WorldWideScience

Sample records for americium bromides

  1. Preparation of americium amalgam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a method for the electrochemical preparation of an americium amalgam from americium dioxide and americium 241 and 243 for use in determining the physicochemical properties of the alloy. Moessbauer spectra were made using neptunium dioxide, in the neptunium 237 form, as an absorber. Results show that electrolysis produces a homogeneous amalgam that gives an unoxidized product on vacuum distillation at 200 degrees C

  2. Preparation of americium amalgam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the method of NGR-spectroscopy with the aid of 241Am isotope chemical state of transuranium elements in the volume and on the surface of amalgams is studied. Amalgam preparation was realized in a simplified electrolytic cell. It is shown that in the process of amalgam preparation the first order of reaction as to actinide is observed; americium is distributed gradually over the volume and it is partially sorbed by the surface of glass capillary. NGR spectrum of dry residue after mercury distillation at 200 deg C points to the presence of americium-mercury intermetal compounds

  3. 1976 Hanford americium accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heid, K R; Breitenstein, B D; Palmer, H E; McMurray, B J; Wald, N

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the 2.5-year medical course of a 64-year-old Hanford nuclear chemical operator who was involved in an accident in an americium recovery facility in August 1976. He was heavily externally contaminated with americium, sustained a substantial internal deposition of this isotope, and was burned with concentrated nitric acid and injured by flying debris about the face and neck. The medical care given the patient, including the decontamination efforts and clinical laboratory studies, are discussed. In-vivo measurements were used to estimate the dose rates and the accumulated doses to body organs. Urinary and fecal excreta were collected and analyzed for americium content. Interpretation of these data was complicated by the fact that the intake resulted both from inhalation and from solubilization of the americium embedded in facial tissues. A total of 1100 ..mu..Ci was excreted in urine and feces during the first 2 years following the accident. The long-term use of diethylenetriaminepentate (DTPA), used principally as the zinc salt, is discussed including the method, route of administration, and effectiveness. To date, the patient has apparently experienced no complications attributable to this extensive course of therapy, even though he has been given approximately 560 grams of DTPA. 4 figures, 1 table.

  4. Chemistry of americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1976-01-01

    Essential features of the descriptive chemistry of americium are reviewed. Chapter titles are: discovery, atomic and nuclear properties, collateral reading, production and uses, chemistry in aqueous solution, metal, alloys, and compounds, and, recovery, separation, purification. Author and subject indexes are included. (JCB)

  5. The Biokinetic Model of Americium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    To improve in vivo measurements for detecting internal exposure from transuranium radio nuclides, such as neptunium, plutonium, americium, the bioknetic model was studied. According to ICRP report (1993, 1995, 1997) and other research, the

  6. Americium product solidification and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The americium product from the TRUEX processing plant needs to be converted into a form suitable for ultimate disposal. An evaluation of the disposal based on safety, number of process steps, demonstrated operability of the processes, production of low-level alpha waste streams, and simplicity of maintenance with low radiation exposures to personnel during maintenance, has been made. The best process is to load the americium on a cation exchange resin followed by calcination or oxidation of the resin after loading

  7. Spectrochemical analysis of curium and americium samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectrochemical procedures have been developed to determine impurities in americium and curium samples. The simultaneous separation of many impurity elements from the base material (americium and curium) is carried out with extraction and extraction-chromatographic methods using di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid. It is shown that part of the elements are separated with extraction or sorption of americium and curium; the other part with the Talspeak process. Two fractions in the extraction chromatography and three fractions in the extraction separation of americium and curium, containing impurities, are analyzed separately by a.c. or d.c. arc spectrography. To increase the sensitivity of the spectrographic analysis and accelerate the burn-up of impurities from the crater of the carbon electrode bismuth fluoride and sodium chloride were used as chemically active substances. The extraction of impurities from weighed quantities of americium and curium samples of 5 to 10 mg permits the lower limit of determined impurity concentrations to be extended to 1 x 10-4 to 5 x 10-3% m/m. (author)

  8. Pyrochemical technology of plutonium and americium preparation and purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrochemical tecnology of metallic plutonium and americium preparation and purification is considered. Investigations into plutonium dioxide reduction up to metal; plutonium electrolytic refining in molten salts; plutonium extraction from the molten salts and preparation of americium dioxide and metallic americium from its tetrafluoride are described

  9. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  10. 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident: psychological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidents involving exposure to radiation or radioactive materials may involve an unusual degree of emotional trauma. Methods that may be employed in dealing with such trauma are discussed in relation to a specific accident in which a radiation worker was injured and seriously contaminated with americium-241

  11. Incentives for transmutation of americium in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes possible benefits when americium is irradiated in a thermal reactor. If all plutonium is partitioned from spent fuel, americium is the main contributor to the radiotoxicity of spent fuel upto several thousands of years of storage. It is shown that americium can be transmuted to other nuclides upon irradiation in a thermal reactor, leading to a 50% reduction of the radiotoxicity of neptunium, which can be an important contributor to the dose due to leakage of nuclides after one million years of storage. The radiotoxicity of americium can be reduced considerably after irradiation for 3 to 6 years in a thermal reactor with thermal neutron flux of 1014 cm-2s-1. The strongly α and neutron emitting transmutation products can most probably not be recycled again, so a transmutation process is suggested in which americium is irradiated for 3 to 6 years and then put to final storage. It is shown that the radiotoxicity of the transmuation products after a storage time of about one hundred years can be considerably reduced compared to the radiotoxicity of the initial americium. The same holds for the α activity and heat emission of the transmutation products. Because plutonium in spent fuel contributes for about 80% to the radiotoxicity upto 105 years of storage, recycling and transmutation of plutonium has first priority. Transmutation of americium is only meaningful when the radiotoxicity of plutonium is reduced far below the radiotoxicity of americium. (orig.)

  12. Surface complexation modeling of americium sorption onto volcanic tuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, M; Kelkar, S; Meijer, A

    2014-10-01

    Results of a surface complexation model (SCM) for americium sorption on volcanic rocks (devitrified and zeolitic tuff) are presented. The model was developed using PHREEQC and based on laboratory data for americium sorption on quartz. Available data for sorption of americium on quartz as a function of pH in dilute groundwater can be modeled with two surface reactions involving an americium sulfate and an americium carbonate complex. It was assumed in applying the model to volcanic rocks from Yucca Mountain, that the surface properties of volcanic rocks can be represented by a quartz surface. Using groundwaters compositionally representative of Yucca Mountain, americium sorption distribution coefficient (Kd, L/Kg) values were calculated as function of pH. These Kd values are close to the experimentally determined Kd values for americium sorption on volcanic rocks, decreasing with increasing pH in the pH range from 7 to 9. The surface complexation constants, derived in this study, allow prediction of sorption of americium in a natural complex system, taking into account the inherent uncertainty associated with geochemical conditions that occur along transport pathways.

  13. Rapacuronium bromide (Organon Teknika).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, A N

    1999-07-01

    Organon Teknika's rapacuronium bromide (Org-9487), the 16-N-allyl, 17-beta-propionate analog of vecuronium bromide, is in phase III clinical trials in the US and Europe for potential use as an anesthetic. It is a steroidal neuromuscular blocking drug characterized by low potency, rapid rate of block development and short time course of neuromuscular blocking action as compared with other non-depolarizing compounds [170210,221422]. A multicenter, randomized, assessor-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study in patients undergoing tracheal intubation showed that the drug produced a dose dependent neuromuscular block. Doses of 1.5 to 2 mg/kg allowed rapid intubation and short duration of action [273336]. Another study showed that the drug does not cause cardiovascular side-effects [273336]. A meeting was held in Europe on 8 February 1999 to brief company employees on the registration and release of rapacuronium [319211] for which the company anticipates a launch in late 1999 [320706]. Organon estimates that the market value of Org-9487 is between dollar 100 m and dollar 250 m a year, each for Europe and the US [221422].

  14. Electrochemical oxidation of americium in nitric medium: study of reaction mechanisms; Oxydation de l'americium par voie electrochimique: etude des mecanismes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picart, S.; Chartier, D.; Donnet, L.; Adnet, J.M. [CEA Valrho, (DCC/DRRV/SPHA), 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2000-07-01

    One alternative selected by the CEA for partitioning minor actinides from aqueous solutions containing fission products is the selective extraction of oxidized americium. This is the SESAME process (Selective Extraction and Separation of Americium by Means of Electrolysis) aimed to convert americium to oxidation state (VI) and then extract it with a specific extractant of high valences. This paper presents the study of the electrochemical oxidation of americium in nitric medium which represents an important stage of the process. The reaction can be divided into two main steps: oxidation of americium (III) to americium (IV), and then of americium (IV) to americium (VI). For the first oxidation step, a ligand L is needed to stabilize the intermediate species americium (IV) which disproportionates in its free form into americium (III) and (V). Phospho-tungstate or silico-tungstate are appropriate ligands because they are stable in concentrated nitric acid and show a great affinity for metallic cations at oxidation state (IV) (Table 1 lists the stability constants of americium (IV) complexes). The presence of the lacunary poly-anion lowers the potential of the americium (IV) / americium (Ill) redox pair (see Figure 5 for the diagram of the apparent formal potential of americium versus ligand concentration). This makes it thermodynamically possible to oxidize americium (III) into americium (IV) at the anode of an electrolyzer in nitric acid. For the second oxidation step, a strong oxidant redox mediator, like silver (II), is needed to convert complexed americium at oxidation state (IV) to oxidation state (V). The AmVL complex is then hydrolyzed to yield americyle (V) aqua ion. A spectroscopic Raman study with {sup 18}O labeled species showed that the oxygen atoms of the americyle moiety came from water. This indicates that water hydrolyzes the americium (V) complex to produce americyle (V) aqua ion, AmO{sub 2}{sup +}. This cation reacts with silver (Il) to give

  15. Higher Americium Oxidation State Research Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincher, Bruce J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Law, Jack D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Goff, George S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shehee, Thomas C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hobbs, David T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-18

    The partitioning of hexavalent Am from dissolved nuclear fuel requires the ability to efficiently oxidize Am(III) to Am(VI) and to maintain that oxidation state for a length of time sufficient to perform the separation. Several oxidants have been, or are being developed. Chemical oxidants include Ag-catalyzed ozone, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate, Cu(III) periodate, and sodium bismuthate. Hexavalent americium has also now successfully been prepared by electrolysis, using functionalized electrodes. So-called auto-reduction rates of Am(VI) are sufficiently slow to allow for separations. However, for separations based on solvent extraction or ion exchange using organic resins, the high valence state must be maintained under the reducing conditions of the organic phase contact, and a holding oxidant is probably necessary. Until now, only Cu(III) periodate and sodium bismuthate oxidation have been successfully combined with solvent extraction separations. Bismuthate oxidation provided the higher DAm, since it acts as its own holding oxidant, and a successful hot test using centrifugal contactors was performed. For the other oxidants, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate will not oxidize americium in nitric acid concentrations above 0.3 M, and it is not being further investigated. Peroxydisulfate in the absence of Ag catalysis is being used to prepare Am(V) in ion exchange work, discussed below. Preliminary work with Ag-catalyzed ozone has been unsuccessful for extractions of Am(VI) from 6.5 M HNO3, and only one attempt at extraction, also from 6.5 M HNO3, using the electrolytic oxidation has been attempted. However, this high acid concentration was based on the highest Am extraction efficiency using the bismuthate oxidant; which is only sparingly soluble, and thus the oxidation yield is based on bismuthate solubility. Lower acid concentrations may be sufficient with alternative oxidants and work with Ag-ozone, Cu(III) and electrolysis is on-going. Two non

  16. Methylnaltrexone bromide methanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Zhou

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound [systematic name: (4R,4aS,7aR,12bS-3-cyclopropylmethyl-4a,9-hydroxy-7-oxo-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-3-ium bromide methanol monosolvate], C21H26NO4+·Br−·CH3OH, two of the three six-membered rings adopt chair conformations while the third, which contains a C=C double bond, adopts an approximate half-boat conformation. The 2,3-dihydrofuran ring adopts an envelope conformation. In the crystal, the components are linked by O—H...O and O—H...Br hydrogen bonds. The absolute stereochemistry was inferred from one of the starting materials.

  17. Iron bromide vapor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, V. B.; Shiyanov, D. V.; Trigub, M. V.; Dimaki, V. A.; Evtushenko, G. S.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the characteristics of a pulsed gas-discharge laser on iron bromide vapor generating radiation with a wavelength of 452.9 nm at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 5-30 kHz. The maximum output power amounted to 10 mW at a PRF within 5-15 kHz for a voltage of 20-25 kV applied to electrodes of the discharge tube. Addition of HBr to the medium produced leveling of the radial profile of emission. Initial weak lasing at a wavelength of 868.9 nm was observed for the first time, which ceased with buildup of the main 452.9-nm line.

  18. Plutonium and Americium Geochemistry at Hanford: A Site Wide Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-08-23

    This report was produced to provide a systematic review of the state-of-knowledge of plutonium and americium geochemistry at the Hanford Site. The report integrates existing knowledge of the subsurface migration behavior of plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site with available information in the scientific literature regarding the geochemistry of plutonium and americium in systems that are environmentally relevant to the Hanford Site. As a part of the report, key research needs are identified and prioritized, with the ultimate goal of developing a science-based capability to quantitatively assess risk at sites contaminated with plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site and the impact of remediation technologies and closure strategies.

  19. Mixed chelation therapy for removal of plutonium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron-binding compounds, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA), and 2-(acetyloxy)benzoic acid (ABA), were tested for their ability to remove americium and plutonium from rats following intraperitioneal injection of the radionuclides as citrates (pH 5). Treatments, 2 mmol/kg, were given on days 3, 6, 10, 12 and 14 following the actinide injection. DHBA and HBA caused about a 20% decrease in liver retention of americium compared to the control value, and DHB caused a similar effect for plutonium. The above agents, co-administered with 0.5 mmol polyaminopolycarboxylic acid (PAPCA)-type chelons, did not change tissue retention of americium and plutonium from that due to the PAPCAs alone. Administration of americium and plutonium to the same rats is useful for studying removal agents since the two actinides behave independently in their biological disposition and response to removal

  20. Gamma-sources on the basis of metallic americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A batch of gamma-radiation sources has been manufactured from metallic americium-241 of isotopic purity, its activity varying from 0.08 to 0.93 GBq. The cores of the sources are high-purity americium metal condensate on a tantalum or stainless steel substrate prepared by thermal decomposition of 241Pu-241Am alloy in a high vacuum. 7 refs., 1 tab

  1. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For Americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  2. Pyrochemical investigations into recovering plutonium from americium extraction salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress into developing a pyrochemical technique for separating and recovering plutonium from spent americium extraction waste salts has concentrated on selective chemical reduction with lanthanum metal and calcium metal and on the solvent extraction of americium with calcium metal. Both techniques are effective for recovering plutonium from the waste salt, although neither appears suitable as a separation technique for recycling a plutonium stream back to mainline purification processes. 17 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Electrochemical oxidation of americium in nitric medium: study of reaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One alternative selected by the CEA for partitioning minor actinides from aqueous solutions containing fission products is the selective extraction of oxidized americium. This is the SESAME process (Selective Extraction and Separation of Americium by Means of Electrolysis) aimed to convert americium to oxidation state (VI) and then extract it with a specific extractant of high valences. This paper presents the study of the electrochemical oxidation of americium in nitric medium which represents an important stage of the process. The reaction can be divided into two main steps: oxidation of americium (III) to americium (IV), and then of americium (IV) to americium (VI). For the first oxidation step, a ligand L is needed to stabilize the intermediate species americium (IV) which disproportionates in its free form into americium (III) and (V). Phospho-tungstate or silico-tungstate are appropriate ligands because they are stable in concentrated nitric acid and show a great affinity for metallic cations at oxidation state (IV) (Table 1 lists the stability constants of americium (IV) complexes). The presence of the lacunary poly-anion lowers the potential of the americium (IV) / americium (Ill) redox pair (see Figure 5 for the diagram of the apparent formal potential of americium versus ligand concentration). This makes it thermodynamically possible to oxidize americium (III) into americium (IV) at the anode of an electrolyzer in nitric acid. For the second oxidation step, a strong oxidant redox mediator, like silver (II), is needed to convert complexed americium at oxidation state (IV) to oxidation state (V). The AmVL complex is then hydrolyzed to yield americyle (V) aqua ion. A spectroscopic Raman study with 18O labeled species showed that the oxygen atoms of the americyle moiety came from water. This indicates that water hydrolyzes the americium (V) complex to produce americyle (V) aqua ion, AmO2+. This cation reacts with silver (Il) to give americyle (VI) ion. Figure

  4. Applicability of insoluble tannin to treatment of waste containing americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applicability of insoluble tannin adsorbent to the treatment of aqueous waste contaminated with americium has been investigated. Insoluble tannin is considered highly applicable because it consists of only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and so its volume can be easily reduced by incineration. This report describes measurements of the americium distribution coefficient in low concentration nitric acid. The americium distribution coefficients were found to decrease with increasing concentration of nitric acid and sodium nitrate, and with increasing temperature. At 25 C in 2.0 x 10-3 M HNO3, the distribution coefficient was found to be 2000 ml g-1. The adsorption capacity was determined by column experiments using europium as a simulant of americium, and found to be 7 x 10-3 mmol g-1-dried tannin in 0.01 M HNO3 at 25 C, which corresponds to approximately 1.7 mg-241Am/g-adsorbent(dried). The prospect of applying the adsorbent to the treatment of aqueous waste contaminated with americium appears promising. (orig.)

  5. Salvage of plutonium-and americium-contaminated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melt-slagging techniques were evaluated as a decontamination and consolidation step for metals contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium. Experiments were performed in which mild steel, stainless steel, and nickel metals contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium were melted in the presence of silicate slags of various compositions. The metal products were low in contamination, with the plutonium and americium strongly fractionated to the slags. Partition coefficients (plutonium in slag/plutonium in steel) of 7*10/sup 6/ with borosilicate slag and 3*10/sup 6/ for calcium, magnesium silicate slag were measured. Decontamination of metals containing as much as 14,000 p.p.m. plutonium appears to be as efficient as that of metals with plutonium levels of 400 p.p.m. Staged extraction, that is, a remelting of processed metal with clean slag, results in further decontamination of the metal. 10 refs

  6. 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident: overview and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salient features of the 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident are discussed. Comparisons are made with previous human and animal exposure data, and conclusions drawn relative to the injured workman, to health physics practices, and to the adequacy of current exposure limits

  7. Reduction Rates for Higher Americium Oxidation States in Nitric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Travis Shane [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mincher, Bruce Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schmitt, Nicholas C [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The stability of hexavalent americium was measured using multiple americium concentrations and nitric acid concentrations after contact with the strong oxidant sodium bismuthate. Contrary to our hypotheses Am(VI) was not reduced faster at higher americium concentrations, and the reduction was only zero-order at short time scales. Attempts to model the reduction kinetics using zero order kinetic models showed Am(VI) reduction in nitric acid is more complex than the autoreduction processes reported by others in perchloric acid. The classical zero-order reduction of Am(VI) was found here only for short times on the order of a few hours. We did show that the rate of Am(V) production was less than the rate of Am(VI) reduction, indicating that some Am(VI) undergoes two electron-reduction to Am(IV). We also monitored the Am(VI) reduction in contact with the organic diluent dodecane. A direct comparison of these results with those in the absence of the organic diluent showed the reduction rates for Am(VI) were not statistically different for both systems. Additional americium oxidations conducted in the presence of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ions showed that Am(VI) is reduced without the typical growth of Am(V) observed in the systems sans Ce ion. This was an interesting result which suggests a potential new reduction/oxidation pathway for Am in the presence of Ce; however, these results were very preliminary, and will require additional experiments to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. Overall, these studies have shown that hexavalent americium is fundamentally stable enough in nitric acid to run a separations process. However, the complicated nature of the reduction pathways based on the system components is far from being rigorously understood.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of uranium-americium mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Americium isotopes represent a significant part of high-level and long-lived nuclear waste in spent fuels. Among the envisaged reprocessing scenarios, their transmutation in fast neutron reactors using uranium-americium mixed-oxide pellets (U1-xAmxO2±δ) is a promising option which would help decrease the ecological footprint of ultimate waste repository sites. In this context, this thesis is dedicated to the study of such compounds over a wide range of americium contents (7.5 at.% ≤ Am/(U+Am) ≤ 70 at.%), with an emphasis on their fabrication from single-oxide precursors and the assessment of their structural and thermodynamic stabilities, also taking self-irradiation effects into account. Results highlight the main influence of americium reduction to Am(+III), not only on the mechanisms of solid-state formation of the U1-xAmxO2±δ solid solution, but also on the stabilization of oxidized uranium cations and the formation of defects in the oxygen sublattice such as vacancies and cub-octahedral clusters. In addition, the data acquired concerning the stability of U1-xAmxO2±δ compounds (existence of a miscibility gap, vaporization behavior) were compared to calculations based on new thermodynamic modelling of the U-Am-O ternary system. Finally, α-self-irradiation-induced structural effects on U1-xAmxO2±δ compounds were analyzed using XRD, XAS and TEM, allowing the influence of americium content on the structural swelling to be studied as well as the description of the evolution of radiation-induced structural defects. (author)

  9. Neptunium and americium control for international non-proliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was decided in the IAEA Board of Governors Meeting held in Sept. 1999 that Neptunium and Americium could be diverted for manufacturing nuclear weapon or explosives, so that appropriate measures should be taken for the prevention of proliferation of these materials. It is expected to take relatively long time for settling down the aligned system dealing with the above materials because the present regulatory statement was prepared on the basis of voluntary offers from the States concerned. The necessity of preventive measures is being convinced among Member States, but it would not be easy to take voluntary participation in detail because of their respective interests. It is expected that this paper could contribute to the effective response as to the international commitments as well as for protecting the domestic nuclear industry and R and D area through analysis on the IAEA's approach on Neptunium and Americium

  10. Thermophysical properties of americium-containing barium plutonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycrystalline specimens of americium-containing barium plutonate have been prepared by mixing the appropriate amounts of (Pu0.91Am0.09)O2 and BaCO3 powders followed by reacting and sintering at 1600 K under the flowing gas atmosphere of dry-air. The sintered specimens had a single phase of orthorhombic perovskite structure and were crack-free. Elastic moduli were determined from longitudinal and shear sound velocities. Debye temperature was also determined from sound velocities and lattice parameter measurements. Thermal conductivity was calculated from measured density at room temperature, literature values of heat capacity and thermal diffusivity measured by laser flash method in vacuum. Thermal conductivity of americium-containing barium plutonate was roughly independent of temperature and registered almost the same magnitude as that of BaPuO3 and BaUO3. (author)

  11. 1976 Hanford americium-exposure incident: decontamination and treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An injured worker, contaminated with over 6 mCi of americium-241, required special treatment and housing for 4 months. This paper is a description of the design and management of the facility in which most of the treatment and housing occurred. The problems associated with contamination control, waste handling, supplies, and radiological concerns during the two-stage transfer of the patient from a controlled situation to his normal living environment are discussed in detail

  12. Ingestion Pathway Transfer Factors for Plutonium and Americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-07-28

    Overall transfer factors for major ingestion pathways are derived for plutonium and americium. These transfer factors relate the radionuclide concentration in a given foodstuff to deposition on the soil. Equations describing basic relationships consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.109 are followed. Updated values and coefficients from IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 364 are used when a available. Preference is given to using factors specific to the Savannah River Site.

  13. Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzPatrick, John R.; Dunn, Jerry G.; Avens, Larry R.

    1987-01-01

    Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides. AmF.sub.4 is not further oxidized to AmF.sub.6 by the application of O.sub.2 F at room temperature, while plutonium compounds present in the americium sample are fluorinated to volatile PuF.sub.6, which can readily be separated therefrom, leaving the purified americium oxides and/or fluorides as the solid tetrafluoride.

  14. Gut uptake factors for plutonium, americium and curium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on estimates of the absorption of plutonium, americium and curium from the human gut based on measurements of uptake in other mammalian species are reviewed. It is proposed that for all adult members of the public ingesting low concentrations of plutonium in food and water, 0.05% would be an appropriate value of absorption except when the conditions of exposure are known and a lower value can be justified. For dietary intakes of americium and curium, the available data do not warrant a change from the ICRP value of 0.05%. For newborn children ingesting americium, curium and soluble forms of plutonium, a value of 1% absorption is proposed for the first 3 months of life during which the infant is maintained on a milk diet. It is proposed that a value of 0.5% should be used for the first year of life to take account of the gradual maturation of the gut. In considering the ingestion of insoluble oxides of plutonium by infants, it is proposed that absorption is taken as 0.1% for the first 3 months and 0.05% for the first year. (author)

  15. Conversion of Alcohols to Bromides by Trimethylsilane and lithium Bromide in Acetone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Feng; Zhang Xiao-xia; Zhang Qing; Wang Ji-yu; Chen Dai-mo

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of alcohols to alkyl bromides is one of the most frequently used functional group transformation reactions. Phosphorus tribromide is one of the most popular classical reagents.Triphenylphosphine has been used in combination with bromine,carbon tetrabromide,N-halo imides and other bromide compounds as a mild reagents for the preparation of alkyl bromides.More reacently, halotrimethylsilanes were found to be useful for halogenation of alcohols. George A.Olah successfully converted alcohols to bromides with chlorotrimethylsilane/lithium bromide in acetonitrile. But in our research, we found that we got no bromides but methylation products when we planed to convered our substances to bromides according to Gerge's method. We did some experiments, and we found that when the substituent group in the 2-N was donor group,we got the methylation products,but when it was acceptor group,the bromide could be got.(Scheme 1).Then we did some experiments with several other solvents, we found excitedly that when the solvent was acetone ,the bromides could be got even the substituent group was donor.(Scheme 2).When we changed the substances to normal alcohols ,such as ethyl alcohol,benzyl alcohol,isopropyl alcohol and 3,4-dimethoxy benzyl alcohol,we also got the bromides.In conclusion, we found a simple method to convert alcohols to bromides with trimethylsilane/li thium bromide in acetone,which was better than Geroge's method.

  16. Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations measured from the 125-meter Hanford Meteorological Tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations and fluxes were measured at six heights from 1.9 to 122 m on the Hanford meteorological tower. The data show that plutonium-239 was transported on nonrespirable and small particles at all heights. Airborne americium-241 concentrations on small particles were maximum at the 91 m height

  17. 10 CFR 31.8 - Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL § 31.8 Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources. (a..., americium-241 or radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources: (1) Any person in a...

  18. Uncertainty analysis of doses from ingestion of plutonium and americium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncher, M; Harrison, J D

    2012-02-01

    Uncertainty analyses have been performed on the biokinetic model for americium currently used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and the model for plutonium recently derived by Leggett, considering acute intakes by ingestion by adult members of the public. The analyses calculated distributions of doses per unit intake. Those parameters having the greatest impact on prospective doses were identified by sensitivity analysis; the most important were the fraction absorbed from the alimentary tract, f(1), and rates of uptake from blood to bone surfaces. Probability distributions were selected based on the observed distribution of plutonium and americium in human subjects where possible; the distributions for f(1) reflected uncertainty on the average value of this parameter for non-specified plutonium and americium compounds ingested by adult members of the public. The calculated distributions of effective doses for ingested (239)Pu and (241)Am were well described by log-normal distributions, with doses varying by around a factor of 3 above and below the central values; the distributions contain the current ICRP Publication 67 dose coefficients for ingestion of (239)Pu and (241)Am by adult members of the public. Uncertainty on f(1) values had the greatest impact on doses, particularly effective dose. It is concluded that: (1) more precise data on f(1) values would have a greater effect in reducing uncertainties on doses from ingested (239)Pu and (241)Am, than reducing uncertainty on other model parameter values and (2) the results support the dose coefficients (Sv Bq(-1) intake) derived by ICRP for ingestion of (239)Pu and (241)Am by adult members of the public.

  19. Recovery of americium-241 from aged plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After separation and purification, both actinides were precipitated as oxalates and calcined. A large-scale process was developed using dissolution, separation, purification, precipitation, and calcination. Efforts were made to control corrosion, to avoid product contamination, to keep the volume of process and waste solutions manageable, and to denitrate solutions with formic acid. The Multipurpose Processing Facility (MPPF), designed for recovery of transplutonium isotopes, was used for the first time for the precipitation and calcination of americium. Also, for the first time,, large-scale formic acid denitration was performed in a canyon vessel at SRP

  20. Effect of 241-americium on bone marrow stroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulation of haemopoiesis occurs via complex interactions between the stroma and the haemopoietic cells. An attempt to further clarifying the mechanisms and the exact role of the stroma in the regulation was made in a study. Results revealed that the murine bone marrow stromal cells are highly radiosensitive after injection with 241-americium and can thus be considered as a target population after internal contamination. In addition, observations are made which may be important for risk estimation for the developing animal and during pregnancy. Contamination in utero and by lactation shows persistent damage up to 1 year after contamination at an average annual dose of 5 cGy. (author)

  1. Preferential decorporation of americium by pulmonary administration of DTPA dry powder after inhalation of aged PuO2 containing americium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After inhalation of plutonium oxides containing various percentages of americium in rats, we identified an acellular transient pulmonary compartment, the epithelial lining fluid (ELF), in which a fraction of actinide oxides dissolve prior to absorption and subsequent extrapulmonary deposit. Chelation therapy is usually considered to be poorly efficient after inhalation of actinide oxides. However, in the present study, prompt pulmonary administration of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as a dry powder led to a decrease in actinide content in ELF together with a limitation of bone and liver deposits. Because americium is more soluble than plutonium, higher amounts of americium were found in ELF, extrapulmonary tissues and urine. Our results also demonstrated that the higher efficacy of DTPA on americium compared to plutonium in ELF induced a preferential inhibition of extrapulmonary deposit and a greater urinary excretion of americium compared to plutonium. All together, our data justify the use of an early and local DTPA treatment after inhalation of plutonium oxide aerosols in which americium can be in high proportion such as in aged compounds. (authors)

  2. Kilogram-scale purification of americium by ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelwright, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Sequential anion and cation exchange processes have been used for the final purification of /sup 241/Am recovered during the reprocessing of aged plutonium metallurgical scrap. Plutonium was removed by absorption of Dowex 1, X-3.5 (30 to 50 mesh) anion exchange resin from 6.5 to 7.5 M HNO/sub 3/ feed solution. Following a water dilution to 0.75 to 1.0 M HNO/sub 3/, americium was absorbed on Dowex 50W, X-8 (50 to 100 mesh) cation exchange resion. Final purification was accomplished by elution of the absorbed band down 3 to 4 successive beds of the same resin, preloaded with Zn/sup 2 +/, with an NH/sub 4/OH buffered chelating agent. The recovery of mixed /sup 241/Am-/sup 243/Am from power reactor reprocessing waste has been demonstrated. Solvent extraction was used to recover a HNO/sub 3/ solution of mixed lanthanides and actinides from waste generated by the reprocessng of 13.5 tons of Shippingport Power Reactor blanket fuel. Sequential cation exchange band-displacement processes were then used to separate americium and curium from the lanthanides and then to separate approx. 60 g of /sup 244/Cm from 1000 g of mixed /sup 241/Am-/sup 243/Am.

  3. Analytical performance of radiochemical method for americium determination in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an analytical method developed and adapted for separation and analysis of Plutonium (Pu) isotopes and Americium (Am) in urine samples. The proposed method will attend the demand of internal exposure monitoring program for workers involved mainly with dismantling rods and radioactive smoke detectors. In this experimental procedure four steps are involved as preparation of samples, sequential radiochemical separation, preparation of the source for electroplating and quantification by alpha spectrometry. In the first stage of radiochemical separation, plutonium is conventionally isolated employing the anion exchange technique. Americium isolation is achieved sequentially by chromatographic extraction (Tru.spec column) from the load and rinse solutions coming from the anion exchange column. The 243Am tracer is added into the sample as chemical yield monitors and to correct the results improving the precision and accuracy. The mean recovery obtained is 60%, and the detection limit for 24h urine sample is 1.0 mBq L-1 in accordance with the literature. Based in the preliminary results, the method is appropriate to be used in monitoring programme of workers with a potential risk of internal contamination. (author)

  4. Development of separation techniques of americium from reprocessing solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Americium(Am) and neptunium(Np) finally transfer to the waste stream in the current PUREX reprocessing process. As an option, some methods have been developed to recover Am and Np from the waste stream to decrease long-term toxicity of the high level waste. The most stable valence state of Am is III, but TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate) which is an extractant used in the PUREX reprocessing does not extract Am(III). Therefore, some special extractants have been developed to recover Am(III). However, they also extract rare-earth elements(REs), which necessitates the separation process for Am from REs. We have been developing a separation process which consists of valence control of Am to the VI state and its extraction with TBP. This process allows Am recovery from reprocessing solution and Am separation from REs simultaneously. Americium(III) is oxidized to Am(VI) by electrochemical oxidation and chemical oxidation using peroxodisulfate ammonium and silver nitrate. The latter was adopted here because the chemical oxidation reaction proceeds faster than the electrochemical method. Reaction mechanisms of oxidation and extraction were investigated. Based on the mechanisms, we found that extraction efficiency could be improved and waste generation could be minimized. (author)

  5. Selective leaching studies of deep-sea sediments loaded with americium, neptunium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of selective leaching experiments were undertaken to investigate the solid phase speciation and distribution of americium, neptunium and plutonium which had been experimentally loaded onto different marine sediment types. The chemical leaches employed showed rather poor selectivity but certain trends were evident. Adsorption was not by ion exchange. Americium showed a preferential affinity for carbonate and plutonium for organic matter. Neptunium appeared to have no preferential affinities. Americium was sorbed by acetic acid residues (CaCO3 removed) and by unleached carbonate-rich sediments with equal efficiency. This indicates that it is able to diversify its solid phase affinity/distribution depending upon which solid phases are available. (author)

  6. Investigation of drug interactions with pinaverium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devred, C; Godeau, P; Guerot, C; Librez, P; Mougeot, G; Orsetti, A; Segrestaa, J M

    1986-01-01

    A series of studies was carried out at 6 centres to investigate possible drug interaction between the spasmolytic, pinaverium bromide, and cardiac glycosides, anticoagulants and hypoglycaemic agents given to patients as part of the long-term treatment of their condition. The results of clinical and laboratory investigations did not show any evidence of pinaverium bromide interfering with the action or activity of any of the drugs studied. PMID:3084176

  7. Pretreatment of americium/curium solutions for vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to the heavy isotope programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Prior to vitrification, an in-tank oxalate precipitation and a series of oxalic/nitric acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Pretreatment development experiments were performed to understand the behavior of the lanthanides and the metal impurities during the oxalate precipitation and properties of the precipitate slurry. The results of these experiments will be used to refine the target glass composition allowing optimization of the primary processing parameters and design of the solution transfer equipment

  8. Plutonium and americium in sediments of Lithuanian lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of contribution of the global and the Chernobyl NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) accident plutonium and americium to plutonium pollution in sediments of Lithuanian lakes is presented. Theoretical evaluation of activity ratios of 238Pu/239+240Pu and 241Pu/239+240Pu in the reactor of unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP before the accident was performed by means of the ORIGEN-ARP code from the SCALE 4.4A program package. Non-uniform distribution of radionuclides in depositions on the Lithuanian territory after nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl NPP accident is experimentally observed by measuring the lake sediment pollution with actinides. The activity concentration of sediments polluted with plutonium ranges from 2.0 ± 0.5 Bq/kg d.w. (dry weight) in Lake Asavelis to 14 ± 2 Bq/kg d.w. in Lake Juodis. The ratio of activity concentrations of plutonium isotopes 238Pu/239+240Pu measured by α-spectrometry in the 10-cm-thick upper layer of bottom sediment varies from 0.03 in Lake Juodis to 0.3 in Lake Zuvintas. The analysis of the ratio values shows that the deposition of the Chernobyl origin plutonium is prevailing in southern and south-western regions of Lithuania. Plutonium of nuclear weapon tests origin in sediments of lakes is observed on the whole territory of Lithuania, and it is especially distinct in central Lithuania. The americium activity due to 241Pu decay after the Chernobyl NPP accident and global depositions in bottom sediments of Lithuanian lakes has been evaluated to be from 0.9 to 5.7 Bq/kg. (author)

  9. Kinetic parameters of transformation of americium and plutonium physicochemical forms in podsol soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetic parameters of transformation of americium and plutonium physicochemical forms have been estimated and the prognosis of fixing and remobilization of these nuclides in podsol soils have been made on that basis in the work. (authors)

  10. Calibration procedures for in vivo sodium iodide spectrometry of plutonium and americium in the human lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the calibration techniques and associated error analysis for the in vivo measurement by NaI spectrometry of heavy elements in the lung, specifically plutonium and americium. A very brief description of the instrumentation system is included

  11. Relativistic density functional theory modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsevskii, Andréi; Mosyagin, Nikolai S.; Titov, Anatoly V.; Kiselev, Yuri M.

    2013-07-01

    The results of electronic structure modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules (actinide oxidation states VI through VIII) by two-component relativistic density functional theory are presented. Ground-state equilibrium molecular structures, main features of charge distributions, and energetics of AnO3, AnO4, An2On (An=Pu, Am), and PuAmOn, n = 6-8, are determined. In all cases, molecular geometries of americium and mixed plutonium-americium oxides are similar to those of the corresponding plutonium compounds, though chemical bonding in americium oxides is markedly weaker. Relatively high stability of the mixed heptoxide PuAmO7 is noticed; the Pu(VIII) and especially Am(VIII) oxides are expected to be unstable.

  12. Distribution of uranium, americium and plutonium in the biomass of freshwater macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotina, T.A.; Kalacheva, G.S.; Bolsunovsky, A.YA. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    Accumulation of uranium ({sup 238}U), americium ({sup 241}Am) and plutonium ({sup 242}Pu) and their distribution in cell compartments and biochemical components of the biomass of aquatic plants Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Myrioplyllum spicatum and aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica have been investigated in laboratory batch experiments. Isotopes of uranium, americium and plutonium taken up from the water by Elodea canadensis apical shoots were mainly absorbed by cell walls, plasmalemma and organelles. A small portion of isotopes (about 6-13 %) could be dissolved in cytoplasm. The major portion (76-92 %) of americium was bound to cell wall cellulose-like polysaccharides of Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum, Ceratophyllum demersum and Fontinalis antipyretica, 8-23 % of americium activity was registered in the fraction of proteins and carbohydrates, and just a small portion (< 1%) in lipid fraction. The distribution of plutonium in the biomass fraction of Elodea was similar to that of americium. Hence, americium and plutonium had the highest affinity to cellulose-like polysaccharides in Elodea biomass. Distribution of uranium in the biomass of Elodea differed essentially from that of transuranium elements: a considerable portion of uranium was recorded in the fraction of protein and carbohydrates (51 %). From our data we can assume that uranium has higher affinity to carbohydrates than proteins. (authors)

  13. [The clinical pharmacological profile of pinaverium bromide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guslandi, M

    1994-04-01

    Pinaverium bromide is a locally acting spasmolytic agent of the digestive tract. Its mechanism of action relies upon inhibition of calcium ion entrance into smooth muscle cells (calcium-antagonist effect). In humans pinaverium facilitates gastric emptying and decreases intestinal transit time in patients with constipation. Pinaverium is very effective in improving symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (abdominal pain, gas, diarrhea or constipation). In this respect the drug proved to be significantly superior to placebo, at least as effective as trimebutine and on the whole more active than otilonium and prifinium bromide, being always extremely well tolerated. PMID:8028745

  14. Effects of pinaverium bromide on Oddi's sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSomma, C; Reboa, G; Patrone, M G; Mortola, G P; Sala, G; Ciampini, M

    1986-01-01

    Twelve to 15 days after cholecystectomy, endocholedochal pressure was measured in ten patients before and one hour after oral administration of 15 mg of pinaverium bromide (six patients) or placebo. The mean endocholedochal pressure was 7.1 +/- 0.25 mmHg before and 3.1 +/- 0.2 mmHg after pinaverium (P less than 0.01), and 7.0 +/- 0.2 and 6.8 +/- 1.2 mmHg in the placebo-treated patients. The results suggest that pinaverium bromide has a specific effect on the common bile duct and probably on Oddi's sphincter. PMID:3815457

  15. Effect of americium-241 on luminous bacteria. Role of peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrova, M., E-mail: maka-alexandrova@rambler.r [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Rozhko, T. [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Vydryakova, G. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kudryasheva, N. [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-15

    The effect of americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), an alpha-emitting radionuclide of high specific activity, on luminous bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum was studied. Traces of {sup 241}Am in nutrient media (0.16-6.67 kBq/L) suppressed the growth of bacteria, but enhanced luminescence intensity and quantum yield at room temperature. Lower temperature (4 {sup o}C) increased the time of bacterial luminescence and revealed a stage of bioluminescence inhibition after 150 h of bioluminescence registration start. The role of conditions of exposure the bacterial cells to the {sup 241}Am is discussed. The effect of {sup 241}Am on luminous bacteria was attributed to peroxide compounds generated in water solutions as secondary products of radioactive decay. Increase of peroxide concentration in {sup 241}Am solutions was demonstrated; and the similarity of {sup 241}Am and hydrogen peroxide effects on bacterial luminescence was revealed. The study provides a scientific basis for elaboration of bioluminescence-based assay to monitor radiotoxicity of alpha-emitting radionuclides in aquatic solutions. - Highlights: {yields} Am-241 in water solutions (A = 0.16-6.7 kBq/L) suppresses bacterial growth.{yields} Am-241 (A = 0.16-6.7 kBq/L) stimulate bacterial luminescence. {yields} Peroxides, secondary radiolysis products, cause increase of bacterial luminescence.

  16. Electrical polarization of lead bromide crystals. I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonman, A.; Macke, A.J.H.

    1972-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure electronic conductivity in lead bromide in equilibrium with lead, since experimental data on the cell −Pb/PbBr2/C+ in the literature are not consistent with existing theories. Combination of our results with published data for bromine-induced hole conduction in lead br

  17. A comparison of the action of otilonium bromide and pinaverium bromide: study conducted under clinical control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrance, P; Casini, A

    1991-11-01

    We studied 40 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) which received in a simple-blind fashion otilonium and pinaverium bromide (15 days each drug). During each 15-day period we evaluated: number of pain episodes, intensity of pain, number of bowel movements, side effects. Otilonium bromide, (OB), compared with pinaverium bromide was able to significantly (p less than 0.05) reduce the number of pain attacks, whereas no significant differences were found between the 2 groups as regards the other parameters. The occurrence of side effects was similar in the two treatment courses. We can conclude that the two types of treatment were similarly useful in IBS, although OB seems more effective than pinaverium bromide. PMID:1756286

  18. 10 CFR 32.57 - Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. 32.57 Section 32.57... americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. An application... containing americium-241 or radium-226, for distribution to persons generally licensed under § 31.8 of...

  19. Separation and determination of americium in low-level alkaline waste of NPP origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, B.; Djingova, R.; Nikiforova, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a short and cost-saving procedure for the determination of 241Am in sludge sample of the alkaline low-level radioactive waste (LL LRAW) collected from Nuclear Power Plant “Kozloduy”. The determination of americium was a part of a complex analytical approach, where group actinide separation was achieved. An anion exchange was used for separation of americium from uranium, plutonium and iron. For the separation of americium extraction with diethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA) was studied. The final radioactive samples were prepared by micro co-precipitation with NdF3, counted by alpha and gamma spectrometry. The procedure takes 2 hours. The recovery yield of the procedure amounts to (95 ± 1.5)% and the detection limit is 53 mBq/kg 241Am (t=150 000 s). The analytical procedure was applied for actual liquid wastes and results were compared to standard procedure.

  20. Isotopic and elemental composition of plutonium/americium oxides influence pulmonary and extra-pulmonary distribution after inhalation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biodistribution of plutonium and americium has been studied in a rat model after inhalation of two PuO2 powders in lungs and extra-pulmonary organs from 3 d to 3 mo. The main difference between the two powders was the content of americium (approximately 46% and 4.5% of total alpha activity). The PuO2 with a higher proportion of americium shows an accelerated transfer of activity from lungs to blood as compared to PuO2 with the lower americium content, illustrated by increased urinary excretion and higher bone and liver actinide retention. The total alpha activity measured reflects mostly the americium biological behavior. The activity contained in epithelial lining fluid, recovered in the acellular phase of broncho-alveolar lavages, mainly contains americium, whereas plutonium remains trapped in macrophages. Epithelial lining fluid could represent a transitional pulmonary compartment prior to translocation of actinides to the blood and subsequent deposition in extra-pulmonary retention organs. In addition, differential behaviors of plutonium and americium are also observed between the PuO2 powders with a higher dissolution rate for both plutonium and americium being obtained for the PuO2 with the highest americium content. Our results indicate that the biological behavior of plutonium and americium after translocation into blood differ two-fold: (1) for the two actinides for the same PuO2 aerosol, and (2) for the same actinide from the two different aerosols. These results highlight the importance of considering the specific behavior of each contaminant after accidental pulmonary intake when assessing extra-pulmonary deposits from the level of activity excreted in urine or for therapeutic strategy decisions. (authors)

  1. Isotopic and elemental composition of plutonium/americium oxides influence pulmonary and extra-pulmonary distribution after inhalation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Meeren, A; Grémy, O

    2010-09-01

    The biodistribution of plutonium and americium has been studied in a rat model after inhalation of two PuO(2) powders in lungs and extra-pulmonary organs from 3 d to 3 mo. The main difference between the two powders was the content of americium (approximately 46% and 4.5% of total alpha activity). The PuO(2) with a higher proportion of americium shows an accelerated transfer of activity from lungs to blood as compared to PuO(2) with the lower americium content, illustrated by increased urinary excretion and higher bone and liver actinide retention. The total alpha activity measured reflects mostly the americium biological behavior. The activity contained in epithelial lining fluid, recovered in the acellular phase of broncho-alveolar lavages, mainly contains americium, whereas plutonium remains trapped in macrophages. Epithelial lining fluid could represent a transitional pulmonary compartment prior to translocation of actinides to the blood and subsequent deposition in extra-pulmonary retention organs. In addition, differential behaviors of plutonium and americium are also observed between the PuO(2) powders with a higher dissolution rate for both plutonium and americium being obtained for the PuO(2) with the highest americium content. Our results indicate that the biological behavior of plutonium and americium after translocation into blood differ two-fold: (1) for the two actinides for the same PuO(2) aerosol, and (2) for the same actinide from the two different aerosols. These results highlight the importance of considering the specific behavior of each contaminant after accidental pulmonary intake when assessing extra-pulmonary deposits from the level of activity excreted in urine or for therapeutic strategy decisions.

  2. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14C activity in unroasted [14C]-methyl bromide fumigated cocoa beans was used to study the fate and persistence of CH3Br in the stored beans. About 70% of the residues occurred in the shells. Unchanged CH3Br could not be detected, all the sorbed CH3Br having reacted with bean constituents apparently to form 14C-methylated derivatives and inorganic bromide. No 14C activity was found in the lipid fraction. Roasting decreased the bound (non-volatile) residues, with corresponding changes in the activities and amounts of free sugars, free and protein amino acids. Roasted nibs and shells showed a two-fold increase in the volatile fraction of the 14C residue. This fraction may be related to the volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard-type reactions. (author)

  3. [Research advances in methyl bromide in the ocean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui-na; Xie, Wen-xia; Cui, Yu-qian; Chen, Jian-lei; Ye, Si-yuan

    2014-12-01

    Methyl bromide is an important atmospheric trace gas, which plays significant roles in the global warming and atmospheric chemistry. The ocean plays important and complex roles in the global biogeochemical cycles of methyl bromide, not only the source of atmospheric methyl bromide, but also the sink. Therefore, developing the chemical research of the soluble methyl bromide in the ocean, will not only have a certain guiding significance to the atmospheric ozone layer protection, but also provide a theoretical basis for estimating methyl bromide's contribution to the global environmental change on global scale. This paper reviewed the research advances on methyl bromide in the ocean, from the aspects of the biogeochemical cycle of methyl bromide in the ocean, the analysis and determination method, the concentration distribution, the sea-to-air flux and its sources and sinks in the atmosphere. Some deficiencies in the current studies were put forward, and the directions of the future studies were prospected. PMID:25876424

  4. Adsorption-desorption characteristics of plutonium and americium with sediment particles in the estuarine environment: studies using plutonium-237 and americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The particle formation of plutonium and americium, their adsorption onto fresh water sediments and the desorption from the sediments in sea water were studied in the Laboratory under simulated river-estuary conditions, using γ-emitting plutonium-237 and americium-241. The results of the experiments show that the particle formation of plutonium depends on its valence states, on pH and on the salinity of the medium. For river water at pH4, some 25%, 20% and 30% of the added 237Pu was in particulate form, larger than 0.45 μm, for Pu (III), Pu (IV) and Pu (VI), respectively, while 65%, 90% and 50% of the respective valence states was associated with particles at pH 8. In sea water the general pattern remains similar, although Pu (VI) is more soluble in sea water owing to higher ligand concentrations for carbonate and bicarbonate complexes. The pH-dependency of particle formation of Am (III) is more steep than that of plutonium and seems to be influenced by colloidal substances occurring in the experimental media. The adsorption-desorption characteristics of plutonium and americium with the sediment in river water as well as sea water reflect the characteristics of their particle formation, being dependent upon such properties as valence states, the pH and salinity of the medium. A sewage effluent added to the media has small but measurable effects on the adsorption-desorption processes of plutonium. (author)

  5. Cesium-137 and americium-241 distribution by granulometric fractions of soil at Azgir test site grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In measurements of radionuclide specific content in surface soil layer of contaminated territories it is important to determine in what agglomerations of soil particles there is the highest radionuclide concentration. For this purpose granulometric composition of soil at Azgir test site was studied and cesium-137 and americium-241 distribution by soil fractions was researched. (author)

  6. Apparatus for fabrication of americium- beryllium neutron sources prevents capsule contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, W. C.; Van Loom, J. A.

    1967-01-01

    Modified gloved enclosure is used to fill a capsule with a mixture of americium and beryllium radioactive powders to seal weld the opening, and to test it for leaks. It contains a horizontal partition, vortex mixer, mounting press, welder, test vessel, and radiation shielding to prevent surface contamination.

  7. Evaluation of the readsorption of plutonium and americium in dynamic fractionations of environmental solid samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Roongrat; Hou, Xiaolin; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2008-01-01

    extractions. The degree of readsorption in dynamic and conventional batch extraction systems are compared and evaluated by using a double-spiking technique. A high degree of readsorption of plutonium and americium (>75%) was observed in both systems, and they also exhibited similar distribution patterns...

  8. Effect of bone-status on retention and distribution of americium-241 in bones of small rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forced physical exercise before and after application of americium-241 resulted in only small changes in bone-structure and behaviour of the radionuclide in bone. Feeding of a low phosphorus or low calcium diet resulted in an increased excretion of americium from bone, whereby Zn-DTPA as chelating agent removed an additional fraction of the radionuclide from bone. Low calcium diet and simultaneous continuous infusion of pharmacological doses of vitamin D-hormones didn't increase the excretion of americium more than the low calcium diet alone. (orig.)

  9. Europium-doped barium bromide iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundiah, Gautam; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Hollander, Fredrick J.; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D.

    2009-10-21

    Single crystals of Ba0.96Eu0.04BrI (barium europium bromide iodide) were grown by the Bridgman technique. The title compound adopts the ordered PbCl2 structure [Braekken (1932). Z. Kristallogr. 83, 222-282]. All atoms occupy the fourfold special positions (4c, site symmetry m) of the space group Pnma with a statistical distribution of Ba and Eu. They lie on the mirror planes, perpendicular to the b axis at y = +-0.25. Each cation is coordinated by nine anions in a tricapped trigonal prismatic arrangement.

  10. Interaction and diffusion transport of americium in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Guinart, Oriol; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry department, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    The final disposal of High Level Radioactive Wastes (HLRW) is based on its long-term storage in underground facilities located in geological stable sites with a multi-barrier system, the so called Deep Geological Repositories (DGR), that will keep HLRW confined for >10.000 years. After this period of time, leachates rich in long-live radioisotopes might escape from DGR and start to transport towards the biosphere. There is still a lack of information concerning the interaction and transport in soils of some radionuclides present in HLRW, especially for radionuclides that present a high sorption, such as americium (Am). Having reliable information about the mobility of radionuclides in soils is crucial in order to develop risk assessment models and to take proper decisions in case of soil contamination. The aim of the present work was, by means of laboratory scale experiments, to study the interaction and, for first time, to evaluate the diffusion transport of {sup 241}Am in soils. The {sup 241}Am interaction in soils was assessed by applying sorption batch assays to 20 soil samples with contrasted edaphic properties which allowed us to quantify the solid-liquid distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) and desorption percentage. K{sub d} (Am) values ranged from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 5} L kg{sup -1} and desorption percentages were always less than 2% which denoted a high capacity of the soil to incorporate the Am and a low reversibility of the sorption process. The influence of soil properties in {sup 241}Am interaction was studied by means of multiple linear and multivariate regressions. Although a single correlation between K{sub d} (Am) values and a soil property was not found, the main properties affecting {sup 241}Am interaction in soils were soil pH, carbonate and organic matter contents in the soil. Finally, additional batch assays at different controlled pH were done to study Am sorption as a function of the contact solution pH. A variation of the Am sorption

  11. SKIN DOSIMETRY IN CONDITIONS OF ITS CONSTANT SURFACE CONTAMINATION WITH SOLUTIONS OF PLUTONIUM-239 AND AMERICIUM-241

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Ershov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers, on the basis of experimental data, the issue of assessing dose burdens to the skin basal layer in conditions of its permanent contamination with solutions of plutonium-239 and americium-241 and subsequent decontamination.

  12. Influence of biofilms on migration of uranium, americium and europium in the environment; Einfluss von Biofilmen auf das Migrationsverhalten von Uran, Americium und Europium in der Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Nils; Zirnstein, Isabel; Arnold, Thuro

    2015-07-01

    The report on the influence of biofilms on migration of uranium, americium and europium in the environment deals with the contamination problems of uranium mines such as SDAG WISMUT in Saxonia and Thuringia. In mine waters microorganisms form a complex microbiological biocoenosis in spite of low pH values and high heavy metal concentrations including high uranium concentrations. The analyses used microbiological methods like confocal laser scanning microscopy and molecular-biological techniques. The interactions of microorganism with fluorescent radioactive heavy metal ions were performed with TRLFS (time resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy).

  13. Liquid-liquid extraction separation and sequential determination of plutonium and americium in environmental samples by alpha-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure is described by which plutonium and americium can be determined in environmental samples. The sample is leached with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, and the two elements are co-precipitated with ferric hydroxide and calcium oxalate. The calcium oxalate is incinerated at 4500 and the ash is dissolved in nitric acid. Plutonium is extracted with tri-n-octylamine solution in xylene from 4M nitric acid and stripped with ammonium iodide/hydrochloric acid. Americium is extracted with thenoyltrifluoroacetone solution in xylene at pH 4 together with rare-earth elements and stripped with 1M nitric acid. Americium and the rare-earth elements thus separated are sorbed on Dowex 1 x 4 resin from 1M nitric acid in 93% methanol, the rare-earth elements are eluted with 0.1M hydrochloric acid/0.5M ammonium thiocyanate/80% methanol and the americium is finally eluted with 1.5M hydrochloric acid in 86% methanol. Plutonium and americium in each fraction are electro-deposited and determined by alpha-spectrometry. Overall average recoveries are 81% for plutonium and 59% for americium. (author)

  14. 77 FR 20752 - Methyl Bromide; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ..., which means EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you provide it in the body of... include your name and other contact information in the body of your comment and with any disk or CD-ROM... methyl bromide. And, although methyl bromide tends to be lipid soluble, the low octanol-water...

  15. Degradation of methyl bromide in anaerobic sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R.S.; Miller, L.G.; Strohmaler, F.E.

    1994-01-01

    Methyl bromide (MeBr) was anaerobically degraded in saltmarsh sediments after reaction with sulfide. The product of this nucleophilic substitution reaction was methanethiol, which underwent further chemical and bacterial reactions to form dimethyl sulfide. These two gases appeared transiently during sediment incubations because they were metabolized by methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria. A second, less significant reaction of MeBr was the exchange with chloride, forming methyl chloride, which was also susceptible to attack by sulfide. Incubation of 14C-labeled methyl iodide as an analogue of MeBr resulted in the formation of 14CH4 and 14CO2 and also indicated that sulfate-reducing bacteria as well as methanogens metabolized the methylated sulfur intermediates. These results suggest that exposed sediments with abundant free sulfide, such as coastal salt-marshes, may constitute a sink for atmospheric MeBr.

  16. Influence of environmental factors on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption of plutonium and americium from the gastrointestinal tract was studied, using adult hamsters and rabbits. Both actinides were administered as inorganic compounds, as organic complexes with naturally occurring chelating agents, and in a biologically incorporated form in liver tissues. The absorption of the tetravalent and hexavalent forms of plutonium were compared and the effect of protracted administration at very low concentrations was investigated. In addition, plutonium uptake from contaminated sediments and grass, collected near a nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant, was measured. The results of these studies suggest that chronic exposure of man to plutonium and americium in food and water will not lead to any substantial increase in their gastrointestinal absorption above the values currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection to define the occupational exposure of workers

  17. Electrodeposition of americium on a liquid cadmium cathode from a molten salt bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-activity experiment involving the electrode position of americium on a liquid cadmium cathode from a LiCl-KCl eutectic with about 3 g of AmO2 was conducted in a shielded cell in the ATALANTE complex. After describing the electrolyzer and the experimental conditions, the authors discuss the preparation of the LiCl-KCl-AmCl3 solution and briefly review its electrochemical properties. It was clearly confirmed that Am(III) reduction on an inert solid cathode occurs in two steps forming Am(II) before Am(0), whereas only one reduction step was observed on liquid cadmium. The main results of this study concern americium electrode position on the liquid cadmium cathode (recovery yields, current densities, problems encountered). The solvent properties of cadmium for actinide/lanthanide separation are discussed. (authors)

  18. Analysis of americium-beryllium neutron source composition using the FRAM code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, P. A. (Philip A.); Bracken, D. S. (David S.); Sampson, Thomas E.; Taylor, W. A. (Wayne A.)

    2002-01-01

    The FRAM code was originally developed to analyze high-resolution gamma spectra from plutonium items. Its capabilities have since been expanded to include analysis of uranium spectra. The flexibility of the software also enables a capable spectroscopist to use FRAM to analyze spectra in which neither plutonium nor uranium is present in significant amounts. This paper documents the use of FRAM to determine the {sup 239}Pu/{sup 241}Am, {sup 243}Am/{sup 241}Am, {sup 237}Np/{sup 241}Am, and {sup 239}Np/{sup 241}Am ratios in americium-beryllium neutron sources. The effective specific power of each neutron source was calculated from the ratios determined by FRAM in order to determine the americium mass of each of these neutron sources using calorimetric assay. We will also discuss the use of FRAM for the general case of isotopic analysis of nonplutonium, nonuranium items.

  19. Experimental Insight into the Radiation Resistance of Zirconia-Based Americium Ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our works shows that the americium pyrochlore 241Am2Zr2O7 undergoes a phase transition to a defect-fluorite structure along with an unusual volume contraction when subjected to internal radiation from α-emitting actinides. Disorder relaxation proceeds through the simultaneous formation of cation anti sites and oxygen Frenkel pairs. X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Am-LII and the Zr-K edges reveals that Am-O polyhedra show an increasing disorder with increasing exposure. In contrast, the Zr-O polyhedral units remain highly ordered, while rotating along edges and corners, thereby reducing the structural strain imposed by the growing disorder around americium. We believe it is this particular property of the compound that provides the remarkable resistance to radiation (≥9.4 * 1018) α-decay events g-1 or 0.80 dpa). (authors)

  20. Standard test method for quantitative determination of americium 241 in plutonium by Gamma-Ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of americium 241 by gamma-ray spectrometry in plutonium nitrate solution samples that do not contain significant amounts of radioactive fission products or other high specific activity gamma-ray emitters. 1.2 This test method can be used to determine the americium 241 in samples of plutonium metal, oxide and other solid forms, when the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. Calcium and zinc DTPA administration for internal contamination with plutonium-238 and americium-241.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazzi, Ziad N; Heyl, Alexander; Ruprecht, Johann

    2012-08-01

    The accidental or intentional release of plutonium or americium can cause acute and long term adverse health effects if they enter the human body by ingestion, inhalation, or injection. These effects can be prevented by rapid removal of these radionuclides by chelators such as calcium or zinc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (calcium or zinc DTPA). These compounds have been shown to be efficacious in enhancing the elimination of members of the actinide family particularly plutonium and americium when administered intravenously or by nebulizer. The efficacy and adverse effects profile depend on several factors that include the route of internalization of the actinide, the type, and route time of administration of the chelator, and whether the calcium or zinc salt of DTPA is used. Current and future research efforts should be directed at overcoming limitations associated with the use of these complex drugs by using innovative methods that can enhance their structural and therapeutic properties.

  2. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of bromide in clidinium-c drug

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Sheibani; M. Reza Shishehbore; Zahra Tavakolian Ardakani

    2011-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive method has been described for the determination of the trace amounts of bromide. The method is based on the catalytic effect of bromide ion on the oxidation of methylene blue by bromate in sulfuric acid media. The reaction is monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance of methylene blue at 665 nm. Bromide was determined in the range of 0.05-1.90 μg/mL with the detection limit of 0.03 μg/mL. The relative standard deviations of five replicate determinations of 0.20 and 10.0 μg/mL of bromide were 2.4% and 1.8%, respectively. The influence of potential interfering ions and substances was studied. The method is applied to the analysis of bromide in clidinium-c tablet as a real sample.

  3. Final Radiological Assessment of External Exposure for CLEAR-Line Americium Recovery Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Adam C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Belooussova, Olga N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hetrick, Lucas Duane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently planning to implement an americium recovery program. The americium, ordinarily isotopically pure 241Am, would be extracted from existing Pu materials, converted to an oxide and shipped to support fabrication of americium oxide-beryllium neutron sources. These operations would occur in the currently proposed Chloride Extraction and Actinide Recovery (CLEAR) line of glove boxes. This glove box line would be collocated with the currently-operational Experimental Chloride Extraction Line (EXCEL). The focus of this document is to provide an in-depth assessment of the currently planned radiation protection measures and to determine whether or not further design work is required to satisfy design-goal and ALARA requirements. Further, this document presents a history of americium recovery operations in the Department of Energy and high-level descriptions of the CLEAR line operations to provide a basis of comparison. Under the working assumptions adopted by this study, it was found that the evaluated design appears to mitigate doses to a level that satisfies the ALARA-in-design requirements of 10 CFR 835 as implemented by the Los Alamos National Laboratory procedure P121. The analyses indicate that extremity doses would also meet design requirements. Dose-rate calculations were performed using the radiation transport code MCNP5 and doses were estimated using a time-motion study developed in consort with the subject matter expert. A copy of this report and all supporting documentation are located on the Radiological Engineering server at Y:\\Rad Engineering\\2013 PROJECTS\\TA-55 Clear Line.

  4. Bidentate organophosphorus extraction of americium and plutonium from Hanford Plutonium Reclamation Facility waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1974-09-01

    Applicability of bidentate organiphosphorus reagents to recovery of americium and plutonium from Hanford's Plutonium Reclamation Facility acid (approx. 2M HNO/sub 3/) waste stream (CAW solution) was studied. A solvent extraction process which employs a 30% DHDECMP (dihexyl-N, N-diethylcarbamylmethylene phosphonate)-CCl/sub 4/ extractant was devised and successfully tested in mixer-settler runs with actual CAW solution. Substitution of DHDECMP for DBBP eliminates the need to perform careful neutralization of unbuffered CAW soluton and increases overall americium recovery from the present 60 to 80% level to greater than or equal to 90%. Disadvantages to such substitution include the high cost (approx. $50/liter) of DHDECMP and the need to purify it (by acid (6M HCl) hydrolysis and alkaline washing) from small amounts of an unidentified impurity which prevents stripping of americium with dilute HNO/sub 3/. Distribution data obtained in this study confirm Siddall's earlier contention that bidentate organophosphorus regents can be used to remove actinides from concentrated high-level Purex process acid waste; a conceptual flowsheet for such an extraction process is given.

  5. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2016-09-27

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  6. A new convenient access to highly functionalized ()-2-arylvinyl bromides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yubo Jiang; Chunxiang Kuang

    2009-11-01

    Highly functionalized ()-2-arylvinyl bromides were prepared in high yields through a new convenient access by acylation of ()-4-(2-bromovinyl)phenol with fatty and aromatic acids at room temperature using dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (DCC) and dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP).

  7. Bromide space, total body water, and sick cell syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schober, O.; Hundeshagen, H.; Lehr, L.

    1982-01-01

    Displacements of the bromide space (Br-82-C, as a marker for the extracellular fluid compartment) are caused by an enhanced anatomical space and/or increased permeability of cells to bromide. The ratio Br-82-C: total body water (TBW) was evaluated to be 0.83 +- 0.17 in critically ill patients (n = 38) compared with the normal value of 0.46 +- 0.04 (n = 10). Because of normal TBW in critically ill patients (TBW = 505 +- 68 ml/kg), an increased bromide penetration into cells seems to be responsible for the enlarged ratio Br-82-C: TBW. Taking into consideration measurements in patients with malabsorption (Br-82-C: TBW = 0.56 +- 0.13; n = 13) and carcinoma of the rectum and colon (Br-82-C: TBW = 0.66 +- 0.24; n = 18) we think that the bromide space is a good measurement of the effective extracellular water.

  8. Effects of ipratropium bromide and fenoterol aerosols in pulmonary emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, J A; Tobin, M. J.; Bellamy, D; Hutchison, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    In patients with radiological evidence of pulmonary emphysema the bronchodilator drugs fenoterol and ipratropium bromide produced a considerable increase in vital capacity and reduction in residual volume. The response to fenoterol was virtually complete 15 minutes after administration, but after ipratropium bromide vital capacity was still increasing at 60 minutes. The change in vital capacity was slightly greater with a combination of the two drugs than with either used alone. Changes in FE...

  9. Quantum Chemistry Study on Dissociation of Oxalyl Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The multi-bond dissociation dynamics of oxalyl bromide ((BrCO)2) has been investigated by DFT and CIS calculations. Upon the results, conclusion could be drawn that dissociation of C-Br bond of oxalyl bromide at the ground state (S0) is of barrierless. After the absorption of a photon, (BrCO)2 is excited to the first excited state and one of its C-Br bonds is broken to yield dissociate.

  10. Americium(3) coordination chemistry: An unexplored diversity of structure and bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedosseev, A.M.; Grigoriev, M.S.; Budantseva, N.A. [A.N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation); Guillaumont, D.; Den Auwer, Ch.; Moisy, Ph. [CEA Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Processes Department, 30 (France); Le Naour, C.; Simoni, E. [CNRS, University Paris-11 Orsay, IPN, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2010-06-15

    The comparison of the physicochemical behavior of the actinides with that of the lanthanides can be justified by the analogy of their electronic structure, as each of the series is made up of elements corresponding to the filling of a given (n)f atomic shell. However relatively few points of comparison are available, given the lack of available structure for trans-plutonium(III) elements and the additional difficulty of stabilizing coordination complexes of uranium(III) to plutonium(III). This contribution is a focal point of trans-plutonium(III) chemistry and, more specifically, of some americium compounds that have been recently synthesized, all related with hard acid oxygen donor ligands that may be involved in the reprocessing chain of nuclear fuel. After a brief review of the solid hydrates and aquo species for the lanthanide and actinide families, we discuss two types of ligands that have in common three carboxylic groups, namely the amino-tri-acetic acid and the citric acid anions. The additional roles of the nitrogen atom for the first one and of the hydroxy function for the second one are discussed. Accordingly, five new complexes with either americium or lanthanides elements are described: [Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}][M(NTA){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)].8H{sub 2}O with M Nd, Yb and Am, and [Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sub 2}K[M{sub 3}(Cit){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}].18H{sub 2}O with Nd and Am cations. In all cases the americium complexes are isostructural with their lanthanide equivalents. (authors)

  11. Americium(3) coordination chemistry: An unexplored diversity of structure and bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparison of the physicochemical behavior of the actinides with that of the lanthanides can be justified by the analogy of their electronic structure, as each of the series is made up of elements corresponding to the filling of a given (n)f atomic shell. However relatively few points of comparison are available, given the lack of available structure for trans-plutonium(III) elements and the additional difficulty of stabilizing coordination complexes of uranium(III) to plutonium(III). This contribution is a focal point of trans-plutonium(III) chemistry and, more specifically, of some americium compounds that have been recently synthesized, all related with hard acid oxygen donor ligands that may be involved in the reprocessing chain of nuclear fuel. After a brief review of the solid hydrates and aquo species for the lanthanide and actinide families, we discuss two types of ligands that have in common three carboxylic groups, namely the amino-tri-acetic acid and the citric acid anions. The additional roles of the nitrogen atom for the first one and of the hydroxy function for the second one are discussed. Accordingly, five new complexes with either americium or lanthanides elements are described: [Co(NH3)6][M(NTA)2(H2O)].8H2O with M Nd, Yb and Am, and [Co(NH3)6]2K[M3(Cit)4(H2O)3].18H2O with Nd and Am cations. In all cases the americium complexes are isostructural with their lanthanide equivalents. (authors)

  12. MARIOS: Irradiation of UO{sub 2} containing 15% americium at well defined temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Agata, E., E-mail: elio.dagata@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy - P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Hania, P.R. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Bejaoui, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEC CEA-Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Sciolla, C.; Wyatt, T.; Hannink, M.H.C. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Herlet, N.; Jankowiak, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique DTEC CEA Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France); Klaassen, F.C. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Bonnerot, J.-M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEC CEA-Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MARIOS is designed to check the behaviour of Minor Actinide Blanket Module concept. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Main requirement of the experiment is an accurate control of the temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The swelling and the helium release will be the main output of the experiment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A complementary experiment (DIAMINO), will be performed in the next future. - Abstract: Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors of long-lived nuclides like {sup 241}Am is, therefore, an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity and residual power packages as well as the repository area. The MARIOS irradiation experiment is the latest of a series of experiments on americium transmutation (e.g. EFTTRA-T4, EFTTRA-T4bis, HELIOS). MARIOS experiment is carried out in the framework of the 4-year project FAIRFUELS of the EURATOM 7th Framework Programme (FP7). During the past years of experimental work in the field of transmutation and tests of innovative nuclear fuel containing americium, the release or trapping of helium as well as swelling has shown to be the key issue for the design of such kinds of target. Therefore, the main objective of the MARIOS experiment is to study the in-pile behaviour of UO{sub 2} containing minor actinides (MAs) in order to gain knowledge on the role of the microstructure and of the temperature on the gas release and on fuel swelling. The MARIOS experiment will be conducted in the HFR (high flux reactor) in Petten (The Netherlands) and will start in the beginning of 2011. It has been planned that the experiment will last 11 cycles, corresponding to 11 months. This paper covers the description of the objective of the experiment, as well as a general description of the design of the experiment.

  13. Speciation of americium in seawater and accumulation in the marine sponge Aplysina cavernicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloubier, Melody; Michel, Hervé; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Moisy, Philippe; Tribalat, Marie-Aude; Oberhaensli, François R; Dechraoui Bottein, Marie Yasmine; Thomas, Olivier P; Monfort, Marguerite; Moulin, Christophe; Den Auwer, Christophe

    2015-12-21

    The fate of radionuclides in the environment is a cause of great concern for modern society, seen especially in 2011 after the Fukushima accident. Among the environmental compartments, seawater covers most of the earth's surface and may be directly or indirectly impacted. The interaction between radionuclides and the marine compartment is therefore essential for better understanding the transfer mechanisms from the hydrosphere to the biosphere. This information allows for the evaluation of the impact on humans via our interaction with the biotope that has been largely undocumented up to now. In this report, we attempt to make a link between the speciation of heavy elements in natural seawater and their uptake by a model marine organism. More specifically, because the interaction of actinides with marine invertebrates has been poorly studied, the accumulation in a representative member of the Mediterranean coralligenous habitat, the sponge Aplysina cavernicola, was investigated and its uptake curve exposed to a radiotracer (241)Am was estimated using a high-purity Ge gamma spectrometer. But in order to go beyond the phenomenological accumulation rate, the speciation of americium(III) in seawater must be assessed. The speciation of (241)Am (and natural europium as its chemically stable surrogate) in seawater was determined using a combination of different techniques: Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF), Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) at the LIII edge, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the resulting data were compared with the speciation modeling. In seawater, the americium(III) complex (as well as the corresponding europium complex, although with conformational differences) was identified as a ternary sodium biscarbonato complex, whose formula can be tentatively written as NaAm(CO3)2·nH2O. It is therefore this chemical form of americium that is

  14. Speciation of americium in seawater and accumulation in the marine sponge Aplysina cavernicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloubier, Melody; Michel, Hervé; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Moisy, Philippe; Tribalat, Marie-Aude; Oberhaensli, François R; Dechraoui Bottein, Marie Yasmine; Thomas, Olivier P; Monfort, Marguerite; Moulin, Christophe; Den Auwer, Christophe

    2015-12-21

    The fate of radionuclides in the environment is a cause of great concern for modern society, seen especially in 2011 after the Fukushima accident. Among the environmental compartments, seawater covers most of the earth's surface and may be directly or indirectly impacted. The interaction between radionuclides and the marine compartment is therefore essential for better understanding the transfer mechanisms from the hydrosphere to the biosphere. This information allows for the evaluation of the impact on humans via our interaction with the biotope that has been largely undocumented up to now. In this report, we attempt to make a link between the speciation of heavy elements in natural seawater and their uptake by a model marine organism. More specifically, because the interaction of actinides with marine invertebrates has been poorly studied, the accumulation in a representative member of the Mediterranean coralligenous habitat, the sponge Aplysina cavernicola, was investigated and its uptake curve exposed to a radiotracer (241)Am was estimated using a high-purity Ge gamma spectrometer. But in order to go beyond the phenomenological accumulation rate, the speciation of americium(III) in seawater must be assessed. The speciation of (241)Am (and natural europium as its chemically stable surrogate) in seawater was determined using a combination of different techniques: Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF), Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) at the LIII edge, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the resulting data were compared with the speciation modeling. In seawater, the americium(III) complex (as well as the corresponding europium complex, although with conformational differences) was identified as a ternary sodium biscarbonato complex, whose formula can be tentatively written as NaAm(CO3)2·nH2O. It is therefore this chemical form of americium that is

  15. Americium characterization by X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy in plutonium uranium mixed oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are currently used in nuclear reactors. The actinides in these fuels need to be analyzed after irradiation for assessing their behaviour with regard to their environment and the coolant. In this work the study of the atomic structure and next-neighbour environment of Am in the (Pu,U)O2 lattice in an irradiated (60 MW d kg−1) MOX sample was performed employing micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (µ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The chemical bonds, valences and stoichiometry of Am (∼0.66 wt%) are determined from the experimental data gained for the irradiated fuel material examined in its peripheral zone (rim) of the fuel. In the irradiated sample Am builds up as Am3+ species within an [AmO8]13− coordination environment (e.g. >90%) and no (III XAFS spectra recorded for the irradiated MOX sub-sample in the rim zone for a 300 μm×300 μm beam size area investigated over six scans of 4 h. The records remain constant during multi-scan. The analysis of the XAFS signal shows that Am is found as trivalent in the UO2 matrix. This analytical work shall open the door of very challenging analysis (speciation of fission product and actinides) in irradiated nuclear fuels. - Highlights: • Americium was characterized by microX-ray absorption spectroscopy in irradiated MOX fuel. • The americium redox state as determined from XAS data of irradiated fuel material was Am(III). • In the sample, the Am3+ face an AmO813− coordination environment in the (Pu,U)O2 matrix. • The americium dioxide is reduced by the uranium dioxide matrix

  16. Fabrication of uranium–americium mixed oxide pellet from microsphere precursors: Application of CRMP process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, E. [Radiochemistry and Processes Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Picart, S., E-mail: sebastien.picart@cea.fr [Radiochemistry and Processes Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Delahaye, T. [Fuel Cycle Technology Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Jobelin, I. [Radiochemistry and Processes Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Lebreton, F.; Horlait, D. [Fuel Cycle Technology Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Bisel, I. [Radiochemistry and Processes Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Blanchart, P. [Heterogeneous Materials Research Group, Centre Européen de la Céramique, F-87068 Limoges (France); Ayral, A. [Institut Européen des Membranes, CNRS-ENSCM-UM2, CC47, University Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier cedex 5 (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Dust free process for (U,Am)O{sub 2} transmutation target fabrication. • Synthesis of U{sub 0.9}Am{sub 0.1}O{sub 2} mixed oxide microspheres from ion exchange resin. • Fabrication of dense U{sub 0.9}Am{sub 0.1}O{sub 2} pellet with 95% TD from mixed oxide microspheres. - Abstract: Mixed uranium–americium oxides are one of the materials envisaged for Americium Bearing Blankets dedicated to transmutation in fast neutron reactors. Recently, several processes have been developed in order to validate fabrication flowchart in terms of material specifications such as density and homogeneity but also to suggest simplifications for lowering industrial costs and hazards linked to dust generation of highly contaminating and irradiating compounds. This study deals with the application of an innovative route using mixed oxide microspheres obtained from metal loaded resin bead calcination, called Calcined Resin Microsphere Pelletization (CRMP). The synthesis of mixed oxide microsphere precursor of U{sub 0.9}Am{sub 0.1}O{sub 2±δ} is described as well as its characterisation. The use of this free-flowing precursor allows the pressing and sintering of one pellet of U{sub 0.9}Am{sub 0.1}O{sub 2±δ}. The ceramic obtained was characterised and results showed that its microstructure is dense and homogeneous and its density attains 95% of the theoretical density. This study validates the scientific feasibility of the CRMP process applied to the fabrication of uranium and americium-containing materials.

  17. Influence of biofilms on migration of uranium, americium and europium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report on the influence of biofilms on migration of uranium, americium and europium in the environment deals with the contamination problems of uranium mines such as SDAG WISMUT in Saxonia and Thuringia. In mine waters microorganisms form a complex microbiological biocoenosis in spite of low pH values and high heavy metal concentrations including high uranium concentrations. The analyses used microbiological methods like confocal laser scanning microscopy and molecular-biological techniques. The interactions of microorganism with fluorescent radioactive heavy metal ions were performed with TRLFS (time resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy).

  18. Plutonium and americium in arctic waters, the North Sea and Scottish and Irish coastal zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallstadius, L.; Aarkrog, Asker; Dahlgaard, Henning;

    1986-01-01

    Plutonium and americium have been measured in surface waters of the Greenland and Barents Seas and in the northern North Sea from 1980 through 1984. Measurements in water and biota, Fucus, Mytilus and Patella, were carried out in North-English and Scottish waters in 1982 and Fucus samples were...... plutonium from the latter to Spitsbergen waters. Fallout plutonium in Arctic waters has a residence time of the order of several years, while for Pu from Sellafield we estimate mean residence times of 11–15 months in Scottish waters and, tentatively, 1·5-3 y during transport from the North Channel (north...

  19. Comparison of acid leachate and fusion methods to determine plutonium and americium in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at Argonne National Laboratory performs radiochemical analyses for a wide variety of sites within the Department of Energy complex. Since the chemical history of the samples may vary drastically from site to site, the effectiveness of any analytical technique may also vary. This study compares a potassium fluoride-pyrosulfate fusion technique with an acid leachate method. Both normal and high-fired soils and vegetation samples were analyzed for both americium and plutonium. Results show both methods work well, except for plutonium in high-fired soils. Here the fusion method provides higher accuracy

  20. Purification of used scintillation liquids containing the alpha emitters americium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Sweden, alpha radioactive waste liquids with an activity over some kBq per waste container cannot be sent for final storage. Therefore, in this work, a method for a purification of alpha active scintillation cocktails was developed. Until today (March, 2013) more than 20 L of scintillation liquids have successfully been purified from americium and plutonium. The products of the process are a solid fraction that can be sent to final storage and a practically non-radioactive liquid fraction that can be sent to municipal incineration. (author)

  1. Assessment of Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide removal from aqueous matrices by adsorption on cupric oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Ali

    2014-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to develop an effective adsorbent and to study the adsorption of Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide from aqueous solution using the CuO nanoparticles. The characteristics of CuO nanoparticles were determined and found to have a surface area 89.59m(2)/g. Operational parameters such as pH, contact time and adsorbent concentration, initial concentration and temperature were also studied. The amount of removal increases with the increase in pH from one to seven and reaches the maximum when the pH is nine. Adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Florry-Huggins models. The results show that the best fit was achieved with the Langmuir isotherm equation with maximum adsorption capacities of 0.868 and 0.662mg/g for Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide, respectively. The adsorption process was found to follow pseudo-second-order kinetics. The calculated thermodynamic parameters, namely ΔG, ΔH and ΔS showed that adsorption of Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide was spontaneous and endothermic under examined conditions. PMID:24630576

  2. Study of the extraction and the purification of americium and trivalent actinides contained in effluents with supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supported liquid membrane technique is studied and developed for americium recovery from uranium or plutonium matrices and decontamination of liquid radioactive wastes. First tests on uranium-nickel solutions with a flat membrane showed the easiness of the operation and the efficiency of the process. Acid-resistant (10 N), interchangeable elements with hollow fibers, are developed and also a computerized automatic device. The different tests on americium solutions demonstrate the feasibility and the reliability of the system. Influence of various parameters on transfer kinetics is investigated

  3. Contribution to the prediction of americium, plutonium and neptunium behaviour in the geosphere: chemical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exhaustive bibliographic review on hydrolysis of americium gives the stability constants, at zero ionic strength. No evidence of Am(OH)4- formation was found by solubility studies up to pH 2 (CO3)3 characterised by its X-ray diffraction pattern is studied at a high ionic strength. All the published results on Am in carbonate media are reinterpreted using these stability constants (Am-OH-CO3 complexes are not needed). No evidence of Am(CO3)45- formation was found by spectrophotometry up to 3M. Literature results are used to determine the formal redox potentials at pH = 9.4 and to calculate the formation constants, at zero ionic strength. The formation of complexes between americium and humic materials (purified fulvic and humic acids) has been studied by a spectrophotometric technique. The results are interpreted by the formation of a 1:1 complexe. Solubility of the solid PuO2(CO3) is measured in bicarbonate media at high ionic strength, to obtain the solubility product and formation constants of the PuO2(CO3)i2-2i complexes

  4. Electrophysiological study of intravenous pinaverium bromide in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerot, C; Khemache, A; Sebbah, J; Noel, B

    1988-01-01

    Pinaverium bromide is a musculotropic spasmolytic agent which acts by inhibiting transmembrane calcium movements, an effect similar to that of verapamil. Because of this, an investigation was carried out to see if it had any electrophysiological effects in patients with various cardiac disorders. In an open study, 10 patients received 2 mg pinaverium bromide intravenously. In a double-blind study, 10 patients received 4 mg pinaverium bromide intravenously and 10 patients placebo. Patients included those with either normal or pathological basal conduction, such as bundle-branch block and 1st degree atrioventricular block. Measurements were made of electrophysiological parameters before and 10 minutes after injection. The results showed that neither of the two doses of pinaverium bromide had any effect on atrial excitability, sino-atrial conduction, node and trunk atrioventricular conduction or on intraventricular conduction. No significant difference was seen in comparison with placebo. Pinaverium bromide had no anti-arrhythmic properties in these studies. Local, cardiac and general clinical tolerability was good in all patients. PMID:3219882

  5. The distribution of plutonium-239 and americium-241 in the Syrian hamster following its intravenous administration as citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actinide distribution in various tissues and the skeleton of hamsters by liquid scintillation counting or isotope dilution. For plutonium 57% of activity was concentrated in the skeleton and more than 90% in the liver and skeleton after seven days. For americium the liver retained more than 50% of total activity and 25% was excreted in urine within seven days. (U.K.)

  6. EURADOS intercomparison on measurements and Monte Carlo modelling for the assessment of Americium in a USTUR leg phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collaboration of the EURADOS working group on 'Internal Dosimetry' and the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) has taken place to carry out an intercomparison on measurements and Monte Carlo modelling determining americium deposited in the bone of a USTUR leg phantom. Preliminary results and conclusions of this intercomparison exercise are presented here. (authors)

  7. Anomalous aryl strengthening of americium and europium complexes during extraction by alkylenediphosphine dioxides from perchloric acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction of americium and europium from perchlorate environments by solutions of three types of methylenediphosphine dioxides, namely (C6H5)P(O)(CH2)sub(n)(O)P(C6H5)2, (C6H5)2P(O)CH2(O)P(C8H17)2 and (C8H17)2P(O)(CH2)sub(n)(O)P(C8H17)2 has been studied (n is 1 or 2 ) The diluents used have been dichlorethane and chloroform. In perchlorate environments the distribuiton coefficients of americium and europium have proved to be by about 3 orders of magnitude higher than in nitric acid environments, i.e. in perchlorate media the complexes are far more stable. Separation coefficients of americium and REE in perchloric acid soutions are much higher than in nitrate environments. The average value of Am/Eu separation coeffecient at 1-5 M acidity was about 6 (with dichlorethane as diluent) or about 7 (with chloroform as diluent). The complexes essentially exist as trisolvated. Americium complexes display anomalous stability increase upon being diluted: by about 2 orders of magnitude with dichlorethane and by up to 3 orders of magnitude with chloroform used as diluent

  8. Investigations of neutron characteristics for salt blanket models; integral fission cross section measurements of neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron characteristics of salt blanket micromodels containing eutectic mixtures of sodium, zirconium, and uranium fluorides were measured on FKBN-2M, BIGR and MAKET facilities. The effective fission cross sections of neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes were measured on the neutron spectra formed by micromodels. (author)

  9. IR, Raman and SERS spectra of propantheline bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraldi, C; Freguglia, G; Tinti, A; Sparta, M; Alexandrova, A N; Gamberini, M C

    2013-02-15

    The two known propantheline bromide polymorphs (form I and form II) were studied and characterized by a multianalytical approach. In the present work, the identification of propantheline bromide polymorphic forms through vibrational IR spectroscopies are presented and for the first time Raman microscopy and hot stage Raman microscopy (HSRM) studies are reported. Finally, quantum mechanical calculations were performed. For assisting the assignment of the experimental picks, the two IR spectra of the most and least stable representatives of a set of 56 conformers are calculated and studied. DSC thermograms data, are also reported. The surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum was also recorded in a silver colloid; it could be inferred that propantheline bromide is adsorbed on silver colloid through the oxygen atom with the molecular plane perpendicular to the metal surface.

  10. Glycosylation with Disarmed Glycosyl Bromides Promoted by Iodonium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanz, Gyrithe; Madsen, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Iodonium ions have been developed for activating glycosyl bromides in the coupling to glycosyl acceptors. The iodonium ions are generated from N-iodosuccinimide and a protic acid such as camphorsulfonic acid or triflic acid, where the latter gives the most reactive promoter system. The couplings...... occur with the release of iodine monobromide, and the best results are obtained with benzoylated glycosyl donors and acceptors. In this way, disarmed glycosyl bromides can serve as glycosyl donors without the use of heavy-metal salts....

  11. Action of pinaverium bromide on calmodulin-regulated functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuytack, F; De Schutter, G; Casteels, R

    1985-08-01

    Pinaverium bromide at concentrations below 10(-5) M did not inhibit calmodulin-dependent enzymes such as phosphodiesterase and the Ca transport ATPase of the plasma membrane. At higher concentrations the compound interacted with the stimulation of those enzymes by calmodulin and also inhibited the calmodulin-independent activity. A similar inhibitory action was observed for the NaK ATPase. It is concluded that the inhibitory action of pinaverium bromide on smooth muscle concentration at concentrations below 10(-5) M was due to its interaction with the voltage-dependent Ca channels and not to its interference with the calmodulin-dependent activation of the contractile proteins. PMID:2995077

  12. Investigation of possible interaction between pinaverium bromide and digoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzel, O; Seidel, G; Engelbert, S; Berksoy, M; Eberhardt, G; Bode, R

    1983-01-01

    A single-blind study was carried out in 25 patients, who were receiving maintenance therapy for congestive heart failure with digoxin, to investigate the effect on steady-state plasma digoxin levels of concomitant administration of the spasmolytic, pinaverium bromide (50 mg 3-times daily). Patients received pinaverium bromide for 12 days followed by placebo for a further 7 days. Assessment of the results in 21 patients showed no evidence of any statistically significant variations in plasma digoxin levels during either treatment period or in the clinical observations which might indicate drug interaction. PMID:6653138

  13. Purification of scintillation cocktails containing the alpha emitters americium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One efficient way of measuring alpha emitters is by the usage of liquid scintillation counting (LSC). A liquid sample is placed in a vial containing a scintillation cocktail. The alpha particles excite electrons in the surrounding liquid, and when they are de-excited photons are emitted. The photons are detected and the activity can be quantified. LSC has a high efficiency for alpha radiation and is therefore a fast and easy way for measuring alpha emitting samples. One drawback is that it does not differentiate very well between alpha energies; measurements of for example curium and plutonium simultaneously are impossible and demand other techniques. Another drawback is the production of a liquid alpha active waste. In Sweden alpha radioactive waste liquids with an activity over some kBq per waste container cannot be sent for final storage. If, however, the activity of the liquids could be reduced by precipitation of the actinides, it would be possible to send away the liquid samples to municipal incineration. In this work a method for a purification of alpha active scintillation cocktails was developed. The method was first tried on a lab scale, and then scaled up. Until today (March, 2013) more than 20 liters of scintillation liquids have successfully been purified from americium and plutonium at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. The four scintillation cocktails used were Emulsifier Safe®, Hionic-Fluor®, Ultima Gold AB® and Ultima Gold XR®. The scintillation cocktails could all be purified from americium with higher yield than 95%. The yield was kept when the liquids were mixed. Also plutonium could be precipitated with a yield over 95% in all cocktails except in Hionic-Fluor® (>55%). However, that liquid in particular could be purified (>95%) by mixing it with the three other cocktails. Up-scaling was performed to a batch size of 6-8 L of scintillation cocktail. In neither the americium nor the plutonium system, adverse effects of increasing the

  14. A thermodynamic study of actinide oxide targets/fuels for americium transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermodynamic study was performed on the systems Am-O, AmOx-MgO, AmOx-MgAl2O4, Pu-Mg-O and U-Mg-O. Both experimental work (X-ray analyses, oxygen potential measurements etc.) and calculations on the phase diagrams involved were made. The reaction between americium oxide and spinel is expected to form the compound AmAlO3. Isothermal sections have been calculated for AmOx-(MgO, Al2O3), Pu-Mg-O and U-Mg-O at 2000 K using the software package ''Thermo-Calc''. Thermodynamic equilibrium data were used to predict the behaviour of actinide oxides in a reactor. The implication of the results for the technological application is discussed, with emphasis on the effects of the high oxygen potential of AmO2 as compared to the conventional fuel, i.e. UO2. (author)

  15. The uptake of plutonium-239, 240, americium-241, strontium-90 into plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the results of measurements on the uptake of plutonium, americium, strontium-90 and caesium-137 into peas, beet, oats, sweet corn, tomatoes and vegetable marrow grown in tubs containing radioactively-contaminated silts. The silts had been taken from an area of West Cumbria commonly referred to as the Ravenglass estuary. The experiments are categorised as being carried out under non-standard conditions because of the manner in which the radioactivity came to be incorporated into the growth medium. The growth medium was representative of conditions which could arise when the estuarine silt moves inland under the influence of wind and tide and mixes with the adjacent farm land. The silt had been contaminated by radioactive effluents from the nuclear fuels reprocessing plant at Sellafield and this contamination had been brought about by natural means. (Auth.)

  16. Complex formation of trivalent americium with salicylic acid at very low concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time, the complexation of americium(III) with salicylic acid was studied at trace metal concentrations using a 2.0 m Long Path Flow Cell for UV-vis spectroscopy. The detection limit of Am(III) in aqueous solution at pH 3.0 was found to be 5 x 10-9 M. Two Am(III)-salicylate complexes were formed at pH 5.0 in 0.1 M NaClO4, indicated by a clear red shift of the absorption maximum. The absorption spectra obtained from spectrophotometric titration were analyzed by means of factor analysis and complex stabilities were calculated to be log β110 = 2.56 ± 0.08 and log β120 = 3.93 ± 0.19. (author)

  17. Standard practice for The separation of americium from plutonium by ion exchange

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes the use of an ion exchange technique to separate plutonium from solutions containing low concentrations of americium prior to measurement of the 241Am by gamma counting. 1.2 This practice covers the removal of plutonium, but not all the other radioactive isotopes that may interfere in the determination of 241Am. 1.3 This practice can be used when 241Am is to be determined in samples in which the plutonium is in the form of metal, oxide, or other solid provided that the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved (See Test Methods C758, C759, and C1168). 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  18. Transportability Class of Americium in K Basin Sludge under Ambient and Hydrothermal Processing Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmitt, Bruce E.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2006-08-01

    This report establishes the technical bases for using a ''slow uptake'' instead of a ''moderate uptake'' transportability class for americium-241 (241Am) for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP) dose consequence analysis. Slow uptake classes are used for most uranium and plutonium oxides. A moderate uptake class has been used in prior STP analyses for 241Am based on the properties of separated 241Am and its associated oxide. However, when 241Am exists as an ingrown progeny (and as a small mass fraction) within plutonium mixtures, it is appropriate to assign transportability factors of the predominant plutonium mixtures (typically slow) to the Am241. It is argued that the transportability factor for 241Am in sludge likewise should be slow because it exists as a small mass fraction as the ingrown progeny within the uranium oxide in sludge. In this report, the transportability class assignment for 241Am is underpinned with radiochemical characterization data on K Basin sludge and with studies conducted with other irradiated fuel exposed to elevated temperatures and conditions similar to the STP. Key findings and conclusions from evaluation of the characterization data and published literature are summarized here. Plutonium and 241Am make up very small fractions of the uranium within the K Basin sludge matrix. Plutonium is present at about 1 atom per 500 atoms of uranium and 241Am at about 1 atom per 19000 of uranium. Plutonium and americium are found to remain with uranium in the solid phase in all of the {approx}60 samples taken and analyzed from various sources of K Basin sludge. The uranium-specific concentrations of plutonium and americium also remain approximately constant over a uranium concentration range (in the dry sludge solids) from 0.2 to 94 wt%, a factor of {approx}460. This invariability demonstrates that 241Am does not partition from the uranium or plutonium fraction for any characterized sludge matrix. Most

  19. Reactive films for mitigating methyl bromide emissions from fumigated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions of methyl bromide (MeBr) from agricultural fumigation can lead to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, and so its use is being phased out. However, as MeBr is still widely used under Critical Use Exemptions, strategies are still required to control such emissions. In this work, nove...

  20. Depleting methyl bromide residues in soil by reaction with bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite generally being considered the most effective soil fumigant, methyl bromide (MeBr) use is being phased out because its emissions from soil can lead to stratospheric ozone depletion. However, a large amount is still currently used due to Critical Use Exemptions. As strategies for reducing the...

  1. Preozonation of bromide-bearing source water in south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of preozonation was evaluated on treating a bromide-bearing dam source water in south China through batch-scale experiments. Preozonation at ozone doses of 0.5-1.0 mg/L (at ozone consumption base) enhanced total organic carbon(TOC) removal through coagulation, and resulted in an almost linear reduction of ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254). The removals of TOC (after coagulation) and UV254 at the ozone dose of 1.0 mg/L were 36% and 70%, respectively. Preozonation at an ozone dose between 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L resulted in the removal of disinfection byproducts formation potential (DBFP) including trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) and haloacetic acid formation potential (HAAFP) for about 50%. The removals of THMFP and HAAFP decreased with the further increase of ozone dose. Ozonation of bromide-bearing water (bromide concentration,34 μg/L) produced a bromate concentration under the detection limit(2 μg/L) at ozone doses < 1.5 mg/L. However, bromate >10 μg/L could be produced when the bromide concentration was increased to 96 μg/L.

  2. 7 CFR 305.6 - Methyl bromide fumigation treatment schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to air temperature within the chamber. Fruit taken from a cooling room may have to be prewarmed... pure, type “Q” (for quarantine use only) methyl bromide per 1,000 cubic feet of chamber space. Dosage.... Water temperature in the volatilizer must never fall below 65.6 °C (150 °F) at any time during...

  3. Residues resulting from fumigation of food commodities with methyl bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was undertaken to determine the nature and significance of residues remaining in methyl bromide-fumigated commodities using radiotracer techniques (14C-methyl bromide). Experiments with corn showed that the germ part of the kernel contained nearly half of the total 14C-residue remaining in the seed. Also preliminary tests with granny smith apples revealed that considerable residue may remain in seeds of treated apples with less in skin and the least in the fleshy pulp. In fumigated corn, fractionation revealed that radioactive residues were distributed throughout albumins, globulins, Zein 1, Zein 2 and glutelin with a large part in the aqueous extract (amino acids). Further investigation emphasized the characterization of volatile substances resulting from alkali treatment. It was found that methyl bromide readily methylated methionine and this constitutes a major site of methylation. A component of the volatile fraction was dimethyl sulfoxide, probably a product of oxidation of dimethyl sulphide. Work is in progress to determine whether methyl bromide will methylate purine and pyrimidine components. (author)

  4. Methyl bromide phase out could affect future reforestation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl bromide has long been an integral component in producing healthy tree seedlings in forest nurseries of California, Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. The fumigant was supposed to be completely phased out of use in the United States of America by 2005, but many forest nurseries continue to...

  5. Een ionchromatografische methode voor de simultane bepaling van nitriet, bromide en sulfiet in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beld WA van den; Cleven RFMJ; LAC

    1996-01-01

    Betreft resultaten van een onderzoek naar het ontwikkelen van een geautomatiseerde ionchromatografische methode voor de bepaling van nitriet, bromide en sulfiet. Het onderzoek heeft geresulteerd in een betrouwbare, selectieve en gevoelige methode voor de simultane bepaling van nitriet, bromide e

  6. Association of defects in lead chloride and lead bromide: Ionic conductivity and dielectric loss measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, W.E. van den; Schoonman, J.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    1972-01-01

    The ionic conductivity data of pure and doped lead bromide without associated defects are used in order to explain the anomalous conductivity behaviour of copper (I) bromide and lead oxide-doped lead-bromide crystals. In these crystals precipitated dopant and associated defects are present. The asso

  7. Detection of lipopolysaccharides by ethidium bromide staining after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kido, N; Ohta, M; Kato, N

    1990-01-01

    A rapid and easy method for staining lipopolysaccharides with ethidium bromide is described. Lipopolysaccharides could be visualized by ethidium bromide with almost the same sensitivity as found with the silver-staining method in less than 30 min. The ethidium bromide-staining method was particularly suitable for staining lipopolysaccharides possessing acidic O-specific polysaccharides, which were poorly visualized by silver staining.

  8. 40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bromide ion and residual bromine... Tolerances § 180.519 Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. The food additives, bromide ion and residual bromine, may be present in water, potable in accordance with...

  9. Uptake of ozone to mixed sodium bromide/ citric acid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Tao; Steimle, Emilie; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Kato, Shunsuke; Lampimäki, Markus; Brown, Matthew; van Bokhoven, Jeroen; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Türler, Andreas; Ammann, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Sea-salt solution - air interfaces play an important role in the chemistry of the marine boundary layer. The reaction of ozone (O3) with bromide is of interest in the context of formation of photolabile halogens (Br2, BrCl) in the marine boundary layer. Recent experiments have suggested that the bromide oxidation rate is related to the surface concentration of bromide [1] and inversely related to the gas phase concentration of O3, an indication for a precursor mediated reaction at the surface [2]. So far, the effect of organics (such as those occurring at the ocean surface or in marine aerosols) on the reaction of O3 with bromide aerosols has not been studied yet. In our study we investigate the uptake kinetics of O3 to a mixed solution of sodium bromide (NaBr) and citric acid (CA), which represents highly oxidized organic compounds present in the environment, with a well-established coated wall flow tube technique, which leads to exposure of the film to O3 allowing the heterogeneous reactions to take place and the loss of O3 being measured. The results indicate that the uptake of O3 to the films with the higher bromide concentrations (0.34M and 4M) is independent of the gas phase concentration and roughly consistent with uptake limited by reaction in the bulk. For the lower bromide concentration (84mM), however, we observe a trend of the uptake coefficient to decrease with increasing O3 concentration, indicating an increasing importance of a surface reaction. In an attempt to constrain the kinetic data, we employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to get insight into the surface composition of the aqueous solution - air interface. Previous XPS studies have shown that halide ion concentrations are enhanced at the aqueous solution air interface [3-4], which likely promotes the surface reactions of bromide or iodide with O3. A first XPS study of ternary solutions of KI with butanol indicated the importance of specific interactions of the cation with the alcohol

  10. A comparison of the effect of intranasal desmopressin and intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide combination with intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in acute renal colic

    OpenAIRE

    Abdol-Reza Kheirollahi; Mohammad Tehrani; Mohammad Bashashati

    2010-01-01

    Background: Patients with acute renal colic usually require immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this clinical trial analgesic effect of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin combination in comparison with hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with acute renal colic induced by urinary stones was assessed. Methods: The study included 114 patients randomly allocated in two groups (A and B). Patients in group A received 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide at admission tim...

  11. Aluminium Electroplating on Steel from a Fused Bromide Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat Tripathy; Laura Wurth; Eric Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven Frank; Guy Fredrickson; J Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr-KBr-CsBr-AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminium on steel substrates. The electrolyte was prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr-KBr-CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminium coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminium coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggest that the coatings did display good corrosion-resistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminium coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminium coating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  12. [2,6-Bis(dimethylaminomethylphenyl]selenium bromide monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Varga

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title hydrated molecular salt, C12H19N2Se+·Br−·H2O, the two independent bromide anions lie on a twofold rotation axis. Strong intramolecular N→Se interactions [2.185 (3 and 2.181 (3 Å] are established by both N atoms of the organic group in the cation, in trans positions to each other, with an N—Se—N angle of 161.6 (1°, resulting in a T-shaped (C,N,N′Se core. In the crystal, dimeric associations are formed by Br...Se [3.662 (2 Å] and Br...H interactions [2.56 (6 and 2.63 (7 Å] involving two bromide anions, two cations and two water molecules.

  13. Preparation of ethyl magnesium bromide for regiospecific analysis of triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Yasuhiro; Tomita, Yuki; Haba, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for preparation of a Grignard reagent, ethyl magnesium bromide, used for partial deacylation of triacylglycerols (TAG) in their regiospecific analysis. Magnesium turnings were reacted with ethereal solution of bromoethane in a screw-capped test tube to synthesize 2 mL of 1 M ethyl magnesium bromide. Continuously stirred with a vortex mixer, the reaction smoothly proceeded at room temperature. Regiospecific analysis of 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol using this product showed that fatty acid compositions of the sn-1(3) and sn-2 positions were contaminated by less than 2 mol% of fatty acids migrated from isomeric positions. The analyses of lard and cod liver/mackerel oil TAG showed typical distribution patterns of 16:0, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in pig and fish depot TAG. These results confirmed the view that the freshly prepared reagent is usable for regiospecific analysis of TAG.

  14. The behaviour under irradiation of molybdenum matrix for inert matrix fuel containing americium oxide (CerMet concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agata, E.; Knol, S.; Fedorov, A. V.; Fernandez, A.; Somers, J.; Klaassen, F.

    2015-10-01

    Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors or Accelerator Driven System (ADS, subcritical reactors dedicated to transmutation) of long-lived nuclides like 241Am is therefore an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity of waste packages to be stored in a repository. In order to safely burn americium in a fast reactor or ADS, it must be incorporated in a matrix that could be metallic (CerMet target) or ceramic (CerCer target). One of the most promising matrix to incorporate Am is molybdenum. In order to address the issues (swelling, stability under irradiation, gas retention and release) of using Mo as matrix to transmute Am, two irradiation experiments have been conducted recently at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten (The Netherland) namely HELIOS and BODEX. The BODEX experiment is a separate effect test, where the molybdenum behaviour is studied without the presence of fission products using 10B to "produce" helium, the HELIOS experiment included a more representative fuel target with the presence of Am and fission product. This paper covers the results of Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) of the two irradiation experiments mentioned above where molybdenum behaviour has been deeply investigated as possible matrix to transmute americium (CerMet fuel target). The behaviour of molybdenum looks satisfying at operating temperature but at high temperature (above 1000 °C) more investigation should be performed.

  15. Consideration of the effect of lymph-node deposition upon the measurement of plutonium and americium in the lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of an inhaled radionuclide by external photon counting includes quantities which may be contained in lymph nodes, as well as quantities in the lungs. An overestimate of the lung burden can result, if a portion of the radionuclide were present in the lymph nodes. This problem is analyzed with respect to the measurement of inhaled plutonium containing plutonium-241 and americium-241, when americium-241 has been used as a tracer for the plutonium. Equations are derived which yield the amounts of americium and of plutonium in the lungs and in the lymph nodes as a function of time after exposure and for various translocation and retention parameters. Count histories (count profiles) of actual exposure cases are compared with calculated count profiles in order to gain insight into possible values of the translocation and retention parameters. Comparison is also made with calculated count profiles using values of translocation and retention parameters recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for use with the Task Group Lung Model. The magnitude of the possible overestimate (error factor) was calculated for combinations o

  16. HELIOS: the new design of the irradiation of U-free fuels for americium transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Agata, E. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Klaassen, F.; Sciolla, C. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Dept. Life Cycle and Innovations, P.O. Box 25 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Fernandez-Carretero, A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bonnerot, J.M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEC/SESC/LC2I CEA-Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2009-06-15

    Americium is one of the radioactive elements that mostly contribute to the radiotoxicity of the nuclear spent fuel. Transmutation of long-lived nuclides like Americium is an option for the reduction of the mass, the radiotoxicity and the decay heat of nuclear waste. The HELIOS irradiation experiment is the last evolution in a series of experiments on americium transmutation. The previous experiments, EFTTRA-T4 and T4bis, have shown that the release or trapping of helium is the key issue for the design of such kind of target. In fact, the production of helium, which is characteristic of {sup 241}Am transmutation, is quite significant. The experiment is carried out in the framework of the 4-year project EUROTRANS of the EURATOM 6. Framework Programme (FP6). Therefore, the main objective of the HELIOS experiment is to study the in-pile behaviour of U-free fuels such as CerCer (Pu, Am, Zr)O{sub 2} and Am{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}+MgO or CerMet (Pu, Am)O{sub 2}+Mo in order to gain knowledge on the role of the fuel microstructure and of the temperature on the gas release and on the fuel swelling. The experiment was planned to be conducted in the HFR (High Flux Reactor) in Petten (The Netherlands) starting the first quarter of 2007. Because of the innovative aspects of the fuel, the fabrication has had some delays as well as the final safety analyses of the original design showed some unexpected deviation. Besides, the HFR reactor has been unavailable since August 2008. Due to the reasons described above, the experiment has been postponed. HELIOS should start in the first quarter of 2009 and will last 300 full power days. The paper will cover the description of the new design of the irradiation experiment HELIOS. The experiment has been split in two parts (HELIOS1 and HELIOS2) which will be irradiated together. Moreover, due to the high temperature achieved in cladding and to the high amount of helium produced during transmutation the experiment previously designed for a

  17. High-speed Laser Micromachining with Copper Bromide Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Balchev, I I; Minkovski, N I; Sabotinov, N V; Balchev, Ivaylo I.; Kostadinov, Ivan K.; Minkovski, Nikolai I.; Sabotinov, Nikola V.

    2006-01-01

    The application of the copper bromide (CuBr) laser as an attractive tool in the micro-machining of different materials has been demonstrated. High-quality drilling by trepanning and precision cutting was established on several materials with a negligible heat-affected zone (HAZ). That good performance was a result of the combination of high power visible radiation, short pulses, and close to the diffraction-limited laser beam quality with high-speed galvo scanner beam steering.

  18. Criticality in aqueous solutions of 3-methylpyridine and sodium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostko, A F; Anisimov, M A; Sengers, J V

    2004-08-01

    We address a controversial issue regarding the nature of critical behavior in ternary electrolyte solutions of water, 3-methylpyridine, and sodium bromide. Earlier light-scattering studies showed an anomalous critical behavior in this system that was attributed to the formation of a microheterogeneous phase associated with ion-molecule clustering [M.A. Anisimov, J. Jacob, A. Kumar, V.A. Agayan, and J. V. Sengers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2336 (2000)

  19. Comparison of Heat and Bromide as Ground Water Tracers Near Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, J.; Cox, M.H.; Su, G.W.

    2003-01-01

    Heat and bromide were compared as tracers for examining stream/ground water exchanges along the middle reaches of the Santa Clara River, California, during a 10-hour surface water sodium bromide injection test. Three cross sections that comprise six shallow (sodium bromide injection test. Vertical, one-dimensional simulations of bromide concentrations in the sediments yielded a good match to the observed bromide concentrations, without adjustment of any model parameters except solute dispersivities. This indicates that, for the spatial and temporal scales examined on the Santa Clara River, the use of heat and bromide as tracers provide comparable information with respect to apparent hydraulic conductivities and fluxes for sediments near streams. In other settings, caution should be used due to differences in the nature of conservative (bromide) versus nonconservative (heat) tracers, particularly when preferential flowpaths are present.

  20. Use of 82Br and 131I radionuclides in studies of goitrogenic effects of exogenous bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interference of excessive bromide intake with iodine metabolism in the rat was studied using 82Br and 131I radionuclides. Mainly lactating rat dams and their pups were used, in addition to adult male rats, in the present studies. Particularly, the influence of high bromide intake in lactating rat dams on the transfer of iodine and bromide to suckling young through breast milk was evaluated. The induction of hypothyroid status in the pups by high bromide intake in the mothers was proved unambiguously. Excessive bromide in lactating rat dams caused a marked decrease in plasma levels of thyroid hormones both, in the mothers and in their sucklings. The effects of an enhanced bromide intake on the thyroid function in relation to iodine status in the animals were also followed. Marked goitrogenic and thyrotoxic effects of excessive bromide in adult rats were significantly enhanced under the conditions of simultaneous iodine deficiency in the experimental animals. (author)

  1. [Manometric effects of pinaverium bromide in irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soifer, L; Varela, E; Olmos, J

    1992-01-01

    The effects of pinaverium bromide on colonic motility were investigated in a controlled, controlled, cross-over study in 32 patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Constipation was clearly predominant in one group of 16 patients, and diarrhea in the other group of 16. Manometric measurements were taken of the colonic motor response generated by distention of a balloon inserted to the rectosigmoid junction. Measurements were taken before and one hour after ingestion of two tablets containing placebo or two tablets each containing 50 mg of pinaverium bromide. Following intake of placebo the motility index increased from the basal value in patients with constipation, and resistance to distention decreased in the diarrhea group. These changes were attributable to repetition of the mechanical stimulus within a relatively brief time lapse, or more probably to the ingestion of liquid which accompanied intake of tablets. Compared with placebo, pinaverium bromide induced inhibition of both effects. From the therapeutic point of view, the decrease in motility index seen in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and constipation is particularly interesting. PMID:1295286

  2. 4-Hydroxy-1,2,6-trimethylpyridinium bromide monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Seethalakshmi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The title salt, C8H12NO+·Br−·H2O, is isomorphous with the chloride analogue [Seethalakshmi et al. (2013. Acta Cryst. E69, o835–o836]. In the solid state, the cations, anions and water molecules are interlinked by a network of O—H...O, O—H...Br and C—H...Br interactions. The water molecule makes two O—H...Br hydrogen bonds, generating [010] zigzag chains of alternating water molecules and bromide anions. The cation is involved in two intermolecular C—H...Cl interactions in the chloride salt, whereas three intermolecular C—H...Br interactions are observed in the title bromide salt. This additional intermolecular C—H...Br interaction links the adjacent water and bromide zigzag chains via cationic molecules. In addition, weak π–π stacking interactions are observed between pyridinium rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.5664 (13 Å].

  3. Structural, vibrational and theoretical studies of L-histidine bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A. Ben; Feki, H.; Abid, Y.; Boughzala, H.; Mlayah, A.

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the results of our calculations of the geometric parameters, vibrational spectra and hyperpolarizability of a non linear optical material, L-histidine bromide. Due to the lack of sufficiently precise information on the geometric structure available in literature, theoretical calculations were preceded by re-determination of the crystal X-ray structure. Single crystals of L-histidine bromide have been grown by slow evaporation of an aqueous solution at room temperature. The compound crystallizes in the non-Centro symmetric space group P2 12 12 1 of the orthorhombic system. Raman spectra have been recorded in the range [200-3500 cm -1]. All observed vibrational bands have been discussed and assigned to normal mode or to combinations and overtones on the basis of our calculations. The optimized geometric bond lengths and bond angles obtained by using HF and DFT (B3LYP and BLYP) show good agreement with the experimental data. Comparison between the measured and the calculated vibrational frequencies indicate that B3LYP is superior to the scaled HF approach for molecular vibrational problems. To investigate microscopic second order non linear optical properties of L-histidine bromide, the electric dipole μ, the polarizability α and the hyperpolarizability β were computed using DFT//B3LYP/6-31G(d) method. According to our calculations, the title compound exhibits non-zero β value revealing microscopic second order NLO behaviour.

  4. Oral teratogenicity studies of methyl bromide in rats and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, M; Hojo, H; Teramoto, S; Maita, K

    1998-05-01

    Teratogenicity studies of methyl bromide, a widely used fumigant, were conducted in rats and rabbits. Methyl bromide was dissolved in corn oil and administered orally to groups of 24 copulated female Crj:CD (SD) rats at dose levels of 0 (corn oil), 3, 10 or 30 mg/kg/day on days 6-15 of gestation and to groups of 18 artificially inseminated female Kbl:JW rabbits at 0, 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg/day on days 6-18 of gestation. Maternal rats and rabbits were euthanized on respective days 20 and 27 of gestation. Foetuses were examined for survival, growth and teratological alterations. Maternal toxicity was evident in the high-dose groups for both species. In these groups, maternal body weight gains and food consumption were significantly decreased during the dosing and post-dosing periods. Necropsy of maternal rats also revealed erosive lesions in the stomach and the surrounding organs. However, no treatment-related adverse effects were found in foetuses of the treated groups for both rat and rabbit studies. These results led to the conclusion that methyl bromide was not foetotoxic or teratogenic to rat and rabbit foetuses up to dose levels of 30 and 10 mg/kg/day, respectively, at which maternal toxicity was evident for both species.

  5. Anomalous aryl strengthening of complexes at americium and europium extraction with alkylenediphospine dioxide from perchloric media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studied was the extraction of americium(3) and europium(3) from perchlorate solutions(0.001 M) with dioxides of alkylenediphosphines of three types: aryl Ph2P(O)CH2(O)PPh2(briefly 4P), and Ph2P(O)(CH2)2(O)PPh2, mixed Ph2P(O)CH2(O)P(C8H17)2 (or 2Ph2Oct) and alkyl (C8H17)2P(O)CH2(O)P(C8H17)2 (or 4 Oct). Trisolvates of MeS3x(ClO4)3 are predominantly formed but americium disolvates are also present upon dilution with dichloroethane. For 4Ph,2Ph2Oct and 4 Oct the concentration is, respectively, 1015, 2x1014, and 1013; for disolvates by 4 orders of magnitude lower which is, nevertheless, by 2 orders of magnitude higher than for nitric acid solutions. The separation coefficient of β Am/Eu for 4Ph attains 6-8. As in the case of nitrate solutions, an anomalous aryl strengthening of the complexes is observed: an increase in the distribution coefficients and extraction constants in the series of 4 Oct - 2Ph 2 Oct - 4Ph, in spite of the introduction of electronegative aryl substituents into the dioxide molecule, which reduce electron density on oxygen atoms and basicity of dioxides. In contrast to nitric acid solutions, observed is a nonlinear effect of a change in basicity on extraction properties upon dilution with dichloroethane (dioxide of 2Ph2 Oct does not occupy an intermediate position but is close to 4Ph). Upon dilution with chloroform the dependence is linear and anomalous effect rises due to a different nature of interactions of dioxides with chloroform. When the bridge increases up to ethylene, an anomalous strengthening of the complexes disappears. However, the distribution coefficients upon extraction with alkyl dioxide are considerably lower, which can be explained by a stronger extraction of perchloric acid

  6. Solid miscibility of common-anion lithium and sodium halides. Experimental determination of the region of demixing in lithium bromide + sodium bromide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, H.A.J.; Wijk, H.J. van; Doornhof, D.

    1984-01-01

    The region of demixing of solid lithium bromide + sodium bromide mixtures has been measured by X-ray diffraction. The critical temperature of mixing corresponding to a thermodynamic fit of the experimental data is 513 K. Estimates are given of the regions of demixing in solid lithium chloride + sodi

  7. Americium-based oxides: Dense pellet fabrication from co-converted oxalates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horlait, Denis; Lebreton, Florent [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Gauthé, Aurélie [CEA, DEN, DRCP/SERA/LCAR, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Caisso, Marie [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Arab-Chapelet, Bénédicte; Picart, Sébastien [CEA, DEN, DRCP/SERA/LCAR, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Delahaye, Thibaud, E-mail: thibaud.delahaye@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France)

    2014-01-15

    Mixed oxides are used as nuclear fuels and are notably envisaged for future fuel cycles including plutonium and minor actinide recycling. In this context, processes are being developed for the fabrication of uranium–americium mixed-oxide compounds for transmutation. The purpose of these processes is not only the compliance with fuel specifications in terms of density and homogeneity, but also the simplification of the process for its industrialization as well as lowering dust generation. In this paper, the use of a U{sub 0.85}Am{sub 0.15}O{sub 2±δ} powder synthesized by oxalate co-conversion as a precursor for dense fuel fabrications is assessed. This study notably focuses on sintering, which yielded pellets up to 96% of the theoretical density, taking advantage of the high reactivity and homogeneity of the powder. As-obtained pellets were further characterized to be compared to those obtained via processes based on the UMACS (Uranium Minor Actinide Conventional Sintering) process. This comparison highlights several advantages of co-converted powder as a precursor for simplified processes that generate little dust.

  8. Study of biosorbents application on the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes with americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nuclear energy for many different purposes has been intensified and highlighted by the benefits that it provides. Medical diagnosis and therapy, agriculture, industry and electricity generation are examples of its application. However, nuclear energy generates radioactive wastes that require suitable treatment ensuring life and environmental safety. Biosorption and bioaccumulation represent an emergent alternative for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes, providing volume reduction and physical state change. This work aimed to study biosorbents for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes contaminated with americium-241 in order to reduce the volume and change the physical state from liquid to solid. The biosorbents evaluated were Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in calcium alginate beads, inactivated and free cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, calcium alginate beads, Bacillus subtilis, Cupriavidus metallidurans and Ochrobactrum anthropi. The results were quite satisfactory, achieving 100% in some cases. The technique presented in this work may be useful and viable for implementing at the Waste Management Laboratory of IPEN - CNEN/SP in short term, since it is an easy and low cost method. (author)

  9. Mutual separation of americium(III) and europium(III) using glycolamic acid and thioglycolamic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suneesh, A.S.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Syamala, K.V.; Antony, M.P.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.

    2012-07-01

    The extractants, bis(2-ethylhexyl)diglycolamicacid (HDEHDGA) and bis(2-ethylhexy)thiodiglycolamic acid (HDEHSDGA) were synthesized and characterized by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, mass and IR spectroscopy. The extraction behaviour of {sup (152+154})Eu(III) and {sup 241}Am(III) from nitric acid medium by a solution of HDEHDGA (or HDEHSDGA) in n-dodecane (n-DD) was studied for the mutual separation of actinides and lanthanides. The effect of various parameters such as the pH, concentrations of HDEHDGA, HDEHSDGA, sodium nitrate, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) on the separation factor (SF) of americium(III) over europium(III) and vice versa was studied, and the conditions needed for the preferential separation were optimised. The results show that HDEHDGA exhibits higher extraction for {sup (152+154)}Eu(III) and HDEHSDGA shows the superior selectivity for {sup 241}Am(III). (orig.)

  10. Determination of plutonium americium and curium in soil samples by solvent extraction with trioctylphosphine oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of Pu, Am and Cm determination in soil samples, which was developed for analyzing samples from territories subjected to radioactive contamination as a result of the Chernobyl accident is described. After preliminary treatment the samples were leached by solution of 7 mol/l HNO23+0.3 mol/l KBrO3 during heating. Pu was isolated by extraction with 0.05 mol TOPO from 7 mol/l HNO3. 144Ce and partially remaining in water phase isotopes of Zr, U and Th were isolated in an extraction-chromatographic column with TOPO and PbO2. Then Am and Cm were extracted by 0.2 mol/l TOPO from solution 1 mol/l HLact+0.07 mol/l DTPA+1 mol/l Al(NO3)3. Alpha-activity of both extracted products was determined in liquid scintillation counter. Chemical yield of plutonium counted to 85±10%, that of americium and curium -75±10%. 17 refs

  11. Development and Testing of an Americium/Lanthanide Separation Flowsheet Using Sodium Bismuthate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Law; Bruce Mincher; Troy Garn; Mitchell Greenhalgh; Nicholas Schmitt; Veronica Rutledge

    2014-04-01

    The separation of Am from the lanthanides and curium is a key step in proposed advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The partitioning and transmutation of Am is desirable to minimize the long-term heat load of material interred in a future high-level waste repository. A separation process amenable to process scale-up remains elusive. Given only subtle chemistry differences within and between the ions of the trivalent actinide and lanthanide series this separation is challenging ; however, higher oxidation states of americium can be prepared using sodium bismuthate and separated via solvent extraction using diamylamylphosphonate (DAAP) extraction. Among the other trivalent metals only Ce is also oxidized and extracted. Due to the long-term instability of Am(VI) , the loaded organic phase is readily selectively stripped to partition the actinide to a new acidic aqueous phase. Batch extraction distribution ratio measurements were used to design a flowsheet to accomplish this separation. Additionally, crossflow filtration was investigated as a method to filter the bismuthate solids from the feed solution prior to extraction. Results of the filtration studies, flowsheet development work and flowsheet performance testing using a centrifugal contactor are detailed.

  12. Speciation and bioavailability of Americium-241 in the fresh water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to its anthropogenic origin, the transuranic americium 241 confronts physiologists with the intriguing question, which mechanisms are involved in the incorporation or elimination of such artificial elements in biological cycles. The investigations on the speciation and bioavailability of 241Am in the freshwater environment aim to establish a relation between the behavior of 241Am in freshwater ecosystems and its availability for biota. In the limnic environment, most often characterized by a high organic load and a low conductivity, the effect of complexation of 241Am with humic acids and competition with trivalent cations such as A1 and Fe, were proven to be significant on the speciation of 241Am. Based on the registration of the 241Am uptake by a large number of freshwater organisms, the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz was chosen to study the whole-body uptake of 241Am, its corresponding organ distribution and its retention in the animal. The share of external fixation and ingestion in the global uptake, and the effect of speciation on it, were studied more carefully. Other aspects in this physiological part were: the kinetics of 241Am in the hemolymph and the hepatopancreas, and its subcellular distribution in the digestive gland. Finally, by comparing the physiology of 241Am with some other metals (240Pu, 64Cu, 198Au) with analogous or contradictional properties, we tried to find out whether the behavior of 241Am in organisms can be explained from its chemical characteristics

  13. Solution speciation of plutonium and Americium at an Australian legacy radioactive waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi; Harrison, Jennifer J; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry; Wong, Henri K Y; Johansen, Mathew P; Waite, T David; Payne, Timothy E

    2014-09-01

    During the 1960s, radioactive waste containing small amounts of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) was disposed in shallow trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), located near the southern suburbs of Sydney, Australia. Because of periodic saturation and overflowing of the former disposal trenches, Pu and Am have been transferred from the buried wastes into the surrounding surface soils. The presence of readily detected amounts of Pu and Am in the trench waters provides a unique opportunity to study their aqueous speciation under environmentally relevant conditions. This study aims to comprehensively investigate the chemical speciation of Pu and Am in the trench water by combining fluoride coprecipitation, solvent extraction, particle size fractionation, and thermochemical modeling. The predominant oxidation states of dissolved Pu and Am species were found to be Pu(IV) and Am(III), and large proportions of both actinides (Pu, 97.7%; Am, 86.8%) were associated with mobile colloids in the submicron size range. On the basis of this information, possible management options are assessed. PMID:25126837

  14. Solution speciation of plutonium and Americium at an Australian legacy radioactive waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi; Harrison, Jennifer J; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry; Wong, Henri K Y; Johansen, Mathew P; Waite, T David; Payne, Timothy E

    2014-09-01

    During the 1960s, radioactive waste containing small amounts of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) was disposed in shallow trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), located near the southern suburbs of Sydney, Australia. Because of periodic saturation and overflowing of the former disposal trenches, Pu and Am have been transferred from the buried wastes into the surrounding surface soils. The presence of readily detected amounts of Pu and Am in the trench waters provides a unique opportunity to study their aqueous speciation under environmentally relevant conditions. This study aims to comprehensively investigate the chemical speciation of Pu and Am in the trench water by combining fluoride coprecipitation, solvent extraction, particle size fractionation, and thermochemical modeling. The predominant oxidation states of dissolved Pu and Am species were found to be Pu(IV) and Am(III), and large proportions of both actinides (Pu, 97.7%; Am, 86.8%) were associated with mobile colloids in the submicron size range. On the basis of this information, possible management options are assessed.

  15. Interaction between gaseous ozone and crystalline potassium bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanov, A. V.; Maksimov, I. B.; Isaikina, O. Ya.; Antipenko, E. E.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    The formation of nonvolatile products of the oxidation of a bromide ion during the interaction between gaseous ozone and powdered crystalline KBr is studied. It is found that potassium bromate KBrO3 is the main product of the reaction. The influence of major experimental factors (the duration of ozonation, the concentration of ozone, the humidity of the initial gas, and the temperature) on the rate of formation of bromate is studied. The effective constants of the formation of bromate during the interaction between O3 and Br- in a heterogeneous gas-solid body system and in a homogeneous aqueous solution are compared.

  16. Suicide by intravenous injection of rocuronium-bromide: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Slobodan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicides by intravenous injection of an overdose of medicaments are uncommon. In this paper, we present the case of a suicide by rocuronium-bromide injection in combination with an oral overdose of metoprolol. Unfortunately, in Belgrade, there is no toxicological laboratory capable of detecting rocuronium. The interpretation of autopsy and toxicological data in this case was made difficult due to the extreme putrefaction of the body of the deceased. So, by forensic investigation, the case was solved indirectly, through circumstantial evidence: an empty ampoule of rocuronium found near the body, as well as a plastic syringe and cloth-bandage found in the left hand of the deceased.

  17. Methyl bromide: Ocean sources, ocean sinks, and climate sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Anbar; Yung, Y. L.; Chavez, F.P.

    1996-01-01

    The oceans play an important role in the geochemical cycle of methyl bromide (CH_3Br), the major carrier of O_3-destroying bromine to the stratosphere. The quantity of CH_3Br produced annually in seawater is comparable to the amount entering the atmosphere each year from natural and anthropogenic sources. The production mechanism is unknown but may be biological. Most of this CH_3Br is consumed in situ by hydrolysis or reaction with chloride. The size of the fraction which escapes to the atmo...

  18. Enzyme activities in agricultural soils fumigated with methyl bromide alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Klose, Susanne; Ajwa, H A

    2004-01-01

    Pre-plant fumigation of agricultural soils with a combination of methyl bromide (MeBr) and chloropicrin (CP) to control nematodes, soil-borne pathogens and weeds has been a common practice in strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa Duchesne) production since the 1960s. MeBr will be phased out by 2005, but little is known about the impacts of alternative fumigants on soil microbial processes. We investigated the response of microbial biomass and enzyme activities in soils fumigated over two years with...

  19. Automated determination of bromide in waters by ion chromatography with an amperometric detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyen, G.S.; Erdmann, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    An automated ion chromatograph, including a program controller, an automatic sampler, an integrator, and an amperometric detector, was used to develop a procedure for the determination of bromide in rain water and many ground waters. Approximately 10 min is required to obtain a chromatogram. The detection limit for bromide is 0.01 mg l-1 and the relative standard deivation is <5% for bromide concentrations between 0.05 and 0.5 mg l-1. Chloride interferes if the chloride-to-bromide ratio is greater than 1 000:1 for a range of 0.01-0.1 mg l-1 bromide; similarly, chloride interferes in the 0.1-1.0 mg l-1 range if the ratio is greater than 5 000:1. In the latter case, a maximum of 2 000 mg l-1 of chloride can be tolerated. Recoveries of known concentrations of bromide added to several samples, ranged from 97 to 110%. ?? 1983.

  20. Effects of pinaverium bromide and verapamil on the motility of the rat isolated colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, A; Drack, E; Halter, F; Scheurer, U

    1985-09-01

    Pinaverium bromide was 30 times less potent than verapamil in inhibiting intraluminal pressure responses of in vitro rat colonic segments to barium chloride, acetylcholine, FK 33-824 or field stimulation. The inhibitory effects of both verapamil and pinaverium bromide on the pressure responses to field stimulation were antagonized similarly by exogenous calcium administration. These results support the concept that pinaverium bromide acts on calcium channels in the smooth muscle cell membrane. PMID:4052731

  1. Effects of pinaverium bromide and verapamil on the motility of the rat isolated colon.

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgartner, A.; Drack, E.; Halter, F; Scheurer, U.

    1985-01-01

    Pinaverium bromide was 30 times less potent than verapamil in inhibiting intraluminal pressure responses of in vitro rat colonic segments to barium chloride, acetylcholine, FK 33-824 or field stimulation. The inhibitory effects of both verapamil and pinaverium bromide on the pressure responses to field stimulation were antagonized similarly by exogenous calcium administration. These results support the concept that pinaverium bromide acts on calcium channels in the smooth muscle cell membrane.

  2. A study of plutonium and americium concentrations in seaspray on the southern Scottish coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaspray and seawater have been collected from the southern Scottish coast and, for comparison, Cumbria in northwest England during 1989 and 1991. The occurrence of sea-to-land transfer of the actinides plutonium and americium in seaspray was observed on these coasts using muslin screens (a semi-quantitative technique most efficient for collecting large spray droplets) and high volume conventional air samplers. The actinides and fine particulate in the spray were present in relatively higher concentrations than measured in the adjacent seawater, i.e. the spray was enriched in particulate actinides. The net efficiency of the muslim screens in collecting airborne plutonium isotopes and 241Am generally appeared to be about 20%. A review of earlier published concentrations of 239+240Pu and 241Am measured in aerosol and deposition for over a year several tens of metres inland was carried out. This suggested that airborne activities are up to a factor of 5 times higher in Cumbria than southern Scotland. However, neither the new data collected in 1989 and 1991 nor this older data suggests any enhancement of seaspray actinide enrichment in southern Scotland compared to Cumbria. This finding contrasts with earlier, more limited, comparisons that have been carried out which suggested such a difference. There is clear evidence of considerable localised spatial and temporal variability in aerosol actinide enrichment over the beaches in both areas. Enrichments varies between 20 and 500 relative to the adjacent surf zone waters. However, the average enrichment in spray based on the continuous measurements made further inland is likely to be at the lower end of this range. (author)

  3. Biosorption of Americium-242 by saccharomyces cerevisiae: preliminary evaluation and mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an important radioisotope in nuclear industry and other fields, americium-241 is one of the most serious contamination concerns duo to its high radiation toxicity and long half-life. In this experiment, the biosorption of 241Am from solution by a fungus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae), and the effects of various experimental conditions on the biosorption and the mechanism were explored. The preliminary results showed that S. cerevisiae is a very efficient biosorbent. An average of more than 99% of the total 241Am could be removed by S. cerevisiae of 2.1g/L (dry weight) from 241Am solutions of 2.22MBq/L -555 MBq/L (Co). The adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 1 hour and the optimum pH ranged 1-3. The culture times of more than 16 hours were suitable and the efficient adsorption of 241Am by the S. cerevisiae could be noted. The biosorption of 241Am by the decomposed cell wall, protoplasm or cell membrane of S. cerevisiae was same efficient as by the intact fungus, but the some components of S. cerevisiae, such as protein and acylation group had obvious effect on adsorption. When the concentrations of coexistent Eu3+, Nd3+ were 100 times more than that of 241Am, the adsorption rates would drop to 65%. However, most of the investigated acidic ions have no significant influence on the 241Am adsorption but minute change of pH value, while the saturated EDTA can strong inhibit the biosorption of 241Am.. (authors)

  4. Transport of plutonium, americium, and curium from soils into plants by roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For assessing the dose from radionuclides in agricultural products by ingestion it is necessary to know the soil to plant transfer factors. The literature was entirely investigated, in order to judge the size of the soil to plant transfer factors. In total, 92 publications - from 1948 to 1978 -have been evaluated. As result, transfer factors from 10-9 to 10-3 have been found for Plutonium, and from 10-6 to 1 for Americium. For Curium only few data are available in literature. The considerable variation of the measured transfer factors is based on the dependence of these transfer factors from the ion exchange capacity of soils, from the amount of organic materials, from the pH-value, and from the mode of contamination. There are, in any case, contradictory data, although there has been detected a dependence of the transfer factors from these parameters. Chelating agenst increase the transfer factors to approximately 1300. As well, fertilizers have an influence on the size of the transfer factors - however, the relationships have been scarcely investigated. The distribution of actinides within the individual parts of plants has been investigated. The highest concentrations are in the roots; in the plant parts above ground the concentration of actinides decreases considerably. The most inferior transfer factors were measured for the respective seed or fruits. The soil to plant transfer factors of actinides are more dependend on the age of the plants within one growing period. At the beginning of the period, the transfer factor is considerably higher than at the end of this period. With respect to plants with a growing period of several years, correlations are unknown. (orig.)

  5. The treatment of liquid radioactive waste containing Americium by using a cation exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research in the treatment of a liquid radioactive waste containing americium has been done. The liquid radioactive waste used in this research was standard solution of U dan Ce with the initial activity of 100 ppm. The experimental investigation is aimed at a study of the effects of the waste pH, the column dimension of IR-120 cation exchanger which is expressed as L/D, the flow rate of a liquid waste and the influence of thiocyanate as a complex agent against the efficiency of a decontamination for uranium and cerium element. The experiment was done by passing downward the feed of uranium and cerium solution into an IR-120 type of cation exchanger with the L/D of 11.37. From the experimental parameters done in this research where the influence of waste pH was varied from 3 - 8, the geometric column (L/D) 11.37, the liquid flow rate was from 2.5 - 10 ml/m and the thiocyanate concentration was between 100 ppm-500 ppm can be concluded that the optimum operational condition for the ion exchange achieved were the waste pH for uranium = 4 and the waste pH for cerium = 6, the flow rate = 2.5 ml/men. From the given maximum value of DF for uranium = 24 (DE = 95.83%) and of DF for cerium = 40 (DE = 97.5%), it can also be concluded that this investigation is to be continued in order that the greater value of DF/DE can be achieved

  6. Transient neuromyopathy after bromide intoxication in a dog with idiopathic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmetz Sonja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A seven-year old Australian Shepherd, suffering from idiopathic epilepsy under treatment with phenobarbitone and potassium bromide, was presented with generalised lower motor neuron signs. Electrophysiology and muscle-nerve biopsies revealed a neuromyopathy. The serum bromide concentration was increased more than two-fold above the upper reference value. Clinical signs disappeared after applying diuretics and reducing the potassium bromide dose rate. This is the first case report describing electrophysiological and histopathological findings associated with bromide induced lower motor neuron dysfunction in a dog.

  7. Use of radioisotopes in the study of tetracycline analytical application. Extraction of compounds formed between tetracycline and neptunium and americium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of tetracycline as complexing agent, in solvent extraction studies of neptunium and americium, using benzyl alcohol as the organic phase, is presented. By using radioactive tracers of 239Np and 241Am the extraction percent of these elements were determined as a function of pH in the absence and in the presence of several masking agents. The influence of shaking time and the use of different types of supporting eletrolytes upon the extraction behavior was also studied. The extraction curves obtained using EDTA as masking agent show that tetracycline can be used for neptunium and americium separation. In this condition neptunium is extracted into the organic phase and americium remains in the aqueous phase. (Author)

  8. The in vitro and in vivo profile of aclidinium bromide in comparison with glycopyrronium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaldà, Amadeu; Ramos, Israel; Carcasona, Carla; Calama, Elena; Otal, Raquel; Montero, José Luis; Sentellas, Sonia; Aparici, Monica; Vilella, Dolors; Alberti, Joan; Beleta, Jorge; Miralpeix, Montserrat

    2014-08-01

    This study characterised the in vitro and in vivo profiles of two novel long-acting muscarinic antagonists, aclidinium bromide and glycopyrronium bromide, using tiotropium bromide and ipratropium bromide as comparators. All four antagonists had high affinity for the five muscarinic receptor sub-types (M1-M5); aclidinium had comparable affinity to tiotropium but higher affinity than glycopyrronium and ipratropium for all receptors. Glycopyrronium dissociated faster from recombinant M3 receptors than aclidinium and tiotropium but more slowly than ipratropium; all four compounds dissociated more rapidly from M2 receptors than from M3 receptors. In vitro, aclidinium, glycopyrronium and tiotropium had a long duration of action at native M3 receptors (>8 h versus 42 min for ipratropium). In vivo, all compounds were equi-potent at reversing acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction. Aclidinium, glycopyrronium and ipratropium had a faster onset of bronchodilator action than tiotropium. Aclidinium had a longer duration of action than glycopyronnium (time to 50% recovery of effect [t½ offset] = 29 h and 13 h, respectively); these compare with a t½ offset of 64 h and 8 h for tiotropium and ipratropium, respectively. Aclidinium was less potent than glycopyrronium and tiotropium at inhibiting salivation in conscious rats (dose required to produce half-maximal effect [ED50] = 38, 0.74 and 0.88 μg/kg, respectively) and was more rapidly hydrolysed in rat, guinea pig and human plasma compared with glycopyrronium or tiotropium. These results indicate that while aclidinium and glycopyrronium are both potent antagonists at muscarinic receptors with similar kinetic selectivity for M3 receptors versus M2, aclidinium has a longer dissociation half-life at M3 receptors and a longer duration of bronchodilator action in vivo than glycopyrronium. The rapid plasma hydrolysis of aclidinium, coupled to its kinetic selectivity, may confer a reduced propensity for systemic

  9. Bromoform formation in ozonated groundwater containing bromide and humic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, W.J.; Amy, G.L.; Moore, C.A.; Zika, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of bromide ion, organic carbon concentration (natural aquatic humic substances), pH, and solar irradiation on the formation of bromoform in ozonated groundwater has been studied. The studies were conducted on four unique samples of groundwater taken from different regions of the Biscayne Aquifer in southern Florida. All other conditions being equal, increases in bromide ion concentrations resulted in increases in CHBr/sub 3/ formation. In three of the four samples, CHBr/sub 3/ formation decreased as the pH level increased from 5 to 9. The fourth sample exhibited an opposite trend whereby the CHBr/sub 3/ concentration increased with increasing pH. Bromoform concentration increased with increased O/sub 3/ concentration over an ozone dosage range of 3.4 to 6.7 mg/L. Ozonated samples placed in sunlight immediately after ozone addition showed a decrease in the formation of CHBr/sub 3/ presumably due to the photodecomposition of HOBr/OBr.

  10. Bromoform formation in ozonated groundwater containing bromide and humic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copper, W.J. (Florida International Univ., Miami (United States)); Amy, G.L. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States)); Moore, C.A.; Zika, R.G. (Univ. of Miami, FL (United States))

    The effect of bromide ion, organic carbon concentration (natural aquatic humic substances), pH, and solar irradiation on the formation of bromoform in ozonated groundwater has been studied. The studies were conducted on four unique samples of groundwater taken from different regions of the Biscayne Aquifer in southern Florida. All other conditions being equal, increases in bromide ion concentrations resulted in increases in CHBr{sub 3} formation. In three of the four samples, CHBr{sub 3} formation decreased as the pH level increased from 5 to 9. The fourth sample exhibited an opposite trend whereby the CHBr{sub 3} concentration increased with increasing pH. Bromoform concentration increased with increased O{sub 3} concentration over an ozone dosage range of 3.4 to 6.7 mg/L. Ozonated samples placed in sunlight immediately after ozone addition showed a decrease in the formation of CHBr{sub 3}, presumably due to the photodecomposition of HOBr/OBr.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Mercuric Bromide-Phenothiazine Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidisha A. Alwani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available N-alkylphenothiazines (NAPTZs are biologically active heterocyclic compounds that find extensive applications in the field of medicine. In the pharmaceutical industry, they are used as psychotherapeutic, antiemetic, and antihistaminic drugs. In this study, complexation reactions of mercuric bromide with NAPTZs as principal ligands have been investigated in MeOH medium. Five mercuric bromide complexes of the NAPTZ ligands namely, chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CP.HCl, promethazine hydrochloride (PM.HCl, ethopropazine hydrochloride (EP.HCl, trifluoperazine dihydrochloride (TF.2HCl and thioridazine hydrochloride (TR.HCl have been synthesized. These complexes were subjected to elemental analysis, solubility, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility, U.V-Vis, I.R, and NMR spectroscopy. The molecular formulations of the complexes have been found to be: [HgBr2(CP2].4H2O; [HgBr2(PM2].2H2O; [HgBr2(EP2]; [HgBr2(TF2].2H2O and [HgBr2(TR2]. Tentative molecular structures have been proposed and presented.

  12. Modeling water/lithium bromide absorption chillers in ASPEN Plus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Single- and double-effect water/lithium bromide absorption chiller designs are numerically modeled using ASPEN. → The modeling procedure is described and the results are compared to published modeling data to access prediction accuracy. → Predictions for the single- and double-effect designs are within 3% and 5%, respectively of published data for all cycle parameters of interest. → The absorption cycle models presented allow investigation of using absorption chillers for waste heat utilization in the oil and gas industry. -- Abstract: Absorption chillers are a viable option for providing waste heat-powered cooling or refrigeration in oil and gas processing plants, thereby improving energy efficiency. In this paper, single- and double-effect water/lithium bromide absorption chiller designs are numerically modeled using ASPEN. The modeling procedure is described and the results are compared to published modeling data to access prediction accuracy. Predictions for the single- and double-effect designs are within 3% and 5%, respectively of published data for all cycle parameters of interest. The absorption cycle models presented not only allow investigation into the benefits of using absorption chillers for waste heat utilization in the oil and gas industry, but are also generically applicable to a wide range of other applications.

  13. Development of copper bromide laser master oscillator power amplifier system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G N Tiwari; R K Mishra; R Khare; S V Nakhe

    2014-02-01

    Development of master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system of copper bromide laser (CBL) operating at 110 W average power is reported. The spectral distribution of power at green (510.6 nm) and yellow (578.2 nm) components in the output of a copper bromide laser is studied as a function of operating parameters. The electrical input power was varied from 2.6 to 4.3 kW, the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) was changed from 16 to 19 kHz, and the pressure of the buffer gas (neon) was kept fixed at 20 mbar. When the electrical input power was increased to 4.3 kW from 2.6 kW, the tube-wall temperature also increased to 488°C from 426°C but the ratio of the green to yellow power decreased to 1.53 from 3.73. The ratio of green to yellow power decreased to 1.53 from 1.63 when the PRF of the laser was increased to 19 kHz from 16 kHz. These observations are explained in terms of electron temperature, energy levels of transitions, and voltage and current waveforms across the laser head.

  14. Effect of a long-term release of plutonium and americium into an estuarine and coastal sea ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the general problem of speciation of plutonium and americium in aquatic ecosystems and the implications relative to their fate in those systems. The following conclusions were reached: several oxidation states of plutonium coexist in the natural environment; the effect of environmental changes such as pH and Esub(h) values and complexes are probably the cause of these various oxidation states; a clearer definition of the 'concentration factor' should be given in view of the important role the sediments play in supplying plutonium for transfer through the food web. (author)

  15. EFFECT OF COMPOSITION OF SELECTED GROUNDWATERS FROM THE BASIN AND RANGE PROVINCE ON PLUTONIUM, NEPTUNIUM, AND AMERICIUM SPECIATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Terry F.; Cleveland, Jess M.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    1984-01-01

    The speciation of plutonium, neptunium, and americium was determined in groundwaters from four sources in the Basin and Range Province: the lower carbonate aquifer, Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Crystal Pool); alluvial fill, Frenchman Flat, NTS (well 5C); Hualapai Valley, Arizona (Red Lake south well); and Tularosa Basin, New Mexico (Rentfrow well). The results were interpreted to indicate that plutonium and, to a lesser extent, neptunium are least soluble in reducing groundwaters containing a large concentration of sulfate ion and a small concentration of strongly complexing anions. The results further emphasize the desirability of including studies such as this among the other site-selection criteria for nuclear waste repositories.

  16. Microstructure and elemental distribution of americium-containing MOX fuel under the short-term irradiation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the effect of americium addition to MOX fuels on the irradiation behavior, the 'Am-1' program is being conducted in JAEA. The Am-1 program consists of two short-term irradiation tests of 10-minute and 24-hour irradiations and a steady-state irradiation test. The short-term irradiation tests were successfully completed and the post irradiation examinations (PIEs) are in progress. The PIEs for Am-containing MOX fuels focused on the microstructural evolution and redistribution behavior of Am at the initial stage of irradiation and the results to date are reported. (author)

  17. Development of a methodology for the determination of americium and thorium by ICP-AES and their inter-element effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the scarcity of good quality uranium resources, the growth of nuclear technology in India is dependent on the utilization of the vast thorium resources. Therefore, Advance Heavy Water Reactor is going to acquire significant role in the scenario of Indian nuclear technology, where (Th, Pu)O2 will be utilized as fuel in the outermost ring of the reactor core. This will lead to a complex matrix containing thorium as well as americium, which is formed due to β-decay of plutonium. The amount of americium is dependent on the burn up and the storage time of the Pu based fuels. In the present case, attempt was made to develop a method for the determination of americium as well as thorium by ICP-AES. Two emission lines of americium were identified and calibration curves were established for determination of americium. Though the detection limit of 283.236 nm line (5 ng mL-1) of americium was found to be better than that of 408.930 nm (11 ng mL-1), the former line is significantly interfered by large amount of thorium. Three analytical lines (i.e. 283.242, 283.730 and 401.913 nm) of thorium were identified and calibration curves were established along with their detection limits. It was observed that 283.242 and 401.913 nm line are having similar detection limits (18 and 13 ng mL-1, respectively) which are better than that of 283.730 nm (60 ng mL-1). This can be attributed to the high background of 283.273 nm channel of thorium. The spectral interference study revealed that even small amount of americium has significant contribution on 283.242 nm channel of thorium while the other two channels remain practically unaffected. Considering both these facts, spectral interference and analytical performance (detection limits and sensitivity), it was concluded that 401.913 nm line is the best analytical line out of the three lines for determination of thorium in presence of americium. (author)

  18. Vapour pressures, densities, and viscosities of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system and (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Antonio de [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain); Donate, Marina [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain); Rodriguez, Juan F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain)]. E-mail: juan.rromero@uclm.es

    2006-02-15

    Measurements of thermophysical properties (vapour pressure, density, and viscosity) of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system LiBr:CH{sub 3}COOK = 2:1 by mass ratio and the (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system LiBr:CH{sub 3}CH(OH)COONa = 2:1 by mass ratio were measured. The system, a possible new working fluid for absorption heat pump, consists of absorbent (LiBr + CH{sub 3}COOK) or (LiBr + CH{sub 3}CH(OH)COONa) and refrigerant H{sub 2}O. The vapour pressures were measured in the ranges of temperature and absorbent concentration from T = (293.15 to 333.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.50, densities and viscosities were measured from T = (293.15 to 323.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.40. The experimental data were correlated with an Antoine-type equation. Densities and viscosities were measured in the same range of temperature and absorbent concentration as that of the vapour pressure. Regression equations for densities and viscosities were obtained with a minimum mean square error criterion.

  19. Effect of radiolysis on leachability of plutonium and americium from 76-101 glass. [Glass containing 2 mole % plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K.L.; Fried, S.; Friedman, A.M.; Susak, N.; Rickert, P.; Sullivan, J.C.; Karim, D.P.; Lam, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    One aspect of the leachability of actinide-bearing glass which has not been adequately addressed is the effect of radiolysis of the system (glass-water) on the amount of actinides liberated from the glass. In the present study, we have investigated the leaching of plutonium and americium from 76-101 glass samples (containing 2 mole % plutonium) in the presence of a one megaRad/hour gamma-radiation field. The presence of the radiation field was found to increase the leaching rate of both plutonium and americium by a factor of five. Speciation studies of the plutonium in the leachate indicate that the plutonium is present predominantly in the higher oxidation states, Pu(V) and Pu(VI) and that it is significantly associated with colloidal particles. Examination of the glass surfaces with x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, XPS, both before and after leaching was carried out; these studies showed lower surface concentrations of plutonium in the samples of glass leached in the radiation field. 1 figure, 3 tables.

  20. Osteosarcoma induction by plutonium-239, americium-241 and neptunium-237 : the problem of deriving risk estimates for man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spontaneous bone cancer (osteosarcoma) represents only about 0.3% of all human cancers, but is well known to be inducible in humans by internal contamination with radium-226 and radium-224. plutonium-239, americium-241 and neptunium-237 form, or will form, the principal long-lived alpha particle emitting components of high activity waste and burnt-up nuclear fuel elements. These three nuclides deposit extensively in human bone and although, fortunately, no case of a human osteosarcoma induced by any of these nuclides is known, evidence from animal studies suggests that all three are more effective than radium-226 in inducing osteosarcoma. The assumption that the ratio of the risk factors, the number of osteosarcoma expected per 10000 person/animal Gy, for radium-226 and any other bone-seeking alpha-emitter will be independent of animal species has formed the basis of all the important studies of the radiotoxicity of actinide nuclides in experimental animals. The aim of this communication is to review the risk factors which may be calculated from the various animal studies carried out over the last thirty years with plutonium-237, americium-241 and neptunium-237 and to consider the problems which may arise in extrapolating these risk factors to homo sapiens

  1. 76 FR 7200 - Methyl Bromide; Notice of Receipt of Requests To Voluntarily Amend Registrations To Terminate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Professional Products to voluntarily amend methyl bromide product registration 8536-12 to terminate or delete... identity or contact information unless you provide it in the body of your comment. If you send an e- mail... Cardinal Professional Products, and Trical, Inc.) to delete certain uses of methyl bromide...

  2. SYNTHESIS AND CATALYTIC PROPERTIES OF HYDROPHOBICALLY MODIFIED POLY(ALKYLMETHYLDIALLYLAMMONIUM BROMIDES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    YANG, YJ; ENGBERTS, JBFN

    1991-01-01

    A series of hydrophobically modified homo- and copolymers of the poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide) type has been prepared by free-radical cyclo(co)polymerization of alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide monomers in aqueous solution. Depending on the length of the alkyl side chain (varied between

  3. Destruction of methyl bromide sorbed to activated carbon by thiosulfate and electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl bromide is widely used as a fumigant for post-harvest and quarantine uses at port facilities due to the low treatment times required, but it is vented to the atmosphere after its use. Due to the potential contributions of methyl bromide to stratospheric ozone depletion, technologies for the c...

  4. Determination of micro-amount bromide in uranium trioxide by spectrophotometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of bromide in the production of uranium trioxide is one of the most important control factors, so determining it accurately seems important. When uranium trioxide is dissolved in nitric acid, in the presence of AgNO3 solution, micro-amount bromide can be co- precipitated with AgCl. Bromide can be separated by centrifugation from a large amount of UO22+ and other anions. In the existing of KOH and H2O2, AgCl can be changed into free bromide. By adding ammonium molybdate as catalyst, bromide and excessive KBrO3 can react and produce Br2. In the medium of tert-butanol-ethanol, Br2 can react with basic fuchsine and produce a purple compound which is stable, the bromide content is determined by spectrophotometric method. The results show that it is a highly sensitive method with low detection limit. Its apparent molar absorption coefficient κ' is 1.7 x 104 L/(mol·cm). Its detection limit is 9 μg/L and determination limit is 0.13 mg/L. The linear relationship is in the range of 0.2-1.6 mg/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.997. The relative standard deviation is less than 10% after it is determed six times at the same time. For bromide content of 4.00 and 8.00 μg, the bromide recovery obtained are between 94% and 103%. (authors)

  5. Solvent effects in the reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ranga Reddy; P Manikyamba

    2007-11-01

    The reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide was studied conductometrically and the second order rate constants were computed. These rate constants determined in 12 different protic and aprotic solvents indicate that the rate of the reaction is influenced by electrophilicity (), hydrogen bond donor ability () and dipolarity/polarizability (*) of the solvent. The LSER derived from the statistical analysis indicates that the transition state is more solvated than the reactants due to hydrogen bond donation and polarizability of the solvent while the reactant is more solvated than the transition state due to electrophilicity of the solvent. Study of the reaction in methanol, dimethyl formamide mixtures suggests that the rate is maximum when dipolar interactions between the two solvents are maximum.

  6. Mechanism of the Deaquation of Aquopentaaminocobalt(Ⅲ) Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA,Li-Dun(马礼敦); CHENG,Guang-Hui(程广辉); WU,Hong-Xiang(吴宏翔); LIN,Han-Yi(林涵毅); SHEN,Xiao-Liang(沈孝良); SHI,Guo-Shun(施国顺)

    2002-01-01

    There are two theories, SN1 and SN2, for the mechanism of the deaquation of aquopentaamincobalt(Ⅲ) bromide (AAC-B).Both of the theories are supported by some experimental and calculated data. But there are not any experiments to determine directly the structure of the intermediates at different reaction time. In this paper the structures of the intermediates at different reaction time in deaquation-anation of AACB were de-termined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)and the reaction process wes studied by the combination of Xray powder diffraction and EXAFS. It was demonstrated that the deaquation-anation of AACB obeys the SN2 theory.

  7. Design and Fabrication of Externally heated Copper Bromide Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Dudeja

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available An externally-heated, longitudinally-discharged, low-repetition-rate copper bromide laser, was designed and fabricated. The green-coloured wavelength at 5106 A from this laser can be used for underwater ranging and detection of submerged objects. Several new changes in the design of discharge tube, heating technique, buffer-gas-flow sub-system and electrical circuit have been conceived and incorporated advantageously in our system. Various parameters, for example, the type of buffer gas and its flow rate, mixture of gases, temperature of the discharge tube, delay between dissociation and excitation pulses, dissociation and excitation energies, and various resonator configurations are being optimised to get the maximum output power/energy from the laser system.

  8. Xanthine Biosensor Based on Didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide Modified Pyrolytic Graphite Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG,Ji-Lin(唐纪琳); HAN,Xiao-Jun(韩晓军); HUANG,Wei-Min(黄卫民); WANG,Er-Kang(汪尔康)

    2002-01-01

    The vesicle of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB)which contained tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) was mixed with xanthine oxidase, and the mixture was cast on the pyrolytic graphite electrode. The lipid films were used to supply a biological environment resembling biomembrane on the surface of the electrode. TTF was used as a mediator because of its high electron-transfer efficiency. A novel xanthine biosensor based on cast DDAB film was developed. The effects of pH and operating potential were explored for optimum analytical performance by using the amperometric method. The response time of the biosensor was less than 10 s. The detection limit of the biosensor was 3.2 × 10-7 mol/L and the liner range was from 4 × 10-7 mol/L to 2.4 × 10-6 mol/L.

  9. Irradiation as an alternative to methyl bromide: the Australian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International agreement to phase out the fumigant Methyl bromide (MeBr) will have serious implications for pest and disease control in Australia, particularly grain pest control, quarantine usage on fresh horticultural produce and control of soil pathogens or nematodes. Irradiation is a practical alternative but is not currently approved for use in Australia. Other options are available but none of the viable methods except irradiation have the short application time needed for treatment of grams found to be infested during loading at export. This usage is vital, as Australian grain is exported at very high standards of freedom from insects, assured by Government regulatory requirements. Irradiation is contrasted against other alternatives including heat and cold, especially for fresh horticultural produce. (author)

  10. Mechanism of the Deaquation of Aquopentaaminocobalt(Ⅲ)Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA,Li-Dun; CHENG,Guang-Hui; 等

    2002-01-01

    There are two theories,SN1 and SN2, for the mechanism of the deaquation of aquopentaamincobalt(Ⅲ) bromide(AAC-B). Both of the theories are supported by some experimental and calculated data. But there are not any experiments to determine directly the structure of the intermediates at dififferent reaction time.In this paper the structures of the intermediates at different reaction time in deaquation-anation of AACB were determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and the reaction process was studied by the combination of X-ray powder diffraction and EXAFS.It was demonstrated that the deaquation-anation of AACB obeys the SN2 theory.

  11. Experimental Study on Behavior of Americium in Pyrochemical Process of Nitride Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R and D on the transmutation of long-lived minor actinides (MA) by the accelerator-driven system (ADS) using nitride fuels is underway at JAEA. In regard to reprocessing technology, pyrochemical process has several advantages in case of treating spent fuel with large decay heat and fast neutron emission, and recovering highly enriched N-15. In the pyrochemical reprocessing, plutonium and MA are dissolved in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts and selectively recovered into liquid cadmium (Cd) cathode by molten salt electrorefining. The electrochemical behavior in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts and the subsequent nitride formation behavior of plutonium and MA recovered in liquid Cd cathode are investigated. In this paper, recent results on electrochemical study of americium (Am) on electrolyses of AmN in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts and nitride formation of Am recovered in the liquid Cd cathode are presented. Electrochemical behavior of Am on anodic dissolution of AmN and recovery of Am into a liquid Cd cathode by electrolyses in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts was investigated by transient electrochemical techniques. The formal standard potential of Am(III)/Am(0) obtained with the liquid Cd electrode is more positive than that calculated for the solid metal electrode. The potential shift is considered to be attributed to the lowering of the activity of Am by the formation of the intermetallic compound with Cd. Potentiostatic electrolyses of AmN in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts containing AmCl3 at 773 K were carried out. Nitrogen gas generated by the anodic dissolution of AmN was observed, and the current efficiency was obtained from the ratio of the amount of released nitrogen gas and the passed electric charge to be 20 - 28 %. Am was recovered as Am-Cd alloy in the liquid Cd cathode, in which AmCd6 type phase was identified besides Cd phase. The recovered Am was converted to AmN by the nitridation-distillation combined method, in which the Am-Cd alloy was heated in nitrogen gas stream at 973 K. These

  12. Action of pinaverium bromide, a calcium-antagonist, on gastrointestinal motility disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, M O

    1990-01-01

    1. The evidence reviewed here indicates that pinaverium bromide (Dicetel) relaxes gastrointestinal (GI) structures primarily by inhibiting Ca2+ influx through potential-dependent channels of surface membranes of smooth muscle cells. 2. The in vivo selectivity of pinaverium bromide for the GI tract appears to be due mainly to its pharmacokinetic properties. Because of its low absorption (typical for quaternary ammonium compounds) and marked hepatobiliary excretion, most of the orally-administered dose of pinaverium bromide remains in the GI tract. 3. Orally-administered pinaverium bromide does not elicit adverse cardiovascular side-effects at doses that effectively relieve GI spasm, pain, transit disturbances and other symptoms related to motility disorders. 4. Pinaverium bromide is the only Ca2(+)-antagonist with known therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and certain other functional intestinal disorders. PMID:2177709

  13. LIBS Spectral Data for a Mixed Actinide Fuel Pellet Containing Uranium, Plutonium, Neptunium and Americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judge, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Le, Loan A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lopez, Leon N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to analyze a mixed actinide fuel pellet containing 75% UO{sub 2}/20% PuO{sub 2}/3% AmO{sub 2}/2% NpO{sub 2}. The preliminary data shown here is the first report of LIBS analysis of a mixed actinide fuel pellet, to the authors knowledge. The LIBS spectral data was acquired in a plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory where the sample was contained within a glove box. The initial installation of the glove box was not intended for complete ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) transmission, therefore the LIBS spectrum is truncated in the UV and NIR regions due to the optical transmission of the window port and filters that were installed. The optical collection of the emission from the LIBS plasma will be optimized in the future. However, the preliminary LIBS data acquired is worth reporting due to the uniqueness of the sample and spectral data. The analysis of several actinides in the presence of each other is an important feature of this analysis since traditional methods must chemically separate uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium prior to analysis. Due to the historic nature of the sample fuel pellet analyzed, the provided sample composition of 75% UO{sub 2}/20% PuO{sub 2}/3% AmO{sub 2}/2% NpO{sub 2} cannot be confirm without further analytical processing. Uranium, plutonium, and americium emission lines were abundant and easily assigned while neptunium was more difficult to identify. There may be several reasons for this observation, other than knowing the exact sample composition of the fuel pellet. First, the atomic emission wavelength resources for neptunium are limited and such techniques as hollow cathode discharge lamp have different dynamics than the plasma used in LIBS which results in different emission spectra. Secondly, due to the complex sample of four actinide elements, which all have very dense electronic energy levels, there may be reactions and

  14. Preconcentration of low levels of americium and plutonium from waste waters by synthetic water-soluble metal-binding polymers with ultrafiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preconcentration approach to assist in the measurement of low levels of americium and plutonium in waste waters has been developed based on the concept of using water-soluble metal-binding polymers in combination with ultrafiltration. The method has been optimized to give over 90% recovery and accountability from actual waste water. (author)

  15. Theoretical investigation of pressure-induced structural transitions in americium using GGA+U and hybrid density functional theory methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verma, Ashok K.; Modak, P.; Sharma, Surinder M.;

    2013-01-01

    First-principles calculations have been performed for americium (Am) metal using the generalized gradient approximation + orbital-dependent onsite Coulomb repulsion via Hubbard interaction (GGA+U) and hybrid density functional theory (HYB-DFT) methods to investigate various ground state propertie...

  16. Bromine and bromide content in soils: Analytical approach from total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Helena; Queralt, Ignasi; Tapias, Josefina; Candela, Lucila; Margui, Eva

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring total bromine and bromide concentrations in soils is significant in many environmental studies. Thus fast analytical methodologies that entail simple sample preparation and low-cost analyses are desired. In the present work, the possibilities and drawbacks of low-power total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) for the determination of total bromine and bromide contents in soils were evaluated. The direct analysis of a solid suspension using 20 mg of fine ground soil (soils (Br content range in soils = 5-40 mg kg(-1)). Information about bromide determination in soils is also possible by analyzing the Br content in water soil extracts. In this case, the TXRF analysis can be directly performed by depositing 10 μL of the internal standardized soil extract sample on a quartz glass reflector in a measuring time of 1500 s. The bromide limit of detection by this approach was 10 μg L(-1). Good agreement was obtained between the TXRF results for the total bromine and bromide determinations in soils and those obtained by other popular analytical techniques, e.g. energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (total bromine) and ionic chromatography (bromide). As a study case, the TXRF method was applied to study bromine accumulation in two agricultural soils fumigated with a methyl bromide pesticide and irrigated with regenerated waste water. PMID:27179429

  17. Absorber performance of a water/lithium-bromide absorption chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Guozhen [Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044 (China)], E-mail: xieguozhen@bucea.edu.cn; Sheng Guogang [Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044 (China); Bansal, Pradeep Kumar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019 (New Zealand); Li, Guang [Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2008-09-15

    An absorber is one of the most important components of a lithium-bromide absorption chiller (LBAC) as its absorbing characteristics directly influence the performance of the whole chiller. It has been indicated that the absorbing efficiency and cooling capacity could be improved by increasing the solution concentration. In this paper, based on the mechanism of falling film absorption on horizontal tubes, the theoretical models of falling film absorption on horizontal tubes have been established. A series of programs used for computing the theoretical mathematical models, including simulation of LBAC cycle and falling film absorption, have been programmed. The models have been validated reasonably by the experimental data. The results show that the cooling capacity of the LBAC varies in parabola shape of curve with the solution concentration from 52.5% to 58.5%, and that the best coefficient of performance (COP) occurs at concentration of 57%. The investigation proposes the absorbing process of sub-steady thermodynamic equilibrium for the duality solution under increase absorbing pressure.

  18. Absorber performance of a water/lithium-bromide absorption chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Guozhen; Sheng, Guogang; Li, Guang [Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044 (China); Bansal, Pradeep Kumar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019 (New Zealand)

    2008-09-15

    An absorber is one of the most important components of a lithium-bromide absorption chiller (LBAC) as its absorbing characteristics directly influence the performance of the whole chiller. It has been indicated that the absorbing efficiency and cooling capacity could be improved by increasing the solution concentration. In this paper, based on the mechanism of falling film absorption on horizontal tubes, the theoretical models of falling film absorption on horizontal tubes have been established. A series of programs used for computing the theoretical mathematical models, including simulation of LBAC cycle and falling film absorption, have been programmed. The models have been validated reasonably by the experimental data. The results show that the cooling capacity of the LBAC varies in parabola shape of curve with the solution concentration from 52.5% to 58.5%, and that the best coefficient of performance (COP) occurs at concentration of 57%. The investigation proposes the absorbing process of sub-steady thermodynamic equilibrium for the duality solution under increase absorbing pressure. (author)

  19. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    A numerical model was developed for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very-important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy.

  20. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2014-08-26

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  1. 4-Bromophenacyl bromide specifically inhibits rhoptry secretion during Toxoplasma invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Sandeep; Lodoen, Melissa B; Verhelst, Steven H L; Bogyo, Matthew; Boothroyd, John C

    2009-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a eukaryotic parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa that is able to infect a wide variety of host cells. During its active invasion process it secretes proteins from discrete secretory organelles: the micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules. Although a number of rhoptry proteins have been shown to be involved in important interactions with the host cell, very little is known about the mechanism of secretion of any Toxoplasma protein into the host cell. We used a chemical inhibitor of phospholipase A2s, 4-bromophenacyl bromide (4-BPB), to look at the role of such lipases in the secretion of Toxoplasma proteins. We found that 4-BPB was a potent inhibitor of rhoptry secretion in Toxoplasma invasion. This drug specifically blocked rhoptry secretion but not microneme secretion, thus effectively showing that the two processes can be de-coupled. It affected parasite motility and invasion, but not attachment or egress. Using propargyl- or azido-derivatives of the drug (so-called click chemistry derivatives) and a series of 4-BPB-resistant mutants, we found that the drug has a very large number of target proteins in the parasite that are involved in at least two key steps: invasion and intracellular growth. This potent compound, the modified "click-chemistry" forms of it, and the resistant mutants should serve as useful tools to further study the processes of Toxoplasma early invasion, in general, and rhoptry secretion, in particular. PMID:19956582

  2. Organomontmorillonites Modified with 2-Methacryloyloxy Ethyl Alkyl Dimethyl Ammonium Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-quan; WU Wen-hui

    2007-01-01

    Organomontmorillonites (organo-MMT) were synthesized by means of montmorillonites (MMT) modified with a series of 2-methacryloyloxy ethyl alkyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (MAAB) having different alkyl chain lengths as cationic surfactants through a cationic exchanging reaction, and were characterized by FTIR, TG, elemental analysis, and XRD. The microenvironment of the organic interlayer such as the orientation and arrangement of the alkyl chains of MAAB, as well as the properties of nanocomposite hydrogels, were also investigated. The amount of organic components absorbed on interlayer and the basal spacing of organo-MMT both increase with the increasing of alkyl length of MAAB. When carbon number of alkyl chain is in the region of 8 to 14, the alkyl chains between layers would adopt a disordered gauche conformation; while the carbon number is 16, an ordered all-trans conformation with a vertical orientation would be found together with the disordered gauche conformation according to the results of XRD and FTIR. Due to the difference of microenvironment of organic interlayer, the Young's moduli of the nanocomposite hydrogels increased as the alkyl chains of MAAB became longer.

  3. Accommodation coefficient of HOBr on deliquescent sodium bromide aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wachsmuth

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Uptake of HOBr on sea salt aerosol, sea salt brine or ice is believed to be a key process providing a source of photolabile bromine (Br2 and sustaining ozone depletion cycles in the Arctic troposphere. In the present study, uptake of HOBr on sodium bromide (NaBr aerosol particles was investigated at an extremely low HOBr concentration of 300 cm-3 using the short-lived radioactive isotopes 83-86Br. Under these conditions, at maximum one HOBr molecule was taken up per particle. The rate of uptake was clearly limited by the mass accommodation coefficient, which was calculated to be 0.6 ± 0.2. This value is a factor of 10 larger than estimates used in earlier models. The atmospheric implications are discussed using the box model "MOCCA'', showing that the increase of the accommodation coefficient of HOBr by a factor of 10 only slightly affects net ozone loss, but significantly increases chlorine release.

  4. Bioreactors for removing methyl bromide following contained fumigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L.G.; Baesman, S.M.; Oremland, R.S.

    2003-01-01

    Use of methyl bromide (MeBr) as a quarantine, commodity, or structural fumigant is under scrutiny because its release to the atmosphere contributes to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. A closed-system bioreactor consisting of 0.5 L of a growing culture of a previously described bacterium, strain IMB-1, removed MeBr (> 110 ??mol L-1) from recirculating air. Strain IMB-1 grew slowly to high cell densities in the bioreactor using MeBr as its sole carbon and energy source. Bacterial oxidation of MeBr produced CO2 and hydrobromic acid (HBr), which required continuous neutralization with NaOH for the system to operate effectively. Strain IMB-1 was capable of sustained oxidation of large amounts of MeBr (170 mmol in 46 d). In an open-system bioreactor (10-L fermenter), strain IMB-1 oxidized a continuous supply of MeBr (220 ??mol L-1 in air). Growth was continuous, and 0.5 mol of MeBr was removed from the air supply in 14 d. The specific rate of MeBr oxidation was 7 ?? 10-16 mol cell-1 h-1. Bioreactors such as these can therefore be used to remove large quantities of contaminant MeBr, which opens the possibility of biodegradation as a practical means for its disposal.

  5. Evaluation of Alkali Bromide Salts for Potential Pyrochemical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Steven D. Herrmann; Guy L. Fredrickson; Tedd E. Lister; Toni Y. Gutknecht

    2013-10-01

    Transient techniques were employed to study the electrochemical behavior, reduction mechanism and transport properties of REBr3 (RE - La, Nd and Gd) in pure LiBr, LiBr-KBr (eutectic) and LiBr-KBr-CsBr (eutectic) melts. Gd(III) showed a reversible single step soluble-insoluble exchange phenomenon in LiBr melt at 973K. Although La (III), Nd(III) and Gd(III) ions showed reversible behavior in eutectic LiBr-KBr melts, these ions showed a combination of temperature dependent reversible and pseudo-reversible behavior. While both La(III) and Gd(III) showed one step reduction, the reduction of Nd(III) was observed to be a two step process. La metal could be electrodeposited from the ternary electrolyte at a temperature of 673K. Various electrochemical measurements suggest that both binary and ternary bromide melts can potentially be used to electrodeposit high purity RE metals at comparatively lower operating temperatures.

  6. A comparison of the effect of intranasal desmopressin and intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide combination with intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in acute renal colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol-Reza Kheirollahi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with acute renal colic usually require immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this clinical trial analgesic effect of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin combination in comparison with hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with acute renal colic induced by urinary stones was assessed. Methods: The study included 114 patients randomly allocated in two groups (A and B. Patients in group A received 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide at admission time and patients in group B received 20 μg of intranasal desmopressin in combination with 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide. A visual analogue scale (VAS; a 10-cm horizontal scale ranging from "zero or no pain" to "10 or unbearable pain" was hired to assess the patients′ pain severity at baseline, 30 and 60 minutes after the treatments. Results: On admission, the pain level was similar in both groups (group A: 8.95 ± 0.11 and group B: 8.95 ± 0.12. In group A, the mean of pain level showed a decrease after 30 minutes (group A: 7.26 ± 0.25 and group B: 5.95 ± 0.28 but further decreasing did not occur; however in group B, the pain consistently decreased and the mean after 60 minutes was significantly decreased (group A: 6.80 ± 0.31 and group B: 3.71 ± 0.31. No side effects were detected in this study. Conclusions: The combination of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin is more effective than hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with renal colic. Further studies are recommended to validate these findings and compare the different doses of desmopressin.

  7. Plasmid DNA induces dodecyl triethyl ammonium bromide to aggregate into vesicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Mei Ran; Xia Guo; Jia Tong Ding

    2012-01-01

    Single-chained cationic surfactant dodecyl triethyl ammonium bromide and plasmid DNA together can form vesicles once the concentration of plasmid DNA reaches a critical value (Ccvc).Bigger the size of plasmid DNA,higher the value of Ccvc.

  8. Corrosion Behavior of Austenitic and Duplex Stainless Steels in Lithium Bromide

    OpenAIRE

    Ayo Samuel AFOLABI; Alaneme, K.K.; Samson Oluwaseyi BADA

    2009-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of austenitic and duplex stainless steels in various concentrations of lithium, bromide solution was investigated by using the conventional weight loss measurement method. The results obtained show that corrosion of these steels occurred due to the aggressive bromide ion in the medium. Duplex stainless steel shows a greater resistance to corrosion than austenitic stainless steel in the medium. This was attributed to equal volume proportion of ferrite and austenite in th...

  9. A case report of QT prolongation with glycopyrronium bromide in a patient with chronic tamoxifen use

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Michael H.; Al-Majed, Nawaf S.; Stubbins, Ryan; Pollmann, Dylan; Sandhu, Roopinder K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Glycopyrronium bromide has recently been approved as a once daily maintenance inhalation therapy for moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Efficacy and safety trial data have found rare cases of significant QT prolongation. To our knowledge, we describe the first case report of QT prolongation >600 ms with initiation of glycopyrronium bromide in a real world setting. Case presentation A 78-year-old female with moderate COPD recently started on glycopyrron...

  10. Influence of bromide on the performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca in reconstituted waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Chris D.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    Poor performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca has been observed in exposures using reconstituted waters. Previous studies have reported success in H. azteca water-only exposures with the addition of relatively high concentrations of bromide. The present study evaluated the influence of lower environmentally representative concentrations of bromide on the response ofH. azteca in 42-d water-only exposures. Improved performance of H. azteca was observed in reconstituted waters with >0.02 mg Br/L.

  11. The effect of pinaverium bromide (LA 1717) on the lower oesophageal sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöltje, M; Huchzermeyer, H

    1982-01-01

    An acute, double-blind study was carried out in 8 healthy male volunteers to investigate any effect of a new antispasmodic, pinaverium bromide, compared with placebo on the lower oesophageal sphincter. Manometric measurements showed no significant differences in resting pressures either after placebo or a therapeutic dose (200 mg) of pinaverium bromide, suggesting that the active drug does not cause any impairment of function of the lower oesophageal sphincter. PMID:7128186

  12. Inhibition of methoxamine-induced bronchoconstriction by ipratropium bromide and disodium cromoglycate in asthmatic subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Black, J.; Vincenc, K; Salome, C.

    1985-01-01

    We compared the effects of pretreatment with saline, ipratropium bromide, and disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on bronchoconstriction induced by methoxamine--an alpha-adrenoceptor agonist, in asthmatic subjects. All 12 patients bronchoconstricted in response to methoxamine after saline. The PD20 (the dose of methoxamine causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]) ranged from 0.3-18 mumol. Ipratropium bromide (200 micrograms administered by aerosol) significantly inhibited (P les...

  13. Tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine: a new system for conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Vitor S.C. de; Mattos, Marcio C.S. de, E-mail: mmattos@iq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica

    2014-05-15

    An efficient and facile method has been developed for the conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides under neutral conditions using tribromoisocyanuric acid and triphenylphosphine (molar ratio 1.0:0.7:2.0, alcohol/tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine) in dichloromethane at room temperature. This method can be applied for the conversion of primary, secondary, benzilic and allylic alcohols, and their corresponding bromides are obtained in 67-82 % yield. Tertiary alcohols do not react under these conditions. (author)

  14. Electrochemical Recognition of Metalloproteins by Bromide-modified Silver Electrode - A New Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Rostami

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A bromide–modified silver electrode is reported, in the present study, to catalyzethe redox reactions of metalloproteins. This study describes that the bromide ions showvery good redox behavior with silver electrode. The cathodic and anodic peak potentialswere related to the concentration of bromide ions involved in making bromide-modifiedsilver electrode. The electrode reaction in the bromine solution was a diffusion-controlledprocess. Positive potential shift of the bromide ions was seen when different proteins wereadded to the solution using a silver electrode. New cathodic and anodic peaks wereobserved at different potential ranges for myoglobin, cytochrome c and catalase. A linearlyincreasing cathodic peak current of bromide ions was seen when the concentration ofsuperoxide dismutase was increased in the test solution. However, no change for albuminwas observed when its concentration was increased in the test solution. Present data provesour methodology as an easy-to-use analysis for comparing the redox potentials of differentmetalloproteins and differentiating the metallo- from non-metalloproteins. In this study, weintroduced an interesting method for bio-electrochemical analyses.

  15. Effect of ferric and bromide ions on the formation and speciation of disinfection byproducts during chlorination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaogang Liu; Zhiliang Zhu; Yanling Qiu; Jianfu Zhao

    2011-01-01

    The effects of ferric ion, pH, and bromide on the formation and distribution of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination were studied. Two raw water samples from Huangpu River and Yangtze River, two typical drinking water sources of Shanghai, were used for the investigation. Compared with the samples from Huangpu River, the raw water samples from Yangtze River had lower content of total organic carbon (TOC) and ferric ions, but higher bromide concentrations. Under controlled chlorination conditions,four trihalomethanes (THMs), nine haloacetic acids (HAAs), total organic halogen (TOX) and its halogen species fractions, including total organic chlorine (TOC1) and total organic bromide (TOBr), were determined. The results showed that co-existent ferric and bromide ions significantly promoted the formation of total THMs and HAAs for both raw water samples. Higher concentration of bromide ions significantly changed the speciation of the formed THMs and HAAs. There was an obvious shift to brominated species,which might result in a more adverse influence on the safety of drinking water. The results also indicated that high levels of bromide ions in raw water samples produced higher percentages of unknown TOBr.

  16. Effect of ferric and bromide ions on the formation and speciation of disinfection byproducts during chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaogang; Zhu, Zhiliang; Qiu, Yanling; Zhao, Jianfu

    2011-01-01

    The effects of ferric ion, pH, and bromide on the formation and distribution of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination were studied. Two raw water samples from Huangpu River and Yangtze River, two typical drinking water sources of Shanghai, were used for the investigation. Compared with the samples from Huangpu River, the raw water samples from Yangtze River had lower content of total organic carbon (TOC) and ferric ions, but higher bromide concentrations. Under controlled chlorination conditions, four trihalomethanes (THMs), nine haloacetic acids (HAAs), total organic halogen (TOX) and its halogen species fractions, including total organic chlorine (TOC1) and total organic bromide (TOBr), were determined. The results showed that co-existent ferric and bromide ions significantly promoted the formation of total THMs and HAAs for both raw water samples. Higher concentration of bromide ions significantly changed the speciation of the formed THMs and HAAs. There was an obvious shift to brominated species, which might result in a more adverse influence on the safety of drinking water. The results also indicated that high levels of bromide ions in raw water samples produced higher percentages of unknown TOBr.

  17. Predicting bromide incorporation in a chlorinated indoor swimming pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Mazumder, Abu Jafar; Husain, Tahir

    2016-06-01

    The water in and air above swimming pools often contain high levels of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) due to chemical reactions between chlorine- or bromine-based disinfectants and organic/inorganic matter in the source water and released from swimmers. Exposure to these DBPs, though inevitable, can pose health threats to humans. In this study, DBPs in tap water (S1), and water from a chlorinated indoor swimming pool before (S2) and after swimming (S3) were measured. The brominated species constituted the majority of DBPs formed in S1, S2, and S3. Trihalomethanes (THMs) in S3 was 6.9 (range 2.9-11.1) and 1.4 (range 0.52-2.9) times those in S1 and S2, respectively; and the haloacetic acids (HAAs) in S3 was 4.2 (range 2.5-7.5) and 1.2 (range 0.6-2.6) times those in S1 and S2, respectively. The mean THMs in air above the swimming pool before (S2-A) and after swimming (S3-A) were 72.2 and 93.0 μg/m(3), respectively, and their ranges were 36.3-105.8 and 44.1-133.6 μg/m(3), respectively. The average percentages of bromide incorporation (BI) into THMs in S1, S2, and S3 were 3.0, 9.3, and 10.6 %, respectively; and the BI into HAAs in S1, S2, and S3 were 6.6, 12.0, and 12.2 %, respectively. Several models were trained for predicting the BI into THMs and HAAs. The results indicate that additional information is required to develop predictive models for BI in swimming pools.

  18. Bacterial oxidation of methyl bromide in fumigated agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L.G.; Connell, T.L.; Guidetti, J.R.; Oremland, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    The oxidation of [14C]methyl bromide ([14C]MeBr) to 14CO2 was measured in field experiments with soils collected from two strawberry plots fumigated with mixtures of MeBr and chloropicrin (CCI3NO2). Although these fumigants are considered potent biocides, we found that the highest rates of MeBr oxidation occurred 1 to 2 days after injection when the fields were tarped, rather than before or several days after injection. No oxidation of MeBr occurred in heat-killed soils, indicating that microbes were the causative agents of the oxidation. Degradation of MeBr by chemical and/or biological processes accounted for 20 to 50% of the loss of MeBr during fumigation, with evasion to the atmosphere inferred to comprise the remainder. In laboratory incubations, complete removal of [14C]MeBr occurred within a few days, with 47 to 67% of the added MeBr oxidized to 14CO2 and the remainder of counts associated with the solid phase. Chloropicrin inhibited the oxidation of MeBr, implying that use of this substance constrains the extent of microbial degradation of MeBr during fumigation. Oxidation was by direct bacterial attack of MeBr and not of methanol, a product of the chemical hydrolysis of MeBr. Neither nitrifying nor methane-oxidizing bacteria were sufficiently active in these soils to account for the observed oxidation of MeBr, nor could the microbial degradation of MeBr be linked to cooxidation with exogenously supplied electron donors. However, repeated addition of MeBr to live soils resulted in higher rates of its removal, suggesting that soil bacteria used MeBr as an electron donor for growth. To support this interpretation, we isolated a gram-negative, aerobic bacterium from these soils which grew with MeBr as a sole source of carbon and energy.

  19. The killing of African trypanosomes by ethidium bromide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Roy Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Introduced in the 1950s, ethidium bromide (EB is still used as an anti-trypanosomal drug for African cattle although its mechanism of killing has been unclear and controversial. EB has long been known to cause loss of the mitochondrial genome, named kinetoplast DNA (kDNA, a giant network of interlocked minicircles and maxicircles. However, the existence of viable parasites lacking kDNA (dyskinetoplastic led many to think that kDNA loss could not be the mechanism of killing. When recent studies indicated that kDNA is indeed essential in bloodstream trypanosomes and that dyskinetoplastic cells survive only if they have a compensating mutation in the nuclear genome, we investigated the effect of EB on kDNA and its replication. We here report some remarkable effects of EB. Using EM and other techniques, we found that binding of EB to network minicircles is low, probably because of their association with proteins that prevent helix unwinding. In contrast, covalently-closed minicircles that had been released from the network for replication bind EB extensively, causing them, after isolation, to become highly supertwisted and to develop regions of left-handed Z-DNA (without EB, these circles are fully relaxed. In vivo, EB causes helix distortion of free minicircles, preventing replication initiation and resulting in kDNA loss and cell death. Unexpectedly, EB also kills dyskinetoplastic trypanosomes, lacking kDNA, by inhibiting nuclear replication. Since the effect on kDNA occurs at a >10-fold lower EB concentration than that on nuclear DNA, we conclude that minicircle replication initiation is likely EB's most vulnerable target, but the effect on nuclear replication may also contribute to cell killing.

  20. Eudragit RS PO nanoparticles for sustained release of pyridostigmine bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is an inhibitor of cholinesterase, which is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and administered for protection against exposure to toxic nerve agents. Tests were done to investigate prolonging the half-life of PB and improving its release behavior. PB was loaded in nanoparticles (NPs) of Eudragit RS PO (Eu-RS) prepared using the technique of quasi emulsion solvent diffusion. Variables of output power of the sonicator, bath temperature and mixing time, were chosen as the optimization factors to obtain the minimum sized NPs. In addition, emulsions were tested at different ratios of drug-to-polymer by dynamic light scattering to determine size and zeta potential of NPs. UV-spectroscopy was used to determine PB content of the NPs. Drug-loaded NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectra. Results determined that mixing time had a significant impact on the size of Eu-RS NPs, but power output of sonicator and bath temperature had no significant effect. The particle size obtained at the optimum condition (power output of 70 W, bath temperature of 33 °C, and mixing time of 7 min) was less than 200 nm (optimum sizes were 138.9 and 179.5 nm for Eu-RS and PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs, respectively). The optimum PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs at the PB to Eu-RS weight ratio of 1–4 and 20 % of loaded PB released from the nanocarriers within 100 h

  1. Silica nanoparticles separation from water: aggregation by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Tourbin, M; Lachaize, S; Guiraud, P

    2013-07-01

    Nanoparticles will inevitably be found in industrial and domestic wastes in the near future and as a consequence soon in water resources. Due to their ultra-small size, nanoparticles may not only have new hazards for environment and human health, but also cause low separation efficiency by classical water treatments processes. Thus, it would be an important challenge to develop a specific treatment with suitable additives for recovery of nanoparticles from waters. For this propose, this paper presents aggregation of silica nanoparticles (Klebosol 30R50 (75nm) and 30R25 (30nm)) by cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Different mechanisms such as charge neutralization, "depletion flocculation" or "volume-restriction", and "hydrophobic effect" between hydrocarbon tails of CTAB have been proposed to explicate aggregation results. One important finding is that for different volume concentrations between 0.05% and 0.51% of 30R50 suspensions, the same critical coagulation concentration was observed at CTAB=0.1mM, suggesting the optimized quantity of CTAB during the separation process for nanoparticles of about 75nm. Furthermore, very small quantities of CTAB (0.01mM) can make 30R25 nanosilica aggregated due to the "hydrophobic effect". It is then possible to minimize the sludge and allow the separation process as "greener" as possible by studying this case. It has also shown that aggregation mechanisms can be different for very small particles so that a special attention has to be paid to the treatment of nanoparticles contained in water and wastewaters.

  2. Stability of penta- and hexavalent americium in the solutions of sodium peroxydisulfate and sodium bromate at intensive internal α-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectrometric method has been used for studying the dependence of the rates of radiolytic reduction of Am(5) and (6) on the initial concentration of sodium persulfate and bromate, Am(5) and (6), acidity, and the dose rate of inner alpha-irradiation of the solutions. The high dose rates of inner alpha-irradiation of solutions (up to 3.25x1021 eV/lxmin-250Ci/l) have been attained with the aid of curium isotopes. The stability of americium (6) ions towards the action of ionizing radiation in solutions of sodium persulfate and bromate has been shown to be considerable lower than that of americium (5). The chemical difference has been shown in radiolytic behaviour between Am(5) and Am(6) ions in solutions of sodium persulfate and bromate. The equations have been derived showing the dependence of the rates of Am(6) and Am(5) reduction of different variables

  3. Comparative XRPD and XAS study of the impact of the synthesis process on the electronic and structural environments of uranium-americium mixed oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieur, D.; Lebreton, F.; Martin, P. M.; Caisso, M.; Butzbach, R.; Somers, J.; Delahaye, T.

    2015-10-01

    Uranium-americium mixed oxides are potential compounds to reduce americium inventory in nuclear waste via a partitioning and transmutation strategy. A thorough assessment of the oxygen-to-metal ratio is paramount in such materials as it determines the important underlying electronic structure and phase relations, affecting both thermal conductivity of the material and its interaction with the cladding and coolant. In 2011, various XAS experiments on U1-xAmxO2±δ samples prepared by different synthesis methods have reported contradictory results on the charge distribution of U and Am. This work alleviates this discrepancy. The XAS results confirm that, independently of the synthesis process, the reductive sintering of U1-xAmxO2±δ leads to the formation of similar fluorite solid solution indicating the presence of Am+III and U+V in equimolar proportions.

  4. THE FIRST ISOLATION OF AMERICIUM IN THE FORM OF PURE COMPOUNDS - THE SPECIFIC ALPHA-ACTIVITY AND HALF-LIFE OF Am241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, B.B.; Asprey, L.B.

    1950-07-20

    The microgram scale isolation and preparation of pure compounds of americium is described. Data are presented to show that the alpha-half-life of the isotope Am{sup 241} is 490 {+-} 14 years. The absorption spectrum of Am(III) in 1M nitric acid in the range 3500-8000 mu is given. The wave lengths of 10 of the most prominent lines in the copper spark emission spectrum of americium are given to the nearest 0.01 {angstrom}. Evidence is presented to show that the potential for the Am(III)-Am(IV) couple in acid solution is more negative than -2v and that the potential for the Am(II)-Am(III) couple is more positive than +0.9v.

  5. A Density Functional Study of Atomic Hydrogen and Oxygen Chemisorption on the Relaxed (0001) Surface of Double Hexagonal Close Packed Americium

    OpenAIRE

    Dholabhai, P. P.; Atta-Fynn, R.; A.K. Ray

    2009-01-01

    Ab initio total energy calculations within the framework of density functional theory have been performed for atomic hydrogen and oxygen chemisorption on the (0001) surface of double hexagonal packed americium using a full-potential all-electron linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbitals method. Chemisorption energies were optimized with respect to the distance of the adatom from the relaxed surface for three adsorption sites, namely top, bridge, and hollow hcp sites, the adlayer str...

  6. Experimental study of Americium-241 biokinetics in Homarus Gammarus lobster. Analysis of the accumulation and detoxication mechanisms at the sub-cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Americium 241 radioelement accumulation and elimination rate and mechanisms in the lobster organism have been experimentally studied; incorporation and detoxification capacities of each organ are evaluated. The existence of various biological compartments is shown; the major role of the digestive gland in accumulation of the radioelement, its distribution towards the various organs, and its resorption is comprehensively described, with an analysis at the subcellular and molecular levels. 401 p., 65 fig., 43 tab., 428 ref

  7. A new method for the determination of plutonium and americium using high pressure microwave digestion and alpha-spectrometry or ICP-SMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium and americium are radionuclides particularly difficult to measure in environmental samples because they are a-emitters and therefore necessitate a careful separation before any measurement, either using radiometric methods or ICP-SMS. Recent developments in extraction chromatography resins such as EichromR TRU and TEVA have resolved many of the analytical problems but drawbacks such as low recovery and spectral interferences still occasionally occur. Here, we report on the use of the new EichromR DGA resin in association with TEVA resin and high pressure microwave acid leaching for the sequential determination of plutonium and americium in environmental samples. The method results in average recoveries of 83 ± 15% for plutonium and 73 ± 22% for americium (n = 60), and a less than 10% deviation from reference values of four IAEA reference materials and three samples from intercomparisons exercises. The method is also suitable for measuring 239Pu in water samples at the μBq/l level, if ICP-SMS is used for the measurement. (author)

  8. An experimental study of americium-241 biokinetics in the Lobster Homarus Gammarus. Analysis of the accumulation/storage and detoxification processes at the subcellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study of americium-241 kinetics has been conducted in the lobster Homarus gammmarus. The investigations were conducted at all the levels from the whole body to the subcellular and molecular levels. The animals were contaminated by a single or chronic ingestion of 241 Am labelled mussels. Assessments of accumulation, elimination and distribution of the radionuclide were established on organisms kept in the laboratory; they made it possible to demonstrate the importance of the digestive gland in the radionuclide transfer pathways. The preliminary results led to structural then ultrastructural investigations of the digestive gland in association with radioautographic studies and cellular extractions methods. Four cellular types were demonstrated, only two of them being implied in the radionuclide retention, the former being responsible for americium intake and the latter for its long-term retention. By means of biochemical techniques, subcellular accumulation was studied and the organelles implied in the nuclide retention were specified. Finally, a method of cellular nuclei dissociation was developed; it made it possible to analyse the molecular nature of americium ligands and to demonstrate the function of the protein nuclear matrix in the nuclide retention

  9. Comparative XRPD and XAS study of the impact of the synthesis process on the electronic and structural environments of uranium–americium mixed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieur, D., E-mail: dam.prieur@gmail.com [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Lebreton, F. [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Martin, P.M. [CEA, DEN, DEC/SESC/LLCC, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Caisso, M. [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Butzbach, R. [Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Radiochemistry, P.O. Box 10119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Somers, J. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Delahaye, T. [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    Uranium–americium mixed oxides are potential compounds to reduce americium inventory in nuclear waste via a partitioning and transmutation strategy. A thorough assessment of the oxygen-to-metal ratio is paramount in such materials as it determines the important underlying electronic structure and phase relations, affecting both thermal conductivity of the material and its interaction with the cladding and coolant. In 2011, various XAS experiments on U{sub 1−x}Am{sub x}O{sub 2±δ} samples prepared by different synthesis methods have reported contradictory results on the charge distribution of U and Am. This work alleviates this discrepancy. The XAS results confirm that, independently of the synthesis process, the reductive sintering of U{sub 1−x}Am{sub x}O{sub 2±δ} leads to the formation of similar fluorite solid solution indicating the presence of Am{sup +III} and U{sup +V} in equimolar proportions. - Graphical abstract: Formation of (U{sup IV/V},Am{sup III})O{sup 2} solid solution by sol–gel and by powder metallurgy. - Highlights: • Uranium–americium mixed oxides were synthesized by sol–gel and powder metallurgy. • Fluorite solid solutions with similar local environment have been obtained. • U{sup V} and Am{sup III} are formed in equimolar proportions.

  10. Chlorine-36, bromide, and the origin of spring water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S.N.; Cecil, L.D.; Zreda, M.; Moysey, S.

    2001-01-01

    Natural ratios of chlorine-36 (36Cl) to stable chlorine (i.e., 36Cl/Cl ?? 10-15) vary in shallow groundwater of the United States from about 50 in coastal areas to about 1400 in the northern Rocky Mountains. Ratios lower than these indicate the presence of chloride (Cl-) that has been isolated from the atmosphere for hundreds of thousands of years, if not longer. Higher ratios, which can exceed 5000, usually originate from fallout from testing thermonuclear devices in the western Pacific in the 1950s. Natural mass ratios of chloride to bromide (Cl-/Br-) in precipitation vary in the United States from about 250 in coastal areas to about 50 in the north-central states. Lower ratios may suggest contamination from human sources. Higher ratios, which may exceed 2000, commonly reflect the dissolution of halite. Seawater has a Cl-/Br- ratio of 290. Both 36Cl and Cl-/Br- ratios have been measured in 21 samples of spring water collected from springs in 10 different states. Brackish water from Saratoga Springs area in New York has low values for both 36Cl and Cl-/Br- ratios. This indicates that a large component of the water has a very deep origin. Brackish water from Alexander Springs in Florida has a low 36Cl ratio but a high Cl-/Br- ratio similar to seawater. This suggests the addition of ancient seawater that may be trapped in the aquifer. Big Spring in Iowa discharges water with a very high Cl-/Br- ratio but a moderate 36Cl ratio. The high ratio of Cl-/Br- may be produced by dissolution of road salt or agricultural chemicals. Of the 21 springs sampled, only 10 appeared to have potable water not significantly affected by human activity. Chlorine-36 from testing of nuclear devices is still being flushed out of four of the spring systems that were sampled. Thus, more than 45 years have passed since 36Cl was introduced into the aquifers feeding the springs and the systems, as yet, have not been purged. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Aclidinium bromide combined with formoterol inhibits remodeling parameters in lung epithelial cells through cAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambers, Christopher; Costa, Luigi; Ying, Qi; Zhong, Jun; Lardinois, Didier; Dekan, Gerhard; Schuller, Elisabeth; Roth, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Combined muscarinic receptor antagonists and long acting β2-agonists improve symptom control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) significantly. In clinical studies aclidinium bromide achieved better beneficial effects than other bronchodilators; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. This study assessed the effect of aclidinium bromide combined with formoterol on COPD lung (n=20) and non-COPD lung (n=10) derived epithelial cells stimulated with TGF-β1+carbachol on: (i) the generation of mesenchymal cells in relation to epithelial cells, (II) extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, and (iii) the interaction of ECM on the generation of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. TGF-β1+carbachol enhanced the generation of mesenchymal cells, which was significantly reduced by aclidinium bromide or formoterol. The effect of combined drugs was additive. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase and Smad by specific inhibitors or aclidinium bromide reduced the generation of mesenchymal cells. In mesenchymal cells, TGF-β1+carbachol induced the deposition of collagen-I and fibronectin which was prevented by both drugs dose-dependently. Formoterol alone reduced collagen-I deposition via cAMP, this however, was overruled by TGF-β1+carbachol and rescued by aclidinium bromide. Inhibition of fibronectin was cAMP independent, but involved p38 MAP kinase and Smad. Seeding epithelial cells on ECM collagen-I and fibronectin induced mesenchymal cell generation, which was reduced by aclidinium bromide and formoterol. Our results suggest that the beneficial effect of aclidinium bromide and formoterol involves cAMP affecting both, the accumulation of mesenchymal cells and ECM remodeling, which may explain the beneficial effect of the drugs on lung function in COPD. PMID:26546746

  12. Reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatographic method to measure migration of semivolatile compound, vanillin, in ipratropium bromide inhalation solution

    OpenAIRE

    Conkins, Dennis; Economou, Julia E; Boersma, James A; Dedhiya, Mehendra G; Hansen, Gordon

    1999-01-01

    Ipratropium bromide, a bronchodilator, is used as an inhalation solution. Commercial ipratropium bromide solution products are packaged in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) vials, through which semivolatile compounds are reported to migrate. In this article, a specific reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatographic method to assay vanillin, a semivolatile compound, in ipratropium bromide solution is described. The method was validated for a concentration range for vanillin from 30 ng/mL...

  13. [Bowel obstruction-induced cholinergic crisis with progressive respiratory failure following distigmine bromide treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuki; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Sato, Nobuhiro; Hirose, Yasuo

    2016-03-01

    A 54-year-old female experienced rapid respiratory failure while being transported in an ambulance to our emergency department for evaluation and management of constipation and abdominal pain. The patient was on treatment with distigmine bromide for postoperative urination disorder and magnesium oxide for constipation. Increased salivary secretions, diminished respiratory excursion, type 2 respiratory failure (PaCO2 : 65 mmHg), low serum cholinesterase, and hypermagnesemia were detected. Imaging studies revealed that the patient had bilateral aspiration pneumonia, fecal impaction in the rectum, and a distended colon causing ileus. The patient was mechanically ventilated and was weaned off the ventilator on day 3. Therapeutic drug monitoring after discharge revealed that the serum level of distigmine bromide on admission was markedly elevated (377.8 ng/mL vs. the normal therapeutic level of 5-10 ng/mL). Distigmine bromide induced a cholinergic crisis with a resultant increase in airway secretions and respiratory failure. In this particular case, orally administered distigmine bromide was excessively absorbed because of prolonged intestinal transit time secondary to fecal impaction and sluggish bowel movement; this caused a cholinergic crisis and hypermagnesemia contributing to respiratory failure. Clinicians should be aware that bowel obstruction in a patient treated with distigmine bromide can increase the risk of a cholinergic crisis. PMID:27255021

  14. Use of radioanalytical methods for determination of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activated charcoal is a common type of radioactive waste that contains high concentrations of fission and activation products. The management of this waste includes its characterization aiming the determination and quantification of the specific radionuclides including those known as Difficult-to-Measure Radionuclides (RDM). The analysis of the RDM's generally involves complex radiochemical analysis for purification and separation of the radionuclides, which are expensive and time-consuming. The objective of this work was to define a methodology for sequential analysis of the isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium present in a type of radioactive waste, evaluating chemical yield, analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost. Three methodologies were compared and validated that employ ion exchange (TI + EC), extraction chromatography (EC) and extraction with polymers (ECP). The waste chosen was the activated charcoal from the purification system of primary circuit water cooling the reactor IEA-R1. The charcoal samples were dissolved by acid digestion followed by purification and separation of isotopes with ion exchange resins, extraction and chromatographic extraction polymers. Isotopes were analyzed on an alpha spectrometer, equipped with surface barrier detectors. The chemical yields were satisfactory for the methods TI + EC and EC. ECP method was comparable with those methods only for uranium. Statistical analysis as well the analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost revealed that EC method is the most effective for identifying and quantifying U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm present in charcoal. (author)

  15. Intramolecular sensitization of americium luminescence in solution: shining light on short-lived forbidden 5f transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturzbecher-Hoehne, M; Yang, P; D'Aléo, A; Abergel, R J

    2016-06-14

    The photophysical properties and solution thermodynamics of water soluble trivalent americium (Am(III)) complexes formed with multidentate chromophore-bearing ligands, 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), Enterobactin, and 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO), were investigated. The three chelators were shown to act as antenna chromophores for Am(III), generating sensitized luminescence emission from the metal upon complexation, with very short lifetimes ranging from 33 to 42 ns and low luminescence quantum yields (10(-3) to 10(-2)%), characteristic of Near Infra-Red emitters in similar systems. The specific emission peak of Am(III) assigned to the (5)D1 → (7)F1 f-f transition was exploited to characterize the high proton-independent stability of the complex formed with the most efficient sensitizer 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), with a log β110 = 20.4 ± 0.2 value. In addition, the optical and solution thermodynamic features of these Am(III) complexes, combined with density functional theory calculations, were used to probe the influence of electronic structure on coordination properties across the f-element series and to gain insight into ligand field effects.

  16. Nano-cerium vanadate: a novel inorganic ion exchanger for removal of americium and uranium from simulated aqueous nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Chayan; Dudwadkar, Nilesh; Tripathi, Subhash Chandra; Gandhi, Pritam Maniklal; Grover, Vinita; Kaushik, Chetan Prakash; Tyagi, Avesh Kumar

    2014-09-15

    Cerium vanadate nanopowders were synthesized by a facile low temperature co-precipitation method. The product was characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy and found to consist of ∼25 nm spherical nanoparticles. The efficiency of these nanopowders for uptake of alpha-emitting radionuclides (233)U (4.82 MeV α) and (241)Am (5.49 MeV α, 60 keV γ) has been investigated. Thermodynamically and kinetically favorable uptake of these radionuclides resulted in their complete removal within 3h from aqueous acidic feed solutions. The uptake capacity was observed to increase with increase in pH as the zeta potential value decreased with the increase in pH but effect of ionic strength was insignificant. Little influence of the ions like Sr(2+), Ru(3+), Fe(3+), etc., in the uptake process indicated CeVO4 nanopowders to be amenable for practical applications. The isotherms indicated predominant uptake of the radioactive metal ions in the solid phase of the exchanger at lower feed concentrations and linear Kielland plots with positive slopes indicated favorable exchange of the metal ions with the nanopowder. Performance comparison with the other sorbents reported indicated excellent potential of nano-cerium vanadate for removing americium and uranium from large volumes of aqueous acidic solutions.

  17. Distribution of plutonium, americium, and several rare earth fission product elements between liquid cadmium and LiCl-KCl eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separation factors were measured that describe the partition between molten cadmium and molten LiCl-KCl eutectic of plutonium, americium, praseodymium, neodymium, cerium, lanthanum, gadolinium, dysprosium, and yttrium. The temperature range was 753-788 K, and the range of concentrations was that allowed by the sensitivity of the chemical analysis methods. Mean separation factors were derived for Am-Pu, Nd-Am, Nd-Pu, Nd-Pr, Gd-La, Dy-La, La-Ce, La-Nd, Y-La, and Y-Nd. Where previously published data were available, agreement was good. For convenience, the following series of separation factors relative to plutonium was derived by combining the measured separation factors: Pu, 1.00 (basis); Am, 1.54; Pr, 22.0; Nd, 23.4; Ce, 26; La, 70; Gd, 77; Dy, 270; Y, 3000. These data are used in calculating the distribution of the actinide and rare earth elements in the prochemical reprocessing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of synthetic water-soluble metal-binding polymers with ultrafiltration for selective concentration of americium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine counting methods and ICP-MS are unable to directly measure the new US Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory level for discharge waters containing alpha-emitting radionuclides of 30 pCi/L total alpha or the 0.05 pCi/L regulatory level for Pu or Am activity required for surface waters at the Rocky Flats site by the State of Colorado. This inability indicates the need to develop rapid, reliable, and robust analytical techniques for measuring actinide metal ions, particularly americium and plutonium. Selective separation or preconcentration techniques would aid in this effort. Water-soluble metal-binding polymers in combination with ultrafiltration are shown to be an effective method for selectively removing dilute actinide ions from acidic solutions of high ionic strength. The actinide-binding properties of commercially available water-soluble polymers and several polymers which have been reported in the literature were evaluated. The functional groups incorporated in the polymers were pyrrolidone, amine, oxime, and carboxylic, phosphonic, or sulfonic acid. The polymer containing phosphonic acid groups gave the best results with high distribution coefficients and concentration factors for 241Am(III) and 238Pu(III)/(IV) at pH 4 to 6 and ionic strengths of 0.1 to 4

  19. Characteristics of plutonium and americium contamination at the former U.K. atomic weapons test ranges at Maralinga and Emu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physico-chemical studies on environmental plutonium are described, which provide data integral to an assessment of dose for the inhalation of artificial actinides by Australian Aborigines living a semi-traditional lifestyle at Maralinga and Emu, sites of U.K. atomic weapons tests between 1953 and 1963. The most significant area, from a radiological perspective, is the area contaminated by plutonium in a series of ''one point'' safety trials in which large quantities of plutonium were dispersed explosively at a location known as Taranaki. The activity distribution of plutonium and americium with particle size is quite different from the mass distribution, as a considerably higher proportion of the activity is contained in the finer (inhalable) fraction than of the mass. Except in areas which were disturbed through ploughing during a cleanup in 1967, most the activity remains in the top 1 cm of the surface. Much of the activity is in particulate form, even at distances > 20 km from the firing sites, and discrete particles have been located even at distances beyond 100 km. Data are presented which permit the assessment of annual committed doses through the inhalation pathway, for Aborigines living a semi-traditional lifestyle in the areas affected by the Taranaki firings in particular. (author)

  20. Current and Potential Future Bromide Loads from Coal-Fired Power Plants in the Allegheny River Basin and Their Effects on Downstream Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Kelly D; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2016-09-01

    The presence of bromide in rivers does not affect ecosystems or present a human health risk; however, elevated concentrations of bromide in drinking water sources can lead to difficulty meeting drinking water disinfection byproduct (DBP) regulations. Recent attention has focused on oil and gas wastewater and coal-fired power plant wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater bromide discharges. Bromide can be added to coal to enhance mercury removal, and increased use of bromide at some power plants is expected. Evaluation of potential increases in bromide concentrations from bromide addition for mercury control is lacking. The present work utilizes bromide monitoring data in the Allegheny River and a mass-balance approach to elucidate bromide contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources under current and future scenarios. For the Allegheny River, the current bromide is associated approximately 49% with oil- and gas-produced water discharges and 33% with coal-fired power plants operating wet FGD, with 18% derived from natural sources during mean flow conditions in August. Median wet FGD bromide loads could increase 3-fold from 610 to 1900 kg/day if all plants implement bromide addition for mercury control. Median bromide concentrations in the lower Allegheny River in August would rise to 410, 200, and 180 μg/L under low-, mean-, and high-flow conditions, respectively, for the bromide-addition scenario. PMID:27538590

  1. Corrosion Behavior of Austenitic and Duplex Stainless Steels in Lithium Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayo Samuel AFOLABI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of austenitic and duplex stainless steels in various concentrations of lithium, bromide solution was investigated by using the conventional weight loss measurement method. The results obtained show that corrosion of these steels occurred due to the aggressive bromide ion in the medium. Duplex stainless steel shows a greater resistance to corrosion than austenitic stainless steel in the medium. This was attributed to equal volume proportion of ferrite and austenite in the structure of duplex stainless steel coupled with higher content of chromium in its composition. Both steels produced electrochemical noise at increased concentrations of lithium bromide due to continuous film breakdown and repair caused by reduction in medium concentration by the alkaline corrosion product while surface passivity observed in duplex stainless steel is attributed to film stability on this steel.

  2. Chloride/bromide ratios in leachate derived from farm-animal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results have important implications for identifying animal sources of contaminated groundwater. - Ratios of conservative chemicals have been used to identify sources of groundwater contamination. While chloride/bromide ratios have been reported for several common sources of groundwater contamination, little work has been done on leachate derived from farm-animal waste. In this study, chloride/bromide ratios were measured in leachate derived from longhorn-cattle, quarter-horse, and pygme-goat waste at a farm in Abilene, Texas, USA. (Minimum, median, and maximum) chloride/bromide ratios of (66.5, 85.6, and 167), (119, 146, and 156), and (35.4, 57.8, and 165) were observed for cattle, horses, and goats, respectively. These ratios are below typical values for domestic wastewater and within the range commonly observed for oilfield brine. Results of this study have important implications for identifying sources of contaminated groundwater in settings with significant livestock and/or oil production

  3. Inhibitory effect of pinaverium bromide on gastrointestinal contractile activity in conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Z; Takahashi, I

    1981-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of 4-(6-bromoveratryl)-4-(2-[2-(6,6-dimethyl-2-norpinyl)-ethoxy]-ethyl)-morpholinium hydroxide (pinaverium bromide), a quaternary ammonium derivative, on the contractile activity of the gastrointestinal tract from the stomach to the colon was investigated in six conscious dogs. Gastrointestinal motor activity was monitored by means of chronically implanted force transducers. Pinaverium bromide was continuously administered i.v. for 30 min in doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg/h during both the digestive and interdigestive states. It was found that pinaverium bromide strongly inhibited gastrointestinal contractile activity during both the digestive and interdigestive states; contractions in the stomach were most strongly inhibited; however, those in the small and large bowels were also significantly inhibited. No significant side effects in the circulatory and respiratory systems and the gastrointestinal tract such as nausea, vomiting or diarrhea were observed during and after the infusion of this agent. PMID:7197953

  4. Irradiation as a disinfestation method - update on methyl bromide phase out, regulatory action and emerging opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methyl bromide (MeBr), is the most widely used agricultural fumigant in the world for the control of pests and plant diseases. It is used to control pests and diseases in food, agricultural and forestry commodities after harvest, before or during storage or transportation and/or at time of import to control quarantine or storage pests. Knowing MeBr will be phased out has spurred a search for alternative treatments and products, and has placed pressure on regulatory authorities to approve alternatives. Some of methyl bromide use could be replaced with irradiation. Methyl bromide is also used for soil and structural fumigation, and although there is some use of irradiation for packaged soil or greenhouse products, in general, these uses can not be replaced by irradiation. Some radiation processing facilities have either seen increased business to disinfest commodities, or have experienced more inquiries for service. There are many other processes and products competing for this market and irradiation will not win its share of the business without an improved regulatory picture, improved marketing to methyl bromide users and improved information to answer questions from commodity sectors. The United Nations Environment Program - Methyl Bromide Technical Options Committee (MBTOC) provides a venue for the publication or information about the use and availability of irradiation as an alternative to methyl bromide. It provides the technical base to the Montreal Protocol contributing to the setting of phase out dates; this committee is actively researching and assessing all alternatives and needs information about irradiation. The author is a member of the MBTOC committee

  5. Thermodynamic evaluation of new absorbent mixtures of lithium bromide and organic salts for absorption refrigeration machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donate, Marina; Rodriguez, Luis; Lucas, Antonio De; Rodriguez, Juan F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2006-01-01

    Mixtures of lithium bromide and organic salts of sodium and potassium (formate, acetate and lactate) have been evaluated as alternative absorbents for absorption refrigeration machines. The main objective is to overpass the limitations of lithium bromide and improve the characteristics and the efficiency of the refrigeration cycle. In order to select the mixture that presents better properties for its employment in absorption refrigeration cycles, a thermodynamic analysis have been done. Density, viscosity, enthalpies of dilution, solubility and vapour pressure data of the proposed mixtures have been measured. A simulation program has been developed to evaluate temperatures, heats exchanged in the different sections and the efficiency of the cycle. (author)

  6. COMPARISON OF ROCURONIUM BROMIDE AND SUCCINYLCHOLINE CHLORIDE FOR USE DURING RAPID SEQUENCE INTUBATION IN ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Penchalaiah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE : The goal of rapid sequence intubation is to secure the patients airway smoothly and quickly, minimizing the chances of regurgitation and aspiration of gastric contents. Traditionally succinylcholine chloride has been the neuromuscular blocking drug of choi ce for use in rapid sequence intubation because of its rapid onset of action and profound relaxation. Succinylcholine chloride remains unsurpassed in providing ideal intubating conditions. However the use of succinylcholine chloride is associated with many side effects like muscle pain, bradycardia, hyperkalaemia and rise in intragastric and intraocular pressure. Rocuronium bromide is the only drug currently available which has the rapidity of onset of action like succinylcholine chloride. Hence the present study was undertaken to compare rocuronium bromide with succinylcholine chloride for use during rapid sequence intubation in adult patients. METHODOLOGY : The study population consisted of 90 patients aged between 18 - 60 years posted for various elective su rgeries requiring general anaesthesia . S tudy population was randomly divided into 3 groups with 30 patients in each sub group. 1. Group I : Intubated with 1 mg kg - 1 of succinylcholine chloride (n=30 . 2. Grou p II : Intubated with rocuronium bromide 0.6 mg kg - 1 (n=30 . 3. Group III : Intubated with rocuronium bromide 0.9 mg kg - 1 (n=30 . Intubating conditions were assessed at 60 seconds based on the scale adopted by Toni Magorian et al. 1993. The haemodynamic para meters in the present study were compared using p - value obtained from student t - test . RESULTS : It was noted that succinylcholine chloride 1 mg kg - 1 body weight produced excellent intubating conditions in all patients. Rocuronium bromide 0.6 mg kg - 1 body we ight produced excellent intubating conditions in 53.33% of patients but produced good to excellent intubating conditions in 96.67% of patients. Rocuronium bromide 0.9 mg kg - 1

  7. Cesium Enhances Long-Term Stability of Lead Bromide Perovskite-Based Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kulbak, Michael; Gupta, Satyajit; Kedem, Nir; Levine, Igal; Bendikov, Tatyana; Hodes, Gary; Cahen, David

    2015-01-01

    Direct comparison between perovskite-structured hybrid organic-inorganic - methyl ammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) and all-inorganic cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr3), allows identifying possible fundamental differences in their structural, thermal and electronic characteristics. Both materials possess a similar direct optical band-gap, but CsPbBr3 demonstrates a higher thermal stability than MAPbBr3. In order to compare device properties we fabricated solar cells, with similarly synthesized MAPbB...

  8. Well-Defined Copper(I) Fluoroalkoxide Complexes for Trifluoroethoxylation of Aryl and Heteroaryl Bromides

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ronglu

    2015-03-17

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Copper(I) fluoroalkoxide complexes bearing dinitrogen ligands were synthesized and the structure and reactivity of the complexes toward trifluoroethoxylation, pentafluoropropoxylation, and tetrafluoropropoxylation of aryl and heteroaryl bromides were investigated. Efficiency drive: A series of copper(I) fluoroalkoxide complexes bearing N,N ligands have been prepared and structurally characterized. These well-defined complexes serve as efficient reagents for the fluoroalkoxylation of aryl and heteroaryl bromides to produce a wide range of trifluoroethyl, pentafluoropropyl, and tetrafluoropropyl (hetero)aryl ethers in good to excellent yields.

  9. Once-daily glycopyrronium bromide (Seebri Breezhaler(®)) for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    also on health status. Furthermore, glycopyrronium bromide also has beneficial effects on dynamic hyperinflation and, probably by that, exercise tolerance. Glycopyrronium bromide has been shown to reduce the rate of exacerbations in patients with moderate to severe COPD, although as a secondary outcome...

  10. The role of natural organic matter in the migration behaviour of americium in the Boom Clay - Part 1: migration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: In demonstrating the suitability of Boom Clay as reference site for studying the disposal of radioactive waste, the role of the relatively high amount of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) present in the Boom Clay on the mobility of critical radionuclides needs to be investigated thoroughly. It is generally accepted that trivalent actinides and lanthanides form strong complexes with humic substances. Complexation of these trivalent radionuclides with NOM present in the Boom Clay may therefore have two opposite effects. If complexed by the aqueous phase NOM (the mobile NOM), the radionuclide transport will be governed by the mobility of these dissolved radionuclide- NOM species. If complexed by the solid phase NOM (the immobile NOM) the migration will be retarded. One of the aims of the EC projects TRANCOM-Clay and TRANCOM-II was to investigate the role of mobile NOM as radionuclide carrier in order to develop a conceptual model for inclusion in a performance assessment (PA) model. The migration behaviour of Americium (used as an analogue for the critical radionuclide Pu) was investigated by complexing 241Am with radiolabelled (14C-labelled) NOM before passing through undisturbed Boom Clay cores contained in columns. The use of two different radionuclides, allows the migration behaviour of both the NOM and the Am to be followed. The results of the migration experiments showed that the Am-NOM complexes dissociated when they came into contact with Boom Clay and that the bulk of Am became immobilised (either as Am complexed to immobile NOM or sorbed to the mineral phase). Only a small percentage of the complex persisted as 'stabilised' Am-OM complex which exhibited slow dissociation kinetics upon moving through the Boom Clay. When the applied radionuclide source also contains Am in the form of an inorganic solid phase (when Am is applied above the solubility limit), a continuous source of Am exists to form 'temporarily stabilised' Am

  11. Experimental study of Americium-241 biokinetics in Homarus Gammarus lobster. Analysis of the accumulation and detoxication mechanisms at the sub-cellular level; Etude experimentale des biocinetiques de l`americium-241 chez le homard homarus gammarus. Analyse des mecanismes d`accumulation et de detoxication au niveau subcellulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquet, F.

    1991-12-01

    The Americium 241 radioelement accumulation and elimination rate and mechanisms in the lobster organism have been experimentally studied; incorporation and detoxification capacities of each organ are evaluated. The existence of various biological compartments is shown; the major role of the digestive gland in accumulation of the radioelement, its distribution towards the various organs, and its resorption is comprehensively described, with an analysis at the subcellular and molecular levels. 401 p., 65 fig., 43 tab., 428 ref.

  12. Nano-cerium vanadate: A novel inorganic ion exchanger for removal of americium and uranium from simulated aqueous nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Chayan; Dudwadkar, Nilesh [Fuel Reprocessing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Tripathi, Subhash Chandra, E-mail: sctri001@gmail.com [Fuel Reprocessing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Gandhi, Pritam Maniklal [Fuel Reprocessing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Grover, Vinita [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kaushik, Chetan Prakash [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Tyagi, Avesh Kumar, E-mail: aktyagi@barc.gov.in [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Template free, low temperature synthesis of CeVO{sub 4} nanopowders. • Thermodynamically and kinetically favourable uptake of Am(III) and U(VI) exhibited. • K{sub d} and ΔG° values for Am(III) and U(VI) uptake in pH 1–6 are reported. • Interdiffusion coefficients and zeta potential values in pH 1–6 are reported. • Possible application in low level aqueous nuclear waste remediation. - Abstract: Cerium vanadate nanopowders were synthesized by a facile low temperature co-precipitation method. The product was characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy and found to consist of ∼25 nm spherical nanoparticles. The efficiency of these nanopowders for uptake of alpha-emitting radionuclides {sup 233}U (4.82 MeV α) and {sup 241}Am (5.49 MeV α, 60 keV γ) has been investigated. Thermodynamically and kinetically favorable uptake of these radionuclides resulted in their complete removal within 3 h from aqueous acidic feed solutions. The uptake capacity was observed to increase with increase in pH as the zeta potential value decreased with the increase in pH but effect of ionic strength was insignificant. Little influence of the ions like Sr{sup 2+}, Ru{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, etc., in the uptake process indicated CeVO{sub 4} nanopowders to be amenable for practical applications. The isotherms indicated predominant uptake of the radioactive metal ions in the solid phase of the exchanger at lower feed concentrations and linear Kielland plots with positive slopes indicated favorable exchange of the metal ions with the nanopowder. Performance comparison with the other sorbents reported indicated excellent potential of nano-cerium vanadate for removing americium and uranium from large volumes of aqueous acidic solutions.

  13. Plutonium, americium and radiocaesium in the marine environment close to the Vandellos I nuclear power plant before decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vandellos nuclear power plant (NPP), releasing low-level radioactive liquid waste to the Mediterranean Sea, is the first to be decommissioned in Spain, after an incident which occurred in 1989. The presence, distribution and uptake of various artificial radionuclides (radiocaesium, plutonium and americium) in the environment close to the plant were studied in seawater, bottom sediments and biota, including Posidonia oceanica, fish, crustaceans and molluscs. Seawater, sediments and Posidonia oceanica showed enhanced levels in the close vicinity of the NPP, although the effect was restricted to its near environment. Maximum concentrations in seawater were 11.6±0.5 Bq m-3 and 16.9±1.2 mBq m-3 for 137Cs and 239,240Pu, respectively. When sediment concentrations were normalized to excess 210Pb, they showed both the short-distance transport of artificial radionuclides from the Vandellos plant and the long-distance transport of 137Cs from the Asco NPP. Posidonia oceanica showed the presence of various gamma-emitters attributed to the impact of the Chernobyl accident, on which the effect of the NPP was superimposed. Seawater, sediment and Posidonia oceanica collected near the plant also showed an enhancement of the plutonium isotopic ratio above the fallout value. The uptake of these radionuclides by marine organisms was detectable but limited. Pelagic fish showed relatively higher 137Cs concentrations and only in the case of demersal fish was the plutonium isotopic ratio increased. The reported levels constitute a set of baseline values against which the impact of the decommissioning operations of the Vandellos I NPP can be studied

  14. Molten salt extraction (MSE) of americium from plutonium metal in CaCl2-KCl-PuCl3 and CaCl2-PuCl3 salt systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten salt extraction (MSE) of americium-241 from reactor-grade plutonium has been developed using plutonium trichloride salt in stationary furnaces. Batch runs with oxidized and oxide-free metal have been conducted at temperature ranges between 750 and 945C, and plutonium trichloride concentrations from one to one hundred mole percent. Salt-to-metal ratios of 0.10, 0.15, and 0 30 were examined. The solvent salt was either eutectic 74 mole percent CaCl2 endash 26 mole percent KCl or pure CaCl2. Evidence of trivalent product americium, and effects of temperature, salt-to-metal ratio, and oxide contamination on the americium extraction efficiency are given. 24 refs, 20 figs, 13 tabs

  15. Transfer across the human gut of environmental plutonium, americium, cobalt, caesium and technetium: studies with cockles (Cerastoderma edule) from the Irish Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G J

    1998-06-01

    Our previous studies have indicated lower values of the gut transfer factor ('f1 values') for plutonium and americium in winkles (Littorina littorea) than adopted by ICRP. The present study was undertaken primarily to investigate whether this observation extends to other species. Samples of cockles (Carastoderma edule) from Ravenglass, Cumbria were eaten by volunteers who provided 24 h samples of urine and faeces. Urine samples indicated f1 values for cockles which were higher than for winkles; for plutonium these ranged overall up to 7 x 10(-4) with an arithmetic mean in the range (2-3) x 10(-4), and for americium up to 2.6 x 10(-4) with an arithmetic mean of 1.2 x 10(-4). Limited data based on volunteers eating cockles from the Solway suggest that f1 values for americium may be greater at distance from Sellafield. The measured values compare with 5 x 10(-4) used by the ICRP for environmental forms of both elements, which would appear to provide adequate protection when calculating doses from Cumbrian cockles. Data for other nuclides were obtained by analysing faecal samples from the volunteers who ate the Ravenglass cockles. Cobalt-60 showed an f1 value in the region of 0.2, twice the value currently used by ICRP. For 137Cs, variabilities were indicated in the range 0.08 to 0.43, within the ICRP value of f1 = 1.0. Technetium-99 gave f1 values up to about 0.6, in reasonable conformity with the ICRP value of 0.5.

  16. Transfer across the human gut of environmental plutonium, americium, cobalt, caesium and technetium: studies with cockles (Cerastoderma edule) from the Irish Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.J. [CEFAS Laboratory, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-01

    Our previous studies have indicated lower values of the gut transfer factor ('f{sub L} values') for plutonium and americium in winkles (Littorina littorea) than adopted by ICRP. The present study was undertaken primarily to investigate whether this observation extends to other species. Samples of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) from Ravenglass, Cumbria were eaten by volunteers who provided 24 samples of urine and faeces. Urine samples indicated f{sub L} values for cockles which were higher than for winkles; for plutonium these ranged overall up to 7x10{sup -4} with an arithmetic mean in the range (2-3)x10{sup -4}, and for americium up to 2.6x10{sup -4} with an arithmetic mean of 1.2x10{sup -4}. Limited data based on volunteers eating cockles from the Solway suggest that f{sub L} values for americium may be greater at distance from Sellafield. The measured values compare with 5x10{sup -4} used by the ICRP for environmental forms of both elements, which would appear to provide adequate protection when calculating doses from Cumbrian cockles. Data for other nuclides were obtained by analysing faecal samples from the volunteers who ate the Ravenglass cockles. Cobalt-60 showed an f{sub L} value in the region of 0.2, twice the value currently used by ICRP. For {sup 137}Cs, variabilities were indicated in the range 0.08 to 0.43, within the ICRP value of f{sub L}=1.0. Technetium-99 gave f{sub L} values up to about 0.6, in reasonable conformity with the ICRP value of 0.5. (author)

  17. Reduced rates and alternatives to methyl bromide for snapdragon production in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field trial was conducted to evaluate soil solarization, Midas™ (iodomethane:chloropicrin 50:50, Arysta LifeScience Corp., Cary, NC) and different rates and formulations of methyl bromide under standard and metalized films for the production of snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) in Martin County, Flor...

  18. Iodine catalyzed and tertiary butyl ammonium bromide promoted p reparation of b enzoxazaphosphininyl phenylboronates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Kishore K. Reddy,

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Benzoxazaphosphininyl Phenylboronates were prepared by O-Phosphorylation of potassium salt ofphenylboronic acid with cyclic phosphoromonochloridates in the presence of stoichiometric amount of Iodineand catalytic amount of tertiary butyl ammonium bromide at 50-60 °C in dry toluene.

  19. Effect of increasing bromide concentration on toxicity in treated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawade, Emma; Fabris, Rolando; Humpage, Andrew; Drikas, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Research is increasingly indicating the potential chronic health effects of brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs). This is likely to increase with elevated bromide concentrations resulting from the impacts of climate change, projected to include extended periods of drought and the sudden onset of water quality changes. This will demand more rigorous monitoring throughout distribution systems and improved water quality management at water treatment plants (WTPs). In this work the impact of increased bromide concentration on formation of DBPs following conventional treatment and chlorination was assessed for two water sources. Bioanalytical tests were utilised to determine cytotoxicity of the water post disinfection. Coagulation was shown to significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of the water, indicating that removal of natural organic matter DBP precursors continues to be an important factor in drinking water treatment. Most toxic species appear to form within the first half hour following disinfectant addition. Increasing bromide concentration across the two waters was shown to increase the formation of trihalomethanes and shifted the haloacetic acid species distribution from chlorinated to those with greater bromine substitution. This correlated with increasing cytotoxicity. This work demonstrates the challenges faced by WTPs and the possible effects increasing levels of bromide in source waters could have on public health. PMID:27105403

  20. Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Aryl Bromides with N-Substituted Cyanamides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lian, Zhong; Friis, Stig D.; Lindhardt, Anders T.;

    2014-01-01

    The palladium(0)-catalyzed three-component coupling reaction of aryl bromides, carbon monoxide, and N-alkyl cyan­amides has been developed employing a two-chamber system with ex situ generation of carbon monoxide from a silacarboxylic acid. The reactions proceeded well and were complete with a...

  1. Mild Pd-catalyzed aminocarbonylation of (hetero)aryl bromides with a palladacycle precatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Stig D; Skrydstrup, Troels; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2014-08-15

    A palladacyclic precatalyst is employed to cleanly generate a highly active XantPhos-ligated Pd-catalyst. Its use in low temperature aminocarbonylations of (hetero)aryl bromides provides access to a range of challenging products in good to excellent yields with low catalyst loading and only a slight excess of CO. Some products are unattainable by traditional carbonylative coupling.

  2. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides using near stoichiometric carbon monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Karoline T.; Laursen, Simon R.; Lindhardt, Anders T.;

    2014-01-01

    A general procedure for the palladium-catalyzed carbonylative Sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides is reported, using near stoichiometric amounts of carbon monoxide. The method allows a broad substrate scope in moderate to excellent yields. The formed alkynone motive serves as a platform for...

  3. Measurement and Computation of Movement of Bromide Ions and Carbofuran in Ridged HUmic-Sandy Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.

    2010-01-01

    Water flow and pesticide transport in the soil of fields with ridges and furrows may be more complex than in the soil of more level fields. Prior to crop emergence, the tracer bromide ion and the insecticide carbofuran were sprayed on the humic-sandy soil of a potato field with ridges and furrows. R

  4. Methyl Bromide Alternatives Area-Wide Pest Management Project - South Atlantic Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protocols and Standard Operational Procedures (SOPs) were developed for collecting environmental and soil edaphic information during and after application of methyl bromide alternatives. Parameters measured included soil moisture, soil bulk density, percent moisture at field capacity (-0.3 bars wat...

  5. Bromate formation from bromide oxidation by the UV/persulfate process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jing-Yun; Shang, Chii

    2012-08-21

    Bromate formation from bromide oxidation by the UV/persulfate process was investigated, along with changes in pH, persulfate dosages, and bromide concentrations in ultrapure water and in bromide-spiked real water. In general, the bromate formation increased with increasing persulfate dosage and bromide concentration. The bromate formation was initiated and primarily driven by sulfate radicals (SO(4)(•-)) and involved the formation of hypobromous acid/hypobromite (HOBr/OBr(-)) as an intermediate and bromate as the final product. Under the test conditions, the rate of the first step driven by SO(4)(•-) is slower than that of the second step. Direct UV photolysis of HOBr/OBr(-) to form bromate and the photolysis of bromate are insignificant. The bromate formation was similar for pH 4-7 but decreased over 90% with increasing pH from 7 to above 9. Less bromate was formed in the real water sample than in ultrapure water, which was primarily attributable to the presence of natural organic matter that reacts with bromine atoms, HOBr/OBr(-) and SO(4)(•-). The extent of bromate formation and degradation of micropollutants are nevertheless coupled processes unless intermediate bromine species are consumed by NOM in real water. PMID:22831804

  6. Strontium and bromide as tracers in X-ray microanalysis of biological tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wroblewski, J.; Sagstroem, S.M.; Mulders, H.; Roomans, G.M. (Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1989-09-01

    Since energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis cannot distinguish between isotopes of the same element, alternative methods have to be used to get information similar to that obtained in experiments with radioactive tracers. In the present study, strontium was used as a tracer for calcium, and bromide as a tracer for chloride. Rats were injected with strontium chloride in vivo, and the uptake of strontium in the acinar cells of the submandibular gland was studied. Eventually a Sr/Ca ratio of 0.3 was reached. In some animals, secretion of mucus had been elicited by stimulation with isoproterenol 4 h prior to injection of strontium chloride. Exchange of calcium for strontium was enhanced by prior injection with isoproterenol. In a second experiment, rats were injected with sodium bromide, and the uptake of bromide by the submandibular acinar cells was followed in time, both in pilocarpine-stimulated and unstimulated glands. Under the experimental conditions, bromide was rapidly taken up by the cells, and the cellular Br/Cl ratio was close to that found in serum. Submandibular glands take up Br somewhat faster than other tissues (liver, heart muscle, skeletal muscle). The uptake of Br in pancreatic acinar cells was studied in vitro. These experiments showed a 1:1 ratio (molar) exchange of Cl for Br.

  7. Effects of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging on the neuromuscular blockade of vecuronium bromide in neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of intraoperative magnetic resonance (iMR) imaging on the neuromuscular blockade of vecuronium bromide were investigated in neurosurgery. Fifty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists grades I-II scheduled for craniotomy operation were divided into two groups (n=25 each) with no difference in demographic data: the iMR imaging group and control group. Train-of-four (TOF) stimulation through an accelerometer was used to monitor onset, maintenance, and recovery of muscle relaxation caused by vecuronium. Vecuronium bromide was intravenously injected after anesthesia induction. The dosage of vecuronium bromide in the iMR imaging group was larger than in the control group, but not significantly. Duration of vecuronium bromide administration and operation time were significantly longer in the iMR imaging group than in the control group. Time from drug discontinuation to operation termination, and to return to neurosurgery intensive care unit were not different. Time taken by first twitch (T1) in response to TOF stimulation to recover by 25%, and muscle relaxant recovery index were significantly greater in the control group than in the iMR imaging group. The body temperature of the patients increased gradually in the iMR imaging group but decreased in the control group. iMR imaging can prolong the operation time, increase the body temperature of the patient, and remarkably shorten the clinical action time and muscle relaxation recovery index of vecuronium. (author)

  8. Facile Syntheses of N-Substituted Imidazoles and Benzotriazoles from Baylis-Hillman Bromides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Dongyan; LI Jian; LI Chunju; JIA Xueshun

    2009-01-01

    A facile synthesis of N-substituted imidazole and benzotriazole derivatives from Baylis-Hiilman bromides with imidazole and benzotriazole at room temperature was reported. In view of the simple operation, mild reaction con-ditions, good to excellent yields, good regio- and stereoselectivity, the present method exhibited its superiority.

  9. Efficient loading of primary alcohols onto a solid phase using a trityl bromide linker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Ottesen, Lars Korsgaard; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Witold;

    2008-01-01

    The Letter describes an improved, rapid and mild strategy for the loading of primary alcohols onto a polystyrene trityl resin via a highly reactive trityl bromide linker. This protocol facilitates an efficient resin loading even of acid-sensitive or heat-labile alcohols, which otherwise require...

  10. Methyl bromide release from activated carbon and the soil/water/carbon interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl Bromide (MB) is a major source of stratospheric bromine radical, a known depletor of ozone. The use of ozone-depleting chemicals, including MB, is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. Critical uses of MB are permitted, such as when postharvest fumigation is mandated by an importing country. Fo...

  11. SYNTHESIS AND CATALYTIC PROPERTIES OF CROSS-LINKED HYDROPHOBICALLY ASSOCIATING POLY(ALKYLMETHYLDIALLYLAMMONIUM BROMIDES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WANG, GJ; ENGBERTS, JBFN

    1994-01-01

    Cross-linked, hydrophobically associating homo- and copolymers were synthesized by free-radical cyclo(co)polymerization of alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide monomers with a small amount of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide in aqueous solution using ammonium persulfate as the initiator. The cross-linked h

  12. Effect of increasing bromide concentration on toxicity in treated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawade, Emma; Fabris, Rolando; Humpage, Andrew; Drikas, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Research is increasingly indicating the potential chronic health effects of brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs). This is likely to increase with elevated bromide concentrations resulting from the impacts of climate change, projected to include extended periods of drought and the sudden onset of water quality changes. This will demand more rigorous monitoring throughout distribution systems and improved water quality management at water treatment plants (WTPs). In this work the impact of increased bromide concentration on formation of DBPs following conventional treatment and chlorination was assessed for two water sources. Bioanalytical tests were utilised to determine cytotoxicity of the water post disinfection. Coagulation was shown to significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of the water, indicating that removal of natural organic matter DBP precursors continues to be an important factor in drinking water treatment. Most toxic species appear to form within the first half hour following disinfectant addition. Increasing bromide concentration across the two waters was shown to increase the formation of trihalomethanes and shifted the haloacetic acid species distribution from chlorinated to those with greater bromine substitution. This correlated with increasing cytotoxicity. This work demonstrates the challenges faced by WTPs and the possible effects increasing levels of bromide in source waters could have on public health.

  13. 76 FR 29238 - Methyl Bromide; Cancellation Order for Registration Amendments To Terminate Certain Soil Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... provided, EPA received no comments in response to the February 9, 2011, Federal Register notice (76 FR 7200... AGENCY Methyl Bromide; Cancellation Order for Registration Amendments To Terminate Certain Soil Uses... for the amendments to terminate soil uses, voluntarily requested by the registrants and accepted...

  14. Ozone decomposition under the irradiation of 253.7 nm in the presence of methyl bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the mechanism and kinetic of ozone decomposition under the irradiation of 253.7 nm UV-light were studied.The quantum yield of the ozone depletion in the presence of methyl bromide is further determined and a reaction model is provided to explain the experimental fact.

  15. COMPARISON OF ONSET TIME, DURATION OF ACTION AND INTUBATING CONDITION SACHIEVED WITH SUXAMETHONIUM AND ROCURONIUM BROMIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Ajit P; Alok P; Devendra Singh

    2013-01-01

    Adverse event profile ofSuxamethonium which is still the relaxant of choice to facilitate tracheal intubation inspired us to conduct a study in which we compared Onset time, Duration of Action and Intubating Conditions Achieved with Suxametho nium and Rocuronium Bromide with the Help of TOF Guard. AIMS : W e compared the onset of relaxation time, intubating condition, and duration of action, the ...

  16. Effect of pinaverium bromide on stress-induced colonic smooth muscle contractility disorder in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Yun; Liu, Jian-Xiang; Li, Jun-Xia; Xu, Yun-Feng

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of pinaverium bromide, a L-type calcium channel blocker with selectivity for the gastrointestinal tract on contractile activity of colonic circular smooth muscle in normal or cold-restraint stressed rats and its possible mechanism.

  17. Quantitative gas chromatographic mass spectrometric determination of pinaverium-bromide in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weerdt, G A; Beke, R P; Verdievel, H G; Barbier, F; Jonckheere, J A; de Leenheer, A P

    1983-03-01

    A method has been developed for quantitative determination of pinaverium-bromide, a quaternary ammonium derivative with papaverine-like activity, in human serum. The method involves a chloroform extraction of serum spiked with N-(6,6-dimethyl bicyclo[3.1.1]2-heptenyl-ethoxyethyl) perhydro-1,4-oxazine as internal standard. After evaporation of the solvent, and reduction of the residue with Raney-Nickel, the internal standard and the reduced pinaverium-bromide are re-extracted from the reaction mixture with toluene and analysed isothermally on a fused silica column coated with OV-101. Although chemical ionization with methane revealed intense protonated molecular ions for both pinaverium-bromide and the internal standard, selectivity and sensitivity were significantly lower in comparison with electron impact ionization at 70 e V. Therefore, quantification was performed in the electron impact mode by single ion monitoring of the common fragment ion at m/z 100.2. A linear detector response was observed up to 160 ng ml-1. A within-run assay precision better than 2% CV (n = 5) was found, and a detection limit of 1 ng pinaverium-bromide ml-1 of serum was attained. PMID:6850068

  18. TRIBROMOPYRROLE, BROMINATED ACIDS, AND OTHER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS PRODUCED BY DISINFECTION OF DRINKING WATER RICH IN BROMIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), we investigated the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from high bromide waters (2 mg/L) treated with chlorine or chlorine dioxide used in combination with chlorine and chloramines. This study represents the first comp...

  19. Determination by gamma-ray spectrometry of the plutonium and americium content of the Pu/Am separation scraps. Application to molten salts; Determination par spectrometrie gamma de la teneur en plutonium et en americium de produits issus de separation Pu/Am. Application aux bains de sels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godot, A. [CEA Valduc, Dept. de Traitement des Materiaux Nucleaires, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Perot, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Technologie Nucleaire, Service de Modelisation des Transferts et Mesures Nucleaires, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Within the framework of plutonium recycling operations in CEA Valduc (France), americium is extracted from molten plutonium metal into a molten salt during an electrolysis process. The scraps (spent salt, cathode, and crucible) contain extracted americium and a part of plutonium. Nuclear material management requires a very accurate determination of the plutonium content. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is performed on Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) scraps located inside the glove box, in order to assess the plutonium and americium contents. The measurement accuracy is influenced by the device geometry, nuclear instrumentation, screens located between the sample and the detector, counting statistics and matrix attenuation, self-absorption within the spent salt being very important. The purpose of this study is to validate the 'infinite energy extrapolation' method employed to correct for self-attenuation, and to detect any potential bias. We present a numerical study performed with the MCNP computer code to identify the most influential parameters and some suggestions to improve the measurement accuracy. A final uncertainty of approximately 40% is achieved on the plutonium mass. (authors)

  20. An experimental study of americium-241 biokinetics in the Lobster Homarus Gammarus. Analysis of the accumulation/storage and detoxification processes at the subcellular level; Etude experimentale des biocinetiques de l`americium-241 chez le homard homarus gammarus. Analyse des mecanismes d`accumulation et de detoxication au niveau subcellulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquet, F.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental study of americium-241 kinetics has been conducted in the lobster Homarus gammmarus. The investigations were conducted at all the levels from the whole body to the subcellular and molecular levels. The animals were contaminated by a single or chronic ingestion of {sup 241} Am labelled mussels. Assessments of accumulation, elimination and distribution of the radionuclide were established on organisms kept in the laboratory; they made it possible to demonstrate the importance of the digestive gland in the radionuclide transfer pathways. The preliminary results led to structural then ultrastructural investigations of the digestive gland in association with radioautographic studies and cellular extractions methods. Four cellular types were demonstrated, only two of them being implied in the radionuclide retention, the former being responsible for americium intake and the latter for its long-term retention. By means of biochemical techniques, subcellular accumulation was studied and the organelles implied in the nuclide retention were specified. Finally, a method of cellular nuclei dissociation was developed; it made it possible to analyse the molecular nature of americium ligands and to demonstrate the function of the protein nuclear matrix in the nuclide retention.

  1. Dissertation on the computer-based exploitation of a coincidence multi parametric recording. Application to the study of the disintegration scheme of Americium 241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having presented the meaning of disintegration scheme (alpha and gamma emissions, internal conversion, mean lifetime), the author highlights the benefits of the use of multi-parametric chain for the recording of correlated parameters, and of the use of a computer for the analysis of bi-parametric information based on contour lines. Using the example of Americium 241, the author shows how these information are obtained (alpha and gamma spectrometry, time measurement), how they are chosen, coded, analysed and stored, and then processed by contour lines

  2. Reaction of Polymer-supported Selenovinyl Bromide with Grignard Reagents: A Facile Route to the Synthesis of(E)-1, 2-Disubstituted Olefins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E TANG; Xiang Jin LIN; Lu Ling WU

    2005-01-01

    Polymer-supported selenovinyl bromide, easily prepared from polymer-supported selenenyl bromide with acetylene, reacts with different Grignard reagents using a step-by-step strategy to obtain (E)-1, 2-disubstituted ethenes in good yields.

  3. Kinetics of Chlorination of Benzophenone-3 in the Presence of Bromide and Ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Pamela; Deborde, Marie; Dossier Berne, Florence; Karpel Vel Leitner, Nathalie

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of chlorination on the degradation of one of the most commonly used UV filters (benzophenone-3 (BP-3)) and the effects of bromide and ammonia on the kinetics of BP-3 elimination. Bromide and ammonia are rapidly converted to bromine and chloramines during chlorination. At first, the rate constants of chlorine, bromine and monochloramine with BP-3 were determined at various pH levels. BP-3 was found to react rapidly with chlorine and bromine, with values of apparent second order rate constants equal to 1.25(±0.14) × 10(3) M(-1)·s(-1) and 4.04(±0.54) × 10(6) M(-1)·s(-1) at pH 8.5 for kChlorine/BP-3 and kBromine/BP-3, respectively, whereas low monochloramine reactivity was observed (kNH2Cl/BP-3 = 0.112 M(-1)·s(-1)). To assess the impact of the inorganic content of water on BP-3 degradation, chlorination experiments with different added concentrations of bromide and/or ammonia were conducted. Under these conditions, BP-3 degradation was found to be enhanced in the presence of bromide due to the formation of bromine, whereas it was inhibited in the presence of ammonia. However, the results obtained were pH dependent. Finally, a kinetic model considering 18 reactions was developed using Copasi to estimate BP-3 degradation during chlorination in the presence of bromide and ammonia.

  4. [Effectiveness of pinaverium bromide therapy on colonic motility disorders in irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, T; Fehér, A; Rosztóczy, A; Jánosi, J

    1999-02-28

    The special patterns of the slow wave activity in irrittable bowel syndrome by means of surface electromyography were examined and the effect of pinaverium bromide on the symptoms and on the colonic motility in this disease was estimated. Twenty two patients with irritable bowel syndrome and 7 healthy controls were selected to the study. The clinical symptoms were abdominal pain and bloating in all patients, constipation in 9, and diarrhoea in 6 cases. Surface electromyography was carried out before and on the 14th day of the treatment with pinaverium bromide (50 mg t. i. d). The colonic motility was analysed in a 2 hour fasting and a 2 hour postprandial period following a standard (800 kCal) meal. The slow wave frequency of 0.01-0.04 Hz were selected and analysed. The mean frequency of activity peaks (n/10 min) and power-index (area under curve, microV 10 min) were measured. For statistical analysis Student's t-test was applied. Electromyogram of patients with irritable bowel syndrome showed a significant increase of the measured colonic motility parameters both in fasting and postprandial states. Fourteen days of pinaverium bromide treatment was able to significantly reduce the intensity of the colonic motor activity. Administration of pinaverium bromide completely released in 6 and significantly improved the abdominal pain in other 12 patients, while the bloating disappeared in 12 and was significantly improved in 5 from 22 patients. Pinaverium bromide was able to normalise the stool frequency: the weekly number of stools was decreased from 16 to 7 in the patients complaining diarrhoea ant it was increased from 2 to 6 in the patients with constipation. PMID:10204402

  5. Determination of bromine contents in blood and hair of workers exposed to methyl by radioactivation analysis method bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bromine contained in blood and hair samples obtained from workers exposed to methyl bromide was analyzed by nondestructive activation analysis. The samples were irradiated for 1 min in pneumatic irradiation facility of Kyoto University research reactor with an estimated thermal neutron flux density at 2 x 1013 n.cm-2.sec-1. The irradiation was counted with Ge(Li) detector. The duration of measurement of radionuclide bromine in blood and hair was 200 sec within 2 - 10 min after irradiation. The bromine content of serum sample obtained from a worker suspected of methyl bromide poisoning was found to be 412 μg/g on 13 days apart from exposure to methyl bromide. The biological half-life of bromine in this case was found to be about 16 days. Then bromine contents in serum and hair samples obtained from workers exposed to methyl bromide were found to be 1.7 and 2.6 times higher respectively than those of nonexposed workers. Any correlations of bromine contents were not observed between serum and hair samples obtained from workers exposed to methyl bromide, nor between bromine amount in the serum of workers exposed to methyl bromide and the terms exposed to it, but statistically significant positive correlation was observed between bromine amount in the hair of workers exposed to methyl bromide and the terms exposed to it. (author)

  6. Comparative microvascular exchange kinetics of [{sup 77}Br]bromide and {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, Claire [Department of Clinical Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Skehan, Stephen J.; Rolph, Susan M.; Flaxman, Mary E.; Ballinger, James R.; Bird, Nicholas J.; Barber, Robert W.; Peters, Michael A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-01

    The plasma clearance curves of small hydrophilic solutes comprise three exponentials, consistent with a three-compartmental distribution model. A previous comparison between inulin and diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) suggested that these three compartments are in series, the first being plasma and the second and third representing compartments within the extravascular space. Moreover, whilst the total distribution volumes of these two indicators were similar, the volume of the second compartment was higher for DTPA. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether a solute smaller than DTPA, namely bromide, fits the hypothesis that the second space volume is an inverse function of the size of the solute. Two groups of subjects were studied: group A comprised eight patients undergoing routine diagnostic arteriography and group B, eight patients referred for routine measurement of glomerular filtration rate plus two normal volunteers. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and sodium [{sup 77}Br]bromide were intravenously administered simultaneously. In group A, frequent arterial samples were obtained up to 40 min after injection, and antecubital venous samples 30 s after each arterial sample. In group B, frequent venous samples were obtained up to 280 min after injection. Volume measurements based on bromide were corrected for erythrocyte bromide accumulation. In both subject groups, the normalised venous concentration ratio of bromide to DTPA, corrected for red cell bromide uptake, was significantly less than unity in the earliest blood samples, being 0.56 (SD 0.08) at 1 min, consistent with faster diffusion of bromide from plasma to interstitial fluid. Furthermore, the extraction fraction of bromide from plasma to interstitial fluid in the forearm was about 0.6, higher than that of DTPA (about 0.5) in spite of red cell bromide accumulation which equilibrated with plasma bromide within 20 s and resulted in a red cell to plasma concentration ratio of 0.51 (0

  7. Synthesis of polyhydroxylated pyrrolidines from sugar-derived bromonitriles through a cascade addition of allylmagnesium bromide/cyclization/reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Michał; Jarosz, Sławomir

    2016-02-01

    The synthesis of polyhydroxylated 2-allylpyrrolidines from sugar-derived bromonitriles in a cascade addition of allylmagnesium bromide/SN2 cyclization/reduction with Zn(BH4)2 is described. The stereochemical course of the reduction step is rationalized. Two of the obtained compounds are transformed into stereoisomers of naturally-occurring iminosugar (+)-lentiginosine. In an alternative approach, 2,2-diallylpyrrolidines are obtained from bromonitriles in a cascade addition of allylmagnesium bromide/SN2 cyclization/addition of another equivalent of allylmagnesium bromide.

  8. A novel model-based approach for dose determination of glycopyrronium bromide in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arievich Helen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycopyrronium bromide (NVA237 is an inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonist in development for treatment of COPD. This study compared the efficacy and safety of once-daily (OD and twice-daily (BID glycopyrronium bromide regimens, using a novel model-based approach, in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Methods Double-blind, randomized, dose-finding trial with an eight-treatment, two-period, balanced incomplete block design. Patients (smoking history ≥10 pack-years, post-bronchodilator FEV1 ≥30% and 1/FVC 1 at Day 28. Results 385 patients (mean age 61.2 years; mean post-bronchodilator FEV1 53% predicted were randomized; 88.6% completed. All OD and BID dosing regimens produced dose-dependent bronchodilation; at Day 28, increases in mean trough FEV1 versus placebo were statistically significant for all regimens, ranging from 51 mL (glycopyrronium bromide 12.5 μg OD to 160 mL (glycopyrronium bromide 50 μg BID. Pharmacodynamic steady-state was reached by Day 7. There was a small separation (≤37 mL between BID and OD dose–response curves for mean trough FEV1 at steady-state in favour of BID dosing. Over 24 hours, separation between OD and BID regimens was even smaller (FEV1 AUC0-24h maximum difference for equivalent daily dose regimens: 8 mL. Dose–response results for FEV1 at 12 hours, FEV1 AUC0-12h and FEV1 AUC0-4h at steady-state showed OD regimens provided greater improvement over placebo than BID regimens for total daily doses of 25 μg, 50 μg and 100 μg, while the reverse was true for OD versus BID regimens from 12–24 hours. The 12.5 μg BID dose produced a marginally higher improvement in trough FEV1 versus placebo than 50 μg OD, however, the response at 12 hours over placebo was suboptimal (74 mL. Glycopyrronium bromide was safe and well tolerated at all doses. Conclusions Glycopyrronium bromide 50 μg OD provides significant bronchodilation over a 24 hour period

  9. Facile Synthesis of Heterocycles via 2-Picolinium Bromide and Antimicrobial Activities of the Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham S. Darwish

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2-picolinium N-ylide 4, generated in situ from the N-acylmethyl-2-picolinium bromide 3, underwent cycloaddition to N-phenylmaleimide or carbon disulfideto give the corresponding cycloadducts 6 and 8, respectively similar reactions ofcompound 3 with some electron-deficient alkenes in the presence of MnO2 yielded theproducts 11 and 12. In addition, reaction of 4 with arylidene cyanothioacetamide andmalononitrile derivatives afforded the thiophene and aniline derivatives 15 and 17,respectively. Heating of picolinium bromide 3 with triethylamine in benzene furnished 2-(2-thienylindolizine (18. The structures of the isolated products were confirmed byelemental analysis as well as by 1H- and 13C-NMR, IR, and MS data. Both thestereochemistry and the regioselectivity of the studied reactions are discussed. Thebiological activity of the newly synthesized compounds was examined and showedpromising results.

  10. Indirect complexometric determination of mercury(II) using potassium bromide as selective masking agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complexometric method for the determination of mercury in presence of other metal ions based on the selective masking ability of potassium bromide towards mercury is described. Mercury(II) present in a given sample solution is first complexed with a known excess of EDTA and the surplus EDTA is titrated against zinc sulfate solution at pH 5-6 using xylenol orange as the indicator. A known excess of 10 % solution of potassium bromide is then added and the EDTA released from Hg-EDTA complex is titrated against standard zinc sulfate solution. Reproducible and accurate results are obtained for 8 mg to 250 mg of mercury(II) with a relative error ±0.28 % and standard deviations /leg 0.5 mg. The interference of various ions is studied. This method was applied to the determination of mercury(II) in its alloys. (author)

  11. Thermodynamic Properties of Hydrogen + Tetra-n-Butyl Ammonium Bromide Semi-Clathrate Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Hashimoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic stability and hydrogen occupancy on the hydrogen + tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide semi-clathrate hydrate were investigated by means of Raman spectroscopic and phase equilibrium measurements under the three-phase equilibrium condition. The structure of mixed gas hydrates changes from tetragonal to another structure around 95 MPa and 292 K depending on surrounding hydrogen fugacity. The occupied amount of hydrogen in the semi-clathrate hydrate increases significantly associated with the structural transition. Tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide semi-clathrate hydrates can absorb hydrogen molecules by a pressure-swing without destroying the hydrogen bonds of hydrate cages at 15 MPa or over.

  12. Effect of pinaverium bromide on jejunal motility and colonic transit time in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, M; Salles, J P; Fallet, M; Frileux, P; Cugnenc, P H; Barbier, J P

    1992-01-01

    Pinaverium bromide is a specific calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) for its spasmolytic activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of orally administered pinaverium bromide on jejunal motility and total and segmental colonic transit time in control subjects. Gastrointestinal studies were performed in 10 healthy volunteers (30 +/- 3 years), before and after a treatment phase of 14 days (150 mg/d). Jejunal motility was measured by prolonged manometry (14 h) and colonic transit time by a multiple ingestion, single marker technique. No significant modification of phase III of the migrating motor complexes was demonstrated. On the contrary, a significant (p < 0.01) but weak decrease of the frequency of contraction was found. Unlike previous studies, no decrease of total or segmental colonic transit time was demonstrated. PMID:1421047

  13. Formation pathways of brominated products from benzophenone-4 chlorination in the presence of bromide ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Xiao; Dongbin Wei; Liping Li; Qi Liu; Huimin Zhao; Yuguo Du

    2014-01-01

    The brominated products,formed in chlorination treatment of benzophenone-4 in the presence of bromide ions,were identified,and the formation pathways were proposed.Under disinfection conditions,benzophenone-4 would undertake electrophilic substitution generating mono-or di-halogenated products,which would be oxidized to esters and further hydrolyzed to phenol derivatives.The generated catechol intermediate would be transformed into furan-like heterocyclic product.The product species were pH-dependent,while benzophenone-4 ehmination was chlorine dose-dependent.When the chlorination treatment was performed on ambient water spiked with benzophenone-4 and bromide ions,most of brominated byproducts could be detected,and the acute toxicity significantly increased as well.

  14. Synthesis of Dimethyl Aryl Acylsulfonium Bromides from Aryl Methyl Ketones in a DMSO-HBr System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiling Cao; Dahua Shi; Yingying Qu; Chuanzhou Tao; Weiwei Liu; Guowei Yao

    2013-01-01

    A new, simplified method for the synthesis of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium salts has been developed. A series of dimethyl aryl acylsulfonium bromides were prepared by the reaction of aryl methyl ketones with hydrobromic acid and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). This sulfonium salt confirms that bromine production and the bromination reaction take place in the DMSO-HBr oxidation system. What’s more, it is also a key intermediate for the synthesis of arylglyoxals.

  15. Linear free energy relationship in reactions between diphenyl amine and benzyl bromides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ranga Reddy; P Manikyamba

    2006-05-01

    Rate of reaction between benzyl bromide and diphenyl amine is retarded by electron-donating groups and enhanced by electron-withdrawing groups present on the benzene ring of the substrate. Hammett's reaction constant of the reaction decreases with increase in temperature according to the equation, \\rho = -11.92 + 3.54/ T. Minimal structural effects observed are attributed to the fact that the isokinetic temperature of the reaction is close to the reaction temperature.

  16. Comparison of injection drotaverine and injection valethamate bromide on duration and course of labor

    OpenAIRE

    Pradnya Rajendra Changede

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous drugs have been used to shorten the active phase of labor. How rationale is it to use these drugs to shorten the active phase of labor? Do they really shorten the duration of labor? What adverse effects do they have on the baby and the mother? These questions were the basis to perform the present study of comparing two of such drugs, injection drotaverine and injection Valethamate bromide with control subjects. Methods: This was a prospective study conducted in a terti...

  17. Mechanism of HERG potassium channel inhibition by tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yan; Lin, Zuoxian [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China); Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei [National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Li, Zhiyuan, E-mail: li_zhiyuan@gibh.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China)

    2013-03-01

    Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are synthetic quaternary ammonium salts that are widely used in hospitals and industries for the disinfection and surface treatment and as the preservative agent. Recently, the activities of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds have been found to have potential risks to induce the long QT syndrome and cardiac arrhythmia, although the mechanism of action is still elusive. This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds by using whole-cell patch clamp experiments in a CHO cell line stably expressing HERG channels. Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride exhibited concentration-dependent inhibitions of HERG channel currents with IC{sub 50} values of 4 nM and 17 nM, respectively, which were also voltage-dependent and use-dependent. Both compounds shifted the channel activation I–V curves in a hyperpolarized direction for 10–15 mV and accelerated channel activation and inactivation processes by 2-fold. In addition, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide shifted the inactivation I–V curve in a hyperpolarized direction for 24.4 mV and slowed the rate of channel deactivation by 2-fold, whereas benzethonium chloride did not. The results indicate that tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are open-channel blockers that inhibit HERG channels in the voltage-dependent, use-dependent and state-dependent manners. - Highlights: ► Tetra-n-octylammonium and benzethonium are potent HERG channel inhibitors. ► Channel activation and inactivation processes are accelerated by the two compounds. ► Both compounds are the open-channel blockers to HERG channels. ► HERG channel inhibition by both compounds is use-, voltage- and state dependent. ► The in vivo risk of QT prolongation needs to be studied for the two compounds.

  18. Effect of Impeller Agitation on Preparation of Tetra-n-Butyl Ammonium Bromide Semiclathrate Hydrate Slurries

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiro Inoue; Kazunari Ohgaki; Shunsuke Hashimoto; Hiroyuki Ito

    2012-01-01

    The slurries-containing tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) solution and its semiclathrate hydrate have attracted a lot of interest as latent heat transport media. These hydrate slurries contain some microparticles of crystal, and the size and shape of these hydrate particles could affect the mobility of slurries. Hence, it is essential to investigate the efficient hydrate-slurry preparation methods and the effect of hydrate particles on the fluid property of slurries for the application to...

  19. Acute hepatitis after starting pinaverium bromide in a patient taking mirtazapine

    OpenAIRE

    Tak, Sandeep; Tak, Shubhanjali

    2014-01-01

    A 56-year-old man presented with chronic abdominal pain. He had been evaluated extensively in the recent past undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy and CT scan of the abdomen with normal results. The provisional diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome was performed and pinaverium bromide was started. The patient had pre-existing hypertension, a major depressive disorder and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. He had been taking nebivolol and pantoprazole for several years and ...

  20. Role of pinaverium bromide in south Indian patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, V; Malathi, S; Ramathilakam, B; Dinakaran, N; Balasubramanian, V; Mathew, S

    1998-04-01

    The effect of pinaverium bromide in controlling gastrointestinal symptoms in 61 patients with irritable bowel syndrome was studied, as an open trial. Individually, there was significant relief in abdominal discomfort/pain as well as in bowel symptoms in most of the patients. Abdominal pain was reduced in 49%, stool consistency improved in 74%, straining and urgency decreased in 71% and mucus decreased in 64%. Tolerance to the drug administered was good and side-effects reported were few. PMID:11273320

  1. Tetrabutylammonium Bromide (TBABr)-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) and Their Physical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Rizana Yusof; Emilia Abdulmalek; Kamaliah Sirat; Mohd. Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Density, viscosity and ionic conductivity data sets of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) formed by tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr) paired with ethlyene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,5-pentanediol and glycerol hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) are reported. The properties of DES were measured at temperatures between 303 K and 333 K for HBD percentages of 66.7% to 90%. The effects of HBDs under different temperature and percentages are systematically analyzed. As expected, the measured density and viscos...

  2. Tiotropium bromide in the routine care of GOLD stage II COPD patients: a pharmaeconomic evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Orietta Zaniolo; Michela Carsi; Sergio Iannazzo

    2011-01-01

    Background: a secondary pre-specified analysis of the UPLIFT cohort demonstrated that the inclusion of tiotropium bromide in the routine care of GOLD stage II (moderate) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is associated with stronger improvements of survival, quality of life, and exacerbation rate than those shown in the total cohort; in this subgroup, tiotropium furthermore induces a significant reduction in the rate of FEV1 decline.Objective: to adapt the Spiriva® model, o...

  3. Flight Experiment to Study Double-Diffusive Instabilities in Silver-Doped Lead Bromide Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N. B.; Rosch, W. R.; Suhre, D. R.; Coriell, S. R.; Duval, W. M. B.

    1999-01-01

    A detailed study on the effect of convection on crystal quality was carried out by growing lead bromide crystals in transparent Bridgman furnace. Direct observations were made on the solid-liquid interface and a new kind of instability was observed. This could be explained on the basis of toroidal flow in the AgBr-doped lead bromide sample. With the increasing translation velocity, the interface changed from flat to depressed, and then formed a cavity in the center of the growth tube. The crystal grown at the lowest thermal Rayleigh number showed the highest quality and crystal grown at the largest thermal Rayleigh number showed the worst quality. Numerical studies were carried out to provide a framework for interpreting the observed convective and morphological instabilities, and to determine the critical (limiting) concentration of dopant for a particular growth velocity and gravity level. Theoretical instability diagrams were compared with data obtained from the experimental studies. These studies provided basic data on convective behavior in doped lead bromide crystals grown by the commercially important Bridgman process.

  4. A bio-product as alternative to methyl bromide for replant disease control on strawberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu ZHANG; Tongle HU; Lijing JI; Keqiang CAO

    2008-01-01

    Pre-plant soil fumigation with methyl bromide (MB) is a standard practice for controlling soil-borne diseases especially for strawberry diseases. However, the application of MB will be forbidden in China in the year 2015. For this reason, a bio-product named Kangdi 3 was tested as an alternative to MB in strawberry greenhouses in Mancheng (Hebei Province) and Donggang (Liaoning province), China in 2005 and 2006. Methyl bromide at a normal dosage of 500 kg/hm2 and Kangdi 3 at three dosages of 750, 1500 and 2250 kg/hm2 were tested. Plots without any treatment were used as the control. During the growing stage, assessments were made on fungal communities in rhizosphere, growth status of strawberry, the disease levels on roots as well as the yields. Results showed that Kangdi 3 significantly reduced the quantity of fungi and the disease index, while enhancing strawberry growth and the yields compared with the untreated control. Therefore, Kangdi 3 is a great potential substitute for methyl bromide to control replant diseases in strawberry.

  5. Transport of bromide measured by soil coring, suction plates, and lysimeters under transient flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasteel, R.; Pütz, Th.; Vereecken, H.

    2003-04-01

    Lysimeter studies are one step within the registration procedure of pesticides. Flow and transport in these free-draining lysimeters do not reflect the field situation mainly because of the occurence of a zone of local saturation at the lower boundary (seepage face). The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of flow and transport behaviour of bromide detected with different measuring devices (lysimeters, suction plates, and soil coring) by comparing experimental results with numerical simulations in heterogeneous flow domains. We applied bromide as a small pulse to the bare soil surface (Orthic Luvisol) of the three devices and the displacement of bromide was regurlarly sampled for three years under natural wheather conditions. Based on the mean breakthrough curves we observe experimentally that lysimeters have a lower effective pore-water velocity and exhibit more solute spreading resulting in a larger dispersivity than the suction plates. This can be ascribed to the artefact of the lower boundary. We performed numerical transport simulations in 2-D heterogeneous flow fields (scaling approach) choosing appropriate boundary conditions for the various devices. The simulations allow to follow the temporal evolution of flow and transport processes in the various devices and to gain additional process understanding. We conclude that the model is essentially capable to reproduce the main experimental findings only if we account for the spatial correlation structure of the hydraulic properties, i.e. soil heterogeneity.

  6. Recent trends in atmospheric methyl bromide: analysis of post-Montreal Protocol variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Yvon-Lewis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric methyl bromide (CH3Br burden has declined in recent years, in response to the phaseout of agricultural and structural fumigation consumption under the amendments to the Montreal Protocol. The timing and magnitude of this decrease represents an opportunity to examine our current understanding of the CH3Br budget, the phaseout schedule, and recent estimates of interannual variability in biomass burning and global OH. In this study, simulations obtained from a time-dependent global model of atmospheric CH3Br emissions and uptake are compared to observations from the NOAA flask network. The model includes an updated global methyl bromide source inventory that includes biofuel combustion emissions estimated at 6.1±3 Gg yr−1 globally. The phaseout of CH3Br production for agricultural uses began in 1998, concurrent with the pulse in biomass burning associated with the 1998 El Niño. The combined effects of three factors (biomass burning, global OH, and anthropogenic phaseout appear to explain most of the observed atmospheric methyl bromide trend over the 1997–2005 period. The global budget remains imbalanced, with a large missing source. These results suggest that more than 80% of the missing source does not exhibit significant interannual variability during the phaseout period and, therefore, does not result from underestimating agricultural CH3Br emissions.

  7. Replacing methyl bromide in annual strawberry production with glucosinolate-containing green manure crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Luca; Baruzzi, Gianluca; Malaguti, Lorena; Antoniacci, Loredana

    2003-09-01

    The use of biocidal green manure crops is an agronomic technique for amending soil with fresh organic matter containing volatile compounds active in controlling some soil-borne pests and diseases. Two new selections of the Brassicaceae family were cultivated, incorporated before planting strawberries and tested as an alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide. Two biocidal green manure crops (Brassica juncea L sel ISCI20, Eruca sativa Mill cv Nemat) containing glucosinolate-myrosinase systems, a conventional green manure (barley), untreated soil and a fumigated control were evaluated during two seasons. The effect of these soil management systems on subsequent strawberry performance was evaluated by monitoring yield and plant growth parameters. In both years, biocidal plant green manure treatments led to a fruit yield lower than with methyl bromide, but higher than with conventional green manure or untreated soil. These results confirm the good prospects for biocidal green manures, not only as an environmentally friendly alternative to methyl bromide in conventional agriculture, but also in organic agriculture as an alternative to conventional green manure crops.

  8. Effects of oral pinaverium bromide on colonic response to food in irritable bowel syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, M; Faye, A; Devroede, G; Arsac, M

    2000-08-01

    We have recently developed a simple method to investigate the colonic response to food (CRF). This study describes the modifications of CRF induced by treatment with oral pinaverium bromide in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. Thirty healthy subjects and 43 patients suffering from IBS were studied. Colonic transit time (CTT) was measured in fasting conditions and after eating a standard test meal. Colonic response to food was quantified by calculating the variation in number of markers in each zone of interest of the large bowel between the X-ray films of the abdomen taken before and after eating. CRF is characterized by caudal propulsion of colonic contents in the two groups. In controls, there is emptying of the caecum-ascending colon region and filling of the rectosigmoid. In IBS patients, only the left transverse colon and the splenic flexure empty. Pinaverium bromide exerts no effect in controls but reverses the CRF of the right colon in IBS patients by inhibiting right colon emptying. These results suggest that the inhibitory action of pinaverium bromide on CRF may support the clinical efficacy of this calcium channel blocker in the treatment of IBS. PMID:10989977

  9. Inhibition of the colonic motor response to eating by pinaverium bromide in irritable bowel syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioramonti, J; Frexinos, J; Staumont, G; Bueno, L

    1988-01-01

    The effect of pinaverium bromide on the colonic motor response to eating was investigated in 10 irritable bowel syndrome patients, by means of an intraluminal probe supporting 8 groups of electrodes. At each site examined from transverse to sigmoid colon, the electromyograms exhibited 2 kinds of spike bursts: short spike bursts (SSB) localized at one electrode, and long spike bursts (LSB), isolated, propagated orally or aborally over a few centimeters, or aborally propagated over the whole length of the colon investigated (migrating long spike bursts, MLSB). Recordings were continuously performed over 24 hr. Each patient received at 7.00 p.m. on day 1 and at noon on day 2 an 800-1000 Kcal meal preceded by IV administration of pinaverium bromide (4 mg) or placebo. After placebo administration, the duration of LSB activity and the number of MLSB were significantly increased over 3 postprandial hr by comparison with the 2 hr preceding the meal. After pinaverium injection no significant postprandial change in LSB and MLSB activity was noted. The SSB activity was not modified after the meals preceded by placebo or pinaverium injection. These results suggest that the inhibitory action of pinaverium bromide on postprandial colonic motility may support the clinical efficacy of this agent in the treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:3371838

  10. Toxic impact of bromide and iodide on drinking water disinfected with chlorine or chloramines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Komaki, Yukako; Kimura, Susana Y; Hu, Hong-Ying; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Mariñas, Benito J; Plewa, Michael J

    2014-10-21

    Disinfectants inactivate pathogens in source water; however, they also react with organic matter and bromide/iodide to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Although only a few DBP classes have been systematically analyzed for toxicity, iodinated and brominated DBPs tend to be the most toxic. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine if monochloramine (NH2Cl) disinfection generated drinking water with less toxicity than water disinfected with free chlorine (HOCl) and (2) to determine the impact of added bromide and iodide in conjunction with HOCl or NH2Cl disinfection on mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genomic DNA damage induction. Water disinfected with chlorine was less cytotoxic but more genotoxic than water disinfected with chloramine. For both disinfectants, the addition of Br(-) and I(-) increased cytotoxicity and genotoxicity with a greater response observed with NH2Cl disinfection. Both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were highly correlated with TOBr and TOI. However, toxicity was weakly and inversely correlated with TOCl. Thus, the forcing agents for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were the generation of brominated and iodinated DBPs rather than the formation of chlorinated DBPs. Disinfection practices need careful consideration especially when using source waters containing elevated bromide and iodide.

  11. The Effect of Ozonation Process on Bromide-Containing Groundwaters in Bandung Area and Its Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindriany Syafila

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Disinfection process was applied as the last step of the water treatment to kill pathogenic bacteria in the water. However, according to several studies, the ozonation disinfection process could form undesired by-products. One of the by-products potentially affecting human life is bromate produced from bromide ionic-containing water. This study was carried out to examine the effect of raw water characteristics and pH on bromate formation. Also, the performance of bromate formation for a period of exposure time was analyzed. Raw waters taken from four different areas around Bandung were exposed to ozone introduced to a reactor with a flow rate of 2 L/min. The pH of the raw waters varied from 4, 7 to 10. The results show that there was no evidence of an initial bromide ion concentration, whereas a change in pH value gives a significantly different outcome. In acidic condition (pH of 4 the bromate formation tends to decrease, whereas when the pH value increases to a pH of 10, the bromate formation increases. Therefore, for drinking water with a neutral pH, when bromide ions are detected in the raw water, the drinking water may be toxic due to the presence of bromate.

  12. Detection of water contamination from hydraulic fracturing wastewater: a μPAD for bromide analysis in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Leslie J; Bandara, Gayan C; Weber, Genevieve L; Remcho, Vincent T

    2015-08-21

    Due to the rapid expansion in hydraulic fracturing (fracking), there is a need for robust, portable and specific water analysis techniques. Early detection of contamination is crucial for the prevention of lasting environmental damage. Bromide can potentially function as an early indicator of water contamination by fracking waste, because there is a high concentration of bromide ions in fracking wastewaters. To facilitate this, a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) has been developed and optimized for the quantitative colorimetric detection of bromide in water using a smartphone. A paper microfluidic platform offers the advantages of inexpensive fabrication, elimination of unstable wet reagents, portability and high adaptability for widespread distribution. These features make this assay an attractive option for a new field test for on-site determination of bromide. PMID:26161586

  13. Efficient ring-closing metathesis of alkenyl bromides: the importance of protecting the catalyst during the olefin approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Michele; Drinkel, Emma; Wu, Linglin; Pusterla, Ivano; Gaggia, Fiona; Dorta, Reto

    2010-11-01

    We present the first productive ring-closing metathesis reaction that leads to the construction of cyclic alkenyl bromides. Efficient catalysis employing commercially available Grubbs II catalyst is possible through appropriate modification of the starting bromoalkene moiety.

  14. Prostate cancer and toxicity from critical use exemptions of methyl bromide: Environmental protection helps protect against human health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budnik Lygia T

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ozone-depleting methyl bromide was destined for phase-out by 2005, it is still widely applied as a consequence of various critical-use-exemptions and mandatory international regulations aiming to restrict the spread of pests and alien species (e.g. in globalized transport and storage. The withdrawal of methyl bromide because of its environmental risk could fortuitously help in the containment of its human toxicity. Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature, including in vitro toxicological and epidemiological studies of occupational and community exposure to the halogenated hydrocarbon pesticide methyl bromide. We focused on toxic (especially chronic or carcinogenic effects from the use of methyl bromide, on biomonitoring data and reference values. Eligible epidemiological studies were subjected to meta-analysis. Results Out of the 542 peer reviewed publications between 1990-2011, we found only 91 referring to toxicity of methyl bromide and 29 using the term "carcinogenic", "neoplastic" or "mutagenic". Several studies provide new additional data pertaining to the mechanistic aspects of methyl bromide toxicity. Few studies have performed a detailed exposure assessment including biomonitoring. Three evaluated epidemiological studies assessed a possible association between cancer and methyl bromide. Overall, exposure to methyl bromide is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer OR, 1.21; 95% CI (0,98-1.49, P = 0.076. Two epidemiological studies have analyzed environmental, non-occupational exposure to methyl bromide providing evidence for its health risk to the general public. None of the epidemiological studies addressed its use as a fumigant in freight containers, although recent field and case reports do refer to its toxic effects associated with its use in shipping and storage. Conclusions Both the epidemiological evidence and toxicological data suggest a possible link between methyl

  15. Inhaled americium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project includes experiments to determine the effects of Zn-DTPA therapy on the retention, translocation and biological effects of inhaled 241AmO2. Beagle dogs that received inhalation exposure to 241AmO2 developed leukopenia, clincial chemistry changes associated with hepatocellular damage, and were euthanized due to respiratory insufficiency caused by radiation pneumonitis 120 to 131 days after pulmonary deposition of 22 to 65 μCi 241Am. Another group of dogs that received inhalation exposure to 241AmO2 and were treated daily with Zn-DTPA had initial pulmonary deposition of 19 to 26 μCi 241Am. These dogs did not develop respiratory insufficiency, and hematologic and clinical chemistry changes were less severe than in the non-DTPA-treated dogs

  16. Comparison of pinaverium bromide, manganese chloride and D600 effects on electrical and mechanical activities in rat uterine smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironneau, J; Lalanne, C; Mironneau, C; Savineau, J P; Lavie, J L

    1984-02-10

    The effects of pinaverium bromide, were compared with those of D600 and manganese chloride (Mn), on membrane potentials, ionic currents and isometric contractions in uterine smooth muscle strips from pregnant rats. Pinaverium bromide (10(-7) - 10(-6) M) depressed twitch contractions and K-contractures within 15-20 min while D600 (2 X 10(-6) M) and Mn (10(-3) M) abolished both contractions. D600 and pinaverium bromide were more potent inhibitors in K-depolarized preparations than in polarized tissues. At a supramaximal dose (10(-5) M), pinaverium bromide decreased the rate of rise, amplitude, and rate of repolarization of the action potential, and prolonged the potential duration. The inward Ca current was depressed and the reduction in Cai was responsible for the decrease in K current. Pinaverium bromide (10(-5) M) depressed the myometrial contractions induced in Ca-free solution by acetylcholine (10(-4) M) and by prolonged membrane depolarizations. Mn (2.5 X 10(-3) M) only reduced the Ach-induced contraction and D600 (10(-5) M) had no effect on intracellular Ca stores. The results indicate that pinaverium bromide has Ca channel blocking properties similar to those of currently used Ca antagonists; it may also exert an effect to depress contractions supported by intracellular Ca release. PMID:6325214

  17. Recovery of Americium-241 from lightning rod by the method of chemical treatment; Recuperacion del Americio-241 provenientes de los pararrayos por el metodo de tratamiento quimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, W.H., E-mail: wcruz@ipen.gob.pe [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (GRRA/IPEN), Lima (Peru). Division de Gestion de Residuos Radiactivos

    2013-07-01

    About 95% of the lightning rods installed in the Peruvian territory have set in their structures, pose small amounts of radioactive sources such as Americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), fewer and Radium 226 ({sup 226}Ra) these are alpha emitters and have a half life of 432 years and 1600 years respectively. In this paper describes the recovery of radioactive sources of {sup 241}Am radioactive lightning rods using the conventional chemical treatment method using agents and acids to break down the slides. The {sup 241}Am recovered was as excitation source and alpha particle generator for analysing samples by X Ray Fluorescence, for fixing the stainless steel {sup 241}Am technique was used electrodeposition. (author)

  18. Partitioning studies in China and the separation of americium and fission product rare earths with dialkyl phosphinic acid and its thio-substituted derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the TRPO extractions process for recovering actinides from highly active waste (HAW) and its application to the pretreatment of Chinese HAW are described. The removal of Sr by di-cyclohexyl 18 crown 6 and the removal of Cs by spherical titanium ferrous hexa-cyanate from acidic waste are also described. Results of the extraction of trivalent americium and fission product rare earths (FPREs) by dialkyl-phosphinic, dialkyl-mono-thio-phosphinic and dialkyl-di-thio-phosphinic acids are reported. Dialkyl-thio-phosphinic acid (commercial product Cyanex 301, alkyl =2, 4, 4-methyl-pentyl) shows very high selectivity towards Am. Using 1M Cyanex 301 -kerosene as extractant, 99.9 % Am can be separated from 0.5M(Pr+Nd)(NO3)3 solution with 3-4 extraction stages and 3-4 scrubbing stages. (authors)

  19. Theoretical and experimental study of the bio-geochemical behaviour of americium 241 in simplified rhizosphere conditions. Application to a calcareous agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Americium 241, is one of the most radio-toxic contaminant produced during the nuclear fuel cycle. It can be found in all environmental compartments, in particular the soils. The main goals of this study are to identify, quantify and model the effect of the main factors controlling the mobility of 241Am in the rhizosphere and the agricultural soils. The physico-chemical parameters of the soil and of the soil solution, the potential role of microorganisms on the sorption-desorption processes, and the speciation of americium in solution have been more particularly studied. 241Am remobilization has been studied at the laboratory using leaching experiments performed in controlled conditions on reworked calcareous soils artificially contaminated with 241Am. The soil samples have been washed out in different hydrodynamic conditions by solutions with various compositions. The eluted solution has been analyzed (pH, conductivity, ionic composition, Fetot, organic acids, 241Am) and its bacterial biomass content too. The overall results indicate that 241Am remobilization is contrasted and strongly linked with the condition under study (pH, ionic strength, glucose and/or citrate concentration). Therefore, a solution in equilibrium with the soil or containing small exudate concentrations (10-4 M) re-mobilizes only a very small part of the americium fixed on the solid phase. The desorption of 241Am corresponds to a solid/liquid coefficient of partition (Kd) of about 105 L.kg-1. A significant addition of glucose induces an important dissolution of soil carbonates by the indirect action of microorganisms, but does not significantly favor the 241Am remobilization. On the other hand, the presence of strong citrate concentrations (≥ 10-2 M) allows 300 to 10000 time greater re-mobilizations by the complexing of 241Am released after the dissolution of the carrying phases. Finally, the colloidal transport of 241Am has been systematically observed in a limited but significant extend and

  20. Safe handling of kilogram amounts of fuel-grade plutonium and of gram amounts of plutonium-238, americium-241 and curium-244

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past 10 years about 600 glove-boxes have been installed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements at Karlsruhe. About 80% of these glove-boxes have been designed and equipped for handling 100-g to 1-kg amounts of 239Pu containing 8-12% 240Pu (low-exposure plutonium). A small proportion of the glove-boxes is equipped with additional shielding in the form of lead sheet or lead glass for work with recycled plutonium. In these glove-boxes gram-amounts of 241Am have also been handled for preparation of Al-Am targets using tongs and additional shielding inside the glove-boxes themselves. Water- and lead-shielded glove-boxes equipped with telemanipulators have been installed for routine work with gram-amounts of 241Am, 243Am and 244Cm. A prediction of the expected radiation dose for the personnel is difficult and only valid for a preparation procedure with well-defined preparation steps, owing to the fact that gamma dose-rates depend strongly upon proximity and source seize. Gamma radiation dose measurements during non-routine work for 241Am target preparation showed that handling of gram amounts leads to a rather high irradiation dose for the personnel, despite lead or steel glove-box shielding and shielding within the glove-boxes. A direct glove-hand to americium contact must be avoided. For all glove-handling of materials with gamma radiation an irradiation control of the forearms of the personnel by, for example, thermoluminescence dosimeters is necessary. Routine handling of americium and curium should be executed with master-slave equipment behind neutron and gamma shielding. (author)

  1. Measurement and computation of movement of bromide ions and carbofuran in ridged humic-sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistra, Minze; Boesten, Jos J T I

    2010-07-01

    Water flow and pesticide transport in the soil of fields with ridges and furrows may be more complex than in the soil of more level fields. Prior to crop emergence, the tracer bromide ion and the insecticide carbofuran were sprayed on the humic-sandy soil of a potato field with ridges and furrows. Rainfall was supplemented by sprinkler irrigation. The distribution of the substances in the soil profile of the ridges and furrows was measured on three dates in the potato growing season. Separate ridge and furrow systems were simulated by using the pesticide emission assessment at regional and local scales (PEARL) model for pesticide behavior in soil-plant systems. The substances travelled deeper in the furrow soil than in the ridge soil, because of runoff from the ridges to the furrows. At 19 days after application, the peak of the bromide distribution was measured to be in the 0.1-0.2 m layer of the ridges, while it was in the 0.3-0.5 m layer of the furrows. After 65 days, the peak of the carbofuran distribution in the ridge soil was still in the 0.1 m top layer, while the pesticide was rather evenly distributed in the top 0.6 m of the furrow soil. The wide ranges in concentration measured with depth showed that preferential water flow and substance transport occurred in the sandy soil. Part of the bromide ion distribution was measured to move faster in soil than the computed wave. The runoff of water and pesticide from the ridges to the furrows, and the thinner root zone in the furrows, are expected to increase the risk of leaching to groundwater in ridged fields, in comparison with more level fields.

  2. ACCIDENTAL SUBCUTANEOUS INJECTION OF VECURONIUM BROMIDE IN A PATIENT WITH BURNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Dev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In patients with burn injury drug pharmacology will be altered and this poses special anaesthetic challenge when an subcutaneous injection of a non- depolarizing muscle relaxant occurs in such a patient. Small studies remain an important source of knowledge and hence this study aims to provide information on the anaesthetic management in a case of accidental subcutaneous injection of vecuronium bromide in a burns patient. PRESENTATION, DIAGNOSIS & MANAGEMENT: A 22 year young male with 4 days old hot water induced grade 1 burns involving 45% of body surface area was posted for burns dressing. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and vecuronium bromide through an external jugular vein to aid tracheal intubation. As the patient was not anaesthetized even after 10 minutes routine check lead to the discovery of fullness at the tip of the intravenous catheter indicating an extravasation of the drugs. Hence the other external jugular vein was cannulated and the patient induced and intubated using propofol, sevoflurane, nitrous oxide and oxygen. The action of vecuronium outlasted the duration of surgery. So the patient continued to receive support of mechanical ventilation with nitrous oxide and oxygen. It took 130 minutes for the clinical signs of recovery from the muscle relaxant to manifest. He was then reversed & extubated with subsequent good recovery. CONCLUSION: Subcutaneous injection of these drugs poses problems of delayed onset of action and prolonged duration of action. In an inadvertent accidental subcutaneous 0.1 mg/kg vecuronium bromide injection in a patient with 4 day old 45% burns showed delayed onset action and prolonged neuromuscular blockade due to subcutaneous deposition of the drug which was managed with mechanical ventilation .The reported resistance to the action of NDMR drugs in patient with burns was not noticed here probably because of the age of the thermal injury.

  3. Efficient SN2 fluorination of primary and secondary alkyl bromides by copper(I) fluoride complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yanpin

    2013-11-11

    Copper(I) fluoride complexes ligated by phenanthroline derivatives have been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. These complexes adopt as either ionic or neutral forms in the solid state, depending on the steric bulkiness of the substituent groups on the phenanthroline ligands. These complexes react with primary and secondary alkyl bromides to produce the corresponding alkyl fluorides in modest to good yields. This new method is compatible with a variety of important functional groups such as ether, thioether, amide, nitrile, methoxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, ester, and heterocycle moieties. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. Radiation Induced Formation of Acrylated Palm Oil Nanoparticles using Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide Microemulsion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we report the preparation of Acrylated Palm Oil (APO) nanoparticles using aqueous Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) microemulsion system. This microemulsion system which contains the dispersed APO nano droplets was subjected to the gamma irradiation to induce the formation of the crosslinked APO nanoparticle. After irradiation at higher doses, the size of APO nanoparticles was transformed from a submicron-sized to a nano-sized of the particles. Size decreasing might be due to the intermolecular and the intramolecular crosslinking reactions of the APO nanoparticles during the irradiation process. (author)

  5. Promotion of hexadecyltrimethyleamine bromide to the damage of Alexandrium sp. LC3 by cupric glutamate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hao; MIAO Jin-lai; CUI Feng-xia; LI Guang-you

    2006-01-01

    The effect of hexadecyltrimethyleamine bromide (HDTMAB) on the removal of A lexandrium sp. LC3 under cupric glutamate stress was investigated. Toxic effect of cupric glutamate on A lexandrium sp. LC3 was significantly promoted in the presence of HDTMAB, especially at 3.0 cmc of HDTMAB. It was found that the sulfhydryl group content of the cell decreased, while the malonaldehyde content and membrane permeability increased when Alexandrium sp. LC3 was treated with HDTMAB and cupric glutamate complex, compared with cupric glutamate alone. The data suggest that HDTMAB might stimulate the damage of A lexandrium sp. LC3 by enhancing the membrane permeability.

  6. Efficient Stille cross-coupling reaction using aryl chlorides or bromides in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Christian; Lerebours, Rachel

    2003-09-19

    An efficient Stille cross-coupling reaction using a variety of aryl halides in neat water has been developed. Employing palladium-phosphinous acid catalyst [(t-Bu)(2)P(OH)](2)PdCl(2) allows formation of biaryls from aryl chlorides and bromides in good to high yields. Functional groups such as ketones and nitriles are tolerated, and organic cosolvents are not required. The air stability and solubility in water of the palladium complexes used in this study facilitate operation of the coupling reaction and product isolation. The feasibility of catalyst recycling has also been demonstrated. PMID:12968920

  7. Highly stable, luminescent core-shell type methylammonium-octylammonium lead bromide layered perovskite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Saikat; Veldhuis, Sjoerd A; Ng, Yan Fong; Li, Mingjie; Muduli, Subas Kumar; Sum, Tze Chien; Damodaran, Bahulayan; Mhaisalkar, Subodh; Mathews, Nripan

    2016-06-01

    A new protocol for the synthesis of a highly stable (over 2 months under ambient conditions) solution-processed core-shell type structure of mixed methylammonium-octylammonium lead bromide perovskite nanoparticles (5-12 nm), having spherical shape, color tunability in the blue to green spectral region (438-521 nm) and a high photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of up to 92% is described. The color tunability, high PLQY and stability are due to the quantum confinement imparted by the crystal engineering associated with core-shell nanoparticle formation during growth. PMID:27165565

  8. Rapid Consumption of Low Concentrations of Methyl Bromide by Soil Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Hines, Mark E.; Crill, Patrick M; Varner, Ruth K.; Talbot, Robert W; Shorter, Joanne H.; Kolb, Charles E.; Harriss, Robert C.

    1998-01-01

    A dynamic dilution system for producing low mixing ratios of methyl bromide (MeBr) and a sensitive analytical technique were used to study the uptake of MeBr by various soils. MeBr was removed within minutes from vials incubated with soils and ∼10 parts per billion by volume of MeBr. Killed controls did not consume MeBr, and a mixture of the broad-spectrum antibiotics chloramphenicol and tetracycline inhibited MeBr uptake by 98%, indicating that all of the uptake of MeBr was biological and by...

  9. Nitrate ion photolysis in thin water films in the presence of bromide ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Nicole K; Wingen, Lisa M; Callahan, Karen M; Nishino, Noriko; Kleinman, Michael T; Tobias, Douglas J; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2011-06-16

    Nitrate ions commonly coexist with halide ions in aged sea salt particles, as well as in the Arctic snowpack, where NO(3)(-) photochemistry is believed to be an important source of NO(y) (NO + NO(2) + HONO + ...). The effects of bromide ions on nitrate ion photochemistry were investigated at 298 ± 2 K in air using 311 nm photolysis lamps. Reactions were carried out using NaBr/NaNO(3) and KBr/KNO(3) deposited on the walls of a Teflon chamber. Gas phase halogen products and NO(2) were measured as a function of photolysis time using long path FTIR, NO(y) chemiluminescence and atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (API-MS). Irradiated NaBr/NaNO(3) mixtures show an enhancement in the rates of production of NO(2) and Br(2) as the bromide mole fraction (χ(NaBr)) increased. However, this was not the case for KBr/KNO(3) mixtures where the rates of production of NO(2) and Br(2) remained constant over all values of χ(KBr). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show that the presence of bromide in the NaBr solutions pulls sodium toward the solution surface, which in turn attracts nitrate to the interfacial region, allowing for more efficient escape of NO(2) than in the absence of halides. However, in the case of KBr/KNO(3), bromide ions do not appreciably affect the distribution of nitrate ions at the interface. Clustering of Br(-) with NO(3)(-) and H(2)O predicted by MD simulations for sodium salts may facilitate a direct intermolecular reaction, which could also contribute to higher rates of NO(2) production. Enhanced photochemistry in the presence of halide ions may be important for oxides of nitrogen production in field studies such as in polar snowpacks where the use of quantum yields from laboratory studies in the absence of halide ions would lead to a significant underestimate of the photolysis rates of nitrate ions.

  10. Cytotoxicity evaluation of Clinacanthus nutans through dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide and neutral red uptake assays

    OpenAIRE

    Vajrabhaya, La-Ongthong; Korsuwannawong, Suwanna

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the results of dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and neutral red uptake (NRU) assays of Clinacanthus nutans cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Mouse fibroblast (L929) cells were exposed to 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5% (W/V) C. nutans in a 96-cluster-well-culture plate for 24 h. The cell viability after exposure to C. nutans was determined by MTT and NRU assays in separate tissue culture plates. The two assays were compared thr...

  11. Ethidium bromide transport across Mycobacterium smegmatis cell-wall: correlation with antibiotic resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Couto Isabel; Ramos Jorge; Rodrigues Liliana; Amaral Leonard; Viveiros Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Active efflux systems and reduced cell-wall permeability are considered to be the main causes of mycobacterial intrinsic resistance to many antimicrobials. In this study, we have compared the Mycobacterium smegmatis wild-type strain mc2155 with knockout mutants for porins MspA (the main porin of M. smegmatis) and MspC, the efflux pump LfrA (the main efflux pump system of M. smegmatis) and its repressor LfrR for their ability to transport ethidium bromide (EtBr) on a real-t...

  12. Generation, spectroscopy, and structure of cyanoformyl chloride and cyanoformyl bromide, XC(O)CN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasinszki, Tibor; Vass, Gábor; Klapstein, Dieter; Westwood, Nicholas P C

    2012-04-01

    Cyanoformyl chloride and cyanoformyl bromide, XC(O)CN (X = Cl and Br), have been investigated in the gas phase by UV photoelectron and mid-infrared spectroscopies. The ground-state geometries of the neutral molecules have been obtained from quantum-chemical calculations at the B3LYP and CCSD(T) levels using the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set. The individual spectroscopies provide a detailed investigation into the vibrational and electronic character of the molecules and are supported by quantum-chemical calculations. The results are compared to data for structurally and chemically related molecules.

  13. Bromine and bromide in rainfall, cloud, stream and groundwater in the Plynlimon area of mid-Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bromine in rainfall, cloud water, stream water and groundwater were measured in the upper River Severn catchments at Plynlimon in mid-Wales using two analytical procedures for bromide determination: a colorimetric method and, later, ion chromatography. Discrepancies between the methods indicated that the colorimetric method was measuring more than just bromide so it was "dissolved labile bromine" (DLBr (Neal et al., 2007. This paper reports the variation in DLBr and bromide across the Plynlimon region and assesses the differences between these two measures. The average DLBr concentration in the streams ranges between 18.3 and 27.8 µg l−1 compared with a rainfall average concentration of 15.6 µg l−1. The corresponding bromide concentrations in the streams are 13.8–18.6 µg l−1 and 13.2 µg l−1 in rainfall. For cloud water, throughfall and stemflow, DLBr concentrations are an order of magnitude higher than in rainfall and the concentrations are strongly correlated with chloride. Average values of bromide in rainfall and cloud water are similar to those of DLBr and are strongly correlated with chloride: unfortunately, no bromide measurements were taken in throughfall and stemflow. These results indicate that marine aerosol inputs are high and that the DLBr in these inputs is dominated by bromide. For cloud water, DLBr was correlated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC as well as with chloride; hence, there may well be an organic-associated component. Within the streams draining the forested areas, DLBr increases with time as DOC increases. DLBr concentrations in the streams are correlated with DOC in most cases and, to a lesser degree, with chloride. However, for bromide there is no correlation with DOC, but a weak correlation with chloride remains and the gradient is higher than for the DLBr case. Increasing concentrations of both DLBr and DOC may well reflect the wetting up of the catchments as transpiration diminshes as the trees age

  14. Using prechloramination to control trihalomethanes formation in River Huang water with high bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Hui; CHEN Wei; LIN Tao; LIU Cheng; CHEN Jie; LI Gui-bai

    2008-01-01

    An effective technology in controlling trihalomethanes (THMs)formation in the case of large amounts of bromide presenting wag proposed,and the water of River Huang seriously polluted by bromide in winter in Tianjin City wag studied.The THMs formation characteristics during prechloramination using preformed chloramines and convened chloramines were studied through jar tests.Results show that,in prechloramination process,the formation of THMs by preformed chloramines is very few,while that by converted chloramines is a little higher.And the formation of THMs,especially Br-substituted THMs,increases with tIle increase of time and Cl2:N ratio as well as the decrease of pH.The result obtained in a pilot plant shows that compared with preehlorination,the prechlommination process can efficiendy control the formation of THMs,especially the Br-substituted species.With equal chlorine dosage.the prechloramination can maintain a hrser chlorine residue which offers a larger CT value than prechlorination.

  15. Moving away from methyl bromide: political economy of pesticide transition for California strawberries since 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Erin N; Norman, Catherine Shelley

    2012-09-15

    We examine the progress of the phaseout of the use of the pesticide methyl bromide in the production of California field strawberries. This phaseout is required under the Montreal Protocol and has been contentious in this sector, which receives exemptions from the schedule initially agreed under the treaty, and in international negotiations over the future of the Protocol. We examine the various ex-ante predictions of the impacts on growers, consumers and trade patterns in light of several years of declining allocations under the Critical Use provisions of the Protocol and the 2010 approval of iodomethane for use in California and subsequent 2012 withdrawal of this alternative from the US market. We find that, contrary to ex-ante industry claims, the years of declining methyl bromide use have been years of rising yields, acreage, exports, revenues and market share for California growers, even when faced with a global recession and increased imports from Mexican growers who retain the right to use the chemical under the Protocol. This has implications for the Protocol as a whole and for the remainder of the US phaseout of this chemical in particular. PMID:22575205

  16. Model prediction uncertainty of bromide and pesticides transport in laboratory column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Jaromir; Dohnal, Michal; Snehota, Michal; Sobotkova, Martina; Ray, Chittaranjan; Vogel, Tomas

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of transport parameters of reactive solutes such as pesticides is a prerequisite for reliable predictions of their fate and transport in soil porous systems. Water flow and transport of bromide tracer and five pesticides (atrazine, imazaquin, sulfometuron methyl, S-metolachlor, and imidacloprid) through an undisturbed soil column of tropical Oxisol were analyzed using a one-dimensional numerical model. Laboratory column leaching experiment with three flow interruptions was conducted. The applied numerical model is based on Richards' equation for solving water flow and the advection-dispersion equation for solving solute transport. A global optimization method was used to evaluate the model's sensitivity to transport parameters and the uncertainty of model predictions. Within the Monte Carlo modeling framework, multiple forward simulations searching through the parametric space, were executed to describe the observed breakthrough curves. All pesticides were found to be relatively mobile. Experimental data indicated significant non-conservative behavior of bromide tracer. All pesticides, with the exception of imidacloprid, were found less persistent. Three of the five pesticides (atrazine, sulfometuron methyl, and S-metolachlor) were better described by the linear kinetic sorption model, while the breakthrough curves of imazaquin and imidacloprid were more appropriately approximated using nonlinear instantaneous sorption. Sensitivity analysis suggested that the model is most sensitive to sorption distribution coefficient. The prediction limits contained most of the measured points of the experimental breakthrough curves, indicating adequate model concept and model structure for the description of transport processes in the soil column under study.

  17. Recent trends in atmospheric methyl bromide: analysis of post-Montreal Protocol variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Yvon-Lewis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric methyl bromide (CH3Br burden has declined in recent years, in response to the phaseout of agricultural and structural fumigation consumption under the amendments to the Montreal Protocol. The timing and magnitude of this decrease represents an opportunity to examine our current understanding of atmospheric CH3Br and its budget, response to the phaseout, and response to interannual variability in biomass burning and global OH. In this study, simulations obtained from a time-dependent global model of atmospheric CH3Br emissions and uptake are compared to observations from the NOAA flask network. The model includes a detailed gridded ocean model coupled to a time-dependant atmospheric 2-box model. The phaseout of CH3Br production for agricultural uses began in 1998, concurrent with the pulse in biomass burning associated with the 1998 El Niño. The combined effects of three factors (biomass burning, global OH, and anthropogenic phaseout appear to explain most of the observed atmospheric methyl bromide variability over the 1997–2008 period. The global budget remains imbalanced, with a large missing source indicated. The missing source does not exhibit a systematic decline during the phaseout period, and therefore, is not the result of significantly underestimating non-QPS agricultural CH3Br emissions. The model results suggest that the oceans should be less undersaturated than before the phaseout began.

  18. Thermodynamics of micellization of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide in propylene glycol-water mixture: A conductivity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janošević-Ležaić Aleksandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micellization of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (syn. cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB in propylene glycol-water (30% v/v binary mixture, as well as the thermodynamic properties of the resulting micelles, were investigated by electrical conductivity measurements. The conductivity data were used to determine both the critical micellar concentration (CMC and the micellar ionization degree (α of CTin the temperature range 298.2-310.2 K. The equilibrium model of micelle formation was applied in order to obtain the thermodynamic parameters (the standard molar Gibbs free energy, ΔGm0, enthalpy, ΔHm0 and entropy, ΔSm0 of the micellization process. The values of DGm0 and DHm0 were found to be negative at all investigated temperatures, while the values of ΔSm0 were positive and became more positive as temperature increased. A linear dependence between ΔSm0 and ΔHm0, i.e. an enthalpy-entropy compensation effect, was observed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172015

  19. Natural Oxidation of Bromide to Bromine in Evaporated Dead Sea Brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrieli, Ittai; Golan, Rotem; Lazar, Boaz; Baer, Gidi; Zakon, Yevgeni; Ganor, Jiwchar

    2016-04-01

    Highly evaporated Dead Sea brines are found in isolated sinkholes along the Dead Sea. Many of these brines reach densities of over 1.3 kg/L and pHacidic with a value of ~6.3. In comparison, seawater with the same alkalinity would have a pH value well above 8.3, meaning that H+ activity is 100 fold lower than that of Dead Sea brine. In the present work we assess the apparent dissociation constant value of boric acid (K`B) for the Dead Sea brine and use it to explain the brine's low pH value. We then show that pH decreases further as the brine evaporates and salinity increases. Finally we explain the reddish hue of the hypersaline brines in the sinkholes as due to the presence of dissolved bromine. The latter is the product of oxidation of dissolved bromide, a process that is enabled by the low pH of the hypersaline brines and their high bromide concentration.

  20. Modelling of a Tracer experiment (Bromide) at the lysimeter Wagna/Austria with MIKE-SHE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reszler, Christian; Fank, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Data of a tracer experiment with Bromide at one of the three lysimeters in Wagna/Austria are used to test the unsaturated zone solute transport model in MIKE-SHE. On April 4th, 2005 50 mg/l of Bromide were applied on the lysimeter operated with conventional farming. At this time the lysimeter was covered with bare soil until the start of the cultivation of pumpkin one month later. Concentrations at the lysimeter bottom (180 cm depth) were measured and, after break-through, plant uptake was measured to quantify mass recovery. The model using the Richards-Van Genuchten-Mualem approach is setup by comprehensive data of vegetation and soil hydraulic properties available at the lysimeter. Water movement simulation in the unsaturated zone is tested against measured seepage rates at the lysimeter bottom and soil water contents in different soil depths in a period of five years. A sensitivity study shows that, particularly in the quaternary gravel zone two different parameter sets are necessary to represent the different dynamics of water content and seepage. With both two sets the general dynamics of the tracer experiment are simulated well. However, the early rapid rise of the measured concentrations could not be represented by either parameter set, which indicates a complex pore system consisting of different flow paths in the gravel zone, e.g., a system of matrix flow and macro-pore flow.

  1. Modeling Water Flow and Bromide Transport in a Two-Scale-Structured Lignitic Mine Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, J.; Gerke, H. H.; Vogel, T.; Maurer, T.; Buczko, U.

    2008-12-01

    Two-dimensional single- and dual-permeability simulations are used to analyze water and solute fluxes in heterogeneous lignitic mine soil at a forest-reclaimed mine spoil heap. The soil heterogeneity on this experimental site "Barenbrucker Hohe" resulted from inclined dumping structures and sediment mixtures that consist of sand with lignitic dust and embedded lignitic fragments. Observations on undisturbed field suction- cell lysimeters including tracer experiments revealed funneling-type preferential flow with lateral water and bromide movement along inclined sediment structures. The spatial distribution of soil structures and fragment distributions was acquired by a digital camera and identified by a supervised classification of the digital profile image. First, a classical single-domain modeling approach was proposed with spatially variable scaling factors inferred from image analyses. In the next step, a two-continuum scenario was constructed to examine additional effects of nonequilibrium on the flow regime. The scaling factors used for the preferential flow domain are here obtained from the gradient of the grayscale images. So far, the single domain scenarios failed to predict the bromide leaching patterns although water effluent could be described. Dual-permeability model allows the incorporation of structural effects and can be used as a tool to further testing other approaches that account for structure effects. The numerical study suggests that additional experiments are required to obtain better understanding of the highly complex transport processes on this experimental site.

  2. Pressure-Induced Structural and Optical Properties of Organometal Halide Perovskite-Based Formamidinium Lead Bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingrui; Wang, Kai; Zou, Bo

    2016-07-01

    Organometal halide perovskites (OMHPs) are attracting an ever-growing scientific interest as photovoltaic materials with moderate cost and compelling properties. In this Letter, pressure-induced optical and structural changes of OMHP-based formamidinium lead bromide (FAPbBr3) were systematically investigated. We studied the pressure dependence of optical absorption and photoluminescence, both of which showed piezochromism. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction indicated that FAPbBr3 underwent two phase transitions and subsequent amorphization, leading directly to the bandgap evolution with redshift followed by blueshift during compression. Raman experiments illustrated the high pressure behavior of organic cation and the surrounding inorganic octahedra. Additionally, the effect of cation size and the different intermolecular interactions between organic cation and inorganic octahedra result in the fact that FAPbBr3 is less compressible than the reported methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3). High pressure studies of the structural evolution and optical properties of OMHPs provide important clues in optimizing photovoltaic performance and help to design novel OMHPs with higher stimuli-resistant ability. PMID:27321024

  3. Acute hepatitis after starting pinaverium bromide in a patient taking mirtazapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Sandeep; Tak, Shubhanjali

    2014-01-01

    A 56-year-old man presented with chronic abdominal pain. He had been evaluated extensively in the recent past undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy and CT scan of the abdomen with normal results. The provisional diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome was performed and pinaverium bromide was started. The patient had pre-existing hypertension, a major depressive disorder and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. He had been taking nebivolol and pantoprazole for several years and mirtazapine for the last 1 year. The patient developed nausea, vomiting and anorexia after 5 days of starting pinaverium bromide. Investigations revealed marked elevation of liver enzymes and bilirubin. He was negative for HIV, HBSAg, anti-hepatitis C virus, IgM for hepatitis A virus, hepatitis E virus, antinuclear antibody and antimitochondrial antibody. An ultrasound showed mild hepatomegaly with hypoechoic echo texture; the rest of scan was normal. Pinaverium and mirtazapine were stopped immediately. The patient was treated symptomatically and his liver profile returned to normal after 4 weeks. PMID:25015163

  4. The influence of nitrogen oxides on the activation of bromide and chloride in salt aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, S.; Buxmann, J. C.; Sander, R.; Riedel, T. P.; Thornton, J. A.; Platt, U.; Zetzsch, C.

    2014-04-01

    Experiments on salt aerosol with different salt contents were performed in a Teflon chamber under tropospheric light conditions with various initial contents of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2). A strong activation of halogens was found at high NOx mixing ratios, even in samples with lower bromide contents such as road salts. The ozone depletion by reactive halogen species released from the aerosol, was found to be a function of the initial NOx mixing ratio. Besides bromine, large amounts of chlorine have been released in our smog chamber. Time profiles of the halogen species Cl2, Br2, ClNO2, BrNO2 and BrO, ClO, OClO and Cl atoms were simultaneously measured by various techniques (chemical ionization mass spectrometry, differential optical absorption spectrometry coupled with a multi-reflection cell and gas chromatography of hydrocarbon tracers for Cl and OH, employing cryogenic preconcentration and flame ionization detection). Measurements are compared to calculations by the CAABA/MECCA 0-D box model, which was adapted to the chamber conditions and took the aerosol liquid water content and composition into account. The model results agree reasonably with the observations and provide important information about the prerequisites for halogen release, such as the time profiles of the aerosol bromide and chloride contents as well as the aerosol pH.

  5. The application of activation analysis for the control of bromide accumulation in vegetable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil desinfestation with methyl bromide increases the uptake of bromine by plants. The natural bromine content of crops and fruits was found in the range of 1 up to 5 ppm in fresh weight. The highest acceptable level is 50 ppm in fresh weight. By using methyl bromide as a soil fumigant, a bromine accumulation was found in the crops to levels up to 20-500 ppm in fresh matter. The uptake of bromine differs in various parts of the vegetable crops. The highest bromine concentration could be observed in the leaves. The bromine uptake by plants depends on (a) the fumigation technique (applied amounts, reaction time, date of cultivation); (b) the growing conditions (soil type, climate and irrigation); (c) the plants (species, rotation, harvesting time etc.). The INAA is a simple and rapid method to analyse bromine in vegetables within a wide range using Br-80 and Br-82. Since several years this method has also been used to control imported crops. The samples were subjected to a short irradiation (1-3 minutes at 1013ncm-2sec-1). After the decay time of a few minutes the induced activity was measured with a Ge(Li) detector coupled to a multi-channel analyzer. The limit of detection varies between 0.1 and 0.5 ppm Br in fresh vegetable samples. (T.G.)

  6. Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers; Bromid als Tracer zur Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung und der Nitratverlagerung in Boeden: Vergleich mit stabilisotopen Tracern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russow, R.; Knappe, S. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). Sektion Bodenforschung

    1999-02-01

    Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and {sup 15}N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D{sub 2}O, bromide and [{sup 15}N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers. [Deutsch] Fuer die Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung sowie der daran gekoppelten Nitrat-Verlagerung ist der Einsatz von Tracern das Mittel der Wahl. Dabei wird Bromid als Tracer haeufig bevorzugt, da es allgemein als ein repraesentativer Tracer fuer Wasser und als konservativer Tracer (nicht involviert in chemische und biologische Bodenprozesse) zur Untersuchung des Anionentransportes in Boeden angesehen wird und es gegenueber den stabilen Isotopen Deuterium und {sup 15}N billiger und einfacher zu bestimmen ist. Gegenueber den radioaktiven Tracern (z.B. Tritium), die zwar sehr empfindlich und einfach messbar sind, besteht der grosse Vorteil, dass, wie bei den stabilen Isotopen, keine Strahlenschutzmassnahmen ergriffen werden muessen. Es gibt jedoch auch einschraenkende Hinweise fuer die Verwendung von Bromid als Tracer im System Boden

  7. The Research on Programmable Control System of Lithium-Bromide Absorption Refrigerating Air Conditioner Based on the Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lunan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article regard the solar lithium-bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system as the research object, and it was conducting adequate research of the working principle of lithium bromide absorption refrigerating machine, also it was analyzing the requirements of control system about solar energy air conditioning. Then the solar energy air conditioning control system was designed based on PLC, this system was given priority to field bus control system, and the remote monitoring is complementary, which was combining the network remote monitoring technology. So that it realized the automatic control and intelligent control of new lithium bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system with solar energy, also, it ensured the control system can automatically detect and adjust when the external conditions was random changing, to make air conditioning work effectively and steadily, ultimately ,it has great research significance to research the air conditioning control system with solar energy.

  8. Combination of ozonation and photocatalysis for purification of aqueous effluents containing formic acid as probe pollutant and bromide ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, F; Camera-Roda, G; Loddo, V; Palmisano, G; Augugliaro, V

    2014-03-01

    The treatment by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) of waters contaminated by organic pollutants and containing also innocuous bromide ions may generate bromate ions as a co-product. In the present work heterogeneous photocatalysis and ozonation have individually been applied and in combination (integrated process) to degrade the organic compounds in water containing also bromide anions. The results show that: i) the sole photocatalysis does not produce bromate ions and in the case of its presence, it is able to reduce bromate to innocuous bromide ions; ii) the integration of photocatalysis and ozonation synergistically enhances the oxidation capabilities; and iii) in the integrated process bromate ions are not produced as long as some oxidizable organics are present.

  9. [Effects of bromide and ferric ions on formation of tri-halomethanes during disinfection of drinking water by chlorine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Wang, Jing; Ge, Yuan-Xin; Ma, Hong-Mei; Zhao, Jian-Fu

    2007-06-01

    Effects of bromide and ferric ions on the formation and distribution of tri-halomethanes (THMs) have been investigated. As disinfection by-product (DBP) model precursors of natural water, humic acid solutions were used and a series of experiments were conducted. The results showed that bromide in this reaction system not only contributed to the increase of brominated species, but also the total tri-halomethanes. When the concentration of Br(-) was 1.0 mg/L, the total amount of produced THMs reached to 270% of that without bromide ions. In the presence of bromide, ferric ions decreased the production of THMs at pH 6, but increased the production of THMs at pH 8, especially for the amount of tri-bromomethanes. When the concentration of Fe3+ was 5 mg/L, the amount of produced tri-bromomethanes had an increment of 54% (from 51.7 microg/L to 79.4 microg/L), and the total amount of THMs increased from 113.49 microg/L to 162.09 microg/L. Bromide ions had a significant effect on carcinogenicity risk in disinfection of drinking water by chlorine, and the co-existence of ferric ion and bromide in alkalescent environment can result in the biggest challenge on carcinogenicity risk. Under the condition of 0.2 mg/L Br(-), 5 mg/L Fe3+ and pH 6, the carcinogenicity risk increased 2.5 times than that without Br(-) and Fe3+, and much higher increment of 5.1 times appeared when pH was 8.

  10. Actinide Oxidation State and O/M Ratio in Hypostoichiometric Uranium-Plutonium-Americium U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x Mixed Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Lebreton, Florent; Aufore, Laurence; Scheinost, Andreas C; Martin, Philippe M

    2016-03-01

    Innovative americium-bearing uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x are envisioned as nuclear fuel for sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors (SFRs). The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio, directly related to the oxidation state of cations, affects many of the fuel properties. Thus, a thorough knowledge of its variation with the sintering conditions is essential. The aim of this work is to follow the oxidation state of uranium, plutonium, and americium, and so the O/M ratio, in U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x samples sintered for 4 h at 2023 K in various Ar + 5% H2 + z vpm H2O (z = ∼15, ∼90, and ∼200) gas mixtures. The O/M ratios were determined by gravimetry, XAS, and XRD and evidenced a partial oxidation of the samples at room temperature. Finally, by comparing XANES and EXAFS results to that of a previous study, we demonstrate that the presence of uranium does not influence the interactions between americium and plutonium and that the differences in the O/M ratio between the investigated conditions is controlled by the reduction of plutonium. We also discuss the role of the homogeneity of cation distribution, as determined by EPMA, on the mechanisms involved in the reduction process. PMID:26907589

  11. Characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel in acidic medium with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide as corrosion inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, N., E-mail: tnava@imp.mx; Likhanova, N. V. [Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Olivares-Xometl, O. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica (Mexico); Flores, E. A. [Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Lijanova, I. V. [CIITEC, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    The characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel SAE 1018 after 2 months exposure in aqueous sulfuric acid with and without corrosion inhibitor N-octadecylpyridinium bromide has been carried out by means of transmission {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The major constituent of the rust formed in this environment without corrosion inhibitor is goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH). The samples with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide contain rozenite and large amounts of melanterite in the corrosion layers.

  12. Enhanced Degradation of the Volatile Fumigant-Nematicides 1,3-D and Methyl Bromide in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, L.-T.

    1998-01-01

    The use of the gaseous funaigant-nematicide methyl bromide in agriculture is scheduled to be phased out in the year 2001.1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D) in combination with chloropicrin and an herbicide is considered to be a viable alternative to methyl bromide for some crops. 1,3-Dichloropropene consists of two isomers, cis- and trans-l,3-D. A number of soil bacteria have been shown to initially degrade 1,3-D or one of its isomers, cis-l,3-D, via hydrolysis. Until recently, the degradation of ci...

  13. Characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel in acidic medium with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide as corrosion inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel SAE 1018 after 2 months exposure in aqueous sulfuric acid with and without corrosion inhibitor N-octadecylpyridinium bromide has been carried out by means of transmission 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The major constituent of the rust formed in this environment without corrosion inhibitor is goethite (α-FeOOH). The samples with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide contain rozenite and large amounts of melanterite in the corrosion layers.

  14. Spectral and Non Radiative Decay Studies of Lead Di Bromide Single Crystals by Mode Matched Thermal Lens Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejeena, I; Lillibai, B; Thomas, V; Nampoori, V P N; Radhakrishnan, P

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper, the investigations on the non radiative decay mechanism, optical band gap determination from absorption spectroscopic studies and fluorescence emission by photo luminescence techniques using different excitation wavelengths on gel derived lead di bromide single crystals are reported. Non radiative decay of the sample is studied using high sensitive dual beam mode matched thermal lens technique. For the thermal lensing experiment the crystal in solution phase is incorporated with rhodamine 6G dye for enhancing the absorption of the crystal sample. The thermal diffusivity of lead di bromide is determined using the probe beam intensity v/s time measurements. PMID:27165040

  15. Protective effect of testosterone on cognitive deficits induced by ethidium bromide in experimental model of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallahadin Feizollah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS. The hippocampus is a vital center for learning and memory; it is extremely vulnerable to neurodegenerative diseases. The male hormones could be neuroprotective for the CNS. The current study is an attempt to investigate the effect of testosterone on learning and spatial memory following the demyelination of CA1 area by the injection of ethidium bromide in the rats' hippocampus. Methods: This experimental study has been conducted on healthy rats in the faculty of science of the Urmia University from September 2013 to February 2015. For demyelination in all previously gonadectomized healthy rats, 3µl ethidium bromide was injected into the CA1 area of rats by stereotaxic surgery. In addition, the treatment groups received 1µl testosterone (6µg/µl during a 20-day timeframe on a daily basis after demyelination by the ethidium bromide. The control groups had no drug injection. The process of the learning and spatial memory of the rats were closely monitored by the radial Maze. The demyelination and remyelination in the hippocampus were checked by the myelin-specific coloring (Luxol fast blue and Cresyl violet. Results: The histological results suggest that the testosterone is capable of minimizing the destructive impacts of ethidium bromide in the treatment group as well as enhancing the remyelination process. In the group treated by testosterone, the percentage of the pyknotic cells 20 days after demyelination induction, represented a significant reduction compared to that of ethidium bromide group (P=0.008. The behavioral studies analyses show that the amount of the food finding time in those groups received ethidium bromide was significantly longer than those of the control groups (P=0.001. Furthermore, the application of the testosterone in the treatment groups reduced the extent of demyelination while the memory impairment induced by the

  16. Physicochemical and thermodynamic characterization of N-alkyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromides and its aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawadzki, Maciej, E-mail: mzawadzki@ch.pw.edu.pl; Królikowska, Marta; Lipiński, Paweł

    2014-08-10

    Highlights: • The aqueous solutions of bromide-based ionic liquids have been studied. • The synthesis and basic thermal characterization of pure IL have been done. • The density, dynamic viscosity, SLE and VLE have been determined. • The experimental data have been correlated using appropriate equations. - Abstract: This work is a continuation of our research of ionic liquids to investigate the physicochemical and thermodynamic properties of (ionic liquid + water) binary mixtures as a novel alternative working pair for the absorption heat pump cycle. In this work, a series of organic salts: N-propyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium bromide, [C{sub 1}C{sub 3}PYR]Br; N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium, [C{sub 1}C{sub 4}PYR]Br and N-pentyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromide, [C{sub 1}C{sub 5}PYR]Br have been synthesized. The structures of new compounds have been confirmed using NMR spectra and elementary analysis. The basic thermal characterization of pure ILs, including temperature and enthalpy of phase transition (T{sub tr}, Δ{sub tr}H), temperature and enthalpy of melting (T{sub m,} Δ{sub m}H) have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Decomposition temperature of the tested ILs were detected by the simultaneous TG/DTA experiments. The effect of temperature on the density (ρ) and dynamic viscosity (η) is reported over a wide temperature range from 298.15 to 343.15 K at ambient pressure. From experimental density data, the excess molar volumes (V{sup E}) were calculated and correlated using Redlich–Kister equation. The isothermal vapour–liquid phase equilibria (VLE) have been measured by an ebulliometric method at wide temperature range from 328.15 to 368.15 K and pressure up to 85 kPa. Experimental data have been correlated by means of NRTL equation. The solid–liquid phase equilibria (SLE) for the tested binary mixtures have been determined over whole composition range using dynamic method. The NRTL equation using parameters

  17. Nanosized sustained-release pyridostigmine bromide microcapsules: process optimization and evaluation of characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Q

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Qunyou Tan,1,* Rong Jiang,3,* Meiling Xu,2,4,* Guodong Liu,5,* Songlin Li,1 Jingqing Zhang21Department of Thoracic Surgery, Institute of Surgery Research, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, 2Medicine Engineering Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, 3Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering Research, Chongqing Medical University, 4Department of Pharmacy, Chongqing Emergency Medical Center, 5Eighth Department, Institute of Surgery Research, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Pyridostigmine bromide (3-[[(dimethylamino-carbonyl]oxy]-1-methylpyridinium bromide, a reversible inhibitor of cholinesterase, is given orally in tablet form, and a treatment schedule of multiple daily doses is recommended for adult patients. Nanotechnology was used in this study to develop an alternative sustained-release delivery system for pyridostigmine, a synthetic drug with high solubility and poor oral bioavailability, hence a Class III drug according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. Novel nanosized pyridostigmine-poly(lactic acid microcapsules (PPNMCs were expected to have a longer duration of action than free pyridostigmine and previously reported sustained-release formulations of pyridostigmine.Methods: The PPNMCs were prepared using a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method to achieve sustained-release characteristics for pyridostigmine. The preparation process for the PPNMCs was optimized by single-factor experiments. The size distribution, zeta potential, and sustained-release behavior were evaluated in different types of release medium.Results: The optimal volume ratio of inner phase to external phase, poly(lactic acid concentration, polyvinyl alcohol concentration, and amount of pyridostigmine were 1:10, 6%, 3% and 40 mg, respectively. The negatively charged PPNMCs had an average particle size of 937.9 nm

  18. An innovative experimental design reveals the spatial correlation between landuse, irrigation properties, and bromide leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwen, A.; Yang, Y.; Walton, J.; Wendroth, O.

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the relationship between leaching of pesticides and soil hydraulic properties under different land use conditions is critical to our understanding of the flow of water and solutes in soils and efforts to model these flow characteristics. One problem inherent in the measurement of solute leaching in field experiments is the considerable high natural spatial variability of flow-controlling soil properties. Thus, analyzing treatment effects based on the mean and the variance of observations can become obsolete if there is a huge inherent variance in the set of measurements. Moreover, no spatial range of influence can be derived from the observations. To overcome this limitation, the spatial covariance and cross-variance between measurements was used as decision and quality criteria in the present study. This study aims to demonstrate that focussing on the spatial covariance of observations and considering their spatial process can provide a measure of spatial representativity or scale-specific variance. We introduce a novel experimental scheme, where the treatments are arranged in a scale-dependent manner. In a field trial in Lexington, Kentucky, bromide leaching under two contrasting land use systems (no-till agricultural crops vs. pasture) was compared. After surface application of tracer solution (KBr), the experimental field was irrigated using different time-delays (1, 4 and 24 hours) as well as two different irrigation amounts and two different intensities. At the end, the KBr-concentration in the soil profile was determined using auger samplings. The data was correlated with the applied boundary conditions by spatial statistical methods such as semivariograms, cross-semivariograms and spectral analysis. Our results show distinct differences in the leaching behaviour between the two analyzed land uses with an deeper infiltration in the no-till agricultural field. This can be partly related to a higher initial soil water content in this treatment

  19. COPD patient satisfaction with ipratropium bromide/albuterol delivered via Respimat: a randomized, controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson GT

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gary T Ferguson,1 Mo Ghafouri,2 Luyan Dai,2 Leonard J Dunn31Pulmonary Research Institute of Southeast Michigan, Livonia, MI, USA; 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Ridgefield, CT, USA; 3Clinical Research of West Florida, Inc, Clearwater, FL, USABackground: Ipratropium bromide/albuterol Respimat inhaler (CVT-R was developed as an environmentally friendly alternative to ipratropium bromide/albuterol metered-dose inhaler (CVT-MDI, which uses a chlorofluorocarbon propellant.Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate patient satisfaction, device usage, and long-term safety of CVT-R compared to CVT-MDI, and to the simultaneous administration of ipratropium bromide hydrofluoroalkane (HFA; I and albuterol HFA (A metered-dose inhalers as dual monotherapies (I + A.Design: This is a 48-week, open-label, randomized, active-controlled, parallel-group study (n = 470 comparing CVT-R to CVT-MDI and to I + A.Participants: Patients were at least 40 years of age, diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and current or exsmokers.Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive: (1 CVT-R, one inhalation four times daily (QID; or (2 CVT-MDI, two inhalations QID; or (3 I + A two inhalations of each inhaler QID.Main measures: Patient Satisfaction and Preference Questionnaire (PASAPQ performance score (primary endpoint and adverse events.Key results: PASAPQ performance score was significantly higher (CVT-R versus CVT-MDI, 9.6; and CVT-R versus I + A, 6.2; both P < 0.001 when using CVT-R compared to CVT-MDI or I + A at all visits starting from week 3, while CVT-MDI and I + A treatment groups were similar. Time to first COPD exacerbation was slightly longer in the CVT-R group compared to the other treatment groups, although it did not reach statistical significance (CVT-R versus CVT-MDI, P = 0.57; CVT-R versus I + A, P = 0.22. Rates of withdrawal and patient refusal to continue treatment were lower in CVT-R compared with CVT

  20. Copper-catalysed N-arylation of arylsulfonamides with aryl bromides and aryl iodides using KF/Al2O3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahman Hosseinzadeh; Mahmood Tajbakhsh; Maryam Mohadjerani; Mohammad Alikarami

    2010-03-01

    An efficient synthesis of -arylsulfonamides with a variety of aryl bromides, aryl iodides and heteroaryl bromides using KF/Al2O3 as a suitable base, CuI as an inexpensive catalyst and ,'-dimethylethylenediamine (,'-DMEDA) as an effective ligand is described.

  1. Carbon nanotubes as an efficient hole collector for high voltage methylammonium lead bromide perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Boix, Pablo P; Xing, Guichuan; Fu, Kunwu; Kulkarni, Sneha A; Batabyal, Sudip K; Xu, Wenjing; Cao, Anyuan; Sum, Tze Chien; Mathews, Nripan; Wong, Lydia Helena

    2016-03-28

    A high open circuit voltage (V(OC)) close to 1.4 V under AM 1.5, 100 mW cm(-2) conditions is achieved when carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are used as a hole conductor in methyl ammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) perovskite solar cells. Time-resolved photoluminescence and impedance spectroscopy investigations suggest that the observed high V(OC) is a result of the better charge extraction and lower recombination of the CNT hole conductor. Tandem solar cells with all perovskite absorbers are demonstrated with a MAPbBr3/CNT top cell and a MAPbI3 bottom cell, achieving a V(OC) of 2.24 V in series connection. The semitransparent and high voltage MAPbBr3/CNT solar cells show great potential for applications in solar cell windows, tandem solar cells and solar driven water splitting. PMID:26646241

  2. Increase in mitotic recombination in diploid cells of Aspergillus nidulans in response to ethidium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia C.A. Becker

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethidium bromide (EB is an intercalating inhibitor of topoisomerase II and its activities are related to chemotherapeutic drugs used in anti-cancer treatments. EB promotes several genotoxic effects in exposed cells by stabilising the DNA-enzyme complex. The recombinagenic potential of EB was evaluated in our in vivo study by the loss of heterozygosity of nutritional markers in diploid Aspergillus nidulans cells through Homozygotization Index (HI. A DNA repair mutation, uvsZ and a chromosome duplication DP (II-I were introduced in the genome of tested cells to obtain a sensitive system for the recombinagenesis detection. EB-treated diploid cells had HI values significantly greater than the control at both concentrations (4.0 x 10-3 and 5.0 x 10-3 mM. Results indicate that the intercalating agent is potentially capable of inducing mitotic crossing-over in diploid A. nidulans cells.

  3. Behavior of aqueous Tetrabutylammonium bromide - a combined approach of microscopic simulation and neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Debsindhu

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous solution of tetrabutylammonium bromide is studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering, to give information on the dynamic modes involving the ions present. Using a careful combination of two techniques, time-of-flight (TOF) and neutron spin echo (NSE), we de- couple the dynamic information in both the coherently and incoherently scattered signal from this system. We take advantage of the different intensity ratio of the two signals, as detected by each of the techniques, to achieve this decoupling. By using heavy water as the sol- vent, the tetrabutylammonium cation is the only hydrogen-containing species in the system and gives rise to a significant incoherent scattered intensity. The dynamic analysis of the incoherent signal (measured by TOF) leads to a translational diffusion coefficient of the cation as that is in good agreement with previous NMR, neutron scattering and tracer diffusion measurements. The dynamic analysis of the coherent signal observed at wave-vectors < 0.6 angstrom^(-1) (measu...

  4. Copper bromide vapor brightness amplifiers with 100 kHz pulse repetition frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigub, M. V.; Evtushenko, G. S.; Torgaev, S. N.; Shiyanov, D. V.; Evtushenko, T. G.

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents a laser monitor with 10 μs time-resolution based on a high-frequency copper bromide vapor brightness amplifier. A sync circuit has been designed for single-pulse imaging. The analysis of amplifying characteristics of the active elements and active optical system (laser monitor) parameters allowed to determine the optimal concentration of HBr at which the images can be obtained with minimum distortions. For the active element operating at high frequencies (more than 50 kHz) as a brightness amplifier, the concentration of HBr must be lower than that needed for obtaining the maximum output power. The limiting brightness temperature of the background radiation which does not affect the image quality is determined. The potential feasibility of using a proposed brightness amplifier for visualizing processes blocked from viewing by the background radiation with the brightness temperature up to 8000 K is demonstrated.

  5. Spectroscopic study one thiosemicarbazone derivative with ctDNA using ethidium bromide as a fluorescence probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shaoguang; Wu, Qing; Shi, Lei; Cui, Fengling

    2013-09-01

    In this study, a thiosemicarbazone derivative (E)-2-((1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone-2-yl)methylene)-N-(4-fluorophenyl)hydrazinecarbothioamide (DAFPT) was synthesized, and the interaction of DAFPT with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) was explored using ethidium bromide (EB) as a fluorescence probe. The binding mode between DAFPT and ctDNA was investigated by UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking. The fluorescence quenching mechanism of EB-ctDNA by DAFPT might be a combined quenching type. Thermodynamic parameters showed that the reaction was spontaneous. According to ionic strength, fluorescence polarization and melting temperature (T(m)) curve results, DAFPT-ctDNA interaction was groove binding. The molecular modeling results indicated that DAFPT could slide into the A-T rich region of ctDNA. PMID:23769721

  6. Lithium bromide absorption machines: Pressure drop and mass transfer in solutions conical sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, E. [Escuela Universitaria de Ingenieria Tecnica Industrial, U.P.M., Ronda de Valencia 3, Madrid 28012 (Spain); Izquierdo, M. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion Eduardo Torroja. C.S.I.C., Serrano Galvache 4, Madrid 28033 (Spain); Lizarte, R. [Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, Madrid 28911 (Spain); Marcos, J.D. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria Industrial, U.N.E.D., Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2009-07-15

    Adiabatic vapour absorption in conical liquid sheets is studied with a view to use in air conditioning. The sheets consist in a lithium bromide aqueous solution sprayed at mass flow rates ranging from 0.0078 to 0.0116 kg/s (28-42 kg/h). The experimental results show that the deformation rate associated with conical sheet development has a significant effect on absorption, with 60% of the total reached by the time the liquid sheet disintegrates, 4 ms after injection. In the conical sheet configuration, about 150 g of vapour are absorbed per kJ of solution flow work. The vapour absorption rate per chamber absorption volume, in turn, is found to be over 1 g/s l in absorption chambers 75 mm long or less. (author)

  7. [Investigation of the oxidation reaction of O3 with bromide ion in aqueous solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Ting; Zhang, Jia-Hui; Pan, Xun-Xi; Zhang, Ren-Xi; Hou, Hui-Qi

    2012-09-01

    The reaction mechanism of O3 with bromide ion in aqueous solution was studied by ion chromatography and UV-Vis spectrometry instruments. Ion chromatography analysis showed that only 10% of Br- which was oxidized by ozone was formed into bromate ion. The results demonstrated that the final products of the oxidation reaction were identified as Br2 and Br3- except for BrO3-. The formation of Br3- which was yielded from the reaction of Br2 with Br- was the major process in the reaction of Br attacked by O3. The characteristic absorption spectrum of Br3- with an absorption peak at 260 nm was also investigated. The results may provide helpful information about the mechanism of the oxidation reaction of Br- with O3 and fate of Br- or its derivatives in the environment by the oxidation processes.

  8. 2-(4-Methylsulfanylphenyl-1H-benzimidazol-3-ium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ziaulla

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the cation of the title compound, C14H13N2S+·Br−, the essentially planar benzimidazole system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0082 Å is substituted with a 4-methylsulfanylphenyl ring. The dihedral angle between the benzimidazole system and the 4-methylsulfanylphenyl ring is 2.133 (2°. The crystal structure is characterized by strong and highly directional intermolecular N—H...Br hydrogen bonds involving the bromide ion. Moreover, C—H...S interactions result in chains of molecules along the c axis. The supramolecular assembly is further stabilized by π–π stacking interactions between the benzimidazole system and 4-methylsulfanylphenyl rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.477 (4 Å].

  9. Solubilization Using Some Novel N-Methyl Diethanolammonium Bromide Cationic Surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel series of N-methyl diethanolammonium bromide cationic surfactants was used as solubilizing agent for nonpolar substrate (paraffin oil) at 25 degree C. The results of solubilization measurements showed good ability for the used surfactants towards solubilizing paraffin oil in aqueous medium. The results showed also, that the chemical structure of the soluble plays an important rule in its solubilization. Several factors were found to influence the extent of solubilization, which are: number of alkyl chains within surfactant molecule, symmetry of molecules and chain length of hydrophobic parts. The results were rationalized by the Kraft point and HLB values of the used surfactants. Furthermore, solubilization curves showed the steady state solubilization of each surfactant used

  10. Improved hydrogen evolution on glassy carbon electrode modified with novel Pt/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide nanoscale aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jahan-Bakhsh Raoof; Sayed Reza Hosseini; Seyedeh Zeinab Mousavi-Sani

    2015-01-01

    A novel, cost‐effective, and simple electrocatalyst based on a Pt‐modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE), using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant, is reported. Am‐phiphilic CTAB molecules were adsorbed on GCE by immersion in a CTAB solution. The positively charged hydrophilic layer, which consisted of small aggregates of average size less than 100 nm, was used for accumulation and complexation of [PtCl6]2− anions by immersing the electrode in K2PtCl6 solution. The modified electrode was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy‐dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy, impedance spectroscopy, and electrochemical methods. The electrocatalytic activity of the Pt particles in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) was investigat‐ed. The results show that the CTAB surfactant enhances the electrocatalytic activity of the Pt parti‐cles in the HER in acidic solution.

  11. Flotation de-silicating from diasporic-bauxite with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毓华; 胡岳华; 刘晓文

    2003-01-01

    Using cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as collector, the flotation de-silicating from diasporicbauxite was investigated. And the Zeta potentials and contact-angles of silicate minerals and diaspore were also stuite and illite become more positive, and the contact angles of these three silicates also increase evidently in the pH range of 2-8, but the Zeta potentials and contact angles of diaspore change little. So, the floatability of the four minerals is in the following order: pyrophyllite>kaolinite≈illite>diaspore. The open-circuit flotation results also show that a bauxite concentrate with m(Al2 O3 )/m(SiO2 ) over 9.3 and Al2 O3 recovery over 76% can be obtained from diasporic-bauxite ore. The result of XRD of the bauxite concentrate shows that pyrophyllite is easier to be removed from diasporic-bauxite than illite and kaolinite due to its better floatability.

  12. Spectroscopic probe of the competitive binding of ethidium bromide and neomycin to DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Medini Kanta; Ghosh, Jimut Kanti

    1995-03-01

    The three spectroscopic changes of ethidium bromide (EB) on its binding to DNA, namely red-shift of the νmax, enhancement of fluorescence and induced dichroism are utilized to study the competitive binding of neomycin (NMC) and EB to DNA. Reversion of νmax, decrease in fluorescence and reduction of dichroism of DNA-EB on addition of NMC shows that the binding of NMC and EB to DNA is competitive in nature, over a limited concentration of the polymer. The binding constant of EB-DNA falls from 4.00 × 10 6 to 2.27 × 10 4 1 mol -1 in the presence of added NMC.

  13. Successful treatment of migrating partial seizures in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome with bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itakura, Ayako; Saito, Yoshiaki; Nishimura, Yoko; Okazaki, Tetsuya; Ohno, Koyo; Sejima, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Maegaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-08-01

    A girl with mild psychomotor developmental delay developed right or left hemiclonic convulsion at 10months of age. One month later, clusters of hemiclonic or bilateral tonic seizures with eyelid twitching emerged, resulting in status epilepticus. Treatment with phenobarbital and potassium bromide completely terminated the seizures within 10days. Ictal electroencephalography revealed a migrating focus of rhythmic 3-4Hz waves from the right temporal to right frontal regions and then to the left frontal regions. Genetic analysis was conducted based on the characteristic facial appearance of the patient, which identified a 2.1-Mb terminal deletion on chromosome 4p. This is the first case of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome complicated by epilepsy with migrating partial seizures. PMID:26797656

  14. The matlockite-type praseodymium(III oxide bromide PrOBr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Talmon-Gros

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the praseodymium(III oxide bromide, PrOBr, can be best described with layers of agglomerated square antiprisms [PrO4Br4]9−. These slabs are stacked along the c axis and linked via two different secondary contacts between Pr3+ and Br−. The Pr3+ cations occupy the Wyckoff site 2c with 4mm symmetry and carry four O2− anions as well as four primary Br− anions, yielding a coordination number of 8. While the Br− anions exhibit the same site symmetry as the Pr3+ cations, the oxide anions are located at the Wyckoff position 2a with site symmetry overline{4}m2 and have four Pr3+ cations as neighbours, defining a tetrahedron.

  15. Bio-conjugated silver nanoparticles: from Ocimum sanctum and role of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Zoya; Rafiuddin

    2013-08-01

    In this paper we have reported the spectrophotometeric and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) data to the shape-directing role of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on the green extra-cellular synthesis of bio-conjugated Ag-nanoparticles using Ocimum sanctum leaves extract. TEM images revealed that the nanoparticles are mostly spherical (average particle size ranged from 18 to 35nm) with some truncated triangular nanoplates, aggregated in a beautiful manner to yield locket-like silver and capped by a thin layer of biomolecules of O. sanctum, whereas nanoparticles are highly poly-dispersed in presence of CTAB. The shape and position of wavelength maxima strongly depends on the reaction time, [leaves extract] and [CTAB]. The visual observations also suggest that the prefect transparent silver sol becomes turbid in presence of CTAB after some time. PMID:23524081

  16. Synthesis and photoluminescence of semiconductor quantum dots/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide vesicle core/shell nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis and photoluminescence properties of the SiC quantum dots (QDs)/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) multilayered vesicle core/shell nanostructures are reported. The Coulomb attraction force between the negatively charged surface of the QD and the positively charged ionized CTAB molecules drives the formation of the core/shell nanostructures. The outer CTAB molecules are demonstrated to form multilayered vesicles. The core/shell nanostructures exhibit strong near-UV photoluminescence which is supposed to stem from the outer CTAB vesicles. This novel semiconductor QD/vesicle core/shell structures can serve as a prototype for studying the QD–organic molecule interaction as well as the building block for constructing nanoscale devices.

  17. Fluorescence studies on the interaction of ethidium bromide with duplex, triplex and quadruplex DNA structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雪光; 曹恩华; 何裕建; 秦静芬

    1999-01-01

    Under different conditions, oligonucleotides can form several alternative DNA structures such as duplex, triplex and quadruplex. All these structures can interact with ethidium bromide (EB) and make its fluorescence intensity change. The fluorescence spectra and other related parameters provided by static fluorescence techniques showed that the interaction mechanisms between EB and these structures were not always the same. Among them, B type duplex and triplex DNA adopt an intercalative mode when binding to the EB, which has a relatively high efficiency of energy transfer and the fluorescence of EB cannot be quenched easily. While for the parallel duplex DNA, the interaction mode is an outside binding in which energy transfer can hardly happen and its fluorescence intensity as well as Stern-Volmer constant is almost the same to the free EB. For the quadruplex, the binding mechanism to EB is more complex. Results from the energy transfer and quenching studies indicate that the two interaction modes note

  18. Suzuki Reaction of Aryl Bromides Using a Phosphine-Free Magnetic Nanoparticle-Supported Palladium Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nghia T. BUI; Trung B. DANG; Ha V. LE; Nam T. S. PHAN

    2011-01-01

    A palladium catalyst immobilized on superparaganetic nanoparticles was prepared with a palladium loading of 0.30 mmol/g.The catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffraction,scanning electron microscopy,transmission electron microscopy,vibrating sample magnetometry,thermogravimetric analysis,Fourier transform infrared,atomic absorption spectrophotometry,and nitrogen adsorption.The immobilized palladium catalyst was an efficient catalyst without added phosphine ligands for the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of several aryl bromides with phenylboronic acid.The recovery of catalyst was simply by magnetic decantation in the presence of a magnet.The immobilized palladium catalyst can be reused many times without significant degradation in catalytic activity.No leaching of active palladium species into the reaction solution was detected.

  19. Tetrabutylammonium Bromide (TBABr-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs and Their Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizana Yusof

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Density, viscosity and ionic conductivity data sets of deep eutectic solvents (DESs formed by tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr paired with ethlyene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,5-pentanediol and glycerol hydrogen bond donors (HBDs are reported. The properties of DES were measured at temperatures between 303 K and 333 K for HBD percentages of 66.7% to 90%. The effects of HBDs under different temperature and percentages are systematically analyzed. As expected, the measured density and viscosity of the studied DESs decreased with an increase in temperature, while ionic conductivity increases with temperature. In general, DESs made of TBABr and glycerol showed the highest density and viscosity and the lowest ionic conductivity when compared to other DESs. The presence of an extra hydroxyl group on glycerol in a DES affected the properties of the DES.

  20. Precipitation of silicic acid from geothermal water by addition of cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitsuki, Harumi; Yokoyama, Takushi; Shimada, Kanichi; Yamanaka, Chiho; Nishu, Keisuke; Shimizu, Shin; Tarutani, Toshikazu

    1986-01-25

    Cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) was added to sodium silicate solution and geothermal hot water (Ohtake Geothermal Power Plant and Hatchobaru Geo-thermal Power Plant) to precipitate silica. 1) CTA ions do not react with monosilicic acid, but only the polymerization among the polysilicic acids proceeds and causes silica to precipitate. Optimum pH for the silica precipitation is 6 - 7 and the higher concentration of polysilicic acid will cause more precipitation. 2) When added to geothermal hot water, the silica precipita-tion increases with the increase of CTAB concentration within the range of 10/sup -7/ - 10/sup -4/ mol dm/sup 3/ concentration. Almost all poly-silicic acid precipitated at 10/sup -4/ mol dm/sup 3/ when measured for silica precipitation after 5 minutes. Total concentration of silicic acid was higher in the Hatchobaru geothermal water than that of the Ohtake geothermal water. (10 figs, 14 refs)

  1. INTERACTION OF POLY(SODIUM SULFODECYL METHACRYLATE) WITH CETYLTRIMETHYL AMMONIUM BROMIDE IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong-hua Lu; Chuan-qiou Luo; Wei-xiao Cao

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of poly(sodium sulfodecyl methacrylate) (PSSM) with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)was studied. It was found that the precipitate formed from PSSM and CTAB will be dissolved by excessive CTAB, resultingin the appearance of two maxima of the solution viscosity at the molar ratio (CTAB/-SO3-) of ≈ 0.68 and ≈ 1.30,respectively. The first one is related closely to the aggregation of polymer chains via CTAB molecules and the second oneshould be ascribed to the formation of the mixed micelles comprising surfactant and the polymer's hydrophobic chains. Theeffect of NaCl on the viscosity, the transmittance of the aqueous solution and the solubility of oil-soluble dye (dimethylyellow) in the mixed system were also investigated.

  2. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of myoglobin in dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide film modified carbon ceramic electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Zhen Zhou; Hui Wang; She Ying Dong; An Xiang Tian; Zhi Xian He; Bin Chen

    2011-01-01

    Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of myoglobin (Mb) were studied with Mb immobilized on dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) film modified carbon ceramic (CC) electrode. Cyclic voltammetry showed a pair of well-defined and nearly reversible redox peaks of Mb (FeⅡ/FeⅢ) at about -0.3 V vs. SCE (pH = 6.98). The currents of the redox peak were linear to scan rate, and rate constant (Ks) was estimated to be 3.03 s-1. The formal potential (E01) of Mb in the DTAB/CC electrodes shifted linearly with pH with a slope of-36.44 mV/pH, implying that the electron transfer between DTAB and CC electrodes is accompanied by proton transportation. The immobilized Mb exhibited excellent electrocatalytic response to the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).

  3. Multimetallic catalysed cross-coupling of aryl bromides with aryl triflates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Laura K. G.; Lovell, Matthew M.; Weix, Daniel J.

    2015-08-01

    The advent of transition-metal catalysed strategies for forming new carbon-carbon bonds has revolutionized the field of organic chemistry, enabling the efficient synthesis of ligands, materials, and biologically active molecules. In cases where a single metal fails to promote a selective or efficient transformation, the synergistic cooperation of two distinct catalysts--multimetallic catalysis--can be used instead. Many important reactions rely on multimetallic catalysis, such as the Wacker oxidation of olefins and the Sonogashira coupling of alkynes with aryl halides, but this approach has largely been limited to the use of metals with distinct reactivities, with only one metal catalyst undergoing oxidative addition. Here, we demonstrate that cooperativity between two group 10 metal catalysts--(bipyridine)nickel and (1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane)palladium--enables a general cross-Ullmann reaction (the cross-coupling of two different aryl electrophiles). Our method couples aryl bromides with aryl triflates directly, eliminating the use of arylmetal reagents and avoiding the challenge of differentiating between multiple carbon-hydrogen bonds that is required for direct arylation methods. Selectivity can be achieved without an excess of either substrate and originates from the orthogonal reactivity of the two catalysts and the relative stability of the two arylmetal intermediates. While (1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane)palladium reacts preferentially with aryl triflates to afford a persistent intermediate, (bipyridine)nickel reacts preferentially with aryl bromides to form a transient, reactive intermediate. Although each catalyst forms less than 5 per cent cross-coupled product in isolation, together they are able to achieve a yield of up to 94 per cent. Our results reveal a new method for the synthesis of biaryls, heteroaryls, and dienes, as well as a general mechanism for the selective transfer of ligands between two metal catalysts. We anticipate that this

  4. Boron-doped diamond anodic oxidation of ethidium bromide: Process optimization by response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Boron-doped diamond was used to degrade ethidium bromide. ► The process was optimized by a central composite rotatable design coupled with response surface methodology. ► Applied current is proved to be the most significant variable. ► A possible reaction sequence involving all the detected byproducts was proposed. - Abstract: The degradation of ethidium bromide (EtBr), a DNA intercalating pollutant, had been studied by anodic oxidation on boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode under galvanostatic conditions. A central composite rotatable design coupled with response surface methodology was implemented to optimize the various operating parameters involved, among initial pH, flow rate, applied current and supporting electrolyte concentration, on the treatment efficiency; the latter was assessed in terms of color removal, COD removal, specific energy consumption and general current efficiency. Of the four parameters involved, applied current had a considerable effect on all the response factors. Optimum EtBr degradation was achieved by applying a current of 0.90 A, 9.0 mM Na2SO4, flow rate of 400 ml min−1 and pH 6.2 at 60 min of electrolysis, being reduced color by 80.2% and COD by 29.7%, with an energy consumption of 398.32 kW h (kg COD)−1 and a general current efficiency of 10.1%. Under these optimized conditions, EtBr decays followed pseudo first-order kinetics. Moreover, HPLC analysis of the BDD-treated solution allowed the detection of a number of reaction intermediates, and a possible reaction sequence involving all the detected byproducts was proposed for the electrochemical oxidation of EtBr on BDD anode.

  5. Carbon nanotubes as an efficient hole collector for high voltage methylammonium lead bromide perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Boix, Pablo P.; Xing, Guichuan; Fu, Kunwu; Kulkarni, Sneha A.; Batabyal, Sudip K.; Xu, Wenjing; Cao, Anyuan; Sum, Tze Chien; Mathews, Nripan; Wong, Lydia Helena

    2016-03-01

    A high open circuit voltage (VOC) close to 1.4 V under AM 1.5, 100 mW cm-2 conditions is achieved when carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are used as a hole conductor in methyl ammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) perovskite solar cells. Time-resolved photoluminescence and impedance spectroscopy investigations suggest that the observed high VOC is a result of the better charge extraction and lower recombination of the CNT hole conductor. Tandem solar cells with all perovskite absorbers are demonstrated with a MAPbBr3/CNT top cell and a MAPbI3 bottom cell, achieving a VOC of 2.24 V in series connection. The semitransparent and high voltage MAPbBr3/CNT solar cells show great potential for applications in solar cell windows, tandem solar cells and solar driven water splitting.A high open circuit voltage (VOC) close to 1.4 V under AM 1.5, 100 mW cm-2 conditions is achieved when carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are used as a hole conductor in methyl ammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) perovskite solar cells. Time-resolved photoluminescence and impedance spectroscopy investigations suggest that the observed high VOC is a result of the better charge extraction and lower recombination of the CNT hole conductor. Tandem solar cells with all perovskite absorbers are demonstrated with a MAPbBr3/CNT top cell and a MAPbI3 bottom cell, achieving a VOC of 2.24 V in series connection. The semitransparent and high voltage MAPbBr3/CNT solar cells show great potential for applications in solar cell windows, tandem solar cells and solar driven water splitting. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06177f

  6. Thallium bromide chloride (TlBrxCl1-x) nuclear radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) has been studied as an X- and gamma-ray detector material and relatively good spectrometric performances have been obtained from the detectors. However, the energy resolution of the TlBr detectors is limited by the relatively low resistivity of the crystals. Thallium bromide chloride (TlBrxCl1-x) is a mixed crystal of TlBr and thallium chloride (TlCl). TlBr0.8Cl0.2 crystals have been grown by the traveling molten zone method (TMZ) from purified materials. Nuclear radiation detectors have been fabricated from the grown TlBr0.8Cl0.2 crystals and the detector performance has been characterized. Optical transmittance was evaluated in order to characterize bandgap of the grown crystal. The results confirm that the bandgap of TlBr0.8Cl0.2 is wider than the bandgap of TlBr. Leakage currents of the detectors were measured as a function of the bias voltage at room temperature. The resistivity of the TlBr0.8Cl0.2 detector is approximately equal to the resistivity of typical TlBr detector. A TlBr0.8Cl0.2 detector operated at room temperature was irradiated with gamma-rays from 137Cs source. The detector exhibited a clear peak corresponding 662 keV gamma-rays. The resolution obtained by the TlBr0.8Cl0.2 detector, however, was presently not better than the resolution obtained by the typical TlBr detector. (M. Suetake)

  7. Ethidium bromide transport across Mycobacterium smegmatis cell-wall: correlation with antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couto Isabel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active efflux systems and reduced cell-wall permeability are considered to be the main causes of mycobacterial intrinsic resistance to many antimicrobials. In this study, we have compared the Mycobacterium smegmatis wild-type strain mc2155 with knockout mutants for porins MspA (the main porin of M. smegmatis and MspC, the efflux pump LfrA (the main efflux pump system of M. smegmatis and its repressor LfrR for their ability to transport ethidium bromide (EtBr on a real-time basis. This information was then correlated with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of several antibiotics in the presence or absence of the efflux inhibitors chlorpromazine, thioridazine and verapamil. Results In the absence of porins MspA and MspC, accumulation of ethidium bromide decreased and the cells became more resistant to several antibiotics, whereas the knockout mutant for the LfrA pump showed increased accumulation of EtBr and increased susceptibility to EtBr, rifampicin, ethambutol and ciprofloxacin. Moreover, the efflux inhibitors caused a reduction of the MICs of streptomycin, rifampicin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin and erythromycin in most of the strains tested. Conclusions The methodology used in this study demonstrated that porin MspA plays an important role in the influx of quaternary ammonium compounds and antibiotics and that efflux via the LfrA pump is involved in low-level resistance to several antimicrobial drugs in M. smegmatis. The results obtained with this non-pathogenic mycobacterium will be used in future studies as a model for the evaluation of the activity of the same efflux inhibitors on the susceptibility of multidrug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to isoniazid and rifampicin.

  8. The aqueous catanionic system sodium perfluorooctanoate-dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide at low concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fontán, José Luis; Blanco, Elena; Ruso, Juan M; Prieto, Gerardo; Schulz, Pablo C; Sarmiento, Félix

    2007-08-15

    The interaction between sodium perfluorooctanoate (SPFO) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) was studied by several methods and it was found strongly synergistic. Above a mole fraction of SPFO in the surfactant mixture (alpha(SPFO))=0.38, the interaction is repulsive and increases with the content of SPFO in both, the overall mixture and micelles, whereas the interaction is attractive if DTAB is in excess. At alpha(SPFO)=0.38 the low miscibility between hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon is counterbalanced by the electrostatic attraction between the opposite charged head groups, and the micelle composition is ideal (i.e., the mole fraction of SPFO in micelles X(SPFO)=alpha(SPFO)=0.38). The solubility of fluorocarbon in hydrocarbon is lower than that of hydrocarbon in fluorocarbon. Micelles of DTAB act as a solvent for SPFO without important structural changes, whilst micelles of SPFO undergo important changes when dissolve DTAB. This asymmetry may be interpreted as caused by the difference in chain length that favors the inclusion of the shorter chain in micelles of the longer surfactant, but disfavors the opposite process. Above X(SPFO)=0.5 there is an excess adsorption of bromide ions on the mixed micelles surface, giving rise to a high zeta potential. Micelles of pure SPFO or pure DTAB show an important energy barrier which prevents micelle flocculation. The inclusion of SPFO in DTAB micelles produces a reduction of the energy barrier, which disappeared when alpha(SPFO)=0.5. This produces the flocculation of micelles giving rise to the formation of a non-birefringent coacervate, which is probably formed by unordered isometric clusters of micelles.

  9. C-N Coupling of nitrogen nucleophiles with aryl and heteroaryl bromides using aminoarenethiolato-copper(I) (pre-)catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperotto, Elena; Klink, Gerard P.M. van; Vries, Johannes G. de; Koten, Gerard van

    2010-01-01

    The activity of a library of 2-aminoarenethiolato-copper(I) (CuSAr) (pre-)catalyst was explored in the arylation reaction of amines and N-containing heterocycles with aryl and heteroaryl bromides, respectively. These CuSAr pre-catalysts are thermally stable, are soluble in common organic solvents an

  10. Protective antiviral immune responses to pseudorabies virus induced by DNA vaccination using dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide as an adjuvant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, van E.M.A.; Glansbeek, H.L.; Hilgers, L.A.T.; Lintelo, te E.G.; Visser, de Y.E.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Haagmans, B.L.; Bianchi, A.T.J.

    2002-01-01

    To enhance the efficacy of a DNA vaccine against pseudorabies virus (PRV), we evaluated the adjuvant properties of plasmids coding for gamma interferon or interleukin-12, of CpG immunostimulatory motifs, and of the conventional adjuvants dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide in water (DDA) and sulfoli

  11. Suzuki coupling reactions catalyzed by poly(N-ethyl-4-vinylpyridinium bromide stabilized palladium nanoparticles in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available InIn this work, it was investigated to use of poly(N-ethyl-4-vinylpyridinium bromide stabilized palladium nanoparticles in the Suzuki reaction between phenylboronic acid and aryl halides in aqueous solution. The nanoparticles were isolated and re-used several times with low loss of activity.

  12. FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF THE FORMATION OF HYDROPHOBIC MICRODOMAINS IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTIONS OF POLY(ALKYLMETHYLDIALLYLAMMONIUM BROMIDES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    YANG, YJ; ENGBERTS, JBFN

    1991-01-01

    The conformational state of poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromides) was studied in aqueous solutions using pyrene as a fluorescence probe. The results are indicative for the formation of hydrophobic microdomains in the case of several copolymers which possess sufficiently hydrophobic alkyl side ch

  13. Grafting, metham sodium, soil solarization and virtually impermeable films as alternative technologies to methyl bromide for Chinese protected tomatoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Xuemei; Cao Zhiping; Chen Yunfeng; Chen Guokang; Andrea Camponogara; Yang Hang; Maria Lodovica Gullino

    2009-01-01

    In the frame of the Sino-ltalian Cooperation Program for Environmental Protection,jointly launched in the year 2000 by the Italian Ministry for Environment and Territory and Sea (IMETS) and the China State Environ nental Protection Administration (SEPA),experimental trials were carried out in Qingzhou city (Shandong Prov ince,China) during 2001-2003 to test several methyl bromide alternative methods to control soilborne diseases in greenhouse tomatoes.Grafting tomatoes on resistant rootstock (Lycopersicon lycopersicum×L.hirsutum),metham sodium applied under traditional polyethylene ptastic films,metham sodium applied at low rate under virtually im permeable films and soil solarization combined with biocontrol agents were the alternatives tested and compared to methyl bromide applied under virtually impermeable plastic films too.Collected data show that resistant rootstock (Lycopersicon lycopersicum × L.hirsutum) introduced from Italy is a promising alternative to methyl bromide for to cal tomato cultivars.Metham sodium applied under traditional polyethylene plastic films is an effective alternative Moreover,virtually impermeable.films demonstrate the help to reduce methyl bromide and metham sodium rates.Finally,soil solarization combined with biocontrol agents does not provide satisfactory resuhs in terms of disease control.

  14. High—Speed Analyzing PCR Products of M.tuberculosis Genome Stained by Ethidium Bromide on Microchip Gel Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金庆辉; 陈继锋; 等

    2002-01-01

    The technique of microchip gel electrophoresis(MCGE) was used to analyze the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of M.tuberculosis Genome stained by ethidium bromide,The electrophoretic Process was completed within 3-4 min and the results show that the technique of microchip electrophoresis is a high-speed and high-sensitivity analyzing method.

  15. Impact of Long-Term Tiotropium Bromide Therapy on Annual Lung Function Decline in Adult Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Brandt

    Full Text Available Chronic lung disease is the leading cause of death in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF and is often treated with bronchodilators. It is not known whether long-term tiotropium bromide treatment may have a positive impact on lung function.This retrospective cohort study estimated annual lung function decline utilizing longitudinal data for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.A total of 160 adult patients with CF were analyzed. The subjects treated for 24 months with tiotropium bromide had a significantly slower decline of mean annual change of FEV1 (treated: -0.3±4.0%; control: -2.3±5.0%; p = 0.0130. In patients with FEV1 ≥70% predicted, long-term tiotropium bromide treatment was associated with greater improvements in annual lung function decline (FEV1 ≥70% predicted: treated: +0.5±4.7%; control: -4.0±6.3%; p = 0.0132; FEV1 50-69% predicted: treated: -0.5±4.4%; control: -0.8±3.8%; p = 0.7142; FEV1 ≤49% predicted: treated: -0.6±3.4%; control: -2.4±4.8%; p = 0.0898.This study suggests that long-term tiotropium bromide treatment may be associated with reduced annual decline of FEV1 in patients with CF, particularly in adults with a mild degree of severity.

  16. Formation of halogenated organic byproducts during medium-pressure UV and chlorine coexposure of model compounds, NOM and bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Quan; Shang, Chii; Zhang, Xiangru; Ding, Guoyu; Yang, Xin

    2011-12-01

    When chlorine is applied before or during UV disinfection of bromide-containing water, interactions between chlorine, bromide and UV light are inevitable. Formation of halogenated organic byproducts was studied during medium-pressure UV (MPUV) and chlorine coexposure of phenol, nitrobenzene and benzoic acid and maleic acid, chosen to represent electron-donating aromatics, electron-withdrawing aromatics, and aliphatic structures in natural organic matter (NOM), respectively. All were evaluated in the presence and absence of bromide. MPUV and chlorine coexposure of phenol produced less total organic halogen (TOX, a collective parameter for halogenated organic byproducts) than chlorination in the dark, and more haloacetic acids instead of halophenols. Increases in TOX were found in the coexposure of nitrobenzene and benzoic acid, but maleic acid was rather inert during coexposure. The presence of bromide increased the formation of brominated TOX but did not significantly affect total TOX formation, in spite of the fact that it reduced hydroxyl radical levels. MPUV and chlorine coexposure of NOM gave a higher differential UV absorbance of NOM and a larger shift to lower molecular weight compounds than chlorination in the dark. However, TOX formation with NOM remained similar to that observed from dark chlorination.

  17. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr body-burden in general public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.pl [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Edward B. [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Department of Physical Therapy Basics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Administration College, Bielsko-Biala (Poland); Tomankiewicz, Ewa [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Joanna [Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Nowak, Sebastian [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Szczygiel, Elzbieta [Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Brudecki, Kamil [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of {sup 238}Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. - Highlights: > Surgery for joint replacement as novel sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination. > Proposed way of sampling is not causing ethic doubts. > It is a convenient way of collecting human bone samples from global population. > The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. > The opposite patient age correlations trends were found for 90Sr (negative) and Pu, Am (positive).

  18. The recycling of the actinides neptunium, americium and curium in a fast power reactor to reduce the long term activity in a final store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The starting point for the considerations and calculations given in this dissertation is the inevitable production of radioactive materials in the use of nuclear energy, which creates a considerable potential danger in a final store for a very long period. As one possibility of alleviating this problem, a concept for recycling the waste actinides neptunium, americium and curium was proposed. The waste actinides are separated in the reprocessing of burnt-up fuel elements and reach a further irradiation circuit. There they pass through the stages 'manufacture of irradiation elements', 'use in a fast power reactor' and reprocessing of irradiation elements' several times. In each irradiation and subsequent storage, about 17% of the waste actinides are removed by fission or by conversion into nuclides which can be reused as fuel, so that during the life of 40 years of the fast recycling reacor, the waste actinides can be reduced in mass by one half. In order to determine this mass reduction effect, a model calculation was developed, which includes the representation of the neutron physics and thermal properties of the reactor core and the storage and reprocessing of the irradiation elements. (orig./RB)

  19. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and 90Sr body-burden in general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 238Pu, 241Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of 238Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and 90Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. - Highlights: → Surgery for joint replacement as novel sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination. → Proposed way of sampling is not causing ethic doubts. → It is a convenient way of collecting human bone samples from global population. → The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. → The opposite patient age correlations trends were found for 90Sr (negative) and Pu, Am (positive).

  20. The estimation of reactions of hematopoietic systems of organisms to the effect, caused by americium and plutonium, of nuclear industry workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasteva, G. N.; Ivanova, T. A.; Gordeeva, A. A.; Suvorova, L. A.; Molokanov, A. A.; Badine, I.

    2004-07-01

    Object of research are the workers having in an organism radioactive substance (Am-241 and Pu-239). The purpose of work was the estimation of reaction hemopoietic systems of an organism on influence of americium and plutonium at workers of the nuclear industry. At the surveyed contingent of persons the determined effects caused by total influence Am-241 and Pu-239 are ascertained; chronic radiation disease with development, besides diffusive a pneumoscleoris and a chronic toxic-chemical radiating bronchitis, reactions of system of blood, jet hepatopathy which frequency accrued with increase doses loadings and essentially did not depend on age. In peripheral blood on the foreground jet changes act: hyperglobulia, the tendency to neutrophilus leukocytosis, monocytosis, increase ESR, decrease (reduction ?/G of factor reflecting weight and processing of defeat bronchus and pulmonary of system. Stable downstroke in number thrombocytes and reticulocytes in peripheral blood, their direct dependence on a doze of an irradiation, reflect hypoplastic a background hemogenesis, caused by long influence incorporatedin a bone and a bone brain of radioactive substances. At cytologic research punctate a bone brain jet changes which are expressed in increase of functional activity erythro-and myelopoiesiscome to light and provide compensatory reaction of peripheral blood. At histologic research of a bone brain and a bone fabric attributes of development atrophic process which is expressed in reduction of volume parenchyma a bone brain (a fatty atrophy) and dysplasia to a bone fabric are observed.

  1. Impact of bromide on halogen incorporation into organic moieties in chlorinated drinking water treatment and distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J; Allard, S; Gruchlik, Y; McDonald, S; Joll, C A; Heitz, A

    2016-01-15

    The impact of elevated bromide concentrations (399 to 750 μg/L) on the formation of halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs), namely trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, and adsorbable organic halogen (AOX), in two drinking water systems was investigated. Bromine was the main halogen incorporated into all of the DBP classes and into organic carbon, even though chlorine was present in large excess to maintain a disinfectant residual. Due to the higher reactivity of bromine compared to chlorine, brominated DBPs were rapidly formed, followed by a slower increase in chlorinated DBPs. Higher bromine substitution and incorporation factors for individual DBP classes were observed for the chlorinated water from the groundwater source (lower concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC)), which contained a higher concentration of bromide, than for the surface water source (higher DOC). The molar distribution of adsorbable organic bromine to chlorine (AOBr/AOCl) for AOX in the groundwater distribution system was 1.5:1 and almost 1:1 for the surface water system. The measured (regulated) DBPs only accounted for 16 to 33% of the total organic halogen, demonstrating that AOX measurements are essential to provide a full understanding of the formation of halogenated DBPs in drinking waters. In addition, the study demonstrated that a significant proportion (up to 94%) of the bromide in source waters can be converted AOBr. An evaluation of AOBr and AOCl through a second groundwater treatment plant that uses conventional treatment processes for DOC removal produced 70% of AOX as AOBr, with 69% of the initial source water bromide converted to AOBr. Exposure to organobromine compounds is suspected to result in greater adverse health consequences than their chlorinated analogues. Therefore, this study highlights the need for improved methods to selectively reduce the bromide content in source waters.

  2. Transport of Alachlor, Atrazine, Dicamba, and Bromide through Silt and Loam Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The herbicides alachlor, atrazine, and dicamba, as well as bromide were applied to soils overlying the High Plains aquifer in Nebraska, to both macropore and non-macropore sites. Three of 6 study areas (exhibiting a high percentage of macropores) were used for analysis of chemical transport. Twelve intact soil cores (30 cm diameter; 40 cm height), were excavated (two each from 0-40 cm and 40-80 cm depths). The first three study areas and soil cores were used to study preferential flow characteristics using dye staining and to determine hydraulic properties; the remaining cores were treated the same as field macropore sites. Two undisturbed experimental field plots, each with a 1 m2 surface area, were established in each of the three macropore study areas. Each preferential plot was instrumented with suction lysimeters, tensiometers, and neutron access tubes - 10 cm increments to 80 cm - and planted in corn. Three study areas that did not exhibit macropores had alachlor, atrazine, and dicamba and bromide disked into the top 15 cm of soil; concentrations were tracked for 120 days - samples were collected on a grid, distributed within 3 plots measuring 50 m x 50 m each. Core samples were collected prior to and immediately after application, and then at 30, 60, and 120 days after application. Each lab core sample was in 15-cm lengths from 0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 45-60 cm, and 75-90 cm. For areas exhibiting macropores, herbicides had begun to move between 10-15 days after application with concentrations peaking at various depths after heavy rainfall events. Field lysimeter samples showed increases in concentrations of herbicides at depths where laboratory data indicated greater percentages of preferential flowpaths. Concentrations of atrazine, alachlor and dicamba exceeding 0.30, 0.30, and 0.05 μg m1-1 respectively were observed with depth (10-30 cm and 50-70 cm) after two months following heavy rainfall events indicating that preferential flowpaths were a significant

  3. HYOSCINE BUTYL BROMIDE VERSUS DROTAVERINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN ACTIVE STAGE OF LABOUR-A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RATE OF CERVICAL DILATATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha Pepsi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was conducted to compare the rate of cervical dilatation with hyoscine butyl bromide and drotaverine hydrochloride in active stage of labour. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY: This prospective study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Inclusion Criteria: 1. All women with initial cervical dilatation of 3 cms. 2. When there is a slow rate of cervical dilatation of less than 1.5 cms per hour or decent of less than 1 cm per hour for nulliparous and if dilatation was less than 2cms per hour for a multigravida. 3. And all singleton and cephalic pregnancies were included in this study. Exclusion Criteria included complications like Antepartum haemorrhage, Breech, C.P.D. In this study 400 women were allocated into two groups to receive either Hyoscine butyl bromide or Drotaverine hydrochloride. Two hours after admission in the active stage of labour, progress of labour was reassessed. If the progress of labour was satisfactory, then the wait and watch policy was adopted. If there was no progress they were administered one of the two drugs. 200 patients were administered 10mg of hyoscine butyl bromide suppositories rectally, (GROUP-1 AND THE OTHER 200 WITH 40mg of drotaverine hydrochloride intravenously (GROUP-2. The progress of labour was monitored by the partogram. Not more than 3 doses of hyoscine butyl bromide were administered. RESULTS: The rate of cervical dilatation was 2 cms per hour in group 1 (Hyoscine butyl bromide as compared to 1cm per hour in group 2 (Drotaverine hydrochloride. The difference in rate of cervical dilatation in both the groups was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: There was significant improvement in the rate of cervical dilatation with Hyoscine butyl bromide group of patients. There was a significant reduction in the duration of active stage of labour, and there was no significant second and third stage complication when these drugs were used. No untoward side effects were noted when

  4. The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelaer, Jens

    2010-06-14

    The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium: Nuclear masses are an important quantity to study nuclear structure since they reflect the sum of all nucleonic interactions. Many experimental possibilities exist to precisely measure masses, out of which the Penning trap is the tool to reach the highest precision. Moreover, absolute mass measurements can be performed using carbon, the atomic-mass standard, as a reference. The new double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has been installed and commissioned within this thesis work, which is the very first experimental setup of this kind located at a nuclear reactor. New technical developments have been carried out such as a reliable non-resonant laser ablation ion source for the production of carbon cluster ions and are still continued, like a non-destructive ion detection technique for single-ion measurements. Neutron-rich fission products will be available by the reactor that are important for nuclear astrophysics, especially the r-process. Prior to the on-line coupling to the reactor, TRIGA-TRAP already performed off-line mass measurements on stable and long-lived isotopes and will continue this program. The main focus within this thesis was on certain rare-earth nuclides in the well-established region of deformation around N {proportional_to} 90. Another field of interest are mass measurements on actinoids to test mass models and to provide direct links to the mass standard. Within this thesis, the mass of {sup 241}Am could be measured directly for the first time. (orig.)

  5. Bromate ion formation in dark chlorination and ultraviolet/chlorination processes for bromide-containing water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Bormate (BrO3-) is a carcinogenic chemical produced in ozonation or chlorination of bromide-containing water. Although its formation in seawater with or without sunlight has been previously investigated, the formation of bromate in dilute solutions,particularly raw water for water treatment plant, is unknown. In this article, the results of bench scale tests to measure the formation rates of bromate formation in dilute solutions, including de-ionized water and raw water from Yangtze River, were presented in dark chlorination and ultraviolet (UV)/chlorination processes. And the effects of initial pH, initial concentration of NaOCl, and UV light intensity on bromate formation in UV/chlorination of the diluted solutions were investigated. Detectable bromate was formed in dark chlorination of the two water samples with a relatively slow production rate. Under routine disinfecting conditions, the amount of formed bromate is not likely to exceed the national standards (10 μg/L). UV irradiation enhanced the decay of free chlorine, and,simultaneously, 6.6%-32% of Br- was oxidized to BrO3-. And the formation of bromate exhibited three stages: rapid stage, slow stage and plateau. Under the experimental conditions (pH = 4.41-11.07, CCl2= 1.23-4.50 mg/L), low pH and high chlorine concentration favored the generation of bromate. High light intensity promoted the production rate of bromate, but decreased its total generation amount due to acceleration of chlorine decomposition.

  6. Ozone Therapy in Ethidium Bromide-Induced Demyelination in Rats: Possible Protective Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Neveen A; Assaf, Naglaa; Ismail, Manal F; Khadrawy, Yasser A; Samy, Mohga

    2016-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, is characterized by excessive demyelination. The study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of ozone (O3) therapy in ethidium bromide (EB)-induced demyelination in rats either alone or in combination with corticosteroids in order to decrease the dose of steroid therapy. Rats were divided into Group (1) normal control rats received saline, Group (2) Sham-operated rats received saline, Group (3) Sham-operated rats received vehicle (oxygen), Group (4) EB-treated rats received EB, Group (5) EB-treated rats received O3, Group (6) EB-treated rats received methylprednisolone (MP), and Group (7) EB-treated rats received half the dose of MP concomitant with O3. EB-treated rats showed a significant increase in the number of footfalls in the grid walk test, decreased brain GSH, and paraoxonase-1 enzyme activity, whereas brain MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β, INF-γ, Cox-2 immunoreactivity, and p53 protein levels were increased. A significant decline in brain serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and MBP immunoreactivity was also reported. Significant improvement of the above-mentioned parameters was demonstrated with the administration of either MP or O3, whereas best amelioration was achieved by combining half the dose of MP with ozone. PMID:26467344

  7. Photocontrol of Voltage-Gated Ion Channel Activity by Azobenzene Trimethylammonium Bromide in Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheyda R Frolova

    Full Text Available The ability of azobenzene trimethylammonium bromide (azoTAB to sensitize cardiac tissue excitability to light was recently reported. The dark, thermally relaxed trans- isomer of azoTAB suppressed spontaneous activity and excitation propagation speed, whereas the cis- isomer had no detectable effect on the electrical properties of cardiomyocyte monolayers. As the membrane potential of cardiac cells is mainly controlled by activity of voltage-gated ion channels, this study examined whether the sensitization effect of azoTAB was exerted primarily via the modulation of voltage-gated ion channel activity. The effects of trans- and cis- isomers of azoTAB on voltage-dependent sodium (INav, calcium (ICav, and potassium (IKv currents in isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The experiments showed that azoTAB modulated ion currents, causing suppression of sodium (Na+ and calcium (Ca2+ currents and potentiation of net potassium (K+ currents. This finding confirms that azoTAB-effect on cardiac tissue excitability do indeed result from modulation of voltage-gated ion channels responsible for action potential.

  8. Pourbaix diagrams for titanium in concentrated aqueous lithium bromide solutions at 25 oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → The titanium solubility range increases slightly with increasing Br- activity. → The passivation area decreases slightly with increasing Br- activity. → Immunity area increases slightly with increasing Br- activity. → The titanium immunity disappears in the presence of titanium hydrides. → TiH2 is the stable species at low potentials in the presence of titanium hydrides. - Abstract: Pourbaix diagrams (electrode potential-pH diagrams) for Ti-Br--H2O system at 25 oC in the absence and presence of titanium hydrides were developed in 400, 700, 850, and 992 g/L LiBr solutions. The diagrams were compared with the simple Ti-H2O system at 25 oC. Comparison of the simple Ti-H2O system with the diagrams of the Ti-Br--H2O system at 25 oC showed that the titanium solubility range in the acid, neutral, and weak alkaline areas of the diagrams extended slightly to both higher pH values and potentials with increasing bromide ion activity and decreasing water activity.

  9. Influence of Low Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide Concentration on the Interactions and Properties of Hemoglobin with Acyclovir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tian-Qing; GUO Rong

    2006-01-01

    The effects of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on the properties of hemoglobin (Hb) at low CTAB concentration were studied in Hb/acyclovir/CTAB system by the methods of UV-Vis spectrum, fluorescence, zeta potential, conductivity and negative-staining transmission electron microscope (TEM). With the increase of CTAB concentration, the UV peak intensity at 276 nm, the intrinsic fluorescence, the zeta potential of Hb and the system conductivity were all enhanced. Hb was easily oxidized to oxyHb and hemichrome. In Hb/acyclovir/CTAB system,CTAB made the UV-Vis spectrum, fluorescence, conductivity and conformation of Hb tend to be returned to those of the original Hb but the zeta potential not to do so. The UV absorption peak of Hb-acyclovir complex disappeared,and the tight structure of Hb aroused by acyclovir was refolded. When CTAB concentration was higher than 5 ×10-5 mol/L, the two absorption peaks at 536 and 576 nm appeared again, and the Hb structure became looser again.

  10. Room temperature X- and gamma-ray detectors using thallium bromide crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Hitomi, K; Shoji, T; Suehiro, T; Hiratate, Y

    1999-01-01

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a compound semiconductor with wide band gap (2.68 eV) and high X- and gamma-ray stopping power. The TlBr crystals were grown by the horizontal travelling molten zone (TMZ) method using purified material. Two types of room temperature X- and gamma-ray detectors were fabricated from the TlBr crystals: TlBr detectors with high detection efficiency for positron annihilation gamma-ray (511 keV) detection and TlBr detectors with high-energy resolution for low-energy X-ray detection. The detector of the former type demonstrated energy resolution of 56 keV FWHM (11%) for 511 keV gamma-rays. Energy resolution of 1.81 keV FWHM for 5.9 keV was obtained from the detector of the latter type. In order to analyze noise characteristics of the detector-preamplifier assembly, the equivalent noise charge (ENC) was measured as a function of the amplifier shaping time for the high-resolution detector. This analysis shows that parallel white noise and 1/f noise were dominant noise sources in the detector...

  11. Effects of Cholinergic Stimulation with Pyridostigmine Bromide on Chronic Chagasic Cardiomyopathic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Beatriz de Cuba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of an anticholinesterase agent, pyridostigmine bromide (Pyrido, on experimental chronic Chagas heart disease in mice. To this end, male C57BL/6J mice noninfected (control:Con or chronically infected (5 months with Trypanosoma cruzi (chagasic:Chg were treated or not (NT with Pyrido for one month. At the end of this period, electrocardiogram (ECG; cardiac autonomic function; heart histopathology; serum cytokines; and the presence of blood and tissue parasites by means of immunohistochemistry and PCR were assessed. In NT-Chg mice, significant changes in the electrocardiographic, autonomic, and cardiac histopathological profiles were observed confirming a chronic inflammatory response. Treatment with Pyrido in Chagasic mice caused a significant reduction of myocardial inflammatory infiltration, fibrosis, and hypertrophy, which was accompanied by a decrease in serum levels of IFNγ with no change in IL-10 levels, suggesting a shift of immune response toward an anti-inflammatory profile. Lower nondifferent numbers of parasite DNA copies were observed in both treated and nontreated chagasic mice. In conclusion, our findings confirm the marked neuroimmunomodulatory role played by the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system in the evolution of the inflammatory-immune response to T. cruzi during experimental chronic Chagas heart disease in mice.

  12. The DNA intercalators ethidium bromide and propidium iodide also bind to core histones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Banerjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic DNA is compacted in the form of chromatin, in a complex with histones and other non-histone proteins. The intimate association of DNA and histones in chromatin raises the possibility that DNA-interactive small molecules may bind to chromatin-associated proteins such as histones. Employing biophysical and biochemical techniques we have characterized the interaction of a classical intercalator, ethidium bromide (EB and its structural analogue propidium iodide (PI with hierarchical genomic components: long chromatin, chromatosome, core octamer and chromosomal DNA. Our studies show that EB and PI affect both chromatin structure and function, inducing chromatin compaction and disruption of the integrity of the chromatosome. Calorimetric studies and fluorescence measurements of the ligands demonstrated and characterized the association of these ligands with core histones and the intact octamer in absence of DNA. The ligands affect acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 and acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 5 and lysine 8 ex vivo. PI alters the post-translational modifications to a greater extent than EB. This is the first report showing the dual binding (chromosomal DNA and core histones property of a classical intercalator, EB, and its longer analogue, PI, in the context of chromatin.

  13. Synthesis of zeolitic materials from volcanic ash in presence and absence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeolitic materials as Na-phillipsite, Na-K-phillipsite-like zeolites and the mixtures of zeolites (phillipsite+analcime and phillipsite+chabazite+analcime) were synthesized from volcanic ash, either in presence and absence of cetiltrimetilamonium bromide (CTAB). The ash sample used in the laboratory experiments contains 75.36% SiO2 and 14.11% Al2O3, abundances. The reaction time as well as the influence of CTAB were studied in the zeolitic materials crystallization. The experiments were carried out under hydrothermal conditions, autogenic pressure and temperature of 150 grades C, as well as reaction time from 8 to 116 h. Products from this hydrothermal treatment were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and characterized by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (Sem-EDS). Of the zeolitic materials obtained the Na-K-phillipsite-like zeolite was found to be the most effective for the retention of cations Pb2+, Zn2+ and Ba2+. (Author)

  14. Shape-directing role of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide on the morphology of extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaeel Ahmed Al-Thabaiti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oriental plane leaf extracts were used as a reducing-, stabilizing- and capping-agent for the preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs for the first time. The size, shape, size distribution and optical properties strongly depend on the experimental conditions, absence, and presence of shape-directing cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB. UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and selected electron diffraction ring patterns were used to determine the morphology of resulting AgNPs at different time intervals. The spectra showed a surface Plasmon resonance (SPR peak at 450 nm which is the characteristic of spherical AgNPs (diameter ranging from 10 to 30 nm. The peak shifted to shorter wavelength (blue shift from 450 to 425 nm and sharpness of the peak also decreases in the presence of CTAB which might be due to the capping action of CTAB. A layer of ca. 3 nm around a group of the AgNPs in which the inner layer is bound to the AgNPs surface via the active groups of the extract has been observed.

  15. Interactions of cellulose-based comb polyelectrolyte with oppositely charged surfactant dodecyl-trimethylammonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hong; Chen, Pei-Yao; Liu, Hai-Xue; Chen, Yu; Wei, Yu-Ping; Zhang, Ming-Jie; Cheng, Fa

    2012-07-01

    A comb ethyl cellulose-g-sodium polyacrylate (EC-g-SPA) was synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization. The amphiphilic properties of the EC-g-SPA were determined by surface tension measurements. The interactions between EC-g-SPA and the cationic surfactant dodecyl-trimethylammonium bromide (C12TAB) were investigated by surface tension, turbidity, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results revealed that the critical aggregate concentration (CAC) of the complexes was 0.8mM. When the C12TAB concentration was lower than the CAC, the hydrodynamic diameter (Dh) of the complexes decreased as the surfactant concentration was increased. As the C12TAB concentration was increased above the CAC, the Dh initially increased slightly, followed by a sharp decrease. The changes in the sizes and shapes of the aggregates were studied by TEM. The interactions between two species and the structure of the EC-g-SPA/C12TAB complexes were also discussed. PMID:24750878

  16. Computational study of dissociative electron attachment to π-allyl ruthenium (II) tricarbonyl bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorman, Rachel M.; Bjornsson, Ragnar; Ingólfsson, Oddur

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the current interest in low energy electron induced fragmentation of organometallic complexes in focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) we have evaluated different theoretical protocols for the calculation of thermochemical threshold energies for DEA to the organometallic complex π-allyl ruthenium (II) tricarbonyl bromide. Several different computational methods including density functional theory (DFT), hybrid-DFT and coupled cluster were evaluated for their ability to predict these threshold energies and compared with the respective experimental values. Density functional theory and hybrid DFT methods were surprisingly found to have poor reliability in the modelling of several DEA reactions; however, the coupled cluster method LPNO-pCCSD/2a was found to produce much more accurate results. Using the local correlation pair natural orbital (LPNO) methodology, high level coupled cluster calculations for open-shell systems of this size are now affordable, paving the way for reliable theoretical DEA predictions of such compounds. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.

  17. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs.

  18. Denaturation and intermediates study of two sturgeon hemoglobins by n-dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariaeenejad, Shohreh; Habibi-Rezaei, Mehran; Kavousi, Kaveh; Jamili, Shahla; Fatemi, Mohammad Reza; Hong, Jun; Poursasan, Najmeh; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali. A.

    2013-01-01

    Varieties of hemoglobin (Hb) forms exist in fish, which are usually well adapted to the different ecological conditions or various habitats. In the current study, Hbs from two Sturgeon species of the Southern Caspian Sea Basin were purified and studied upon interaction with n-dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB; as a cationic surfactant) by various methods including UV-visible absorption, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and ANS fluorescence spectrophotometry. The chemometric analysis of Hbs was investigated upon interaction with DTAB under titration, using UV-visible absorption spectra. The chemometric resolution techniques were used to determine the number of the components and mole fraction of the oxidized Hbs. These results provided the evidence for the existence of three different molecular components including native (N), intermediate (I) and denatured (D) in sturgeon Hbs. According to the distribution of intermediates, which were broadened in a range of DTAB concentration, the aggregation states, DLS experiments, and thermal stability (Tm obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)), the Acipenser stellatus Hb was more stable compared to Acipenser persicus Hb. These results demonstrate a significant relationship between the stability of fish Hbs and the habitat depth requirements. PMID:23142155

  19. The sorption behavior of DDT onto sediment in the presence of surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The sorption behavior of a complex system consists of DDT and CTAB onto marine sediment was studied. → Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the kinetics and thermodynamics. → The presence of CTAB could remarkably accelerate and enhance the sorption of DDT. → The sorption of DDT had relatively more negative ΔG0 and ΔH0 in the presence of CTAB. - Abstract: The sorption behavior of p,p'- and o,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in the presence of a cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on sediment was studied. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the kinetics and thermodynamics of the process. The kinetic behavior of these three chemicals on sediment was described by pseudo-second-order kinetic equations, and the isotherms followed the Freundlich model well. The presence of CTAB was able to remarkably accelerate and enhance the sorption of DDT, whereas DDT showed no effect on the sorption of CTAB in our considered concentration ranges. The thermodynamic parameters, such as standard enthalpy change (ΔH0), standard entropy change (ΔS0) and standard Gibbs free energy change (ΔG0) showed that the sorption process of p,p'- and o,p'-DDT was physical, spontaneous and exothermic, and the randomness at the solid-liquid interface increased during the process. In the presence of CTAB, the sorption of DDT showed significantly negative ΔG0 and ΔH0 values.

  20. Electrodeposition of Nanocrystalline Chromium Coatings Based on 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium-Bromide Ionic Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinkuai; Zhu, Qingyun; Hou, Bailong; Cai, Youxing; Li, Chen; Fu, Liqin; Wu, Luye

    2015-12-01

    The electrochemical behavior of trivalent chromium reduction from 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-bromide ([BMIM]Br) ionic liquid is studied. The result of cyclic voltammetry shows that the Cr(III) reduction is irreversible and occurs in two steps, Cr(III)to Cr(II), and Cr(II) to Cr(0), respectively. In the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, the preferable equivalent circuit is made to fit the experimental data. The effects of electroplating parameters on coating thickness and electrodepositon rate are investigated by potentiostatic method on Cu electrode from Cr(III)-[BMIM]Br solution. The results show that the temperature and depositing potential have great effect on the coating thickness and electrodeposition rate. The surface morphology and composition of deposited Cr are investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). SEM analysis shows that chromium electrodeposits obtained on Cu electrodes present a ball-like structure. EDS analysis shows that the coatings are composed of Cr. Moreover, the corrosion resistance of the as-deposited chromium layer is evaluated using polarization curves. The results show that the corrosion resistance of the chromium coatings obtained at higher potential is better. PMID:26682363

  1. Binding of dyes to hydroxyapatite treated with cetylpyridinium chloride or cetrimonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J E

    1978-03-01

    The effect of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and cetrimonium bromide (CTAB) on the adsorption of some acidic food dyes to hydroxyapatite was studied. The dyes investigated were brilliant blue (FD&C Blue No. 1), tartrazine (FD&C Yellow No. 5), sunset yellow (FD&C Yellow No. 6) and amaranth (FD&C Red No. 2). The apatite had adsorbed 9.2 mumol CPC per g dry weight. The adsorbed CPC was in equilibrium with a free concentration of 20 microgram/ml (58 micrometer). The adsorption of CPC and CTAB to the apatite was followed by an increased ability of the crystals to bind the dyes. The dyes were very firmly adsorbed and were not released during a series of washings. Untreated apatite showed only a minor affinity for the dyes. The adsorbed dyes were easily washed out. CPC and CTAB showed the smae specific ability to increase the binding capacity of the apatite. The results are discussed and related to the formation of stains on the teeth in persons using quaternary ammonium compounds for mouthrinsing. A mechanism explaining the production of stains is proposed.

  2. Dehalogenative Homocoupling of Terminal Alkynyl Bromides on Au(111): Incorporation of Acetylenic Scaffolding into Surface Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Cai, Liangliang; Ma, Honghong; Yuan, Chunxue; Xu, Wei

    2016-07-26

    On-surface C-C coupling reactions of molecular precursors with alkynyl functional groups demonstrate great potential for the controllable fabrication of low-dimensional carbon nanostructures/nanomaterials, such as carbyne, graphyne, and graphdiyne, which demand the incorporation of highly active sp-hybridized carbons. Recently, through a dehydrogenative homocoupling reaction of alkynes, the possibility was presented to fabricate surface nanostructures involving acetylenic linkages, while problems lie in the fact that different byproducts are inevitably formed when triggering the reactions at elevated temperatures. In this work, by delicately designing the molecular precursors with terminal alkynyl bromide, we introduce the dehalogenative homocoupling reactions on the surface. As a result, we successfully achieve the formation of dimer structures, one-dimensional molecular wires and two-dimensional molecular networks with acetylenic scaffoldings on an inert Au(111) surface, where the unexpected C-Au-C organometallic intermediates are also observed. This study further supplements the database of on-surface dehalogenative C-C coupling reactions, and more importantly, it provides us an alternative efficient way for incorporating the acetylenic scaffolding into low-dimensional surface nanostructures. PMID:27326451

  3. Spectroscopic study of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide Pt-C14TAB nanoparticles: Structure and Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borodko, Y.; Jones, L.; Frei, H.; Somorjai, G.

    2009-01-09

    The vibrational spectra of platinum nanoparticles (12 nm) capped with tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, C{sub 14}TAB, were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We have shown that the thermal decay of Pt-C{sub 14}TAB nanoparticles in N{sub 2}, H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} atmospheres leads to the release of hydrocarbon chain of surfactant and the formation of strongly bonded layer of ammonium cations on the platinum surface. The platinum atoms accessible to CO chemisorptions were not reducible by hydrogen in the temperature ranging from 30 C to 200 C. A FTIR spectrum of C{sub 14}TAB adsorbed on Pt nanoparticles dramatically perturbed as compared with pure C{sub 14}TAB. New intense and broad bands centered at 1450 cm{sup -1} and 760 cm{sup -1} are making their appearance in Pt-C{sub 14}TAB. It may be speculated, that new bands are result of coupling between conducting electrons of Pt and molecular vibrations of adsorbed C{sub 14}TAB and as a consequence specific vibrational modes of ammonium cation transformed into electron-vibrational modes.

  4. Methyl chloride and methyl bromide emissions from baking: an unrecognized anthropogenic source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Brett F; Horst, Axel; Carrizo, Daniel; Holmstrand, Henry

    2016-05-01

    Methyl chloride and methyl bromide (CH3Cl and CH3Br) are the largest natural sources of chlorine and bromine, respectively, to the stratosphere, where they contribute to ozone depletion. We report the anthropogenic production of CH3Cl and CH3Br during breadbaking, and suggest this production is an abiotic process involving the methyl ester functional groups in pectin and lignin structural polymers of plant cells. Wide variations in baking styles allow only rough estimates of this flux of methyl halides on a global basis. A simple model suggests that CH3Br emissions from breadbaking likely peaked circa 1990 at approximately 200tonnes per year (about 0.3% of industrial production), prior to restrictions on the dough conditioner potassium bromate. In contrast, CH3Cl emissions from breadbaking may be of similar magnitude as acknowledged present-day CH3Cl industrial emissions. Because the mechanisms involve functional groups and compounds widely found in plant materials, this type of methyl halide production may occur in other cooking techniques as well. PMID:26878644

  5. Swelling behaviour of amphiphilic poly (methacryloxyethl dimethylalkane ammonium bromide) gels in alcohol/water solvent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three kinds of amphiphilic PMADAB gels were prepared through radiation-induced polymerization and crosslinking of methacryloxyethyl dimethylalkane ammonium bromide (MADAB) with different alkyl side chains (butyl, octyl and dodecyl). The length of alkyl side chains had significant influence on swelling behavior of the PMADAB gels in alcohol/water solvent. Equilibrium swelling degree (EDS) of PMBDAB (butyl) gel in water was ca. 160 and decreased with increasing alcohol content (x), whereas EDS of PMODAB (octyl) and PMDDDAB (dodecyl) gels showed a convex-upward function of x, i.e., these two gels barely swelled in pure water and swelled with increasing x and then shrank gradually. This phenomenon was explained by the hydrophobic association of long alkyl chains and a cosolvency effect of PMADAB in alcohol and water. The swelling behavior of PMADAB gels in methanol, ethanol and isopropanol were similar, and their EDS are related with the dielectric constant of alcohol solvents. The results suggest that PMADAB gels may be potential absorbents for various kinds of alcohols. (authors)

  6. Application of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide bentonite-titanium dioxide photocatalysis technology for pretreatment of aging leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Fei-Fei; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Huang, Jing; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Wang, Li-Ke; Yang, Jian

    2014-06-30

    Organobentonite-photocatalysis technology was applied to pretreat aging leachate containing refractory pollutants. The organobentonite was synthesized by organic modifier cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) and natural bentonite. In characterization experiments, we could confirm that organic functional groups of cetyltrimethylammonium (CTMA(+)) cations were successfully loaded on the surface of bentonite. The combination of CTMAB2.5 adsorption and TiO2 photocatalysis was superior to either running separately. Furthermore, removal efficiency of simultaneously utilizing CTMAB2.5 and TiO2 was better than them in succession. The combination technology was feasible and was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) with COD and NH3-N removal rate as the target responses. The optimal operation conditions calculated from the regression equations were CTMAB2.5 dosage of 7.5 g/L, pH at 3.5, TiO2 dosage of 1.63 g/L, and reaction time for 60.02 min, which maintained the removal of COD and NH3-N at 82% and 37%, respectively.

  7. Irradiation as an alternative treatment to methyl bromide for insect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methyl Bromide (MB) is widely used as a fumigant for the control of pests of stored grain, legumes, oil seeds, dry fruits and nuts, pest of timber, soil insects, soil nematodes, soil pathogens of plants, and as a quarantine treatment against pest of fresh horticultural products, and pests and diseases in propagation material. The global phase-out of MBB in advanced countries by 2005 and in developing countries by 2015 under the Montreal Protocol, because of its ozone depleting property, has prompted increasing interest in the use of irradiation as an alternative to MB for insect control in food and agricultural commodities in recent years. Irradiation at fairly low doses, of the order of 1 kGy or less is an effective alternative to chemical treatment of foods. The advantages of radiation processing include short treatment time in comparison to several days of exposure required in chemical fumigation, no undesirable chemical residues in the food, no resistance developed by the insects and no significant changes in the organoleptic, physicochemical and functional properties or the nutritive value of the treated products. Turkey is the leading country in the world, in production and exports of dried fig, apricot,raisin and hazelnut. One of the main problem in the export trade is infestation by stored product insects. In Turkey, the new legal regulations on food irradiation were published in Official Newspaper on November 6, 1999. (3 tables and 10 refs. included)

  8. Interferences in automated phenol red method for determination of bromide in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basel, C.L.; Defreese, J.D.; Whittemore, D.O.

    1982-01-01

    The phenol red method for the determination of bromide in water has been automated by segmented flow analysis. Samples can be analyzed at a rate of 20 samples/h with a method detection limit, defined, as the concentration giving a signal about three times the standard deviation of replicate anaiyte determinations in reagent water, of 10 ??g/L. Samples studied include oil-field brines, halite solution brines, ground-waters contaminated with these brines, and fresh groundwaters. Chloride and bicarbonate cause significant positive interferences at levels as low as 100 mg/L and 50 mg/L, respectively. Ammonia gives a negative interference that is important at levels as low as 0.05 mg/L. An ionic strength buffer is used to suppress a positive ionic strength interference, correction curves are used to compensate for the chloride interference, the bicarbonate interference is minimized by acidification, and the ammonia interference is eliminated by its removal by ion exchange. Reaction product studies are used to suggest a plausible mode of chloride interference. ?? 1982 American Chemical Society.

  9. Carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate/poly(4-vinyl-N-pentyl pyridinium bromide blends as antimicrobial coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Blachechen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Blends of carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB, a cellulose derivative, and poly(4-vinyl-N-pentyl pyridinium bromide (QPVP-C5, an antimicrobial polymer, were prepared by casting method and characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and contact angle measurements. Miscibility between CMCAB and QPVP-C5 was evidenced by DSC measurements of blends, which showed a single thermal event of Tg, and SEM images, which revealed homogenous morphology, regardless the blend composition. Moreover, thermal stability of QPVP-C5 was substantially enhanced, when it was mixed with CMCAB. Upon increasing the QPVP-C5 content in the blend the wettability and antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus increased, indicating the surface enrichment by pyridinium groups. In fact, blends with 70 wt% QPVP-C5 reduced 5 log and 4 log the colony-forming units of Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli, respectively.

  10. Self-assembly Of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide in ethanol-water mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei; Zhang Ming; Zhang Jinli; Han Yongcai

    2006-01-01

    The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in both water and ethanol-water-mixed solvent was determined using steady- state fluorescence techniques in order to investigate the effect of the self-assembling properties of the surfactant on the template synthesis of porous inorganic materials.Results indicated that the CMC increased with the increase of ethanol concentration in the mixed solvent.The CMC of CTAB is 0.0009 mol/L in water,while it is 0.24 mol/L in ethanol.Furthermore,the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) was adopted to simulate the aggregation of CTAB in water and ethanol/water mixtures,and the energy difference was calculated for the surfactant tail groups after mixing with the solvent.The simulation results reflected a regularity similar to the experimental data,i.e.,tail groups of CTAB interacted more strongly with ethanol than with water,which elucidates the reason that the micelle is difficult to form in ethanol.

  11. Dual bronchodilator therapy with aclidinium bromide/formoterol fumarate for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urzo, Tony; Donohue, James F; Price, David; Miravitlles, Marc; Kerwin, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Inhaled bronchodilator therapy is a mainstay of treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Despite the number and types of treatments available, the control of symptoms and exacerbations remains suboptimal, and adherence to, and persistence with, inhaled therapy is generally poor. Results from clinical studies suggest that dual bronchodilator therapy with long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs) and long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonists (LABAs) may provide additional benefit over LAMA or LABA monotherapy without additive effects on safety and tolerability. Several combinations of a LAMA plus a LABA have recently become available in a single inhaler for maintenance therapy for adults with moderate-to-severe COPD, including aclidinium bromide/formoterol fumarate, glycopyrronium/indacaterol and umeclidinium/vilanterol. Here, we review clinical data demonstrating significant improvements in bronchodilation, 24-h symptoms, and health status with aclidinium/formoterol twice daily, and discuss how this treatment can be implemented in clinical practice as part of a patient-focused approach to disease control. PMID:26366803

  12. Prolonged use of pancuronium bromide and sensorineural hearing loss in childhood survivors of congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, P Y; Tyebkhan, J M; Peliowski, A; Ainsworth, W; Robertson, C M

    1999-08-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a significant neurologic morbidity in survivors of neonatal congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), with a reported incidence of up to 60%. In a historical cohort study of 37 neonates with CDH, we investigated the use of pancuronium bromide (PB) and common ototoxic drugs during the neonatal period and their relationship to SNHL in childhood survivors. Survivors with SNHL (n = 23) had significantly higher cumulative dose of PB administered during the neonatal illness than survivors without SNHL (n = 14). The cumulative dose and duration of PB use significantly correlated (r = 0.66-0.81) and independently predicted (adjusted r (2) = 0.42-0.64) the greatest intensity (in decibels) and the widest band (lowest frequency in hertz) loss of SNHL. No differences were identified between survivors with and without SNHL regarding demographic and neonatal characteristics (including oxygenation and ventilation variables and the cumulative dose and duration of therapy with aminoglycosides, vancomycin, and furosemide), although survivors with SNHL had received a modestly higher cumulative dose of ethacrynic acid than survivors without SNHL. Although we show that prolonged administration of PB during the neonatal period is associated with SNHL in childhood survivors of CDH, further multicenter studies are required to investigate the possible etiologies of SNHL in this high-risk population.

  13. Evaluation of methyl bromide alternatives efficacy against soil-borne pathogens, nematodes and soil microbial community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Xie

    Full Text Available Methyl bromide (MB and other alternatives were evaluated for suppression of Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., and Meloidogyne spp. and their influence on soil microbial communities. Both Fusarium spp. and Phytophthora spp. were significantly reduced by the MB (30.74 mg kg-1, methyl iodide (MI: 45.58 mg kg-1, metham sodium (MS: 53.92 mg kg-1 treatments. MS exhibited comparable effectiveness to MB in controlling Meloidogyne spp. and total nematodes, followed by MI at the tested rate. By contrast, sulfuryl fluoride (SF: 33.04 mg kg-1 and chloroform (CF: 23.68 mg kg-1 showed low efficacy in controlling Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., and Meloidogyne spp. MB, MI and MS significantly lowered the abundance of different microbial populations and microbial biomass in soil, whereas SF and CF had limited influence on them compared with the control. Diversity indices in Biolog studies decreased in response to fumigation, but no significant difference was found among treatments in PLFA studies. Principal component and cluster analyses of Biolog and PLFA data sets revealed that MB and MI treatments greatly influenced the soil microbial community functional and structural diversity compared with SF treatment. These results suggest that fumigants with high effectiveness in suppressing soil-borne disease could significantly influence soil microbial community.

  14. Corrosion rate of copper in aqueous lithium bromide concentrated solutions at room temperature by immersion tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Portero, M.J.; Garcia-Anton, J.; Guinon-Segura, J.L.; Perez-Herranz, V. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, P.O. Box 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Concentrated solutions of lithium bromide (LiBr) are widely used in absorption refrigeration and heating systems. However, LiBr solutions can cause serious corrosion problems in structural materials (copper, steels, and other metals) in an absorption plant. The aim of the present work was the study of the corrosion rate of copper in 400 and 700 g/L (4.61 and 8.06 M) LiBr solutions pre-nitrogenous or pre-oxygenated at room temperature by immersion tests. The corroded copper concentration was determined with two techniques: weight-loss method and polarographic method. The corrosion curves of copper in LiBr solutions at room temperature as a function of the exposure time showed a similar tendency, and were fitted to a power function such as: C = kt{sup b}, where C was the corroded copper quantity per unit area (mg/cm{sup 2}), t was the exposure time (h), k was the corrosion coefficient, and b was the time exponent. From the corrosion coefficient values (k) it was deduced that the corrosion rate of copper in LiBr solutions at room temperature followed the order: 400 g/L (bubble of O{sub 2}) > 400 g/L (bubble of N{sub 2}) > 700 g/L (bubble of O{sub 2}) > 700 g/L (bubble of N{sub 2}). (authors)

  15. Synthesis of zeolitic materials from volcanic ash in presence and absence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanhueza N, V. M.; Bennun T, L. D., E-mail: vsanhuez@udec.cl [Universidad de Concepcion, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Edmundo Larenas 129, Region del Biobio (Chile)

    2015-07-01

    Zeolitic materials as Na-phillipsite, Na-K-phillipsite-like zeolites and the mixtures of zeolites (phillipsite+analcime and phillipsite+chabazite+analcime) were synthesized from volcanic ash, either in presence and absence of cetiltrimetilamonium bromide (CTAB). The ash sample used in the laboratory experiments contains 75.36% SiO{sub 2} and 14.11% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, abundances. The reaction time as well as the influence of CTAB were studied in the zeolitic materials crystallization. The experiments were carried out under hydrothermal conditions, autogenic pressure and temperature of 150 grades C, as well as reaction time from 8 to 116 h. Products from this hydrothermal treatment were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and characterized by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (Sem-EDS). Of the zeolitic materials obtained the Na-K-phillipsite-like zeolite was found to be the most effective for the retention of cations Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+}. (Author)

  16. Effectiveness of pinaverium bromide in the treatment of primitive biliary dyskinesia: 99mTc-P-IDA scintigraphic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaffidi, A; Costa, R; Frontespezi, S

    1987-09-01

    The 99mTc-P-IDA (technetium-p-iminodiacetic acid) hepatocholangiocholecystoscintigraphy is a diagnostic technique which allows information on the liver biligenetic and excretory capabilities to be obtained. It is, moreover, a test that mirrors closely the anatomic and functional conditions of the cholecyst and choledochus. In this study the authors wanted to verify whether pinaverium bromide, a drug with a documented musculotropic-spasmolytic activity, was able to induce changes in some abnormal instrumental parameters observed in 24 subjects with primitive biliary dyskinesia. The results revealed that the ti values, characteristically longer in those subjects, were significantly reduced in the group of patients treated with pinaverium bromide. On the contrary, in the group of patients treated with placebo, there was no change with respect to this parameter. PMID:3316061

  17. Vapor-liquid equilibria of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, S.Y.; Lee, H.

    1999-12-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems were measured at 60, 160, 300, and 760 mmHg at temperatures ranging from 315 to 488 K. The apparatus used in this work is a modified still especially designed for the measurement of low-pressure VLE, in which both liquid and vapor are continuously recirculated. For the analysis of salt-containing solutions, a method incorporating refractometry and gravimetry was used. From the experimental measurements, the effect of lithium bromide on the VLE behavior of water + 1,3-propanediol was investigated. The experimental data of the salt-free system were successfully correlated using the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC models. In addition, the extended UNIQUAC model of Sander et al. was applied to the VLE calculation of salt-containing mixtures.

  18. 6,6 '-bis (5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetra-hydro-benzo 1,2,4 triazine-3-yl) 2,2 ' bipyridine, an effective extracting agent for the separation of americium(III) and curium(III) from the lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of americium(III), curium(III), and the lanthanides(III) from nitric acid by 6,6'- bis (5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetra-hydro-benzo[1,2,4]triazine-3-yl)-[2,2'] bipyridine (CyMe4-BTBP) has been studied. Since the extraction kinetics were slow, N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-di-octyl-2-(2-hexyl-oxy-ethyl)malonamide (DMDOHEMA) was added as a phase transfer reagent. With a mixture of 0.01 M CyMe4-BTBP + 0.25 M DMDOHEMA in n -octanol, extraction equilibrium was reached within 5 min of mixing. At a nitric acid concentration of 1 M, an americium(III) distribution ratio of approx. 10 was achieved. Americium(III)/lanthanide(III) separation factors between 50 (dysprosium) and 1500 (lanthanum) were obtained. Whereas americium(III) and curium(III) were extracted as di-solvates, the stoichiometries of the lanthanide(III) complexes were not identified unambiguously, owing to the presence of DMDOHEMA. In the absence of DMDOHEMA, both americium(III) and europium(III) were extracted as di-solvates. Back-extraction with 0.1 M nitric acid was thermodynamically possible but rather slow. Using a buffered glycolate solution of pH=4, an americium(III) distribution ratio of 0.01 was obtained within 5 min of mixing. There was no evidence of degradation of the extractant, for example, the extraction performance of CyMe4-BTBP during hydrolysis with 1 M nitric acid did not change over a two month contact. (authors)

  19. Palladium-Catalyzed α-Arylation of Aryl Acetic Acid Derivatives via Dienolate Intermediates with Aryl Chlorides and Bromides

    OpenAIRE

    Sha, Sheng-Chun; Zhang, Jiadi; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    To date, examples of α-arylation of carboxylic acids remain scarce. Using a deprotonative cross-coupling process (DCCP), a method for palladium-catalyzed γ-arylation of aryl acetic acids with aryl halides has been developed. This protocol is applicable to a wide range of aryl bromides and chlorides. A procedure for the palladium-catalyzed α-arylation of styryl acetic acids is also described.

  20. Efficacy of Tiotropium Bromide and Rehabilitation Treatment on Pulmonary Function of Patients With Sulfur Mustard Lung Injury

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic pulmonary complication is the most common delayed toxic effect of sulfur mustard (SM) and it has no treatment so far. Objectives: To evaluate short-term therapeutic effects of inhaled tiotropium bromide and pulmonary rehabilitation on pulmonary function of patients with SM induced lung injury. Patients and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, using convenient sampling method, 54 patients with chronic lung disease due to SM exposure were recruited in Baqiyatallah Genera...

  1. Impurity aggregation during radiation-stimulated decomposition of trimetaphosphate molecular centre in potassium bromide monocrystals. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' ev, I.A.; Mel' nikova, I.N.; Shibaev, V.A. (Leningradskij Tekhnologicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1984-05-01

    On the basis of results of radiochemical and IR-spectrophotometric analyses, regularities of ..gamma..-radiolysis of trimetaphosphate molecular centre in potassium bromide matrix are found. Reactions most completely reflecting changes in the system under the effect of ionizing radiation are suggested. Computer-aided design has permitted to choose optimum values of rate constants for chemical reactions. Radiation-stimulated diffusion coefficient is estimated.

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed Heck Coupling Reaction of Aryl Bromides in Aqueous Media Using Tetrahydropyrimidinium Salts as Carbene Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Özdemir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and stereoselective catalytic system for the Heck cross coupling reaction using novel 1,3-dialkyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidinium salts (1, LHX and Pd(OAc2 loading has been reported. The palladium complexes derived from the salts 1a-f prepared in situ exhibit good catalytic activity in the Heck coupling reaction of aryl bromides under mild conditions.

  3. Effects of Soil and Water Content on Methyl Bromide Oxidation by the Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea†

    OpenAIRE

    Duddleston, Khrystyne N.; Bottomley, Peter J; Porter, Angela; Arp, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    Little information exists on the potential of NH3-oxidizing bacteria to cooxidize halogenated hydrocarbons in soil. A study was conducted to examine the cooxidation of methyl bromide (MeBr) by an NH3-oxidizing bacterium, Nitrosomonas europaea, under soil conditions. Soil and its water content modified the availability of NH4+ and MeBr and influenced the relative rates of substrate (NH3) and cosubstrate (MeBr) oxidations. These observations highlight the complexity associated with characterizi...

  4. Delivery of albuterol and ipratropium bromide from two nebulizer systems in chronic stable asthma. Efficacy and pulmonary deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronchodilator responses to both nebulized albuterol (salbutamol) and ipratropium bromide and aerosol delivery to the tracheobronchial tree have been assessed in eight patients with chronic stable asthma (mean baseline FEV1, 50 percent; reversibility greater than 20 percent). Two commercially available nebulizer systems were used, namely, a Turret nebulizer operated at a compressed gas flow rate of 12 L/min (droplet MMD, 3.3 mu) and an Inspiron nebulizer driven at 6 L/min (MMD, 7.7 mu). Albuterol was given as doses of 250 micrograms, 250 micrograms, 500 micrograms, and 1,000 micrograms (cumulative dose, 2 mg) and ipratropium bromide as doses of 50 micrograms, 50 micrograms, 100 micrograms, and 200 micrograms (cumulative dose, 400 micrograms) at intervals of 35 minutes. For albuterol, bronchodilatation was significantly (p less than 0.05) greater at all dosage levels with the Turret. For ipratropium, bronchodilatation was similar for both nebulizers. Measurements of aerosol deposition using 99mTc-labelled pentetic acid (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid; DTPA) showed that 9.1 +/- 1.1 percent and 2.7 +/- 0.2 percent of the dose reached the lungs during nebulization to dryness for Turret and Inspiron, respectively (p less than 0.01); distribution within the lungs was similar for the two aerosols. Selection of nebulizer apparatus can influence delivery of aerosol and subsequent bronchodilator response to albuterol in patients with chronic stable asthma but is less important for aerosol delivery of ipratropium bromide in these patients

  5. Dual-permeability modeling of preferential bromide leaching from a tile-drained glacial till agricultural field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Horst H.; Maximilian Köhne, J.

    2004-04-01

    A tile-drained agricultural field can be regarded as a 'field-scale' lysimeter that may be used to study soil water and chemical transport under relatively natural conditions. Tile discharge and effluent bromide concentrations measured in a previous field tracer experiment for a structured clayey loam at Bokhorst, Northern Germany, indicated strong preferential flow. Simulation using single domain HYDRUS numerical flow and transport model could nevertheless explain water outflow, however, completely failed to describe tile-drain leaching patterns of the conservative tracer. The objective of this paper was to analyze whether the nonequilibrium-type dual-permeability model concept could better capture soil structure related principle mechanisms of preferential leaching in the unsaturated soil at that study site. The dual-permeability model (DUAL) describes for soil matrix and fracture pore systems Darcian flow with coupled Richards' equations and convective-dispersive (CD) solute transport with coupled CD equations. The hydraulic parameters of the dual-permeability model were obtained from standard soil hydraulic measurements by adopting a bimodal fitting procedure, whereas transport parameters were inferred from soil column tracer experiments and geometrical transfer term parameters were derived using qualitative soil structure descriptions. The hydraulic conductivity Ka in the inter-domain water transfer term and the effective diffusion coefficient Da in the solute mass transfer term were calibrated by comparing simulated with measured tile flow and effluent concentrations. The DUAL approach described water flow similarly well as the single-domain model. Bromide concentrations in the tile effluent could be approximated with DUAL when decreasing the Ka and Da values by three orders of magnitude compared with the values of the soil matrix domain. The dual-permeability approach seems to reflect nonequilibrium transport mechanisms at this structured soil since it not

  6. The effect of ethidium bromide and chloramphenicol on mitochondrial biogenesis in primary human fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Li-Pin; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Wolvetang, Ernst, E-mail: e.wolvetang@uq.edu.au

    2012-05-15

    The expression of mitochondrial components is controlled by an intricate interplay between nuclear transcription factors and retrograde signaling from mitochondria. The role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mtDNA-encoded proteins in mitochondrial biogenesis is, however, poorly understood and thus far has mainly been studied in transformed cell lines. We treated primary human fibroblasts with ethidium bromide (EtBr) or chloramphenicol for six weeks to inhibit mtDNA replication or mitochondrial protein synthesis, respectively, and investigated how the cells recovered from these insults two weeks after removal of the drugs. Although cellular growth and mitochondrial gene expression were severely impaired after both inhibitor treatments we observed marked differences in mitochondrial structure, membrane potential, glycolysis, gene expression, and redox status between fibroblasts treated with EtBr and chloramphenicol. Following removal of the drugs we further detected clear differences in expression of both mtDNA-encoded genes and nuclear transcription factors that control mitochondrial biogenesis, suggesting that the cells possess different compensatory mechanisms to recover from drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Our data reveal new aspects of the interplay between mitochondrial retrograde signaling and the expression of nuclear regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, a process with direct relevance to mitochondrial diseases and chloramphenicol toxicity in humans. -- Highlights: ► Cells respond to certain environmental toxins by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis. ► We investigated the effect of Chloramphenicol and EtBr in primary human fibroblasts. ► Inhibiting mitochondrial protein synthesis or DNA replication elicit different effects. ► We provide novel insights into the cellular responses toxins and antibiotics.

  7. Application of artificial neural network in 3D imaging with lanthanum bromide calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostojic, A.; Tatischeff, V.; Kiener, J.; Hamadache, C.; Karkour, N.; Linget, D.; Grave, X.; Gibelin, L.; Travers, B.; Blin, S.; Barrillon, P.

    2015-07-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range from 0.1 up to 100 MeV holds many understudied questions connected with e.g. stellar nucleosynthesis, the active Sun, neutron stars and black holes. To access the physics behind, a significant improvement in detection sensitivity is needed compared to previous missions, e.g. CGRO and INTEGRAL. One of the promising concepts for a future gamma-ray mission is an Advanced Compton Telescope. Under the project of creating a prototype of such instrument, we study the perspectives of using a novel inorganic scintillator as a calorimeter part. Modern inorganic crystal or ceramics scintillators are constantly improving on qualities such as energy resolution and radiation hardness, and this makes them a smart choice for a new space-borne telescope. At CSNSM Orsay, we have assembled a detection module from a 5 × 5cm2 area and 1 cm thick, cerium-doped lanthanum (III) bromide (LaBr3:Ce) inorganic scintillator coupled to a 64 channel multi-anode photomultiplier. The readout of the PMT signals is carried out with the ASIC MAROC, used previously for the luminometer of the ATLAS detector (CERN). Characterization, thorough measurements with various radioactive sources, as well as, single photoelectron detection have been done. Furthermore, we made a comparison of measurements with a detailed GEANT4-based simulation which includes tracking of the optical photons. Finally, we have studied the 3D reconstruction of the first interaction point of incident gamma rays, utilizing a neural network algorithm. This spatial position resolution plays a crucial part in the future implementations and, together with the other measured properties, it makes our detector module very interesting for the next generation of space telescopes operating in the MeV range.

  8. Degradation of methyl bromide by methanotrophic bacteria in cell suspensions and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R.S.; Miller, L.G.; Culbertson, C.W.; Connell, T.L.; Jahnke, L.

    1994-01-01

    Cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus mineralized methyl bromide (MeBr), as evidenced by its removal from the gas phase, the quantitative recovery of Br- in the spent medium, and the production of 14CO2 from [14C]MeBr. Methyl fluoride (MeF) inhibited oxidation of methane as well as that of [14C]MeBr. The rate of MeBr consumption by cells varied inversely with the supply of methane, which suggested a competitive relationship between these two substrates. However, MeBr did not support growth of the methanotroph. In soils exposed to high levels (10,000 ppm) of MeBr, methane oxidation was completely inhibited. At this concentration, MeBr removal rates were equivalent in killed and live controls, which indicated a chemical rather than biological removal reaction. At lower concentrations (1,000 ppm) of MeBr, methanotrophs were active and MeBr consumption rates were 10-fold higher in live controls than in killed controls. Soils exposed to trace levels (10 ppm) of MeBr demonstrated complete consumption within 5 h of incubation, while controls inhibited with MeF or incubated without O2 had 50% lower removal rates. Aerobic soils oxidized [14C]MeBr to 14CO2, and MeF inhibited oxidation by 72%. Field experiments demonstrated slightly lower MeBr removal rates in chambers containing MeF than in chambers lacking MeF. Collectively, these results show that soil methanotrophic bacteria, as well as other microbes, can degrade MeBr present in the environment.

  9. The developmental toxicity of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide on Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan-Rui; Li, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Bang-Jun; Sun, Zhen-Jun; Wang, Jian-Ji

    2008-12-01

    The developmental toxicity of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide ([C(8)mim]Br) on Daphnia magna was investigated. The 24 and 48 h LC(50) values for [C(8)mim]Br in D. magna were 1.99 and 0.95 mg/L, respectively. A series of multigenerational toxicity tests were then used to explore [C(8)mim]Br effects in D. magna. [C(8)mim]Br significantly inhibited the body lengths of the F0 and F1 1st generations. After 21 days of exposure, [C(8)mim]Br lowered the reproductive ability of the F0 and F1 1st generations. In F1 3rd generation, 21 days of [C(8)mim]Br exposure prolonged the time to bear the first egg and the time to the first brood compared with the control, but the number of first-brood offspring and the number of broods produced by these animals were reduced. After the recovery period all the reproductive parameters returned to normal in F1 1st generation except for the number of broods. The dead neonates increased with prolonged exposure and increasing concentrations, and the dead neonates of the F1 3rd generation went far beyond that of the F1 1st and F0 generations. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) values of the three D. magna generations significantly decreased after exposure to higher concentrations of [C(8)mim]Br compared with control groups. Collectively, these results suggest that [C(8)mim]Br exerts a toxic effect on the development of D. magna. This study also highlights the importance of systematically evaluating the potential effects of aquatic ecosystems of ionic liquids that may be released into bodies of water. PMID:18442076

  10. Transport of atrazine versus bromide and δO18 in sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, James A.; Friedel, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the process of atrazine transport compared to bromide and δO18 transport in sands near Denver. Three 1.5 × 2 × 1.5-m plots were installed and allowed to equilibrate for 2 years before research initiation and were instrumented with 1.5 × 2-m zero-tension pan lysimeters installed at 1.5-m depths. Additionally, each plot was instrumented with suction lysimeters, tensiometers, time domain reflectometry (TDR) moisture probes, and thermocouples (to measure soil temperature) at 15-cm depth increments. All plots were enclosed with a raised frame (of 8-cm height) to prevent surface runoff. During the 2-year period before research began, all suction and pan lysimeters were purged monthly and were sampled for fluids immediately prior to atrazine and KBr application to obtain background concentrations. Atrazine illustrated little movement until after a significant rainfall event, which peaked concentrations at depths of about 90 to 135 cm. Both Br− and δO18 moved rapidly through the soil, probably owing to soil porosity and anion exclusion for Br−. Concentrations of atrazine exceeding 5.0 μL−1 were observed with depth (90 to 150 cm) after several months. It appears that significant rainfall events were a key factor in the movement of atrazine in the sand, which allowed the chemicals to move to greater depths and thus avoid generally found biodegradation processes.

  11. Performance characteristics of single effect lithium bromide/ water absorption chiller for small data centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysore, Abhishek Arun Babu

    A medium data center consists of servers performing operations such as file sharing, collaboration and email. There are a large number of small and medium data centers across the world which consume more energy and are less efficient when compared to large data center facilities of companies such as GOOGLE, APPLE and FACEBOOK. Such companies are making their data center facilities more environmental friendly by employing renewable energy solutions such as wind and solar to power the data center or in data center cooling. This not only reduces the carbon footprint significantly but also decreases the costs incurred over a period of time. Cooling of data center play a vital role in proper functioning of the servers. It is found that cooling consumes about 50% of the total power consumed by the data center. Traditional method of cooling includes the use of mechanical compression chillers which consume lot of power and is not desirable. In order to eliminate the use of mechanical compressor chillers renewable energy resources such as solar and wind should be employed. One such technology is solar thermal cooling by means of absorption chiller which is powered by solar energy. The absorption chiller unit can be coupled with either flat plate or evacuated tube collectors in order to achieve the required inlet temperature for the generator of the absorption chiller unit. In this study a modular data center is considered having a cooling load requirement of 23kw. The performance characteristics of a single stage Lithium Bromide/ water refrigeration is presented in this study considering the cooling load of 23kw. Performance characteristics of each of the 4 heat exchangers within the unit is discussed which helps in customizing the unit according to the users' specific needs. This analysis helps in studying the importance of different properties such as the effect of inlet temperatures of hot water for generator, inlet temperatures of cooling water for absorber and

  12. Antibacterial activity of starch/acrylamide/allyl triphenyl phosphonium bromide copolymers synthesized by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starch/acrylamide/allyl triphenyl phosphonium bromide (St/AM/TP) copolymers were synthesized by simultaneous gamma irradiation and characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR techniques, weight measurement and titration method. Moreover, their antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus were explored by the viable cell counting method in sterile distilled water. At St/AM/TP 6:8.4:5.6 g, copolymers with higher graft ratio (G) and higher (AM+TP) graft efficiency (EAM+TP) were obtained at 3 and 6 kGy, while cationic degree (CD) and TP graft efficiency (ETP) continuously increased with absorbed dose from 1 to 6 kGy. All of the copolymers were capable of killing >99.75% of 107 CFU/ml S. aureus within 30 mins. Moreover, at 3 kGy, G, EAM+TP and ETP increased with AM/TP from 0:14 to 11.2:2.8 g at St/(AM+TP) 6:14 g, while the optimum CD and antibacterial activity were achieved at AM/TP 7:7 and 8.4:5.6 g. In addition, at 3 kGy, G, EAM+TP and CD increased with St/(AM+TP) from 6:3 to 6:18 g at AM/TP 8.4:5.6 g, while the optimum antibacterial activity was achieved at 6:10 to 6:18 g, and the optimum ETP was achieved at 6:14. - Highlights: • Cationic starch is prepared from AM and TP by Gamma irradiation. • Cationic starch is characterized by FTIR, NMR, weight method and titration method. • Grafting ratio and cationic degree depend on absorbed dose and composition. • Cationic starch shows good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus

  13. Sol-gel Transition of Methylcellulose Solution in the Coexistence of Hexadecyltrimethylammonium Bromide and Sodium Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shah Zhou; Hai-yang Yang; Yong-jun Xie; Hua-zhen Li; Guang-ming Liu

    2011-01-01

    The sol-gel transition of methylcellulose (MC) solution in the presence of NaCl and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB),together with MC/NaCl solution in the presence of HTAB and MC/HATB solution in the presence of NaCl,was investigated by the rheological measurements.It has been found that the sol-gel transition temperature of MC solution decreases linearly with the concentration of NaCl in solution but increases linearly with the concentration of HTAB in solution,respectively.However,the sol-gel transition temperature of MC/NaCl solution in the presence of HTAB keeps the same value,independent of the concentration of HTAB in solution.On the other hand,the sol-gel transition temperature of MC/HTAB solution decreases linearly with the concentration of NaCl in solution.The experimental results suggest that,for MC/NaCl solution in the presence of HTAB,the saltinduced spherical micelles of HTAB should have formed in bulk solution.For MC solution in the absence of NaCl,no spherical micelles have been formed in bulk solution,though the concentration of HTAB in our experiment is almost one order of magnitude higher than the critical micelle concentration of HTAB in polymer-free solution.In fact,due to adsorption of HTAB on MC chains,the realconcentration of HTAB in bulk solution,is much less than the apparent concentration of HTAB dissolved in MC solution.

  14. Spectroscopic study on the interaction of Bacillus subtilis α-amylase with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction between α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) has been investigated at various temperature conditions using fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic methods. Fluorescence data revealed that the fluorescence quenching of α-amylase by CTAB is the result of complex formation between CTAB and α-amylase. The thermodynamic analysis on the binding interaction data shows that the interactions are strongly exothermic (ΔHo=-17.92 kJ mol-1) accompanied with increase in entropy (ΔSo between 109 to 135 J mol-1 K-1). Thus the binding of CTAB to α-amylase is both enthalpic and entropic driven, which represent the predominate role of both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in complex formation process. The values of 2.17x10-3 M-1 and 1.30 have been obtained from associative binding constant (Ka) and stoichiometry of binding number (n), from analysis of fluorescence data, respectively. Circular dichroism spectra showed the substantial conformational changes in secondary structure of α-amylase due to binding of CTAB, which represents the complete destruction of both secondary and tertiary structure of α-amylase by CTAB. - Research highlights: → The Fluorescence quenching effect of α-amylase by CTAB is a consequence of formation α-amylase-CTAB complex. → The α-helical analyzing from the CD spectra in the various concentration of CTAB shows strongly deformation of α-amylase. → Thermodynamic analysis of quenching verify that the interactions are both enthalpy and entropic driven.

  15. Temperature effect on the transport of bromide and E. coli NAR in saturated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharabaghi, B.; Safadoust, A.; Mahboubi, A. A.; Mosaddeghi, M. R.; Unc, A.; Ahrens, B.; Sayyad, Gh.

    2015-03-01

    In this study we investigated the transport of nalidixic acid-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli NAR) and bromide (Br-) through two soils, a sandy loam (SL) and clay loam (CL). Soils were repacked in columns (45 cm length × 22 cm diameter) and subjected to physical (freeze/thaw, and wet/dry cycles) and biological (by earthworms, Eisenia fetida) weathering for 12 months. Saturated flow conditions were maintained using a tension infiltrometer. Tests were carried out at either 5 or 20 °C. After steady-state flow conditions were established, a suspension containing E. coli NAR and Br- was sprayed onto the surface of soil columns. Leachate was sampled at three depths, 15, 30 and 45 cm. Time to maximum concentration (Cmax) of E. coli NAR was greater for SL at all depths. Both tracers had rapid breakthrough curves (BTCs) shortly after the suspension injection followed by prolonged tailing indicating the presence of preferential pathways and thus soil heterogeneity regenerated after the induced physical and biological weathering. About 40% of the E. coli NAR and 79% of the Br- leached through the entire 45 cm soil columns during the experiments. Leaching with cold water (5 °C) led to lower hydraulic conductivity and flow rate and consequently enhanced bacterial filtration for both soils. Very low values for the detachment coefficient for E. coli NAR at 5 °C suggest an irreversible process of bacterial attachment in heterogeneous soils. BTCs were well described by the mobile-immobile model (MIM) in HYDRUS-1D. Soil texture/structure and temperature had a significant effect on the model's fitted parameters.

  16. A comparison of the use of sodium iodide and lanthanum bromide scintillation crystals for airborne surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Derek M.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Aerial Spectral Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) program performs aerial radiological and chemical characterization of geographical regions of interest. Airborne surveys are performed to characterize environmental radionuclide content, for mineral exploration, as well as for emergency scenarios such as major releases or lost sources. Two radiological detection systems are used by the ASPECT team for gamma-ray detection and characterization: lanthanum bromide [LaBr 3(Ce)] and sodium iodide [NaI(Tl)] scintillation systems. An aerial survey of a uranium mine in the western United States was performed using both NaI(Tl) and LaBr3(Ce) detection systems. Analyses of the survey data were performed with RadAssist software and applying International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) airborne gamma ray mapping guidelines. The data for the survey were corrected for cross-over, which is spectral interference from higher energy photons as a result of Compton scattering, height attenuation, cosmic ray contribution to signal, and Radon contribution to signal. Two radiation survey contours were generated from each discrete data set. Based on analysis of the uranium mine survey results, LaBr3(Ce) produced a product comparable to that of NaI(Tl). The LaBr3(Ce) detection system contained 1/16th the scintillating volume and had a total system weight that was 1/4th that of the NaI(Tl) system. LaBr3(Ce) demonstrated a clear advantage over NaI(Tl) detectors in system mobility, and weight factors in airborne gamma ray spectroscopy.

  17. Rearrangement reaction of the hydroxyl group of ω-hydroxy-alkyltriphenyl phosphonium bromides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何美玉; 袁谷; 贺晓然

    2000-01-01

    No molecular ion peak from the Electron Impact Ionization of eight ω-hydroxyalkyltriphenyl phosphonium bromides (Ph3P+ (CH2)nOHBr, n = 2-6, 8--10) can be found, except a part of some relative powerful fragment ions can be observed only. Each c ompound forms a very characteristic ion (O= PPh3- 1)+ atm/z 277throughhydryl rearrangement reaction. The intensity of this ion is closely related with the size of the carbon chain of hydroxyalkyl and with temperature of ion source and temperature of sample probe. The above rearrangement reaction and the reaction to form ion at m/ z 262 take place simultaneonsly, thus leading to strong competition.At n =2, ion at m/z 277 is the most powerful and becomes continuously the base peak. At n = 3 and n = 4, the intensity of ion at m/z 262 reaches the maximum, and is always the base peak, and the relative abundance of m/z 277 is only around 2%. At n = 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, m/z 277 becomes base peak when the temperature of probe is below 300°C. But, when the temperature increases from 300°C to 350°C, m/z 262 suddenly becomes the base peak, which is not in direct proportional relation with the size of carbon chain. It is proved by MIKES and accurate mass that ion at m/z 277 produces a fragment ion (O= PPh2-2)+ at m/z 199 with the loss of the neutral benzene molecule.

  18. Spectroscopic study on the interaction of Bacillus subtilis {alpha}-amylase with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidyan, R., E-mail: r.omidyan@sci.ui.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemi, S.H. [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bordbar, A.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zaynalpour, S. [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The interaction between {alpha}-amylase from Bacillus subtilis and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) has been investigated at various temperature conditions using fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic methods. Fluorescence data revealed that the fluorescence quenching of {alpha}-amylase by CTAB is the result of complex formation between CTAB and {alpha}-amylase. The thermodynamic analysis on the binding interaction data shows that the interactions are strongly exothermic ({Delta}H{sup o}=-17.92 kJ mol{sup -1}) accompanied with increase in entropy ({Delta}S{sup o} between 109 to 135 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}). Thus the binding of CTAB to {alpha}-amylase is both enthalpic and entropic driven, which represent the predominate role of both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in complex formation process. The values of 2.17x10{sup -3} M{sup -1} and 1.30 have been obtained from associative binding constant (K{sub a}) and stoichiometry of binding number (n), from analysis of fluorescence data, respectively. Circular dichroism spectra showed the substantial conformational changes in secondary structure of {alpha}-amylase due to binding of CTAB, which represents the complete destruction of both secondary and tertiary structure of {alpha}-amylase by CTAB. - Research highlights: {yields} The Fluorescence quenching effect of {alpha}-amylase by CTAB is a consequence of formation {alpha}-amylase-CTAB complex. {yields} The {alpha}-helical analyzing from the CD spectra in the various concentration of CTAB shows strongly deformation of {alpha}-amylase. {yields} Thermodynamic analysis of quenching verify that the interactions are both enthalpy and entropic driven.

  19. Impact of the cation distribution homogeneity on the americium oxidation state in the U0.54Pu0.45Am0.01O2-x mixed oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauchy, Romain; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Martin, Philippe M.; Belin, Renaud C.; Aufore, Laurence; Scheinost, Andreas C.; Hodaj, Fiqiri

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the cation distribution homogeneity of the U0.54Pu0.45Am0.01O2-x mixed oxide on the americium oxidation state was studied by coupling X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe micro analysis (EPMA) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Oxygen-hypostoichiometric Am-bearing uranium-plutonium mixed oxide pellets were fabricated by two different co-milling based processes in order to obtain different cation distribution homogeneities. The americium was generated from β- decay of 241Pu. The XRD analysis of the obtained compounds did not reveal any structural difference between the samples. EPMA, however, revealed a high homogeneity in the cation distribution for one sample, and substantial heterogeneity of the U-Pu (so Am) distribution for the other. The difference in cation distribution was linked to a difference in Am chemistry as investigated by XAS, with Am being present at mixed +III/+IV oxidation state in the heterogeneous compound, whereas only Am(IV) was observed in the homogeneous compound. Previously reported discrepancies on Am oxidation states can hence be explained by cation distribution homogeneity effects.

  20. Fabrication of targets for transmutation of americium : synthesis of inertial matrix by sol-gel method. Procedure study on the infiltration of a radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    addition a new and unexpected phase formed by the reaction of americium with spinel during the high temperature synthesis process has been identified. This new phase could provide a unique menas to stabilise Am in one particular oxidation state. (Author)

  1. Sorption and diffusion of cobalt, nickel, strontium, iodine, cesium and americium in natural fissure surfaces and drill core cups studied by autoradiography, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the studies on sorption and diffusion of Cs, Sr, Co, Ni, Am and I in common rocks in Finnish bedrock carried out in laboratory experiments. Samples used in these studies were sections of drill cores containing filled and unfilled natural fracture surfaces and drill cores with a diamond drilled longitudinal cavity in the middle of the sample (drill core cups). Samples originated from the two nuclear power plant sites in Finland: tonalite and mica gneiss from Olkiluoto in Eurajoki and rapakivi granite from Haestholmen in Loviisa. The water used in the experiments was synthetic groundwater spiked at a time with one of the radionuclides: Cs-134, Sr-90, Co-60, Ni-63, Am-241 and I-125. Contact times from one week to one year were used to evaluate time dependence of diffusion. An autoradiographic method was used for determination of the penetration depths and diffusion pathways of elements. For determination of diffusion coefficients a quantitative computerized autoradiographic method was used to get the concentration profiles of the radionuclides in the drill cores. Sorption on natural fracture surfaces was more effective than on freshly drilled core samples. Filling materials on natural fracture surfaces, except calcite, increased sorption. The distribution coefficients for drill core cups were about the same as those for unfilled natural fracture surfaces after a contact time of one week and the sorption tendency of radionuclides was: Ka(Cs) > Ka(Co) > Ka(Am) > Ka(Ni) > Ka(Sr) > Ka(I). Radionuclides were observed to penetrate into fissures of the rock matrix and high-capacity minerals. Strontium was found as far as 35 mm in a filled natural fracture surface sample of rapakivi granite after a contact time of one year. The corresponding values were 3.0 mm for cesium, 2.1 mm for cobalt and 2.6 mm for nickel. For americium no diffusion could be observed (a-values for strontium was 6.6 x 10-16-1.1 x 10-13 m2/s, for cesium 4.7 x 10-16-7.2 x 10-15 m2/s

  2. Separation by sequential chromatography of americium, plutonium and neptunium elements: application to the study of trans-uranian elements migration in a European lacustrine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear tests carried out in the atmosphere in the Sixties, the accidents and in particular that to the power station of Chernobyl in 1986, were at the origin of the dispersion of a significant quantity of transuranic elements and fission products. The study of a lake system, such that of the Blelham Tarn in Great Britain, presented in this memory, can bring interesting answers to the problems of management of the environment. The determination of the radionuclides in sediment cores made it possible not only to establish the history of the depositions and consequently the origin of the radionuclides, but also to evaluate the various transfers which took place according to the parameters of the site and the properties of the elements. The studied transuranic elements are plutonium 238, 239-240, americium 241 and neptunium 237. Alpha emitting radionuclides, their determination requires complex radiochemical separations. A method was worked out to successively separate the three radioelements by using a same chromatographic column. Cesium 137 is the studied fission product, its determination is done by direct Gamma spectrometry. Lead 210, natural radionuclide, whose atmospheric flow can be supposed constant. makes it possible to obtain a chronology of the various events. The detailed vertical study of sediment cores showed that the accumulation mode of the studied elements is the same one and that the methods of dating converge. The cesium, more mobile than transuranic elements in the atmosphere, was detected in the 1963 and 1986 fallout whereas an activity out of transuranic elements appears only for the 1963 fallout. The activity of the 1963 cesium fallout is of the same order of magnitude as that of 1986. The calculation of the diffusion coefficients of the elements in the sediments shows an increased migration of cesium compared to transuranic elements. An inventory on the whole of the lake made it possible to note that the atmospheric fallout constitute the

  3. Direct injection, simple and robust analysis of trace-level bromate and bromide in drinking water by IC with suppressed conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Wasiu; Gandhi, Jay; Zhang, Chunlong Carl

    2010-08-01

    Bromide is ubiquitously found in drinking water. It is introduced into source water primarily by contact with bromide-containing soils or seawater having high bromide content. Bromide is converted into carcinogenic bromate during ozonation processes employed in some drinking water and wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, monitoring of bromate in drinking water and its precursor bromide in source water is required. The purpose of this study was to survey bromide and bromate concentrations in randomly selected bottle waters of various brands and several tap water samples in the coastal Houston area using a direct-injection ion chromatography (IC) and a suppressed conductivity system. The method employs a simple isocratic IC with loop injection with calculated detection limit of 0.009 microg/L for bromate and 0.028 microg/L for bromide (250-microL sample volume). Allowing the detection of both species at the microg/L level in drinking water, this method does not require specialized instrumentation such as two-dimensional IC, expensive sample preparation, or post-column reactions. The results show that, whereas bromate remains undetected in all five tap water samples, there are significant high concentrations of bromide in the coastal Houston area (294.79 +/- 56.97 microg/L). Its link to potential seawater intrusion need to be further investigated. For bottle water samples randomly collected, 18.2% (2 out of 11) showed detectable amount of both bromide and bromate. The detection of bromate coincides with those bottle water samples that underwent ozonation treatment. Further sample campaign with exclusively ozonated bottle water samples (n = 19) showed 100% detection rate for both bromide and bromate. The 99% confidence intervals were 14.45-37.97 microg/L and 0.32-2.58 microg/L for bromide and bromate, respectively. The highest level of bromate among all ozonated bottle water samples was 7.57 microg/L, a concentration close to the U.S. EPA prescribed limit for

  4. Modelling the site of bromide binding in vanadate-dependent bromoperoxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraehmer, Verena; Rehder, Dieter

    2012-05-01

    Treatment of Boc-protected (S)-serine (Ser) methyl ester with triphenylphosphine bromide Ph(3)PBr (intermittently generated from PPh(3) and N-bromosuccinimide) yields Boc-3-bromoalanine (R)-Boc-BrAlaMe and, after deprotection, bromoalanine methyl ester (R)-BrAlaMe in the form of its hydrobromide. Boc-BrAlaMe and BrAlaMe have been structurally characterised. The reaction between BrAlaMe, salicylaldehyde (sal) and VO(2+) results in the formation of Schiff base complexes of composition [VO(sal-BrAlaMe)solv](+) (solv = CH(3)OH: 3, THF: 5) and [VO(sal-BrAla)THF] 4. DFT calculations of the structures of 3, 4 and 5, based on the B3LYP functional and employing the triple zeta basis set 6-311++g(d,p), provide distances Br···V = 4.0 ± 0.1 Å, if some distortion of the dihedral angle ∠N-C-C-Br is allowed (affording a maximum energy of ca. 45 kJ mol(-1)), and thus model Br···V distances detected by X-ray methods in bromoperoxidases from the marine algae Ascophyllum nodosum and Corallina pilulifera. The DFT calculations have been validated by comparing calculated and found structures, including the new complex [V(V)O(Amp-sal)OMe(MeOH)] (1, Amp is the aminophenol moiety) and the known complex [VO(L-Ser-van)H(2)O] (van = vanillin). Additional validation has been undertaken by checking experimental against calculated (BHandHLYP) EPR spectroscopic hyperfine coupling constants. Complexes containing bromine as a substituent at the phenyl moiety of a Schiff base ligand do not allow for an appropriate simulation of the Br···V distance in peroxidases. The closest agreement, d(Br···V) = 4.87 Å, is achieved with [VO(3Br-salSer)THF] (6), where 3Brsal-Ser is the dianionic Schiff base formed between 3-Br-5-NO(2)-salicylaldehyde and serine. PMID:22415551

  5. Formation of bromate during ferrate(VI) oxidation of bromide in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Deng, Yang; Liu, Shuang; Song, Yali; Li, Nanzhu; Zhou, Jizhi

    2016-07-01

    Ferrate (VI) is traditionally recognized as a safe oxidant without production of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). However, here we detected probable carcinogenic bromate (BrO3(-)) during ferrate(VI) oxidation of bromide (Br(-))-containing water, and evaluated the effects of pH, ferrate(VI) dose, initial Br(-) concentration, and co-existing anions on the BrO3(-) formation. BrO3(-) was produced at a moderately-weakly acidic pH condition and in the absence of phosphate that was commonly applied as a buffer and stabilizing agent in previous ferrate(VI) studies. At pH 5.0, the produced BrO3(-) was increased from 12.5 to 273.8 μg/L with the increasing initial Br(-) concentration from 200 to 1000 μg/L at 10 mg/L Fe(VI), corresponding to an increase in the molar conversion ([BrO3(-)]/initial [Br(-)]) from 2.3% to 10.3%, in a bicarbonate-buffered solution. As pH increased to 7.0, the BrO3(-) concentration gradually dropped. The BrO3(-) production appeared to be associated with the oxidation by high valence iron species (i.e. Fe(VI), Fe(V) and Fe(IV)). Two key intermediate products (i.e. hypobromous acid/hypobromite (HOBr/OBr(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)) relevant to the bromate formation were identified. The production of HOBr, a requisite intermediate for the ensuing bromate formation, was indirectly validated through identification of bromine-containing trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids during ferrate oxidation in a natural water, though these bromo-organic DBPs produced were insignificant. Furthermore, the inhibition effects of various anions on the formation of BrO3(-) followed chloride H2O2 was detected at higher phosphate concentration. It could reduce HOBr to Br(-), thereby inhibiting the bromate formation. PMID:27153235

  6. Effect of pinaverium bromide on stress-induced colonic smooth muscle contractility disorder in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Dai; Jian-Xiang Liu; Jun-Xia Li; Yun-Feng Xu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of pinaverium bromide, a Ltype calcium channel blocker with selectivity for the gastrointestinal tract on contractile activity of colonic circular smooth muscle in normal or cold-restraint stressed rats and its possible mechanism.METHODS: Cold-restraint stress was conducted on rats to increase fecal pellets output. Each isolated colonic circular muscle strip was suspended in a tissue chamber containing warm oxygenated Tyrode-Ringer solution. The contractile response to ACh or KCl was measured isometrically on inkwriting recorder. Incubated muscle in different concentrations of pinaverium and the effects of pinaverium were investigated on ACh or KCl-induced contraction. Colon smooth muscle cells were cultured from rats and [Ca2+]i was measured in cell suspension using the Ca2+ fluorescent dye fura-2/AlMl.RESULTS: During stress, rats fecal pellet output increased 61% (P<0.01). Stimulated with ACh or KCl, the muscle contractility was higher in stress than that in control. Pinaverium inhibited the increment of [Ca2+]i and the muscle contraction in response to ACh or KCl in a dose dependent manner. A significant inhibition of pinaverium to ACh or KCl induced [Ca2+]i increment was observed at 10-6 mol/L. The IC50 values for inhibition of ACh induced contraction for the stress and control group were 1.66×10-6 mol/L and 0.91×10-6mol/L, respectively. The ICs0 values for inhibition of KCl induced contraction for the stress and control group were 8.13×10-7 mol/L and 3.80×10-7 mol/L, respectively.CONCLUSION: Increase in [Ca2+]i of smooth muscle cells is directly related to the generation of contraction force in colon. L-type Ca2+ channels represent the main route of Ca2+ entry.Pinaverium inhibits the calcium influx through L-type channels;decreases the contractile response to many kinds of agonists and regulates the stress-induced colon hypermotility.

  7. Tiotropium bromide in the routine care of GOLD stage II COPD patients: a pharmaeconomic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orietta Zaniolo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: a secondary pre-specified analysis of the UPLIFT cohort demonstrated that the inclusion of tiotropium bromide in the routine care of GOLD stage II (moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients is associated with stronger improvements of survival, quality of life, and exacerbation rate than those shown in the total cohort; in this subgroup, tiotropium furthermore induces a significant reduction in the rate of FEV1 decline.Objective: to adapt the Spiriva® model, originally built to evaluate cost-effectiveness of tiotropium inclusion in the general COPD population, to GOLD II patients.Methods: the Spiriva® model is a probabilistic Markov patient-level simulation developed over a lifetime horizon to compare outcomes associated with the inclusion of tiotropium in routine care (RC for COPD treatment with those obtained with RC alone. Patients are characterised by gender, age, height, smoking status and FEV1. Model structure and sources have been maintained unvaried, except for demographic characteristics, specific for GOLD II patients, as extrapolated from an Italian observational study, and tiotropium efficacy, based on the secondary analysis of GOLD II UPLIFT patients. As in the original model, only direct health care costs are considered.Results: patients treated with tiotropium on average (95% CI gain 0.70 (0.00/7.23 LYs or 0.77 (0.02/4.67 QALYs compared to RC. The incremental lifetime cost is € 3,520 (-6,391/26,686, meaning that the incremental cost required to gain a QALY (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio – ICER is equal to € 4,548. Sensitivity analysis shows that tiotropium has a 50% probability of being cost-effective for a willingness-to-pay (WTP around 4,600 €/QALY; 100% probability is achieved with a WTP of € 9,300.Conclusions: the adoption of a strategy based on the inclusion of tiotropium from the early COPD stages represents good value for money in Italy, as the ICER estimated for GOLD II

  8. COMPARISON OF ONSET TIME, DURATION OF ACTION AND INTUBATING CONDITION SACHIEVED WITH SUXAMETHONIUM AND ROCURONIUM BROMIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit P

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adverse event profile ofSuxamethonium which is still the relaxant of choice to facilitate tracheal intubation inspired us to conduct a study in which we compared Onset time, Duration of Action and Intubating Conditions Achieved with Suxametho nium and Rocuronium Bromide with the Help of TOF Guard. AIMS : W e compared the onset of relaxation time, intubating condition, and duration of action, the cardiovascular effect, side effects between Suxamethonium and Rocuronium to ascertain the place of Rocu ronium as a relaxant for rapid sequence intubation as compared to the Suxamethonium. METHODS AND MATERIAL : The present study was carried out with the association of Department of Anesthesiology, S.S. Medical College and Associated S.G.M. and G.M. Hospitals, Rewa (M.P., and Departmen t of Pharmacology NSCB Medical C ollege Jabalpur (M.P. in 100 patients of either sex of ASA grade I and II between the ages of 16 to 70 years. The patients were randomly divided in two groups of 50 each. Group I & II received Sux amethonium 1.5 mg/kg B.W. or Rocuronium 1.0 mg/kg B.W. RESULTS : Onset time of maximum relaxation is < 60 seconds in each relaxants under study i.e. Rocuronium 1 mg/kg and Suxamethonium 1.5 mg/kg. Intubating conditions after Rocuronium 1 mg/kg are clinically acceptable in 100% of cases and are equivalent to that after Suxamethonium 1.5 mg/kg. Rocuronium upto dose of 1 mg/kg does not have any clinically significant cardiovascular effect. Rocuronium does not have any side effects including the sign of histamine release and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions. Duration of action after Rocuronium 1 mg/kg is about 2346.4 seconds (39.14 minutes so it is not suitable for surgeries of short duration. CONCLUSIONS : Rocuronium can replace Suxamethonium for rapid sequ ence intubation in conditions where use of Suxamethonium is eithe r hazardous or contraindicated p rovided there is no anticipated difficulty in intubation.

  9. Once-daily glycopyrronium bromide, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review of clinical benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrik CS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Charlotte Suppli UlrikDepartment of Pulmonary Medicine, Hvidovre Hospital and University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkBackground: Long-acting bronchodilators are central in the pharmacological management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the studies evaluating the safety and clinical efficacy of inhaled glycopyrronium bromide, a novel long-acting muscarinic antagonist, in patients with COPD.Methods: This study was performed as a systematic literature review.Results: Inhaled glycopyrronium bromide seems to be a safe and well tolerated long-acting muscarinic antagonist with a fast onset of action. In patients suffering from moderate to severe COPD, glycopyrronium bromide has clinically important effects on level of forced expiratory volume in one second, use of relief medication, percentage of days with no use of rescue medication, daytime dyspnea scores, and probably also on health status. Furthermore, in this group of patients, glycopyrronium bromide has beneficial effects on dynamic hyperinflation and exercise tolerance. Glycopyrronium bromide has been shown to reduce the rate of exacerbations in patients with moderate to severe COPD, but long-term controlled trials with exacerbation rate as the primary outcome variable have not been published yet.Conclusion: Once-daily inhaled glycopyrronium bromide has characteristics important for use in COPD, including a fast onset of action, sustained 24-hour bronchodilatation, and improvement in exercise tolerance, and therefore appears to have the potential for a significant role in the future management of COPD.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, glycopyrronium bromide, long-acting bronchodilators

  10. CdTe quantum dots functionalized with 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxide as luminescent nanoprobe for the sensitive recognition of bromide ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adegoke, Oluwasesan [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Hosten, Eric; McCleland, Cedric [Department of Chemistry, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (South Campus), Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Nyokong, Tebello, E-mail: t.nyokong@ru.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa)

    2012-04-06

    Graphical abstract: A bromide ion-selective modified nanoprobe sensor based on 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxide (4AT)-functionalized CdTe quantum dots (QDs-4AT) showed a high selectivity and sensitivity for the determination of bromide ion using fluorescence recovery. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Water soluble CdTe quantum dots interact with tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum dots fluorescence is quenched by the radical. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the presence of bromide ions the fluorescence is restored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensor is more selective to bromine ions than other common ions. - Abstract: A novel bromide ion-selective modified nanoprobe sensor based on 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxide (4AT)-functionalized CdTe quantum dots (QDs-4AT) has been developed. Fluorescence quenching of the QDs by 4AT was observed. The functionalized QDs-4AT nanoprobe allowed a highly sensitive determination of bromide ion via analyte-induced change in the photoluminescence (fluorescence recovery) of the modified QDs. A detection limit of 0.6 nM of bromide ion was obtained, while the interfering effect of other inorganic cations and anions was investigated to examine the selectivity of the nanoprobe. The linear range was between 0.01 and 0.13 {mu}M. Combined fluorescence lifetime and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements confirmed electron transfer processes between bromide ion and QDs-4AT.

  11. Titrimetric, spectrophotometric and kinetic methods for the assay of atenolol using bromate–bromide and methyl orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANAKAPURA BASAVAIAH

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new methods have been developed for the determination of atenolol in bulk drug and in tablet formulation. The methods are based on the oxidation–bromination reaction of the drug by bromine, generated in situ by the action of acid on a bromate–bromide mixture. In the titrimetric method, the drug is treated with a known excess of bromate–bromide mixture in hydrochloric acid medium, followed by the determination of the unreacted bromine iodometrically. The spectrophotometric method involves the addition of a measured excess of bromate–bromide reagent in hydrochloric acid medium to atenolol, and after ensuring the reaction had gone to completion, the unreacted bromine is treated with a fixed amount of methyl orange, and absorbance measured at 520 nm. The absorbance was found to increase linearly with increasing concentration of atenolol. The kinetic method depends on the existence of a linear relationship between the concentration of the drug and the time of the oxidation–bromination reaction, as indicated by the bleaching of methyl orange acid colour. The working conditions were optimized. The titrimetric method is based on a 1:1 reaction stoichiometry (atenolol:bromate and is applicable over the 3–20 mg range. The spectrophotometric method permits micro determination of the drug (0.5–4.0 mg ml-1with an apparentmolar absorptivity of 4.13x104 lmol-1 cm-1 and detection limit of 0.07 mg ml-1. The kinetic method is applicable in the concentration range 5–25 mg ml-1 with a detection limit of 3.72 mg ml-1. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of atenolol in tablet preparations with mean recoveries of 97.63 to 101.78 %. The reliability of the assay was established by parallel determination by the reference method and by recovery studies using the standard addition technique.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and thermal properties of new aromatic quaternary ammonium bromides: precursors for ionic liquids and complexation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busi, Sara; Lahtinen, Manu; Ropponen, Jarmo; Valkonen, Jussi; Rissanen, Kari

    2004-10-01

    Series of new aromatic R2R‧2N+Br- (R=benzyl, 4-methylbenzyl, 2-phenylethyl, 3-phenylpropyl; R‧=ethyl, methyl, isopropyl) or RR‧2NH+Br--type (R=benzyl, R‧=isopropyl) quaternary ammonium bromides were prepared by using novel synthetic route in which a formamide (N,N-diethylformamide, N,N-dimethylformamide, N,N-diisopropylformamide) is treated with aralkyl halide in presence of a weak base. The compounds were characterized by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Structures of the crystalline compounds were determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction, and in addition the powder diffraction method was used to study the structural similarities between the single crystal and microcrystalline bulk material. Three of the compounds crystallized in monoclinic, two in orthorhombic and one in triclinic crystal system, showing ion pairs, which are interconnected by weak hydrogen bonds and weak π - π interactions between the phenyl rings. Three of the compounds appeared as viscous oil or waxes. Finally, TG/DTA and DSC methods were used to analyze thermal properties of the prepared compounds. The lowest melting points were obtained for diethyldi-(2-phenylethyl)ammonium bromide (122.2 °C) and for diethyldi-(3-phenylpropyl)-ammonium bromide (109.1 °C). In general, decomposition of the compounds started at 170-190 °C without identifiable cleavages, thus liquid ranges of 30-70 °C were observed for some of the compounds.

  13. A comparison of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide adsorbed at mica/water and silica/water interfaces using neutron reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Lucy R; Browning, Kathryn L; Truscott, Chris L; Clifton, Luke A; Webster, John; Clarke, Stuart M

    2016-09-15

    The layer structure of the dichain alkyl ammonium surfactant, didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), adsorbed from water on to silica and mica surfaces has been determined using neutron reflection. Although sometimes considered interchangeable surfaces for study, we present evidence of significant differences in the adsorbed layer structure below the critical micelle concentration. A complete DDAB bilayer was assembled at the water/mica interface at concentrations below the critical micelle concentration (CMC). In contrast it is not until the CMC was reached that the complete bilayer structure formed on the oxidised silicon crystal. Removal of the complete bilayer on both surfaces was attempted by both washing and ion exchange yet the adsorbed structure proved tenacious.

  14. Efficacy and safety of eco-friendly inhalers: focus on combination ipratropium bromide and albuterol in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos RJ

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ralph J Panos1,2 1Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine Division, Cincinnati Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine Division, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and its treatment is critical to improve quality of life, reduce symptoms, and diminish the frequency of COPD exacerbations. Due to the harmful environmental effects of pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs, newer systems for delivering respiratory medications have been developed. Methods: A search of the literature in the PubMed database was undertaken using the keywords “COPD,” “albuterol,” “ipratropium bromide,” and “Respimat® Soft Mist Inhaler™”; pertinent references within the identified citations were included. The environmental effect of CFC-pMDIs, the invention of the Respimat® Soft Mist Inhaler™ (SMI (Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany, and its use to deliver the combination of albuterol and ipratropium bromide for the treatment of COPD were reviewed. Results: The adverse environmental effects of CFC-pMDIs stimulated the invention of novel delivery systems including the Respimat SMI. This review presents its development, internal mechanism, and use to deliver the combination of albuterol and ipratropium bromide. Conclusion: CFC-pMDIs contributed to the depletion of the ozone layer and the surge in disorders caused by harmful ultraviolet B radiation. The banning of CFCs spurred the development of novel delivery systems for respiratory medications. The Respimat SMI is an innovative device that produces a vapor of inhalable droplets with reduced velocity and prolonged aerosol duration that enhance deposition within the lower airway and is associated with improved patient satisfaction. Clinical trials have demonstrated that the Respimat SMI

  15. Non-conservative behavior of bromide in surface waters and brines of Central Andes : a release into the atmosphere ?

    OpenAIRE

    Risacher, François; Fritz, B; Alonso, H.

    2006-01-01

    The transfer of reactive bromine into the atmosphere was recently observed by Honninger et al. [Honninger, G., Bobrowski, N., Palenque, E.R., Torrez, R., Platt, U., 2004. Reactive bromine and sulfur emission at salar de Uyuni, Bolivia. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, doi:10.1029/2003GL018818] in a large salt pan of the Bolivian Altiplano: the salar de Uyuni. However, bromide is considered to be an excellent conservative tracer, which leads to the questioning of its actual conservation in surficial ge...

  16. Investigating Two-Photon-Induced Fluorescence in Rhodamine-6G in Presence of Cetyl-Trimethyl-Ammonium-Bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Sandeep Kumar; Yadav, Dheerendra; Goswami, Debabrata

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the effect of cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium-bromides (CTAB) concentration on the fluorescence of Rhodamine-6G in water. This spectroscopic study of Rhodamine-6G in presence of CTAB was performed using two-photon-induced-fluorescence at 780 nm wavelength using high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses. We report an increment of ∼10 % in the fluorescence in accordance with ∼12 % enhancement in the absorption intensity of the dye molecule around the critical micellar concentration. We discuss the possible mechanism for the enhancement in the two-photon fluorescence intensity and the importance of critical micellar concentration. PMID:27324955

  17. The application of pancuronium bromide (Pavulon) forensic analyses to tissue samples from an "Angel of Death" investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Brian D; Alcaraz, Armando; Grant, Patrick M

    2005-01-01

    The case report of a serial killer who worked at several hospitals as a respiratory therapist is presented. The suspect was initially labeled a benevolent Angel of Death who ended the suffering of elderly patients through mercy killing. However, his subsequently declared motive for homicide was very different from other similar cases in medical settings. The application of new analysis techniques for the detection of pancuronium bromide in a series of aged exhumation tissues gave positive results and led to the resultant conviction of the therapist.

  18. Solid-phase plate-reader quantification of specific PCR products by measurement of band-specific ethidium bromide fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Michael T; O'Callaghan, Christopher A

    2014-02-15

    Real-time PCR is widely employed to quantify PCR products across a range of applications. However, accurate real-time PCR is not always technically feasible, and alternative methods for PCR product quantification can be expensive and time consuming to validate. We have developed an inexpensive, rapid, and immediately accessible protocol to quantify PCR products, by measuring ethidium bromide fluorescence of PCR products excised from agarose gels. This protocol has relevance to a broad range of methods in molecular biology where quantification of PCR products is necessary.

  19. Motor effects of locally administered pinaverium bromide in the sigmoid tract of patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaretti, S; Sorghi, M; Colombo, E; Mazzotti, G; Tittobello, A; Guslandi, M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of pinaverium bromide, a non-absorbable antispasmodic agent, administered locally, on sigmoid-rectal motility was investigated in 20 patients with irritable bowel syndrome. The influence of either pinaverium (10 subjects) or placebo (10 subjects) on a neostigmine-induced increase of sigmoid pressure was assessed and compared by means of computerized electromanometry. The drug was found to counteract significantly the motor effects of neostigmine, thus appearing to be an effective compound for the treatment of functional disorders of the colon. PMID:2744907

  20. 1-Carboxymethyl-1′-carboxylatomethyl-3,3′-[p-phenylenebis(oxymethylene]dipyridinium bromide dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Cheng Pan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title salt, C22H21N2O6+·Br−·2H2O, pairs of betaine molecules are bridged by protons (the bridging proton is disordered, forming strong and symmetrical O—H...O hydrogen bonds, leading to an infinite chain along the b axis. The water molecules are linked to the betaine molecule and the bromide ion through O—H...O and O—H...Br interactions. The central ring, located on an inversion centre, makes dihedral angles of 1.2 (2° with the outer rings. One of the carboxylic acid groups is deprotonated.

  1. Study of the Ion Channel Behavior of Didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide Formed Bilayer Lipid Membrane Stimulated by PF-6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG,Yue-Hong; HAN,Xiao-Jun; WANG,Er-Kang

    2003-01-01

    Bilayer lipid membranes ( BLM ) formed from didodecyldimethylammonium bromide were made on the freshly exposed surface ofa glassy carbon (GC) ani were demonstrated by the ac impedance spectroscopy. The ion channels of membrane properties induced by PF6- were studied by the cyclic voltammetric methods.Experimental results indicated that the ion channel of BLM was open in the presence of the PF6- due to the interaction of PF6- with the BLM, while it was switched offin the absence of PF6-. Because the ion channel behavior was affected by the concentration of PF6-,a sensor for PF6- can be developed.

  2. Small angle neutron scattering studies of mixed micelles of sodium cumene sulphonate with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulphate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K V Padalkar; V G Gaikar; V K Aswal

    2008-11-01

    The aqueous solutions of sodium cumene sulphonate (NaCS) and its mixtures with each of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) are characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). NaCS when added to CTAB solution leads to the formation of long rod-shaped micelles with a dramatic increase in the CTAB aggregation number. Its addition to SDS on the other hand results in the formation of smaller mixed micelles where part of SDS molecules in the micelle is replaced by NaCS molecules.

  3. New air-stable planar chiral ferrocenyl monophosphine ligands: Suzuki cross-coupling of aryl chlorides and bromides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Feldthusen; Johannsen, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    GraphicA novel class of planar chiral electron-rich monophosphine ligands has been developed. The modular design allows a short and efficient synthesis of an array of aryl-ferrocenyl derivatives carrying the donating bis(dicyclohexyl)phosphino moiety. These new ligands have successfully been appl...... applied in the palladium-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling of activated as well as nonactivated aryl chlorides at room temperature. The asymmetric coupling of an aryl bromide and an aryl boronic acid was also tested, giving ees up to 54%....

  4. 罗库溴铵合成路线图解%Graphical Synthetic Routes of Rocuronium Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严慧; 邱飞; 刁勇

    2011-01-01

    @@ 罗库溴铵(rocuronium bromide,1),化学名为1-[(2β,3α,5α,16β,17β)-17-(乙酰氧基)-3-羟基-2-(4-吗啉基)雄甾烷-16-基]-1-(2-丙烯基)吡咯烷鎓溴化物,是荷兰Organon公司研发的一种非去极化甾醇类肌肉松弛药,1994年6月首次在美国上市.

  5. Investigation of Surfactant-Stain-Metal Interaction: Naphthochrome Green/Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide/Rare Earths Ternary Complexation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑立新; 沈荣; 郜洪文

    2003-01-01

    The ternary interaction of naphthochrome green (NCG) with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and rare earths (Res: Yb, Dy, Er and Eu) has been investigated with the microsurface adsorption-spectral correction technique (MSASC). The aggregation of NCG on CTAB obeys the Langmuir isothermal adsorption. The enrichment of NCG on CTAB and the presence of NaCl sensitize the complexation between Res and NCG. Both the binary aggregate and the ternary complex were characterized in the presence and absence of NaCl at pH 8.30 at 20 and 40℃.

  6. Role of intravenously administered hyoscine butyl bromide in retrograde terminal ileoscopy: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SP Misra; M Dwivedi

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To evaluated the role of hyoscine butyl bromide in facilitating retrograde ileoscopy.METHODS:Retrograde terminal ileoscopy was attempted in 200 consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy. After intubation of the cecum and visualization of the ileocecal valve,butyl bromide injection or normal saline was given intravenously to the patients in a double blind random fashion. The pulse rate and oxygen saturation were measured continuously. After completion of the procedure,endoscopists were then asked to score the ease of intubation and the ease of visualization of the terminal ileum on a visual scale of 1 to 10. The patients were also asked to score the pain after receiving hyoscine butyl bromide injection on a score of 1 to 10.RESULTS:Terminal ileoscopy could be performed in 188 patients. The mean (SD) visual analogue score for the ease of intubation of the cecum was 7.4 (0.65) in the injection group and 5.9 (0.8) in the placebo group (P<0.001). The mean (SD) length of ileum visualized in the injection group was 14.4 (3.3) cm and 10.4 (2.7) cm in the placebo group (P<0.001). The mean (SD) visual analogue score for ease of visualization of the terminal ileum was 7.5 (0.69) in the injection group and 5.9 (0.7) in the placebo group (P<0.001). The pain score experienced by the patients was 6.5 (0.7) in the injection group and 6.7 (0.69) in the placebo group (P<0.008). Although the pulse rate increased significantly in patients receiving the drug,no statistically significant difference was noted in the oxygen saturation between the two groups either before or after administration of the drug. No complications were observed in either of the groups.CONCLUSION:Hyoscine butyl bromide injection is a useful adjunct in helping the intubation and visualizationof terminal ileum during colonoscopy.

  7. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  8. A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of pinaverium bromide in human plasma: application to a pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jin-Min; Zhao, Xi; Wang, Chuan-Ping; Sun, Qian; Yin, Li-Xin; Zhang, Zhi-Qing

    2011-12-01

    A sensitive and specific method using liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of pinaverium bromide in human plasma was developed and validated. Pinaverium bromide and an internal standard (paclitaxel) were isolated from plasma samples by precipitating plasma, and determined by LC-MS/MS in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The main metabolite of pinaverium bromide and endogenous substances in plasma did not show any interference. The calibration curve was linear over the plasma concentration range of 10.0-10000.0 pg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9979. The relative standard derivations intra- and inter-day at 30.0, 300.0 and 8000.0 pg/mL in plasma were less than 15%. The absolute recoveries of pinaverium bromide and the internal standard were 99.7-111.7 and 106.2%, respectively. The lower limit of quantitation was 10 pg/mL. The analytical method was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetics of pinaverium bromide tablets in healthy Chinese volunteers. PMID:21308709

  9. Recent actions taken on methyl bromide under the Montreal Protocol: Their potential economic implications on international trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methyl bromide (MB) produced and used by man is a versatile, highly effective, fastacting fumigant employed in a number of important ways to kill organisms destructive to plants. A wide spectrum of commodities is treated with MB. The compound is unique in that it provides a wide range of pest control, may be applied to a broad spectrum of both food and non-food commodities, can be used for fumigation of large and small quantities of materials, and, when applied properly, leaves no residues of toxicological significance. Recently, this compound has come under scientific scrutiny and has been identified as a potentially potent ozone depleting chemical. As a result, countries operating under the Montreal Protocol will be restricting its use, and, in some cases, eliminating its use altogether. To date there are no alternative chemical fumigants to replace methyl bromide. Non-chemical treatments such as irradiation, hot and cold treatments, modified atmosphere, etc., are the most promising. The paper focuses on the magnitude of the economic consequences on international trade and the necessity to have available alternative treatments that are highly effective, fast-acting, and practical. 8 refs, 12 tabs

  10. Linear optical properties and their bond length dependence of yttrium bromide from ab initio and density functional theory calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alipour, Mojtaba, E-mail: malipour@shirazu.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohajeri, Afshan, E-mail: amohajeri@shirazu.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-08-25

    Graphical abstract: The electronic properties such as the static dipole polarizability, anisotropy of the polarizability, and dipole moment of yttrium bromide, YBr (X{sup 1}{Sigma}) have been theoretically studied. Highlights: {yields} Conventional ab initio and density functional theory methods were employed to study linear optical properties of YBr molecule. {yields} Properties derivatives and their level of theory dependence were studied. {yields} Electron correlation effects and rovibrational corrections have also been discussed. - Abstract: We have employed conventional ab initio and density functional theory methods to study the electronic properties such as the mean static dipole polarizability, {alpha}-bar, anisotropy of the polarizability, {Delta}{alpha}, and dipole moment, {mu}, of yttrium bromide. The bond length dependence of properties is determined at different levels of theory and appropriate expansions around experimental internuclear distance have been presented. Moreover, the first and second geometrical derivatives for each property are quantified and their level of theory dependence has been analyzed. To study the effect of molecular rotation and vibration on the electronic properties, the rovibrational corrections have also been carried out. It is found that these corrections are less pronounced for considered properties of YBr. In all calculations, the electron correlation effects have been considered and discussed. The obtained results show that the electron correlation is more significant in the calculation of the mean and the anisotropy of dipole polarizability.

  11. Photoinduced Dissociation Of N-alkyl Bromides On Gallium Arsenide(110) And Gallium Arsenide(100) Electron And Fragment Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, K A

    1999-01-01

    In this study we investigate the UV-initiated electron transfer and dissociation fragment dynamics of selected n-alkyl bromides physisorbed on single crystals of GaAs. By systematically varying different chemical and structural parameters of the adsorbate/substrate system we explore a number of fundamental questions regarding the basic physics and chemistry of photochemical processes on surfaces. Monolayers of methyl, ethyl and propyl bromide were deposited on the (110), Ga-terminated (100) and As- terminated (100) surfaces of GaAs without thermal decomposition at 80 K. Substrate-mediated electron transfer to the molecule, induced by exposure to UV light at 193, 248 and 351 nm, causes C-Br bond cleavage. The electron transfer dynamics of this mechanism are examined as a function of wavelength and molecular complexity of the adsorbate to better understand the flow of energy and charge across the adsorbate/substrate interface. The photodynamics of the alkyl fragments are studied using mass-, energy- and angle-r...

  12. Study on the toxicity of sodium bromide to different fresh water organisms. [Scenedesmus pannonicus; Daphnia magna; Poecilia reticulata; Oryzias latipas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canton, J.H.; Wester, P.W.; Mathijssen-Spiekman, E.A.

    1983-08-01

    The toxicity of sodium bromide for fresh water organisms was tested using algae (Scenedesmus pannonicus), crustaceans (Daphnia magna) and fish (Poecilia reticulata and Oryzias latipes). Depending on the species tested, the acute toxicity varied from 44 to 5800 mg Br-/litre (EC50 values) and the No Observed Effect Concentrations (NOEC values) in the long-term tests varied from 7.8 to 250 mg Br-/litre. Bromide ion markedly impaired reproduction in both crustaceans and fish. Histologically no effects were observed in the long-term test with Oryzias, but in the reproduction test with Poecilia, hyperplasia of the thyroid, atrophy and degeneration of the musculature and regressive changes in the female reproductive tract were observed. As a criterion of water quality, 1 mg Br-/litre has been proposed, on the basis of reproductive performance in the Poecilia test. The concentrations found in surface water frequently exceed this value and sometimes reach levels at which acute effects on water organisms can be expected.

  13. The Efficacy and Safety of Topical Rocuronium Bromide to Induce Bilateral Mydriasis in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baine, Katherine; Hendrix, Diane V H; Kuhn, Sonia E; Souza, Marcy J; Jones, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    The efficacy and safety of topically applied rocuronium in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) was assessed in a group of 10 adult birds. A complete ophthalmic examination (including Schirmer tear test, ocular reflexes, applanation tonometry, fluorescein staining, and slit-lamp biomicroscopy) was performed, and rocuronium bromide (0.15 mg in both eyes) was administered. Pupillary light reflex (PLR) and pupillary diameter were recorded in a darkened room at the following time points: 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 300, and 360 minutes, and 24 hours. Fluorescein staining in both eyes was performed at 24 hours. By 10 minutes, PLR was absent in all birds (at 5 minutes, 8 birds; at 10 minutes, remaining 2 birds). Pupil diameter differed significantly from baseline at all time points. Additionally, PLR was decreased in 7/10 birds at 360 minutes and normal in all birds at 24 hours. Superficial corneal ulceration was observed at 24 hours in the left eye of 2/10 of the birds after fluorescein stain application. This study demonstrated that rocuronium bromide was an effective mydriatic agent in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots with rapid onset and prolonged duration of action. PMID:27088739

  14. The Efficacy and Safety of Topical Rocuronium Bromide to Induce Bilateral Mydriasis in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baine, Katherine; Hendrix, Diane V H; Kuhn, Sonia E; Souza, Marcy J; Jones, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    The efficacy and safety of topically applied rocuronium in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) was assessed in a group of 10 adult birds. A complete ophthalmic examination (including Schirmer tear test, ocular reflexes, applanation tonometry, fluorescein staining, and slit-lamp biomicroscopy) was performed, and rocuronium bromide (0.15 mg in both eyes) was administered. Pupillary light reflex (PLR) and pupillary diameter were recorded in a darkened room at the following time points: 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 300, and 360 minutes, and 24 hours. Fluorescein staining in both eyes was performed at 24 hours. By 10 minutes, PLR was absent in all birds (at 5 minutes, 8 birds; at 10 minutes, remaining 2 birds). Pupil diameter differed significantly from baseline at all time points. Additionally, PLR was decreased in 7/10 birds at 360 minutes and normal in all birds at 24 hours. Superficial corneal ulceration was observed at 24 hours in the left eye of 2/10 of the birds after fluorescein stain application. This study demonstrated that rocuronium bromide was an effective mydriatic agent in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots with rapid onset and prolonged duration of action.

  15. Sorption and transport studies of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)and Triton X-100 in clayey soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sivaram Harendra; Cumaraswamy Vipulanandan

    2013-01-01

    Surfactants are soil washing agents and facilitators for subsurface remediation of hydrocarbon spills.It is important to understand the sorption and transport behavior of surfactants for enhanced soil remediation.The adsorption and desorption isotherms of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and Triton X-100 with sand and kaolinite have been quantified.Kaolinite clay had the highest sorption capacity compared to blasting sand.Transport parameters such as diffusion coefficient (D) and retardation factor (R) of the above mentioned surfactant solutions were determined in clayey soils (82.5% sand and 17.5% kaolinite mixture) with near zero and 0.1 g/L ionic strength.NaCl was used as the electrolyte solution.Convection-Diffusion equation was used to model the breakthrough curves of the surfactants.Bromide ion was chosen as the tracer material in order to characterize the column.CTAB and Triton X-100 were used to flush the perchloroethylene (PCE) contaminated soil.The effectiveness of CTAB and Triton X-100 in flushing the PCE from the contaminated soil was quantified.

  16. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the simultaneous determination of ipratropium bromide, fenoterol, salbutamol and terbutaline in nebulizer solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, G A; Peterson, G M

    1994-06-01

    A reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography assay was developed for the simultaneous determination of ipratropium bromide, fenoterol hydrobromide, salbutamol sulphate and terbutaline sulphate in nebulizer solution. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a Nova-Pak C18 4 microns 10 cm x 8 mm i.d. Radial-pak cartridge inside a Waters RCM 8 x 10 compression module using ternary gradient analysis. Detection was performed using UV detection at 220 nm. The standard curves were linear over the following ranges: ipratropium bromide 20.8-250.0 micrograms ml-1, fenoterol hydrobromide 27.8-500.0 micrograms ml-1, salbutamol sulphate 34.7-2500.0 micrograms ml-1 and terbutaline sulphate 69.5-2500 micrograms ml-1. Inter-day and intra-day relative standard deviations for each compound ranged from 4.5-5.2% and 3.5-3.9%, respectively. The assay procedure was developed to allow the accurate determination of constituents in various combinations of nebulizer solution, as well as for stability indicating purposes. This provides a convenient means of testing long-term compatibility and stability following the post-manufacture mixing of commonly used nebulized preparations. PMID:7918785

  17. Interaction between dodecyl oxypropyl β-hydroxyltrimethylammonium bromide and Xanthan: MesoDyn simulation and binding isotherm measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    MesoDyn density functional simulation method is used to study the interactions between dodecyl oxypropyl β-hydroxyltrimethylammonium bromide (C12NBr) and Xanthan (XC). The micro dynamic process of aggregate formation and the aggregate morphology are reported. Interaction between XC and nonyphenyloxypropylβ-hydroxyltrimethylammonium bromide (C9phNBr) is compared with that between XC and C12NBr. Simulation results show that the aggregate morphology of XC/C12NBr and XC/C9phNBr is of rod-like shape with helix characteristic. The binding of C9phNBr to XC is more difficult than that of C12NBr to XC. In addition, three stages for the dynamic evolution of surfactant binding to XC are observed. The simulation results agree with binding isotherms of C9phNBr (C12NBr) to XC obtained via the potentiometric titration method, which shows a typical cooperative binding between C9phNBr (C12NBr) and XC.

  18. EURADOS action for determination of americium in skull measures in vivo and Monte Carlo simulation; Accion EURADOS para la determinacion de americio en craneo mediante medidas in-vivo y simulacion Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Ponte, M. A.; Navarro Amaro, J. F.; Perez Lopez, B.; Navarro Bravo, T.; Nogueira, P.; Vrba, T.

    2013-07-01

    From the Group of WG7 internal dosimetry of the EURADOS Organization (European Radiation Dosimetry group, e.V.) which It coordinates CIEMAT, international action for the vivo measurement of americium has been conducted in three mannequins type skull with detectors of Germanium by gamma spectrometry and simulation by Monte Carlo methods. Such action has been raised as two separate exercises, with the participation of institutions in Europe, America and Asia. Other actions similar precede this vivo intercomparison of measurement and modeling Monte Carlo1. The preliminary results and associated findings are presented in this work. The laboratory of the body radioactivity (CRC) of service counter of dosimetry staff internal (DPI) of the CIEMAT, it has been one of the participants in vivo measures exercise. On the other hand part, the Group of numerical dosimetry of CIEMAT is participant of the Monte Carlo2 simulation exercise. (Author)

  19. Critical and shielding parametric studies with the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI to identify the key points to take into account during the transportation of blanket assemblies with high ratio of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of French research program on Generation IV sodium cooled fast reactor, one possible option consists in burning minor actinides in this kind of Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor. Two types of transmutation mode are studied in the world : the homogeneous mode of transmutation where actinides are scattered with very low enrichment ratio in fissile assemblies and the heterogeneous mode where fissile core is surrounded by blanket assemblies filled with minor actinides with ratio of incorporated actinides up to 20%. Depending on which element is considered to be burnt and on its content, these minor actinides contents imply constraints on assemblies' transportation between Nuclear Power Plants and fuel cycle facilities. In this study, we present some academic studies in order to identify some key constraints linked to the residual power and neutron/gamma load of such kind of blanket assemblies. To simplify the approach, we considered a modeling of a 'model cask' dedicated to the transportation of a unique irradiated blanket assembly loaded with 20% of Americium and basically inspired from an existent cask designed initially for the damaged fissile Superphenix assembly transport. Thermal calculations performed with EDF-SYRTHES code have shown that due to thermal limitations on cladding temperature, the decay time to be considered before transportation is 20 years. This study is based on explicit 3D representations of the cask and the contained blanket assembly with the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI/JEFF3.1.1 library and concludes that after such a decay time, the transportation of a unique Americium radial blanket is feasible only if the design of our model cask is modified in order to comply with the dose limitation criterion. (author)

  20. Chlorination of bromide-containing waters: Enhanced bromate formation in the presence ofsynthetic metal oxides and deposits formed indrinking water distribution systems

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chao

    2013-09-01

    Bromate formation from the reaction between chlorine and bromide in homogeneous solution is a slow process. The present study investigated metal oxides enhanced bromate formation during chlorination of bromide-containing waters. Selected metal oxides enhanced the decay of hypobromous acid (HOBr), a requisite intermediate during the oxidation of bromide to bromate, via (i) disproportionation to bromate in the presence of nickel oxide (NiO) and cupric oxide (CuO), (ii) oxidation of a metal to a higher valence state in the presence of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and (iii) oxygen formation by NiO and CuO. Goethite (α-FeOOH) did not enhance either of these pathways. Non-charged species of metal oxides seem to be responsible for the catalytic disproportionation which shows its highest rate in the pH range near the pKa of HOBr. Due to the ability to catalyze HOBr disproportionation, bromate was formed during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in the presence of CuO and NiO, whereas no bromate was detected in the presence of Cu2O and α-FeOOH for analogous conditions. The inhibition ability of coexisting anions on bromate formation at pH 8.6 follows the sequence of phosphate>>sulfate>bicarbonate/carbonate. A black deposit in a water pipe harvested from a drinking water distribution system exerted significant residual oxidant decay and bromate formation during chlorination of bromide-containing waters. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses showed that the black deposit contained copper (14%, atomic percentage) and nickel (1.8%, atomic percentage). Cupric oxide was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). These results indicate that bromate formation may be of concern during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in distribution systems containing CuO and/or NiO. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.