast reactor JOYO were analyzed by applying a sophisticated radiochemical technique. Americium was isolated from the irradiated MOX fuel by a combined method of anion-exchange chromatography and oxidation of Am. The isotopic ratios of americium and its content were determined by thermal ionization mass spectroscopy and α-spectrometry, respectively. The americium isotopic ratio was similar for all the specimens, but was significantly different from that of PWR-MOX. On the basis of present analytical results, the accumulation and transmutation behavior of americium nuclides in a fast reactor is discussed from the viewpoints of neutron spectrum dependence and the isomeric ratio of the 241 Am capture reaction. The estimated isomeric ratio is about 87%, which is close to the latest evaluated value. A rapid estimation method of Am content by using the 240 Pu to 239 Pu ratio was adopted and proved to be valid for the spent fuel irradiated in the fast reactor

  20. Respiration of Nitrate and Nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jeffrey A; Richardson, David J

    2008-09-01

    Nitrate reduction to ammonia via nitrite occurs widely as an anabolic process through which bacteria, archaea, and plants can assimilate nitrate into cellular biomass. Escherichia coli and related enteric bacteria can couple the eight-electron reduction of nitrate to ammonium to growth by coupling the nitrate and nitrite reductases involved to energy-conserving respiratory electron transport systems. In global terms, the respiratory reduction of nitrate to ammonium dominates nitrate and nitrite reduction in many electron-rich environments such as anoxic marine sediments and sulfide-rich thermal vents, the human gastrointestinal tract, and the bodies of warm-blooded animals. This review reviews the regulation and enzymology of this process in E. coli and, where relevant detail is available, also in Salmonella and draws comparisons with and implications for the process in other bacteria where it is pertinent to do so. Fatty acids may be present in high levels in many of the natural environments of E. coli and Salmonella in which oxygen is limited but nitrate is available to support respiration. In E. coli, nitrate reduction in the periplasm involves the products of two seven-gene operons, napFDAGHBC, encoding the periplasmic nitrate reductase, and nrfABCDEFG, encoding the periplasmic nitrite reductase. No bacterium has yet been shown to couple a periplasmic nitrate reductase solely to the cytoplasmic nitrite reductase NirB. The cytoplasmic pathway for nitrate reduction to ammonia is restricted almost exclusively to a few groups of facultative anaerobic bacteria that encounter high concentrations of environmental nitrate.

  1. dl-Asparaginium nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa Slimane, Nabila; Cherouana, Aouatef; Bendjeddou, Lamia; Dahaoui, Slimane; Lecomte, Claude

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, C4H9N2O3 +·NO3 −, alternatively called (1RS)-2-carbamoyl-1-carboxy­ethanaminium nitrate, the asymmetric unit comprises one asparaginium cation and one nitrate anion. The strongest cation–cation O—H⋯O hydrogen bond in the structure, together with other strong cation–cation N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generates a succession of infinite chains of R 2 2(8) rings along the b axis. Additional cation–cation C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link these chains into two-dimensional layers formed by alternating R 4 4(24) and R 4 2(12) rings. Connections between these layers are provided by the strong cation–anion N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, as well as by one weak C—H⋯O inter­action, thus forming a three-dimensional network. Some of the cation–anion N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are bifurcated of the type D—H⋯(A 1,A 2). PMID:21577586

  2. The ytterbium nitrate-quinoline (piperidine) nitrate-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khisaeva, D.A.; Boeva, M.K.; Zhuravlev, E.F.

    1985-01-01

    Using the method of cross sections the solubility of solid phases in the ytterbium nitrate-quinoline nitrate - water (1) and ytterbium nitrate-piperidine nitrate-water (2) systems is studied at 25 and 50 deg C. It is established, that in system 1 congruently melting compound of the composition Yb(NO 3 ) 3 x2C 9 H 7 NxHNO 3 x3H 2 O is formed. The new solid phase has been isolated as a preparation and subjected to chemical X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and IR spectroscopic analyses. Isotherms of system 2 in the studied range of concentrations and temperatures consist of two branches, corresponding to crystallization of tetruaqueous ytterbi um nitrate and nitric acid piperidine

  3. Nitrate storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by eukaryotic microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Anja; Høgslund, Signe; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    The microbial nitrogen cycle is one of the most complex and environmentally important element cycles on Earth and has long been thought to be mediated exclusively by prokaryotic microbes. Rather recently, it was discovered that certain eukaryotic microbes are able to store nitrate intracellularly......, suggesting that eukaryotes may rival prokaryotes in terms of dissimilatory nitrate reduction. Finally, this review article sketches some evolutionary perspectives of eukaryotic nitrate metabolism and identifies open questions that need to be addressed in future investigations....... and use it for dissimilatory nitrate reduction in the absence of oxygen. The paradigm shift that this entailed is ecologically significant because the eukaryotes in question comprise global players like diatoms, foraminifers, and fungi. This review article provides an unprecedented overview of nitrate...

  4. Accumulation of americium-241 in the biomass of aquatic plants of the Yenisei river: experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotina, T.A.; Bolsunovsky, A.Y.A.; Bondareva, L.G. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Due to the operation of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (Krasnoyarsk-26), which has been manufacturing weapons-grade plutonium for several decades, the Yenisei River is contaminated with transuranic elements (including {sup 241}Am). {sup 241}Am was found in the riverside soil, sediment and in the biomass of aquatic plants (Bolsunovsky et al., 1999, 2002). Aquatic plants are an important link in the migration of radionuclides in an aquatic ecosystem. In laboratory experiments, we investigated accumulation of {sup 241}Am by the submerged macrophyte from the Yenisei River: the pond weed (Elodea canadensis) and the aquatic moss (Fontinalis antipyretica), and release of {sup 241}Am from the biomass. The content of {sup 241}Am was measured on a Canberra (USA) gamma-spectrometer. The experiments showed that specific accumulation and concentration factors of {sup 241}Am in the plants were in inverse proportion to their biomass. We obtained new data on release of {sup 241}Am from the biomass of macrophyte. Americium-241 was more firmly fixed in the biomass of the aquatic moss. In 12 months, the biomass of the aquatic moss released about 30% of the initial americium activity into the water. To compare, the biomass of the pond weed released into the water medium up to 64% of the initial {sup 241}Am activity in 1.5 4 months. The release rate was dependent on the decomposition rate of the plant biomass. The experiments showed that submerged macrophyte of the Yenisei River can accumulate considerable activities of {sup 241}Am and retain americium for long periods of time in biomass. (author)

  5. Accumulation of americium-241 in the biomass of aquatic plants of the Yenisei river: experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotina, T.A.; Bolsunovsky, A.Y.A.; Bondareva, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the operation of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (Krasnoyarsk-26), which has been manufacturing weapons-grade plutonium for several decades, the Yenisei River is contaminated with transuranic elements (including 241 Am). 241 Am was found in the riverside soil, sediment and in the biomass of aquatic plants (Bolsunovsky et al., 1999, 2002). Aquatic plants are an important link in the migration of radionuclides in an aquatic ecosystem. In laboratory experiments, we investigated accumulation of 241 Am by the submerged macrophyte from the Yenisei River: the pond weed (Elodea canadensis) and the aquatic moss (Fontinalis antipyretica), and release of 241 Am from the biomass. The content of 241 Am was measured on a Canberra (USA) gamma-spectrometer. The experiments showed that specific accumulation and concentration factors of 241 Am in the plants were in inverse proportion to their biomass. We obtained new data on release of 241 Am from the biomass of macrophyte. Americium-241 was more firmly fixed in the biomass of the aquatic moss. In 12 months, the biomass of the aquatic moss released about 30% of the initial americium activity into the water. To compare, the biomass of the pond weed released into the water medium up to 64% of the initial 241 Am activity in 1.5 4 months. The release rate was dependent on the decomposition rate of the plant biomass. The experiments showed that submerged macrophyte of the Yenisei River can accumulate considerable activities of 241 Am and retain americium for long periods of time in biomass. (author)

  6. Physics of plutonium and americium recycling in PWR using advanced fuel concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcade, E.

    2004-01-01

    PWR waste inventory management is considered in many countries including Frances as one of the main current issues. Pu and Am are the 2 main contents both in term of volume and long term radio-toxicity. Waiting for the Generation IV systems implementation (2035-2050), one of the mid-term solutions for their transmutation involves the use of advanced fuels in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). These have to require as little modification as possible of the core internals, the cooling system and fuel cycle facilities (fabrication and reprocessing). The first part of this paper deals with some neutronic characteristics of Pu and/or Am recycling. In a second part, 2 technical solutions MOX-HMR and APA-DUPLEX-84 are presented and the third part is devoted to the study of a few global strategies. The main neutronic parameters to be considered for Pu and Am recycling in PWR are void coefficient, Doppler coefficient, fraction of delayed neutrons and power distribution (especially for heterogeneous configurations). The modification of the moderation ratio, the opportunity to use inert matrices (targets), the optimisation of Uranium, Plutonium and Americium contents are the key parameters to play with. One of the solutions (APA-DUPLEX-84) presented here is a heterogeneous assembly with regular moderation ratio composed with both target fuel rods (Pu and Am embedded in an inert matrix) and standard UO 2 fuel rods. An EPR (European Pressurised Reactor) type reactor, loaded only with assemblies containing 84 peripheral targets, can reach an Americium consumption rate of (4.4; 23 kg/TWh) depending on the assembly concept. For Pu and Am inventories stabilisation, the theoretical fraction of reactors loaded with Pu + Am or Pu assemblies is about 60%. For Americium inventory stabilisation, the fraction decreases down to 16%, but Pu is produced at a rate of 18.5 Kg/TWh (-25% compared to one through UOX cycle)

  7. Evaluation of nitrate destruction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.; Kurath, D.E.; Guenther, R.

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of high nitrate-concentration aqueous mixed [radioactive and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous] wastes are stored at various US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. These wastes will ultimately be solidified for final disposal, although the waste acceptance criteria for the final waste form is still being determined. Because the nitrates in the wastes will normally increase the volume or reduce the integrity of all of the waste forms under consideration for final disposal, nitrate destruction before solidification of the waste will generally be beneficial. This report describes and evaluates various technologies that could be used to destroy the nitrates in the stored wastes. This work was funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development, through the Chemical/Physical Technology Support Group of the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. All the nitrate destruction technologies will require further development work before a facility could be designed and built to treat the majority of the stored wastes. Several of the technologies have particularly attractive features: the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process produces an insoluble waste form with a significant volume reduction, electrochemical reduction destroys nitrates without any chemical addition, and the hydrothermal process can simultaneously treat nitrates and organics in both acidic and alkaline wastes. These three technologies have been tested using lab-scale equipment and surrogate solutions. At their current state of development, it is not possible to predict which process will be the most beneficial for a particular waste stream

  8. Decomposition of metal nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.; Stines, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    Oxides in powder form are obtained from aqueous solutions of one or more heavy metal nitrates (e.g. U, Pu, Th, Ce) by thermal decomposition at 300 to 800 deg C in the presence of about 50 to 500% molar concentration of ammonium nitrate to total metal. (author)

  9. Separation of americium and plutonium from nuclear wastes by the TRUEX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.A.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Manry, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    Americium and plutonium can be removed from a transuranic (TRU) waste stream to <10 nCi/g by the TRUEX process. The resulting waste is nontransuranic, greatly reducing disposal costs. An overview is given of the TRUEX process and of centrifugal contactors used to implement this process. Then, a plan for the deployment of TRUEX at the Hanford Site is discussed. Finally, details are given on the proposed use of TRUEX to treat the liquid wastes from the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Site

  10. Comparison of acid leachate and fusion methods to determine plutonium and americium in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.L.; Markun, F.; TenKate, T.

    1992-06-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at Argonne National Laboratory performs radiochemical analyses for a wide variety of sites within the Department of Energy complex. Since the chemical history of the samples may vary drastically from site to site, the effectiveness of any analytical technique may also vary. This study compares a potassium fluoride-pyrosulfate fusion technique with an acid leachate method. Both normal and high-fired soils and vegetation samples were analyzed for both americium and plutonium. Results show both methods work well, except for plutonium in high-fired soils. Here the fusion method provides higher accuracy

  11. Standardization of a method to study the distribution of Americium in purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dapolikar, T.T.; Pant, D.K.; Kapur, H.N.; Kumar, Rajendra; Dubey, K.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work the distribution of Americium in PUREX process is investigated in various process streams. For this purpose a method has been standardized for the determination of Am in process samples. The method involves extraction of Am with associated actinides using 30% TRPO-NPH at 0.3M HNO 3 followed by selective stripping of Am from the organic phase into aqueous phase at 6M HNO 3 . The assay of aqueous phase for Am content is carried out by alpha radiometry. The investigation has revealed that 100% Am follows the HLLW route. (author)

  12. Microstructure and elemental distribution of americium containing MOX fuel under the short term irradiation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Hirosawa, Takashi; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Koyama, Shin Ichi; Yoshimochi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kenya

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of americium addition to MOX fuels on the irradiation behavior, the 'Am-1' program is being conducted in JAEA. The Am-1 program consists of two short term irradiation tests of 10-minute and 24 hour irradiations and a steady-state irradiation test. The short-term irradiation tests were successfully completed and the post irradiation examinations (PIEs) are in progress. The PIEs for Am-containing MOX fuels focused on the microstructural evolution and redistribution behavior of Am at the initial stage of irradiation and the results to date are reported

  13. Recovery of Americium-241 from lightning rod by the method of chemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    About 95% of the lightning rods installed in the Peruvian territory have set in their structures, pose small amounts of radioactive sources such as Americium-241 ( 241 Am), fewer and Radium 226 ( 226 Ra) these are alpha emitters and have a half life of 432 years and 1600 years respectively. In this paper describes the recovery of radioactive sources of 241 Am radioactive lightning rods using the conventional chemical treatment method using agents and acids to break down the slides. The 241 Am recovered was as excitation source and alpha particle generator for analysing samples by X Ray Fluorescence, for fixing the stainless steel 241 Am technique was used electrodeposition. (author)

  14. Distribution coefficients for plutonium and americium on particulates in aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, A.L.; Schell, W.R.; Sibley, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution coefficients of two transuranic elements, plutonium and americium, were measured experimentally in laboratory systems of selected freshwater, estuarine, and marine environments. Gamma-ray emitting isotopes of these radionuclides, 237 Pu and 241 Am, were significantly greater than the sorption Ksub(d) values, suggesting some irreversibility in the sorption of these radionuclides onto sediments. The effects of pH and of sediment concentration on the distribution coefficients were also investigated. There were significant changes in the Ksub(d) values as these parameters were varied. Experiments using sterilized and nonsterilized samples for some of the sediment/water systems indicate possible bacterial effects on Ksub(d) values. (author)

  15. Recovery of americium from slag and crucible wastes and its purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, K.M.; Dabholkar, G.M.; Vijayan, K.; Ramamoorthy, N.; Narayanan, C.V.; Jambunathan, U.; Kapoor, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    A method of recovery and purification of americium-241 from slag waste streams is described. Extraction of Am from slag solution of 0.16 M HNO 3 was carried out by tri-n-butyl phosphate. After stripping with acetic acid, Am was precipitated at pH 1. This was followed by metathesis to remove Ca. Final separation of Pu from Am solution was achieved by anion exchange method using Dowex 1x4 anion exchange resin. Details of large scale recovery of Am from slag are also described. (author). 12 refs., 11 tabs., 1 fig

  16. Influence of biofilms on migration of uranium, americium and europium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Nils; Zirnstein, Isabel; Arnold, Thuro

    2015-01-01

    The report on the influence of biofilms on migration of uranium, americium and europium in the environment deals with the contamination problems of uranium mines such as SDAG WISMUT in Saxonia and Thuringia. In mine waters microorganisms form a complex microbiological biocoenosis in spite of low pH values and high heavy metal concentrations including high uranium concentrations. The analyses used microbiological methods like confocal laser scanning microscopy and molecular-biological techniques. The interactions of microorganism with fluorescent radioactive heavy metal ions were performed with TRLFS (time resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy).

  17. Study of the extraction and the purification of americium and trivalent actinides contained in effluents with supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillou, P.

    1990-12-01

    The supported liquid membrane technique is studied and developed for americium recovery from uranium or plutonium matrices and decontamination of liquid radioactive wastes. First tests on uranium-nickel solutions with a flat membrane showed the easiness of the operation and the efficiency of the process. Acid-resistant (10 N), interchangeable elements with hollow fibers, are developed and also a computerized automatic device. The different tests on americium solutions demonstrate the feasibility and the reliability of the system. Influence of various parameters on transfer kinetics is investigated

  18. Mortality of nitrate fertiliser workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbagh, S; Forman, D; Bryson, D; Stratton, I; Doll, R

    1986-01-01

    An epidemiological cohort study was conducted to investigate the mortality patterns among a group of workers engaged in the production of nitrate based fertilisers. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that individuals exposed to high concentrations of nitrates might be at increased risk of developing cancers, particularly gastric cancer. A total of 1327 male workers who had been employed in the production of fertilisers between 1946 and 1981 and who had been occupationally exposed to nitrates for at least one year were followed up until 1 March 1981. In total, 304 deaths were observed in this group and these were compared with expected numbers calculated from mortality rates in the northern region of England, where the factory was located. Analysis was also carried out separately for a subgroup of the cohort who had been heavily exposed to nitrates--that is, working in an environment likely to contain more than 10 mg nitrate/m3 for a year or longer. In neither the entire cohort nor the subgroup was any significant excess observed for all causes of mortality or for mortality from any of five broad categories of cause or from four specific types of cancer. A small excess of lung cancer was noted more than 20 years after first exposure in men heavily exposed for more than 10 years. That men were exposed to high concentrations of nitrate was confirmed by comparing concentrations of nitrates in the saliva of a sample of currently employed men with control men, employed at the same factory but not in fertiliser production. The men exposed to nitrate had substantially raised concentrations of nitrate in their saliva compared with both controls within the industry and with men in the general population and resident nearby. The results of this study therefore weight against the idea that exposure to nitrates in the environment leads to the formation in vivo of material amounts of carcinogens. PMID:3015194

  19. Neodymium nitrate-tetraethylammonium nitrate-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khisaeva, D.A.; Boeva, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    Method of isothermal cross sections at 25 and 50 deg C is used to study solid phase solubility in the neodymium nitrate-tetraethylammonium nitrate-water system. Crystallization fields of congruently soluble compounds, the salt component ratio being 1:1:4H 2 O and 1:3:2H 2 O are detected. New solid phases are preparatively obtained and subjected to chemical, differential thermal, IR spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction analyses. The obtained compounds are acido-complexes in which nitrate groups enter into the first coordination sphere

  20. Production of a square geometry Americium standard source for use with photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Priscila; Geraldo, Bianca; Raele, Marcus P.; Marumo, Júlio T.; Vicente, Roberto; Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A., E-mail: priscila3.costa@usp.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In the development of a thermal neutron detector using a square photodiode and a thin boron film, a radioactive calibration source with the same geometry was needed. An americium-243 standard source was produced by electrodeposition aiming at the calibration of a PIN-type silicon photodiode with a detection area of 10 x 10 mm{sup 2}. To produce the samples two tests were performed. In the first test, a square stainless steel plate (10 x 10 mm{sup 2}) was fixed on the surface of the conventional plate, which was removed after deposition. To reduce the loss of activity of the source, in the second test nail polish was applied on the silver plate leaving only an area of 10 x 10 mm{sup 2} without varnish coating. Once the electrodeposition process was completed, the activity concentration measurement was performed by alpha particle spectrometry. The first method presented a lower activity when compared to the total activity of Am-243 added initially. For the second method, the total activity was concentrate in the exposed square region (without nail polish). The results showed that it is possible to obtain a square geometry source; furthermore, the surrounding nail polish was not contaminated by {sup 243}Am. The comparison of these two approaches indicated that the second method was more efficient as it was possible to concentrate all the americium activity in the delimited square area. (author)

  1. Application of extraction chromatography to the recovery of neptunium, plutonium and americium from an industrial waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Kertesz, C.; Sontag, R.; Koehly, G.

    1980-01-01

    A pilot scale investigation was made to evaluate the possible application of the extraction chromatographic method (LLC) to the partitioning of alpha emitters from liquid wastes containing traces of transuranium elements. A secondary purpose was to obtain pure Am0 2 , which is used to produce alpha, gamma, and neutron sources. The process developed for alpha partitioning consists essentially of the extraction of macro amounts of uranium with 30% TBP in dodecane in mixer-settlers, then coextraction of Np-237, Pu-239, and Am-241 by LLC on a macro column filled with di-n-hexyl-octoxy-methyl-phosphine oxide (POX.11) adsorbed on an inert support. In each run about 200 liters of initial waste are decontaminated of alpha emitters. The loading step is followed by selective elution of americium, neptunium, and plutonium. The americium eluate is then subjected to the following operations: (1) separation of Am from Fe and Cd by LLC on a TBP column and (2) separation of Am from lanthanide traces by LLC on an HD(DiBM)P column after oxidation of Am(III) to Am(VI). The Am in the eluate is subsequently reduced to Am(III) and precipitated as oxalate with oxalic acid. The oxalate is then filtered and calcined to yield pure AmO 2

  2. Fuel cycle covariance of plutonium and americium separations to repository capacity using information theoretic measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scopatz, Anthony; Schneider, Erich; Li, Jun; Yim, Man-Sung

    2011-01-01

    A light water reactor, fast reactor symbiotic fuel cycle scenario was modeled and parameterized based on thirty independent inputs. Simultaneously and stochastically choosing different values for each of these inputs and performing the associated fuel cycle mass-balance calculation, the fuel cycle itself underwent Monte Carlo simulation. A novel information theoretic metric is postulated as a measure of system-wide covariance. This metric is the coefficient of variation of the set of uncertainty coefficients generated from 2D slices of a 3D contingency table. It is then applied to the fuel cycle, taking fast reactor used fuel plutonium and americium separations as independent variables and the capacity of a fully-loaded tuff repository as the response. This set of parameters is known from prior studies to have a strong covariance. When measured with all 435 other input parameters possible, the fast reactor plutonium and americium separations pair was found to be ranked the second most covariant. This verifies that the coefficient of variation metric captures the desired sensitivity of sensitivity effects in the nuclear fuel cycle. (author)

  3. Contribution to the prediction of americium, plutonium and neptunium behaviour in the geosphere: chemical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robouch, P.

    1989-01-01

    An exhaustive bibliographic review on hydrolysis of americium gives the stability constants, at zero ionic strength. No evidence of Am(OH) 4 - formation was found by solubility studies up to pH 2 (CO 3 ) 3 characterised by its X-ray diffraction pattern is studied at a high ionic strength. All the published results on Am in carbonate media are reinterpreted using these stability constants (Am-OH-CO 3 complexes are not needed). No evidence of Am(CO 3 ) 4 5- formation was found by spectrophotometry up to 3M. Literature results are used to determine the formal redox potentials at pH = 9.4 and to calculate the formation constants, at zero ionic strength. The formation of complexes between americium and humic materials (purified fulvic and humic acids) has been studied by a spectrophotometric technique. The results are interpreted by the formation of a 1:1 complexe. Solubility of the solid PuO 2 (CO 3 ) is measured in bicarbonate media at high ionic strength, to obtain the solubility product and formation constants of the PuO 2 (CO 3 ) i 2-2i complexes [fr

  4. Vitrification of F-area americium/curium: feasibility study and preliminary process recommendation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, W.G.; Miller, D.; Minichan, R.; Coleman, L.; Schumacher, R.; Hardy, B.; Jones, R.

    1994-01-01

    Work was performed to identify a process to vitrify the contents of F- canyon Tank 17.1. Tank 17.1 contains the majority of americium (Am) and curium (Cm) contained in the DOE Complex. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has made a formal request for this material as fuel for production of Cf252 and other transplutonium actinides. The Am and Cm (and associated lanthanide fission products) are currently in nitric acid solution. Transportation of the intensely radioactive Am/Cm in liquid form is not considered possible. As a result, the material will either be solidified and shipped to ORNL or discarded to the Tank Farm. Nuclear Materials Processing Technology (NMPT), therefore, requested Defense Waste Processing Technology (DWPT) to determine if the Tank 17.1 material could be vitrified, and if it was vitrified could the americium and curium be successfully recovered. Research was performed to determine if the Tank 17.1 contents could indeed be mixed with glass formers and vitrified. Additional studies identified critical process parameters such as heat loading, melter requirements, off-gas evolution, etc. Discussions with NMPT personnel were initiated to determine existing facilities where this work could be accomplished safely. A process has been identified which will convert the Am/Cm material into approximately 300kg of glass

  5. A simple approach to determine the diffusivity of americium in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, L.; Feng, X.; Liang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, J.

    2009-01-01

    The diffusivities of the key radionuclides in host rock are important for the performance assessment of repositories. One of the conventional methods for determining the diffusivities of radionuclides is to grind the rock tablet layer by layer and then to measure the radioactivity remaining on the rock tablet before each grinding cycle. Since grinding hard rock samples, especially those with radioactivity, is very difficult, we developed a new approach to determine the diffusivity of americium in granite. The new approach mainly includes two parts: one is to measure the radioactivities from both sides of a rock disk sample by autoradiography with phosphor imaging technique; the other is to study the relationship between the radioactivities and the apparent diffusivity of americium in granite by computer modelling. Because the high contamination risk of grinding radioactive rock samples has been avoided, the new approach is much simpler than the conventional method. It may be a better choice of measuring the diffusivities of radionuclides in rock, especially for those laboratories in which grinding radioactive rock samples is inconvenient. (orig.)

  6. Measurements of α-emitting plutonium and americium in the intertidal sands of west Cumbria, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakins, J.D.; Morgan, A.; Baston, G.M.N.; Pratley, F.W.; Strange, L.P.; Burton, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of surface sand and sand cores were collected from intertidal regions of west Cumbria between Silloth and Walney Island (including the Duddon Estuary) between 1982 and 1984 and analysed for 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am. Generally, more than 95% of the α-emitting transuranic nuclides were associated with the sand and less than 5% with entrained silt. The greatest concentrations of both plutonium and americium were found at Braystones. Concentrations declined with distance from the Sellafield Works. The largest actinide deposits occurred at Drigg (320 and 720 kBq m -2 of 239+240 Pu and 241 Am respectively). The integrated deposits in intertidal sand between Silloth and Walney Island were about 4.2 and 7.0 TBq respectively, which represent about 1% of the total α-emitting activity discharged to sea from Sellafield Works up to 1982. The corresponding value for the Duddon Estuary is about 0.3%. Only on beaches close to Sellafield did levels of man-made α-emitters exceed those of natural α-emitting nuclides. The radiological consequences of the intertidal inventory of plutonium and americium are shown to be very small and much less than from the seafood pathway. (author)

  7. Measurements of. alpha. -emitting plutonium and americium in the intertidal sands of west Cumbria, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eakins, J.D.; Morgan, A.; Baston, G.M.N.; Pratley, F.W.; Strange, L.P.; Burton, P.J. (UKAEA Harwell Lab. (UK). Environmental and Medical Science Div.)

    1990-01-01

    Samples of surface sand and sand cores were collected from intertidal regions of west Cumbria between Silloth and Walney Island (including the Duddon Estuary) between 1982 and 1984 and analysed for {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. Generally, more than 95% of the {alpha}-emitting transuranic nuclides were associated with the sand and less than 5% with entrained silt. The greatest concentrations of both plutonium and americium were found at Braystones. Concentrations declined with distance from the Sellafield Works. The largest actinide deposits occurred at Drigg (320 and 720 kBq m{sup -2} of {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am respectively). The integrated deposits in intertidal sand between Silloth and Walney Island were about 4.2 and 7.0 TBq respectively, which represent about 1% of the total {alpha}-emitting activity discharged to sea from Sellafield Works up to 1982. The corresponding value for the Duddon Estuary is about 0.3%. Only on beaches close to Sellafield did levels of man-made {alpha}-emitters exceed those of natural {alpha}-emitting nuclides. The radiological consequences of the intertidal inventory of plutonium and americium are shown to be very small and much less than from the seafood pathway. (author).

  8. Transmutation of americium and curium incorporated in zirconia-based host materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raison, P.E. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles; Haire, R.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Presented are studies involving the incorporation of americium and curium in zirconia-based materials. First explored was the pseudo ternary system AmO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. It was determined that selected Y-CSZ materials can incorporate significant quantities of americium oxide and remain cubic single-phase. The cell parameters of these fluorite-type products were established to be linear with the AmO{sub 2} content. The Cm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} system was also investigated. It was found that at 25 mol% of CmO{sub 1.5}, the Cm(III) stabilized zirconia in its cubic form (a = 5.21 {+-}0.01 Angstrom). At higher and lower concentrations, diphasic materials were encountered. At 50 mol% of CmO{sub 1.5}, a pyrochlore oxide - Cm{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} - is formed (a = 10.63 {+-}0.02 Angstrom). (author)

  9. Comparison of Americium-Beryllium neutron spectrum obtained using activation foil detectors and NE-213 spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunny, Sunil; Subbaiah, K.V.; Selvakumaran, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron spectrum of Americium - Beryllium (α,n) source is measured with two different spectrometers vis-a-vis activation foils (foil detectors) and NE-213 organic scintillator. Activity induced in the foils is measured with 4π-β-γ sodium iodide detector by integrating counts under photo peak and the saturation activity is found by correcting to elapsed time before counting. The data on calculated activity is fed into the unfolding code, SAND-II to obtain neutron spectrum. In the case of organic scintillator, the pulse height spectrum is obtained using MCA and this is processed with unfolding code DUST in order to get neutron spectrum. The Americium - Beryllium (α,n) neutron spectrum thus obtained by two different methods is compared. It is inferred that the NE-213 scintillator spectrum is in excellent agreement with the values beyond 1MeV. Neutron spectrum obtained by activation foils depends on initial guess spectrum and is found to be in reasonable agreement with NE-213 spectrum. (author)

  10. Nitrate photolysis in salty snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, D. J.; Morenz, K.; Shi, Q.; Murphy, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrate photolysis from snow can have a significant impact on the oxidative capacity of the local atmosphere, but the factors affecting the release of gas phase products are not well understood. Here, we report the first systematic study of the amounts of NO, NO2, and total nitrogen oxides (NOy) emitted from illuminated snow samples as a function of both nitrate and total salt (NaCl and Instant Ocean) concentration. We show that the release of nitrogen oxides to the gas phase is directly related to the expected nitrate concentration in the brine at the surface of the snow crystals, increasing to a plateau value with increasing nitrate, and generally decreasing with increasing NaCl or Instant Ocean (I.O.). In frozen mixed nitrate (25 mM) - salt (0-500 mM) solutions, there is an increase in gas phase NO2 seen at low added salt amounts: NO2 production is enhanced by 35% at low prefreezing [NaCl] and by 70% at similar prefreezing [I.O.]. Raman microscopy of frozen nitrate-salt solutions shows evidence of stronger nitrate exclusion to the air interface in the presence of I.O. than with added NaCl. The enhancement in nitrogen oxides emission in the presence of salts may prove to be important to the atmospheric oxidative capacity in polar regions.

  11. Yttrium Nitrate mediated Nitration of Phenols at room temperature in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The described method is selective for phenols. ... the significant cause of post translational modification that can ... decades, significant attention was paid on nitration of phenols to .... Progress of the reaction can be noted visually. Yttrium.

  12. EURADOS intercomparison on measurements and Monte Carlo modelling for the assessment of Americium in a USTUR leg phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M. A.; Broggio, D.; Capello, K.; Cardenas-Mendez, E.; El-Faramawy, N.; Franck, D.; James, A. C.; Kramer, G. H.; Lacerenza, G.; Lynch, T. P.; Navarro, J. F.; Navarro, T.; Perez, B.; Ruehm, W.; Tolmachev, S. Y.; Weitzenegger, E.

    2011-01-01

    A collaboration of the EURADOS working group on 'Internal Dosimetry' and the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) has taken place to carry out an intercomparison on measurements and Monte Carlo modelling determining americium deposited in the bone of a USTUR leg phantom. Preliminary results and conclusions of this intercomparison exercise are presented here. (authors)

  13. The distribution of plutonium-239 and americium-241 in the Syrian hamster following its intravenous administration as citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodwell, P.; Stather, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    Actinide distribution in various tissues and the skeleton of hamsters by liquid scintillation counting or isotope dilution. For plutonium 57% of activity was concentrated in the skeleton and more than 90% in the liver and skeleton after seven days. For americium the liver retained more than 50% of total activity and 25% was excreted in urine within seven days. (U.K.)

  14. The weak acid resin process: a dustless conversion route for the synthesis of americium bearing-blanket precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picart, S.; Gauthe, A.; Parant, P.; Remy, E.; Jobelin, I.; Pomared, J.M.; Grangaud, P.; Dauby, J.; Delahaye, T.; Caisso, M.; Bataille, M.; Bayle, J.P.; Frost, C.; Delage, C.; Martin, C.L.; Ayral, E.

    2016-01-01

    Mixed uranium-americium oxides are one of the materials envisaged for Americium Bearing Blankets dedicated to transmutation in fast neutron reactors. Conversion and fabrication processes are currently developed to make those materials in the form of dense and homogeneous oxide ceramic pellets or dense granulates incorporating uranium and americium. Their development points out the need of a simplified and optimized process which could lower hazards linked to dust generation of highly contaminating and irradiating compounds and facilitate material transfer in remote handling operations. This reason motivated the development of innovative 'dustless' route such as the Weak Acid Resin route (WAR) which provides the oxide precursors in the form of sub-millimeter-sized microspheres with optimal flowability and limits dust generation during conversion and fabrication steps. This study is thus devoted to the synthesis of mixed uranium-americium oxide microspheres by the WAR process and to the characterization of such precursors. This work also deals with their application to the fabrication of dense or porous pellets and with their potential use as dense spherules to make Sphere-Pac fuel. (authors)

  15. On the influence of the americium isotopic vector on the cooling time of minor actinides bearing blankets in fast reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooyman Timothée

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the heterogeneous minor actinides transmutation approach, the nuclei to be transmuted are loaded in dedicated targets often located at the core periphery, so that long-lived heavy nuclides are turned into shorter-lived fission products by fission. To compensate for low flux level at the core periphery, the minor actinides content in the targets is set relatively high (around 20 at.%, which has a negative impact on the reprocessing of the targets due to their important decay heat level. After a complete analysis of the main contributors to the heat load of the irradiated targets, it is shown here that the choice of the reprocessing order of the various feeds of americium from the fuel cycle depends on the actual limit for fuel reprocessing. If reprocessing of hot targets is possible, it is more interesting to reprocess first the americium feed with a high 243Am content in order to limit the total cooling time of the targets, while if reprocessing of targets is limited by their decay heat, it is more interesting to wait for an increase in the 241Am content before loading the americium in the core. An optimization of the reprocessing order appears to lead to a decrease of the total cooling time by 15 years compared to a situation where all the americium feeds are mixed together when two feeds from SFR are considered with a high reprocessing limit.

  16. The weak acid resin process: a dustless conversion route for the synthesis of americium bearing-blanket precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picart, S.; Gauthe, A.; Parant, P.; Remy, E.; Jobelin, I.; Pomared, J.M.; Grangaud, P.; Dauby, J.; Delahaye, T. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, DEN/MAR/DRCP, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Caisso, M.; Bataille, M.; Bayle, J.P. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, DEN/MAR/DTEC, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Frost, C. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, DEN/MAR/DRCP, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Institut Europeen des Membranes, CNRS-ENSCM-UM, CC47, University of Montpellier, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Delage, C. [CEA, Centre de Cadarache, DEN/CAD/DEC, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Martin, C.L. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Ayral, E. [Institut Europeen des Membranes, CNRS-ENSCM-UM, CC47, University of Montpellier, F-34095 Montpellier (France)

    2016-07-01

    Mixed uranium-americium oxides are one of the materials envisaged for Americium Bearing Blankets dedicated to transmutation in fast neutron reactors. Conversion and fabrication processes are currently developed to make those materials in the form of dense and homogeneous oxide ceramic pellets or dense granulates incorporating uranium and americium. Their development points out the need of a simplified and optimized process which could lower hazards linked to dust generation of highly contaminating and irradiating compounds and facilitate material transfer in remote handling operations. This reason motivated the development of innovative 'dustless' route such as the Weak Acid Resin route (WAR) which provides the oxide precursors in the form of sub-millimeter-sized microspheres with optimal flowability and limits dust generation during conversion and fabrication steps. This study is thus devoted to the synthesis of mixed uranium-americium oxide microspheres by the WAR process and to the characterization of such precursors. This work also deals with their application to the fabrication of dense or porous pellets and with their potential use as dense spherules to make Sphere-Pac fuel. (authors)

  17. Variability of nitrate and phosphate

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.; Sundar, D.

    Nitrate and phosphate are important elements of the biogeochemical system of an estuary. Observations carried out during the dry season April-May 2002, and March 2003 and wet season September 2002, show temporal and spatial variability of these two...

  18. Vasodilator Therapy: Nitrates and Nicorandil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkin, Jason M; Kaski, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Nitrates have been used to treat symptoms of chronic stable angina for over 135 years. These drugs are known to activate nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine-3',-5'-monophasphate (cGMP) signaling pathways underlying vascular smooth muscle cell relaxation, albeit many questions relating to how nitrates work at the cellular level remain unanswered. Physiologically, the anti-angina effects of nitrates are mostly due to peripheral venous dilatation leading to reduction in preload and therefore left ventricular wall stress, and, to a lesser extent, epicardial coronary artery dilatation and lowering of systemic blood pressure. By counteracting ischemic mechanisms, short-acting nitrates offer rapid relief following an angina attack. Long-acting nitrates, used commonly for angina prophylaxis are recommended second-line, after beta-blockers and calcium channel antagonists. Nicorandil is a balanced vasodilator that acts as both NO donor and arterial K(+) ATP channel opener. Nicorandil might also exhibit cardioprotective properties via mitochondrial ischemic preconditioning. While nitrates and nicorandil are effective pharmacological agents for prevention of angina symptoms, when prescribing these drugs it is important to consider that unwanted and poorly tolerated hemodynamic side-effects such as headache and orthostatic hypotension can often occur owing to systemic vasodilatation. It is also necessary to ensure that a dosing regime is followed that avoids nitrate tolerance, which not only results in loss of drug efficacy, but might also cause endothelial dysfunction and increase long-term cardiovascular risk. Here we provide an update on the pharmacological management of chronic stable angina using nitrates and nicorandil.

  19. Headspace Analysis of Ammonium Nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-25

    explosive ammonium nitrate produces ammonia and nitric acid in the gaseous headspace above bulk solids, but the concentrations of the products have been...and NO2-, a product of nitrate fragmentation (Figure 7). Brief spikes in the background and dips in oxalic acid signal were observed at the time of...either filtered air or experimental nitric acid vapor sources so that analyte signal could be measured directly opposite background. With oxalic

  20. Worldwide bioassay data resources for plutonium/americium internal dosimetry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.; Bertelli, L.; Little, T.; Guilmette, R.; Riddell, T.; Filipy, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Biokinetic models are the scientific underpinning of internal dosimetry. These models describe how materials of interest taken into the body by various routes (for example inhalation) are transported through the body, allowing the modelling of bioassay measurements and the estimation of radiation dose. The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) publishes biokinetic models for use in internal dosimetry. These models represent the consensus judgement of a committee of experts, based on human and animal data. Nonetheless, it is important to validate biokinetic models using directly applicable data, in a scientifically transparent manner, especially for internal dosimetry research purposes (as opposed to radiation protection), as in epidemiology studies. Two major goals would be to determine individual variations of model parameters for the purpose of assessing this source of uncertainty in internal dose calculations, and to determine values of workplace specific parameters (such as particle solubility in lung fluids) for different representative workplaces. Furthermore, data on the observed frequency of intakes under various conditions can be used in the interpretation of bioassay data. All of the above may be couched in the terminology of Bayesian statistical analysis and amount to the determination of the Bayesian prior probability distributions needed in a Bayesian interpretation of bioassay data. The authors have direct knowledge of several significant databases of plutonium/americium bioassay data (including autopsy data). The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the worldwide community with these resources and to invite others who may know of other such databases to participate with us in a publication that would document the content, form, and the procedures for seeking access to these databases. These databases represent a tremendous scientific resource in this field. Examples of databases known to the authors include: the

  1. XRD monitoring of α self-irradiation in uranium-americium mixed oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlait, Denis; Lebreton, Florent; Roussel, Pascal; Delahaye, Thibaud

    2013-12-16

    The structural evolution under (241)Am self-irradiation of U(1-x)Am(x)O(2±δ) transmutation fuels (with x ≤ 0.5) was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Samples first underwent a preliminary heat treatment performed under a reducing atmosphere (Ar/H2(4%)) aiming to recover the previously accumulated structural defects. Over all measurements (carried out over up to a full year and for integrated doses up to 1.5 × 10(18) α-decay events·g(-1)), only fluorite U(1-x)Am(x)O(2±δ) solid solutions were observed. Within a few days after the end of the heat treatment, each of the five studied samples was slowly oxidized as a consequence of their move to air atmosphere, which is evidenced by XRD by an initial sharp decrease of the unit cell parameter. For the compounds with x ≤ 0.15, this oxidation occurred without any phase transitions, but for U0.6Am0.4O(2±δ) and U0.5Am0.5O(2±δ), this process is accompanied by a transition from a first fluorite solid solution to a second oxidized one, as the latter is thermodynamically stable in ambient conditions. In the meantime and after the oxidation process, (241)Am α self-irradiation caused a structural swelling up to ∼0.8 vol %, independently of the sample composition. The kinetic constants of swelling were also determined by regression of experimental data and are, as expected, dependent on x and thus on the dose rate. The normalization of these kinetic constants by sample α-activity, however, leads to very close swelling rates among the samples. Finally, evolutions of microstrain and crystallite size were also monitored, but for the considered dose rates and cumulated doses, α self-irradiation was found, within the limits of the diffractometer used, to have almost no impact on these characteristics. Microstrain was found to be influenced instead by the americium content in the materials (i.e., by the impurities associated with americium starting material and the increase of cationic charge heterogeneity with

  2. EXTRACTION OF URANYL NITRATE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, N.H.; Mundy, R.J.

    1957-12-10

    An improvement in the process is described for extracting aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions with an organic solvent such as ether. It has been found that the organic phase will extract a larger quantity of uranyl nitrate if the aqueous phase contains in addition to the uranyl nitrate, a quantity of some other soluble nitrate to act as a salting out agent. Mentioned as suitable are the nitrates of lithium, calcium, zinc, bivalent copper, and trivalent iron.

  3. The uptake of plutonium-239, 240, americium-241, strontium-90 into plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popplewell, D.S.; Ham, G.J.; Johnson, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the results of measurements on the uptake of plutonium, americium, strontium-90 and caesium-137 into peas, beet, oats, sweet corn, tomatoes and vegetable marrow grown in tubs containing radioactively-contaminated silts. The silts had been taken from an area of West Cumbria commonly referred to as the Ravenglass estuary. The experiments are categorised as being carried out under non-standard conditions because of the manner in which the radioactivity came to be incorporated into the growth medium. The growth medium was representative of conditions which could arise when the estuarine silt moves inland under the influence of wind and tide and mixes with the adjacent farm land. The silt had been contaminated by radioactive effluents from the nuclear fuels reprocessing plant at Sellafield and this contamination had been brought about by natural means. (Auth.)

  4. Comparative study of plutonium and americium bioaccumulation from two marine sediments contaminated in the natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T.F.; Smith, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Plutonium and americium sediment-animal transfer was studied under controlled laboratory conditions by exposure of the benthic polychaete Nereis diversicolor (O. F. Mueller) to marine sediments contaminated by a nuclear bomb accident (near Thule, Greenland) and nuclear weapons testing (Enewetak Atoll). In both sediment regimes, the bioavailability of plutonium and 241 Am was low, with specific activity in the tissues 241 Am occurred and 241 Am uptake from the Thule sediment was enhanced compared to that from lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll. Autoradiography studies indicated the presence of hot particles of plutonium in the sediments. The results highlight the importance of purging animals of their gut contents in order to obtain accurate estimates of transuranic transfer from ingested sediments into tissue. It is further suggested that enhanced transuranic uptake by some benthic species could arise from ingestion of highly activity particles and organic-rich detritus present in the sediments. (author)

  5. Transportability Class of Americium in K Basin Sludge under Ambient and Hydrothermal Processing Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmitt, Bruce E.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2006-08-01

    This report establishes the technical bases for using a ''slow uptake'' instead of a ''moderate uptake'' transportability class for americium-241 (241Am) for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP) dose consequence analysis. Slow uptake classes are used for most uranium and plutonium oxides. A moderate uptake class has been used in prior STP analyses for 241Am based on the properties of separated 241Am and its associated oxide. However, when 241Am exists as an ingrown progeny (and as a small mass fraction) within plutonium mixtures, it is appropriate to assign transportability factors of the predominant plutonium mixtures (typically slow) to the Am241. It is argued that the transportability factor for 241Am in sludge likewise should be slow because it exists as a small mass fraction as the ingrown progeny within the uranium oxide in sludge. In this report, the transportability class assignment for 241Am is underpinned with radiochemical characterization data on K Basin sludge and with studies conducted with other irradiated fuel exposed to elevated temperatures and conditions similar to the STP. Key findings and conclusions from evaluation of the characterization data and published literature are summarized here. Plutonium and 241Am make up very small fractions of the uranium within the K Basin sludge matrix. Plutonium is present at about 1 atom per 500 atoms of uranium and 241Am at about 1 atom per 19000 of uranium. Plutonium and americium are found to remain with uranium in the solid phase in all of the {approx}60 samples taken and analyzed from various sources of K Basin sludge. The uranium-specific concentrations of plutonium and americium also remain approximately constant over a uranium concentration range (in the dry sludge solids) from 0.2 to 94 wt%, a factor of {approx}460. This invariability demonstrates that 241Am does not partition from the uranium or plutonium fraction for any characterized sludge matrix. Most

  6. Plutonium and americium concentrations and vertical profiles in some Italian mosses used as bioindicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Meli, M.A.; Guerra, F.; Degetto, S.; Jia, G.; Gerdol, R.

    1998-01-01

    We have examined the uptake of actinide elements Am and Pu by different species of lichen and moss collected in two locations (Urbino, Central Italy; Alps region, North-east Italy). Plutonium and americium were separated and determined by extraction chromatography, electrodeposition and alpha-spectrometry. This paper summarizes our results with a special emphasis on the vertical profiles of these actinides in two different species of mosses. Several 1-2 cm depth sections were obtained and dated by 210 Pb method. A typical peak for 239,240 Pu and 241 Am was found in the very old moss species ('Sphagnum Compactum') at a depth corresponding to the period 1960-1970 which was the period characterized by the maximum nuclear weapon tests. In a younger moss species ('Neckeria Crispa') no peak was observed and the regression curves showed that Am is more mobile than 239,240 Pu and 238 Pu. (author)

  7. EURADOS action for determination of americium in skull measures in vivo and Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Ponte, M. A.; Navarro Amaro, J. F.; Perez Lopez, B.; Navarro Bravo, T.; Nogueira, P.; Vrba, T.

    2013-01-01

    From the Group of WG7 internal dosimetry of the EURADOS Organization (European Radiation Dosimetry group, e.V.) which It coordinates CIEMAT, international action for the vivo measurement of americium has been conducted in three mannequins type skull with detectors of Germanium by gamma spectrometry and simulation by Monte Carlo methods. Such action has been raised as two separate exercises, with the participation of institutions in Europe, America and Asia. Other actions similar precede this vivo intercomparison of measurement and modeling Monte Carlo1. The preliminary results and associated findings are presented in this work. The laboratory of the body radioactivity (CRC) of service counter of dosimetry staff internal (DPI) of the CIEMAT, it has been one of the participants in vivo measures exercise. On the other hand part, the Group of numerical dosimetry of CIEMAT is participant of the Monte Carlo2 simulation exercise. (Author)

  8. Complex formation of trivalent americium with salicylic acid at very low concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanie Mueller; Margret Acker; Steffen Taut; Gert Bernhard; Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden

    2010-01-01

    For the first time, the complexation of americium(III) with salicylic acid was studied at trace metal concentrations using a 2.0 m Long Path Flow Cell for UV-vis spectroscopy. The detection limit of Am(III) in aqueous solution at pH 3.0 was found to be 5 x 10 -9 M. Two Am(III)-salicylate complexes were formed at pH 5.0 in 0.1 M NaClO 4 , indicated by a clear red shift of the absorption maximum. The absorption spectra obtained from spectrophotometric titration were analyzed by means of factor analysis and complex stabilities were calculated to be log β 110 = 2.56 ± 0.08 and log β 120 = 3.93 ± 0.19. (author)

  9. Recovery of plutonium and americium from chloride salt wastes by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichley-Yinger, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    Plutonium and americium can be recovered from aqueous waste solutions containing a mixture of HCl and chloride salt wastes by the coupling of two solvent extraction systems: tributyl phosphate (TBP) in tetrachloroethylene (TCE) and octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) in TCE. In the flowsheet developed, the salt wastes are dissolved in HCl, the Pu(III) is oxidized to the IV state with NaClO 2 and recovered in the TBP-TCE cycle, and the Am is then removed from the resultant raffinate by the CMPO-TCE cycle. The consequences of the feed solution composition and extraction behavior of these species on the process flowsheet design, the Pu-product purity, and the decontamination of the aqueous raffinate from transuranic elements are discussed. 16 refs., 6 figs

  10. Americium-241 in surface soil associated with the Hanford site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.R.; Gilbert, R.O.; Gano, K.A.

    1981-05-01

    Various kinds of surface soil samples were collected and analyzed for Americium-241 ( 241 Am) to examine the feasibility of improving soil sample data for the Hanford Surface Environmental Surveillance Program. Results do not indicate that a major improvement would occur if procedures were changed from the current practices. Conclusions from this study are somewhat tempered by the very low levels of 241 Am ( 241 Am in soil crust (0 to 1.0 cm deep) was greater than the corresponding subsurface layer (1.0 to 2.5 cm deep), and the average concentration of 241 Am in some onsite samples collected near the PUREX facility was greater than comparable samples collected 60 km upwind at an offsite location

  11. Separation and measurement of thorium, plutonium, americium, uranium and strontium in environmental matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Jennifer J.; Zawadzki, Atun; Chisari, Robert; Wong, Henri K.Y.

    2011-01-01

    A technique for the isolation of thorium (Th), plutonium (Pu), americium (Am), uranium (U) and strontium (Sr) isotopes from various environmental matrices has been adapted from a previously published method specific to water samples (). Separation and isolation of the various elemental fractions from a single sub-sample is possible, thereby eliminating the need for multiple analyses. The technique involves sample dissolution, concentration via calcium phosphate co-precipitation, rapid column extraction using TEVA TM , TRU TM and Sr-Spec TM resin cartridges, alpha spectrometry for Th, Pu, U and Am and Cerenkov counting for Sr. Various standard reference materials were analysed and chemical yields are in the range of 70-80% for Th, Am, U and Sr and 50-60% for Pu. Sample sizes of up to 10 L for water, 5 g for dry soil and sediment and 10 g for dry vegetation and seaweed can be processed using this technique.

  12. Separation and measurement of thorium, plutonium, americium, uranium and strontium in environmental matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Jennifer J., E-mail: jennifer.harrison@ansto.gov.au [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai NSW 2234 (Australia); Zawadzki, Atun; Chisari, Robert; Wong, Henri K.Y. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    A technique for the isolation of thorium (Th), plutonium (Pu), americium (Am), uranium (U) and strontium (Sr) isotopes from various environmental matrices has been adapted from a previously published method specific to water samples (). Separation and isolation of the various elemental fractions from a single sub-sample is possible, thereby eliminating the need for multiple analyses. The technique involves sample dissolution, concentration via calcium phosphate co-precipitation, rapid column extraction using TEVA{sup TM}, TRU{sup TM} and Sr-Spec{sup TM} resin cartridges, alpha spectrometry for Th, Pu, U and Am and Cerenkov counting for Sr. Various standard reference materials were analysed and chemical yields are in the range of 70-80% for Th, Am, U and Sr and 50-60% for Pu. Sample sizes of up to 10 L for water, 5 g for dry soil and sediment and 10 g for dry vegetation and seaweed can be processed using this technique.

  13. Liquid-liquid extraction of plutonium and americium by cekanoic acid from alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal Chetty, K.; Sagar, V.; Swarup, R.

    2001-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction studies of plutonium and americium from aqueous carbonate medium using a high molecular weight carboxylic acid namely cekanoic acid in different diluents has been carried out. The distribution ratio (D) values for Pu(IV) and Am(III) under various parameters such as concentration of extractant, Na 2 CO 3 and initial pH were obtained. Results indicated that Pu(IV) and Am(III) could be satisfactorily extracted together or individually from aqueous carbonate medium using cekanoic acid in different diluents like carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane, toluene, n-dodecane or solvesso-100. The D values for Pu(IV) and Am(III) also indicated the possibility of their mutual separation. The back extraction of Pu and Am with different reagents was also studied. (orig.)

  14. Magnesium ionophore II as an extraction agent for trivalent europium and americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makrlik, Emanuel [Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Environmental Sciences; Vanura, Petr [Univ. of Chemistry and Technology, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    2016-11-01

    Solvent extraction of microamounts of trivalent europium and americium into nitrobenzene by using a mixture of hydrogen dicarbollylcobaltate (H{sup +}B{sup -}) and magnesium ionophore II (L) was studied. The equilibrium data were explained assuming that the species HL{sup +}, HL{sup +}{sub 2}, ML{sup 3+}{sub 2}, and ML{sup 3+}{sub 3} (M{sup 3+} = Eu{sup 3+}, Am{sup 3+}; L=magnesium, ionophore II) are extracted into the nitrobenzene phase. Extraction and stability constants of the cationic complex species in nitrobenzene saturated with water were determined and discussed. From the experimental results it is evident that this effective magnesium ionophore II receptor for the Eu{sup 3+} and Am{sup 3+} cations could be considered as a potential extraction agent for nuclear waste treatment.

  15. Solubility isotherms in ternary systems of samarium nitrate, water and nitrates of amidopyrine, benzotriazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starikova, L.I.

    1991-01-01

    Solubility in the system of samarium nitrate-amidopyrine nitrate-water at 25 and 50 deg C was studied. Solubility isotherms consist of three branches, corresponding to crystallization of samarium nitrate tetrahydrate, amidopyrine nitrate and congruently soluble compounds of Sm(NO 3 ) 3 · 2C 13 H 17 ON 3 ·HNO 3 composition. Its thermal behaviour was studied. The system of samarium nitrate-benzotriazole nitrate-water is referred to eutonic type

  16. Catalyzed reduction of nitrate in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.

    1994-08-01

    Sodium nitrate and other nitrate salts in wastes is a major source of difficulty for permanent disposal. Reduction of nitrate using aluminum metal has been demonstrated, but NH 3 , hydrazine, or organic compounds containing oxygen would be advantageous for reduction of nitrate in sodium nitrate solutions. Objective of this seed money study was to determine minimum conditions for reduction. Proposed procedure was batchwise heating of aqueous solutions in closed vessels with monitoring of temperatures and pressures. A simple, convenient apparatus and procedure were demonstrated for observing formation of gaseous products and collecting samples for analyses. The test conditions were 250 degree C and 1000 psi max. Any useful reduction of sodium nitrate to sodium hydroxide as the primary product was not found. The nitrate present at pHs 3 or NH 4 NO 3 is easily decomposed, and the effect of nitromethane at these low pHs was confirmed. When acetic acid or formic acid was added, 21 to 56% of the nitrate in sodium nitrate solutions was reduced by methanol or formaldehyde. With hydrazine and acetic acid, 73 % of the nitrate was decomposed to convert NaNO 3 to sodium acetate. With hydrazine and formic acid, 36% of the nitrate was decomposed. If these products are more acceptable for final disposal than sodium nitrate, the reagents are cheap and the conversion conditions would be practical for easy use. Ammonium acetate or formate salts did not significantly reduce nitrate in sodium nitrate solutions

  17. Experimental and in situ investigations on americium, curium and plutonium behaviour in marine benthic species: transfer from water or sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miramand, P.

    1984-06-01

    The tranfer of transuranic elements -americium, curium and plutonium- from the sediments containing them to some marine benthic species (endofauna and epifauna) was studied with a twofold approach - laboratory and in-situ investigation. The experimental investigations, divided into three parts, made it possible to specify concentration factors (F.C.), transfer factors (F.T.) and to understand the process involved for 5 benthic species. The result were refined by an in-situ study that brought new data on the marine distribution of the transuranic elements released by the La Hague plant. Finally, the localization of americium and plutonium in the tissues and cells of these species was determined by autoradiography [fr

  18. Annual report for FY 1976 on project AN0115A: the migration of plutonium and americium in the lithosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fried, S.; Friedman, A.M.; Hines, J.J.; Atcher, R.W.; Quarterman, L.A.; Volesky, A.

    1976-12-01

    Studies have been carried out on the migration of plutonium and americium in solutions flowing through porous and crushed rock and through fissures. The migration process can be described in terms of the surface absorption of these elements. In addition, chemical effects on the absorption have been observed. One of these effects is possibly due to the presence of a plutonium polymer that migrates at a more rapid rate than normal plutonium

  19. Upper limits to americium concentration in large sized sodium-cooled fast reactors loaded with metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youpeng; Wallenius, Janne

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The americium transmutation capability of Integral Fast Reactor was investigated. • The impact from americium introduction was parameterized by applying SERPENT Monte Carlo calculations. • Higher americium content in metallic fuel leads to a power penalty, preserving consistent safety margins. - Abstract: Transient analysis of a large sized sodium-cooled reactor loaded with metallic fuel modified by different fractions of americium have been performed. Unprotected loss-of-offsite power, unprotected loss-of-flow and unprotected transient-over-power accidents were simulated with the SAS4A/SASSYS code based on the geometrical model of an IFR with power rating of 2500 MW th , using safety parameters obtained with the SERPENT Monte Carlo code. The Ti-modified austenitic D9 steel, having higher creep rupture strength, was considered as the cladding and structural material apart from the ferritic/martensitic HT9 steel. For the reference case of U–12Pu–1Am–10Zr fuel at EOEC, the margin to fuel melt during a design basis condition UTOP is about 50 K for a maximum linear rating of 30 kW/m. In order to maintain a margin of 50 K to fuel failure, the linear power rating has to be reduced by ∼3% and 6% for 2 wt.% and 3 wt.% Am introduction into the fuel respectively. Hence, an Am concentration of 2–3 wt.% in the fuel would lead to a power penalty of 3–6%, permitting a consumption rate of 3.0–5.1 kg Am/TW h th . This consumption rate is significantly higher than the one previously obtained for oxide fuelled SFRs

  20. Efficiency of nitrate uptake in spinach : impact of external nitrate concentration and relative growth rate on nitrate influx and efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Steege, MW; Stulen, [No Value; Wiersema, PK; Posthumus, F; Vaalburg, W

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of nitrate influx and efflux in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv. Subito), was studied in short-term label experiments with N-13- and N-15-nitrate. Nitrate fluxes were examined in relation to the N demand for growth, defined as relative growth rate (RGR) times plant N concentration.

  1. Thermal Decomposition Of Hydroxylamine Nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Jimmie C.; Brower, Kay R.

    1988-05-01

    used hydroxylamine nitrate decomposes within a few minutes in the temperature range 130-140°C. Added ammonium ion is converted to N2, while hydrazinium ion is converted to HN3. Nitrous acid is an intermediate and its formation is rate-determining. A hygride transfer process is postulated. The reaction pathways have been elucidated by use of N tracers.

  2. Nitrate and bicarbonate selective CHEMFETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonisse, M.M.G.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Reinhoudt, David

    1995-01-01

    The development of durable anion selective CHEMFET micro sensors is described. Selectivity in these sensors is either obtained from differences in hydration energy of the anions (the Hlofmeister series, giving nitrate selectivity) or by introduction of a new class of uranyl salophene ionophores

  3. The behaviour under irradiation of molybdenum matrix for inert matrix fuel containing americium oxide (CerMet concept)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Agata, E., E-mail: elio.dagata@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Knol, S.; Fedorov, A.V. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Fernandez, A.; Somers, J. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Klaassen, F. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2015-10-15

    Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors or Accelerator Driven System (ADS, subcritical reactors dedicated to transmutation) of long-lived nuclides like {sup 241}Am is therefore an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity of waste packages to be stored in a repository. In order to safely burn americium in a fast reactor or ADS, it must be incorporated in a matrix that could be metallic (CerMet target) or ceramic (CerCer target). One of the most promising matrix to incorporate Am is molybdenum. In order to address the issues (swelling, stability under irradiation, gas retention and release) of using Mo as matrix to transmute Am, two irradiation experiments have been conducted recently at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten (The Netherland) namely HELIOS and BODEX. The BODEX experiment is a separate effect test, where the molybdenum behaviour is studied without the presence of fission products using {sup 10}B to “produce” helium, the HELIOS experiment included a more representative fuel target with the presence of Am and fission product. This paper covers the results of Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) of the two irradiation experiments mentioned above where molybdenum behaviour has been deeply investigated as possible matrix to transmute americium (CerMet fuel target). The behaviour of molybdenum looks satisfying at operating temperature but at high temperature (above 1000 °C) more investigation should be performed.

  4. Consideration of the effect of lymph-node deposition upon the measurement of plutonium and americium in the lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, R.B.; Lagerquist, C.R.

    1975-01-01

    Measurement of an inhaled radionuclide by external photon counting includes quantities which may be contained in lymph nodes, as well as quantities in the lungs. An overestimate of the lung burden can result, if a portion of the radionuclide were present in the lymph nodes. This problem is analyzed with respect to the measurement of inhaled plutonium containing plutonium-241 and americium-241, when americium-241 has been used as a tracer for the plutonium. Equations are derived which yield the amounts of americium and of plutonium in the lungs and in the lymph nodes as a function of time after exposure and for various translocation and retention parameters. Count histories (count profiles) of actual exposure cases are compared with calculated count profiles in order to gain insight into possible values of the translocation and retention parameters. Comparison is also made with calculated count profiles using values of translocation and retention parameters recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for use with the Task Group Lung Model. The magnitude of the possible overestimate (error factor) was calculated for combinations o []parameters which yielded matches to the observed count histories. (auth)

  5. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Archna; Sharma, Surinder K.; Sobti, Ranbir Chander

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion ex...

  6. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed with...

  7. Interaction in triple systems of neodymium nitrate, water and nitrates of trimethylammonium and tetramethylammonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeva, M.K.; Zhuravlev, E.F.

    1977-01-01

    At 20 and 40 deg C the mutual solubility is studied in systems neodymium nitrate-water-trimethylamine nitrate and neodymium nitrate-water-tetramethylammonium nitrate. It has been established that the above systems belong to those with chemical interaction of the components. The compounds have been isolated preparatively, their composition has been confirmed analytically, and their thermal behaviour studied

  8. Method of producing thin cellulose nitrate film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupica, S.B.

    1975-01-01

    An improved method for forming a thin nitrocellulose film of reproducible thickness is described. The film is a cellulose nitrate film, 10 to 20 microns in thickness, cast from a solution of cellulose nitrate in tetrahydrofuran, said solution containing from 7 to 15 percent, by weight, of dioctyl phthalate, said cellulose nitrate having a nitrogen content of from 10 to 13 percent

  9. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a curing...

  10. Uptake of americium-241 by plants from contaminated Chernobyl exclusive zone test site soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashydov, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    Americium-241 was found to accumulate in soils and biological objects of the environment. Its concentration has increased many times after the Chernobyl disaster and can be expected to increase about 40 times in the future. This research concentrated on the contaminated exclusive Chernobyl zone polluted by trace radionuclides, their behavior and accumulation by various plant species. Special attention is devoted to the bioavailability of 241 Am to the plants Galium rivale, G. tinctorium, G. aparine, G. intermedium, Berteroa incana, Artemisia absinthium, A. vulgaris, Centaurea borysthenica, C. arenaria, Cirsium arvense, Succissa pratensis, Solidago virgaurea, Linaria vulgaris, Lepidium ruderale, Stenactis annua, Veronica maxima, Verbascum lychnitis, Euphorbia cyparissias, Genista tinctoria, Erigeron canadensis, Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur, which were collected from the Chernobyl, Kopachi, and Yanov districts. The plant samples of Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur were collected from the Yanov district, where the soil contamination by 241 Am and 137 Cs was at the level of 660 and 27 MBq/m 2 , respectively. Gamma spectroscopy and radiochemical methods were used to estimate the activity concentration of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am. The radionuclides were measured in the dry green mass of the plant samples and in the dry soils. The contamination of the Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur samples by 137 Cs was (5.8±1,5)x10 6 , (7.4±1.1)x10 5 , and (2.6±0.2)x10 6 Bq/kg dry mass, respectively, and contamination by 241 Am was 47±5, 45±3 and 3.2±0.2 Bq/kg, respectively. The soil-to-plant transfer ratio for 137 Cs ranged lay within the interval of 0.2 to 0.03 Bq/kg : Bq/m 2 , the the transfer ratio for 241 Am did not exceed 7x10 -5 Bq/kg : Bq/m 2 . The coefficient of the relative contents of the 241 Am/ 239+240 Pu radionuclides in the various plant samples varied from 3.2 to 8.3, while for soil from

  11. Preparation of acid deficient solutions of uranyl nitrate and thorium nitrate by steam denitration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Shigeru; Takahashi, Yoshihisa

    1996-01-01

    Acid deficient heavy metal (HM) nitrate solutions are often required in the internal gelation processes for nuclear fuel fabrication. The stoichiometric HM-nitrate solutions are needed in a sol-gel process for fuel fabrication. A method for preparing such nitrate solutions with a controlled molar ratio of nitrate/metal by denitration of acid-excess nitrate solutions was developed. The denitration was conducted by bubbling a nitrate solution with a mixture of steam+Ar. It was found that steam was more effective for the denitration than Ar. The acid deficient uranyl nitrate solution with nitrate/U=1.55 was yielded by steam bubbling, while not by only Ar bubbling. As for thorium nitrate, acid deficient solutions of nitrate/Th≥3.1 were obtained by steam bubbling. (author)

  12. High temperature interaction studies on equimolar nitrate mixture of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate and gadolinium nitrate hexahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalekar, Bhupesh B.; Raje, Naina; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earths including gadolinium form a sizeable fraction of the fission products in the nuclear fission of fissile material in the reactor. These fission products can interact with uranium dioxide fuel and can form various compounds which can alter the thermal behavior of the fuel. The mixed oxide formed due to the high temperature interactions of mixture of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) and gadolinium nitrate hexahydrate (GdNH) has been studied using thermal and X- ray diffraction techniques. The equimolar mixture of UNH and GdNH was prepared by mixing the weighed amount of individual nitrates and grinding gently with mortar and pestle. Thermogravimetry (TG) measurements were carried out by separately heating 100 mg of mixture and individual nitrates at heating rate of 10°C min -1 using Netzsch thermal analyzer (Model No.: STA 409 PC Luxx) in high purity nitrogen atmosphere with a flow rate of 120 mL min -1 . The XRD measurement was carried out on a Philips X-ray diffractometer (Model PW1710) using nickel-filtered Cu-Kα radiation

  13. Plasma nitrate and nitrite are increased by a high nitrate supplement, but not by high nitrate foods in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gary D.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Dove, Robin W.; Beavers, Daniel; Presley, Tennille; Helms, Christine; Bechtold, Erika; King, S. Bruce; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of dietary nitrate on the nitrate/nitrite/NO (nitric oxide) cycle in older adults. We examined the effect of a 3-day control diet vs. high nitrate diet, with and without a high nitrate supplement (beetroot juice), on plasma nitrate and nitrite kinetics, and blood pressure using a randomized four period cross-over controlled design. We hypothesized that the high nitrate diet would show higher levels of plasma nitrate/nitrite and blood pressure compared to the control diet, which would be potentiated by the supplement. Participants were eight normotensive older men and women (5 female, 3 male, 72.5±4.7 yrs) with no overt disease or medications that affect NO metabolism. Plasma nitrate and nitrite levels and blood pressure were measured prior to and hourly for 3 hours after each meal. The mean daily changes in plasma nitrate and nitrite were significantly different from baseline for both control diet+supplement (pnitrate and nitrite, respectively) and high nitrate diet+supplement (p=0.001 and 0.002), but not for control diet (p=0.713 and 0.741) or high nitrate diet (p=0.852 and 0.500). Blood pressure decreased from the morning baseline measure to the three 2 hr post-meal follow-up time-points for all treatments, but there was no main effect for treatment. In healthy older adults, a high nitrate supplement consumed at breakfast elevated plasma nitrate and nitrite levels throughout the day. This observation may have practical utility for the timing of intake of a nitrate supplement with physical activity for older adults with vascular dysfunction. PMID:22464802

  14. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion exchange. This paper reviews the developments in the field of nitrate removal processes which can be effectively used for denitrifying ground water as well as industrial water.

  15. Continuous flow nitration in miniaturized devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol A. Kulkarni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the state of the art in the field of continuous flow nitration with miniaturized devices. Although nitration has been one of the oldest and most important unit reactions, the advent of miniaturized devices has paved the way for new opportunities to reconsider the conventional approach for exothermic and selectivity sensitive nitration reactions. Four different approaches to flow nitration with microreactors are presented herein and discussed in view of their advantages, limitations and applicability of the information towards scale-up. Selected recent patents that disclose scale-up methodologies for continuous flow nitration are also briefly reviewed.

  16. Solution speciation of plutonium and Americium at an Australian legacy radioactive waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi; Harrison, Jennifer J; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry; Wong, Henri K Y; Johansen, Mathew P; Waite, T David; Payne, Timothy E

    2014-09-02

    During the 1960s, radioactive waste containing small amounts of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) was disposed in shallow trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), located near the southern suburbs of Sydney, Australia. Because of periodic saturation and overflowing of the former disposal trenches, Pu and Am have been transferred from the buried wastes into the surrounding surface soils. The presence of readily detected amounts of Pu and Am in the trench waters provides a unique opportunity to study their aqueous speciation under environmentally relevant conditions. This study aims to comprehensively investigate the chemical speciation of Pu and Am in the trench water by combining fluoride coprecipitation, solvent extraction, particle size fractionation, and thermochemical modeling. The predominant oxidation states of dissolved Pu and Am species were found to be Pu(IV) and Am(III), and large proportions of both actinides (Pu, 97.7%; Am, 86.8%) were associated with mobile colloids in the submicron size range. On the basis of this information, possible management options are assessed.

  17. Cleanex process: a versatile solvent extraction process for recovery and purification of lanthanides, americium, and curium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, J.E.; Collins, E.D.; King, L.J.

    1979-01-01

    At a concentration of 1 M in straight-chain hydrocarbon diluent, HDEHP will extract americium, curium, and other trivalent actinide and lanthanide elements from dilute acid or salt solutions. The solute is back-extracted with more concentrated acid, either nitric or hydrochloric. The process has been used in the continuous, countercurrent mode, but its greatest advantage arises in batch extractions where the excess acid can be titrated with NaOH to produce a final acidity of about 0.03 M. Under these conditions, 99% recovery can be achieved, usually in one stage. Cleanex was used on the 50-liter scale at the Transuranium Processing Plant at Oak Ridge for 12 years to provide a broad spectrum cleanup to transuranium elements before applying more sophisticated techniques for separating individual products. The process is also used routinely to recover excessive losses of curium and/or californium from plant waste streams. The solvent system is relatively resistant to radiation damage, being usable up to 200 W-h/liter

  18. Study of biosorbents application on the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes with americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borba, Tania Regina de

    2010-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy for many different purposes has been intensified and highlighted by the benefits that it provides. Medical diagnosis and therapy, agriculture, industry and electricity generation are examples of its application. However, nuclear energy generates radioactive wastes that require suitable treatment ensuring life and environmental safety. Biosorption and bioaccumulation represent an emergent alternative for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes, providing volume reduction and physical state change. This work aimed to study biosorbents for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes contaminated with americium-241 in order to reduce the volume and change the physical state from liquid to solid. The biosorbents evaluated were Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in calcium alginate beads, inactivated and free cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, calcium alginate beads, Bacillus subtilis, Cupriavidus metallidurans and Ochrobactrum anthropi. The results were quite satisfactory, achieving 100% in some cases. The technique presented in this work may be useful and viable for implementing at the Waste Management Laboratory of IPEN - CNEN/SP in short term, since it is an easy and low cost method. (author)

  19. Experimental studies on the biokinetics of plutonium and americium in the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guary, J.C.; Fowler, S.W.

    1982-01-01

    Radiotracer experiments using the photon-emitters 237 Pu and 241 Am were performed to examine uptake, tissue distribution and retention of plutonium and americium in the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris Cuvier. A 2 wk exposure in contaminated sea water resulted in twice as much 237 Pu being taken up by whole octopus as 241 Am. Immediately following uptake approximately 41% and 73% of the 237 Pu and 241 Am respectively were located in the branchial hearts. Depuration rates for both radionuclides were identical; approximately 46% of both radionuclides initially incorporated were associated with a long-lived compartment which turned over very slowly (Tbsub(1/2) = 1.5 yr). Longer exposures to 241 Am resulted in an increase in the size of the slowly exchanging 241 Am pool in the octopus. After 2 mo depuration, the majority of the residual activity of both radionuclides was in the branchial hearts. On average 33% of the 241 Am ingested with food was assimilated into tissues, primarily the hepatopancreas. Different whole-body 241 Am excretion rates were observed at different times following assimilation and were related to transfer processes taking place within internal tissues, most notably between hepatopancreas and the branchial hearts. Relationships between circulatory and excretory functions of these 2 organs are discussed and a physiological mechanism is proposed to explain the observed patterns of 241 Am excretion in O. vulgaris. (orig.)

  20. Experimental studies on the biokinetics of plutonium and americium in the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guary, J.C.; Fowler, S.W.

    1982-03-05

    Radiotracer experiments using the photon-emitters /sup 237/Pu and /sup 241/Am were performed to examine uptake, tissue distribution and retention of plutonium and americium in the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris Cuvier. A 2 wk exposure in contaminated sea water resulted in twice as much /sup 237/Pu being taken up by whole octopus as /sup 241/Am. Immediately following uptake approximately 41% and 73% of the /sup 237/Pu and /sup 241/Am respectively were located in the branchial hearts. Depuration rates for both radionuclides were identical; approximately 46% of both radionuclides initially incorporated were associated with a long-lived compartment which turned over very slowly (Tbsub(1/2) = 1.5 yr). Longer exposures to /sup 241/Am resulted in an increase in the size of the slowly exchanging /sup 241/Am pool in the octopus. After 2 mo depuration, the majority of the residual activity of both radionuclides was in the branchial hearts. On average 33% of the /sup 241/Am ingested with food was assimilated into tissues, primarily the hepatopancreas. Different whole-body /sup 241/Am excretion rates were observed at different times following assimilation and were related to transfer processes taking place within internal tissues, most notably between hepatopancreas and the branchial hearts. Relationships between circulatory and excretory functions of these 2 organs are discussed and a physiological mechanism is proposed to explain the observed patterns of /sup 241/Am excretion in O. vulgaris.

  1. Contrasts between the marine and freshwater biological interactions of plutonium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, H.D.; Bowen, V.T.

    1975-01-01

    Whether in lakes or the oceans the transuranic elements plutonium and americium are taken up by marine organisms, with concentration factors that would class them as nice, typical heavy metals. There is no evidence for strong, widespread discrimination against the transuranics by either plant or animal absorptive surfaces. In both freshwater and marine situations the major reservoir of Pu and Am soon becomes the sediments, and organisms are more exposed to uptake of these nuclides the closer is their ecological involvement with the sediments. Although there is little evidence that this can be an ionic strength effect, it does appear that Pu may be somewhat more available, biologically, in marine environments, and Am, conversely, in fresh water. We incline to the belief that details of these behaviors are usually controlled by local availability of organic complexers. No compelling evidence exists of increase in Pu concentration at higher levels of food chains; in marine situations this appears true of Am as well, but a few data suggest that in fresh water fish there is a progressive increase, in higher trophic levels, in the ratio Am to Pu. Although marine and fresh water biogeochemistries of transuranics are much more similar than we had expected, it will generally be dangerous to extrapolate from one to the other. In both systems there appears to us no question that we are observing real element biogeochemistry, not the redistribution of inert, labelled, fallout fragments

  2. Americium-241 use of measurement lead equivalent thickness for medical x-ray room: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khalid Matori; Husaini Saleh; Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa; Mohd Firdaus Abd Rahman; Zainal Jamaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Lead equivalent thickness measurement of a shielding material in diagnostic radiology is very important to ensure that requirements for the purpose of radiation protection of patients, employees and the public are met. The Malaysian Ministry of Health (MOH) has established that the irradiation room must have sufficient shielding thickness, for example for general radiography it must be at least equal to 2.0 mm of Pb, for panoramic dental radiography at least equal to 1.5 mm of Pb and for mammography should be a minimum of 1.0 mm of Pb. This paper presents a technique using americium-241 source to test and verify the integrity of the shielding thickness in term of lead equivalent for X-ray room at health centres. Results of measurement of 30 irradiation rooms conducted from 2009 to mid 2010 were analyzed for this presentation. Technical comparison of the attenuation of gamma rays from Am-241 source through the walls of the irradiation room and pieces of lead were used to assess the lead equivalent thickness of the walls. Results showed that 96.7 % of the irradiation rooms tested meet the requirements of the Ministry of Health and is suitable for the installation of the intended diagnostic X-ray apparatus. Some specific positions such as door knobs and locks, electrical plug sockets were identified with potential to not met the required lead equivalent thickness hence may contribute to higher radiation exposure to workers and the public. (author)

  3. Speciation and bioavailability of Americium-241 in the fresh water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierkens, J.

    1986-01-01

    Due to its anthropogenic origin, the transuranic americium 241 confronts physiologists with the intriguing question, which mechanisms are involved in the incorporation or elimination of such artificial elements in biological cycles. The investigations on the speciation and bioavailability of 241 Am in the freshwater environment aim to establish a relation between the behavior of 241 Am in freshwater ecosystems and its availability for biota. In the limnic environment, most often characterized by a high organic load and a low conductivity, the effect of complexation of 241 Am with humic acids and competition with trivalent cations such as A1 and Fe, were proven to be significant on the speciation of 241 Am. Based on the registration of the 241 Am uptake by a large number of freshwater organisms, the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz was chosen to study the whole-body uptake of 241 Am, its corresponding organ distribution and its retention in the animal. The share of external fixation and ingestion in the global uptake, and the effect of speciation on it, were studied more carefully. Other aspects in this physiological part were: the kinetics of 241 Am in the hemolymph and the hepatopancreas, and its subcellular distribution in the digestive gland. Finally, by comparing the physiology of 241 Am with some other metals ( 240 Pu, 64 Cu, 198 Au) with analogous or contradictional properties, we tried to find out whether the behavior of 241 Am in organisms can be explained from its chemical characteristics

  4. Development and Testing of an Americium/Lanthanide Separation Flowsheet Using Sodium Bismuthate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Law; Bruce Mincher; Troy Garn; Mitchell Greenhalgh; Nicholas Schmitt; Veronica Rutledge

    2014-04-01

    The separation of Am from the lanthanides and curium is a key step in proposed advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The partitioning and transmutation of Am is desirable to minimize the long-term heat load of material interred in a future high-level waste repository. A separation process amenable to process scale-up remains elusive. Given only subtle chemistry differences within and between the ions of the trivalent actinide and lanthanide series this separation is challenging ; however, higher oxidation states of americium can be prepared using sodium bismuthate and separated via solvent extraction using diamylamylphosphonate (DAAP) extraction. Among the other trivalent metals only Ce is also oxidized and extracted. Due to the long-term instability of Am(VI) , the loaded organic phase is readily selectively stripped to partition the actinide to a new acidic aqueous phase. Batch extraction distribution ratio measurements were used to design a flowsheet to accomplish this separation. Additionally, crossflow filtration was investigated as a method to filter the bismuthate solids from the feed solution prior to extraction. Results of the filtration studies, flowsheet development work and flowsheet performance testing using a centrifugal contactor are detailed.

  5. Preparation of curium-americium oxide microspheres by resin-bead loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattin, F.R.; Benker, D.E.; Lloyd, M.H.; Orr, P.B.; Ross, R.G.; Wiggins, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Resin-bead loading and calcination techniques have been used to produce all curium and americium oxide feed material (about 2.2 kg) for HFIR targets since 1971. The process based on Dowex 50W resin has progressed from a series of test runs, through special production runs, into routine production in permanent equipment beginning in 1975. Key attributes of this process are its reliability, high yields, and ease of operation. The process is suited for remote operation in hot cells. Yields approaching 95% are routinely obtained and only one unacceptable product has been generated during routine production operations. There have been no problems in fabricating targets from this oxide or in the subsequent irradiation of these targets. The present scale of production of 150 to 250 g/y supplies the present need and is comparable with the level of other chemical process operations at TRU. Since the annual production is accomplished in two 8 to 12 day periods, there has been no reason to consider further scale-up. However, the rate of production could easily be doubled by simply adding a second set of calcination equipment

  6. Comparative study of plutonium and americium bioaccumulation from two marine sediments contaminated in the natural environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T.F.; Smith, J.D. (Melbourne Univ., Parkville (Australia). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry); Fowler, S.W.; LaRosa, J.; Holm, E. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Monaco-Ville (Monaco). Lab. of Marine Radioactivity); Aarkrog, A.; Dahlgaard, H. (Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark))

    1991-01-01

    Plutonium and americium sediment-animal transfer was studied under controlled laboratory conditions by exposure of the benthic polychaete Nereis diversicolor (O. F. Mueller) to marine sediments contaminated by a nuclear bomb accident (near Thule, Greenland) and nuclear weapons testing (Enewetak Atoll). In both sediment regimes, the bioavailability of plutonium and {sup 241}Am was low, with specific activity in the tissues <1% (dry wt) than in the sediments. Over the first three months, a slight preference in transfer of plutonium over {sup 241}Am occurred and {sup 241}Am uptake from the Thule sediment was enhanced compared to that from lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll. Autoradiography studies indicated the presence of hot particles of plutonium in the sediments. The results highlight the importance of purging animals of their gut contents in order to obtain accurate estimates of transuranic transfer from ingested sediments into tissue. It is further suggested that enhanced transuranic uptake by some benthic species could arise from ingestion of highly activity particles and organic-rich detritus present in the sediments. (author).

  7. Multicompartment kinetic models for the metabolism of americium, plutonium and uranium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sontag, W.

    1986-01-01

    To examine the kinetic behaviour of americium, plutonium and uranium in male and female rats, an extended mammillary model has been developed, composed of 10 compartments connected with 17 linear transfer coefficients. The 10 compartments describe the behaviour of the three nuclides in the blood, skeleton, liver and kidney; the remaining activity is assigned to one residual organ. Each organ is divided into two compartments, short- and long-term. In the skeleton the short-term compartment has been assumed to be the bone surface and marrow, and the long-term compartment the deep bone; in the liver, evidence suggests that the short-term compartment is physiologically associated with lysosomes and the long-term compartment identical with telolysosomes. Influence of age, sex and different nuclides on the transfer coefficients and the absorbed radiation dose are discussed. By using the transfer coefficients calculated for intravenous injection, the behaviour of the nuclides in skeleton and liver during continuous intake has been calculated. The behaviour of the three nuclides in skeleton and liver after intravenous injection has also been calculated with the additional assumption that from the fifth day the animals were treated continuously with a chelating agent. (UK)

  8. Incorporation of plutonium, americium and curium into the Irish Sea seabed by biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kershaw, P J; Swift, D J; Pentreath, R J; Lovett, M B

    1984-12-01

    Bioturbation was considered as a potentially significant mechanism for the incorporation of long-lived radionuclides into the seabed and in particular the activities of a large echiuran Maximulleria lankesteri. Radionuclides of the transuranium elements plutonium, americium and cirium are discharged into the Irish Sea under authorization as part of the low-level liquid effluent from the British Nuclear Fuels plc reprocessing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria, England. The distribution of Pu-239, 240, Pu-238, Am-241, Cm-244 and Cm-242 concentrations and the Pu-239, 240/Pu-238 quotient in samples taken in April and May 1983 from the sediment surface, burrow linings, sediments adjacent to burrows, and the gut contents and body of a large M. lankesteri clearly indicate that bioturbation is responsible, at least in part, for the incorporation of these radionuclides to depths of up to 140 cm. This area of sediments represents a significant present-day sink, but the permanence of this sink and the likelihood that radioactivity will be remobilized and be returned to man, depends on a large number of factors. 15 references, 18 figures.

  9. Americium and plutonium in water, biota, and sediment from the central Oregon coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, R.D.

    1982-06-01

    Plutonium-239, 240 and americium-241 were measured in the mussel Mytilus californianus from the region of Coos Bay, OR. The flesh of this species has a plutonium concentration of about 90 fCi/kg, and an Am-241/Pu-239, 240 ratio that is high relative to mixed fallout, ranging between two and three. Transuranic concentrations in sediment, unfiltered water, and filterable particulates were also measured; none of these materials has an Am/Pu ratio as greatly elevated as the mussels, and there is no apparent difference in the Am/Pu ratio of terrestrial runoff and coastal water. Sediment core profiles do not allow accumulation rates or depositional histories to be identified, but it does not appear that material characterized by a high Am/Pu ratio has ever been introduced to this estuary. Other bivalves (Tresus capax and Macoma nasuta) and a polychaete (Abarenicola sp.) do not have an elevated Am/Pu ratio, although the absolute activity of plutonium in the infaunal bivalves is roughly four times that in the mussels

  10. Assessment of radiation doses from residential smoke detectors that contain americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, F.R.; Etnier, E.L.; Holton, G.A.; Travis, C.C.

    1981-10-01

    External dose equivalents and internal dose commitments were estimated for individuals and populations from annual distribution, use, and disposal of 10 million ionization chamber smoke detectors that contain 110 kBq (3 μCi) americium-241 each. Under exposure scenarios developed for normal distribution, use, and disposal using the best available information, annual external dose equivalents to average individuals were estimated to range from 4 fSv (0.4 prem) to 20 nSv (2 μrem) for total body and from 7 fSv to 40 nSv for bone. Internal dose commitments to individuals under post disposal scenarios were estimated to range from 0.006 to 80 μSv (0.0006 to 8 mrem) to total body and from 0.06 to 800 μSv to bone. The total collective dose (the sum of external dose equivalents and 50-year internal dose commitments) for all individuals involved with distribution, use, or disposal of 10 million smoke detectors was estimated

  11. Denitrification of nitrate waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, S.L.; Michel, R.C.; Terpandjian, P.D.; Vora, J.N.

    1976-01-01

    Bacterial denitrification by Pseudomonas Stutzeri has been chosen as the method for removing nitrate from the effluent stream of the Y-12 uranium purification process. A model was developed to predict bacterial growth and carbon and nitrate depletion during the induction period and steady state operation. Modification of analytical procedures and automatic control of the pH in the reactor are recommended to improve agreement between the prediction of the model and experimental data. An initial carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) mass ratio of 1.4-1.5 insures adequate population growth during the induction period. Further experiments in batch reactors and in steady state flow reactors are recommended to obtain more reliable kinetic rate constants

  12. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more than...

  13. Manurial properties of lead nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, R A

    1924-01-01

    Water culture, pot and field experiments were conducted in order to determine the toxic and stimulating limit of lead nitrate in solution. Oats and rye grass were evaluated for evidence of lead poisoning. Results indicate that except in solutions of fairly high concentration, soil adsorbs the lead and destroys the toxicity of soluble lead salts. There was evidence to show that the addition of lead salts increased the rate of nitrification in soil.

  14. Nitration of sym-trichlorobenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinlin, W.T.

    1981-02-01

    Basic thermal and kinetic data were obtained for the nitration of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene to trichlorotrinitrobenzene in the presence of oleum/nitric acid. A limiting specific production rate of 5.4 kg/l/hr was determined for the addition of the first two nitro groups at 130 C and a rate of 0.16 kg/l/hr was obtained at 150 C for the addition of the third nitro group

  15. 2-Amino-5-chloropyridinium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donia Zaouali Zgolli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The title structure, C5H6ClN2+·NO3−, is held together by extensive hydrogen bonding between the NO3− ions and 2-amino-5-chloropyridinium H atoms. The cation–anion N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the ions into a zigzag- chain which develops parallel to the b axis. The structure may be compared with that of the related 2-amino-5-cyanopyridinium nitrate.

  16. Electrolytic production of uranous nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orebaugh, E.G.; Propst, R.C.

    1980-04-01

    Efficient production of uranous nitrate is important in nuclear fuel reprocessing because U(IV) acts as a plutonium reductant in solvent extraction and can be coprecipitated with plutonium and/or throium as oxalates during fuel reprocessing. Experimental conditions are described for the efficient electrolytic production of uranous nitrate for use as a reductant in the SRP Purex process. The bench-scale, continuous-flow, electrolysis cell exhibits a current efficiency approaching 100% in combination with high conversion rates of U(VI) to U(IV) in simulated and actual SRP Purex solutions. High current efficiency is achieved with a voltage-controlled mercury-plated platinum electrode and the use of hydrazine as a nitrite scavenger. Conversion of U(VI) to U(IV) proceeds at 100% efficiency. Cathodic gas generation is minimal. The low rate of gas generation permits a long residence time within the cathode, a necessary condition for high conversions on a continuous basis. Design proposals are given for a plant-scale, continuous-flow unit to meet SRP production requirements. Results from the bench-scale tests indicate that an 8-kW unit can supply sufficient uranous nitrate reductant to meet the needs of the Purex process at SRP

  17. Photochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerksen, W.K.

    1993-10-20

    The photochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate solutions to tetravalent uranium was investigated as a means of producing uranium dioxide feed for the saltless direct oxide reduction (SDOR) process. At high uranium concentrations, reoxidation of U{sup +4} occurs rapidly. The kinetics of the nitric oxidation of tetravalent uranium depend on the concentrations of hydrogen ion, nitrate ion, nitrous acid, and tetravalent uranium in the same manner as was reported elsewhere for the nitrate oxidation of PU{sup +3}. Reaction rate data were successfully correlated with a mechanism in which nitrogen dioxide is the reactive intermediate. Addition of a nitrous acid scavenger suppresses the reoxidation reaction. An immersion reactor employing a mercury vapor lamp gave reduction times fast enough for routine production usage. Precipitation techniques for conversion of aqueous U(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} to hydrous UO{sub 2} were evaluated. Prolonged dewatering times tended to make the process time consuming. Use of 3- to 4-M aqueous NaOH gave the best dewatering times observed. Reoxidation of the UO{sub 2} by water of hydration was encountered, which required the drying process to be carried out under a reducing atmosphere.

  18. Aqueous-salt system containing ytterbium nitrate and pyridine nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, E.F.; Khisaeva, D.A.; Izmajlova, L.V.

    1983-01-01

    Cross-section method has been used to study solubility in ternary aqueous-salt system Yb(NO 3 ) 3 -C 5 H 5 NxHNO 3 -H 2 0 at 25 and 50 deg C. It is established that the system is characterized by chemical interaction. Congruently soluble compound of Yb(NO 3 ) 3 x2[C 5 H 5 NxHNO 3 ] composition is discovered in the system. Composition of the compound is confirmed by chemical analysis; its infrared spectra are studied. Interplanar distances are determined; derivatogram of the compound is given. The results of the works are compared with analogous investigations of another rare earth nitrates

  19. Sorption of plutonium and americium on repository, backfill and geological materials relevant to the JNFL low-level radioactive waste repository at Rokkasho-Mura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, G.M.N.; Berry, J.A.; Brownsword, M.; Heath, T.G.; Tweed, C.J.; Williams, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    An integrated program of batch sorption experiments and mathematical modeling has been carried out to study the sorption of plutonium and americium on a series of repository, backfill and geological materials relevant to the JNFL low-level radioactive waste repository at Rokkasho-Mura. The sorption of plutonium and americium on samples of concrete, mortar, sand/bentonite, tuff, sandstone and cover soil has been investigated. In addition, specimens of bitumen, cation and anion exchange resins, and polyester were chemically degraded. The resulting degradation product solutions, alongside solutions of humic and isosaccharinic acids were used to study the effects on plutonium sorption onto concrete, sand/bentonite and sandstone. The sorption behavior of plutonium and americium has been modeled using the geochemical speciation program HARPHRQ in conjunction with the HATCHES database

  20. SPHERE: Irradiation of sphere-pac fuel of UPuO2−x containing 3% Americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Agata, E.; Hania, P.R.; McGinley, J.; Somers, J.; Sciolla, C.; Baas, P.J.; Kamer, S.; Okel, R.A.F.; Bobeldijk, I.; Delage, F.; Bejaoui, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SPHERE is designed to check the behaviour of MADF sphere-pac concept. • MADF sphere-pac are compared with MADF pellet. • Swelling, helium release and restructuring behaviour will be the main output of the experiment. • An experiment to check sphere-pac MABB fuel behaviour is now under design. - Abstract: Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors of long-lived nuclides like 241 Am is therefore an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity of waste packages to be stored in a repository. The SPHERE irradiation experiment is the latest of a series of European experiments on americium transmutation (e.g. EFTTRA-T4, EFTTRA-T4bis, HELIOS, MARIOS) performed in the HFR (High Flux Reactor). The SPHERE experiment is carried out in the framework of the 4-year project FAIRFUELS of the EURATOM 7th Framework Programme (FP7). During the past years of experimental works in the field of transmutation and tests of innovative nuclear fuels, the release or trapping of helium as well as helium induced fuel swelling have been shown to be the key issues for the design of Am-bearing targets. The main objective of the SPHERE experiment is to study the in-pile behaviour of fuel containing 3% of americium and to compare the behaviour of sphere-pac fuel to pellet fuel, in particular the role of microstructure and temperature on fission gas release (mainly He) and on fuel swelling. The SPHERE experiment is being irradiated since September 2013 in the HFR in Petten (The Netherlands) and is expected to be terminated in spring 2015. The experiment has been designed to last up to 18 reactor cycles (corresponding to 18 months) but may reach its target earlier. This paper discusses the rationale and objective of the SPHERE experiment and provides a general description of its design

  1. Transport of plutonium, americium, and curium from soils into plants by roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimpl, M.; Schuettelkopf, H.

    1979-12-01

    For assessing the dose from radionuclides in agricultural products by ingestion it is necessary to know the soil to plant transfer factors. The literature was entirely investigated, in order to judge the size of the soil to plant transfer factors. In total, 92 publications - from 1948 to 1978 -have been evaluated. As result, transfer factors from 10 -9 to 10 -3 have been found for Plutonium, and from 10 -6 to 1 for Americium. For Curium only few data are available in literature. The considerable variation of the measured transfer factors is based on the dependence of these transfer factors from the ion exchange capacity of soils, from the amount of organic materials, from the pH-value, and from the mode of contamination. There are, in any case, contradictory data, although there has been detected a dependence of the transfer factors from these parameters. Chelating agenst increase the transfer factors to approximately 1300. As well, fertilizers have an influence on the size of the transfer factors - however, the relationships have been scarcely investigated. The distribution of actinides within the individual parts of plants has been investigated. The highest concentrations are in the roots; in the plant parts above ground the concentration of actinides decreases considerably. The most inferior transfer factors were measured for the respective seed or fruits. The soil to plant transfer factors of actinides are more dependend on the age of the plants within one growing period. At the beginning of the period, the transfer factor is considerably higher than at the end of this period. With respect to plants with a growing period of several years, correlations are unknown. (orig.) [de

  2. Experiments comparing the uptake of americium from chloride media using extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzPatrick, J.R.; Schake, B.S.; Schulte, L.D.; Martinez, B.T.; Salazar, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    Clean-up of actinide effluent waste steams is of increasing importance at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility, TA-55, and removing the actinide elements to very low levels allows less radioactivity to go the Los Alamos National Laboratory Water Treatment Facility, TA-50, thus reducing the number of drums of TRU waste. Americium (Am) is a difficult element to remove from chloride media because the +3 state is difficult to oxidize and chelating resins work better with elements such as plutonium which are more readily oxidized to the +4 and/or +6 state. Currently in hydrochloric acid (HC1) media, the acidic liquid waste is neutralized with potassium hydroxide to precipitate the metal hydroxides, before disposal to TA-50. This process is not very efficient. The removal of Am from chloride media was compared using a series of resins, some commercial and some made in our laboratory, using different percentages by weight of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diiso- butylcarbamoyl-methylphosphine oxide (CMPO ) along with diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP) or tributyl phosphate (TBP) as diluents. Resins were also made with no added diluent. Early comparisons using small-scale contact studies with 0.5 grams of resin in 0.1M-12M HC1, and subsequent small-scale flow experiments show a trend in which Am uptake is proportional to the amount of CMPO on the resins and the diluent plays a minor role in the uptake of Am from these solutions. Redox chemistry effects were also investigated. From these studies, it is possible to determine the best conditions for the removal of Am from HC1 media thus reducing the gross alpha content of the waste stream by a factor of 10-100 which reduces the number of barrels of waste produced at the Water Treatment Facility

  3. Concentrations of plutonium and americium in plankton from the western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Merino, Juan; Masqué, Pere; Mitchell, Peter I; Vintró, L León; Schell, William R; Cross, Lluïsa; Calbet, Albert

    2003-07-20

    Understanding the transfer of radionuclides through the food chain leading to man and in particular, the uptake of transuranic nuclides by plankton, is basic to assess the potential radiological risk of the consumption of marine products by man. The main sources of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean Sea in the past were global fallout and the Palomares accident, although at present smaller amounts are released from nuclear establishments in the northwestern region. Plankton from the western Mediterranean Sea was collected and analyzed for plutonium and americium in order to study their biological uptake. The microplankton fractions accounted for approximately 50% of the total plutonium contents in particulate form. At Garrucha (Palomares area), microplankton showed much higher 239,240 Pu activity, indicating the contamination with plutonium from the bottom sediments. Concentration factors were within the range of the values recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Continental shelf mesoplankton was observed to efficiently concentrate transuranics. In open seawaters, concentrations were much lower. We speculate that sediments might play a role in the transfer of transuranics to mesoplankton in coastal waters, although we cannot discard that the difference in species composition may also play a role. In Palomares, both 239,240 Pu and 241Am showed activities five times higher than the mean values observed in continental shelf mesoplankton. As the plutonium isotopic ratios in the contaminated sample were similar to those found in material related to the accident, the contamination was attributed to bomb debris from the Palomares accident. Concentration factors in mesoplankton were also in relatively good agreement with the ranges recommended by IAEA. In the Palomares station the highest concentration factor was observed in the sample that showed predominance of the dynoflagellate Ceratium spp. Mean values of the enrichment factors showed, on

  4. Concentration and vertical distribution of plutonium and americium in Italian mosses and lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, G.; Desideri, D.; Guerra, F.; Meli, M.A.; Testa, C.

    1997-01-01

    The plutonium and americium concentration and vertical distribution in some Italian mosses and lichens have been determined. The 239,240 Pu, 238 Pu and 241 Am concentration ranges in tree trunk lichens 0.83-1.87, 0.052-0.154 and 0.180-0.770 Bq/kg, respectively. The corresponding values in tree mosses are higher and more scattered ranging from 0.321 to 4.96, from 0.029 to 0.171 and from 0.200 to 1.93 Bq/kg. The mean 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu and 241 Am/ 239,240 Pu ratios are 0.088±0.037 and 0.38 ± 0.13 in lichens and 0.091±0.072 and 0.54±0.16 in tree mosses. The Pu and Am concentrations are relatively low in terrestrial mosses. The 239,240 Pu, 238 Pu and 241 Am vertical distributions in a terrestrial moss core (Neckera Crispa) collected near Urbino (central Italy) show an exponential decrease with the height. On the contrary the 241 Am vertical distribution in another terrestrial moss core (Sphagnum Compactum) collected in the Alps (northern Italy) shows an interesting peak at 16 cm which corresponds to the deposition of fallout from the nuclear weapon tests in 1960's. The 241 Am movement upward and downward in the moss core is also studied. The results show once again that both mosses and lichens are very effective accumulators of Pu and Am and that they can be used as good biological indicators of the radionuclide airborne pollution from nuclear facilities and nuclear weapon tests. They can play a very important role in cycling naturally or artificially enhanced radionuclides in the atmosphere over long time scales. (author)

  5. A review on the mass spectrometric studies of americium: Present status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Suresh Kumar

    2018-01-01

    The manuscript reviews the various mass spectrometric techniques for analysis and chemical studies of Americium. These methods include thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), and inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for the determination of Am isotope ratios and concentration in nuclear fuel samples of interest in nuclear technology, and in complex biological and environmental samples. Ultra-sensitive mass spectrometric techniques of resonance-ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS), and accelerator-based mass spectrometry (AMS) are also discussed. The novel applications of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS) to understand the solution chemistry of Am and other actinides are presented. These studies are important in view of the world-wide efforts to develop novel complexing agents to separate lanthanides and minor actinides (Am, Np, and Cm) for partitioning and transmutation of minor actinides from the point of view of nuclear waste management. These mass spectrometry experiments are also of great interest to examine the covalent character of actinides with increasing atomic number. Studies on gas-phase chemistry of Am and its oxides with Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS), Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS), and laser-based experiments with reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (R-ToF) are highlighted. These studies are important to understand the fundamental chemistry of 5f electrons in actinides. Requirement of certified isotopic reference materials of Am to improve the accuracy of experimental nuclear data (e.g., the half-life of 243 Am) is emphasized. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A study of plutonium and americium concentrations in seaspray on the southern Scottish coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, W.A.; Strange, L.; Walker, M.I.; Halliwell, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Seaspray and seawater have been collected from the southern Scottish coast and, for comparison, Cumbria in northwest England during 1989 and 1991. The occurrence of sea-to-land transfer of the actinides plutonium and americium in seaspray was observed on these coasts using muslin screens (a semi-quantitative technique most efficient for collecting large spray droplets) and high volume conventional air samplers. The actinides and fine particulate in the spray were present in relatively higher concentrations than measured in the adjacent seawater, i.e. the spray was enriched in particulate actinides. The net efficiency of the muslim screens in collecting airborne plutonium isotopes and 241 Am generally appeared to be about 20%. A review of earlier published concentrations of 239+240 Pu and 241 Am measured in aerosol and deposition for over a year several tens of metres inland was carried out. This suggested that airborne activities are up to a factor of 5 times higher in Cumbria than southern Scotland. However, neither the new data collected in 1989 and 1991 nor this older data suggests any enhancement of seaspray actinide enrichment in southern Scotland compared to Cumbria. This finding contrasts with earlier, more limited, comparisons that have been carried out which suggested such a difference. There is clear evidence of considerable localised spatial and temporal variability in aerosol actinide enrichment over the beaches in both areas. Enrichments varies between 20 and 500 relative to the adjacent surf zone waters. However, the average enrichment in spray based on the continuous measurements made further inland is likely to be at the lower end of this range. (author)

  7. Nitrate contamination of groundwater and its countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitamura, Hisayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The inevitable increases of food production and energy consumption with an increase in world population become main causes of an increase of nitrate load to the environment. Although nitrogen is essential for the growth of animal and plant as a constituent element of protein, excessive nitrate load to the environment contaminates groundwater resources used as drinking water and leads to seriously adverse effects on the health of man and livestock. In order to clarify the problem of nitrate contamination of groundwater and search a new trend of technology development from the viewpoint of environment remediation and protection, the present paper has reviewed adverse effects of nitrate on human health, the actual state of nitrogen cycle, several kinds of nitrate sources, measures for reducing nitrate level, etc. (author)

  8. Nitrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rounds Seminar Series & Daily Conferences Fellowships and Residencies School of Perfusion Technology Education Resources Library & Learning Resource Center CME Resources THI Journal THI Cardiac Society Register for the Cardiac Society ...

  9. Behavior of americium, curium, and certain fission products in fluoride melts in the presence of s olid extraction agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, V.A.; Klokman, V.R.; Morozova, Z.E.; Ziv, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    The authors consider the behavior of americium, curium, and certain fission products (europium, cerium, yttrium, and strontium) in fluoride and chlode-fluoride melts in the presence of nonisomorphous solid phases: calcium fluoride and lanthanum and zirconium oxides. It is shown that the trace components enter the solid calcium fluoride in a regular fashion only in the presence of an adequate amount of oxygen in the melt. The effect of oxygen on the coprecipitation with calcium fluoride occurs because oxygen compounds of the elements must be formed in the melt, and these are then coprecipitated with the calcium fluoride

  10. Theoretical investigation of pressure-induced structural transitions in americium using GGA+U and hybrid density functional theory methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verma, Ashok K.; Modak, P.; Sharma, Surinder M.

    2013-01-01

    First-principles calculations have been performed for americium (Am) metal using the generalized gradient approximation + orbital-dependent onsite Coulomb repulsion via Hubbard interaction (GGA+U) and hybrid density functional theory (HYB-DFT) methods to investigate various ground state properties......-I to Am-II transition. Good agreement was found between calculated and experimental equations of states for all phases, but the first three phases need larger U (α) parameters (where α represents the fraction of Hartree-Fock exchange energy replacing the DFT exchange energy) than the fourth phase in order...

  11. Determination of americium and curium using ion-exchange in the nitric-acid-methanol medium for environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Fukai, R.

    1976-01-01

    While transplutonic elements are only slightly sorbed to anion exchangers from hydrochloric or nitric acid media, the presence of alcohol enhances the anionic exchange of these elements, especially in nitric and sulfuric solutions. In the present work a method has been developed for determining americium and curium in environmental samples, on the basis of the difference between the sorption characteristics to anion exchangers in the acid-methanol system of these transplutonic elements and those of plutonium, polonium and thorium. The method also permits us to perform sequential determination of plutonium, when necessary

  12. Nitrat i drikkevandet og vores sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birgitte; Schullehner, Jörg; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Nitrat i drikkevandet er uønsket, da det kan påvirke vores sundhed negativt. Den øvre grænse for hvor meget nitrat der tillades i drikkevandet er fastsat i forhold til risikoen for akut forgiftning med nitrit og blå børn-syndromet. Men nitrat i drikkevandet mistænkes også for at være medvirkende...

  13. Alpha autoradiography by cellulose nitrate layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovic, J.; Vukovic, J.; Antanasijevic, R.

    1977-01-01

    From domestic cellulose nitrate bulk material thin layers for α-particle autoradiography were prepared. An artificial test specimen of a uniformly alpha labelled grid source was used. The efficiency of autoradiography by cellulose nitrate was calculated comparing with data from an Ilford K2 nuclear emulsion exposed under the same conditions as the cellulose nitrate film. The resolution was determined as the distance from grid pitch edge at which the track density fell considerably. (Auth.)

  14. Alpha autoradiography by cellulose nitrate layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovic, J.; Vukovic, J.; Antanasijevic, R.

    1976-01-01

    From domestic cellulose nitrate bulk material thin layers for α-particle autoradiography were prepared. An artifical test specimen of a uniformly alpha labelled grid source was used. The efficiency of autoradiographs by cellulose nitrate was calculated comparing with data from an Ilford K2 nuclear emulsion exposed under the same conditions as the cellulose nitrate film. The resolution was determined as the distance from grid pitch edge at which the track density fell considerably. (orig.) [de

  15. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in predicting health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. They have also observed radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer at the three highest dose levels. 1 figure, 3 tables

  16. Silver nitrate based gel dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titus, D; Samuel, E J J; Srinivasan, K; Roopan, S M; Madhu, C S

    2017-01-01

    A new radiochromic gel dosimeter based on silver nitrate and a normoxic gel dosimeter was investigated using UV-Visible spectrophotometry in the clinical dose range. Gamma radiation induced the synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the gel and is confirmed from the UV-Visible spectrum which shows an absorbance peak at around 450 nm. The dose response function of the dosimeter is found to be linear upto12Gy. In addition, the gel samples were found to be stable which were kept under refrigeration. (paper)

  17. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in predicting health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. The authors have also observed radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer at the three highest dose levels. 1 figure, 4 tables

  18. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in the prediction of health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; as described in previous Annual Reports, lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. Radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer have been observed at the highest dose levels

  19. Co-precipitation of plutonium(IV) and americium(III) from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions with bismuth oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pius, I.C.; Noronha, D.M.; Chaudhury, Satyajeet

    2017-01-01

    Co-precipitation of plutonium and americium from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions with bismuth oxalate has been investigated for the removal of these long lived α-active nuclides from waste solutions. Effect of concentration of bismuth and oxalic acid on the co-precipitation of Pu(IV) from 3 M HNO_3 has been investigated. Similar experiments were also carried out from 3.75 M HNO_3 on co-precipitation of Am(III) to optimize the conditions of precipitation. Strong co-precipitation of Pu(IV) and Am(III) with bismuth oxalate indicate feasibility of treatment of plutonium and americium bearing waste solutions. (author)

  20. 76 FR 46907 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Maritime Transportation Security Act NAICS North American Industrial Classification System NPRM Notice of.... Commenters noted, for example, that equipment used for transporting bulk ammonium nitrate, such as hoppers...

  1. Automated analysis for nitrate by hydrazine reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphake, L J; Hannah, S A; Cohen, J M

    1967-01-01

    An automated procedure for the simultaneous determinations of nitrate and nitrite in water is presented. Nitrite initially present in the sample is determined by a conventional diazotization-coupling reaction. Nitrate in another portion of sample is quantitatively reduced with hydrazine sulfate to nitrite which is then determined by the same diazotization-coupling reaction. Subtracting the nitrite initially present in the sample from that after reduction yields nitrite equivalent to nitrate initially in the sample. The rate of analysis is 20 samples/hr. Applicable range of the described method is 0.05-10 mg/l nitrite or nitrate nitrogen; however, increased sensitivity can be obtained by suitable modifications.

  2. Negative feedback loops leading to nitrate homeostasis and oscillatory nitrate assimilation in plants and fungi.

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yongshun

    2011-01-01

    Master's thesis in Biological Chemistry Nitrate is an important nutrient for plants and fungi. For plants it has been shown that cytosolic nitrate levels are under homeostatic control. Here we describe two networks that can obtain robust, i.e. perturbation independent, homeostatic behavior in cytosolic nitrate concentration. One of the networks, a member in the family of outflow controllers, is based on a negative feedback loop containing a nitrate-induced activation of a controller molecu...

  3. Challenges with nitrate therapy and nitrate tolerance: prevalence, prevention, and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thadani, Udho

    2014-08-01

    Nitrate therapy has been an effective treatment for ischemic heart disease for over 100 years. The anti-ischemic and exercise-promoting benefits of sublingually administered nitrates are well established. Nitroglycerin is indicated for the relief of an established attack of angina and for prophylactic use, but its effects are short lived. In an effort to increase the duration of beneficial effects, long-acting orally administered and topical applications of nitrates have been developed; however, following their continued or frequent daily use, patients soon develop tolerance to these long-acting nitrate preparations. Once tolerance develops, patients begin losing the protective effects of the long-acting nitrate therapy. By providing a nitrate-free interval, or declining nitrate levels at night, one can overcome or reduce the development of tolerance, but cannot provide 24-h anti-anginal and anti-ischemic protection. In addition, patients may be vulnerable to occurrence of rebound angina and myocardial ischemia during periods of absent nitrate levels at night and early hours of the morning, and worsening of exercise capacity prior to the morning dose of the medication. This has been a concern with nitroglycerin patches but not with oral formulations of isosorbide-5 mononitrates, and has not been adequately studied with isosorbide dinitrate. This paper describes problems associated with nitrate tolerance, reviews mechanisms by which nitrate tolerance and loss of efficacy develop, and presents strategies to avoid nitrate tolerance and maintain efficacy when using long-acting nitrate formulations.

  4. The influence of nitrate concentrations and acidity on the electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate on platinum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de M.T.; Koper, M.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the influence of nitrate concentration and acidity on the reaction rate and selectivity of the electrocatalytic nitrate reduction on platinum. There are two different nitrate reduction mechanisms on platinum: a direct mechanism (0.4–0.1 V vs. SHE) and an indirect

  5. Nitration Study of Cyclic Ladder Polyphenylsilsesquioxane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Jia-xiang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Several nitration reagents including fuming nitric acid, HNO3-H2SO4, KNO3-H2SO4, HNO3-KNO3, CH3COOH-KNO3, (CH3CO2O-HNO3 were used to nitrate cyclic ladder polyphenylsilsesquioxane (CL-PPSQ in different conditions in order to enhance the compatibility of the CL-PPSQ in polymers, the NO2-PPSQ was obtained. FTIR, element analysis, GPC, TGA and 1H NMR were used to characterize the structures of the nitrated products. The results show that the nitrating abilities of the fuming nitric acid, HNO3-H2SO4 and KNO3-H2SO4 are very strong. Many nitro groups can be linked with phenyl groups in CL-PPSQ, but with low molecular mass, fracture occurs in siloxane segment. However, the Mn of the product NO2-PPSQ sharply drops by 50% compared with that of CL-PPSQ, so the nitration reagents can break the cyclic structure of CL-PPSQ. The nitrating reagents of HNO3-KNO3 and CH3COOH-KNO3 have no nitration effects on CL-PPSQ. At last, NO2-CL-PPSQ was prepared using (CH3CO2O-HNO3 because of the moderate nitration process and ability. The cyclic structure of PPSQ is remained, although the number of —NO2 group is not too much. At the same time, the nitration mechanism using different nitration reagents was analyzed. A certain amount of NO2+, which is a kind of activator owning strong nitration ability, can be found in the fuming nitric acid and H2SO4-HNO3(KNO3 systems. As to the (CH3CO2O-HNO3 system, the main activator is CH3COONO2.

  6. The systems terbium (holmium) nitrate-piperidine nitrate-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khisaeva, D.A.; Zhuravlev, E.F.; Semenova, Eh.B.

    1982-01-01

    Using the method of cross sections at 25 and 50 deg C solubility in the systems Tb(NO 3 ) 2 -C 5 H 10 NHxHNO 3 -H 2 O and Ho(NO 3 ) 3 -C 5 H 10 NHxHNO 3 -H 2 O has been studied. The systems are characterized by chemical interaction of components. Solubility isotherms have crystallization fields of solid phases of the composition Tb(NO 3 ) 3 x3[C 5 H 10 NHxHNO 3 ]x3H 2 O and Ho(NO 3 ) 3 x2[C 5 H 10 NHxHNO 3 ]. The compounds detected are singled out preparatively, their IR spectra are studied, their thermogravimetric analysis is carried out. Investigation results are compared with similar systems formed by nitrates of other representatives of rare earth group

  7. Osteosarcoma induction by plutonium-239, americium-241 and neptunium-237 : the problem of deriving risk estimates for man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Spontaneous bone cancer (osteosarcoma) represents only about 0.3% of all human cancers, but is well known to be inducible in humans by internal contamination with radium-226 and radium-224. plutonium-239, americium-241 and neptunium-237 form, or will form, the principal long-lived alpha particle emitting components of high activity waste and burnt-up nuclear fuel elements. These three nuclides deposit extensively in human bone and although, fortunately, no case of a human osteosarcoma induced by any of these nuclides is known, evidence from animal studies suggests that all three are more effective than radium-226 in inducing osteosarcoma. The assumption that the ratio of the risk factors, the number of osteosarcoma expected per 10000 person/animal Gy, for radium-226 and any other bone-seeking alpha-emitter will be independent of animal species has formed the basis of all the important studies of the radiotoxicity of actinide nuclides in experimental animals. The aim of this communication is to review the risk factors which may be calculated from the various animal studies carried out over the last thirty years with plutonium-237, americium-241 and neptunium-237 and to consider the problems which may arise in extrapolating these risk factors to homo sapiens

  8. Temperature and concentration dependences of the electrical resistivity for alloys of plutonium with americium under normal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiovkin, Yu. Yu.; Povzner, A. A.; Tsiovkina, L. Yu.; Dremov, V. V.; Kabirova, L. R.; Dyachenko, A. A.; Bystrushkin, V. B.; Ryabukhina, M. V.; Lukoyanov, A. V.; Shorikov, A. O.

    2010-01-01

    The temperature and concentration dependences of the electrical resistivity for alloys of americium with plutonium are analyzed in terms of the multiband conductivity model for binary disordered substitution-type alloys. For the case of high temperatures ( T > ΘD, ΘD is the Debye temperature), a system of self-consistent equations of the coherent potential approximation has been derived for the scattering of conduction electrons by impurities and phonons without any constraints on the interaction intensity. The definitions of the shift and broadening operator for a single-electron level are used to show qualitatively and quantitatively that the pattern of the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity for alloys is determined by the balance between the coherent and incoherent contributions to the electron-phonon scattering and that the interference conduction electron scattering mechanism can be the main cause of the negative temperature coefficient of resistivity observed in some alloys involving actinides. It is shown that the great values of the observed resistivity may be attributable to interband transitions of charge carriers and renormalization of their effective mass through strong s-d band hybridization. The concentration and temperature dependences of the resistivity for alloys of plutonium and americium calculated in terms of the derived conductivity model are compared with the available experimental data.

  9. The crystal structure of urea nitrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, Sybolt; Feil, D.

    1969-01-01

    The structure of urea nitrate has been solved, by the use of three-dimensional X-ray data. Data were collected using Cu Ke and Mo K0~ radiations. The structure consists of layers with urea and nitrate groups held together by hydrogen bonds. The positions of all hydrogen atoms were found. The final R

  10. Spectrophotometric Determination of Nitrate in Vegetables Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: A rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of nitrate in vegetables is described. The method is based on the measurement of the absorbance of yellow sodium nitrophenoxide formed via the reaction of phenol with the vegetable-based nitrate in presence of sulphuric acid.

  11. NITRATE CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER (GW-761)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of nitrate and related compounds in ground water is discussed from the perspectives of its natural as well as anthropogenic origins. A brief explanation of the nitrogen cycle touches on the production as well as utilization of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and nitrog...

  12. Nitrate metabolism in the gromiid microbial universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgslund, Signe; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Cedhagen, Tomas

    enclose and regulate a small biogeochemical universe within their cell. Their transparent proteinaceous cell wall surrounds a complex matrix consisting of sediment, bacteria and nitrate which is concentrated to hundreds of mM in the gromiid cell. The nitrate is respired to dinitrogen, but in contrast...

  13. 4-Methoxy-N,N′-diphenylbenzamidinium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata S. Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title salt N,N′-diphenyl-4-methoxybenzamidinium nitrate, C20H19N2O+·NO3−, comprises two independent N,N′-diphenyl-4-methoxybenzamidinium cations and two nitrate anions. The crystal structure features N—H...O hydrogen bonds and C—H...O contacts responsible for the packing.

  14. Dietary nitrates, nitrites, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, Norman G

    2011-12-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO(3)), nitrite (NO(2)), and arginine can serve as sources for production of NO(x) (a diverse group of metabolites including nitric oxide, nitrosothiols, and nitroalkenes) via ultraviolet light exposure to skin, mammalian nitrate/nitrite reductases in tissues, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, respectively. NO(x) are responsible for the hypotensive, antiplatelet, and cytoprotective effects of dietary nitrates and nitrites. Current regulatory limits on nitrate intakes, based on concerns regarding potential risk of carcinogenicity and methemoglobinemia, are exceeded by normal daily intakes of single foods, such as soya milk and spinach, as well as by some recommended dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. This review includes a call for regulatory bodies to consider all available data on the beneficial physiologic roles of nitrate and nitrite in order to derive rational bases for dietary recommendations.

  15. Use of nitrates in ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseppe, Cocco; Paul, Jerie; Hans-Ulrich, Iselin

    2015-01-01

    Short-acting nitrates are beneficial in acute myocardial ischemia. However, many unresolved questions remain about the use of long-acting nitrates in stable ischemic heart disease. The use of long-acting nitrates is weakened by the development of endothelial dysfunction and tolerance. Also, we currently ignore whether lower doses of transdermal nitroglycerin would be better than those presently used. Multivariate analysis data from large nonrandomized studies suggested that long-acting nitrates increase the incidence of acute coronary syndromes, while data from another multivariate study indicate that they have positive effects. Because of methodological differences and open questions, the two studies cannot be compared. A study in Japanese patients with vasospastic angina has shown that, when compared with calcium antagonists, long-acting nitrates do not improve long-term prognosis and that the risk for cardiac adverse events increases with the combined therapy. We have many unanswered questions.

  16. Nitrate reduction in an unconfined sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Boesen, Carsten; Kristiansen, Henning

    1991-01-01

    of total dissolved ions in the NO3- free anoxic zone indicates the downward migration of contaminants and that active nitrate reduction is taking place. Nitrate is apparently reduced to N2 because both nitrite and ammonia are absent or found at very low concentrations. Possible electron donors......Nitrate distribution and reduction processes were investigated in an unconfined sandy aquifer of Quaternary age. Groundwater chemistry was studied in a series of eight multilevel samplers along a flow line, deriving water from both arable and forested land. Results show that plumes of nitrate...... processes of O2 and NO3- occur at rates that are fast compared to the rate of downward water transport. Nitrate-contaminated groundwater contains total contents of dissolved ions that are two to four times higher than in groundwater derived from the forested area. The persistence of the high content...

  17. Efficient syntheses of climate relevant isoprene nitrates and (1R,5S)-(-)-myrtenol nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bew, Sean P; Hiatt-Gipson, Glyn D; Mills, Graham P; Reeves, Claire E

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the chemoselective synthesis of several important, climate relevant isoprene nitrates using silver nitrate to mediate a 'halide for nitrate' substitution. Employing readily available starting materials, reagents and Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons chemistry the synthesis of easily separable, synthetically versatile 'key building blocks' (E)- and (Z)-3-methyl-4-chlorobut-2-en-1-ol as well as (E)- and (Z)-1-((2-methyl-4-bromobut-2-enyloxy)methyl)-4-methoxybenzene has been achieved using cheap, 'off the shelf' materials. Exploiting their reactivity we have studied their ability to undergo an 'allylic halide for allylic nitrate' substitution reaction which we demonstrate generates (E)- and (Z)-3-methyl-4-hydroxybut-2-enyl nitrate, and (E)- and (Z)-2-methyl-4-hydroxybut-2-enyl nitrates ('isoprene nitrates') in 66-80% overall yields. Using NOESY experiments the elucidation of the carbon-carbon double bond configuration within the purified isoprene nitrates has been established. Further exemplifying our 'halide for nitrate' substitution chemistry we outline the straightforward transformation of (1R,2S)-(-)-myrtenol bromide into the previously unknown monoterpene nitrate (1R,2S)-(-)-myrtenol nitrate.

  18. The systems lanthanum (cerium, samarium) nitrate-tetramethyl-ammonium nitrate-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, E.F.; Khisaeva, D.A.; Semenova, Eh.B.

    1984-01-01

    The method of cross sections at 25 and 50 deg C has been applied to study solubility in the systems lanthanum nitrate-tetramethyl ammonium nitrate-water (1), cesium (3) nitrate-tetramethyl ammonium nitrate-water (2) and samarium nitrate-tetramethyl ammonium nitrate-water (3). Crystallization fields of congruently dissolving compounds with 1:3 ratio of salt components (in system 1) and 1:2 ratio (in systems 2 and 3) are found in the systems. New solid phases are separated preparatively and subjected to chemical, differential thermal and IR spectroscopic analyses. Compositions of formed compounds are compared with the compositions known for nitrates of other representatives of light lanthanides

  19. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-01-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N 2 , N 2 O, and H 2 O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV ′ transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C

  20. Sodium nitrate combustion limit tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1976-04-01

    Sodium nitrate is a powerful solid oxidant. Energetically, it is capable of exothermically oxidizing almost any organic material. Rate-controlling variables such as temperature, concentration of oxidant, concentration of fuel, thermal conductivity, moisture content, size, and pressure severely limit the possibility of a self-supported exothermic reaction (combustion). The tests reported in this document were conducted on one-gram samples at atmospheric pressure. Below 380 0 C, NaNO 3 was stable and did not support combustion. At moisture concentrations above 22 wt percent, exothermic reactions did not propagate in even the most energetic and reactive compositions. Fresh resin and paraffin were too volatile to enable a NaNO 2 -supported combustion process to propagate. Concentrations of NaNO 3 above 95 wt percent or below 35 wt percent did not react with enough energy release to support combustion. The influence of sample size and confining pressure, both important factors, was not investigated in this study

  1. Plutonium, americium, and uranium in blow-sand mounds of safety-shot sites at the Nevada Test Site and the Tonopah Test Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essington, E.H.; Gilbert, R.O.; Wireman, D.L.; Brady, D.N.; Fowler, E.B.

    1977-01-01

    Blow-sand mounds or miniature sand dunes and mounds created by burrowing activities of animals were investigated by the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) to determine the influence of mounds on plutonium, americium, and uranium distributions and inventories in areas of the Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range. Those radioactive elements were added to the environment as a result of safety experiments of nuclear devices. Two studies were conducted. The first was to estimate the vertical distribution of americium in the blow-sand mounds and in the desert pavement surrounding the mounds. The second was to estimate the amount or concentration of the radioactive materials accumulated in the mound relative to the desert pavement. Five mound types were identified in which plutonium, americium, and uranium concentrations were measured: grass, shrub, complex, animal, and diffuse. The mount top (that portion above the surrounding land surface datum), the mound bottom (that portion below the mound to a depth of 5 cm below the surrounding land surface datum), and soil from the immediate area surrounding the mound were compared separately to determine if the radioactive elements had concentrated in the mounds. Results of the studies indicate that the mounds exhibit higher concentrations of plutonium, americium, and uranium than the immediate surrounding soil. The type of mound does not appear to have influenced the amount of the radioactive material found in the mound except for the animal mounds where the burrowing activities appear to have obliterated distribution patterns

  2. In situ characterization of uranium and americium oxide solid solution formation for CRMP process: first combination of in situ XRD and XANES measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caisso, Marie; Picart, Sébastien; Belin, Renaud C; Lebreton, Florent; Martin, Philippe M; Dardenne, Kathy; Rothe, Jörg; Neuville, Daniel R; Delahaye, Thibaud; Ayral, André

    2015-04-14

    Transmutation of americium in heterogeneous mode through the use of U1-xAmxO2±δ ceramic pellets, also known as Americium Bearing Blankets (AmBB), has become a major research axis. Nevertheless, in order to consider future large-scale deployment, the processes involved in AmBB fabrication have to minimize fine particle dissemination, due to the presence of americium, which considerably increases the risk of contamination. New synthesis routes avoiding the use of pulverulent precursors are thus currently under development, such as the Calcined Resin Microsphere Pelletization (CRMP) process. It is based on the use of weak-acid resin (WAR) microspheres as precursors, loaded with actinide cations. After two specific calcinations under controlled atmospheres, resin microspheres are converted into oxide microspheres composed of a monophasic U1-xAmxO2±δ phase. Understanding the different mechanisms during thermal conversion, that lead to the release of organic matter and the formation of a solid solution, appear essential. By combining in situ techniques such as XRD and XAS, it has become possible to identify the key temperatures for oxide formation, and the corresponding oxidation states taken by uranium and americium during mineralization. This paper thus presents the first results on the mineralization of (U,Am) loaded resin microspheres into a solid solution, through in situ XAS analysis correlated with HT-XRD.

  3. CARBON-BASED REACTIVE BARRIER FOR NITRATE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrate (NO3-) is a common ground water contaminant related to agricultural activity, waste water disposal, leachate from landfills, septic systems, and industrial processes. This study reports on the performance of a carbon-based permeable reactive barrier (PRB) that was constructed for in-situ bioremediation of a ground water nitrate plume caused by leakage from a swine CAFO (concentrated animal feeding operation) lagoon. The swine CAFO, located in Logan County, Oklahoma, was in operation from 1992-1999. The overall site remediation strategy includes an ammonia recovery trench to intercept ammonia-contaminated ground water and a hay straw PRB which is used to intercept a nitrate plume caused by nitrification of sorbed ammonia. The PRB extends approximately 260 m to intercept the nitrate plume. The depth of the trench averages 6 m and corresponds to the thickness of the surficial saturated zone; the width of the trench is 1.2 m. Detailed quarterly monitoring of the PRB began in March, 2004, about 1 year after construction activities ended. Nitrate concentrations hydraulically upgradient of the PRB have ranged from 23 to 77 mg/L N, from 0 to 3.2 mg/L N in the PRB, and from 0 to 65 mg/L N hydraulically downgradient of the PRB. Nitrate concentrations have generally decreased in downgradient locations with successive monitoring events. Mass balance considerations indicate that nitrate attenuation is dominantly from denitrification but with some component of

  4. Comparative evaluation of nitrate removal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darbi, A.; Viraraghavan, T.; Butler, R.; Corkal, D.

    2002-01-01

    Due to the extensive application of artificial nitrogen-based fertilizers and animal manure on land, many water agencies face problems of increasing concentrations of nitrate in groundwater. The contamination of groundwater by nitrate may pose a significant public health problem. The threat of methemoglobinemia is well documented and reflected in the U.S. drinking water standard of 10 mg/L as nitrate-nitrogen. Approximately 45% of Saskatchewan's population use groundwater for drinking purposes, out of which, approximately 23% (230,000) are rural residents. The water used is made available from over 48,000 privately owned wells in regions where there is an extensive application of chemical fertilizers. Biological denitrification, ion exchange and reveres osmosis (RO) processes were selected for further study. Field studies were conducted on these processes. The sulfur/limestone autotrophic denitrification (SLAD) process was selected to achieve biological removal of nitrate from groundwater. The feasibility of the system was evaluated under anaerobic conditions. An ion exchange study was conducted using Ionac A554 which is strong anion exchange resins. In the case of groundwater containing low sulfate concentrations, A554 offered high nitrate removal. However, the disposal of regenerant brine can be a problem. A reverse osmosis unit with Filmtec membrane elements (FT30-Element Family) was used in the study on nitrate removal. The unit effluent average nitrate concentration was less than the maximum allowable concentration. (author)

  5. Chemical behaviour of trivalent and pentavalent americium in saline NaCl-solutions. Studies of transferability of laboratory data to natural conditions. Interim report. Reported period: 1.2.1993-31.12.1993; Chemisches Verhalten von drei- und fuenfwertigem Americium in Salinen NaCl-Loesungen. Untersuchung der Uebertragbarkeit von Labordaten auf natuerliche Verhaeltnisse. Zwischenbericht. Berichtszeitraum 1.2.1993-31.12.1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runde, W; Kim, J I

    1994-09-15

    In order to clarify the chemical behaviour of Americium in saline aqueous systems relevant for final storage this study deals with the chemical reactions of trivalent and pentavalent Americium in NaCl-solutions under the influence of radiolysis from its own alpha radiation. The focus of the study was on investigating the geologically relevant reactions, such as hydrolysis or carbonate- and chloride complexing in solid-liquid equilibriums. Comprehensive measurements on solubility and spectroscopic studies in NaCl-solutions were carried out in a CO{sub 2}-free atmosphere and 10{sup -2} atm CO{sub 2} partial pressure. Identification and characterisation of the AM (III) and AM(V) solid phases were supplemented by structural research with the chemically analogue EU (III) and Np(V) compounds. The alpha-radiation induced radiolysis in saline NaCl solutions and the redox behaviour of Americium which was influenced thereby were spectroscopically quantified. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Klaerung des chemischen Verhaltens von Americium in endlagerrelevanten salinen aquatischen Systemen befasst sich die vorliegende Arbeit mit den chemischen Reaktionen des drei- und fuenfwertigen Americiums in NaCl-Loesungen unter dem Einfluss der Radiolyse durch die eigene {alpha}-Strahlung. Der Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit lag auf der Untersuchung der geologisch relevanten Reaktionen, wie Hydrolyse sowie Carbonat- und Chloridkomplexierung in fest-fluessig Gleichgewichtssystemen. Hierzu wurden umfassende Loeslichkeitsmessungen und spektroskopische Untersuchungen in NaCl-Loesungen, sowohl unter CO{sub 2}-freier Atmosphaere als auch unter 10{sup -2} atm CO{sub 2}-Partialdruck, durchgefuehrt. Die Identifizierung und Charakterisierung der Am(III)- und Am(V)-Festphasen wurde ergaenzt durch strukturelle Untersuchungen mit den chemisch analogen Eu(III)- und Np(V)-Verbindungen. Die von der {alpha}-Strahlung induzierte Radiolyse in salinen NaCl-Loesungen und das dadurch beeinflusste Redoxverhalten von Americium

  6. Nitrate analogs as attractants for soybean cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Akito; Katsuyama, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Kondo, Tatsuhiko; Yajima, Shunsuke; Ito, Shinsaku

    2017-08-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, a plant parasite, is one of the most serious pests of soybean. In this paper, we report that SCN is attracted to nitrate and its analogs. We performed attraction assays to screen for novel attractants for SCN and found that nitrates were attractants for SCN and SCN recognized nitrate gradients. However, attraction of SCN to nitrates was not observed on agar containing nitrate. To further elucidate the attraction mechanism in SCN, we performed attraction assays using nitrate analogs ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). SCN was attracted to all nitrate analogs; however, attraction of SCN to nitrate analogs was not observed on agar containing nitrate. In contrast, SCN was attracted to azuki root, irrespective of presence or absence of nitrate in agar media. Our results suggest that the attraction mechanisms differ between plant-derived attractant and nitrate.

  7. Photodegradation of Paracetamol in Nitrate Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Cui; Qu, Ruijuan; Liang, Jinyan; Yang, Xi

    2010-11-01

    The photodegradation of paracetamol in nitrate solution under simulated solar irradiation has been investigated. The degradation rates were compared by varying environmental parameters including concentrations of nitrate ion, humic substance and pH values. The quantifications of paracetamol were conducted by HPLC method. The results demonstrate that the photodegradation of paracetamol followed first-order kinetics. The photoproducts and intermediates of paracetamol in the presence of nitrate ions were identified by extensive GC-MS method. The photodegradation pathways involving. OH radicals as reactive species were proposed.

  8. Photodegradation of Paracetamol in Nitrate Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Meng; Ruijuan, Qu; Jinyan, Liang; Xi, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-11-24

    The photodegradation of paracetamol in nitrate solution under simulated solar irradiation has been investigated. The degradation rates were compared by varying environmental parameters including concentrations of nitrate ion, humic substance and pH values. The quantifications of paracetamol were conducted by HPLC method. The results demonstrate that the photodegradation of paracetamol followed first-order kinetics. The photoproducts and intermediates of paracetamol in the presence of nitrate ions were identified by extensive GC-MS method. The photodegradation pathways involving. OH radicals as reactive species were proposed.

  9. Photodegradation of Paracetamol in Nitrate Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Cui; Qu Ruijuan; Liang Jinyan; Yang Xi

    2010-01-01

    The photodegradation of paracetamol in nitrate solution under simulated solar irradiation has been investigated. The degradation rates were compared by varying environmental parameters including concentrations of nitrate ion, humic substance and pH values. The quantifications of paracetamol were conducted by HPLC method. The results demonstrate that the photodegradation of paracetamol followed first-order kinetics. The photoproducts and intermediates of paracetamol in the presence of nitrate ions were identified by extensive GC-MS method. The photodegradation pathways involving. OH radicals as reactive species were proposed.

  10. Novel Americium Treatment Process for Surface Water and Dust Suppression Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiepel, E.W.; Pigeon, P.; Nesta, S.; Anderson, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), a former nuclear weapons production plant, has been remediated under CERCLA and decommissioned to become a National Wildlife Refuge. The site conducted this cleanup effort under the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) that established limits for the discharge of surface and process waters from the site. At the end of 2004, while a number of process buildings were undergoing decommissioning, routine monitoring of a discharge pond (Pond A-4) containing approximately 28 million gallons of water was discovered to have been contaminated with a trace amount of Americium-241 (Am-241). While the amount of Am-241 in the pond waters was very low (0.5 - 0.7 pCi/l), it was above the established Colorado stream standard of 0.15 pCi/l for release to off site drainage waters. The rapid successful treatment of these waters to the regulatory limit was important to the site for two reasons. The first was that the pond was approaching its hold-up limit. Without rapid treatment and release of the Pond A-4 water, typical spring run-off would require water management actions to other drainages onsite or a mass shuttling of water for disposal. The second reason was that this type of contaminated water had not been treated to the stringent stream standard at Rocky Flats before. Technical challenges in treatment could translate to impacts on water and secondary waste management, and ultimately, cost impacts. All of the technical challenges and specific site criteria led to the conclusion that a different approach to the treatment of this problem was necessary and a crash treatability program to identify applicable treatment techniques was undertaken. The goal of this program was to develop treatment options that could be implemented very quickly and would result in the generation of no high volume secondary waste that would be costly to dispose. A novel chemical treatment system was developed and implemented at the RFETS to treat Am

  11. Impact of Sulfide on Nitrate Conversion in Eutrophic Nitrate-Rich Marine Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwermer, Carsten U.; Krieger, Bärbel; Lavik, Gaute

    2006-01-01

    IMPACT OF SULFIDE ON NITRATE CONVERSION IN EUTROPHIC NITRATE-RICH MARINE SLUDGE C.U. Schwermer 1, B.U. Krieger 2, G. Lavik 1, A. Schramm 3, J. van Rijn 4, D. de Beer 1, D. Minz 5, E. Cytryn 4, M. Kuypers 1, A. Gieseke 1 1 Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany; 2 Dept...... nitrate conversion from denitrification to dissimilatory nitrate-reduction to ammonium (DNRA). In situ microsensor profiling in stagnant sludge revealed the typical stratification of nitrate reduction on top of sulfate reduction. Increasing the bulk nitrate concentration lead to a downward shift....... Our results show that the presence of sulfide generally decreased growth rates but increased N2O production. We conclude that sulfide plays a key role in causing incomplete denitrification, presumably by inhibiting the N2O reductase, and enhancing DNRA compared to denitrification.  ...

  12. Nitrate removal from alkaline high nitrate effluent by in situ generation of hydrogen using zinc dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, S.; Chitra, S.; Paul, Biplob

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline radioactive low level waste generated in Nuclear Fuel Cycle contains substantial amount of nitrate and needs to be treated to meet Central Pollution Control Board discharge limits of 90 mg/L in marine coastal area. Several denitrification methods like chemical treatment, electrochemical reduction, biological denitrification, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, photochemical reduction etc are followed for removal of nitrate. In effluent treatment plants where chemical treatment is carried out, chemical denitrification can be easily adapted without any additional set up. Reducing agents like zinc and aluminum are suitable for reducing nitrate in alkaline solution. Study on denitrification with zinc dust was taken up in this work. Not much work has been done with zinc dust on reduction of nitrate to nitrogen in alkaline waste with high nitrate content. In the present work, nitrate is reduced by nascent hydrogen generated in situ, caused by reaction between zinc dust and sodium hydroxide

  13. Plutonium, americium, 90Sr and 137Cs in bones of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Eastern Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J.W.; Tomankiewicz, E.; Gaca, P.; Blazej, S.; Kitowski, I.

    2008-01-01

    90 Sr, 238,239+240 Pu, 241 Am and 137 Cs activity concentrations are presented in the jaw bones of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from eastern Poland. The short description of the applied radiochemical method is presented. Activity concentrations for 90 Sr ranged between 2.2±0.7 and 41.4±4.7 Bq/kg (aw = ash weight). Average results for plutonium and americium are on the level of 10 mBq/kg (aw). No clear relationship was observed among the radionuclide concentrations. The samples analyzed do not show elevated contamination levels when compared with results of bones of small animals (rodent or insectivorous mammals) determined previously, so no accumulation of bone seeking isotopes on higher step of food-chain is concluded. (author)

  14. Ecological distribution and fate of plutonium and americium in a processing waste pond on the Hanford Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emergy, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; McShane, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    U Pond, located on the Hanford Reservation, has received low-level quantities of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) longer than any other aquatic environment in the world. Its ecological complexity and content of transuranics make it an ideal resource for information concerning the movement of these actinides within and out of an aquatic ecosystem. U Pond has been intensively inventoried for Pu concentrations in the ecological compartments and characterized limnologically in terms of its physicochemial parameters, biological productivity, and community structure. This work provides a basis for evaluating the pond's performance in retaining waste transuranics. The quantitative estimation of export routes developed by this study is important in determining how effectively such ponds act as retainers for transuranic wastes

  15. Comparative study of G2 delay and survival after /sup 241/Americium-. cap alpha. and /sup 60/Cobalt-. gamma. irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luecke-Huhle, C.; Comper, W.; Hieber, L.; Pech, M.

    1982-06-01

    Survival and G2 delay following exposure to either /sup 60/Cobalt-..gamma..-rays or /sup 241/Americium-..cap alpha..-particles were studied in eight mammalian cell lines of human and animal origin including human fibroblasts from normal individuals and from patients with Ataxia telangiectasia or Fanconi's anemia. For both endpoints the effectiveness of alpha particle was greater as compared to ..gamma..-rays. RBE values for G2 delay (4.6-9.2) were in general comparable to RBE values derived from initial slopes of survival curves but higher compared to the ratio of mean inactivation doses. Ataxia cells were particularly sensitive to cell killing by ..gamma..-irradiation, however, showed average sensitivity to ..cap alpha..-particles of high LET. With the exception of Ataxia cells, cell killing and G2 delay seem to be related processes if individual cell cycle parameters are taken into account.

  16. Crystallographic and Spectroscopic Characterization of Americium Complexes Containing the Bis[(phosphino)methyl]pyridine-1-oxide (NOPOPO) Ligand Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbey, Jordan F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Rapko, Brian M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Wang, Zheming [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; McNamara, Bruce K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Surbella, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Pellegrini, Kristi L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Schwantes, Jon M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States

    2018-02-06

    Abstract The crystal structures of americium species containing a common multi-functional phosphine oxide ligand, reported for its ability to extract f elements from acidic solutions, namely 2,6-[Ph2P(O)CH2]2C5H3-NO, L, have finally been determined after over three decades of separations studies involving these species and their surrogates. The molecular compounds Am(L)(NO3)3, Am 1:1, and [Am(L)2(NO3)][NO3]2, Am 2:1, along with their neodymium and europium analogs were synthesized and characterized using single-crystal X-ray crystallography, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR) spectroscopy and luminescence spectroscopy to provide a comprehensive comparison with new and known analogous complexes.

  17. Technical Report on Hydroxylamine Nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlow, Donald G. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Felt, Rowland E. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Agnew, Steve [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Barney, G. Scott [B& W Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States); McKibben, J. Malvyn [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Garber, Robert [Parallax Inc., Rocklin, CA (United States); Lewis, Margie [Parallax Inc., Rocklin, CA (United States)

    1998-02-01

    This report presents the chemical properties and safe conditions for handling and storing solutions of hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN, NH2OH•HNO3 or NH3OH+) in nitric acid (HNO3). Section 1.0 summarizes the accidents experienced within the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex involving HAN or hydroxylamine sulfate (HAS), a chemical with similar properties. Section 2.0 describes past and current uses of HAN by DOE, the U.S. Military and foreign countries. Section 3.0 presents the basic chemistry of HAN, including chemical reaction and energy content equations. Section 4.0 provides experience and insights gained from previous uncontrolled reactions involving HAN and experimental data from Hanford & Savannah River Site (SRS). This information was used to develop safe conditions for the storage and handling of HAN as presented in Section 5.0. Section 6.0 summarizes recommendations for safe facility operations involving HAN and future research needs.

  18. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik, E-mail: csyoo@wsu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Shock Physics, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)

    2013-12-07

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV{sup ′} transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  19. Denitrification of nitrate waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, R.J.; Chao, E.I.; Choi, W.M.; Johnson, B.R.; Varlet, J.L.P.

    1976-01-01

    Growth rates for the denitrifying bacteria Pseudomonas Stutzeri were studied to minimize the time necessary to start up a bacterial denitrification reactor. Batch experiments were performed in nine 250-ml Erlenmeyer flasks, a 7-liter fermentor, and a 67-liter fermentor. All reactors maintained an anaerobic environment. Initial microorganism inoculum concentration was varied over four orders of magnitude. Initial nitrate and substrate carbon concentrations were varied from 200 to 6000 ppm and from 56 to 1596 ppm, respectively, with a carbon-to-nitrogen weight ratio of 1.18. In all experiments, except those with the highest initial substrate-to-bacteria ratio, no growth was observed due to substrate depletion during the lag period. In those experiments which did exhibit an increase in bacterial population, growth also stopped due to substrate depletion. A model simulating microbe growth during the induction period was developed, but insufficient data were available to properly adjust the model constants. Because of this, the model does not accurately predict microbe growth. The metabolism of Pseudomonas Stutzeri was studied in detail. This resulted in a prediction of the denitrification stoichiometry during steady state reactor operation. Iron was found to be an important component for bacterial anabolism

  20. Separation of americium by liquid-liquid extraction using diglycol-amides water-soluble complexing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapron, S.; Marie, C.; Pacary, V.; Duchesne, M.T.; Miguirditchian, M. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Processses Departement, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Arrachart, G.; Pellet-Rostaing, S. [Institut de Chimie Separative de Marcoule, LTSM, Bat 426, F-30207 Bagnols-sur- Ceze (France)

    2016-07-01

    Recycling americium (Am) alone from spent nuclear fuels is an important option studied for the future nuclear cycle (Generation IV systems) since Am belongs to the main contributors of the long-term radiotoxicity and heat power of final waste. Since 2008, a liquid-liquid extraction process called EXAm has been developed by the CEA to allow the recovery of Am alone from a PUREX raffinate (a dissolution solution already cleared from U, Np and Pu). A mixture of DMDOHEMA (N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-dioctyl-2-(2-(hexyloxy)ethyl)-malonamide) and HDEHP (di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid) in TPH is used as the solvent and the Am/Cm selectivity is improved using TEDGA (N,N,N',N'-tetraethyl-diglycolamide) as a selective complexing agent to maintain Cm and heavier lanthanides in the acidic aqueous phase (5 M HNO{sub 3}). Americium is then stripped selectively from light lanthanides at low acidity (pH=3) with a poly-aminocarboxylic acid. The feasibility of sole Am recovery was already demonstrated during hot tests in ATALANTE facility and the EXAm process was adapted to a concentrated raffinate to optimize the process compactness. The speciation of TEDGA complexes formed in the aqueous phase with Am, Cm and lanthanides was studied to better understand and model the behavior of TEDGA in the process. Some Ln-TEDGA species are extracted into the organic phase and this specific chemistry might play a role in the Am/Cm selectivity improvement. Hence the hydrophilicity-lipophilicity balance of the complexing agent is an important parameter. In this comprehensive study, new analogues of TEDGA were synthesized and tested in the EXAm process conditions to understand the relationship between their structure and selectivity. New derivatives of TEDGA with different N-alkyl chain lengths and ramifications were synthesized. The impact of lipophilicity on ligand partitioning and Am/Cm selectivity was investigated. (authors)

  1. Sodium nitrate-cerium nitrate-water ternary system at 25 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorenko, T.P.; Onishchenko, M.K.

    1978-01-01

    Solubility isotherm of sodium nitrate-cerium nitrate-water system at 25 deg C consists of three crystallization branches of initial salts and double compound of the composition 2NaNO 3 xCe(NO 3 ) 3 x2H 2 O. Sodium nitrate introduced in the solution strengthens complexing. Physico-chemical characteristics are in a good agreement with solubility curve

  2. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to nitrate, nitrous oxide, and ammonium by Pseudomonas putrefaciens.

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelsson, M O

    1985-01-01

    The influence of redox potential on dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium was investigated on a marine bacterium, Pseudomonas putrefaciens. Nitrate was consumed (3.1 mmol liter-1), and ammonium was produced in cultures with glucose and without sodium thioglycolate. When sodium thioglycolate was added, nitrate was consumed at a lower rate (1.1 mmol liter-1), and no significant amounts of nitrite or ammonium were produced. No growth was detected in glucose media either with or without sod...

  3. Does thiosemicarbazide lead nitrate (TSLN) crystal exist?

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, R.; Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.

    2016-01-01

    The authors of a recent paper (Optik 125 (2014) 2022-2025) claim to have grown a so called thiosemicarbazide lead nitrate (TSLN) crystal by the slow evaporation method. In this comment we prove that TSLN is actually thiosemicarbazide.

  4. Nitrate reduction in geologically heterogeneous catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Auken, Esben; Bamberg, Charlotte A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to fulfil the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive nitrate load from agricultural areas to surface water in Denmark needs to be reduced by about 40%. The regulations imposed until now have been uniform, i.e. the same restrictions for all areas independent of the subsurface...... conditions. Studies have shown that on a national basis about 2/3 of the nitrate leaching from the root zone is reduced naturally, through denitrification, in the subsurface before reaching the streams. Therefore, it is more cost-effective to identify robust areas, where nitrate leaching through the root...... the entire catchment. However, as distributed models often do not include local scale hydrogeological heterogeneities, they are typically not able to make accurate predictions at scales smaller than they are calibrated. We present a framework for assessing nitrate reduction in the subsurface...

  5. [Nitrate concentrations in tap water in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoria, Isidro; Maraver, Francisco; Sánchez-Valverde, Félix; Armijo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    To determine nitrate concentrations in drinking water in a sample of Spanish cities. We used ion chromatography to analyze the nitrate concentrations of public drinking water in 108 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants (supplying 21,290,707 potential individuals). The samples were collected between January and April 2012. The total number of samples tested was 324. The median nitrate concentration was 3.47 mg/L (range: 0.38-66.76; interquartile range: 4.51). The water from 94% of the municipalities contained less than 15 mg/L. The concentration was higher than 25mg/L in only 3 municipalities and was greater than 50mg/L in one. Nitrate levels in most public drinking water supplies in municipalities inhabited by almost half of the Spanish population are below 15 mg/L. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Nitrate Waste Treatment Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Patrick Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Terrence Kerwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-07-05

    This plan is designed to outline the collection and analysis of nitrate salt-bearing waste samples required by the New Mexico Environment Department- Hazardous Waste Bureau in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (Permit).

  7. High dose potassium-nitrate chemical dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorda de Cancio, E.M.; Munoz, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    This dosimeter is used to control 10 kGY-order doses (1 Mrad). Nitrate suffers a radiolitic reduction phenomena, which is related to the given dose. The method to use potassium nitrate as dosimeter is described, as well as effects of the temperature of irradiation, pH, nitrate concentration and post-irradiation stability. Nitrate powder was irradiated at a Semi-Industrial Plant, at Centro Atomico Ezeiza, and also in a Gammacell-220 irradiator. The dose rates used were 2,60 and 1,80 KGY/hour, and the given doses varied between 1,0 and 150 KGY. The uncertainty was +-3% in all the range. (author) [es

  8. Ternary systems, consist of erbium nitrates, water and nitrates of pyridines, quinolines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starikova, L.I.; Zhuravlev, E.F.; Khalfina, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    At 25 and 50 deg C investigated is solubility of solid phases in ternary water salt systems: erbium nitrate-pyridine nitrate-water; erbium nitrate-quinoline nitrate-water. Formation of congruently soluble compounds of the Er(NO 3 ) 3 x2C 5 H 5 NxHNO 3 , Er(NO 3 ) 3 x2C 9 H 7 NxHNO 3 x4H 2 O composition is established. X-ray phase and thermogravimetric analyses have been carried out

  9. Data on nitrate and nitrate of Taham dam in Zanjan (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Massoudinejad

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, contamination of water resources, with pollutants such as nitrate and nitrite, has significantly increased. These compounds can have harmful effects on human health, especially children such as methemoglobinemia. The main objective of this study was to measure the concentration of nitrate and nitrite and its health-risk assessment in the rivers entering Taham dam in Zanjan. USEPA Method was used to assess the health-risk of nitrate and nitrite. According to the obtained results, the concentration of nitrate and nitrite was in the range of 0.51–14.93 mg/l and 0.001–0.061 mg/l, respectively. According to the results, the mean of the CDI for nitrate and nitrite was 9.52*10−2 and 3.63*10−4 mg/kg/day, respectively. Furthermore, the mean HI for nitrate and nitrite was 5.97*10−2 and 3.63*10−3, respectively. The concentration of nitrate and nitrite in rivers was lower than the WHO and Iran guidelines. Based on the results, the HI value in all samples was less than 1 which indicating the non-carcinogenic effects of nitrate and nitrite in these rivers. Keywords: Nitrate, Nitrite, Water quality, Dam

  10. Bio nitrate Project: a new technology for water nitrate elimination by means of ionic exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano Ortiz, J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of ion exchange resins for nitrate elimination from water generates a waste containing a sodium chloride mixture plus the retained nitrates. this waste must be correctly disposed. In this project, the resin ionic form is modified to be regenerated with other compounds, different from the common salt, which are interesting because of the presence of mineral nutrition. So, with Bio nitrate Project, nitrates are recovered and the regeneration waste is apt to be use as fertilizer, for agricultural uses, or as complementary contribution of nutrients in biological water treatment. (Author) 27 refs.

  11. Criticality parameters for uranyl nitrate or plutonium nitrate systems in tributyl phosphate/kerosine and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the calculated values of smallest critical masses and volumina and neutron physical parameters for uranyl nitrate (3, 4, 5% U-235) or plutonium nitrate (5% Pu-240), each in a 30 per cent solution of tributyl phosphate (TBP)/kerosine. For the corresponding nitrate-water solutions, newly calculated results are presented together with a revised solution density model. A comparison of the data shows to what extent the criticality of nitrate-TBP/kerosine systems can be assessed on the basis of nitrate-water parameters, revealing that such data can be applied to uranyl nitrate/water systems, taking into account that the smallest critical mass of uranyl nitrate-TBP/kerosine systems, up to a 5 p.c. U-235 enrichment, is by 4.5 p.c. at the most smaller than that of UNH-water solutions. Plutonium nitrate (5% Pu-240) in the TBP/kerosine solution will have a smallest critical mass of up to 7 p.c. smaller, as compared with the water data. The suitability of the computing methods and cross-sections used is verified by recalculating experiments carried out to determine the lowest critical enrichment of uranyl nitrate. The calculated results are well in agreement with experimental data. The lowest critical enrichment is calculated to be 2.10 p.c. in the isotope U-235. (orig.) [de

  12. Synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate esters have been known as useful energetic materials since the discovery of nitroglycerin by Ascanio Sobrero in 1846. The development of methods to increase the safety and utility of nitroglycerin by Alfred Nobel led to the revolutionary improvement in the utility of nitroglycerin in explosive applications in the form of dynamite. Since then, many nitrate esters have been prepared and incorporated into military applications such as double-based propellants, detonators and as energetic plasticizers. Nitrate esters have also been shown to have vasodilatory effects in humans and thus have been studied and used for treatments of ailments such as angina. The mechanism of the biological response towards nitrate esters has been elucidated recently. Interestingly, many of the nitrate esters used for military purposes are liquids (ethylene glycol dinitrate, propylene glycol dinitrate, etc). Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is one of the only solid nitrate esters, besides nitrocellulose, that is used in any application. Unfortunately, PETN melting point is above 100 {sup o}C, and thus must be pressed as a solid for detonator applications. A more practical material would be a melt-castable explosive, for potential simplification of manufacturing processes. Herein we describe the synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester (1) that is a solid at ambient temperatures, has a melting point of 85-86 {sup o}C and has the highest density of any known nitrate ester composed only of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. We also describe the chemical, thermal and sensitivity properties of 1 as well as some preliminary explosive performance data.

  13. Studies in Aromatic and Amine Nitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-20

    of Commerce, May 1978. 4. J. Hoggett , R. Moodie, F. Penton, and K. Schofield, Nitration and Aromatic Reactivity (Cambridge University Press, 1971). 5...Moodie, K. Schofield, and G. Tobin, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Comm., 180 (1978); (b) J. Hoggett , R. Moodie, and K. Schofield, Chem. Comm. 605 (1969). 10. (a) S...Lawrence Livermore Laboratories (Received, 5th Februaty 1980; Com. 124.) 42 ’(a) J. Hoggett , R. B. Moodie, J. R. Penton, and K. Schofield, in ’Nitration

  14. The dehydration of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalov, A.; Kamalov, D.D.; Khamidov, B.O.; Mirsaidov, I.U.; Eshbekov, N.R.

    2010-01-01

    Present article is devoted to study of dehydration process of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate. The dehydration process of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate was studied by means of tensimeter method with membrane zero-manometer. The research was carried out under equilibrium conditions. It was defined that in studied temperature ranges (300-450 K) the dehydration process of UO_2(NO_3)_2 has a three stage character.

  15. The UK Nitrate Time Bomb (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R.; Wang, L.; Stuart, M.; Bloomfield, J.; Gooddy, D.; Lewis, M.; McKenzie, A.

    2013-12-01

    The developed world has benefitted enormously from the intensification of agriculture and the increased availability and use of synthetic fertilizers during the last century. However there has also been unintended adverse impact on the natural environment (water and ecosystems) with nitrate the most significant cause of water pollution and ecosystem damage . Many countries have introduced controls on nitrate, e.g. the European Union's Water Framework and Nitrate Directives, but despite this are continuing to see a serious decline in water quality. The purpose of our research is to investigate and quantify the importance of the unsaturated (vadose) zone pathway and groundwater in contributing to the decline. Understanding nutrient behaviour in the sub-surface environment and, in particular, the time lag between action and improvement is critical to effective management and remediation of nutrient pollution. A readily-transferable process-based model has been used to predict temporal loading of nitrate at the water table across the UK. A time-varying nitrate input function has been developed based on nitrate usage since 1925. Depth to the water table has been calculated from groundwater levels based on regional-scale observations in-filled by interpolated river base levels and vertical unsaturated zone velocities estimated from hydrogeological properties and mapping. The model has been validated using the results of more than 300 unsaturated zone nitrate profiles. Results show that for about 60% of the Chalk - the principal aquifer in the UK - peak nitrate input has yet to reach the water table and concentrations will continue to rise over the next 60 years. The implications are hugely significant especially where environmental objectives must be achieved in much shorter timescales. Current environmental and regulatory management strategies rarely take lag times into account and as a result will be poorly informed, leading to inappropriate controls and conflicts

  16. Supercritical fluid extraction of uranium and neodymium nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujatha, K.; Sivaraman, N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of uranyl nitrate and neodymium nitrate salts from a mixture was investigated in the present study using Sc-CO 2 modified with various ligands such as organophosphorous compounds, amides, and diketones. Preferential extraction of uranyl nitrate over neodymium nitrate was demonstrated using Sc-CO 2 modified with amide, di-(2ethylhexyl) isobutyramide (D2EHIBA). (author)

  17. Systems of cerium(3) nitrate-dimethyl amine nitrate-water and cerium(3) nitrate-dimethyl amine nitrate-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mininkov, N.E.; Zhuravlev, E.F.

    1976-01-01

    Solubility of solid phases in the systems cerium(3)nitrate-water-dimethyl amine nitrate and cerium(3)nitrate-water-dimethyl amine nitrate has been st ed by the method of isothermal sections at 25 and 50 deo. C. It has been shown that one anhydrous compound is formed in each system with a ratio of cerium(3) nitrate to amine nitrate 1:5. The compounds formed in the systems have been separated from the corresponding solutions and studied by microcrystalloscopic, X-ray phase, thermal and infrared spectroscopic methods. On the basis of spectroscopic studies the following formula has been assigned to the compound: [(CH 3 ) 2 NH 2 + ] 5 x[Ce(NO 3 ) 8 ]. The thermal analysis of the compound has shown that its melting point is 106 deg C. The solubility isotherms in the system Ce(NO 3 ) 3 -H 2 O-(C 2 H 5 ) 2 NHxHNO 3 consist of three branches which intersect in two eutonic points

  18. Nitrate Adsorption on Clay Kaolin: Batch Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Mohsenipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils possessing kaolin, gibbsite, goethite, and hematite particles have been found to have a natural capacity to attenuate pollution in aqueous phase. On the other hand, the hydroxyl group in soil increases anion exchange capacity under a low pH condition. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate effects of kaolin on nitrate reduction under acidic condition. In order to analyze the kaolin adsorption behaviour under various conditions, four different concentrations of nitrate, 45, 112.5, 225, and 450 mgNO3-/L, with a constant pH equal to 2, constant temperature equal to 25°C, and exposure period varying from 0 to 150 minutes were considered. The capacity of nitrate adsorption on kaolin has also been studied involving two well-known adsorption isotherm models, namely, Freundlich and Longmuir. The results revealed that approximately 25% of the nitrate present in the solution was adsorbed on clay kaolin. The laboratory experimental data revealed that Freundlich adsorption isotherm model was more accurate than Longmuir adsorption model in predicting of nitrate adsorption. Furthermore, the retardation factor of nitrate pollution in saturated zone has been found to be approximately 4 in presence of kaolin, which indicated that kaolin can be used for natural scavenger of pollution in the environment.

  19. Anaerobic columnar denitrification of high nitrate wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Malone, C.D.

    1975-01-01

    Anaerobic columns were used to test the effectiveness of biological denitrification of nitrate solutions ranging in concentration from 1 to 10 kg NO 3 /m 3 . Several sources of nitrate (Ca(CNO 3 ) 2 , NaNO 3 , NH 4 NO 3 , and actual nitrate wastes from a UO 2 fuel fabrication plant) were evaluated as well as two packing media. The packing media were anthracite coal particles, whose effective diameter size ranged between 2 and 3 mm, and polypropylene Raschig rings 1.6 x 1.6 diameter. The anthracite coal proved to be the better packing media as excessive hydraulic short circuiting occurred in a 120 x 15 cm diameter glass column packed with the polypropylene rings after 40 days operation. With anthracite coal, floatation of the bed occurred at flow rates greater than 0.80 cm 3 /s. Tapered columns packed with anthracite coal eliminated the floatation problem, even at flow rates as high as 5 cm 3 /s. Under optimum operating conditions the anthracite coal behaved as a fluidized bed. Maximum denitrification rates were 1.0--1.4 g NO 3 /m 3 /s based on initial bed volume. Denitrification kinetics indicated that rates of denitrification became substrate inhibited at nitrate concentrations greater than 6.5 kg NO 3 /m 3 Anaerobic columns packed with anthracite coal appear to be an effective method of nitrate disposal for nitrate rich wastewater generated at UO 2 fuel fabrication plants and fuel reprocessing facilities. (U.S.)

  20. Protein tyrosine nitration in the cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Min; Mateoiu, Claudia; Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Enrichment of 3-nitrotyrosine containing proteins from cells synchronized in different phases of the cell cycle. → Identification of 76 tyrosine nitrated proteins that change expression during the cell cycle. → Nineteen identified proteins were previously described as regulators of cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Nitration of tyrosine residues in proteins is associated with cell response to oxidative/nitrosative stress. Tyrosine nitration is relatively low abundant post-translational modification that may affect protein functions. Little is known about the extent of protein tyrosine nitration in cells during progression through the cell cycle. Here we report identification of proteins enriched for tyrosine nitration in cells synchronized in G0/G1, S or G2/M phases of the cell cycle. We identified 27 proteins in cells synchronized in G0/G1 phase, 37 proteins in S phase synchronized cells, and 12 proteins related to G2/M phase. Nineteen of the identified proteins were previously described as regulators of cell proliferation. Thus, our data indicate which tyrosine nitrated proteins may affect regulation of the cell cycle.

  1. Investigation of complexing of trivalent lanthanoids in aqueous nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopyrin, A.A.; Proyaev, V.V.; Edinakova, V.

    1985-01-01

    Complexing of trivalent lanthanoids (Ce, Eu) with nitrate-ions in concentrated solutions of lithium and sodium nitrates has been studied in a wide range of ionic forces (1.0-7.0), using the extractional, densimetric and solubility methods. Nitrate complexes registered by the extraction and solubility methods mainly are of second sphere character. During rare earth extraction from concentrated nitrate solutions in the range of nitrate-ion concentrations <= 5 mol/l second sphere neutral nitrate complexes take part in distribution, at higher values of nitrate-ion concentration formation of intrasphere monoligand complexes of lanthanoids should be taken into account

  2. Organic Nitrate Therapy, Nitrate Tolerance, and Nitrate-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction: Emphasis on Redox Biology and Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Organic nitrates, such as nitroglycerin (GTN), isosorbide-5-mononitrate and isosorbide dinitrate, and pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN), when given acutely, have potent vasodilator effects improving symptoms in patients with acute and chronic congestive heart failure, stable coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndromes, or arterial hypertension. The mechanisms underlying vasodilation include the release of •NO or a related compound in response to intracellular bioactivation (for GTN, the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase [ALDH-2]) and activation of the enzyme, soluble guanylyl cyclase. Increasing cyclic guanosine-3′,-5′-monophosphate (cGMP) levels lead to an activation of the cGMP-dependent kinase I, thereby causing the relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle by decreasing intracellular calcium concentrations. The hemodynamic and anti-ischemic effects of organic nitrates are rapidly lost upon long-term (low-dose) administration due to the rapid development of tolerance and endothelial dysfunction, which is in most cases linked to increased intracellular oxidative stress. Enzymatic sources of reactive oxygen species under nitrate therapy include mitochondria, NADPH oxidases, and an uncoupled •NO synthase. Acute high-dose challenges with organic nitrates cause a similar loss of potency (tachyphylaxis), but with distinct pathomechanism. The differences among organic nitrates are highlighted regarding their potency to induce oxidative stress and subsequent tolerance and endothelial dysfunction. We also address pleiotropic effects of organic nitrates, for example, their capacity to stimulate antioxidant pathways like those demonstrated for PETN, all of which may prevent adverse effects in response to long-term therapy. Based on these considerations, we will discuss and present some preclinical data on how the nitrate of the future should be designed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 899–942. PMID:26261901

  3. Organic Nitrate Therapy, Nitrate Tolerance, and Nitrate-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction: Emphasis on Redox Biology and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiber, Andreas; Münzel, Thomas

    2015-10-10

    Organic nitrates, such as nitroglycerin (GTN), isosorbide-5-mononitrate and isosorbide dinitrate, and pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN), when given acutely, have potent vasodilator effects improving symptoms in patients with acute and chronic congestive heart failure, stable coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndromes, or arterial hypertension. The mechanisms underlying vasodilation include the release of •NO or a related compound in response to intracellular bioactivation (for GTN, the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase [ALDH-2]) and activation of the enzyme, soluble guanylyl cyclase. Increasing cyclic guanosine-3',-5'-monophosphate (cGMP) levels lead to an activation of the cGMP-dependent kinase I, thereby causing the relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle by decreasing intracellular calcium concentrations. The hemodynamic and anti-ischemic effects of organic nitrates are rapidly lost upon long-term (low-dose) administration due to the rapid development of tolerance and endothelial dysfunction, which is in most cases linked to increased intracellular oxidative stress. Enzymatic sources of reactive oxygen species under nitrate therapy include mitochondria, NADPH oxidases, and an uncoupled •NO synthase. Acute high-dose challenges with organic nitrates cause a similar loss of potency (tachyphylaxis), but with distinct pathomechanism. The differences among organic nitrates are highlighted regarding their potency to induce oxidative stress and subsequent tolerance and endothelial dysfunction. We also address pleiotropic effects of organic nitrates, for example, their capacity to stimulate antioxidant pathways like those demonstrated for PETN, all of which may prevent adverse effects in response to long-term therapy. Based on these considerations, we will discuss and present some preclinical data on how the nitrate of the future should be designed.

  4. Radiation-induced nitration of organic compounds in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.; Gordeev, A.V.; Bykov, G.L.; Moisy, P.

    2012-01-01

    Radiolysis in aqueous nitrate and acetic acid solutions and nitrate/nitric acid and phenol was studied. The radiolysis of these solutes occurs with circle NO 2 radical, which is the active nitrating agent. Accumulation of nitromethane and nitrite was determined during γ-irradiation of aqueous solutions containing acetic and nitrate solutions. Irradiation of aqueous phenol-nitrate/nitric acid solutions results in the formation of 2- and 4-nitrophenols.

  5. Radiation-induced nitration of organic compounds in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershov, B.G.; Gordeev, A.V.; Bykov, G.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Frumkin Inst. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Moisy, P. [CEA, Bagnols sur Ceze (France). Nuclear Energy Div.

    2012-07-01

    Radiolysis in aqueous nitrate and acetic acid solutions and nitrate/nitric acid and phenol was studied. The radiolysis of these solutes occurs with {sup circle} NO{sup 2} radical, which is the active nitrating agent. Accumulation of nitromethane and nitrite was determined during {gamma}-irradiation of aqueous solutions containing acetic and nitrate solutions. Irradiation of aqueous phenol-nitrate/nitric acid solutions results in the formation of 2- and 4-nitrophenols.

  6. Oxygen regulation of nitrate uptake in denitrifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, D; Rowe, J J

    1987-01-01

    Oxygen had an immediate and reversible inhibitory effect on nitrate respiration by denitrifying cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Inhibition of nitrate utilization by oxygen appeared to be at the level of nitrate uptake, since nitrate reduction to nitrite in cell extracts was not affected by oxygen. The degree of oxygen inhibition was dependent on the concentration of oxygen, and increasing nitrate concentrations could not overcome the inhibition. The inhibitory effect of oxygen was maximal...

  7. Formation, Evaporation, and Hydrolysis of Organic Nitrates from Nitrate Radical Oxidation of Monoterpenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, N. L.; Takeuchi, M.; Eris, G.; Berkemeier, T.; Boyd, C.; Nah, T.; Xu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Organic nitrates play an important role in the cycling of NOx and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, yet their formation mechanisms and fates remain highly uncertain. The interactions of biogenic VOCs with NO3 radicals represent a direct way for positively linking anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. Results from ambient studies suggest that organic nitrates have a relatively short lifetime, though corresponding laboratory data are limited. SOA and organic nitrates produced at night may evaporate the following morning due to increasing temperatures or dilution of semi-volatile compounds. Once formed, organic nitrates can also undergo hydrolysis in the presence of particle water. In this work, we investigate the formation, evaporation, and hydrolysis of organic nitrates generated from the nitrate radical oxidation of a-pinene, b-pinene, and limonene. Experiments are conducted in the Georgia Environmental Chamber facility (GTEC) under dry and humid conditions and different temperatures. Experiments are also designed to probe different peroxy radical pathways (RO2+HO2 vs RO2+NO3). Speciated gas-phase and particle-phase organic nitrates are continuously monitored by a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols High Resolution Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (FIGAERO-HR-ToF-CIMS). Bulk aerosol composition is measured by a High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). A large suite of highly oxygenated gas- and particle-phase organic nitrates are formed rapidly. We find a resistance to aerosol evaporation when it is heated. The extent of organic nitrate hydrolysis in the humid experiments is evaluated. The dynamics of the speciated organic nitrates over the course of the experiments will also be discussed. Results from this chamber study provide fundamental data for understanding the dynamics of organic nitrate aerosols over its atmospheric lifetime.

  8. Extraction of Americium and Europium by Diphosphine Dioxides and Their Mixtures with Chlorinated Cobalt Dicarbollide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Scott Herbst; Dean R. Peterman; Terry A. Todd

    2005-01-01

    Extraction of Am and Eu using mixtures of diphosphine dioxides (DPDO, e.g., (R1)2P(O)(CH2)nP(O)(R2)2 where R1, R2 = Ph, Bu; n = 1,2), with and without chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) in the polar diluents 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE), meta-nitrobenzotrifluoride (F-3), bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of diethylene glycol (F-8) and phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone (FS-13) from HNO3, HClO4, LiNO3 and LiClO4 solutions has been investigated. The anomalous aryl strengthening (AAS) effect, i.e. the anomalous increase of extraction ability of methylene bridged diphosphine dioxides due to substitution of aromatic (i.e., phenyl) for alkyl (e.g., butyl or octyl) moieties (DAm increases by three to four orders of magnitude), is only observed during the extraction of Am and Eu from acidic media. In salt media the AAS effect is weakly observed, and is practically absent in such diluents as F-3 and FS-13. The extraction isotherm in the case of DPDO with an observed AAS effect indicates the distribution coefficients of Eu decrease by a factor of two to three, even at the concentration ratio of DPDO:Eu = 50:1; however, these values decrease only by 10% for the DPDO that do not indicate an observed AAS effect. It is proposed that the presence of water in the diluent is necessary for manifestation of the AAS effect. The synergistic effects of adding chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) with the DPDO that has been reported for other systems was also found to prevail in several of the systems investigated in this study. On addition of CCD with the DPDO, a considerable synergistic effect is observed (DAm increases by three to four orders of magnitude) during Am and Eu extraction from nitrate media. In perchlorate media the synergistic effect is absent. The most probable reason for synergism in the presence of CCD is the higher hydrophobicity of the CCD anion as compared to the nitrate anion. The results of this work will be of utility in understanding existing and developing new extraction

  9. Nitration of naphthalene and remarks on the mechanism of electrophilic aromatic nitration*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A.; Narang, Subhash C.; Olah, Judith A.

    1981-01-01

    Naphthalene was nitrated with a variety of nitrating agents. Comparison of data with Perrin's electrochemical nitration [Perrin, C. L. (1977) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 5516-5518] shows that nitration of naphthalene gives an α-nitronaphthalene to β-nitronaphthalene ratio that varies between 9 and 29 and is thus not constant. Perrin's data, therefore, are considered to be inconclusive evidence for the proposed one-electron transfer mechanism for the nitration of naphthalene and other reactive aromatics. Moodie and Schoefield [Hoggett, J. G., Moodie, R. B., Penton, J. R. & Schoefield, K. (1971) Nitration and Aromatic Reactivity (Cambridge Univ. Press, London)], as well as Perrin, independently concluded that, in the general scheme of nitration of reactive aromatics, there is the necessity to introduce into the classical Ingold mechanism an additional step involving a distinct intermediate preceding the formation of the Wheland intermediate (σ complexes). This view coincides with our two-step mechanistic picture [Kuhn, S. J. & Olah, G. A. (1961) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 83, 4564-4571] of the nitronium salt nitration of aromatic hydrocarbons (including benzene and toluene), in which low substrate selectivity but high positional selectivity was found, indicating the independence of substrate from positional selectivity. PMID:16593026

  10. Nitration of naphthalene and remarks on the mechanism of electrophilic aromatic nitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, G A; Narang, S C; Olah, J A

    1981-06-01

    Naphthalene was nitrated with a variety of nitrating agents. Comparison of data with Perrin's electrochemical nitration [Perrin, C. L. (1977) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 5516-5518] shows that nitration of naphthalene gives an alpha-nitronaphthalene to beta-nitronaphthalene ratio that varies between 9 and 29 and is thus not constant. Perrin's data, therefore, are considered to be inconclusive evidence for the proposed one-electron transfer mechanism for the nitration of naphthalene and other reactive aromatics. Moodie and Schoefield [Hoggett, J. G., Moodie, R. B., Penton, J. R. & Schoefield, K. (1971) Nitration and Aromatic Reactivity (Cambridge Univ. Press, London)], as well as Perrin, independently concluded that, in the general scheme of nitration of reactive aromatics, there is the necessity to introduce into the classical Ingold mechanism an additional step involving a distinct intermediate preceding the formation of the Wheland intermediate (sigma complexes). This view coincides with our two-step mechanistic picture [Kuhn, S. J. & Olah, G. A. (1961) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 83, 4564-4571] of the nitronium salt nitration of aromatic hydrocarbons (including benzene and toluene), in which low substrate selectivity but high positional selectivity was found, indicating the independence of substrate from positional selectivity.

  11. The Properties of Trilaurylmethylammonium Nitrate as an Extractant for Trivalent Actinides. RCN Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooyen, J. van

    1970-03-01

    The concept of the group of the actinide elements as a f-type transition series within the periodic system was first launched by G.T. Seaborg in 1944]. In this transition series the filling up of the 5 f electron shell would cause a close similarity with the lanthanide series. This proved to be a very fruitful hypothesis in the prediction of the properties of the new elements americium and curium that soon were discovered. The new hypothesis necessitated a shift of the accepted ideas concerning the place of the elements thorium, protactinium and uranium in the periodic table. In fact, the chemistry of these elements had never been considered to be so closely parallel to that of the lanthanides. On the contrary, the trend in the stability of the oxidation states had been interpreted to indicate that these elements would belong to group IVA, VA and VIA respectively. It is undeniable that there are marked differences in oxidation states between the lanthanide elements and the first six elements of the actinide series. However, physical and chemical investigations both of the newly discovered elements and the elements actinium to uranium disclosed many resemblances with the lanthanides that had not been noticed before in this group. The actinide elements - and more in particular the transuranium elements - have been the subject of a number of monographs covering the discovery, the synthesis, the systematics, the chemistry, and (or) the nuclear properties of these elements. It is for this reason that the scope of the following sections in this chapter will be limited to a summary of the chemistry in sofar as it is relevant to the investigations described in the following chapters, viz., the properties of the elements in aqueous systems and more in particular in those systems containing nitrate ions

  12. Inspection report of unauthorized possession and use of unsealed americium-241 and subsequent confiscation, J.C. Haynes Company, Newark, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This US Nuclear Regulatory Commission report documents the circumstances surrounding the March 26, 1985, confiscation and subsequent decontamination activities related to the use of unauthorized quantities of americium-241 at the John C. Haynes Company (licensee) of Newark, Ohio. It focuses on the period from early February to July 26, 1985. The incident started when NRC Region III recieved information that John C. Haynes possessed unauthorized quantities of americium-241 and was conducting unauthorized activities (diamond irradiation). By July 26, 1985, the decontamination activities at the licensee's laboratory were concluded. The licensee's actions with diamond irradiation resulted in contamination in restricted and unrestricted areas of the facility. The confiscation and decontamination activities required the combined efforts of NRC, Federal Bureau of Investigation, US Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, the State of Ohio, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. The report describes the factual information and significant findings associated with the confiscation and decontamination activities

  13. The systems cerium(3) (samarium) nitrate-quinoline nitrate-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khisaeva, D.A.; Zhuravlev, E.F.; Semenova, Eh.B.

    1982-01-01

    Using the method of cross sections at 25 and 50 deg C the solubility in the systems cerium (3) nitrate-quinoline nitrate-water and samarium nitrate-quinoline nitrate-water has been studied. It is established that in the systems during chemical interaction of components congruently melting compounds of the composition: Ce(NO 3 ) 2 x2[C 9 H 7 NxHNO 3 ]x6H 2 O and Sm(NO 3 ) 3 x2[C 9 H 7 NxHNO 3 ]x2H 2 O are formed. New solid phases are separated preparatively and are subjected to chemical, differential thermal and IR spectroscopic analyses. The investigation results are compared with similar ones for nitrates of other representatives of lanthanide group

  14. Experimental study of Americium-241 biokinetics in Homarus Gammarus lobster. Analysis of the accumulation and detoxication mechanisms at the sub-cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquet, F.

    1991-12-01

    The Americium 241 radioelement accumulation and elimination rate and mechanisms in the lobster organism have been experimentally studied; incorporation and detoxification capacities of each organ are evaluated. The existence of various biological compartments is shown; the major role of the digestive gland in accumulation of the radioelement, its distribution towards the various organs, and its resorption is comprehensively described, with an analysis at the subcellular and molecular levels. 401 p., 65 fig., 43 tab., 428 ref

  15. Comparative uptake and distribution of plutonium, americium, curium and neptunium in four plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckhise, R E; Cline, J F [Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (USA)

    1980-05-01

    Uptake of the nitrate forms of /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am, /sup 244/Cm and /sup 237/Np from soil into selected parts of four different plant species grown under field conditions was compared Alfalfa, barley, peas and cheatgrass were grown outdoors in small weighing lysimeters filled with soil containing these radionuclides. The plants were harvested at maturity, divided into selected components and radiochemically analyzed by alpha-energy analysis. Soil concentration did not appear to affect the plant uptake of /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am or /sup 244/Cm for the two levels utilized. The relative plant uptake of the five different transuranics was /sup 237/Np>/sup 244/Cm approximately equal /sup 241/Am>/sup 239/Pu approximately equal/sup 238/Pu. Relative uptake values of Np for various plant parts ranged from 2200 to 45,000 times as great as for Pu, while Am and Cm values were 10-20 times as great. The values for seeds were significantly lower than those for the other aboveground plant parts for all four transuranic elements. The legumes accumulated approx. 10 times more than the grasses. A comparison of the postulated radionuclide content of plants grown in soil contaminated with material from spent liquid metal fast breeder reactor fuels indicated that concentrations of isotopes of Am, Cm and Np would exceed /sup 239/Pu values.

  16. Effect of ammonium and nitrate on ferric chelate reductase and nitrate reductase in Vaccinium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonnachit, U; Darnell, R

    2004-04-01

    Most Vaccinium species have strict soil requirements for optimal growth, requiring low pH, high iron availability and nitrogen primarily in the ammonium form. These soils are limited and are often located near wetlands. Vaccinium arboreum is a wild species adapted to a wide range of soils, including high pH, low iron, and nitrate-containing soils. This broader soil adaptation in V. arboreum may be related to increased efficiency of iron or nitrate uptake compared with the cultivated Vaccinium species. Nitrate, ammonium and iron uptake, and nitrate reductase (NR) and ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activities were compared in two Vaccinium species grown hydroponically in either nitrate or ammonia, with or without iron. The species studied were the wild V. arboreum and the cultivated V. corymbosum interspecific hybrid, which exhibits the strict soil requirements of most Vaccinium species. Ammonium uptake was significantly greater than nitrate uptake in both species, while nitrate uptake was greater in the wild species, V. arboreum, compared with the cultivated species, V. corymbosum. The increased nitrate uptake in V. arboreum was correlated with increased root NR activity compared with V. corymbosum. The lower nitrate uptake in V. corymbosum was reflected in decreased plant dry weight in this species compared with V. arboreum. Root FCR activity increased significantly in V. corymbosum grown under iron-deficient conditions, compared with the same species grown under iron-sufficient conditions or with V. arboreum grown under either iron condition. V. arboreum appears to be more efficient in acquiring nitrate compared with V. corymbosum, possibly due to increased NR activity and this may partially explain the wider soil adaptation of V. arboreum.

  17. Nitrate radical oxidation of γ-terpinene: hydroxy nitrate, total organic nitrate, and secondary organic aerosol yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Jonathan H.; de Perre, Chloé; Lee, Linda; Shepson, Paul B.

    2017-07-01

    Polyolefinic monoterpenes represent a potentially important but understudied source of organic nitrates (ONs) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) following oxidation due to their high reactivity and propensity for multi-stage chemistry. Recent modeling work suggests that the oxidation of polyolefinic γ-terpinene can be the dominant source of nighttime ON in a mixed forest environment. However, the ON yields, aerosol partitioning behavior, and SOA yields from γ-terpinene oxidation by the nitrate radical (NO3), an important nighttime oxidant, have not been determined experimentally. In this work, we present a comprehensive experimental investigation of the total (gas + particle) ON, hydroxy nitrate, and SOA yields following γ-terpinene oxidation by NO3. Under dry conditions, the hydroxy nitrate yield = 4(+1/-3) %, total ON yield = 14(+3/-2) %, and SOA yield ≤ 10 % under atmospherically relevant particle mass loadings, similar to those for α-pinene + NO3. Using a chemical box model, we show that the measured concentrations of NO2 and γ-terpinene hydroxy nitrates can be reliably simulated from α-pinene + NO3 chemistry. This suggests that NO3 addition to either of the two internal double bonds of γ-terpinene primarily decomposes forming a relatively volatile keto-aldehyde, reconciling the small SOA yield observed here and for other internal olefinic terpenes. Based on aerosol partitioning analysis and identification of speciated particle-phase ON applying high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we estimate that a significant fraction of the particle-phase ON has the hydroxy nitrate moiety. This work greatly contributes to our understanding of ON and SOA formation from polyolefin monoterpene oxidation, which could be important in the northern continental US and the Midwest, where polyolefinic monoterpene emissions are greatest.

  18. Ion dynamics in moltmolti melkaltal nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyama, Takashi; Nakamura, Yoshio; Shibata, Kaoru; Suzuki, Kenji.

    1993-01-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering experiments have been performed on simple molten alkali metal nitrates, RbNO 3 and LiNO 3 . The experiments were carried out by the medium resolution inverted geometry spectrometer LAM-40 at KENS neutron scattering facility in Japan. The measured spectra are composed of narrow and broad quasielastic spectra. We assigned that the broad component corresponds to the fast intra-ionic motions in a nitrate ion. From momentum dependence of integrated intensity for this component it is found that the motion of nitrate ions in RbNO 3 melt is mainly the librational one centered C 3 axis on the ion. On the other hand the intra-ionic motion in LiNo 3 is the librational motion cnetered C 3 axis on the nitrate ion which amplitude is smaller than in RbNO 3 melt. This fact shows that the motion of nitrate ions in LiNO 3 is restricted strongly by surrounding cations. (author)

  19. In situ biodenitrification of nitrate surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, G.C.; Ballew, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project has successfully operated a full-scale in situ biodenitrification system to treat water with elevated nitrate levels in abandoned raffinate pits. Bench- and pilot-scale studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the process and to support its full-scale design and application. Bench testing evaluated variables that would influence development of an active denitrifying biological culture. The variables were carbon source, phosphate source, presence and absence of raffinate sludge, addition of a commercially available denitrifying microbial culture, and the use of a microbial growth medium. Nitrate levels were reduced from 750 mg/L NO 3 -N to below 10 mg/L NO 3 -N within 17 days. Pilot testing simulated the full-scale process to determine if nitrate levels could be reduced to less than 10 mg/L NO 3 -N when high levels are present below the sludge surface. Four separate test systems were examined along with two control systems. Nitrates were reduced from 1,200 mg/L NO 3 -N to below 2 mg/L NO 3 -N within 21 days. Full-scale operation has been initiated to denitrify 900,000-gal batches alternating between two 1-acre ponds. The process used commercially available calcium acetate solution and monosodium/disodium phosphate solution as a nutrient source for indigenous microorganisms to convert nitrates to molecular nitrogen and water

  20. The influence of Glyceria maxima and nitrate input on the composition and nitrate metabolism of the dissimilatory nitrate-reducing bacterial community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijburg, J.W.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of nitrate addition and the presence of Glyceria maxima (reed sweetgrass) on the composition and nitrate metabolism of the dissimilatory nitrate-reducing bacterial community was investigated. Anoxic freshwater sediment was incubated in pots with or without G. maxima and with or without

  1. The influence of Glyceria maxima and nitrate input on the composition and nitrate metabolism of the dissimilatory nitrate-reducing bacterial community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijburg, J.W.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of nitrate addition and the presence of Glyceria maxima (reed sweetgrass) on the composition and nitrate metabolism of the dissimilatory nitrate-reducing bacterial community was investigated. Anoxic freshwater sediment was incubated in pots with or without G. maxima and with or

  2. An experimental study of americium-241 biokinetics in the Lobster Homarus Gammarus. Analysis of the accumulation/storage and detoxification processes at the subcellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquet, F.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental study of americium-241 kinetics has been conducted in the lobster Homarus gammmarus. The investigations were conducted at all the levels from the whole body to the subcellular and molecular levels. The animals were contaminated by a single or chronic ingestion of 241 Am labelled mussels. Assessments of accumulation, elimination and distribution of the radionuclide were established on organisms kept in the laboratory; they made it possible to demonstrate the importance of the digestive gland in the radionuclide transfer pathways. The preliminary results led to structural then ultrastructural investigations of the digestive gland in association with radioautographic studies and cellular extractions methods. Four cellular types were demonstrated, only two of them being implied in the radionuclide retention, the former being responsible for americium intake and the latter for its long-term retention. By means of biochemical techniques, subcellular accumulation was studied and the organelles implied in the nuclide retention were specified. Finally, a method of cellular nuclei dissociation was developed; it made it possible to analyse the molecular nature of americium ligands and to demonstrate the function of the protein nuclear matrix in the nuclide retention

  3. A new method for the determination of plutonium and americium using high pressure microwave digestion and alpha-spectrometry or ICP-SMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luisier, F.; Corcho Alvarado, J.A.; Froidevaux, P.; Steinmann, P.; Krachler, M.

    2009-01-01

    Plutonium and americium are radionuclides particularly difficult to measure in environmental samples because they are a-emitters and therefore necessitate a careful separation before any measurement, either using radiometric methods or ICP-SMS. Recent developments in extraction chromatography resins such as Eichrom R TRU and TEVA have resolved many of the analytical problems but drawbacks such as low recovery and spectral interferences still occasionally occur. Here, we report on the use of the new Eichrom R DGA resin in association with TEVA resin and high pressure microwave acid leaching for the sequential determination of plutonium and americium in environmental samples. The method results in average recoveries of 83 ± 15% for plutonium and 73 ± 22% for americium (n = 60), and a less than 10% deviation from reference values of four IAEA reference materials and three samples from intercomparisons exercises. The method is also suitable for measuring 239 Pu in water samples at the μBq/l level, if ICP-SMS is used for the measurement. (author)

  4. MITIGASI PELINDIAN NITRAT PADA TANAH INCEPTISOL MELALUI PEMANFAATAN BAHAN NITRAT INHIBITOR ALAMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Pramono

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitigation of Nitrate Leaching in Inceptisol Soil Through the Use of Natural Nitrate Inhibitor ABSTRAK Pelindian NO3- merupakan salah satu mekanisme kehilangan N dalam aktivitas pertanian, yang dapat berdampak terhadap pencemaran lingkungan. Tujuan dari penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui penggunaan bahan alami sebagai nitrat inhibitor terhadap pelindian nitrat pada tanah Inceptisol. Pada penelitian ini diuji tiga jenis bahan nitrat inhibitor (NI alami yang berasal dari; serbuk biji Mimba (SBM, serbuk kulit kayu bakau (SKKB, dan serbuk daun kopi (SDK,yang dikombinasikan dengan tiga taraf dosis NI, yaitu: 20 %, 30 % dan 40 % dari urea yang diberikan, dan ditambah satu perlakuan kontrol tanpa NI. Bahan nitrat inhibitor diberikan bersama urea pada permukaan tanah dalam pot percobaan yang telah dibasahi dengan air suling. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bahan NI yang berbeda memberikan respon terhadap penghambatan nitrifi kasi yang berbeda. Bahan NI yang berasal dari serbuk biji mimba memberikan tingkat penghambatan tertinggi sebesar (25,6 %, serbuk kulit kayu bakau sebesar (19,1 %, dan serbuk daun kopi sebesar 11,8 %. Bahan NI alami mampu menghambat nitrifi kasi melalui penghambatan pertumbuhan bakteri nitrifi kasi (pengoksida ammonium yang bersifat sementara pada kisaran 7-14 hari setelah aplikasi. Perlakuan berbagai bahan dan dosis NI mampu menekan pelindian nitrat rata-rata pada kisaran antara 56,6 sampai 62,8 % dan berbeda sangat nyata terhadap perlakuan kontrol tanpa NI. Bahan NI yang mampu menurunkan rata-rata pelindian nitrat pada pengamatan 14 hari setelah aplikasi tertinggi adalah SBM sebesar 74,15 %. Dosis optimal dua bahan NI terpilih yang menunjukkan kinerja penghambatan nitrifi kasi terbaik (SBM dan SKKB pada 7 hsa, masing-masing 18,30 % (R2 = 0,694 dan 21,67 % (R2=0.691 dari dosis urea yang diberikan. Kata kunci: Nitrifi kasi, nitrat inhibitor, pelindian nitrat ABSTRACT NO3 - leaching is one mechanism of N reduction in agricultural

  5. Density and electrical conductivity of molten salts. Comparative study of binary mixtures of alkali nitrates with silver nitrate and with thallium nitrate; Densite et conductibilite de sels fondus. Etude comparative des melanges binaires nitrates alcalins-nitrate d'argent et nitrates alcalins-nitrate de thallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brillant, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-10-01

    The choice of methods and the number of measurements made enable us to give results on the density and electrical conductivity of molten binary mixtures, alkali nitrate and silver nitrate, and alkali nitrate and thallium nitrate, in the form of equations. The deviations from linearity of the volume and the molar conductivity are determined by calculating the corresponding excess values whose variations are analyzed as a function of the Tobolsky parameter. The absence of any relationship in the sign of the entropy and the excess volume is justified. It is shown that the silver and thallium nitrates, in contrast to the thermodynamic properties, behave as the alkali nitrates in so far as the excess conductivity is concerned. This result is confirmed by the study of changes in the activation enthalpy for the partial molar conductivity; this study also shows the particular behaviour of lithium nitrate. (author) [French] Le choix des methodes et le nombre de mesures effectuees nous permettent de donner les resultats de densite et de conductibilite electrique des melanges fondus binaires nitrate alcalin-nitrate d'argent et nitrate alcalin-nitrate de thallium sous forme d'equations. Les ecarts a la linearite des isothermes de volume et de conductibilite molaire sont precises en calculant les grandeurs d'exces correspondantes dont les variations sont analysees en fonction du parametre de Tobolsky. Nous justifions l'absence de relation de signe entre l'entropie et le volume d'exces. Nous montrons que les nitrates d'argent et de thallium, vis-a-vis de la conductibilite d'exces, contrairement aux proprietes thermodynamiques, se conduisent comme les nitrates alcalins. Ce resultat est confirme par l'etude des variations des enthalpies d'activation de conductibilite partielle molaire qui met d'autre part en evidence le comportement particulier du nitrate de lithium. (auteur)

  6. Organic nitrates: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França-Silva, Maria S; Balarini, Camille M; Cruz, Josiane C; Khan, Barkat A; Rampelotto, Pabulo H; Braga, Valdir A

    2014-09-24

    Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most important vasodilator molecules produced by the endothelium. It has already been established that NO/cGMP signaling pathway deficiencies are involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of many cardiovascular diseases. In this context, the development of NO-releasing drugs for therapeutic use appears to be an effective alternative to replace the deficient endogenous NO and mimic the role of this molecule in the body. Organic nitrates represent the oldest class of NO donors that have been clinically used. Considering that tolerance can occur when these drugs are applied chronically, the search for new compounds of this class with lower tolerance potential is increasing. Here, we briefly discuss the mechanisms involved in nitrate tolerance and highlight some achievements from our group in the development of new organic nitrates and their preclinical application in cardiovascular disorders.

  7. [Can nitrates lead to indirect toxicity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, M

    2007-09-01

    For many years, nitrates have been used, at low dosages, as an additive in salted food. New laws have been promulgated to limit their concentration in water due to increased levels found in soils, rivers and even the aquifer. Although nitrate ions themselves have not toxic properties, bacterial reduction into nitrite ions (occurring even in aqueous medium) can lead to nitrous anhydride, which in turn generates nitrosonium ions. Nitrosium ions react with secondary amine to give nitrosamines, many of which are cancer-inducing agents at very low doses. Opinions on this toxicity are clear-cut and difficult to reconcile. In fact, increased levels are due, in a large part, to the use of nitrates as fertiliéers but also to bacterial transformation of human and animal nitrogenous wastes such as urea.

  8. Ammonium and nitrate tolerance in lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, Markus, E-mail: mhauck@gwdg.d [Department of Plant Ecology, Albrecht von Haller Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Goettingen, Untere Karspuele 2, 37073 Goettingen (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Since lichens lack roots and take up water, solutes and gases over the entire thallus surface, these organisms respond more sensitively to changes in atmospheric purity than vascular plants. After centuries where effects of sulphur dioxide and acidity were in the focus of research on atmospheric chemistry and lichens, recently the globally increased levels of ammonia and nitrate increasingly affect lichen vegetation and gave rise to intense research on the tolerance of lichens to nitrogen pollution. The present paper discusses the main findings on the uptake of ammonia and nitrate in the lichen symbiosis and to the tolerance of lichens to eutrophication. Ammonia and nitrate are both efficiently taken up under ambient conditions. The tolerance to high nitrogen levels depends, among others, on the capability of the photobiont to provide sufficient amounts of carbon skeletons for ammonia assimilation. Lowly productive lichens are apparently predisposed to be sensitive to excess nitrogen. - Eutrophication has become a global threat for lichen diversity.

  9. Understanding organic nitrates – a vein hope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark R; Wadsworth, Roger M

    2009-01-01

    The organic nitrate drugs, such as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN; nitroglycerin), are clinically effective in angina because of their dilator profile in veins and arteries. The exact mechanism of intracellular delivery of nitric oxide (NO), or another NO-containing species, from these compounds is not understood. However, mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (mtALDH) has recently been identified as an organic nitrate bioactivation enzyme. Nitrate tolerance, the loss of effect of organic nitrates over time, is caused by reduced bioactivation and/or generation of NO-scavenging oxygen-free radicals. In a recent issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology, Wenzl et al. show that guinea-pigs, deficient in ascorbate, also have impaired responsiveness to GTN, but nitrate tolerance was not due to ascorbate deficiency that exhibited divergent changes in mtALDH activity. Thus, the complex function of mtALDH appears to be the key to activation of GTN, the active NO species formed and the induction of tolerance that can limit clinical effectiveness of organic nitrate drugs. British Journal of Pharmacology (2009) 157, 565–567; doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00193.x This article is part of a themed section on Endothelium in Pharmacology. For a list of all articles in this section see the end of this paper, or visit: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/121548564/issueyear?year=2009 The paper by Wenzl et al. is available from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/122221718/PDFSTART PMID:19630835

  10. Transfer of plutonium and americium to grass vegetation as a function of radionuclide solid - solution portioning in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolik, G.; Ovsiannikova, S.; Ivanova, T.; Leinova, S.; Kimlenka, I.; Zakharenkov, V.; Zakharenkova, N.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of investigation is to determine the main parameters influencing the plutonium and americium migration in the soil plant system including concentration factor Cf and distribution coefficient K d . The C f factor characterising the ratio of radionuclide activity concentration in the plant specie (A p , Bq/kg) and root-inhabited layer of soil (A s , Bq/kg) has been used as a measure of biological availability of TUE. The K d coefficient estimating the ratio between radionuclide activity concentration in the equilibrium solid phase (A s.ph. ) and pore solution (A sol. , Bq/l) is considered as a measure of sorption ability of soil in respect to the radionuclide. The biological availability of 239,240 Pu and 241 Am for different grass species in various mineral and organic soils of natural and agrarian systems has been studied. The soils and grass vegetation were sampled in 1994 - 2001 in Bragin, Narovla, Khoiniki districts of Belarus (12 - 53 km from ChNPP). Since plant uptake depends primarily on radionuclide portion in the pore soil solution the proper solutions were separated from the soil samples of root-inhabited layer with the method of high-speed centrifugation. 239,240 Pu and 241 Am in the samples were determined radiochemically using alpha-spectrometer ALPHA-KING 676 A. Influence of composition of soil solution on the radionuclide soil plant transfer has been analysed. The interrelationships between the concentration factor (C f ), portion of radionuclide in the soil solution and coefficient K d have been considered. The results of investigations clearly demonstrated the dependence of TUE concentration factors for meadow sedge-herbaceous association of soil sorbing complex. As a rule, C f of americium is higher than that of plutonium. Differentiating of soils according to the C f value and the forecast of grass vegetation contamination by TUE in the different periods after catastrophe has been done. The levels of various soils contamination to receive

  11. Extraction of americium (III) by thermosensitive polymer gel copolymerized with acidic phosphorus compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Kenji; Nakano, Yoshio; Matsumura, Tatsuro

    2001-01-01

    A new gel-liquid extraction using a thermosensitive gel was proposed. The thermosensitive gel shows the conformational change of polymer network with temperature, which is known as the phase transition phenomena of gel. The extraction rate and equilibrium of Am(III) in an aqueous solution containing nitrate ion were measured batchwise by using a thermosensitive gel, N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) copolymerized with 2-methacryloyloxy- ethylacidphosphate (MR). The effects of the conformational change of polymer network on the extraction rate and equilibrium were discussed. The distribution ratio of Am(III) showed a large value at higher than LCST (low critical solution temperature; 34degC) and was decreased by the phase transition of gel from shrinking to swelling with decreasing temperature. The extraction of Am(III) in the aqueous solution and the release of Am(III) extracted in the gel were repeated stably by the temperature swing operation between 40 and 3degC. The extraction mechanism of Am(III) was described simply as Am 3+ + 3R - OH=(R-O) 3 Am + 3H + (R-OH: MR). The equilibrium constant at the shrinking state (40degC) was more than 3 times of that at swelling state (3degC). The gel-phase diffusivity of Eu(III) used as a substitute of Am(III) was evaluated as the order of 10 -12 m 2 /s at either of 3 or 40degC, which was similar to those for practical extraction chromatographic resins. The temperature-response of gel for the extraction of Eu(III) was very excellent without delay even for the rapid temperature change at 10degC/min. These results suggest that the extraction and release of Am(III) in an aqueous solution can be controlled by the conformational change of polymer network of thermosensitive gel. (author)

  12. Factors controlling nitrate cracking of mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Nitrite and hydroxide ions inhibit the growth of nitrate stress corrosion cracks in mild steel. Crack growth measurements showed that sufficient concentrations of nitrite and hydroxide ions can prevent crack growth; however, insufficient concentrations of these ions did not influence the Stage II growth rate or the threshold stress intensity, but extended the initiation time. Stage III growth was discontinuous. Oxide formed in the grain boundaries ahead of the crack tip and oxide dissolution (Stage II) and fracture (Stage III) are the proposed mechanisms of nitrate stress corrosion crack growth

  13. Preparation of high-purity cerium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, Daniela Moraes; Silva Queiroz, Carlos Alberto da; Santos Mucillo, Eliana Navarro dos

    1995-01-01

    The preparation of high-purity cerium nitrate has been carried out Cerium oxide has been prepared by fractioned precipitation and ionic exchange techniques, using a concentrate with approximately 85% of cerium oxide from NUCLEMON as raw material. Five sequential ion-exchange columns with a retention capacity of 170 g each have been used. The ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used as eluent. The cerium content has been determined by gravimetry and iodometry techniques. The resulting cerium oxide has a purity > 99%. This material was transformed in cerium nitrate to be used as precursor for the preparation of Zirconia-ceria ceramics by the coprecipitation technique. (author)

  14. Methylhydrazinium nitrate. [rocket plume deposit chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, E. A.; Moran, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Methylhydrazinium nitrate was synthesized by the reaction of dilute nitric acid with methylhydrazine in water and in methanol. The white needles formed are extremely hygroscopic and melt at 37.5-40.5 C. The IR spectrum differs from that reported elsewhere. The mass spectrum exhibited no parent peak at 109 m/z, and thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the compound decomposed slowly at 63-103 C to give ammonium and methylammonium nitrate. The density is near 1.55 g/cu cm.

  15. Density and electrical conductivity of molten salts. Comparative study of binary mixtures of alkali nitrates with silver nitrate and with thallium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillant, S.

    1968-01-01

    The choice of methods and the number of measurements made enable us to give results on the density and electrical conductivity of molten binary mixtures, alkali nitrate and silver nitrate, and alkali nitrate and thallium nitrate, in the form of equations. The deviations from linearity of the volume and the molar conductivity are determined by calculating the corresponding excess values whose variations are analyzed as a function of the Tobolsky parameter. The absence of any relationship in the sign of the entropy and the excess volume is justified. It is shown that the silver and thallium nitrates, in contrast to the thermodynamic properties, behave as the alkali nitrates in so far as the excess conductivity is concerned. This result is confirmed by the study of changes in the activation enthalpy for the partial molar conductivity; this study also shows the particular behaviour of lithium nitrate. (author) [fr

  16. Determination of the total nitrate content of thorium nitrate solution with a selective electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirkner, F.M.

    1979-01-01

    The nitrate content of thorium nitrate solutions is determined with a liquid membrane nitrate selective electrode utilizing the known addition method in 0.1 M potassium fluoride medium as ionic strength adjustor. It is studied the influence of pH and the presence of chloride, sulphate, phosphate, meta-silicate, thorium, rare earths, iron, titanium, uranium and zirconium at the same concentrations as for the aqueous feed solutions in the thorium purification process. The method is tested in synthetic samples and in samples proceeding from nitric dissolutions of thorium hidroxide and thorium oxicarbonate utilized as thorium concentrates to be purified [pt

  17. COGEMA Experience in Uranous Nitrate Preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tison, E.; Bretault, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    Separation and purification of plutonium by PUREX process is based on a sequence of extraction and back extraction which requires reducing plutonium Pu IV (extractable form) into Pu III (inextractable form) Different reducers can be used to reduce Pu IV into Pu III. Early plants such as that for Magnox fuel at Sellafield used ferrous sulfamate while UP 1 at Marcoule used uranous sulfamate. These reducers are efficient and easy to prepare but generates ferric and/or sulphate ions and so complicates management of the wastes from the plutonium purification cycle. Recent plants such as UP3 and UP2 800 at La Hague, THORP at Sellafield, and RRP at Rokkasho Mura (currently under tests) use uranous nitrate (U IV) stabilized by hydrazinium nitrate (N 2 H 5 NO 3 ) and hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN). In the French plants, uranous nitrate is used in U-Pu separation and alpha barrier and HAN is used in Pu purification. Compared to sulfamate, U IV does not generate extraneous chemical species and uranyl nitrate (U VI) generated by reducing Pu IV follows the main uranium stream. More over uranous nitrate is prepared from reprocessed purified uranyl nitrate taken at the outlet of the reprocessing plant. Hydrazine and HAN offer the advantage to be salt-free reagents. Uranous nitrate can be generated either by electrolysis or by catalytic hydrogenation process. Electrolytic process has been implemented in early plant UP 1 at Marcoule (when changing reducer from uranous sulfamate to uranous nitrate) and was used again in UP2 plant at La Hague. However, the electrolytic process presented several disadvantages such as a low conversion rate and problems associated with the use of mercury. Electrolysis cells with no mercury were developed for the Eurochemic plant in Belgium and then implemented in the first Japanese reprocessing plant in Tokai-Mura. But finally, in 1975, the electrolytic process was abandoned in favor of the catalytic hydrogenation process developed at La Hague. The

  18. Evaluation of synthetic water-soluble metal-binding polymers with ultrafiltration for selective concentration of americium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.F.; Gibson, R.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Jones, M.M.; Lu, M.T.; Robison, T.W.; Schroeder, N.C.; Stalnaker, N.

    1997-01-01

    Routine counting methods and ICP-MS are unable to directly measure the new US Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory level for discharge waters containing alpha-emitting radionuclides of 30 pCi/L total alpha or the 0.05 pCi/L regulatory level for Pu or Am activity required for surface waters at the Rocky Flats site by the State of Colorado. This inability indicates the need to develop rapid, reliable, and robust analytical techniques for measuring actinide metal ions, particularly americium and plutonium. Selective separation or preconcentration techniques would aid in this effort. Water-soluble metal-binding polymers in combination with ultrafiltration are shown to be an effective method for selectively removing dilute actinide ions from acidic solutions of high ionic strength. The actinide-binding properties of commercially available water-soluble polymers and several polymers which have been reported in the literature were evaluated. The functional groups incorporated in the polymers were pyrrolidone, amine, oxime, and carboxylic, phosphonic, or sulfonic acid. The polymer containing phosphonic acid groups gave the best results with high distribution coefficients and concentration factors for 241 Am(III) and 238 Pu(III)/(IV) at pH 4 to 6 and ionic strengths of 0.1 to 4

  19. The distribution and remobilisation of plutonium and americium in estuaries of the eastern Irish Sea: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toole, J.

    1993-01-01

    The plutonium and americium components in the authorised discharges from BNFL Sellafield are rapidly removed from Irish Sea seawater onto the particulate phase. These actinides tend to be concentrated in fine sediment deposits on the Irish Sea bed and in estuaries where fine sediment accumulates. This paper focuses on these estuarine areas and brings together the available data on the levels and distributions of Pu and Am within the estuarine sediments. The results from field and laboratory experiments which have been undertaken in order to determine the degree of Pu and Am remobilisation, and the mechanism responsible, are also reviewed. These sediment-associated actinides may undergo both chemical and physical remobilisation, leading to increased dissolved concentrations in low-salinity waters and to apparent losses from the estuary on the sediment phase under certain conditions. Saltmarsh sediments are demonstrated to be the most important reservoirs for Pu and Am. The radiological significance of the levels of Pu and Am found in these and in other sediments is summarised, by comparison with GDLs. The appropriateness of GDLs for assessing the radiological significance of Pu and Am in these saltmarsh sediments is discussed. A more site-specific assessment methodology is recommended. (author)

  20. Characteristics of plutonium and americium contamination at the former U.K. atomic weapons test ranges at Maralinga and Emu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.A.; Cooper, M.B.; Lokan, K.H.; Wilks, M.J.; Williams, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    Physico-chemical studies on environmental plutonium are described, which provide data integral to an assessment of dose for the inhalation of artificial actinides by Australian Aborigines living a semi-traditional lifestyle at Maralinga and Emu, sites of U.K. atomic weapons tests between 1953 and 1963. The most significant area, from a radiological perspective, is the area contaminated by plutonium in a series of ''one point'' safety trials in which large quantities of plutonium were dispersed explosively at a location known as Taranaki. The activity distribution of plutonium and americium with particle size is quite different from the mass distribution, as a considerably higher proportion of the activity is contained in the finer (inhalable) fraction than of the mass. Except in areas which were disturbed through ploughing during a cleanup in 1967, most the activity remains in the top 1 cm of the surface. Much of the activity is in particulate form, even at distances > 20 km from the firing sites, and discrete particles have been located even at distances beyond 100 km. Data are presented which permit the assessment of annual committed doses through the inhalation pathway, for Aborigines living a semi-traditional lifestyle in the areas affected by the Taranaki firings in particular. (author)

  1. Characterization of a sealed Americium-Beryllium (AmBe) source by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommers, J.; Jimenez, M.; Adamic, M.; Giglio, J.; Carney, K.

    2009-01-01

    Two Americium-Beryllium neutron sources were dismantled, sampled (sub-sampled) and analyzed via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Characteristics such as 'age' since purification, actinide content, trace metal content and inter and intra source composition were determined. The 'age' since purification of the two sources was determined to be 25.0 and 25.4 years, respectively. The systematic uncertainties in the 'age' determination were ±4% 2σ. The amount and isotopic composition of U and Pu varied substantially between the sub-samples of Source 2 (n = 8). This may be due to the physical means of sub-sampling or the way the source was manufactured. Source 1 was much more consistent in terms of content and isotopic composition (n = 3 sub-samples). The Be-Am ratio varied greatly between the two sources. Source 1 had an Am-Be ratio of 6.3 ± 52% (1σ). Source 2 had an Am-Be ratio of 9.81 ± 3.5% (1σ). In addition, the trace element content between the samples varied greatly. Significant differences were determined between Sources 1 and 2 for Sc, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Ba and W. (author)

  2. Use of radioanalytical methods for determination of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldo, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    Activated charcoal is a common type of radioactive waste that contains high concentrations of fission and activation products. The management of this waste includes its characterization aiming the determination and quantification of the specific radionuclides including those known as Difficult-to-Measure Radionuclides (RDM). The analysis of the RDM's generally involves complex radiochemical analysis for purification and separation of the radionuclides, which are expensive and time-consuming. The objective of this work was to define a methodology for sequential analysis of the isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium present in a type of radioactive waste, evaluating chemical yield, analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost. Three methodologies were compared and validated that employ ion exchange (TI + EC), extraction chromatography (EC) and extraction with polymers (ECP). The waste chosen was the activated charcoal from the purification system of primary circuit water cooling the reactor IEA-R1. The charcoal samples were dissolved by acid digestion followed by purification and separation of isotopes with ion exchange resins, extraction and chromatographic extraction polymers. Isotopes were analyzed on an alpha spectrometer, equipped with surface barrier detectors. The chemical yields were satisfactory for the methods TI + EC and EC. ECP method was comparable with those methods only for uranium. Statistical analysis as well the analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost revealed that EC method is the most effective for identifying and quantifying U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm present in charcoal. (author)

  3. Vertical transport of particulate-associated plutonium and americium in the upper water column of the Northeast Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Ballestra, S.; La Rosa, J.; Fukai, R.

    1983-01-01

    Concentrations of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) were determined in seawater, suspended particulate matter, sediment trap samples, and biogenic material collected at the VERTEX I site in the North Pacific off central California. From a vertical profile taken over the upper 1500 m, the presence of sub-surface maxima of sup(239+240)Pu and 241 Am were identified between 100 to 750 m and 250 to 750 m, respectively. A large fraction (32%) of the filterable sup(239+240)Pu in surface waters was associated with cells during a phytoplankton bloom; Pu:Am activity ratios in surface water and the suspended particles indicated that Pu was concentrated by the cells to a greater degree than Am. However, similar measurements beneath the surface layer showed an overall enrichment of Am over Pu on fine suspended particles with depth. Freshly produced zooplankton fecal pellets and large, fast sinking particles collected in PITS contained relatively high concentrations of Pu and Am. Both transuranic concentrations in trapped particles and transuranic flux tended to increase with depth down to 750 m, suggesting that their scavenging is in the upper water column. Am appeared to be scavenged by sinking biogenic particles to a greater extent than Pu. The results are discussed. (author)

  4. Denitration of High Nitrate Salts Using Reductants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HD Smith; EO Jones; AJ Schmidt; AH Zacher; MD Brown; MR Elmore; SR Gano

    1999-05-03

    This report describes work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in conjunction with Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), to remove nitrates in simulated low-activity waste (LAW). The major objective of this work was to provide data for identifying and demonstrating a technically viable and cost-effective approach to condition LAW for immobilization (grout).

  5. The Path to Nitrate Salt Disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-16

    The topic is presented in a series of slides arranged according to the following outline: LANL nitrate salt incident as thermal runaway (thermally sensitive surrogates, full-scale tests), temperature control for processing, treatment options and down selection, assessment of engineering options, anticipated control set for treatment, and summary of the overall steps for RNS.

  6. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time. \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207.2...

  7. Nitrates, Nitrites, and Health. Bulletin 750.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Barbara S.; Sloan, Kenneth W.

    This review is intended to assess available literature in order to define the range of nitrate/nitrite effects on animals. Though the literature deals primarily with livestock and experimental animals, much of the contemporary research is concerned with human nitrite intoxication. Thus, the effects on man are discussed where appropriate. Some of…

  8. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribut......This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis...... of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first...... two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded...

  9. Revitalising Silver Nitrate for Caries Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry Shiqian Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nitrate has been adopted for medical use as a disinfectant for eye disease and burned wounds. In dentistry, it is an active ingredient of Howe’s solution used to prevent and arrest dental caries. While medical use of silver nitrate as a disinfectant became subsidiary with the discovery of antibiotics, its use in caries treatment also diminished with the use of fluoride in caries prevention. Since then, fluoride agents, particularly sodium fluoride, have gained popularity in caries prevention. However, caries is an infection caused by cariogenic bacteria, which demineralise enamel and dentine. Caries can progress and cause pulpal infection, but its progression can be halted through remineralisation. Sodium fluoride promotes remineralisation and silver nitrate has a profound antimicrobial effect. Hence, silver nitrate solution has been reintroduced for use with sodium fluoride varnish to arrest caries as a medical model strategy of caries management. Although the treatment permanently stains caries lesions black, this treatment protocol is simple, painless, non-invasive, and low-cost. It is well accepted by many clinicians and patients and therefore appears to be a promising strategy for caries control, particularly for young children, the elderly, and patients with severe caries risk or special needs.

  10. Modular Regiospecific Synthesis of Nitrated Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hock, Katharina J.; Grimmer, Jennifer; Göbel, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous nitrated fatty acids are an important class of signaling molecules. Herein a modular route for the efficient and regiospecific preparation of nitrooleic acids as well as various analogues is described. The approach is based on a simple set of alkyl halides as common building blocks...

  11. Spectrophotometric Determination of Nitrate and Phosphate Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve drinking water samples from boreholes were collected from various sampling sites around the vicinity of Kura irrigated farmlands using polythene plastic containers and were analysed for the nitrate and phosphate levels using uV – visible spectrophotometer. From the results, it was found that all the samples had ...

  12. Thermal characterization of aminium nitrate nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Kent; Westerlund, Jonathan; Andersson, Patrik U; Nielsen, Claus; D'Anna, Barbara; Hallquist, Mattias

    2011-10-27

    Amines are widely used and originate from both anthropogenic and natural sources. Recently, there is, in addition, a raised concern about emissions of small amines formed as degradation products of the more complex amines used in CO(2) capture and storage systems. Amines are bases and can readily contribute to aerosol mass and number concentration via acid-base reactions but are also subject to gas phase oxidation forming secondary organic aerosols. To provide more insight into the atmospheric fate of the amines, this paper addresses the volatility properties of aminium nitrates suggested to be produced in the atmosphere from acid-base reactions of amines with nitric acid. The enthalpy of vaporization has been determined for the aminium nitrates of mono-, di-, trimethylamine, ethylamine, and monoethanolamine. The enthalpy of vaporization was determined from volatility measurements of laboratory generated aerosol nanoparticles using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer set up. The determined enthalpy of vaporization for aminium nitrates range from 54 up to 74 kJ mol(-1), and the calculated vapor pressures at 298 K are around 10(-4) Pa. These values indicate that aminium nitrates can take part in gas-to-particle partitioning at ambient conditions and have the potential to nucleate under high NO(x) conditions, e.g., in combustion plumes.

  13. Production of thorium nitrate from uranothorianite ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, M.; Sartorius, R.; Sousseuer, Y.

    1959-01-01

    The separation of thorium and uranium from uranothorianite ores, either by precipitation or solvent-extraction methods, are discussed, and an industrial process for the manufacture of thorium nitrate is described. Reprint of a paper published in 'Progress in Nuclear Energy' Series III, Vol. 2 - Process Chemistry, 1959, p. 68-76 [fr

  14. Detonation characteristics of ammonium nitrate products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, R.J.A.; Hengel, E.I.V. van den; Steen, A.C. van der

    2006-01-01

    The detonation properties of ammonium nitrate (AN) products depend on many factors and are therefore, despite the large amount of information on this topic, difficult to assess. In order to further improve the understanding of the safety properties of AN, the European Fertilizer Manufacturers

  15. Relationship between nitrate reductase and nitrate uptake in phytoplankton in the Peru upwelling region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasco, D.; MacIsaac, J.J.; Packard, T.T.; Dugdale, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Nitrate reductase (NR) activity and 15 NO 3 - uptake in phytoplankton were compared under different environmental conditions on two cruises in the upwelling region off Peru. The NR activity and NO 3 - uptake rates responded differently to light and nutrients and the differences led to variations in the uptake: reductase ratio. Analysis of these variations suggests that the re-equilibration time of the two processes in response to environmental perturbation is an important source of variability. The nitrate uptake system responds faster than the nitrate reductase system. Considering these differences in response time the basic differences in the two processes, and the differences in their measurement, the authors conclude that the Nr activity measures the current nitrate-reducing potential, which reflects NO 3 - assimilation before the sampling time, while 15 NO 3 - uptake measures NO 3 - assimilation in the 6-h period following sampling

  16. Evidence for a plasma-membrane-bound nitrate reductase involved in nitrate uptake of Chlorella sorokiniana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischner, R.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Anti-nitrate-reductase (NR) immunoglobulin-G (IgG) fragments inhibited nitrate uptake into Chlorella cells but had no affect on nitrate uptake. Intact anti-NR serum and preimmune IgG fragments had no affect on nitrate uptake. Membrane-associated NR was detected in plasma-membrane (PM) fractions isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning. The PM-associated NR was not removed by sonicating PM vesicles in 500 mM NaCl and 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and represented up to 0.8% of the total Chlorella NR activity. The PM NR was solubilized by Triton X-100 and inactivated by Chlorella NR antiserum. Plasma-membrane NR was present in ammonium-grown Chlorella cells that completely lacked soluble NR activity. The subunit sizes of the PM and soluble NRs were 60 and 95 kDa, respectively, as determined by sodium-dodecyl-sulfate electrophoresis and western blotting.

  17. Nitrates in surface waters, inputs and seasonality: Phase 2

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, H.; Clarke, R.T.; Smith, S.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in management practices and agricultural productivity over the past twenty years have lead to nitrate pollution and eutrophication of lakes and rivers. Information on nitrate concentrations and discharge has been collected on the River Frome at East Stoke since 1965, using the same analytical nitrate method so that the results are comparable. These records of weekly spot values of nitrate concentration and daily mean discharges have been analysed for trends and seasonal patterns in bo...

  18. Identification of nitrate sources and discharge-depending nitrate dynamics in a mesoscale catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Christin; Strachauer, Ulrike; Brauns, Mario; Musolff, Andreas; Kunz, Julia Vanessa; Brase, Lisa; Tarasova, Larisa; Merz, Ralf; Knöller, Kay

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades, nitrate concentrations in surface and groundwater have increased due to land use change and accompanying application of fertilizer in agriculture as well as increased atmospheric deposition. To mitigate nutrient impacts on downstream aquatic ecosystems, it is important to quantify potential nitrate sources, instream nitrate processing and its controls in a river system. The objective of this project is to characterize and quantify (regional) scale dynamics and trends in water and nitrogen fluxes of the entire Holtemme river catchment in central Germany making use of isotopic fingerprinting methods. Here we compare two key date sampling campaigns in 2014 and 2015, with spatially highly resolved measurements of discharge at 23 sampling locations including 11 major tributaries and 12 locations at the main river. Additionally, we have data from continuous runoff measurements at 10 locations operated by the local water authorities. Two waste water treatment plants contribute nitrogen to the Holtemme stream. This contribution impacts nitrate loads and nitrate isotopic signatures depending on the prevailing hydrological conditions. Nitrogen isotopic signatures in the catchment are mainly controlled by different sources (nitrified soil nitrogen in the headwater and manure/ effluents from WWTPs in the lowlands) and increase with raising nitrate concentrations along the main river. Nitrate loads at the outlet of the catchment are extremely different between both sampling campaigns (2014: NO3- = 97 t a-1, 2015: NO3- = 5 t a-1) which is associated with various runoff (2014: 0.8 m3 s-1, 2015: 0.2 m3 s-1). In 2015, the inflow from WWTP's raises the NO3- loads and enriches δ18O-NO3 values. Generally, oxygen isotope signatures from nitrate are more variable and are controlled by biogeochemical processes in concert with the oxygen isotopic composition of the ambient water. Elevated δ18O-NO3 in 2015 are most likely due to higher temperatures and lower

  19. Electrochemical processing of nitrate waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genders, D.; Weinberg, N.; Hartsough, D.

    1992-01-01

    The second phase of research performed at The Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. has demonstrated the successful removal of nitrite and nitrate from a synthetic effluent stream via a direct electrochemical reduction at a cathode. It was shown that direct reduction occurs at good current efficiencies in 1,000 hour studies. The membrane separation process is not readily achievable for the removal of nitrites and nitrates due to poor current efficiencies and membrane stability problems. A direct reduction process was studied at various cathode materials in a flow cell using the complete synthetic mix. Lead was found to be the cathode material of choice, displaying good current efficiencies and stability in short and long term tests under conditions of high temperature and high current density. Several anode materials were studied in both undivided and divided cell configurations. A divided cell configuration was preferable because it would prevent re-oxidation of nitrite by the anode. The technical objective of eliminating electrode fouling and solids formation was achieved although anode materials which had demonstrated good stability in short term divided cell tests corroded in 1,000 hour experiments. The cause for corrosion is thought to be F - ions from the synthetic mix migrating across the cation exchange membrane and forming HF in the acid anolyte. Other possibilities for anode materials were explored. A membrane separation process was investigated which employs an anion and cation exchange membrane to remove nitrite and nitrate, recovering caustic and nitric acid. Present research has shown poor current efficiencies for nitrite and nitrate transport across the anion exchange membrane due to co-migration of hydroxide anions. Precipitates form within the anion exchange membranes which would eventually result in the failure of the membranes. Electrochemical processing offers a highly promising and viable method for the treatment of nitrate waste solutions

  20. Evaluation of Nitrate Transport in Clay Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Seyedian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available  Background and purpose: With the increase in world population and the need to provide food, farmers are now using a variety of chemical fertilizers, organic pesticides have turned. Indiscriminate use of these inputs without considering its side effects, both environmental problems and brings in terms of human health. Among these, organic fertilizers contain soluble compounds such as nitrate. These compounds through precipitation or irrigation of the soil solution, groundwater and surface water resources are. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of nitrate transport in clay and simulation software using HYDRUS2D. Methods: In order to perform it, 5 different height of soil column 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 cm selected. In thicknesses of 20, 40, 60 and 80 cm respectively output levels after a period of 6, 12, 18 and 22 hours to input the concentration of nitrate (50 mg/lit is. In thicknesses of 20, 40, 60 and 80 cm, respectively, after the time of 5/6, 5/12, 21, and 25-hour concentration of 50 mg/lit is output. In thickness 20, 40, 60 and 80cm, outlet concentration after 6, 12, 18 and 22 minutes inlet concentration (50mg/lit. Results: The result showed that Hydrus software ability of simulates nitrate movement in soil and result of Hydrus software and laboratory data near. Conclusions: With increasing soil thickness difference HYDRUS2D results and experimental data more and more time to transfer nitrate were spent with increasing thickness. 

  1. Amperometric nitrate biosensor based on Carbon nanotube/Polypyrrole/Nitrate reductase biofilm electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Faruk; Korkut Ozoner, Seyda; Ergenekon, Pinar; Erhan, Elif, E-mail: e.erhan@gyte.edu.tr

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the construction and characterization of an amperometric nitrate biosensor based on the Polypyrrole (PPy)/Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) film. Nitrate reductase (NR) was both entrapped into the growing PPy film and chemically immobilized via the carboxyl groups of CNTs to the CNT/PPy film electrode. The optimum amperometric response for nitrate was obtained in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS), pH 7.5 including 0.1 M lithium chloride and 7 mM potassium ferricyanide with an applied potential of 0.13 V (vs. Ag/AgCl, 3 M NaCl). Sensitivity was found to be 300 nA/mM in a linear range of 0.44-1.45 mM with a regression coefficient of 0.97. The biosensor response showed a higher linear range in comparison to standard nitrate analysis methods which were tested in this study and NADH based nitrate biosensors. A minimum detectable concentration of 0.17 mM (S/N = 3) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.4% (n = 7) was obtained for the biosensor. Phenol and glucose inhibit the electrochemical reaction strictly at a concentration of 1 {mu}g/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. The biosensor response retained 70% of its initial response over 10 day usage period when used everyday. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer K{sub 3}Fe(CN){sub 6} has been used for the first time as mediator for nitrate reductase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Better performance was obtained in comparison to other nitrate biosensor studies operated with various mediators. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical parameters were better than standard nitrate analysis methods.

  2. Amperometric nitrate biosensor based on Carbon nanotube/Polypyrrole/Nitrate reductase biofilm electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, Faruk; Korkut Ozoner, Seyda; Ergenekon, Pinar; Erhan, Elif

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the construction and characterization of an amperometric nitrate biosensor based on the Polypyrrole (PPy)/Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) film. Nitrate reductase (NR) was both entrapped into the growing PPy film and chemically immobilized via the carboxyl groups of CNTs to the CNT/PPy film electrode. The optimum amperometric response for nitrate was obtained in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS), pH 7.5 including 0.1 M lithium chloride and 7 mM potassium ferricyanide with an applied potential of 0.13 V (vs. Ag/AgCl, 3 M NaCl). Sensitivity was found to be 300 nA/mM in a linear range of 0.44–1.45 mM with a regression coefficient of 0.97. The biosensor response showed a higher linear range in comparison to standard nitrate analysis methods which were tested in this study and NADH based nitrate biosensors. A minimum detectable concentration of 0.17 mM (S/N = 3) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.4% (n = 7) was obtained for the biosensor. Phenol and glucose inhibit the electrochemical reaction strictly at a concentration of 1 μg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. The biosensor response retained 70% of its initial response over 10 day usage period when used everyday. - Highlights: ► K 3 Fe(CN) 6 has been used for the first time as mediator for nitrate reductase. ► Better performance was obtained in comparison to other nitrate biosensor studies operated with various mediators. ► Analytical parameters were better than standard nitrate analysis methods.

  3. Nitrate removal from high strength nitrate-bearing wastes in granular sludge sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Mohan, Tulasi Venkata; Renu, Kadali; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda Venkata; Satya Sai, Pedapati Murali; Venugopalan, Vayalam Purath

    2016-02-01

    A 6-L sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated for development of granular sludge capable of denitrification of high strength nitrates. Complete and stable denitrification of up to 5420 mg L(-1) nitrate-N (2710 mg L(-1) nitrate-N in reactor) was achieved by feeding simulated nitrate waste at a C/N ratio of 3. Compact and dense denitrifying granular sludge with relatively stable microbial community was developed during reactor operation. Accumulation of large amounts of nitrite due to incomplete denitrification occurred when the SBR was fed with 5420 mg L(-1) NO3-N at a C/N ratio of 2. Complete denitrification could not be achieved at this C/N ratio, even after one week of reactor operation as the nitrite levels continued to accumulate. In order to improve denitrification performance, the reactor was fed with nitrate concentrations of 1354 mg L(-1), while keeping C/N ratio at 2. Subsequently, nitrate concentration in the feed was increased in a step-wise manner to establish complete denitrification of 5420 mg L(-1) NO3-N at a C/N ratio of 2. The results show that substrate concentration plays an important role in denitrification of high strength nitrate by influencing nitrite accumulation. Complete denitrification of high strength nitrates can be achieved at lower substrate concentrations, by an appropriate acclimatization strategy. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The contribution of bnnrt1 and bnnrt2 to nitrate accumulation varied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... stronger ability to assimilate absorbed nitrate in SYM than the low accumulator, HGQGC. Key words: ... studied the mechanism of nitrate accumulation in plant ..... Elevated carbon dioxide increases nitrate uptake and nitrate.

  5. Nitrate removal by electro-bioremediation technology in Korean soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jeong-Hee; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Lee, Hyun-Goo; Ha, Tae-Hyun; Bae, Jeong-Hyo

    2009-01-01

    The nitrate concentration of surface has become a serious concern in agricultural industry through out the world. In the present study, nitrate was removed in the soil by employing electro-bioremediation, a hybrid technology of bioremediation and electrokinetics. The abundance of Bacillus spp. as nitrate reducing bacteria were isolated and identified from the soil sample collected from a greenhouse at Jinju City of Gyengsangnamdo, South Korea. The nitrate reducing bacterial species were identified by 16 s RNA sequencing technique. The efficiency of bacterial isolates on nitrate removal in broth was tested. The experiment was conducted in an electrokinetic (EK) cell by applying 20 V across the electrodes. The nitrate reducing bacteria (Bacillus spp.) were inoculated in the soil for nitrate removal process by the addition of necessary nutrient. The influence of nitrate reducers on electrokinetic process was also studied. The concentration of nitrate at anodic area of soil was higher when compared to cathode in electrokinetic system, while adding bacteria in EK (EK + bio) system, the nitrate concentration was almost nil in all the area of soil. The bacteria supplies electron from organic degradation (humic substances) and enhances NO 3 - reduction (denitrification). Experimental results showed that the electro-bio kinetic process viz. electroosmosis and physiological activity of bacteria reduced nitrate in soil environment effectively. Involvement of Bacillus spp. on nitrification was controlled by electrokinetics at cathode area by reduction of ammonium ions to nitrogen gas. The excellence of the combined electro-bio kinetics technology on nitrate removal is discussed.

  6. 21 CFR 176.320 - Sodium nitrate-urea complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate-urea complex. 176.320 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.320 Sodium nitrate-urea complex. Sodium nitrate-urea complex may be safely used as a component of articles intended for use in producing...

  7. Inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica by nitrite and nitrate in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Giusti, M; de Vito, E

    1992-01-01

    The antimicrobial effects of sodium nitrite and sodium and potassium nitrate against Yersinia enterocolitica were investigated in solution and in treated pork meat. Potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate showed only feeble antimicrobial activity in cultures; no antimicrobial activity was detected with sodium nitrite. Conversely, all three salts displayed apparent antimicrobial activity in pork meat, possibly due to selective effects on competitive flora.

  8. 9 CFR 319.2 - Products and nitrates and nitrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products and nitrates and nitrites... and nitrates and nitrites. Any product, such as frankfurters and corned beef, for which there is a standard in this part and to which nitrate or nitrite is permitted or required to be added, may be prepared...

  9. A nitrate sensitive planar optode; performance and interferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse; Dechesne, Arnaud; Smets, Barth F.

    2015-01-01

    We present a newly developed nitrate sensitive planar optode. It exhibits a linear response to nitrate from 1 to 50 mM at pH 8.0, a fast response time below 10 s and a good lifetime, allowing for fast two dimensional nitrate measurements over long periods of time. Interference from nitrite...

  10. Nitrate ammonification in mangrove soils: A hidden source of nitrite?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balk, M.; Laverman, A.M.; Keuskamp, J.A.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate reduction is considered to be a minor microbial pathway in the oxidation of mangrove-derived organic matter due to a limited supply of nitrate in mangrove soils. At a limited availability of this electron acceptor compared to the supply of degradable carbon, nitrate ammonification is thought

  11. Extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate from aqueous nitric acid solutions with CMPO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, B.B.

    1995-08-01

    DOE sponsored development of the transuranium extraction (TRUEX) process for removing actinides from radioactive wastes. The solvent is a mixture of CMPO and TBP. Since the extraction characteristics of CMPO are not as well understood as those of TBP, the extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate with CMPO (dissolved in n-dodecane) were studied. Results indicate that CMPO extracts nitric acid with a 1:1 stoichiometry; equilibrium constant is 2. 660{plus_minus}0.092 at 25 C, and extraction enthalpy is -5. 46{plus_minus}0.46 kcal/mol. Slope analysis indicates that uranyl nitrate extracts with a mixed equilibria of 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries in nearly equal proportion. Equil. constant of the 2: 1 extraction was 1.213 {times} 10{sup 6}{plus_minus}3.56 {times} 10{sup 4} at 25 C; reaction enthalpy was -9.610{plus_minus}0.594 kcal/mol. Nitration complexation constant is 8.412{plus_minus}0.579, with an enthalpy of -10.72{plus_minus}1.87 kcal/mol. Bismuth nitrate also extracts with a mixed equilibria of (perhaps) 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries. A 2:1 extraction equilibrium and a nitrate complexation adequately model the data. Kinetics and enthalpies were also measured.

  12. Extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate from aqueous nitric acid solutions with CMPO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.B.

    1995-08-01

    DOE sponsored development of the transuranium extraction (TRUEX) process for removing actinides from radioactive wastes. The solvent is a mixture of CMPO and TBP. Since the extraction characteristics of CMPO are not as well understood as those of TBP, the extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate with CMPO (dissolved in n-dodecane) were studied. Results indicate that CMPO extracts nitric acid with a 1:1 stoichiometry; equilibrium constant is 2. 660±0.092 at 25 C, and extraction enthalpy is -5. 46±0.46 kcal/mol. Slope analysis indicates that uranyl nitrate extracts with a mixed equilibria of 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries in nearly equal proportion. Equil. constant of the 2: 1 extraction was 1.213 x 10 6 ±3.56 x 10 4 at 25 C; reaction enthalpy was -9.610±0.594 kcal/mol. Nitration complexation constant is 8.412±0.579, with an enthalpy of -10.72±1.87 kcal/mol. Bismuth nitrate also extracts with a mixed equilibria of (perhaps) 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries. A 2:1 extraction equilibrium and a nitrate complexation adequately model the data. Kinetics and enthalpies were also measured

  13. The nitrate time bomb: a numerical way to investigate nitrate storage and lag time in the unsaturated zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Butcher, A S; Stuart, M E; Gooddy, D C; Bloomfield, J P

    2013-10-01

    Nitrate pollution in groundwater, which is mainly from agricultural activities, remains an international problem. It threatens the environment, economics and human health. There is a rising trend in nitrate concentrations in many UK groundwater bodies. Research has shown it can take decades for leached nitrate from the soil to discharge into groundwater and surface water due to the 'store' of nitrate and its potentially long travel time in the unsaturated and saturated zones. However, this time lag is rarely considered in current water nitrate management and policy development. The aim of this study was to develop a catchment-scale integrated numerical method to investigate the nitrate lag time in the groundwater system, and the Eden Valley, UK, was selected as a case study area. The method involves three models, namely the nitrate time bomb-a process-based model to simulate the nitrate transport in the unsaturated zone (USZ), GISGroundwater--a GISGroundwater flow model, and N-FM--a model to simulate the nitrate transport in the saturated zone. This study answers the scientific questions of when the nitrate currently in the groundwater was loaded into the unsaturated zones and eventually reached the water table; is the rising groundwater nitrate concentration in the study area caused by historic nitrate load; what caused the uneven distribution of groundwater nitrate concentration in the study area; and whether the historic peak nitrate loading has reached the water table in the area. The groundwater nitrate in the area was mainly from the 1980s to 2000s, whilst the groundwater nitrate in most of the source protection zones leached into the system during 1940s-1970s; the large and spatially variable thickness of the USZ is one of the major reasons for unevenly distributed groundwater nitrate concentrations in the study area; the peak nitrate loading around 1983 has affected most of the study area. For areas around the Bowscar, Beacon Edge, Low Plains, Nord Vue

  14. The nitrate time bomb : a numerical way to investigate nitrate storage and lag time in the unsaturated zone

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, L.; Butcher, A.S.; Stuart, M.E.; Gooddy, D.C.; Bloomfield, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate pollution in groundwater, which is mainly from agricultural activities, remains an international problem. It threatens the environment, economics and human health. There is a rising trend in nitrate concentrations in many UK groundwater bodies. Research has shown it can take decades for leached nitrate from the soil to discharge into groundwater and surface water due to the ‘store’ of nitrate and its potentially long travel time in the unsaturated and satura...

  15. Protein Tyrosine Nitration : Selectivity, Physicochemical and Biological Consequences, Denitration, and Proteomics Methods for the Identification of Tyrosine-Nitrated Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abello, Nicolas; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Bischoff, Rainer

    Protein tyrosine nitration (PTN) is a post-translational modification occurring under the action of a nitrating agent. Tyrosine is modified in the 3-position of the phenolic ring through the addition of a nitro group (NO(2)). In the present article, we review the main nitration reactions and

  16. Experimental study of Americium-241 biokinetics in Homarus Gammarus lobster. Analysis of the accumulation and detoxication mechanisms at the sub-cellular level; Etude experimentale des biocinetiques de l`americium-241 chez le homard homarus gammarus. Analyse des mecanismes d`accumulation et de detoxication au niveau subcellulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquet, F

    1991-12-01

    The Americium 241 radioelement accumulation and elimination rate and mechanisms in the lobster organism have been experimentally studied; incorporation and detoxification capacities of each organ are evaluated. The existence of various biological compartments is shown; the major role of the digestive gland in accumulation of the radioelement, its distribution towards the various organs, and its resorption is comprehensively described, with an analysis at the subcellular and molecular levels. 401 p., 65 fig., 43 tab., 428 ref.

  17. Chemical behaviour of trivalent and pentavalent americium in saline NaCl-solutions. Studies of transferability of laboratory data to natural conditions. Interim report. Reported period: 1.2.1993-31.12.1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runde, W.; Kim, J.I.

    1994-09-01

    In order to clarify the chemical behaviour of Americium in saline aqueous systems relevant for final storage this study deals with the chemical reactions of trivalent and pentavalent Americium in NaCl-solutions under the influence of radiolysis from its own alpha radiation. The focus of the study was on investigating the geologically relevant reactions, such as hydrolysis or carbonate- and chloride complexing in solid-liquid equilibriums. Comprehensive measurements on solubility and spectroscopic studies in NaCl-solutions were carried out in a CO 2 -free atmosphere and 10 -2 atm CO 2 partial pressure. Identification and characterisation of the AM (III) and AM(V) solid phases were supplemented by structural research with the chemically analogue EU (III) and Np(V) compounds. The alpha-radiation induced radiolysis in saline NaCl solutions and the redox behaviour of Americium which was influenced thereby were spectroscopically quantified. (orig.) [de

  18. Seasonal nitrate algorithms for nitrate retrieval using OCEANSAT-2 and MODIS-AQUA satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durairaj, Poornima; Sarangi, Ranjit Kumar; Ramalingam, Shanthi; Thirunavukarassu, Thangaradjou; Chauhan, Prakash

    2015-04-01

    In situ datasets of nitrate, sea surface temperature (SST), and chlorophyll a (chl a) collected during the monthly coastal samplings and organized cruises along the Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh coast between 2009 and 2013 were used to develop seasonal nitrate algorithms. The nitrate algorithms have been built up based on the three-dimensional regressions between SST, chl a, and nitrate in situ data using linear, Gaussian, Lorentzian, and paraboloid function fittings. Among these four functions, paraboloid was found to be better with the highest co-efficient of determination (postmonsoon: R2=0.711, n=357; summer: R2=0.635, n=302; premonsoon: R2=0.829, n=249; and monsoon: R2=0.692, n=272) for all seasons. Based on these fittings, seasonal nitrate images were generated using the concurrent satellite data of SST from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and chlorophyll (chl) from Ocean Color Monitor (OCM-2) and MODIS. The best retrieval of modeled nitrate (R2=0.527, root mean square error (RMSE)=3.72, and mean normalized bias (MNB)=0.821) was observed for the postmonsoon season due to the better retrieval of both SST MODIS (28 February 2012, R2=0.651, RMSE=2.037, and MNB=0.068) and chl OCM-2 (R2=0.534, RMSE=0.317, and MNB=0.27). Present results confirm that the chl OCM-2 and SST MODIS retrieve nitrate well than the MODIS-derived chl and SST largely due to the better retrieval of chl by OCM-2 than MODIS.

  19. Open-Source Photometric System for Enzymatic Nitrate Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittbrodt, B T; Squires, D A; Walbeck, J; Campbell, E; Campbell, W H; Pearce, J M

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate, the most oxidized form of nitrogen, is regulated to protect people and animals from harmful levels as there is a large over abundance due to anthropogenic factors. Widespread field testing for nitrate could begin to address the nitrate pollution problem, however, the Cadmium Reduction Method, the leading certified method to detect and quantify nitrate, demands the use of a toxic heavy metal. An alternative, the recently proposed Environmental Protection Agency Nitrate Reductase Nitrate-Nitrogen Analysis Method, eliminates this problem but requires an expensive proprietary spectrophotometer. The development of an inexpensive portable, handheld photometer will greatly expedite field nitrate analysis to combat pollution. To accomplish this goal, a methodology for the design, development, and technical validation of an improved open-source water testing platform capable of performing Nitrate Reductase Nitrate-Nitrogen Analysis Method. This approach is evaluated for its potential to i) eliminate the need for toxic chemicals in water testing for nitrate and nitrite, ii) reduce the cost of equipment to perform this method for measurement for water quality, and iii) make the method easier to carryout in the field. The device is able to perform as well as commercial proprietary systems for less than 15% of the cost for materials. This allows for greater access to the technology and the new, safer nitrate testing technique.

  20. Observations on particulate organic nitrates and unidentified components of NOy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Egeløv, A.H.; Granby, K.

    1995-01-01

    A method to determine the total content of particulate organic nitrates (PON) has been developed and ambient air measurements of PON, NO, NO2, HNO3, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), peroxypropionyl nitrate (PPN), gas NOy and particulate inorganic nitrate have been performed in the spring and early...... summer al an agricultural site in Denmark and compared with measurements of ozone, H2O2, SO2, formic acid, acetic acid and methane sulphonic acid. The gas NOy detector determines the sum NO + NO2 + HNO2 + HNO3 + PAN + PPN + gas phase organic nitrates + 2 x N2O5 + NO3. The content of residual gas NOy...... = gas NOy + particulate inorganic nitrate). Residual gas NOy was much higher than the particulate fraction of organic nitrates (PON). PON was only 0.25 +/- 0.11% of concentrations of photochemical oxidants in connection with high-pressure systems suggesting atmospheric processes being the major source...

  1. Transfer across the human gut of environmental plutonium, americium, cobalt, caesium and technetium: studies with cockles (Cerastoderma edule) from the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Our previous studies have indicated lower values of the gut transfer factor ('f L values') for plutonium and americium in winkles (Littorina littorea) than adopted by ICRP. The present study was undertaken primarily to investigate whether this observation extends to other species. Samples of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) from Ravenglass, Cumbria were eaten by volunteers who provided 24 samples of urine and faeces. Urine samples indicated f L values for cockles which were higher than for winkles; for plutonium these ranged overall up to 7x10 -4 with an arithmetic mean in the range (2-3)x10 -4 , and for americium up to 2.6x10 -4 with an arithmetic mean of 1.2x10 -4 . Limited data based on volunteers eating cockles from the Solway suggest that f L values for americium may be greater at distance from Sellafield. The measured values compare with 5x10 -4 used by the ICRP for environmental forms of both elements, which would appear to provide adequate protection when calculating doses from Cumbrian cockles. Data for other nuclides were obtained by analysing faecal samples from the volunteers who ate the Ravenglass cockles. Cobalt-60 showed an f L value in the region of 0.2, twice the value currently used by ICRP. For 137 Cs, variabilities were indicated in the range 0.08 to 0.43, within the ICRP value of f L =1.0. Technetium-99 gave f L values up to about 0.6, in reasonable conformity with the ICRP value of 0.5. (author)

  2. An experimental study of americium-241 biokinetics in the Lobster Homarus Gammarus. Analysis of the accumulation/storage and detoxification processes at the subcellular level; Etude experimentale des biocinetiques de l`americium-241 chez le homard homarus gammarus. Analyse des mecanismes d`accumulation et de detoxication au niveau subcellulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquet, F

    1993-01-01

    An experimental study of americium-241 kinetics has been conducted in the lobster Homarus gammmarus. The investigations were conducted at all the levels from the whole body to the subcellular and molecular levels. The animals were contaminated by a single or chronic ingestion of {sup 241} Am labelled mussels. Assessments of accumulation, elimination and distribution of the radionuclide were established on organisms kept in the laboratory; they made it possible to demonstrate the importance of the digestive gland in the radionuclide transfer pathways. The preliminary results led to structural then ultrastructural investigations of the digestive gland in association with radioautographic studies and cellular extractions methods. Four cellular types were demonstrated, only two of them being implied in the radionuclide retention, the former being responsible for americium intake and the latter for its long-term retention. By means of biochemical techniques, subcellular accumulation was studied and the organelles implied in the nuclide retention were specified. Finally, a method of cellular nuclei dissociation was developed; it made it possible to analyse the molecular nature of americium ligands and to demonstrate the function of the protein nuclear matrix in the nuclide retention.

  3. Determination by gamma-ray spectrometry of the plutonium and americium content of the Pu/Am separation scraps. Application to molten salts; Determination par spectrometrie gamma de la teneur en plutonium et en americium de produits issus de separation Pu/Am. Application aux bains de sels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godot, A. [CEA Valduc, Dept. de Traitement des Materiaux Nucleaires, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Perot, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Technologie Nucleaire, Service de Modelisation des Transferts et Mesures Nucleaires, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Within the framework of plutonium recycling operations in CEA Valduc (France), americium is extracted from molten plutonium metal into a molten salt during an electrolysis process. The scraps (spent salt, cathode, and crucible) contain extracted americium and a part of plutonium. Nuclear material management requires a very accurate determination of the plutonium content. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is performed on Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) scraps located inside the glove box, in order to assess the plutonium and americium contents. The measurement accuracy is influenced by the device geometry, nuclear instrumentation, screens located between the sample and the detector, counting statistics and matrix attenuation, self-absorption within the spent salt being very important. The purpose of this study is to validate the 'infinite energy extrapolation' method employed to correct for self-attenuation, and to detect any potential bias. We present a numerical study performed with the MCNP computer code to identify the most influential parameters and some suggestions to improve the measurement accuracy. A final uncertainty of approximately 40% is achieved on the plutonium mass. (authors)

  4. Picomolar traces of americium(III) introduce drastic changes in the structural chemistry of terbium(III). A break in the ''gadolinium break''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, Jan M. [TU Wien, Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria); Mueller, Danny; Knoll, Christian; Wilkovitsch, Martin; Weinberger, Peter [TU Wien, Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna (Austria); Giester, Gerald [University of Vienna, Institute of Mineralogy and Crystallography, Vienna (Austria); Ofner, Johannes; Lendl, Bernhard [TU Wien, Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna (Austria); Steinhauser, Georg [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institute of Radioecology and Radiation Protection (Germany)

    2017-10-16

    The crystallization of terbium 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] (ZT) in the presence of trace amounts (ca. 50 Bq, ca. 1.6 pmol) of americium results in 1) the accumulation of the americium tracer in the crystalline solid and 2) a material that adopts a different crystal structure to that formed in the absence of americium. Americium-doped [Tb(Am)(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}ZT]{sub 2} ZT.10 H{sub 2}O is isostructural to light lanthanide (Ce-Gd) 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] compounds, rather than to the heavy lanthanide (Tb-Lu) 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] (e.g., [Tb(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}]{sub 2}ZT{sub 3}.6 H{sub 2}O) derivatives. Traces of Am seem to force the Tb compound into a structure normally preferred by the lighter lanthanides, despite a 10{sup 8}-fold Tb excess. The americium-doped material was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy, radiochemical neutron activation analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the inclusion properties of terbium 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] towards americium were quantified, and a model for the crystallization process is proposed. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Observations on the redistribution of plutonium and americium in the Irish Sea sediments, 1978 to 1996: concentrations and inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, P.J.; Denoon, D.C.; Woodhead, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of plutonium and americium in the sub-tidal sediments of the Irish Sea is described following major surveys in 1978, 1983, 1988 and 1995. Concentrations in surface sediments have declined near the source at Sellafield since 1988. Time-series of inter-tidal surface sediment concentrations are presented from 1977 onwards, revealing the importance of sediment reworking and transport in controlling the evolution of the environmental signal. The surface and near-surface sediments, in the eastern Irish Sea 'mud-patch', are generally well mixed with respect to Pu (α) and 241 Am distributions but show increasing variability with depth - up to 4 orders of magnitude in concentration. The inventories of 239,240 Pu and 241 Am in the sub-tidal sediments have been estimated and compared with the reported decay-corrected discharges. These amounted to 360 and 545 TBq respectively, in 1995, about 60% of the total decay-corrected discharge. Part of the unaccounted fraction may be due to unrepresentative sampling of the seabed. It is speculated that some tens of TBq of plutonium and 241 Am reside undetected in the large volumes of coarse-grained, sub-tidal and inter-tidal sediment which characterise much of the Irish Sea. This has been due to the inability of the available corers to penetrate to the base of contamination in these mobile sediments. Further observations are needed to verify and quantify the missing amount. A budget of plutonium-α and 241 Am has been estimated based on published observations in the three main compartments: water column, sub-tidal and inter-tidal sediments. This amounts to 460-540 TBq and 575-586 TBq respectively, or 64-75% and 60-61%, of the decay-corrected reported discharge. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Review on Thermal Decomposition of Ammonium Nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Shalini; Dave, Pragnesh N.

    2013-01-01

    In this review data from the literature on thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate (AN) and the effect of additives to their thermal decomposition are summarized. The effect of additives like oxides, cations, inorganic acids, organic compounds, phase-stablized CuO, etc., is discussed. The effect of an additive mainly occurs at the exothermic peak of pure AN in a temperature range of 200°C to 140°C.

  7. Genetic basis for nitrate resistance in Desulfovibrio strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah eKorte

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate is an inhibitor of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB. In petroleum production sites, amendments of nitrate and nitrite are used to prevent SRB production of sulfide that causes souring of oil wells. A better understanding of nitrate stress responses in the model SRB, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20, will strengthen predictions of environmental outcomes. Nitrate inhibition of SRB has historically been considered to result from the generation of small amounts of nitrite, to which SRB are quite sensitive. Here we explored the possibility that nitrate might inhibit SRB by a mechanism other than through nitrite inhibition. We found that nitrate-stressed D. vulgaris cultures grown in lactate-sulfate conditions eventually grew in the presence of high concentrations of nitrate, and their resistance continued through several subcultures. Nitrate consumption was not detected over the course of the experiment, suggesting adaptation to nitrate. With high-throughput genetic approaches employing TnLE-seq for D. vulgaris and a pooled mutant library of D. alaskensis, we determined the fitness of many transposon mutants of both organisms in nitrate stress conditions. We found that several mutants, including homologs present in both strains, had a greatly increased ability to grow in the presence of nitrate but not nitrite. The mutated genes conferring nitrate resistance included the gene encoding the putative Rex transcriptional regulator (DVU0916/Dde_2702, as well as a cluster of genes (DVU0251-DVU0245/Dde_0597-Dde_0605 that is poorly annotated. Follow-up studies with individual D. vulgaris transposon and deletion mutants confirmed high-throughput results. We conclude that, in D. vulgaris and D. alaskensis, nitrate resistance in wild-type cultures is likely conferred by spontaneous mutations. Furthermore, the mechanisms that confer nitrate resistance may be different from those that confer nitrite resistance.

  8. Measurement of total alpha activity of neptunium, plutonium, and americium in highly radioactive Hanford waste by iron hydroxide precipitation and 2-heptanone solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, T.C.; Kaye, J.H.

    1992-06-01

    An improved method has been developed to concentrate the major alpha-emitting actinide elements neptunium, plutonium, and americium from samples with high salt content such as those resulting from efforts to characterize Hanford storage tank waste. Actinide elements are concentrated by coprecipitation of their hydroxides using iron carrier. The iron is removed by extraction from 8M HCI with 2-heptanone. The actinide elements remain in the aqueous phase free from salts, iron, and long-lived fission products. Recoveries averaged 98 percent

  9. Simultaneous analysis of uranium and nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, D.T.

    1978-04-01

    A direct spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of 20 to 200 g/l of uranium in the presence of 3 to 5 M nitric acid. A dual-wavelength analysis is used to eliminate the enhancing effect of nitrate ion on the uranium visible spectra. The precision and accuracy of the simultaneous analysis of uranium and nitrate were compared using combinations of the four uranium wavelength maxima, occurring at 426, 416, 403 and 359 nm. Calculations based on 426 and 416 nm data yielded the most accurate results. The calculated relative standard deviation of uranium and nitrate concentrations was 5.4 percent and 15.5 percent, respectively. The photometric procedure is slightly affected by temperature; an increase of one degree centigrade results in a 0.2 g/l overestimation of uranium concentration. Because the method is non-destructive, it is directly applicable to the continuous in-line analysis of dissolved uranium in aqueous fuel reprocessing streams.

  10. Electrochemical determination of nitrate with nitrate reductase-immobilized electrodes under ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, De; Shim, Jun Ho; Kim, Jong Dae; Park, Hyung Soo; Cha, Geun Sig; Nam, Hakhyun

    2005-07-15

    Nitrate monitoring biosensors were prepared by immobilizing nitrate reductase derived from yeast on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE, d = 3 mm) or screen-printed carbon paste electrode (SPCE, d = 3 mm) using a polymer (poly(vinyl alcohol)) entrapment method. The sensor could directly determine the nitrate in an unpurged aqueous solution with the aid of an appropriate oxygen scavenger: the nitrate reduction reaction driven by the enzyme and an electron-transfer mediator, methyl viologen, at -0.85 V (GCE vs Ag/AgCl) or at -0.90 V (SPCE vs Ag/AgCl) exhibited no oxygen interference in a sulfite-added solution. The electroanalytical properties of optimized biosensors were measured: the sensitivity, linear response range, and detection limit of the sensors based on GCE were 7.3 nA/microM, 15-300 microM (r2 = 0.995), and 4.1 microM (S/N = 3), respectively, and those of SPCE were 5.5 nA/microM, 15-250 microM (r2 = 0.996), and 5.5 microM (S/N = 3), respectively. The disposable SPCE-based biosensor with a built-in well- or capillary-type sample cell provided high sensor-to-sensor reproducibility (RSD sensor system was demonstrated by determining nitrate in real samples.

  11. Plutonium purification cycle in centrifugal extractors: comparative study of flowsheets using uranous nitrate and hydroxylamine nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, P.; Dinh, B.; Mauborgne, B.; Drain, F.; Gillet, B.

    1998-01-01

    The extension of the UP2 plant at La Hague includes a new plutonium purification cycle using multi-stage centrifugal extractors, to replace the present cycle which uses mixer/settler banks. The advantage of this type of extractor is basically the compactness of the equipment and the short residence time, which limits solvent degradation, particularly when reprocessing fuel containing a high proportion of plutonium 238. Two types of reducing agents have been considered for the plutonium stripping operation, uranous nitrate and hydroxylamine nitrate. Uranous nitrate displays a very fast reduction kinetics, ideal for the very short residence time of the phases in the centrifugal extractors. However, its extractability in the organic phase exacerbates the undesirable re-oxidation of plutonium, which is present in high concentration in this stage of the process. The short residence time of the centrifugal extractors is an advantage in as much as it could conceivably be adequate to obtain a sufficient reduction efficiency, while minimizing undesirable re-oxidation mechanisms. Hydroxylamine nitrate helps to minimize undesirable re-oxidation and is the normal choice for this type of operation. However, the plutonium (IV) reduction kinetics obtained is slower than with uranous nitrate, making it necessary to check whether its use is compatible with the very short residence times of centrifugal extractors.This article discusses the feasibility studies employing these two reducing agents. (author)

  12. Nitrates for acute heart failure syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Abel; McCabe, Aileen; Kidney, Rachel; Brooks, Steven C; Seupaul, Rawle A; Diercks, Deborah B; Salter, Nigel; Fermann, Gregory J; Pospisil, Caroline

    2013-08-06

    Current drug therapy for acute heart failure syndromes (AHFS) consists mainly of diuretics supplemented by vasodilators or inotropes. Nitrates have been used as vasodilators in AHFS for many years and have been shown to improve some aspects of AHFS in some small studies. The aim of this review was to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of nitrate vasodilators in AHFS. To quantify the effect of different nitrate preparations (isosorbide dinitrate and nitroglycerin) and the effect of route of administration of nitrates on clinical outcome, and to evaluate the safety and tolerability of nitrates in the management of AHFS. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1950 to July week 2 2011) and EMBASE (1980 to week 28 2011). We searched the Current Controlled Trials MetaRegister of Clinical Trials (compiled by Current Science) (July 2011). We checked the reference lists of trials and contacted trial authors. We imposed no language restriction. Randomised controlled trials comparing nitrates (isosorbide dinitrate and nitroglycerin) with alternative interventions (frusemide and morphine, frusemide alone, hydralazine, prenalterol, intravenous nesiritide and placebo) in the management of AHFS in adults aged 18 and over. Two authors independently performed data extraction. Two authors performed trial quality assessment. We used mean difference (MD), odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to measure effect sizes. Two authors independently assessed and rated the methodological quality of each trial using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias. Four studies (634 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Two of the included studies included only patients with AHFS following acute myocardial infarction (AMI); one study excluded patients with overt AMI; and one study included participants with AHFS with and without acute coronary syndromes.Based on a single study

  13. Properties and thermal decomposition of the double salts of uranyl nitrate-ammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.; Haas, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The formation of ammonium nitrate-uranyl nitrate double salts has important effects on the thermal denitration process for the preparation of UO 3 and on the physical properties of the resulting product. Analyses were performed, and properties and decomposition behavior were determined for three double salts: NH 4 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 3 , (NH 4 ) 2 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 4 , and (NH 4 ) 2 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 4 ·2H 2 O. The tinitrate salt decomposes without melting at 270-300 C to give a γ-UO 3 powder of ∼3-μm average size, with good ceramic properties for fabrication into UO 2 nuclear fuel pellets. The tetranitrate dihydrate melts at 48 C; it also dehydrates to the anhydrous salt. The anhydrous tetranitrate decomposes exothermically, without melting, at 170-270 C by losing one mole of ammonium nitrate to form the trinitrate salt

  14. Growing patterns to produce 'nitrate-free' lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croitoru, Mircea Dumitru; Muntean, Daniela-Lucia; Fülöp, Ibolya; Modroiu, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables can contain significant amounts of nitrate and, therefore, may pose health hazards to consumers by exceeding the accepted daily intake for nitrate. Different hydroponic growing patterns were examined in this work in order to obtain 'nitrate-free lettuces'. Growing lettuces on low nitrate content nutrient solution resulted in a significant decrease in lettuces' nitrate concentrations (1741 versus 39 mg kg(-1)), however the beneficial effect was cancelled out by an increase in the ambient temperature. Nitrate replacement with ammonium was associated with an important decrease of the lettuces' nitrate concentration (from 1896 to 14 mg kg(-1)) and survival rate. An economically feasible method to reduce nitrate concentrations was the removal of all inorganic nitrogen from the nutrient solution before the exponential growth phase. This method led to lettuces almost devoid of nitrate (10 mg kg(-1)). The dried mass and calcinated mass of lettuces, used as markers of lettuces' quality, were not influenced by this treatment, but a small reduction (18%, p < 0.05) in the fresh mass was recorded. The concentrations of nitrite in the lettuces and their modifications are also discussed in the paper. It is possible to obtain 'nitrate-free' lettuces in an economically feasible way.

  15. Concentration of Nitrate in Bottled Drinking Water in Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saberi Bidgoli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: The global consumption of bottled water is growing with substantial growth in sales volumes on every continent. The highest growth rates are occurring in Asia and South America. Biological and chemical monitoring of these waters is necessary. The aim of current study was determination of nitrate concentration in bottled drinking water in Qom, Iran in 2012. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out in Qom, Iran. First of all, 18 most frequent brands of bottled drinking waters were purchased in June 2012 randomly. Then concentration of nitrate was measured according to the spectrophotometric method. In next step, experiment data were analyzed by Excel Software and P value was obtained by statistical calculations. Finally data were comprised with written nitrate concentration on labels and recommended permissible values . Results: The median nitrate concentration was 2.1 mg/L with the minimum 0.8 mg/L and maximum 8.1 mg/L. In 66.7 % of the samples, the measured nitrate concentrations were less than the written nitrate concentrations and in 33.3% of samples, the nitrate concentration was higher. The statistical calculation proved the significant difference between the median of written nitrate concentration on the label and investigated nitrate concentration (P value > 0.05. Conclusions: It be concluded that the measured nitrate concentration in all of the water samples is below the recommended permissible level.

  16. Management of Nitrate m Groundwater: A Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmed

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture may cause nitrate and other chemicals to enter into groundwater systems. Nitrate in drinking water is considered a health hazard. A study was conducted to assess the extent of nitrate pollution of groundwater caused by agriculture and to evaluate the possibility of using the LEACHN model to manage nitrate entry into groundwater of agricultural areas of Al-Batinah, which is the most important agricultural region of Oman. Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed to assess the problem and to detect possible trends. Soil sampling and analyses were done to demonstrate the difference in the nitrate concentration in agricultural and non-agricultural soils. A questionnaire survey was conducted to gather information on agricultural practices, fertilizer input, and other possible sources of nitrate pollution. Results from the study show that 23% of groundwater samples have a concentration of nitrate-N concentration of 10 mg/l and 34% samples exceed 8 mg/l. Agricultural soils have higher levels of nitrate compared to non- agricultural soils. Results also demonstrate that nitrate levels in groundwater in Al-Batinah are rising. Application of the ‘LEACHN’ model demonstrated its suitability for use as a management tool to reduce nitrate leaching to groundwater by controlling fertilizer and water input.

  17. Chronic nitrate exposure alters reproductive physiology in fathead minnows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellock, Kristen A; Moore, Adrian P; Bringolf, Robert B

    2018-01-01

    Nitrate is a ubiquitous aquatic pollutant that is commonly associated with eutrophication and dead zones in estuaries around the world. At high concentrations nitrate is toxic to aquatic life but at environmental concentrations it has also been purported as an endocrine disruptor in fish. To investigate the potential for nitrate to cause endocrine disruption in fish, we conducted a lifecycle study with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to nitrate (0, 11.3, and 56.5 mg/L (total nitrate-nitrogen (NO 3 -N)) from nitrate-exposed males both 11-KT and vitellogenin were significantly induced when compared with controls. No significant differences occurred for body mass, condition factor, or GSI among males and intersex was not observed in any of the nitrate treatments. Nitrate-exposed females also had significant increases in vitellogenin compared to controls but no significant differences for mass, condition factor, or GSI were observed in nitrate exposed groups. Estradiol was used as a positive control for vitellogenin induction. Our findings suggest that environmentally relevant nitrate levels may disrupt steroid hormone synthesis and/or metabolism in male and female fish and may have implications for fish reproduction, watershed management, and regulation of nutrient pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nitrate ammonification in mangrove soils: A hidden source of nitrite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike eBalk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate reduction is considered to be a minor microbial pathway in the oxidation of mangrove-derived organic matter due to a limited supply of nitrate in mangrove soils. At a limited availability of this electron acceptor compared to the supply of degradable carbon, nitrate ammonification is thought to be the preferential pathway of nitrate reduction. Mangrove forest mutually differ in their productivity, which may lead to different available carbon to nitrate ratios in their soil. Hence, nitrate ammonification is expected to be of more importance in high- compared to low-productive forests.The hypothesis was tested in flow-through reactors that contain undisturbed mangrove soils from high-productive Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle forests in Florida and low-productive Avicennia marina forests in Saudi Arabia. Nitrate was undetectable in the soils from both regions. It was assumed that a legacy of nitrate ammonification would be reflected by a higher ammonium production from these soils upon the addition of nitrate. Unexpectedly, the soils from the low-productive forests in Saudi Arabia produced considerably more ammonium than the soils from the high-productive forests in Florida. Hence, other environmental factors than productivity must govern the selection of nitrate ammonification or denitrification. A rather intriguing observation was the 1:1 production of nitrite and ammonium during the consumption of nitrate, more or less independent from sampling region, location, sampling depth, mangrove species and from the absence or presence of additional degradable carbon. This 1:1 ratio points to a coupled production of ammonium and nitrite by one group of nitrate-reducing microorganisms. Such a production of nitrite will be hidden under the nitrate-limited conditions of most mangrove forest soils.

  19. A comparison of organic and inorganic nitrates/nitrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Sami A; Artime, Esther; Webb, Andrew J

    2012-05-15

    Although both organic and inorganic nitrates/nitrites mediate their principal effects via nitric oxide, there are many important differences. Inorganic nitrate and nitrite have simple ionic structures and are produced endogenously and are present in the diet, whereas their organic counterparts are far more complex, and, with the exception of ethyl nitrite, are all medicinally synthesised products. These chemical differences underlie the differences in pharmacokinetic properties allowing for different modalities of administration, particularly of organic nitrates, due to the differences in their bioavailability and metabolic profiles. Whilst the enterosalivary circulation is a key pathway for orally ingested inorganic nitrate, preventing an abrupt effect or toxic levels of nitrite and prolonging the effects, this is not used by organic nitrates. The pharmacodynamic differences are even greater; while organic nitrates have potent acute effects causing vasodilation, inorganic nitrite's effects are more subtle and dependent on certain conditions. However, in chronic use, organic nitrates are considerably limited by the development of tolerance and endothelial dysfunction, whereas inorganic nitrate/nitrite may compensate for diminished endothelial function, and tolerance has not been reported. Also, while inorganic nitrate/nitrite has important cytoprotective effects against ischaemia-reperfusion injury, continuous use of organic nitrates may increase injury. While there are concerns that inorganic nitrate/nitrite may induce carcinogenesis, direct evidence of this in humans is lacking. While organic nitrates may continue to dominate the therapeutic arena, this may well change with the increasing recognition of their limitations, and ongoing discovery of beneficial effects and specific advantages of inorganic nitrate/nitrite. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nitrate ammonification in mangrove soils: a hidden source of nitrite?

    KAUST Repository

    Balk, Melike; Laverman, Anniet M; Keuskamp, Joost A; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate reduction is considered to be a minor microbial pathway in the oxidation of mangrove-derived organic matter due to a limited supply of nitrate in mangrove soils. At a limited availability of this electron acceptor compared to the supply of degradable carbon, nitrate ammonification is thought to be the preferential pathway of nitrate reduction. Mangrove forest mutually differ in their productivity, which may lead to different available carbon to nitrate ratios in their soil. Hence, nitrate ammonification is expected to be of more importance in high- compared to low-productive forests. The hypothesis was tested in flow-through reactors that contain undisturbed mangrove soils from high-productive Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle forests in Florida and low-productive Avicennia marina forests in Saudi Arabia. Nitrate was undetectable in the soils from both regions. It was assumed that a legacy of nitrate ammonification would be reflected by a higher ammonium production from these soils upon the addition of nitrate. Unexpectedly, the soils from the low-productive forests in Saudi Arabia produced considerably more ammonium than the soils from the high-productive forests in Florida. Hence, other environmental factors than productivity must govern the selection of nitrate ammonification or denitrification. A rather intriguing observation was the 1:1 production of nitrite and ammonium during the consumption of nitrate, more or less independent from sampling region, location, sampling depth, mangrove species and from the absence or presence of additional degradable carbon. This 1:1 ratio points to a coupled production of ammonium and nitrite by one group of nitrate-reducing microorganisms. Such a production of nitrite will be hidden by the presence of active nitrite-reducing microorganisms under the nitrate-limited conditions of most mangrove forest soils.

  1. Nitrate ammonification in mangrove soils: a hidden source of nitrite?

    KAUST Repository

    Balk, Melike

    2015-03-02

    Nitrate reduction is considered to be a minor microbial pathway in the oxidation of mangrove-derived organic matter due to a limited supply of nitrate in mangrove soils. At a limited availability of this electron acceptor compared to the supply of degradable carbon, nitrate ammonification is thought to be the preferential pathway of nitrate reduction. Mangrove forest mutually differ in their productivity, which may lead to different available carbon to nitrate ratios in their soil. Hence, nitrate ammonification is expected to be of more importance in high- compared to low-productive forests. The hypothesis was tested in flow-through reactors that contain undisturbed mangrove soils from high-productive Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle forests in Florida and low-productive Avicennia marina forests in Saudi Arabia. Nitrate was undetectable in the soils from both regions. It was assumed that a legacy of nitrate ammonification would be reflected by a higher ammonium production from these soils upon the addition of nitrate. Unexpectedly, the soils from the low-productive forests in Saudi Arabia produced considerably more ammonium than the soils from the high-productive forests in Florida. Hence, other environmental factors than productivity must govern the selection of nitrate ammonification or denitrification. A rather intriguing observation was the 1:1 production of nitrite and ammonium during the consumption of nitrate, more or less independent from sampling region, location, sampling depth, mangrove species and from the absence or presence of additional degradable carbon. This 1:1 ratio points to a coupled production of ammonium and nitrite by one group of nitrate-reducing microorganisms. Such a production of nitrite will be hidden by the presence of active nitrite-reducing microorganisms under the nitrate-limited conditions of most mangrove forest soils.

  2. Impact of ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate on tadpoles of Alytes obstetricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Núria; Montori, A; Llorente, G A

    2017-07-01

    The presence of pesticides, herbicides and fertilisers negatively affect aquatic communities in general, and particularly amphibians in their larval phase, even though sensitivity to pollutants is highly variable among species. The Llobregat Delta (Barcelona, Spain) has experienced a decline of amphibian populations, possibly related to the reduction in water quality due to the high levels of farming activity, but also to habitat loss and alteration. We studied the effects of increasing ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate levels on the survival and growth rate of Alytes obstetricans tadpoles under experimental conditions. We exposed larvae to increasing concentrations of nitrate and ammonium for 14 days and then exposed them to water without pollutants for a further 14 days. Only the higher concentrations of ammonium (>33.75 mg/L) caused larval mortality. The growth rate of larvae was reduced at ≥22.5 mg/L NH 4 + , although individuals recovered and even increased their growth rate once exposure to the pollutant ended. The effect of nitrate on growth rate was detected at ≥80 mg/L concentrations, and the growth rate reduction in tadpoles was even observed during the post-exposure phase. The concentrations of ammonium with adverse effects on larvae are within the range levels found in the study area, while the nitrate concentrations with some adverse effect are close to the upper range limit of current concentrations in the study area. Therefore, only the presence of ammonium in the study area is likely to be considered of concern for the population of this species, even though the presence of nitrate could cause some sublethal effects. These negative effects could have an impact on population dynamics, which in this species is highly sensitive to larval mortality due to its small clutch size and prolonged larval period compared to other anuran amphibians.

  3. The Effect of Nitrate Levels and Harvest Times on Fe, Zn, Cu, and K, Concentrations and Nitrate Reductase Activity in Lettuce and Spinach

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Gheshlaghi; R. Khorassani; G.H. Haghnia; M. Kafi

    2015-01-01

    Leafy vegetables are considered as the main sources of nitrate in the human diet. In order to investigate the effect of nitrate levels and harvest times on nitrate accumulation, nitrate reductase activity, concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu and K in Lettuce and Spinach and their relation to nitrate accumulation in these leafy vegetables, two harvest times (29 and 46 days after transplanting), two vegetable species of lettuce and spinach and two concentrations of nitrate (10 and 20 mM) were used in ...

  4. Ammonium nitrate with 15 wt % potassium nitrate-ethylenediamine dinitrate-nitroguanidine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, W.; Cady, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    The phase diagram for the ternary system ammonium nitrate(AN) with 15 wt % potassium nitrate(AN:15KN)-ethylenediamine dinitrate(EDD)-nitroguanidine(NQ) has been determined from room temperature to the melting point. The ternary eutectic temperature, measured for a mixture containing 67.24, 25.30, and 7.46 mole % of AN:15KN, EDD, and NQ, respectively, was found to be 98.9/sup 0/C. The binary phase diagrams for the systems AN:15KN-EDD, AN:15KN-NQ, and EDD-NQ were also determined.

  5. NITRATE DESTRUCTION LITERATURE SURVEY AND EVALUATION CRITERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.

    2011-02-01

    This report satisfies the initial phase of Task WP-2.3.4 Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology, Subtask 1; Develop Near-Tank Nitrate/Nitrite Destruction Technology. Some of the more common anions in carbon steel waste tanks at SRS and Hanford Site are nitrate which is corrosive, and nitrite and hydroxide which are corrosion inhibitors. At present it is necessary to periodically add large quantities of 50 wt% caustic to waste tanks. There are three primary reasons for this addition. First, when the contents of salt tanks are dissolved, sodium hydroxide preferentially dissolves and is removed. During the dissolution process the concentration of free hydroxide in the tank liquid can decrease from 9 M to less than 0.2 M. As a result, roughly half way through the dissolution process large quantities of sodium hydroxide must be added to the tank to comply with requirements for corrosion control. Second, hydroxide is continuously consumed by reaction with carbon dioxide which occurs naturally in purge air used to prevent buildup of hydrogen gas inside the tanks. The hydrogen is generated by radiolysis of water. Third, increasing the concentration of hydroxide increases solubility of some aluminum compounds, which is desirable in processing waste. A process that converts nitrate and nitrite to hydroxide would reduce certain costs. (1) Less caustic would be purchased. (2) Some of the aluminum solid compounds in the waste tanks would become more soluble so less mass of solids would be sent to High Level Vitrification and therefore it would be not be necessary to make as much expensive high level vitrified product. (3) Less mass of sodium would be fed to Saltstone at SRS or Low Level Vitrification at Hanford Site so it would not be necessary to make as much low level product. (4) At SRS less nitrite and nitrate would be sent to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) so less formic acid would be consumed there and less hydrogen gas would be generated. This task involves

  6. Using Nitrate Isotopes to Distinguish Pathways along which Unprocessed Atmospheric Nitrate is Transported through Forests to Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebestyen, S. D.

    2013-12-01

    Evaluation of natural abundance oxygen and nitrogen isotopes in nitrate has revealed that atmospheric deposition of nitrate to forests sometimes has direct effects on the timing and magnitude of stream nitrate concentrations. Large amounts of unprocessed atmospheric nitrate have sometimes been found in streams during snowmelt and stormflow events. Despite increasing evidence that unprocessed atmospheric nitrate may be transported without biological processing to streams at various times and multiple locations, little has been reported about specific hydrological processes. I synthesized research findings from a number of studies in which nitrate isotopes have been measured over the past decade. Unprocessed nitrate may predominate in surficial soil waters after rainfall and snowmelt events relative to nitrate that originated from nitrification. Although transport to deep groundwater may be important in the most nitrogen saturated catchments, the transport of unprocessed atmospheric nitrate along shallow subsurface flowpaths is likely more important in many moderately N-polluted ecosystems, which predominate in the northeastern USA where most of my study sites are located. The presence of unprocessed atmospheric nitrate in surficial soils was linked to stream nitrate concentrations when large amounts of unprocessed nitrate were occasionally routed along lateral, shallow subsurface flowpaths during stormflow events. During these events, water tables rose to saturate shallow-depth soils. When catchments were drying or dryer, atmospheric nitrate was completely consumed by biological processing as flowpaths shifted from lateral to vertical transport through soils. The source areas of unprocessed atmospheric nitrate were usually limited to soils that were adjacent to streams, with little to no near-surface saturation and transport of unprocessed nitrate from more distal hillslope positions. The occasional large amounts of unprocessed atmospheric nitrate in soil water

  7. Synthesis of zirconia sol stabilized by trivalent cations (yttrium and neodymium or americium): a precursor for Am-bearing cubic stabilized zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemonnier, Stephane; Grandjean, Stephane; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Jolivet, Jean-Pierre

    2010-03-07

    Recent concepts for nuclear fuel and targets for transmuting long-lived radionuclides (minor actinides) and for the development of innovative Gen-IV nuclear fuel cycles imply fabricating host phases for actinide or mixed actinide compounds. Cubic stabilized zirconia (Zr, Y, Am)O(2-x) is one of the mixed phases tested in transmutation experiments. Wet chemical routes as an alternative to the powder metallurgy are being investigated to obtain the required phases while minimizing the handling of contaminating radioactive powder. Hydrolysis of zirconium, neodymium (a typical surrogate for americium) and yttrium in aqueous media in the presence of acetylacetone was firstly investigated. Progressive hydrolysis of zirconium acetylacetonate and sorption of trivalent cations and acacH on the zirconia particles led to a stable dispersion of nanoparticles (5-7 nm) in the 6-7 pH range. This sol gels with time or with temperature. The application to americium-containing solutions was then successfully tested: a stable sol was synthesized, characterized and used to prepare cubic stabilized zirconia (Zr, Y, Am)O(2-x).

  8. Mutation of the Arabidopsis NRT1.5 nitrate transporter causes defective root-to-shoot nitrate transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan-Hua; Kuo, Hui-Fen; Canivenc, Geneviève; Lin, Choun-Sea; Lepetit, Marc; Hsu, Po-Kai; Tillard, Pascal; Lin, Huey-Ling; Wang, Ya-Yun; Tsai, Chyn-Bey; Gojon, Alain; Tsay, Yi-Fang

    2008-09-01

    Little is known about the molecular and regulatory mechanisms of long-distance nitrate transport in higher plants. NRT1.5 is one of the 53 Arabidopsis thaliana nitrate transporter NRT1 (Peptide Transporter PTR) genes, of which two members, NRT1.1 (CHL1 for Chlorate resistant 1) and NRT1.2, have been shown to be involved in nitrate uptake. Functional analysis of cRNA-injected Xenopus laevis oocytes showed that NRT1.5 is a low-affinity, pH-dependent bidirectional nitrate transporter. Subcellular localization in plant protoplasts and in planta promoter-beta-glucuronidase analysis, as well as in situ hybridization, showed that NRT1.5 is located in the plasma membrane and is expressed in root pericycle cells close to the xylem. Knockdown or knockout mutations of NRT1.5 reduced the amount of nitrate transported from the root to the shoot, suggesting that NRT1.5 participates in root xylem loading of nitrate. However, root-to-shoot nitrate transport was not completely eliminated in the NRT1.5 knockout mutant, and reduction of NRT1.5 in the nrt1.1 background did not affect root-to-shoot nitrate transport. These data suggest that, in addition to that involving NRT1.5, another mechanism is responsible for xylem loading of nitrate. Further analyses of the nrt1.5 mutants revealed a regulatory loop between nitrate and potassium at the xylem transport step.

  9. Evaluating Ecosystem Services for Reducing Groundwater Nitrate Contamination: Nitrate Attenuation in the Unsaturated and Saturated Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrates are the most common type of groundwater contamination in agricultural regions. Environmental policies targeting nitrates have focused on input control (e.g., restricted fertilizer application), intermediate loads control (e.g., reduce nitrate leached from crop fields), and final loads control (e.g., reduce catchment nitrate loads). Nitrate loads can be affected by hydrological processes in both unsaturated and saturated zones. Although many of these processes have been extensively investigated in literature, they are commonly modeled as exogenous to farm management. A couple of recent studies by scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory show that in some situations nitrate attenuation processes in the unsaturated/saturated zone, particularly denitrification, can be intensified by certain management practices to mitigate nitrate loads. Therefore, these nitrate attenuation processes can be regarded as a set of ecosystem services that farmers can take advantage of to reduce their cost of complying with environmental policies. In this paper, a representative California dairy farm is used as a case study to show how such ecosystem attenuation services can be framed within the farm owner's decision-making framework as an option for reducing groundwater nitrate contamination. I develop an integrated dynamic model, where the farmer maximizes discounted net farm profit over multiple periods subject to environmental regulations. The model consists of three submodels: animal-waste-crop, hydrologic, and economic model. In addition to common choice variables such as irrigation, fertilization, and waste disposal options, the farmer can also endogenously choose from three water sources: surface water, deep groundwater (old groundwater in the deep aquifer that is not affected by farm effluent in the short term), and shallow groundwater (drainage water that can be recycled via capture wells at the downstream end of the farm). The capture wells not only

  10. Solvent extraction of Cs(I), Zn(II), Eu(III) and Am(III) by 2-heptyl-2-methyl-nonanoic acid (Ha) from nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.; Elnaggar, H.A.; Souka, N.; Abdelfattah, A.

    1994-01-01

    The present work is devoted to study the extraction behavior of caesium, zinc, europium and americium radioactive isotopes using a new extractant C H 3 (C H 2 ) 6 . C(C 7 H 1 5) (C H 3 ). COOH (Ha) dissolved in benzene from aqueous nitrate media of constant ionic strength (0.1 M) using HNO 3 -Na NO 3 mixtures. The effect temperature on the extraction of these elements was also investigated to evaluate the thermodynamic functions as well as the equilibrium constant of each reaction. The extraction mechanisms were postulated on the light of the available data and the extracted species were formulated in the proposed stoichiometric equation for the extraction of each element individually and these species were suggested to be Cs (A); Zn OH(A) and Zn(A) 2 ; Eu No 3 (A) 2 and Am(A) 3 and for Cs(I), Zn(II), Eu(III) and Am(III), respectively. The thermodynamic parameters show exothermic enthalpy for all the reactions and negative entropy values reflecting very good ordering extraction mechanisms. 10 figs, 1 tab

  11. Study of the electrochemical oxidation of Am with lacunary heteropolyanions and silver nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, D.

    1999-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of Am(III) with certain lacunary heteropolyanions (LHPA α 2 -P 2 W 17 O 61 10- or αSiW 11 O 39 8- ) and silver nitrate is an efficient way to prepare Am(VI). This document presents bibliographic data and an experimental study of the process. Thus, it has been established that Am(IV) is an intermediate species in the reaction and occurs in 1:1 (Amt IV LHPA) or 1:2 (Am IV (LHAP) 2 ) complexes with the relevant LHPA. These 1:1 complexes of Am(IV) have been identified and isolated in this work whereas 1:2 complexes were known from previous studies. The reactivity of these complexes in oxidation shows that 1:1 complexes of Am(IV) are oxidised much more quickly than 1:2 complexes. Apparent stability constants of Am(III) and Am(IV) complexes with the relevant LHPA have been measured for a 1 M nitric acid medium. Thermodynamic data of the reaction are then assessed: redox potentials of Am pairs are computed for a 1 M nitric acid medium containing various amount of LHPA ligands. Those results show that the role of LHPA is to stabilize the intermediate species Am(IV) by lowering the Am(IV)/Am(III) pair potential of about 1 Volt. Nevertheless, if this stabilisation is too strong (i.e. of tungsto-silicate), the oxidation of Am(IV) requires high anodic potential (more than 2 V/ENH). Then, the faradic yield of the oxidation of americium is poor because of water oxidation. This study has also shown that the main role of silver is to catalyze the electrochemical oxidation of Am IV (LHPA) X complexes. Indeed, these oxidations without silver are extremely slow. An oxygen tracer experiment has been performed during the oxidation of Am(III) in Am(VI). It has been shown that the oxygen atoms of Am(VI) (AMO 2 2+ ) come from water molecules of the solvent and not from the complexing oxygen atoms of the ligands. (author)

  12. Thermal denitration of high concentration nitrate salts waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D. S.; Oh, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Latge, C.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the thermodynamic and the thermal decomposition properties of high concentration nitrate salts waste water for the lagoon sludge treatment. The thermodynamic property was carried out by COACH and GEMINI II based on the composition of nitrate salts waste water. The thermal decomposition property was carried out by TG-DTA and XRD. Ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate were decomposed at 250 .deg. C and 730 . deg. C, respectively. Sodium nitrate could be decomposed at 450 .deg. C in the case of adding alumina for converting unstable Na 2 O into stable Na 2 O.Al 2 O 3 . The flow sheet for nitrate salts waste water treatment was proposed based on the these properties data. These will be used by the basic data of the process simulation

  13. The Nitrate/(Per)Chlorate Relationship on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Jennifer C.; Sutter, Brad; Jackson, W. Andrew; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; McKay, Christopher P.; Ming, Douglas W.; Archer, P. Douglas; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrate was recently detected in Gale Crater sediments on Mars at abundances up to approximately 600 mg/kg, confirming predictions of its presence at abundances consistent with models based on impact-generated nitrate and other sources of fixed nitrogen. Terrestrial Mars analogs, Mars meteorites, and other solar system materials help establish a context for interpreting in situ nitrate measurements on Mars, particularly in relation to other cooccuring salts. We compare the relative abundance of nitrates to oxychlorine (chlorate and/or perchlorate, hereafter (per)chlorate) salts on Mars and Earth. The nitrate/(per)chlorate ratio on Mars is greater than 1, significantly lower than on Earth (nitrate/(per)chlorate greater than 10(exp.3)), suggesting not only the absence of biological activity but also different (per)chlorate formation mechanisms on Mars than on Earth.

  14. Sustainability of natural attenuation of nitrate in agricultural aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher T.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Increased concentrations of nitrate in groundwater in agricultural areas, coinciding with increased use of chemical and organic fertilizers, have raised concern because of risks to environmental and human health. At some sites, these problems are mitigated by natural attenuation of nitrate as a result of microbially mediated reactions. Results from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research under the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program show that reactions of dissolved nitrate with solid aquifer minerals and organic carbon help lower nitrate concentrations in groundwater beneath agricultural fields. However, increased fluxes of nitrate cause ongoing depletion of the finite pool of solid reactants. Consumption of the solid reactants diminishes the capacity of the aquifer to remove nitrate, calling into question the long-term sustainability of these natural attenuation processes.

  15. Is nitrate an endocrine active compound in fish?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, M. P.; Kinnberg, Karin Lund; Bjerregaard, Poul

    Nitrate and nitrite taken up into fish may be reduced to NO which is known to be a signalling compound in the organism contributing to the regulation of i.e. steroid synthesis. Exposure of male rats to nitrate and nitrite results in reduced plasma concentrations of testosterone (also nitrate...... concentrations around or below the limits for drinking water). Nitrate concentrations in streams may be elevated due to releases from agricultural practices. The effects of nitrate and nitrite on endocrine relevant endpoints were investigated in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and brown trout (Salmo trutta). Zebrafish...... were exposed to nitrate and nitrite from hatch to sexual maturation (60 d) and sex ratio and vitellogenin concentrations were determined. Juvenile brown trout were exposed in a short-term experiment and the concentrations of vitellogenin were determined. The sex ratio in zebrafish was not affected...

  16. Impact of weather variability on nitrate leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Karl; Premrov, Alina; Hackett, Richard; Coxon, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The loss of nitrate (NO3 - N) to water via leaching and overland flow contributes to eutrophication of freshwaters, transitional and near coastal waters with agriculture contributing significantly to nitrogen (N) loading to these water. Environmental regulations, such as the Nitrates and Water Framework Directives, have increased constraints on farmers to improve N management in regions at risk of NO3--N loss to water. In addition, farmers also have to manage their systems within a changing climate as the imapcts of climate change begin to impact resulting in more frequent extreme events such as floods and droughts. The objective of this study was to investigate the link between weather volatility and the concentration of leached NO3--N spring barley. Leaching was quantified under spring barley grown on a well-drained, gravelly sandy soil using ceramic cup samplers over 6 drainage years under the same farming practices and treatments. Soil solution NO3--N concentrations under spring barley grown by conventional inversion ploughing and reduced tillage were compared to weather parameters over the period. Weather was recorded at a national Met Eireann weather station on site. Soil solution NO3--N varied significantly between years. Within individual years NO3--N concentrations varied over the drainage season, with peak concentrations generally observed in the autumn time, decreasing thereafter. Under both treatments there was a three-fold difference in mean annual soil solution NO3--N concentration over the 6 years with no change in the agronomic practices (crop type, tillage type and fertiliser input). Soil solution nitrate concentrations were significantly influenced by weather parameters such as rainfall, effective drainage and soil moisture deficit. The impact of climate change in Ireland could lead to increased NO3--N loss to water further exacerbating eutrophication of sensitive estuaries. The increased impact on eutrophication of waters, related to climatic

  17. Nitrate and nitrite in biology, nutrition and therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Jon O.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Benjamin, Nigel; Bryan, Nathan S.; Butler, Anthony; Cabrales, Pedro; Fago, Angela; Feelisch, Martin; Ford, Peter C.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Frenneau, Michael; Friedman, Joel; Kelm, Malte; Kevil, Christopher G.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Kozlov, Andrey V.; Lancaster, Jack R.; Lefer, David J.; McColl, Kenneth; McCurry, Kenneth; Patel, Rakesh; Petersson, Joel; Rassaf, Tienush; Reutov, Valentin P.; Richter-Addo, George B.; Schechter, Alan; Shiva, Sruti; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; van Faassen, Ernst E.; Webb, Andrew J.; Zuckerbraun, Brian S.; Zweier, Jay L.; Weitzberg, Eddie

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic nitrate and nitrite from endogenous or dietary sources are metabolized in vivo to nitric oxide (NO) and other bioactive nitrogen oxides. The nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway is emerging as an important mediator of blood flow regulation, cell signaling, energetics and tissue responses to hypoxia. The latest advances in our understanding of the biochemistry, physiology and therapeutics of nitrate, nitrite and NO were discussed during a recent two-day meeting at the Nobel Forum, Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm. PMID:19915529

  18. Complexes of pentavalent plutonium in lithium nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekhail, F.M.; Zaki, M.R.

    1977-01-01

    Pu 0 2 ion can form nitrate complexes in concentrated solution of lithium nitrate of PH 3.5. Spectrophotometric and ion exchange studies revealed the existence of two complexes, presumably the mono-and the dinitro. The rate of adsorption of the dinitrato complex, formed in 4 to 6 M-lithium nitrate solutions, on De-Acidite FF has been investigated and suggested to be diffusion controlled. The adsorption isotherm found to obey satisfactorily Freundlich equation

  19. Synthesis, Characterization, and Sensitivity Analysis of Urea Nitrate (UN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    determined. From the results of the study, UN is safe to store under normal operating conditions. 15. SUBJECT TERMS urea, nitrate , sensitivity, thermal ...HNO3). Due to its simple composition, ease of manufacture, and higher detonation parameters than ammonium nitrate , it has become one of the...an H50 value of 10.054 ± 0.620 inches. 5. Conclusions From the results of the thermal analysis study, it can be concluded that urea nitrate is

  20. Investigation of the separation of americium(III) and europium(III) by high-speed countercurrent chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.F.; Jin, Y.R.; Xu, Q.C.; Wang, S.L.; Zhang, L.X.

    2005-01-01

    The long-lived actinides are the important elements in the radioactive waste ;disposal. Because the ions semi diameter and chemical properties of trivalent actinides(III) and trivalent lanthanides(III) are very similar, the separation between them is very difficult. Yang Yu-Sheng put forward the actinides(III) are softer acid than the lanthanides(III), so the actinides(III) are more easily extracted by the soft extractant contain sulfur or nitrogen than the lanthanides(III). Some research have been done on the separation between actinides(III) and lanthanides(III) using the extractants contain sulfur or nitrogen. The results show that satisfactory separation efficiency was gained. Countercurrent Chromatography (CCC) have many specific advantages, such as free from solid support, permit large sample volume and high flow rate, which is useful in the preconcentration of inorganic solute and inorganic preparation. Some studies were done on the separation of lanthanides or-other inorganic elements by HSCCC, the high-purity reagents prepared by HSCCC or CPC turned out to be successful. In present paper, the investigation of separation between Americium (III) and Euricium (III) by High-Speed Countercurrent Chromatography (HSCCC) were made. The extractant used in the work was prepared by ourselves, which is of the soft extractant contrain sulfur. The effects of separation condition on the separation efficiency of Am and Eu by HSCCC were investigated using dichlorophenyl dithiophosphinic acid in xylene as the stationary phase and 0.1 mol/L NaClO4 as mobile phase, respectively. The results show that mutual separation between Am and Eu can be accomplished. The separation factor increases with the increasing of the concentration of extractant and the pH value of the mobile phase, further more, minishing the flow rate of the mobile phase can also improves the separation efficiency between Am and Eu. The nearly base separation was gained when the flow rate is 0.35 ml/min, the