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Sample records for americium 246

  1. Actinide Oxidation State and O/M Ratio in Hypostoichiometric Uranium-Plutonium-Americium U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x Mixed Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Lebreton, Florent; Aufore, Laurence; Scheinost, Andreas C; Martin, Philippe M

    2016-03-07

    Innovative americium-bearing uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x are envisioned as nuclear fuel for sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors (SFRs). The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio, directly related to the oxidation state of cations, affects many of the fuel properties. Thus, a thorough knowledge of its variation with the sintering conditions is essential. The aim of this work is to follow the oxidation state of uranium, plutonium, and americium, and so the O/M ratio, in U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x samples sintered for 4 h at 2023 K in various Ar + 5% H2 + z vpm H2O (z = ∼ 15, ∼ 90, and ∼ 200) gas mixtures. The O/M ratios were determined by gravimetry, XAS, and XRD and evidenced a partial oxidation of the samples at room temperature. Finally, by comparing XANES and EXAFS results to that of a previous study, we demonstrate that the presence of uranium does not influence the interactions between americium and plutonium and that the differences in the O/M ratio between the investigated conditions is controlled by the reduction of plutonium. We also discuss the role of the homogeneity of cation distribution, as determined by EPMA, on the mechanisms involved in the reduction process.

  2. Chemistry of americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1976-01-01

    Essential features of the descriptive chemistry of americium are reviewed. Chapter titles are: discovery, atomic and nuclear properties, collateral reading, production and uses, chemistry in aqueous solution, metal, alloys, and compounds, and, recovery, separation, purification. Author and subject indexes are included. (JCB)

  3. The Biokinetic Model of Americium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    To improve in vivo measurements for detecting internal exposure from transuranium radio nuclides, such as neptunium, plutonium, americium, the bioknetic model was studied. According to ICRP report (1993, 1995, 1997) and other research, the

  4. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  5. 5f-Electron Delocalization in Americium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1980-01-01

    The pressure-volume relation for americium has been obtained without adjustable parameters from self-consistent, spin-polarized band calculations. Around 100 kbar we find a first-order transition to a state with low volume and no spin. This is consistent with preliminary high-pressure measurements....

  6. The relative physiological and toxicological properties of americium and plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.E.; Busch, E.; Johnson, O. [and others

    1951-11-15

    The relative physiological and toxicological properties of americium and plutonium have been studied following their intravenous administration to rats. The urinary and fecal excretion of americium was similar to that of plutonium administered as Pu(N0{sub 3}){sub 4}. The deposition of americium the tissues and organs of the rat was also similar to that observed for plutonium. The liver and the skeleton were the major sites of deposition. Zirconium citrate administered 15 minutes after injection of americium increased the urinary excretion of americium and decreased the amount found in the liver and the skeleton at 4 and 16 days. LD{sub 30}{sup 50} studies showed americium was slightly less toxic when given in the acute toxic range than was plutonium. The difference was, however, too slight to be important in establishing a larger tolerance does for americium. Survival studies, hematological observations, bone marrow observations, comparison of tumor incidence and the incidence of skeletal abnormalities indicated that americium and plutonium have essentially the same chronic toxicity when given on an equal {mu}c. basis. These studies support the conclusion that the tolerance values for americium should be essentially the same as those for Plutonium.

  7. Surface complexation modeling of americium sorption onto volcanic tuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, M; Kelkar, S; Meijer, A

    2014-10-01

    Results of a surface complexation model (SCM) for americium sorption on volcanic rocks (devitrified and zeolitic tuff) are presented. The model was developed using PHREEQC and based on laboratory data for americium sorption on quartz. Available data for sorption of americium on quartz as a function of pH in dilute groundwater can be modeled with two surface reactions involving an americium sulfate and an americium carbonate complex. It was assumed in applying the model to volcanic rocks from Yucca Mountain, that the surface properties of volcanic rocks can be represented by a quartz surface. Using groundwaters compositionally representative of Yucca Mountain, americium sorption distribution coefficient (Kd, L/Kg) values were calculated as function of pH. These Kd values are close to the experimentally determined Kd values for americium sorption on volcanic rocks, decreasing with increasing pH in the pH range from 7 to 9. The surface complexation constants, derived in this study, allow prediction of sorption of americium in a natural complex system, taking into account the inherent uncertainty associated with geochemical conditions that occur along transport pathways.

  8. Self-irradiation and oxidation effects on americium sesquioxide and Raman spectroscopy studies of americium oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horlait, Denis [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Caraballo, Richard [CEA, DEN, DTCD/SECM/LMPA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Lebreton, Florent [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Jégou, Christophe [CEA, DEN, DTCD/SECM/LMPA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Roussel, Pascal [Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, UMR 8012 CNRS, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille BP 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Delahaye, Thibaud, E-mail: thibaud.delahaye@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France)

    2014-09-15

    Americium oxides samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, with an emphasis on their structural behavior under oxidation and self-irradiation. Raman spectra of americium dioxide (AmO{sub 2}) and sesquioxide (Am{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were obtained for the first time. With the help of literature data on isostructural oxides, Raman signatures of Ia-3 C-type Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} and P-3m1 A-type Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} are identified. For AmO{sub 2,} a clear band is noted at 390 cm{sup −1}. Its nature is compared to that of the other actinide dioxides. Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} evolution under ambient conditions and against {sup 241}Am α self-irradiation was monitored by powder XRD. The sample, initially composed of A-type Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} as major phase as well as C2/m B-type and C-type structures as minor phases, progressively oxidizes to Fm-3m AmO{sub 2−δ} over a few months. On the basis of diffractogram refinements, evolutions of unit cell volumes caused by self-irradiation are also determined and discussed. - Graphical abstract: The evolution of americium oxide under ambient conditions was monitored using XRD (X-ray diffraction) and Raman spectroscopy. After a thermal treatment under reducing conditions, a polyphasic sample mainly composed of A- and C-type americium sesquioxides is evidenced by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The sample then evolves through two processes: oxidation and self-irradiation. The first one provokes the progressive appearance of F-type americium dioxide while the initial phases disappear, whereas the main effect of the second is a structural swelling with time. - Highlights: • The first Raman spectroscopy measurements on americium oxides were performed. • Observed Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} Raman bands were identified thanks to data on analogue compounds. • AmO{sub 2} assumed T{sub 2g} band presents a shift compared to the actinide dioxide series. • Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} evolution under self-irradiation and oxidation was also

  9. Plutonium and Americium Geochemistry at Hanford: A Site Wide Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-08-23

    This report was produced to provide a systematic review of the state-of-knowledge of plutonium and americium geochemistry at the Hanford Site. The report integrates existing knowledge of the subsurface migration behavior of plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site with available information in the scientific literature regarding the geochemistry of plutonium and americium in systems that are environmentally relevant to the Hanford Site. As a part of the report, key research needs are identified and prioritized, with the ultimate goal of developing a science-based capability to quantitatively assess risk at sites contaminated with plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site and the impact of remediation technologies and closure strategies.

  10. Americium/Curium Disposition Life Cycle Planning Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, W.N. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Krupa, J.; Stutts, P.; Nester, S.; Raimesch, R.

    1998-04-30

    At the request of the Department of Energy Savannah River Office (DOE- SR), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) evaluated concepts to complete disposition of Americium and Curium (Am/Cm) bearing materials currently located at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  11. Higher Americium Oxidation State Research Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincher, Bruce J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Law, Jack D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Goff, George S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shehee, Thomas C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hobbs, David T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-18

    The partitioning of hexavalent Am from dissolved nuclear fuel requires the ability to efficiently oxidize Am(III) to Am(VI) and to maintain that oxidation state for a length of time sufficient to perform the separation. Several oxidants have been, or are being developed. Chemical oxidants include Ag-catalyzed ozone, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate, Cu(III) periodate, and sodium bismuthate. Hexavalent americium has also now successfully been prepared by electrolysis, using functionalized electrodes. So-called auto-reduction rates of Am(VI) are sufficiently slow to allow for separations. However, for separations based on solvent extraction or ion exchange using organic resins, the high valence state must be maintained under the reducing conditions of the organic phase contact, and a holding oxidant is probably necessary. Until now, only Cu(III) periodate and sodium bismuthate oxidation have been successfully combined with solvent extraction separations. Bismuthate oxidation provided the higher DAm, since it acts as its own holding oxidant, and a successful hot test using centrifugal contactors was performed. For the other oxidants, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate will not oxidize americium in nitric acid concentrations above 0.3 M, and it is not being further investigated. Peroxydisulfate in the absence of Ag catalysis is being used to prepare Am(V) in ion exchange work, discussed below. Preliminary work with Ag-catalyzed ozone has been unsuccessful for extractions of Am(VI) from 6.5 M HNO3, and only one attempt at extraction, also from 6.5 M HNO3, using the electrolytic oxidation has been attempted. However, this high acid concentration was based on the highest Am extraction efficiency using the bismuthate oxidant; which is only sparingly soluble, and thus the oxidation yield is based on bismuthate solubility. Lower acid concentrations may be sufficient with alternative oxidants and work with Ag-ozone, Cu(III) and electrolysis is on-going. Two non

  12. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  13. Pyrochemical investigations into recovering plutonium from americium extraction salt residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fife, K.W.; West, M.H.

    1987-05-01

    Progress into developing a pyrochemical technique for separating and recovering plutonium from spent americium extraction waste salts has concentrated on selective chemical reduction with lanthanum metal and calcium metal and on the solvent extraction of americium with calcium metal. Both techniques are effective for recovering plutonium from the waste salt, although neither appears suitable as a separation technique for recycling a plutonium stream back to mainline purification processes. 17 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Electrodeposition of americium and physicochemical behaviour of the solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerril-Vilchis, A. (Inst. Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, CMRI-LPR, Mexico City (Mexico)); Meas, Y. (CIDETEQ, Queretaro (Mexico)); Rojas-Hernandez, A. (Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Area de Electroquimica, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1994-01-01

    A new method based on concepts of generalized species and equilibria, was applied to represent the thermodynamic distribution of americium species (including condensed phases) in an electrochemical system. Diagrams of the predominance-zone, Existence-predominance and Pourbaix-type for the americium/support electrolyte/water system were constructed. On the basis of these diagrams, the initial distribution of the species in the electrolyte and the deposition conditions were predicted when a current density was applied to a rotating disc electrode in steady-state. These results were related with the Hansen model for actinide electrodeposition. (orig.)

  15. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plutonium and Americium from Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R.V.; Mincher, B.J.

    2002-05-23

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plutonium and americium from soil was successfully demonstrated using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide solvent augmented with organophosphorus and beta-diketone complexants. Spiked Idaho soils were chemically and radiologically characterized, then extracted with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide at 2,900 psi and 65 C containing varying concentrations of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). A single 45 minute SFE with 2.7 mol% TBP and 3.2 mol% TTA provided as much as 88% {+-} 6.0 extraction of americium and 69% {+-} 5.0 extraction of plutonium. Use of 5.3 mol% TBP with 6.8 mol% of the more acidic beta-diketone hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFA) provided 95% {+-} 3.0 extraction of americium and 83% {+-} 5.0 extraction of plutonium in a single 45 minute SFE at 3,750 psi and 95 C. Sequential chemical extraction techniques were used to chemically characterize soil partitioning of plutonium and americium in pre-SFE soil samples. Sequential chemical extraction techniques demonstrated that spiked plutonium resides primarily (76.6%) in the sesquioxide fraction with minor amounts being absorbed by the oxidizable fraction (10.6%) and residual fractions (12.8%). Post-SFE soils subjected to sequential chemical extraction characterization demonstrated that 97% of the oxidizable, 78% of the sesquioxide and 80% of the residual plutonium could be removed using SFE. These preliminary results show that SFE may be an effective solvent extraction technique for removal of actinide contaminants from soil.

  16. Thermodynamic systematics of oxides of americium, curium, and neighboring elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morss, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Recently-obtained calorimetric data on the sesquioxides and dioxides of americium and curium are summarized. These data are combined with other properties of the actinide elements to elucidate the stability relationships among these oxides and to predict the behavior of neighboring actinide oxides. 45 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  17. Reduction Rates for Higher Americium Oxidation States in Nitric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Travis Shane [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mincher, Bruce Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schmitt, Nicholas C [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The stability of hexavalent americium was measured using multiple americium concentrations and nitric acid concentrations after contact with the strong oxidant sodium bismuthate. Contrary to our hypotheses Am(VI) was not reduced faster at higher americium concentrations, and the reduction was only zero-order at short time scales. Attempts to model the reduction kinetics using zero order kinetic models showed Am(VI) reduction in nitric acid is more complex than the autoreduction processes reported by others in perchloric acid. The classical zero-order reduction of Am(VI) was found here only for short times on the order of a few hours. We did show that the rate of Am(V) production was less than the rate of Am(VI) reduction, indicating that some Am(VI) undergoes two electron-reduction to Am(IV). We also monitored the Am(VI) reduction in contact with the organic diluent dodecane. A direct comparison of these results with those in the absence of the organic diluent showed the reduction rates for Am(VI) were not statistically different for both systems. Additional americium oxidations conducted in the presence of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ions showed that Am(VI) is reduced without the typical growth of Am(V) observed in the systems sans Ce ion. This was an interesting result which suggests a potential new reduction/oxidation pathway for Am in the presence of Ce; however, these results were very preliminary, and will require additional experiments to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. Overall, these studies have shown that hexavalent americium is fundamentally stable enough in nitric acid to run a separations process. However, the complicated nature of the reduction pathways based on the system components is far from being rigorously understood.

  18. 48 CFR 246.710 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 246.710 Contract clauses. (1) Use a... Construction (Germany), instead of the clause at FAR 52.246-21, Warranty of Construction, in solicitations and... Germany....

  19. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture... Participant Benefits § 246.11 Nutrition education. (a) General. (1) Nutrition education shall be considered a benefit of the Program, and shall be made available at no cost to the participant. Nutrition...

  20. 48 CFR 2453.246 - Quality Assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Quality Assurance. 2453.246 Section 2453.246 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 2453.246 Quality Assurance....

  1. Research program on development of advanced treatment technology for americium-containing aqueous waste in NUCEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineo, Hideaki; Matsumura, Tatsuro; Tsubata, Yasuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-10-01

    A research program was prepared on the development of an advanced treatment process for the americium-containing concentrated aqueous waste in NUCEF, than allows americium recovery for the reuse and the reduction of TRU waste generation. A preliminary analysis was conducted on the separation requirements based on the components estimated for the waste. An R and D strategy was proposed from the view to reduce TRU waste generated in the processing that the highest priority is given on the control of TRU leakage such as americium into the effluent stream after americium recovery and the minimization of salt used in the separation over the decontamination of impurities from americium. The extraction chromatographic method was selected as a candidate technology for americium separation under the principle to use reagents that are functional in acidic conditions such as bidentate extractants of DHEDECMP, CMPO or diamides, considering the larger flexibilities in process modification and possible multi-component separation with compact equipment and the past achievements on the recovery of kg quantities of americium. Major R and D items extracted are screening and evaluation of extractants for americium and plutonium, optimization of separation conditions, selection of denitration method, equipment developments and development of solidification methods of discarded americium after reuse and of various kinds of separation residues. In order to cope these items, four steps of R and D program were proposed, i.e., fundamental experiment in beaker-scale on screening and evaluation of extractants, flowsheet study in bench-scale using simulated and small amount of americium aqueous waste solution to evaluate candidate process, americium recovery test in iron-shielded cell to be installed in NUCEF. It is objected to make recovery of 100g orders of americium used for research on fundamental TRU fuel properties. (J.P.N.)

  2. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plutonium and Americium from Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Robert Vincent; Mincher, Bruce Jay

    2002-08-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plutonium and americium from soil was successfully demonstrated using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide solvent augmented with organophosphorus and beta-diketone complexants. Spiked Idaho soils were chemically and radiologically characterized, then extracted with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide at 2,900 psi and 65°C containing varying concentrations of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). A single 45 minute SFE with 2.7 mol% TBP and 3.2 mol% TTA provided as much as 88% ± 6.0 extraction of americium and 69% ± 5.0 extraction of plutonium. Use of 5.3 mol% TBP with 6.8 mol% of the more acidic beta-diketone hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFA) provided 95% ± 3.0 extraction of americium and 83% ± 5.0 extraction of plutonium in a single 45 minute SFE at 3,750 psi and 95°C. Sequential chemical extraction techniques were used to chemically characterize soil partitioning of plutonium and americium in pre-SFE soil samples. Sequential chemical extraction techniques demonstrated that spiked plutonium resides primarily (76.6%) in the sesquioxide fraction with minor amounts being absorbed by the oxidizable fraction (10.6%) and residual fractions (12.8%). Post-SFE soils subjected to sequential chemical extraction characterization demonstrated that 97% of the oxidizable, 78% of the sesquioxide and 80% of the residual plutonium could be removed using SFE. These preliminary results show that SFE may be an effective solvent extraction technique for removal of actinide contaminants from soil.

  3. Isolation of americium (5) oxalate compounds from solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubarev, V.G.; Krot, N.N.

    1982-01-01

    Certain conditions of americium (5) isolation with solutions of ammonia and KOH are studied as well as the attitude of hydroxide obtained to heating. Like neptunium (5) hydroxide americium (5) hydroxide probably has the formula AmO/sub 2/OHxxH/sub 2/O, where x is approximately equal to 2.3. It is established that during heating in the air up to 120 deg C hydroxide transforms into AmO/sub 2/. It is shown that in solutions with a high concentration of oxalate-ion americium stability in oxidation state +5 depends greatly on the pH of solution. Complex salts KAmO/sub 2/C/sub 2/O/sub 4/xxH/sub 2/O and CsAmO/sub 2/C/sub 2/O/sub 4/xxH/sub 2/O are synthesized. The identification is made according to the method of preparation and results of analysis of C/sub 2/O/sub 4//sup 2 -/: AmO/sub 2//sup +/ ratio. It is found that the salts are non-isomorphous to similar salts of pentavalent neptunium. CsAmO/sub 2/C/sub 2/O/sub 4/xxH/sub 2/O is identified in cubic crystal system with the lattice constant a=1.25 nm.

  4. Dicty_cDB: CHR246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHR246 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16475-1 CHR246P (Link to Original site) CHR...246F 145 CHR246Z 524 CHR246P 649 - - Show CHR246 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHR... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHR2-B/CHR246Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHR...246P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHR246 (CHR246Q) /CSM/CH/CHR2-B/CHR2...equences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N AC116957 |AC116957.2 Dictyostelium discoideum chro

  5. Dicty_cDB: SHF246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SH (Link to library) SHF246 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16313-1 SHF246P (Link to Original site) SHF...246F 127 SHF246Z 524 SHF246P 631 - - Show SHF246 Library SH (Link to library) Clone ID SHF... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SH/SHF2-B/SHF246Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SHF...246P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SHF246 (SHF246Q) /CSM/SH/SHF2-B/SHF2...itsfnwwnypsnhywcits*v*llsnw skmfisqws*nly*tsnhwwysrinywlcwynnwqgyrslhriryr*stfm**isl*krn gmscc*wcsrmftiklqmf

  6. Separation of americium and curium from complex chemical and radiochemical mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochkarev, V.A.; Martynov, N.P.; Slivin, V.G.; Trikanov, A.E.; Fedyaeva, N.V.

    1988-11-01

    This work describes a method for separation and radiochemical purification of nanogram levels of americium and curium from complex chemical and radiochemical mixtures containing tens of milligrams of elements such as aluminum, iron, magnesium, calcium, barium, titanium, potassium, and others, microgram levels of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium, and fission products. Extraction coefficients of americium and curium from these elements are measured. The separation from the macrocomponents was carried out by extraction of americium and curium with butyric acid in the presence of sulfosalicylic acid. Uranium, neptunium, and plutonium were separated from hydrochloric acid solutions, while the rare earth elements were separated from lithium chloride solutions using a column of anion exchange resin AV-17. Alpha measurements were carried out on americium and curium deposited electrolytically on tantalum cathodes. The chemical yield of americium and curium was identical of greater than or equal to 94%, separation time approx. 8 h.

  7. Uncertainty analysis of doses from ingestion of plutonium and americium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncher, M; Harrison, J D

    2012-02-01

    Uncertainty analyses have been performed on the biokinetic model for americium currently used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and the model for plutonium recently derived by Leggett, considering acute intakes by ingestion by adult members of the public. The analyses calculated distributions of doses per unit intake. Those parameters having the greatest impact on prospective doses were identified by sensitivity analysis; the most important were the fraction absorbed from the alimentary tract, f(1), and rates of uptake from blood to bone surfaces. Probability distributions were selected based on the observed distribution of plutonium and americium in human subjects where possible; the distributions for f(1) reflected uncertainty on the average value of this parameter for non-specified plutonium and americium compounds ingested by adult members of the public. The calculated distributions of effective doses for ingested (239)Pu and (241)Am were well described by log-normal distributions, with doses varying by around a factor of 3 above and below the central values; the distributions contain the current ICRP Publication 67 dose coefficients for ingestion of (239)Pu and (241)Am by adult members of the public. Uncertainty on f(1) values had the greatest impact on doses, particularly effective dose. It is concluded that: (1) more precise data on f(1) values would have a greater effect in reducing uncertainties on doses from ingested (239)Pu and (241)Am, than reducing uncertainty on other model parameter values and (2) the results support the dose coefficients (Sv Bq(-1) intake) derived by ICRP for ingestion of (239)Pu and (241)Am by adult members of the public.

  8. 7 CFR 246.27 - Program information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program information. 246.27 Section 246.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND...

  9. 7 CFR 246.21 - Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investigations. 246.21 Section 246.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND...

  10. Kilogram-scale purification of americium by ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelwright, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Sequential anion and cation exchange processes have been used for the final purification of /sup 241/Am recovered during the reprocessing of aged plutonium metallurgical scrap. Plutonium was removed by absorption of Dowex 1, X-3.5 (30 to 50 mesh) anion exchange resin from 6.5 to 7.5 M HNO/sub 3/ feed solution. Following a water dilution to 0.75 to 1.0 M HNO/sub 3/, americium was absorbed on Dowex 50W, X-8 (50 to 100 mesh) cation exchange resion. Final purification was accomplished by elution of the absorbed band down 3 to 4 successive beds of the same resin, preloaded with Zn/sup 2 +/, with an NH/sub 4/OH buffered chelating agent. The recovery of mixed /sup 241/Am-/sup 243/Am from power reactor reprocessing waste has been demonstrated. Solvent extraction was used to recover a HNO/sub 3/ solution of mixed lanthanides and actinides from waste generated by the reprocessng of 13.5 tons of Shippingport Power Reactor blanket fuel. Sequential cation exchange band-displacement processes were then used to separate americium and curium from the lanthanides and then to separate approx. 60 g of /sup 244/Cm from 1000 g of mixed /sup 241/Am-/sup 243/Am.

  11. Dicty_cDB: AFM246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFM246 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - - (Link to Original site) - - AFM...246Z 559 - - - - Show AFM246 Library AF (Link to library) Clone ID AFM246 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID... - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/AF/AFM2-B/AFM...246Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >AFM...246 (AFM246Q) /CSM/AF/AFM2-B/AFM246Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXAGATTAAACAATTCATTCTTGATGAATGTGATACC

  12. Dicty_cDB: SFC246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SF (Link to library) SFC246 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16368-1 SFC246P (Link to Original site) SFC...246F 466 SFC246Z 773 SFC246P 1239 - - Show SFC246 Library SF (Link to library) Clone ID SFC...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SF/SFC2-B/SFC246Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SFC...246P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SFC246 (SFC246Q) /CSM/SF/SFC2-B/SFC...hqplhk*n Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SFC246 (SFC

  13. Hexavalent Americium Recovery Using Copper(III) Periodate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, Kevin; Brigham, Derek M.; Morrison, Samuel; Braley, Jenifer C.

    2016-11-21

    Separation of americium from the lanthanides is considered one of the most difficult separation steps in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. One approach to this separation could involve oxidizing americium to the hexavalent state to form a linear dioxo cation while the lanthanides remain as trivalent ions. This work considers aqueous soluble Cu3+ periodate as an oxidant under molar nitric acid conditions to separate hexavalent Am with diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP) in n-dodecane. Initial studies assessed the kinetics of Cu3+ periodate auto-reduction in acidic media to aid in development of the solvent extraction system. Following characterization of the Cu3+ periodate oxidant, solvent extraction studies optimized the recovery of Am from varied nitric acid media and in the presence of other fission product, or fission product surrogate, species. Short aqueous/organic contact times encouraged successful recovery of Am (distribution values as high as 2) from nitric acid media in the absence of redox active fission products. In the presence of a post-PUREX simulant aqueous feed, precipitation of tetravalent species (Ce, Ru, Zr) occurred and the distribution values of 241Am were suppressed, suggesting some oxidizing capacity of the Cu3+ periodate is significantly consumed by other redox active metals in the simulant. The manuscript demonstrates Cu3+ periodate as a potentially viable oxidant for Am oxidation and recovery and notes the consumption of oxidizing capacity observed in the presence of the post-PUREX simulant feed will need to be addressed for any approach seeking to oxidize Am for separations relevant to the nuclear fuel cycle.

  14. Oxidative Alkaline leaching of Americium from simulated high-level nuclear waste sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Wendy A.; Garnov, Alexander Yu.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Bond, Andrew H.

    2004-01-23

    Oxidative alkaline leaching has been proposed to pre-treat the high-level nuclear waste sludges to remove some of the problematic (e.g., Cr) and/or non-radioactive (e.g., Na, Al) constituents before vitrification. It is critical to understand the behavior of actinides, americium and plutonium in particular, in oxidative alkaline leaching. We have studied the leaching behavior of americium from four different sludge simulants (BiPO{sub 4}, BiPO{sub 4 modified}, Redox, PUREX) using potassium permanganate and potassium persulfate in alkaline solutions. Up to 60% of americium sorbed onto the simulants is leached from the sludges by alkaline persulfate and permanganate. The percentage of americium leached increases with [NaOH] (between 1.0 and 5.0 M). The initial rate of americium leaching by potassium persulfate increases in the order BiPO{sub 4} sludge < Redox sludge < PUREX sludge. The data are most consistent with oxidation of Am{sup 3+} in the sludge to either AmO{sub 2}{sup +} or AmO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in solution. Though neither of these species is expected to exhibit long-term stability in solution, the potential for mobilization of americium from sludge samples would have to be accommodated in the design of any oxidative leaching process for real sludge samples.

  15. The transmutation of americium: the Ecrix experiments in Phenix; Transmutation de l'americium: les experiences ecrix dans Phenix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, J.C.; Schmidt, N. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles (DEC/SESC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Croixmarie, Y.; Ottaviani, J.P. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles (DEC/SPUA), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Varaine, F.; Saint Jean, C. de [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs (DER/SPRC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1999-07-01

    The first americium transmutation experiment in a specific target in PHENIX will occur with the ECRIX-B and ECRIX-H experiments. Beside material testing, the objective is also to represent a concept of transmutation whose specificity is to enhance the kinetics of transmutation by using a moderated spectrum. The moderator materials will be {sup 11}B{sub 4}C and CaH{sub 2} for ECRIX-B and ECRIXH respectively, the irradiation conditions have been predicted for both the neutronics and thermal. The targets (MgO-AmO{sub X} pellets) are manufactured in the ATALANTE laboratory and the design is performed according to the PHENIX operating conditions. (authors)

  16. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any...

  17. Dicty_cDB: AFI246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFI246 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16397-1 AFI246Z (Link... to Original site) - - AFI246Z 528 - - - - Show AFI246 Library AF (Link to library) Clone ID AFI246 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/AF/AFI2-B/AFI246Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID AFI24...6Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >AFI246 (AFI246Q) /CSM/AF/AFI2-B/AFI246Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX.../CSM/SF/SFE5-B/SFE526Q.Seq.d/ 1047 0.0 SFC863 (SFC863Q) /CSM/SF/SFC8-C/SFC863Q.Seq.d/ 1047 0.0 CFI296 (CFI296Q) /CSM/CF/CFI2-D/CFI2

  18. Effect of americium-241 on luminous bacteria. Role of peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrova, M., E-mail: maka-alexandrova@rambler.r [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Rozhko, T. [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Vydryakova, G. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kudryasheva, N. [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-15

    The effect of americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), an alpha-emitting radionuclide of high specific activity, on luminous bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum was studied. Traces of {sup 241}Am in nutrient media (0.16-6.67 kBq/L) suppressed the growth of bacteria, but enhanced luminescence intensity and quantum yield at room temperature. Lower temperature (4 {sup o}C) increased the time of bacterial luminescence and revealed a stage of bioluminescence inhibition after 150 h of bioluminescence registration start. The role of conditions of exposure the bacterial cells to the {sup 241}Am is discussed. The effect of {sup 241}Am on luminous bacteria was attributed to peroxide compounds generated in water solutions as secondary products of radioactive decay. Increase of peroxide concentration in {sup 241}Am solutions was demonstrated; and the similarity of {sup 241}Am and hydrogen peroxide effects on bacterial luminescence was revealed. The study provides a scientific basis for elaboration of bioluminescence-based assay to monitor radiotoxicity of alpha-emitting radionuclides in aquatic solutions. - Highlights: {yields} Am-241 in water solutions (A = 0.16-6.7 kBq/L) suppresses bacterial growth.{yields} Am-241 (A = 0.16-6.7 kBq/L) stimulate bacterial luminescence. {yields} Peroxides, secondary radiolysis products, cause increase of bacterial luminescence.

  19. Particulate distribution of plutonium and americium in surface waters from the Spanish Mediterranean coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molero, J.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Merino, J.; Vidal-Quadras, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Vives Batlle, J.; Mitchell, P.I. [University Coll., Dublin (Ireland)

    1995-12-31

    Measurements of the particulate distribution of plutonium and americium in Spanish Mediterranean coastal waters have been carried out. Plutonium-239,340 and {sup 241}Am concentrations have been measured in suspended particulate matter by filtering (< 0.22 {mu}m) large volume (200-300 litres) sea water samples. Results indicate that particulate plutonium constitutes on average 11 {+-} 4% of the total concentration in sea water. In the case of americium this percentage rises to 45 {+-} 14%. From the {sup 241}Am/{sup 239,240}Pu activity ratios it is clear that suspended particulate matter is enriched in {sup 241}Am relative to {sup 239,240}Pu by a factor 8 {+-} 4. Plutonium and americium in surface Mediterranean coastal waters appear to be fractionated as they present a different transfer rate to the particles. Our measurements allowed us to estimate sediment-water distribution coefficients (K{sub d}), which are a key parameter to interpret differences between the behaviour of plutonium and americium in sea water. Distribution coefficients K{sub d} have been estimated to be (1.4 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 5} litres kg{sup -1} for plutonium and (0.9 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 6} litres kg{sup -1} for americium in surface Mediterranean coastal waters. (author).

  20. 32 CFR 246.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... establish and maintain a S&S board of directors to address S&S business operations in their Unified Commands. ... STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS § 246.1 Purpose. This part: (a) Establishes policy... Commands consistent with 32 CFR part 372. (b) Supersedes policies and procedures in 32 CFR part 247...

  1. Isotopic and elemental composition of plutonium/americium oxides influence pulmonary and extra-pulmonary distribution after inhalation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Meeren, A; Grémy, O

    2010-09-01

    The biodistribution of plutonium and americium has been studied in a rat model after inhalation of two PuO(2) powders in lungs and extra-pulmonary organs from 3 d to 3 mo. The main difference between the two powders was the content of americium (approximately 46% and 4.5% of total alpha activity). The PuO(2) with a higher proportion of americium shows an accelerated transfer of activity from lungs to blood as compared to PuO(2) with the lower americium content, illustrated by increased urinary excretion and higher bone and liver actinide retention. The total alpha activity measured reflects mostly the americium biological behavior. The activity contained in epithelial lining fluid, recovered in the acellular phase of broncho-alveolar lavages, mainly contains americium, whereas plutonium remains trapped in macrophages. Epithelial lining fluid could represent a transitional pulmonary compartment prior to translocation of actinides to the blood and subsequent deposition in extra-pulmonary retention organs. In addition, differential behaviors of plutonium and americium are also observed between the PuO(2) powders with a higher dissolution rate for both plutonium and americium being obtained for the PuO(2) with the highest americium content. Our results indicate that the biological behavior of plutonium and americium after translocation into blood differ two-fold: (1) for the two actinides for the same PuO(2) aerosol, and (2) for the same actinide from the two different aerosols. These results highlight the importance of considering the specific behavior of each contaminant after accidental pulmonary intake when assessing extra-pulmonary deposits from the level of activity excreted in urine or for therapeutic strategy decisions.

  2. 40 CFR 246.200 - High-grade paper recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-grade paper recovery. 246.200 Section 246.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES SOURCE... paper recovery....

  3. 40 CFR 246.200-7 - Recommended procedures: Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Transportation. 246.200-7 Section 246.200-7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 246.200-7 Recommended procedures: Transportation. Transportation to market may be supplied by...

  4. 48 CFR 52.246-14 - Inspection of Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation. 52.246-14 Section 52.246-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....246-14 Inspection of Transportation. As prescribed in 46.314, insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts for freight transportation services (including local drayage) by rail,...

  5. 40 CFR 246.202-5 - Recommended procedures: Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Transportation. 246.202-5 Section 246.202-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 246.202-5 Recommended procedures: Transportation. Transportation to market may be supplied by...

  6. 7 CFR 246.13 - Financial management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial management system. 246.13 Section 246.13... State Agency Provisions § 246.13 Financial management system. (a) Disclosure of expenditures. The State agency shall maintain a financial management system which provides accurate, current and...

  7. 42 CFR 24.6 - Pay and compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pay and compensation. 24.6 Section 24.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.6 Pay and compensation. The SBRS is an ungraded system, with a single, flexible...

  8. 12 CFR 19.246 - Petition for reinstatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petition for reinstatement. 19.246 Section 19.246 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Removal, Suspension, and Debarment of Accountants From Performing Audit Services § 19.246...

  9. 40 CFR 86.246-94 - Intermediate temperature testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate temperature testing. 86.246-94 Section 86.246-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.246-94...

  10. 48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Human space flight item. 1852.246-73 Section 1852.246-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As prescribed in 1845.370(b), insert the following clause:...

  11. National low-level waste management program radionuclide report series, Volume 14: Americium-241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winberg, M.R.; Garcia, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    This report, Volume 14 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of americium-241 ({sup 241}Am). This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which {sup 241}Am can be found and {sup 241}Am behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  12. Understanding the Chemistry of Uncommon Americium Oxidation States for Application to Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh Martin; Bruce J. Mincher; Nicholas C. Schmitt

    2007-09-01

    A spectroscopic study of the stability of Am(V) and Am(VI) produced by oxidizing Am(III) with sodium bismuthate is presented, varying the initial americium concentration, temperature and length of the oxidation was seen to have profound effects on the resultant solutions.

  13. SKIN DOSIMETRY IN CONDITIONS OF ITS CONSTANT SURFACE CONTAMINATION WITH SOLUTIONS OF PLUTONIUM-239 AND AMERICIUM-241

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Ershov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers, on the basis of experimental data, the issue of assessing dose burdens to the skin basal layer in conditions of its permanent contamination with solutions of plutonium-239 and americium-241 and subsequent decontamination.

  14. Influence of biofilms on migration of uranium, americium and europium in the environment; Einfluss von Biofilmen auf das Migrationsverhalten von Uran, Americium und Europium in der Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Nils; Zirnstein, Isabel; Arnold, Thuro

    2015-07-01

    The report on the influence of biofilms on migration of uranium, americium and europium in the environment deals with the contamination problems of uranium mines such as SDAG WISMUT in Saxonia and Thuringia. In mine waters microorganisms form a complex microbiological biocoenosis in spite of low pH values and high heavy metal concentrations including high uranium concentrations. The analyses used microbiological methods like confocal laser scanning microscopy and molecular-biological techniques. The interactions of microorganism with fluorescent radioactive heavy metal ions were performed with TRLFS (time resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy).

  15. Standard test method for quantitative determination of americium 241 in plutonium by Gamma-Ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of americium 241 by gamma-ray spectrometry in plutonium nitrate solution samples that do not contain significant amounts of radioactive fission products or other high specific activity gamma-ray emitters. 1.2 This test method can be used to determine the americium 241 in samples of plutonium metal, oxide and other solid forms, when the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  16. Calcium and zinc DTPA administration for internal contamination with plutonium-238 and americium-241.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazzi, Ziad N; Heyl, Alexander; Ruprecht, Johann

    2012-08-01

    The accidental or intentional release of plutonium or americium can cause acute and long term adverse health effects if they enter the human body by ingestion, inhalation, or injection. These effects can be prevented by rapid removal of these radionuclides by chelators such as calcium or zinc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (calcium or zinc DTPA). These compounds have been shown to be efficacious in enhancing the elimination of members of the actinide family particularly plutonium and americium when administered intravenously or by nebulizer. The efficacy and adverse effects profile depend on several factors that include the route of internalization of the actinide, the type, and route time of administration of the chelator, and whether the calcium or zinc salt of DTPA is used. Current and future research efforts should be directed at overcoming limitations associated with the use of these complex drugs by using innovative methods that can enhance their structural and therapeutic properties.

  17. Final Radiological Assessment of External Exposure for CLEAR-Line Americium Recovery Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Adam C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Belooussova, Olga N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hetrick, Lucas Duane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently planning to implement an americium recovery program. The americium, ordinarily isotopically pure 241Am, would be extracted from existing Pu materials, converted to an oxide and shipped to support fabrication of americium oxide-beryllium neutron sources. These operations would occur in the currently proposed Chloride Extraction and Actinide Recovery (CLEAR) line of glove boxes. This glove box line would be collocated with the currently-operational Experimental Chloride Extraction Line (EXCEL). The focus of this document is to provide an in-depth assessment of the currently planned radiation protection measures and to determine whether or not further design work is required to satisfy design-goal and ALARA requirements. Further, this document presents a history of americium recovery operations in the Department of Energy and high-level descriptions of the CLEAR line operations to provide a basis of comparison. Under the working assumptions adopted by this study, it was found that the evaluated design appears to mitigate doses to a level that satisfies the ALARA-in-design requirements of 10 CFR 835 as implemented by the Los Alamos National Laboratory procedure P121. The analyses indicate that extremity doses would also meet design requirements. Dose-rate calculations were performed using the radiation transport code MCNP5 and doses were estimated using a time-motion study developed in consort with the subject matter expert. A copy of this report and all supporting documentation are located on the Radiological Engineering server at Y:\\Rad Engineering\\2013 PROJECTS\\TA-55 Clear Line.

  18. On the Convergence of the Electronic Structure Properties of the FCC Americium (001) Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Da; Ray, Asok K.

    2006-01-01

    Electronic and magnetic properties of the fcc Americium (001) surface have been investigated via full-potential all-electron density-functional electronic structure calculations at both scalar and fully relativistic levels. Effects of various theoretical approximations on the fcc Am (001) surface properties have been thoroughly examined. The ground state of fcc Am (001) surface is found to be anti-ferromagnetic with spin-orbit coupling included (AFM-SO). At the ground state, the magnetic mome...

  19. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  20. 7 CFR 246.28 - OMB control numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false OMB control numbers. 246.28 Section 246.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND...

  1. Decay study of {sup 246}Fm at SHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhart, M. [Comenius University, Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Hessberger, F.P.; Ackermann, D.; Heinz, S.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Lommel, B.; Mann, R. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Antalic, S.; Saro, S. [Comenius University, Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Gray-Jones, C.; Herzberg, R.D.; Papadakis, P. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Greenlees, P.T.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hofmann, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Rostron, D. [Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Rudolph, D. [Lund University, Department of Physics, Lund (Sweden); Sulignano, B. [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA/SPhN, Gif/Yvette Cedex (France)

    2011-02-15

    The decay chain of {sup 246}Fm has been investigated employing the SHIP separator at GSI Darmstadt. The {sup 246}Fm nuclei were produced via the {sup 40}Ar({sup 208}Pb, 2n){sup 246}Fm fusion-evaporation reaction. Improved values of the half-life, T{sub 1/2} = 1.54(4) s, and of the spontaneous fission branching ratio, b{sub SF} = 0.068(6), of {sup 246}Fm were obtained. The {beta}{sup +} /electron capture branching ratio, b{sub EC} = 0.39(3), of {sup 242}Cf was deduced. Possible structures of high-K states in {sup 246}Fm are discussed within the framework of a model calculation based on the Woods-Saxon potential. (orig.)

  2. MARIOS: Irradiation of UO{sub 2} containing 15% americium at well defined temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Agata, E., E-mail: elio.dagata@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy - P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Hania, P.R. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Bejaoui, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEC CEA-Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Sciolla, C.; Wyatt, T.; Hannink, M.H.C. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Herlet, N.; Jankowiak, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique DTEC CEA Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France); Klaassen, F.C. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Bonnerot, J.-M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEC CEA-Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MARIOS is designed to check the behaviour of Minor Actinide Blanket Module concept. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Main requirement of the experiment is an accurate control of the temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The swelling and the helium release will be the main output of the experiment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A complementary experiment (DIAMINO), will be performed in the next future. - Abstract: Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors of long-lived nuclides like {sup 241}Am is, therefore, an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity and residual power packages as well as the repository area. The MARIOS irradiation experiment is the latest of a series of experiments on americium transmutation (e.g. EFTTRA-T4, EFTTRA-T4bis, HELIOS). MARIOS experiment is carried out in the framework of the 4-year project FAIRFUELS of the EURATOM 7th Framework Programme (FP7). During the past years of experimental work in the field of transmutation and tests of innovative nuclear fuel containing americium, the release or trapping of helium as well as swelling has shown to be the key issue for the design of such kinds of target. Therefore, the main objective of the MARIOS experiment is to study the in-pile behaviour of UO{sub 2} containing minor actinides (MAs) in order to gain knowledge on the role of the microstructure and of the temperature on the gas release and on fuel swelling. The MARIOS experiment will be conducted in the HFR (high flux reactor) in Petten (The Netherlands) and will start in the beginning of 2011. It has been planned that the experiment will last 11 cycles, corresponding to 11 months. This paper covers the description of the objective of the experiment, as well as a general description of the design of the experiment.

  3. Speciation of americium in seawater and accumulation in the marine sponge Aplysina cavernicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloubier, Melody; Michel, Hervé; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Moisy, Philippe; Tribalat, Marie-Aude; Oberhaensli, François R; Dechraoui Bottein, Marie Yasmine; Thomas, Olivier P; Monfort, Marguerite; Moulin, Christophe; Den Auwer, Christophe

    2015-12-21

    The fate of radionuclides in the environment is a cause of great concern for modern society, seen especially in 2011 after the Fukushima accident. Among the environmental compartments, seawater covers most of the earth's surface and may be directly or indirectly impacted. The interaction between radionuclides and the marine compartment is therefore essential for better understanding the transfer mechanisms from the hydrosphere to the biosphere. This information allows for the evaluation of the impact on humans via our interaction with the biotope that has been largely undocumented up to now. In this report, we attempt to make a link between the speciation of heavy elements in natural seawater and their uptake by a model marine organism. More specifically, because the interaction of actinides with marine invertebrates has been poorly studied, the accumulation in a representative member of the Mediterranean coralligenous habitat, the sponge Aplysina cavernicola, was investigated and its uptake curve exposed to a radiotracer (241)Am was estimated using a high-purity Ge gamma spectrometer. But in order to go beyond the phenomenological accumulation rate, the speciation of americium(III) in seawater must be assessed. The speciation of (241)Am (and natural europium as its chemically stable surrogate) in seawater was determined using a combination of different techniques: Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF), Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) at the LIII edge, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the resulting data were compared with the speciation modeling. In seawater, the americium(III) complex (as well as the corresponding europium complex, although with conformational differences) was identified as a ternary sodium biscarbonato complex, whose formula can be tentatively written as NaAm(CO3)2·nH2O. It is therefore this chemical form of americium that is

  4. Plutonium and americium in arctic waters, the North Sea and Scottish and Irish coastal zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallstadius, L.; Aarkrog, Asker; Dahlgaard, Henning;

    1986-01-01

    collected from the Irish coast in 1983. Fallout is found to dominate as a source of 239+240Pu north of latitude 65°N, while for 238Pu a substantial fraction originates from European nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. The 238Pu/239+240Pu isotope ratio provides clear evidence of the transport of effluent...... of the Irish Sea) to Spitsbergen. 241Am found in Arctic waters probably originates from the decay of fallout 241Pu and, like Pu, tentatively has a residence time of the order of several years. Americium from Sellafield has an estimated mean residence time of 4–6 months in Scottish waters....

  5. Penetration and decontamination of americium-241 ex vivo using fresh and frozen pig skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazrart, A; Bolzinger, M A; Moureau, A; Molina, T; Coudert, S; Angulo, J F; Briancon, S; Griffiths, N M

    2017-04-01

    Skin contamination is one of the most probable risks following major nuclear or radiological incidents. However, accidents involving skin contamination with radionuclides may occur in the nuclear industry, in research laboratories and in nuclear medicine departments. This work aims to measure the penetration of the radiological contaminant Americium ((241)Am) in fresh and frozen skin and to evaluate the distribution of the contamination in the skin. Decontamination tests were performed using water, Fuller's earth and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), which is the recommended treatment in case of skin contamination with actinides such as plutonium or americium. To assess these parameters, we used the Franz cell diffusion system with full-thickness skin obtained from pigs' ears, representative of human skin. Solutions of (241)Am were deposited on the skin samples. The radioactivity content in each compartment and skin layers was measured after 24 h by liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrophotometry. The Am cutaneous penetration to the receiver compartment is almost negligible in fresh and frozen skin. Multiple washings with water and DTPA recovered about 90% of the initial activity. The rest remains fixed mainly in the stratum corneum. Traces of activity were detected within the epidermis and dermis which is fixed and not accessible to the decontamination.

  6. Magnesium ionophore II as an extraction agent for trivalent europium and americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makrlik, Emanuel [Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Environmental Sciences; Vanura, Petr [Univ. of Chemistry and Technology, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    2016-11-01

    Solvent extraction of microamounts of trivalent europium and americium into nitrobenzene by using a mixture of hydrogen dicarbollylcobaltate (H{sup +}B{sup -}) and magnesium ionophore II (L) was studied. The equilibrium data were explained assuming that the species HL{sup +}, HL{sup +}{sub 2}, ML{sup 3+}{sub 2}, and ML{sup 3+}{sub 3} (M{sup 3+} = Eu{sup 3+}, Am{sup 3+}; L=magnesium, ionophore II) are extracted into the nitrobenzene phase. Extraction and stability constants of the cationic complex species in nitrobenzene saturated with water were determined and discussed. From the experimental results it is evident that this effective magnesium ionophore II receptor for the Eu{sup 3+} and Am{sup 3+} cations could be considered as a potential extraction agent for nuclear waste treatment.

  7. Imitators of plutonium and americium in a mixed uranium- plutonium nitride fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, S. N.; Shornikov, D. P.; Tarasov, B. A.; Baranov, V. G.; Burlakova, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Uranium nitride and mix uranium nitride (U-Pu)N is most popular nuclear fuel for Russian Fast Breeder Reactor. The works in hot cells associated with the radiation exposure of personnel and methodological difficulties. To know the main physical-chemical properties of uranium-plutonium nitride it necessary research to hot cells. In this paper, based on an assessment of physicochemical and thermodynamic properties of selected simulators Pu and Am. Analogues of Pu is are Ce and Y, and analogues Am - Dy. The technique of obtaining a model nitride fuel based on lanthanides nitrides and UN. Hydrogenation-dehydrogenation- nitration method of derived powders nitrides uranium, cerium, yttrium and dysprosium, held their mixing, pressing and sintering, the samples obtained model nitride fuel with plutonium and americium imitation. According to the results of structural studies have shown that all the samples are solid solution nitrides rare earth (REE) elements in UN.

  8. The Role of Colloids in the Transport of Plutonium and Americium: Implications for

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersting, A B

    2003-09-17

    Colloids are small particulates (ranging in size from 1 to 0.001 micron) composed of inorganic and organic material and found in all natural water. Due to their small size, they have the ability to remain suspended in water and transported. Small amounts of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) can adsorb (attach) to colloids, and/or form colloidal-sized polymers and migrate in water. At Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) sedimentation and resuspension of particulates and colloids in surface waters represent the dominant process for Pu and Am migration. The amount of Pu and Am that can be transported at RFETS has been quantified in the Pathway Analysis Report. The Pathway Analysis Report shows that the two dominant pathways for Pu and Am transport at RFETS are air and surface water. Shallow groundwater and biological pathways are minor.

  9. Standard practice for The separation of americium from plutonium by ion exchange

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes the use of an ion exchange technique to separate plutonium from solutions containing low concentrations of americium prior to measurement of the 241Am by gamma counting. 1.2 This practice covers the removal of plutonium, but not all the other radioactive isotopes that may interfere in the determination of 241Am. 1.3 This practice can be used when 241Am is to be determined in samples in which the plutonium is in the form of metal, oxide, or other solid provided that the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved (See Test Methods C758, C759, and C1168). 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  10. 7 CFR 246.22 - Administrative appeal of FNS decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 246.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS... Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, 3101 Park Center Drive, Alexandria, Va. 22302, for a hearing or...

  11. 7 CFR 246.6 - Agreements with local agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN... nutrition education services to participants, in compliance with § 246.11 and FNS guidelines...

  12. 7 CFR 246.7 - Certification of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 246.7(e)(4); or in Priority VII, if the State agency is using that priority level. (2) Nutritional... homelessness or migrancy. (3) Nutritional risk priorities. In determining nutritional risk, the State agency... those whose nutritional and health status would be least impaired by the action. When a State...

  13. Separation of oxidized americium from lanthanides by use of pillared metal(IV) phosphate-phosphonate hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, J.D.; Clearfield, A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Borkowski, M.; Reed, D.T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad, NM (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences Div.

    2012-07-01

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle in the US poses many challenges, one of which is found in the waste streams, which contain both trivalent lanthanides and actinides. The separation of americium from the raffinate will dramatically reduce the long-term radiotoxicity of the waste. The sorption of americium in both the tri- and pentavalent oxidation states was observed for four M(IV) phosphate-phosphonate ion exchange materials in nitric acid at pH 2. High selectivity was observed for reduced Am(III) with K{sub d} values ca. 6 x 10{sup 5} mL/g, while the K{sub d} values for Am(V) were much lower. A new method of synthesizing and stabilizing AmO{sub 2}{sup +} to yield a lifetime of at least 24 h in acidic media using a combination of sodium persulfate and calcium hypochlorite will be described.

  14. Theoretical investigation of pressure-induced structural transitions in americium using GGA+U and hybrid density functional theory methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verma, Ashok K.; Modak, P.; Sharma, Surinder M.;

    2013-01-01

    First-principles calculations have been performed for americium (Am) metal using the generalized gradient approximation + orbital-dependent onsite Coulomb repulsion via Hubbard interaction (GGA+U) and hybrid density functional theory (HYB-DFT) methods to investigate various ground state properties...... spectrum at ambient pressure relate, for some parameter choices, well to peak positions in the calculated density of states function of Am-I....

  15. Vertical and horizontal fluxes of plutonium and americium in the western Mediterranean and the Strait of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Vintró, L; Mitchell, P I; Condren, O M; Downes, A B; Papucci, C; Delfanti, R

    1999-09-30

    New data on the vertical distributions of plutonium and americium in the waters of the western Mediterranean and the Strait of Gibraltar are examined in terms of the processes governing their delivery to, transport in and removal from the water column within the basin. Residence times for plutonium and americium in surface waters of approximately 15 and approximately 3 years, respectively, are deduced, and it is shown that by the mid 1990s only approximately 35% of the 239,240Pu and approximately 5% of the 241Am deposited as weapons fallout still resided in the water column. Present 239,240Pu inventories in the water column and the underlying sediments are estimated to be approximately 25 TBq and approximately 40 TBq, respectively, which reconcile well with the time-integrated fallout deposition in this zone, taken to be approximately 69 TBq. The data show that there are significant net outward fluxes of plutonium and americium from the basin through the Strait of Gibraltar at the present time. These appear to be compensated by net inward fluxes of similar magnitude through the Strait of Sicily. Thus, the time-integrated fallout deposition in the western basin can be accounted for satisfactorily in terms of present water column and sediment inventories. Enhanced scavenging on the continental shelves, as evidenced by the appreciably higher transuranic concentrations in shelf sediments, supports this contention.

  16. The behaviour under irradiation of molybdenum matrix for inert matrix fuel containing americium oxide (CerMet concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agata, E.; Knol, S.; Fedorov, A. V.; Fernandez, A.; Somers, J.; Klaassen, F.

    2015-10-01

    Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors or Accelerator Driven System (ADS, subcritical reactors dedicated to transmutation) of long-lived nuclides like 241Am is therefore an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity of waste packages to be stored in a repository. In order to safely burn americium in a fast reactor or ADS, it must be incorporated in a matrix that could be metallic (CerMet target) or ceramic (CerCer target). One of the most promising matrix to incorporate Am is molybdenum. In order to address the issues (swelling, stability under irradiation, gas retention and release) of using Mo as matrix to transmute Am, two irradiation experiments have been conducted recently at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten (The Netherland) namely HELIOS and BODEX. The BODEX experiment is a separate effect test, where the molybdenum behaviour is studied without the presence of fission products using 10B to "produce" helium, the HELIOS experiment included a more representative fuel target with the presence of Am and fission product. This paper covers the results of Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) of the two irradiation experiments mentioned above where molybdenum behaviour has been deeply investigated as possible matrix to transmute americium (CerMet fuel target). The behaviour of molybdenum looks satisfying at operating temperature but at high temperature (above 1000 °C) more investigation should be performed.

  17. 48 CFR 552.246-77 - Additional Contract Warranty Provisions for Supplies of a Noncomplex Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Warranty Provisions for Supplies of a Noncomplex Nature. 552.246-77 Section 552.246-77 Federal Acquisition... a Noncomplex Nature. As prescribed in 546.710(a), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts that include FAR 52.246-17, Warranty of Supplies of a Noncomplex Nature. Additional...

  18. 10 CFR 431.246 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. 431.246 Section 431.246 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Unit Heaters Energy Conservation Standards § 431.246...

  19. 40 CFR 246.201-6 - Recommended procedures: Transportation to market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Transportation to market. 246.201-6 Section 246.201-6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Procedures § 246.201-6 Recommended procedures: Transportation to market. Transportation to market may...

  20. HELIOS: the new design of the irradiation of U-free fuels for americium transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Agata, E. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Klaassen, F.; Sciolla, C. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Dept. Life Cycle and Innovations, P.O. Box 25 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Fernandez-Carretero, A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bonnerot, J.M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEC/SESC/LC2I CEA-Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2009-06-15

    Americium is one of the radioactive elements that mostly contribute to the radiotoxicity of the nuclear spent fuel. Transmutation of long-lived nuclides like Americium is an option for the reduction of the mass, the radiotoxicity and the decay heat of nuclear waste. The HELIOS irradiation experiment is the last evolution in a series of experiments on americium transmutation. The previous experiments, EFTTRA-T4 and T4bis, have shown that the release or trapping of helium is the key issue for the design of such kind of target. In fact, the production of helium, which is characteristic of {sup 241}Am transmutation, is quite significant. The experiment is carried out in the framework of the 4-year project EUROTRANS of the EURATOM 6. Framework Programme (FP6). Therefore, the main objective of the HELIOS experiment is to study the in-pile behaviour of U-free fuels such as CerCer (Pu, Am, Zr)O{sub 2} and Am{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}+MgO or CerMet (Pu, Am)O{sub 2}+Mo in order to gain knowledge on the role of the fuel microstructure and of the temperature on the gas release and on the fuel swelling. The experiment was planned to be conducted in the HFR (High Flux Reactor) in Petten (The Netherlands) starting the first quarter of 2007. Because of the innovative aspects of the fuel, the fabrication has had some delays as well as the final safety analyses of the original design showed some unexpected deviation. Besides, the HFR reactor has been unavailable since August 2008. Due to the reasons described above, the experiment has been postponed. HELIOS should start in the first quarter of 2009 and will last 300 full power days. The paper will cover the description of the new design of the irradiation experiment HELIOS. The experiment has been split in two parts (HELIOS1 and HELIOS2) which will be irradiated together. Moreover, due to the high temperature achieved in cladding and to the high amount of helium produced during transmutation the experiment previously designed for a

  1. Biological Degradation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene

    OpenAIRE

    Esteve-Núñez, Abraham; Caballero, Antonio (fl. 1793); Ramos, Juan L.

    2001-01-01

    Nitroaromatic compounds are xenobiotics that have found multiple applications in the synthesis of foams, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and explosives. These compounds are toxic and recalcitrant and are degraded relatively slowly in the environment by microorganisms. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is the most widely used nitroaromatic compound. Certain strains of Pseudomonas and fungi can use TNT as a nitrogen source through the removal of nitrogen as nitrite from TNT under aerobic conditions and ...

  2. Americium and plutonium in water, biota, and sediment from the central Oregon coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, R. D.

    1982-06-01

    Plutonium-239, 240 and americium-241 were measured in the mussel Mytilus californianus from the region of Coos Bay, OR. The flesh of this species has a plutonium concentration of about 90 fCi/kg, and an Am-241/Pu-239, 240 ratio that is high relative to mixed fallout, ranging between two and three. Transuranic concentrations in sediment, unfiltered water, and filterable particulates were also measured; none of these materials has an Am/Pu ratio as greatly elevated as the mussels, and there is no apparent difference in the Am/Pu ratio of terrestrial runoff and coastal water. Sediment core profiles do not allow accumulation rates or depositional histories to be identified, but it does not appear that material characterized by a high Am/Pu ratio has ever been introduced to this estuary. Other bivalves (Tresus capax and Macoma nasuta) and a polychaete (Abarenicola sp.) do not have an elevated Am/Pu ratio, although the absolute activity of plutonium in the infaunal bivalves is roughly four times that in the mussels.

  3. Development and Testing of an Americium/Lanthanide Separation Flowsheet Using Sodium Bismuthate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Law; Bruce Mincher; Troy Garn; Mitchell Greenhalgh; Nicholas Schmitt; Veronica Rutledge

    2014-04-01

    The separation of Am from the lanthanides and curium is a key step in proposed advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The partitioning and transmutation of Am is desirable to minimize the long-term heat load of material interred in a future high-level waste repository. A separation process amenable to process scale-up remains elusive. Given only subtle chemistry differences within and between the ions of the trivalent actinide and lanthanide series this separation is challenging ; however, higher oxidation states of americium can be prepared using sodium bismuthate and separated via solvent extraction using diamylamylphosphonate (DAAP) extraction. Among the other trivalent metals only Ce is also oxidized and extracted. Due to the long-term instability of Am(VI) , the loaded organic phase is readily selectively stripped to partition the actinide to a new acidic aqueous phase. Batch extraction distribution ratio measurements were used to design a flowsheet to accomplish this separation. Additionally, crossflow filtration was investigated as a method to filter the bismuthate solids from the feed solution prior to extraction. Results of the filtration studies, flowsheet development work and flowsheet performance testing using a centrifugal contactor are detailed.

  4. Americium-based oxides: Dense pellet fabrication from co-converted oxalates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horlait, Denis; Lebreton, Florent [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Gauthé, Aurélie [CEA, DEN, DRCP/SERA/LCAR, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Caisso, Marie [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Arab-Chapelet, Bénédicte; Picart, Sébastien [CEA, DEN, DRCP/SERA/LCAR, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Delahaye, Thibaud, E-mail: thibaud.delahaye@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France)

    2014-01-15

    Mixed oxides are used as nuclear fuels and are notably envisaged for future fuel cycles including plutonium and minor actinide recycling. In this context, processes are being developed for the fabrication of uranium–americium mixed-oxide compounds for transmutation. The purpose of these processes is not only the compliance with fuel specifications in terms of density and homogeneity, but also the simplification of the process for its industrialization as well as lowering dust generation. In this paper, the use of a U{sub 0.85}Am{sub 0.15}O{sub 2±δ} powder synthesized by oxalate co-conversion as a precursor for dense fuel fabrications is assessed. This study notably focuses on sintering, which yielded pellets up to 96% of the theoretical density, taking advantage of the high reactivity and homogeneity of the powder. As-obtained pellets were further characterized to be compared to those obtained via processes based on the UMACS (Uranium Minor Actinide Conventional Sintering) process. This comparison highlights several advantages of co-converted powder as a precursor for simplified processes that generate little dust.

  5. Experimental studies on the biokinetics of plutonium and americium in the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guary, J.C.; Fowler, S.W.

    1982-03-05

    Radiotracer experiments using the photon-emitters /sup 237/Pu and /sup 241/Am were performed to examine uptake, tissue distribution and retention of plutonium and americium in the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris Cuvier. A 2 wk exposure in contaminated sea water resulted in twice as much /sup 237/Pu being taken up by whole octopus as /sup 241/Am. Immediately following uptake approximately 41% and 73% of the /sup 237/Pu and /sup 241/Am respectively were located in the branchial hearts. Depuration rates for both radionuclides were identical; approximately 46% of both radionuclides initially incorporated were associated with a long-lived compartment which turned over very slowly (Tbsub(1/2) = 1.5 yr). Longer exposures to /sup 241/Am resulted in an increase in the size of the slowly exchanging /sup 241/Am pool in the octopus. After 2 mo depuration, the majority of the residual activity of both radionuclides was in the branchial hearts. On average 33% of the /sup 241/Am ingested with food was assimilated into tissues, primarily the hepatopancreas. Different whole-body /sup 241/Am excretion rates were observed at different times following assimilation and were related to transfer processes taking place within internal tissues, most notably between hepatopancreas and the branchial hearts. Relationships between circulatory and excretory functions of these 2 organs are discussed and a physiological mechanism is proposed to explain the observed patterns of /sup 241/Am excretion in O. vulgaris.

  6. In Vitro Dissolution Tests of Plutonium and Americium Containing Contamination Originating From ZPPR Fuel Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William F. Bauer; Brian K. Schuetz; Gary M. Huestis; Thomas B. Lints; Brian K. Harris; R. Duane Ball; Gracy Elias

    2012-09-01

    Assessing the extent of internal dose is of concern whenever workers are exposed to airborne radionuclides or other contaminants. Internal dose determinations depend upon a reasonable estimate of the expected biological half-life of the contaminants in the respiratory tract. One issue with refractory elements is determining the dissolution rate of the element. Actinides such as plutonium (Pu) and Americium (Am) tend to be very refractory and can have biological half-lives of tens of years. In the event of an exposure, the dissolution rates of the radionuclides of interest needs to be assessed in order to assign the proper internal dose estimates. During the November 2011 incident at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) involving a ZPPR fuel plate, air filters in a constant air monitor (CAM) and a giraffe filter apparatus captured airborne particulate matter. These filters were used in dissolution rate experiments to determine the apparent dissolution half-life of Pu and Am in simulated biological fluids. This report describes these experiments and the results. The dissolution rates were found to follow a three term exponential decay equation. Differences were noted depending upon the nature of the biological fluid simulant. Overall, greater than 95% of the Pu and 93% of the Am were in a very slow dissolving component with dissolution half-lives of over 10 years.

  7. Plutonium and americium monazite materials: Solid state synthesis and X-ray diffraction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregiroux, D. [DEN/DEC/SPUA, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Laboratoire Science des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de Surface, UMR CNRS-Universite no. 6638, Batiment Chimie, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges (France); E-mail: damien.bregiroux@ccr.jussieu.fr; Belin, R. [DEN/DEC/SPUA, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Valenza, P. [DEN/DEC/SPUA, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Audubert, F. [DEN/DEC/SPUA, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Bernache-Assollant, D. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France)

    2007-06-30

    High-temperature solid state syntheses of monazite powders containing plutonium (III), plutonium (IV) and americium (III) were performed. Resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Pu{sup 3+}PO{sub 4} was readily obtained as a single phase by heating a Pu{sup 4+}O{sub 2}-NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} mixture under argon atmosphere. Traces of tetravalent plutonium phosphate Pu{sup 4+}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} were detected when synthesized under air atmosphere. The incorporation of (Pu{sup 4+},Ca{sup 2+}) in the monazite structure was investigated under air and argon atmosphere. We showed that Pu{sup 4+} is fully reduced in Pu{sup 3+} under argon atmosphere whereas, under air, the compound with the formula Pu{sub 0.4}{sup 3+}Pu{sub 0.3}{sup 4+}Ca{sub 0.3}{sup 2+}PO{sub 4} was obtained. Pure Am{sup 3+}PO{sub 4} was also synthesized under argon atmosphere. X-ray patterns revealed a complete amorphisation of the monazite structure at a relatively low cumulative alpha dose for {sup 241}AmPO{sub 4}.

  8. Mutual separation of americium(III) and europium(III) using glycolamic acid and thioglycolamic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suneesh, A.S.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Syamala, K.V.; Antony, M.P.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.

    2012-07-01

    The extractants, bis(2-ethylhexyl)diglycolamicacid (HDEHDGA) and bis(2-ethylhexy)thiodiglycolamic acid (HDEHSDGA) were synthesized and characterized by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, mass and IR spectroscopy. The extraction behaviour of {sup (152+154})Eu(III) and {sup 241}Am(III) from nitric acid medium by a solution of HDEHDGA (or HDEHSDGA) in n-dodecane (n-DD) was studied for the mutual separation of actinides and lanthanides. The effect of various parameters such as the pH, concentrations of HDEHDGA, HDEHSDGA, sodium nitrate, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) on the separation factor (SF) of americium(III) over europium(III) and vice versa was studied, and the conditions needed for the preferential separation were optimised. The results show that HDEHDGA exhibits higher extraction for {sup (152+154)}Eu(III) and HDEHSDGA shows the superior selectivity for {sup 241}Am(III). (orig.)

  9. Solution speciation of plutonium and Americium at an Australian legacy radioactive waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi; Harrison, Jennifer J; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry; Wong, Henri K Y; Johansen, Mathew P; Waite, T David; Payne, Timothy E

    2014-09-01

    During the 1960s, radioactive waste containing small amounts of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) was disposed in shallow trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), located near the southern suburbs of Sydney, Australia. Because of periodic saturation and overflowing of the former disposal trenches, Pu and Am have been transferred from the buried wastes into the surrounding surface soils. The presence of readily detected amounts of Pu and Am in the trench waters provides a unique opportunity to study their aqueous speciation under environmentally relevant conditions. This study aims to comprehensively investigate the chemical speciation of Pu and Am in the trench water by combining fluoride coprecipitation, solvent extraction, particle size fractionation, and thermochemical modeling. The predominant oxidation states of dissolved Pu and Am species were found to be Pu(IV) and Am(III), and large proportions of both actinides (Pu, 97.7%; Am, 86.8%) were associated with mobile colloids in the submicron size range. On the basis of this information, possible management options are assessed.

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A Pt/TiO2 photocatalyst was used in the photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) under the irradiation of the simulated sunlight. The results show that the destruction of TNT is faster and more complete with the photocatalyst. The photocatalytic degradation of TNT follows first order kinet-ics. The transformation of nitryl groups of TNT molecules into nitrite and nitrate ions may be acceler-ated in the presence of the Pt/TiO2 photocatalyst. Compared with that without the catalyst, the concentration of nitrate ions was improved 32.3 times within 2.5 h.

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XiuHua; FU YiBei; WANG HeYi; ZHONG ZhiJing; XU YunShu

    2008-01-01

    A Pt/TiO2 photocatalyst was used in the photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) under the irradiation of the simulated sunlight. The results show that the destruction of TNT is faster and more complete with the photocatalyst. The photocatalytic degradation of TNT follows first order kinetics. The transformation of nitryl groups of TNT molecules into nitrite and nitrate ions may be accelerated in the presence of the Pt/TiO2 photocatalyst. Compared with that without the catalyst, the concentration of nitrate ions was improved 32.3 times within 2.5 h.

  12. Americium/Lanthanide Separations in Alkaline Solutions for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, George S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Long, Kristy Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reilly, Sean D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jarvinen, Gordon D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Runde, Wolfgang H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-11

    Project goals: Can used nuclear fuel be partitioned by dissolution in alkaline aqueous solution to give a solution of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium and a filterable solid containing nearly all of the lanthanide fission products and certain other fission products? What is the chemistry of Am/Cm/Ln in oxidative carbonate solutions? Can higher oxidation states of Am be stabilized and exploited? Conclusions: Am(VI) is kinetically stable in 0.5-2.0 M carbonate solutions for hours. Aliquat 336 in toluene has been successfully shown to extract U(VI) and Pu(VI) from carbonate solutions. (Stepanov et al 2011). Higher carbonate concentration gives lower D, SF{sub U/Eu} for = 4 in 1 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Experiments with Am(VI) were unsuccessful due to reduction by the organics. Multiple sources of reducing organics...more optimization. Reduction experiments of Am(VI) in dodecane/octanol/Aliquat 336 show that after 5 minutes of contact, only 30-40% of the Am(VI) has been reduced. Long enough to perform an extraction. Shorter contact times, lower T, and lower Aliquat 336 concentration still did not result in any significant extraction of Am. Anion exchange experiments using a strong base anion exchanger show uptake of U(VI) with minimal uptake of Nd(III). Experiments with Am(VI) indicate Am sorption with a Kd of 9 (10 minute contact) but sorption mechanism is not yet understood. SF{sub U/Nd} for = 7 and SF{sub U/Eu} for = 19 after 24 hours in 1 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.

  13. Concentrations of plutonium and americium in plankton from the western Mediterranean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Merino, Juan; Masque, Pere [Insitut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambiental-Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Mitchell, Peter I.; Vintro, L. Leon [Department of Experimental Physics, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Schell, William R. [Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Cross, Lluisa; Calbet, Albert [Institut de Ciencies del Mar, Pg. Maritim Barceloneta, 37-49 08003, Barcelona (Spain)

    2003-07-20

    Understanding the transfer of radionuclides through the food chain leading to man and in particular, the uptake of transuranic nuclides by plankton, is basic to assess the potential radiological risk of the consumption of marine products by man. The main sources of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean Sea in the past were global fallout and the Palomares accident, although at present smaller amounts are released from nuclear establishments in the northwestern region. Plankton from the western Mediterranean Sea was collected and analyzed for plutonium and americium in order to study their biological uptake. The microplankton fractions accounted for approximately 50% of the total plutonium contents in particulate form. At Garrucha (Palomares area), microplankton showed much higher {sup 239,240}Pu activity, indicating the contamination with plutonium from the bottom sediments. Concentration factors were within the range of the values recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Continental shelf mesoplankton was observed to efficiently concentrate transuranics. In open seawaters, concentrations were much lower. We speculate that sediments might play a role in the transfer of transuranics to mesoplankton in coastal waters, although we cannot discard that the difference in species composition may also play a role. In Palomares, both {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am showed activities five times higher than the mean values observed in continental shelf mesoplankton. As the plutonium isotopic ratios in the contaminated sample were similar to those found in material related to the accident, the contamination was attributed to bomb debris from the Palomares accident. Concentration factors in mesoplankton were also in relatively good agreement with the ranges recommended by IAEA. In the Palomares station the highest concentration factor was observed in the sample that showed predominance of the dynoflagellate Ceratium spp. Mean values of the enrichment factors

  14. In situ characterization of uranium and americium oxide solid solution formation for CRMP process: first combination of in situ XRD and XANES measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caisso, Marie; Picart, Sébastien; Belin, Renaud C; Lebreton, Florent; Martin, Philippe M; Dardenne, Kathy; Rothe, Jörg; Neuville, Daniel R; Delahaye, Thibaud; Ayral, André

    2015-04-14

    Transmutation of americium in heterogeneous mode through the use of U1-xAmxO2±δ ceramic pellets, also known as Americium Bearing Blankets (AmBB), has become a major research axis. Nevertheless, in order to consider future large-scale deployment, the processes involved in AmBB fabrication have to minimize fine particle dissemination, due to the presence of americium, which considerably increases the risk of contamination. New synthesis routes avoiding the use of pulverulent precursors are thus currently under development, such as the Calcined Resin Microsphere Pelletization (CRMP) process. It is based on the use of weak-acid resin (WAR) microspheres as precursors, loaded with actinide cations. After two specific calcinations under controlled atmospheres, resin microspheres are converted into oxide microspheres composed of a monophasic U1-xAmxO2±δ phase. Understanding the different mechanisms during thermal conversion, that lead to the release of organic matter and the formation of a solid solution, appear essential. By combining in situ techniques such as XRD and XAS, it has become possible to identify the key temperatures for oxide formation, and the corresponding oxidation states taken by uranium and americium during mineralization. This paper thus presents the first results on the mineralization of (U,Am) loaded resin microspheres into a solid solution, through in situ XAS analysis correlated with HT-XRD.

  15. 40 CFR 246.200-2 - Recommended procedures: High-grade paper recovery from smaller offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... offices. The recovery of high-grade paper generated by office facilities of less than 100 office workers... paper recovery from smaller offices. 246.200-2 Section 246.200-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES SOURCE SEPARATION FOR MATERIALS RECOVERY GUIDELINES...

  16. 48 CFR 1852.246-70 - Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... System Personnel Reliability Program. 1852.246-70 Section 1852.246-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Reliability Program. As prescribed in 1846.370(a), insert the following clause: Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program (MAR 1997) (a) In implementation of the Mission Critical Space...

  17. LIBS Spectral Data for a Mixed Actinide Fuel Pellet Containing Uranium, Plutonium, Neptunium and Americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judge, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Le, Loan A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lopez, Leon N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to analyze a mixed actinide fuel pellet containing 75% UO{sub 2}/20% PuO{sub 2}/3% AmO{sub 2}/2% NpO{sub 2}. The preliminary data shown here is the first report of LIBS analysis of a mixed actinide fuel pellet, to the authors knowledge. The LIBS spectral data was acquired in a plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory where the sample was contained within a glove box. The initial installation of the glove box was not intended for complete ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) transmission, therefore the LIBS spectrum is truncated in the UV and NIR regions due to the optical transmission of the window port and filters that were installed. The optical collection of the emission from the LIBS plasma will be optimized in the future. However, the preliminary LIBS data acquired is worth reporting due to the uniqueness of the sample and spectral data. The analysis of several actinides in the presence of each other is an important feature of this analysis since traditional methods must chemically separate uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium prior to analysis. Due to the historic nature of the sample fuel pellet analyzed, the provided sample composition of 75% UO{sub 2}/20% PuO{sub 2}/3% AmO{sub 2}/2% NpO{sub 2} cannot be confirm without further analytical processing. Uranium, plutonium, and americium emission lines were abundant and easily assigned while neptunium was more difficult to identify. There may be several reasons for this observation, other than knowing the exact sample composition of the fuel pellet. First, the atomic emission wavelength resources for neptunium are limited and such techniques as hollow cathode discharge lamp have different dynamics than the plasma used in LIBS which results in different emission spectra. Secondly, due to the complex sample of four actinide elements, which all have very dense electronic energy levels, there may be reactions and

  18. 25 CFR 1000.246 - Must an AFA that contains a construction project or activity incorporate provisions of Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exceed applicable Federal standards, then the Secretary must accept the Indian Tribe/Consortium's proposed standards. The Secretary may accept commonly accepted industry construction standards. ... activity incorporate provisions of Federal construction standards? 1000.246 Section 1000.246 Indians...

  19. 33 CFR 148.246 - When is a document considered filed and where should I file it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... filed and where should I file it? 148.246 Section 148.246 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Formal Hearings § 148.246 When is a document considered filed and where should I file it? (a) If a document to be filed is submitted by mail, it is considered filed on the date it is postmarked. If...

  20. Feasibility of fluoroelastomer-246B as the substitute of bile duct%氟橡胶246B作为胆管替代物的可行性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凯; 王广义; 刘松阳

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fluoroelastomer-246B has better histocompatibility than polyethylene and polypropylene, which is the same as expanded polytetrafiuoroethylene (ePTFE). Besides, fluoroelastomer-246B has better rigidity than ePTFE, so it is hard to deform.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of fluoroelastomer-246B as a human implant in vivo and a substitute of human bile duct by the test of bile soak, routine sterilized method, and implantation into rat abdominal cavity.DESIGN: A controlled observation.SETTING: First Hospital of Jilin University & Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for Supramolecular Structure and Material of Jilin University.MATERIALS: This study was performed at the Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for Supramolecular Structure and Material of Jilin University from June 2006 to March 2007. A total of 35 male Wistar rats of clean grade, aged 4-5 weeks,weighing 140-160 g, were provided by Laboratory Animal Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University [Permission No. SCXK (Ji) 2003-0001]. Prior to surgery, the Wistar rats were fasted for 5 hours, but they were allowed to access to water freely. The main materials used in the present study were as follows: fluoroelastomer-246B (Yangzhong Municipal Rubber & Plastics Plant, China), ePTFE(Shanghai Suo-Kang Medical Implants Co.,Ltd., China).METHODS: Rectangular fluoroelastomer-246B thin slices (50 mm×10 mm×0.5 mm) made were placed in a beaker filled with fresh bile, and preserved in a 37 ℃ thermostat container. The tensile strength, thermal decomposition temperature and glass transition temperature of fluoroelastomer-246B were tested after 30 days, and the results were compared to those before soaking to investigate whether the physical-chemical properties of fluoroelastomer-246B slices would change after soaking in the bile environment for a long time. The rectangular fluoroelastomer-246B thin slices made as above were sterilized by boiling method, formaldehyde vapors fumigating

  1. GT160-246, a toxin binding polymer for treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, C B; Cannon, E P; Brezzani, A; Pitruzzello, M; Dinardo, C; Rinard, E; Acheson, D W; Fitzpatrick, R; Kelly, P; Shackett, K; Papoulis, A T; Goddard, P J; Barker, R H; Palace, G P; Klinger, J D

    2001-08-01

    GT160-246, a high-molecular-weight soluble anionic polymer, was tested in vitro and in vivo for neutralization of Clostridium difficile toxin A and B activities. Five milligrams of GT160-246 per ml neutralized toxin-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis in Vero cells induced by 5 ng of toxin A per ml or 1.25 ng of toxin B per ml. In ligated rat ileal loops, 1 mg of GT160-246 neutralized fluid accumulation caused by 5 microg of toxin A. At doses as high as 80 mg/loop, cholestyramine provided incomplete neutralization of fluid accumulation caused by 5 microg of toxin A. GT160-246 protected 80% of the hamsters from mortality caused by infection with C. difficile, whereas cholestyramine protected only 10% of animals. Treatment of C. difficile-infected hamsters with metronidazole initially protected 100% of the hamsters from mortality, but upon removal of treatment, 80% of the hamsters had relapses and died. In contrast, removal of GT160-246 treatment did not result in disease relapse in the hamsters. GT160-246 showed no antimicrobial activity in tests with a panel of 16 aerobic bacteria and yeast and 22 anaerobic bacteria and did not interfere with the in vitro activities of most antibiotics. GT160-246 offers a novel, nonantimicrobial treatment of C. difficile disease in humans.

  2. Neutronic Study of Burnup, Radiotoxicity, Decay Heat and Basic Safety Parameters of Mono-Recycling of Americium in French Pressurised Water Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bright Mawuko Sogbadji

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The reprocessing of actinides with long half-life has been non-existent except for plutonium (Pu. This work looks at reducing the actinides inventory nuclear fuel waste meant for permanent disposal. The uranium oxide fuel (UOX assembly, as in the open cycle system, was designed to reach a burnup of 46GWd/T and 68GWd/T using the MURE code. The MURE code is based on the coupling of a static Monte Carlo code and the calculation of the evolution of the fuel during irradiation and cooling periods. The MURE code has been used to address two different questions concerning the mono-recycling of americium (Am in present French pressurised water reactors (PWR. These are reduction of americium in the clear fuel cycle and the safe quantity of americium that can be introduced into mixed oxide (MOX as fuel. The spent UOX was reprocessed to fabricate MOX assemblies, by the extraction of plutonium and addition of depleted uranium to reach burnups of 46GWd/T and 68GWd/T, taking into account various cooling times of the spent UOX assembly in the repository. The effect of cooling time on burnup and radiotoxicity was then ascertained. After 30 years of cooling in the repository, the spent UOX fuel required a higher concentration of Pu to be reprocessed into MOX fuel due to the decay of Pu-241. Americium, with a mean half-life of 432 years, has a high radiotoxicity level, high mid-term residual heat and is a precursor for other long-lived isotopes. An innovative strategy would be to reprocess not only the plutonium from the UOX spent fuel but also the americium isotopes, which presently dominate the radiotoxicity of waste. The mono-recycling of Am is not a definitive solution because the once-through MOX cycle transmutation of Am in a PWR is not enough to destroy all americium. The main objective is to propose a ‘waiting strategy’ for both Am and Pu in the spent fuel so that they can be made available for further transmutation strategies. The MOX and

  3. THE FIRST ISOLATION OF AMERICIUM IN THE FORM OF PURE COMPOUNDS - THE SPECIFIC ALPHA-ACTIVITY AND HALF-LIFE OF Am241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, B.B.; Asprey, L.B.

    1950-07-20

    The microgram scale isolation and preparation of pure compounds of americium is described. Data are presented to show that the alpha-half-life of the isotope Am{sup 241} is 490 {+-} 14 years. The absorption spectrum of Am(III) in 1M nitric acid in the range 3500-8000 mu is given. The wave lengths of 10 of the most prominent lines in the copper spark emission spectrum of americium are given to the nearest 0.01 {angstrom}. Evidence is presented to show that the potential for the Am(III)-Am(IV) couple in acid solution is more negative than -2v and that the potential for the Am(II)-Am(III) couple is more positive than +0.9v.

  4. Role of UV photolysis in accelerating the biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbing; Kirumba, George; Zhang, Yongming; Wu, Yanqing; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2015-09-18

    2,4,6-TCP, a kind of chlorinated aromatic and aliphatic compound, is difficult to be biodegraded by ordinary microorganisms. UV photolysis and biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCP by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens intimate coupling is a potential means to accelerate its biotransformation. The initial steps of 2,4,6-TCP biodegradation involve mono-oxygenation reactions that have molecular oxygen and an intracellular electron carrier as cosubstrates. It was demonstrated that B. amyloliquefaciens has the 2,4,6-TCP monooxygenase gene tcpA which could encode 2,4,6-TCP monooxygenase (TCP-MO). TCP-MO would catalytically decompose 2,4,6-TCP into 2,6-DCHQ. We employed an internal loop photolytic biofilm reactor for 2,4,6-TCP degradation. Sequentially coupled photolysis and biodegradation experimental results suggested that 2,4,6-TCP removal rate in P + B (TCP(UV) + phenol) protocol was higher by 77 and 103 % when compared to B (TCP + phenol) and B (TCP-only) protocols respectively. The corresponding loss rate coefficient (k) values were 0.069, 0.039, 0.034 mg/L·min(-1) respectively. This is because UV photolysis converted 2,4,6-TCP into its intermediates: 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 4-monochlorophenol (4-MCP), phenol, 2,6-dichloro-p-hydroquinone (2,6-DCHQ), with all displaying less inhibition to bacterial action. In addition, phenol was the crucial UV-photolysis product from 2,4,6-TCP, its catabolic oxidation generating internal electron carriers that may accelerate the initial steps of 2,4,6-TCP biodegradation. Intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation experimental results suggested that 2,4,6-TCP removal rate in P&B (TCP + phenol) protocol was higher by 166 and 681 % when compared to P&B (TCP-only) and P + B protocols respectively. The corresponding loss rate coefficient (k) values were 0.539, 0.203, 0.069 mg/L·min(-1) respectively. It provided sufficient evidence to demonstrate that intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation accelerated 2,4,6-TCP

  5. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol in human placental tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, Christopher; Butt, Craig M; Hoffman, Kate; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Stapleton, Heather M

    2016-03-01

    Legacy environmental contaminants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely detected in human tissues. However, few studies have measured PBDEs in placental tissues, and there are no reported measurements of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) in placental tissues. Measurements of these contaminants are important for understanding potential fetal exposures, as these compounds have been shown to alter thyroid hormone regulation in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we measured a suite of PBDEs and 2,4,6-TBP in 102 human placental tissues collected between 2010 and 2011 in Durham County, North Carolina, USA. The most abundant PBDE congener detected was BDE-47, with a mean concentration of 5.09ng/g lipid (range: 0.12-141ng/g lipid; detection frequency 91%); however, 2,4,6-TBP was ubiquitously detected and present at higher concentrations with a mean concentration of 15.4ng/g lipid (range:1.31-316ng/g lipid; detection frequency 100%). BDE-209 was also detected in more than 50% of the samples, and was significantly associated with 2,4,6-TBP in placental tissues, suggesting they may have a similar source, or that 2,4,6-TBP may be a degradation product of BDE-209. Interestingly, BDE-209 and 2,4,6-TBP were negatively associated with age (rs=-0.16; p=0.10 and rs=-0.17; p=0.08, respectively). The results of this work indicate that PBDEs and 2,4,6-TBP bioaccumulate in human placenta tissue and likely contribute to prenatal exposures to these environmental contaminants. Future studies are needed to determine if these joint exposures are associated with any adverse health measures in infants and children.

  6. Pathway of the ozonation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PI Yunzheng; WANG Jianlong

    2007-01-01

    The reaction mechanism and pathway of the ozonation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol(2,4,6-TCP)in aqueous solution were investigated.The removal efficiency and the variation of H2O2,Cl-,formic acid,and oxalic acid were studied during the semi-batch ozonation experiments(continuous for ozone gas supply,fixed volume of water sample).The results showed that when there was no scavenger,the removal efficiency of 0.1 mmol/L 2,4,6-TCP could reach 99% within 6 min by adding 24 mg/L ozone.The reaction of molecular ozone with 1 2,4,6-TCP resulted in the formation of H2O2.The maximal concentration of H2O2 detected during the ozonation could reach 22.5% of the original concentration of 2,4,6-TCP.The reaction of ozone with H2O2 resulted in the molecule firstly degraded 2,4,6-TCP to form chlorinated quinone,which was subsequently oxidized to formic acid and oxalic acid.Two reaction pathways of the degradation of 2,4,6-TCP by ozone and O2/OH·were proposed in this study.

  7. Biological degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Núñez, A; Caballero, A; Ramos, J L

    2001-09-01

    Nitroaromatic compounds are xenobiotics that have found multiple applications in the synthesis of foams, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and explosives. These compounds are toxic and recalcitrant and are degraded relatively slowly in the environment by microorganisms. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is the most widely used nitroaromatic compound. Certain strains of Pseudomonas and fungi can use TNT as a nitrogen source through the removal of nitrogen as nitrite from TNT under aerobic conditions and the further reduction of the released nitrite to ammonium, which is incorporated into carbon skeletons. Phanerochaete chrysosporium and other fungi mineralize TNT under ligninolytic conditions by converting it into reduced TNT intermediates, which are excreted to the external milieu, where they are substrates for ligninolytic enzymes. Most if not all aerobic microorganisms reduce TNT to the corresponding amino derivatives via the formation of nitroso and hydroxylamine intermediates. Condensation of the latter compounds yields highly recalcitrant azoxytetranitrotoluenes. Anaerobic microorganisms can also degrade TNT through different pathways. One pathway, found in Desulfovibrio and Clostridium, involves reduction of TNT to triaminotoluene; subsequent steps are still not known. Some Clostridium species may reduce TNT to hydroxylaminodinitrotoluenes, which are then further metabolized. Another pathway has been described in Pseudomonas sp. strain JLR11 and involves nitrite release and further reduction to ammonium, with almost 85% of the N-TNT incorporated as organic N in the cells. It was recently reported that in this strain TNT can serve as a final electron acceptor in respiratory chains and that the reduction of TNT is coupled to ATP synthesis. In this review we also discuss a number of biotechnological applications of bacteria and fungi, including slurry reactors, composting, and land farming, to remove TNT from polluted soils. These treatments have been designed to achieve

  8. Intramolecular sensitization of americium luminescence in solution: shining light on short-lived forbidden 5f transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturzbecher-Hoehne, M; Yang, P; D'Aléo, A; Abergel, R J

    2016-06-14

    The photophysical properties and solution thermodynamics of water soluble trivalent americium (Am(III)) complexes formed with multidentate chromophore-bearing ligands, 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), Enterobactin, and 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO), were investigated. The three chelators were shown to act as antenna chromophores for Am(III), generating sensitized luminescence emission from the metal upon complexation, with very short lifetimes ranging from 33 to 42 ns and low luminescence quantum yields (10(-3) to 10(-2)%), characteristic of Near Infra-Red emitters in similar systems. The specific emission peak of Am(III) assigned to the (5)D1 → (7)F1 f-f transition was exploited to characterize the high proton-independent stability of the complex formed with the most efficient sensitizer 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), with a log β110 = 20.4 ± 0.2 value. In addition, the optical and solution thermodynamic features of these Am(III) complexes, combined with density functional theory calculations, were used to probe the influence of electronic structure on coordination properties across the f-element series and to gain insight into ligand field effects.

  9. Response of avalanche photo-diodes of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter to neutrons from an Americium-Beryllium source.

    CERN Document Server

    Deiters, Konrad; Renker, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    The response of avalanche photo-diodes (APDs) used in the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter to low energy neutrons from an Americium-Beryllium source is reported. Signals due to recoil protons from neutron interactions with the hydrogen nuclei in the protective epoxy layer, mainly close to the silicon surface of the APD, have been identified. These signals increase in size with the applied bias voltage more slowly than the nominal gain of the APDs, and appear to have a substantially lower effective gain at the operating voltage. The signals originating from interactions in the epoxy are mostly equivalent to signals of a few GeV in CMS, but range up to a few tens of GeV equivalent. There are also signals not attributed to reactions in the epoxy extending up to the end of the range of these measurements, a few hundreds of GeV equivalent. Signals from the x-rays from the source can also be in the GeV equivalent scale in CMS. Simulations used to describe events due to particle interactions in the APDs need to take ...

  10. Nano-cerium vanadate: a novel inorganic ion exchanger for removal of americium and uranium from simulated aqueous nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Chayan; Dudwadkar, Nilesh; Tripathi, Subhash Chandra; Gandhi, Pritam Maniklal; Grover, Vinita; Kaushik, Chetan Prakash; Tyagi, Avesh Kumar

    2014-09-15

    Cerium vanadate nanopowders were synthesized by a facile low temperature co-precipitation method. The product was characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy and found to consist of ∼25 nm spherical nanoparticles. The efficiency of these nanopowders for uptake of alpha-emitting radionuclides (233)U (4.82 MeV α) and (241)Am (5.49 MeV α, 60 keV γ) has been investigated. Thermodynamically and kinetically favorable uptake of these radionuclides resulted in their complete removal within 3h from aqueous acidic feed solutions. The uptake capacity was observed to increase with increase in pH as the zeta potential value decreased with the increase in pH but effect of ionic strength was insignificant. Little influence of the ions like Sr(2+), Ru(3+), Fe(3+), etc., in the uptake process indicated CeVO4 nanopowders to be amenable for practical applications. The isotherms indicated predominant uptake of the radioactive metal ions in the solid phase of the exchanger at lower feed concentrations and linear Kielland plots with positive slopes indicated favorable exchange of the metal ions with the nanopowder. Performance comparison with the other sorbents reported indicated excellent potential of nano-cerium vanadate for removing americium and uranium from large volumes of aqueous acidic solutions.

  11. Functions of Flavin Reductase and Quinone Reductase in 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol Degradation by Cupriavidus necator JMP134▿

    OpenAIRE

    Belchik, Sara Mae; Xun, Luying

    2007-01-01

    The tcpRXABCYD operon of Cupriavidus necator JMP134 is involved in the degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), a toxic pollutant. TcpA is a reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2)-dependent monooxygenase that converts 2,4,6-TCP to 6-chlorohydroxyquinone. It has been implied via genetic analysis that TcpX acts as an FAD reductase to supply TcpA with FADH2, whereas the function of TcpB in 2,4,6-TCP degradation is still unclear. In order to provide direct biochemical evidence for t...

  12. Limits to the Magnetic Field in the Planetary Nebula NGC 246 from Faraday Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, L. F.; Carrasco-González, C.; Cantó, J.; Pasetto, A.; Raga, A. C.; Tafoya, D.

    2017-04-01

    We present radio continuum observations of the linearly polarized extragalactic source J0047-1150, whose line of sight traverses the galactic planetary nebula NGC 246. We determine the position angle of the electric vector at seven frequencies between 1.3 and 1.8 GHz, finding no evidence of Faraday rotation and setting a 4-σ upper limit to the rotation measure of 9.6 rad m-2, which implies an upper limit to the average line-of-sight component of the magnetic field in NGC 246 of 1.3 μG. However, we show that the rotation measure across a source with a dipolar magnetic field morphology practically cancels out. Therefore, if the magnetic field has this morphology, the local values of the magnetic field in NGC 246 could be much larger and will not be evident in a Faraday rotation experiment.

  13. Determination by gamma-ray spectrometry of the plutonium and americium content of the Pu/Am separation scraps. Application to molten salts; Determination par spectrometrie gamma de la teneur en plutonium et en americium de produits issus de separation Pu/Am. Application aux bains de sels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godot, A. [CEA Valduc, Dept. de Traitement des Materiaux Nucleaires, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Perot, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Technologie Nucleaire, Service de Modelisation des Transferts et Mesures Nucleaires, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Within the framework of plutonium recycling operations in CEA Valduc (France), americium is extracted from molten plutonium metal into a molten salt during an electrolysis process. The scraps (spent salt, cathode, and crucible) contain extracted americium and a part of plutonium. Nuclear material management requires a very accurate determination of the plutonium content. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is performed on Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) scraps located inside the glove box, in order to assess the plutonium and americium contents. The measurement accuracy is influenced by the device geometry, nuclear instrumentation, screens located between the sample and the detector, counting statistics and matrix attenuation, self-absorption within the spent salt being very important. The purpose of this study is to validate the 'infinite energy extrapolation' method employed to correct for self-attenuation, and to detect any potential bias. We present a numerical study performed with the MCNP computer code to identify the most influential parameters and some suggestions to improve the measurement accuracy. A final uncertainty of approximately 40% is achieved on the plutonium mass. (authors)

  14. Transfer across the human gut of environmental plutonium, americium, cobalt, caesium and technetium: studies with cockles (Cerastoderma edule) from the Irish Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G J

    1998-06-01

    Our previous studies have indicated lower values of the gut transfer factor ('f1 values') for plutonium and americium in winkles (Littorina littorea) than adopted by ICRP. The present study was undertaken primarily to investigate whether this observation extends to other species. Samples of cockles (Carastoderma edule) from Ravenglass, Cumbria were eaten by volunteers who provided 24 h samples of urine and faeces. Urine samples indicated f1 values for cockles which were higher than for winkles; for plutonium these ranged overall up to 7 x 10(-4) with an arithmetic mean in the range (2-3) x 10(-4), and for americium up to 2.6 x 10(-4) with an arithmetic mean of 1.2 x 10(-4). Limited data based on volunteers eating cockles from the Solway suggest that f1 values for americium may be greater at distance from Sellafield. The measured values compare with 5 x 10(-4) used by the ICRP for environmental forms of both elements, which would appear to provide adequate protection when calculating doses from Cumbrian cockles. Data for other nuclides were obtained by analysing faecal samples from the volunteers who ate the Ravenglass cockles. Cobalt-60 showed an f1 value in the region of 0.2, twice the value currently used by ICRP. For 137Cs, variabilities were indicated in the range 0.08 to 0.43, within the ICRP value of f1 = 1.0. Technetium-99 gave f1 values up to about 0.6, in reasonable conformity with the ICRP value of 0.5.

  15. Transfer across the human gut of environmental plutonium, americium, cobalt, caesium and technetium: studies with cockles (Cerastoderma edule) from the Irish Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.J. [CEFAS Laboratory, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-01

    Our previous studies have indicated lower values of the gut transfer factor ('f{sub L} values') for plutonium and americium in winkles (Littorina littorea) than adopted by ICRP. The present study was undertaken primarily to investigate whether this observation extends to other species. Samples of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) from Ravenglass, Cumbria were eaten by volunteers who provided 24 samples of urine and faeces. Urine samples indicated f{sub L} values for cockles which were higher than for winkles; for plutonium these ranged overall up to 7x10{sup -4} with an arithmetic mean in the range (2-3)x10{sup -4}, and for americium up to 2.6x10{sup -4} with an arithmetic mean of 1.2x10{sup -4}. Limited data based on volunteers eating cockles from the Solway suggest that f{sub L} values for americium may be greater at distance from Sellafield. The measured values compare with 5x10{sup -4} used by the ICRP for environmental forms of both elements, which would appear to provide adequate protection when calculating doses from Cumbrian cockles. Data for other nuclides were obtained by analysing faecal samples from the volunteers who ate the Ravenglass cockles. Cobalt-60 showed an f{sub L} value in the region of 0.2, twice the value currently used by ICRP. For {sup 137}Cs, variabilities were indicated in the range 0.08 to 0.43, within the ICRP value of f{sub L}=1.0. Technetium-99 gave f{sub L} values up to about 0.6, in reasonable conformity with the ICRP value of 0.5. (author)

  16. Nano-cerium vanadate: A novel inorganic ion exchanger for removal of americium and uranium from simulated aqueous nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Chayan; Dudwadkar, Nilesh [Fuel Reprocessing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Tripathi, Subhash Chandra, E-mail: sctri001@gmail.com [Fuel Reprocessing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Gandhi, Pritam Maniklal [Fuel Reprocessing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Grover, Vinita [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kaushik, Chetan Prakash [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Tyagi, Avesh Kumar, E-mail: aktyagi@barc.gov.in [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Template free, low temperature synthesis of CeVO{sub 4} nanopowders. • Thermodynamically and kinetically favourable uptake of Am(III) and U(VI) exhibited. • K{sub d} and ΔG° values for Am(III) and U(VI) uptake in pH 1–6 are reported. • Interdiffusion coefficients and zeta potential values in pH 1–6 are reported. • Possible application in low level aqueous nuclear waste remediation. - Abstract: Cerium vanadate nanopowders were synthesized by a facile low temperature co-precipitation method. The product was characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy and found to consist of ∼25 nm spherical nanoparticles. The efficiency of these nanopowders for uptake of alpha-emitting radionuclides {sup 233}U (4.82 MeV α) and {sup 241}Am (5.49 MeV α, 60 keV γ) has been investigated. Thermodynamically and kinetically favorable uptake of these radionuclides resulted in their complete removal within 3 h from aqueous acidic feed solutions. The uptake capacity was observed to increase with increase in pH as the zeta potential value decreased with the increase in pH but effect of ionic strength was insignificant. Little influence of the ions like Sr{sup 2+}, Ru{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, etc., in the uptake process indicated CeVO{sub 4} nanopowders to be amenable for practical applications. The isotherms indicated predominant uptake of the radioactive metal ions in the solid phase of the exchanger at lower feed concentrations and linear Kielland plots with positive slopes indicated favorable exchange of the metal ions with the nanopowder. Performance comparison with the other sorbents reported indicated excellent potential of nano-cerium vanadate for removing americium and uranium from large volumes of aqueous acidic solutions.

  17. Plutonium, americium and radiocaesium in the marine environment close to the Vandellos I nuclear power plant before decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A. E-mail: joanalbert.sanchez@uab.es; Molero, J

    2000-11-01

    The Vandellos nuclear power plant (NPP), releasing low-level radioactive liquid waste to the Mediterranean Sea, is the first to be decommissioned in Spain, after an incident which occurred in 1989. The presence, distribution and uptake of various artificial radionuclides (radiocaesium, plutonium and americium) in the environment close to the plant were studied in seawater, bottom sediments and biota, including Posidonia oceanica, fish, crustaceans and molluscs. Seawater, sediments and Posidonia oceanica showed enhanced levels in the close vicinity of the NPP, although the effect was restricted to its near environment. Maximum concentrations in seawater were 11.6{+-}0.5 Bq m{sup -3} and 16.9{+-}1.2 mBq m{sup -3} for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu, respectively. When sediment concentrations were normalized to excess {sup 210}Pb, they showed both the short-distance transport of artificial radionuclides from the Vandellos plant and the long-distance transport of {sup 137}Cs from the Asco NPP. Posidonia oceanica showed the presence of various gamma-emitters attributed to the impact of the Chernobyl accident, on which the effect of the NPP was superimposed. Seawater, sediment and Posidonia oceanica collected near the plant also showed an enhancement of the plutonium isotopic ratio above the fallout value. The uptake of these radionuclides by marine organisms was detectable but limited. Pelagic fish showed relatively higher {sup 137}Cs concentrations and only in the case of demersal fish was the plutonium isotopic ratio increased. The reported levels constitute a set of baseline values against which the impact of the decommissioning operations of the Vandellos I NPP can be studied.

  18. 48 CFR 52.246-19 - Warranty of Systems and Equipment under Performance Specifications or Design Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Equipment under Performance Specifications or Design Criteria. 52.246-19 Section 52.246-19 Federal... under Performance Specifications or Design Criteria. As prescribed in 46.710(c)(1), the contracting officer may insert a clause substantially as follows: Warranty of Systems and Equipment Under...

  19. 30 CFR 250.246 - What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What mineral resource conservation information... Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.246 What mineral resource conservation information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? The following mineral resource conservation information, as applicable, must accompany...

  20. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 246 - Stars and Stripes (S&S) Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... continuity. They shall be the best qualified personnel available in business-related disciplines. Members... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS STARS AND STRIPES (S&S) NEWSPAPER AND BUSINESS OPERATIONS Pt. 246, App..., and recommend guidance to its Commander-in-Chief (CINC) on all business operations. Attendance is...

  1. Complete dissipation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by in-vessel composting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gumuscu, Burcu; Cekmecelioglu, Deniz; Tekinay, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate complete removal of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in 15 days using an in-vessel composting system, which is amended with TNT-degrading bacteria strains. A mixture of TNT, food waste, manure, wood chips, soil and TNT-degrading bacteria consortium are co-composted for 15 days in an aerobi

  2. 7 CFR 246.18 - Administrative review of State agency actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... competitive price (§ 246.12(g)(4)); (C) The application of the State agency's vendor peer group criteria and... not limited to, vendor peer group criteria and the criteria used to identify vendors that are above-50... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative review of State agency actions....

  3. 8 CFR 246.4 - Immigration judge's authority; withdrawal and substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judge's authority; withdrawal... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS RESCISSION OF ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS § 246.4 Immigration judge's authority; withdrawal and substitution. In any proceeding conducted under this part, the immigration judge shall...

  4. SAGE ANALYSIS OF TRANSCRIPTOME RESPONSES IN ARABIDOPSIS ROOTS EXPOSED TO 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) was used to profile transcript levels in Arabidopsis thaliana roots and assess their responses to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) exposure. SAGE libraries representing control and TNT-exposed seedling root transcripts were constructed, and ea...

  5. 28 CFR 2.46 - Execution of warrant and service of summons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.46 Execution of warrant and service of summons. (a) Any officer of any Federal correctional... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Execution of warrant and service...

  6. Levan-type fructooligosaccharide production using Bacillus licheniformis RN-01 levansucrase Y246S immobilized on chitosan beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surawut Sangmanee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus licheniformis RN-01 levansucrase Y246S (LsRN-Y246S was immobilized by covalently linking onto chitosan, Sepabead EC-EP, and Sepabead EC-HFA, beads. The stability of immobilized LsRN-Y246S was found to be the highest with chitosan beads, retaining more than 70% activity after 13 weeks storage at 4 oC, and 68% activity after 12 hours incubation at 40°C. LsRN-Y246S immobilized on chitosan beads withstands sucrose concentrations up to 70% (w/v, retaining over 85% of its activity, significantly better than LsRN-Y246S immobilized on others supporting matrices. LsRN-Y246S immobilized on chitosan showed a 2.4 fold increase in activity in the presence of Mn2+, and gave slight protection against deactivation by of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe3+, SDS and EDTA. A maximum of 8.36 g and an average of 7.35 g LFOS yield at least up to DP 11 can be produced from 25 g of sucrose, during five production cycles. We have demonstrated that LFOS can be effectively produced by chitosan immobilized LsRN-Y246S and purified.

  7. A facile synthesis of 2,4,6-trichloroborazine from boron trichloride-dimethylsulfide complex and ammonium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2,4,6-Trichloroborazine has been recognized as a desirable monomer for the preparation of high-performance boron nitride fibers through polymer derived ceramics route.So a high yield and facile synthesis of 2,4,6-trichloroborazine is essential in practice. Using boron trichloride-dimethylsulfide complex((CH_3)_2S·BCl_3) and ammonium chloride(NH_4Cl) as starting materials and toluene(C_6H_5CH_3) as solvent,the synthesis of 2,4,6-trichloroborazine to give high yield is reported.

  8. Synthesis and structure of diorganotin dibromides, R2SnBr2 (R = 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl or 2,4,6-trimethylbenzyl): Hydrolysis of (2,4,6-Me3C6H2)2SnBr2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vadapalli Chandrasekhar; Ramalingam Thirumoorthi

    2010-09-01

    The reaction of SnBr4 with in situ generated 2,4,6-trimethylphenylmagnesium bromide afforded a mixture of (2,4,6-Me3C6H2)2SnBr2 (1) and (2,4,6-Me3C6H2)3SnBr (2) which could be separated from each other by their solubility differences in diethyl ether. On the other hand, the reaction of tin metal with 2,4,6-Me3C6H2CH2Br afforded (2,4,6-Me3C6H2CH2)2SnBr2 (3). Hydrolysis of the latter using triethylamine as the base afforded [{(2,4,6-Me3C6H2CH2)2Sn}2(-O)(Br)(-OH)]2.2CH2Cl2 (4) while the use of NaOH as the base afforded [{(2,4,6-Me3C6H2CH2)2Sn}2(-O)(OH)(-OH)]2.2CH2Cl2 (5). Compounds 4 and 5 are dimeric tetraorganodistannoxanes consisting of a central distannoxane (Sn2O2) motif.

  9. The structures of CyMe4-BTBP complexes of americium(iii) and europium(iii) in solvents used in solvent extraction, explaining their separation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, Christian; Löfström-Engdahl, Elin; Aneheim, Emma; Foreman, Mark R StJ; Geist, Andreas; Lundberg, Daniel; Denecke, Melissa; Persson, Ingmar

    2015-11-14

    Separation of trivalent actinoid (An(iii)) and lanthanoid (Ln(iii)) ions is extremely challenging due to their similar ionic radii and chemical properties. Poly-aromatic nitrogen compounds acting as tetradentate chelating ligands to the metal ions in the extraction, have the ability to sufficiently separate An(iii) from Ln(iii). One of these compounds, 6,6'-bis(5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-benzol[1,2,4]triazin-3-yl)[2,2]bipyridine, CyMe4-BTBP, has proven to be resistant towards acidic environments and strong radiation from radioactive decomposition. EXAFS studies of the dicomplexes of CyMe4-BTBP with americium(iii) and europium(iii) in nitrobenzene, cyclohexanone, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol and malonamide (DMDOHEMA) in 1-octanol have been carried out to get a deeper understanding of the parameters responsible for the separation. The predominating complexes independent of solvent used are [Am(CyMe4-BTBP)2(NO3)](2+) and [Eu(CyMe4-BTBP)2](3+), respectively, which are present as outer-sphere ion-pairs with nitrate ions in the studied solvents with low relative permittivity. The presence of a nitrate ion in the first coordination sphere of the americium(iii) complex compensates the charge density of the complex considerably in comparison when only outer-sphere ion-pairs are formed as for the [Eu(CyMe4-BTBP)2](3+) complex. The stability and solubility of a complex in a solvent with low relative permittivity increase with decreasing charge density. The [Am(CyMe4-BTBP)2(NO3)](2+) complex will therefore be increasingly soluble and stabilized over the [Eu(CyMe4-BTBP)2](3+) complex in solvents with decreasing relative permittivity of the solvent. The separation of americium(iii) from europium(iii) with CyMe4-BTBP as extraction agent will increase with decreasing relative permittivity of the solvent, and thereby also with decreasing solubility of CyMe4-BTBP. The choice of solvent is therefore a balance of a high separation factor and sufficient solubility of the CyMe4-BTBP

  10. catena-Poly[[dipyridinemercury(II]-μ-5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjing Jiang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of mercury(II chloride with 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalic acid in pyridine solution leads to the formation of the title compound, [Hg(C8H2I3NO4(C5H5N2]n. The structure contains a four-coordinate Hg2+ ion in a distorted tetrahedral geometry, which lies on a crystallographic twofold axis. The Hg2+ ion is bonded to two N atoms from two pyridine ligands and two carboxylate O atoms from two 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalate anions. The two carboxylate groups of individual 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalate anions act as a bridge to the Hg centers. This anion also resides on a twofold axis, which passes through the amino N and the trans standing I atoms. The Hg—O distance is 2.337 (6 and the Hg—N distance is 2.244 (8 Å.

  11. Occurrence of earthy and musty odor compounds (geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole) in biologically treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urase, T; Sasaki, Y

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of earthy and musty odor compounds (2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB), geosmin and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA)) in treated wastewater were measured. Concentrations of 2,4,6-TCA (4.3-37.7 ng/L) and geosmin (3.7-42.2 ng/L) higher than their odor thresholds were detected for effluents from large-scale treatment plants. The effluent from a small-scale wastewater plant treating toilet and kitchen wastewater contained the target earthy and musty odor compounds below the odor thresholds. The ozonation applied as an advanced wastewater treatment process was considerably more effective for the removal of 2,4,6-TCA than for the removal of 2-MIB and geosmin. The measured concentrations of 2,4,6-TCA in river environments without the influence of large-scale wastewater effluents were less than the odor threshold.

  12. Determination of Atto- to Femtogram Levels of Americium and Curium Isotopes in Large-Volume Urine Samples by Compact Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiongxin; Christl, Marcus; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2016-03-01

    Ultralow level analysis of actinides in urine samples may be required for dose assessment in the event of internal exposures to these radionuclides at nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants. A new bioassay method for analysis of sub-femtogram levels of Am and Cm in large-volume urine samples was developed. Americium and curium were co-precipitated with hydrous titanium oxide from the urine matrix and purified by column chromatography separation. After target preparation using mixed titanium/iron oxides, the final sample was measured by compact accelerator mass spectrometry. Urine samples spiked with known quantities of Am and Cm isotopes in the range of attogram to femtogram levels were measured for method evaluation. The results are in good agreement with the expected values, demonstrating the feasibility of compact accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for the determination of minor actinides at the levels of attogram/liter in urine samples to meet stringent sensitivity requirements for internal dosimetry assessment.

  13. Artificial radionuclides in the Northern European Marine Environment. Distribution of radiocaesium, plutonium and americium in sea water and sediments in 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groettheim, Siri

    2000-07-01

    This study considers the distribution of radiocaesium, plutonium and americium in the northern marine environment. The highest radiocaesium activity in sea water was observed in Skagerrak, 26 Bq/m{sub 3}, and in surface sediments in the Norwegian Sea, 60 Bq/kg. These enhanced levels were related to Chernobyl. The highest 239,240Pu activity in surface water was measured in the western North Sea, 66 mBq/m{sub 3}. In sea water, sub-surface maxima were observed at several locations with an 239,240Pu activity up to 160 mBq/m{sub 3}, and were related to Sellafield. With the exception to the North Sea, surface sediments reflected Pu from global fallout from weapons tests only. (author)

  14. Development of an automatic method for americium and plutonium separation and preconcentration using an multisyringe flow injection analysis-multipumping flow system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Yamila; Ferrer, Laura; Gómez, Enrique; Garcias, Francesca; Casas, Monserrat; Cerdà, Víctor

    2008-01-01

    A new procedure for automatic separation and preconcentration of 241Am and 239+240Pu from interfering matrixes using transuranide (TRU)-resin is proposed. Combination of the multisyringe flow injection analysis and multipumping flow system techniques with the TRU-resin allows carrying out the sampling treatment and separation in a short time using large sample volumes. Americium is eluted from the column with 4 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid, and then plutonium is separated via on-column Pu(IV) reduction to Pu(III) with titanium(III) chloride. The corresponding alpha activities are measured off-line, with a relative standard deviation of 3% and a lower limit of detection of 0.004 Bq mL(-1), by using a multiplanchet low-background proportional counter.

  15. Recovery of Americium-241 from lightning rod by the method of chemical treatment; Recuperacion del Americio-241 provenientes de los pararrayos por el metodo de tratamiento quimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, W.H., E-mail: wcruz@ipen.gob.pe [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (GRRA/IPEN), Lima (Peru). Division de Gestion de Residuos Radiactivos

    2013-07-01

    About 95% of the lightning rods installed in the Peruvian territory have set in their structures, pose small amounts of radioactive sources such as Americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), fewer and Radium 226 ({sup 226}Ra) these are alpha emitters and have a half life of 432 years and 1600 years respectively. In this paper describes the recovery of radioactive sources of {sup 241}Am radioactive lightning rods using the conventional chemical treatment method using agents and acids to break down the slides. The {sup 241}Am recovered was as excitation source and alpha particle generator for analysing samples by X Ray Fluorescence, for fixing the stainless steel {sup 241}Am technique was used electrodeposition. (author)

  16. Americium-241 Decorporation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    sources when combined with beryllium. Radioactive sources are used for a number of industrial applications that range from oil well logging devices...is any exposure resulting in a 50-year whole-body committed effective dose greater than 200 mSv (Rojas- Palma 2009). Therefore, the model can also...Tracheobronchial geometry: Human, dog, rat, hamster (Report LF-53). Lovelace Foundation, Albuquerque, NM Rojas- Palma C, et al. 2009. TMT Handbook

  17. Analysis of 2,4,6-nonatrienal geometrical isomers from male flea beetles, Epitrix hirtipennis and E. fuscula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilkowski, Bruce W; Bartelt, Robert J; Vermillion, Karl

    2008-07-09

    Geometrical isomers of 2,4,6-nonatrienal have been reported from a variety of food- and insect-related sources. It was discovered recently that the eggplant flea beetle, Epitrix fuscula, uses the (2 E,4 E,6 Z) and (2 E,4 E,6 E) isomers as components of its male-produced aggregation pheromone. Here, we learned that the related species, E. hirtipennis, also emits a blend of 2,4,6-nonatrienals, including isomers not previously characterized. Patterns in emission and response suggest a pheromonal function. In an effort to acquire standards to aid in identification, we found that exposing (2 E,4 E,6 E)-2,4,6-nonatrienal (or other available 2,4,6-nonatrienals) to light readily generated a mixture of six geometrical isomers. Configurations of these were determined by NMR, and chromatographic properties (GC and HPLC) were documented. On the basis of chromatographic comparison to these standards, the most abundant, new compound from E. hirtipennis was concluded to be (2 E,4 Z,6 Z)-2,4,6-nonatrienal. Minor components from both E. hirtipennis and E. fuscula were also characterized. The analytical approach given here would also be of use in the food industry, where 2,4,6-nonatrienals are important as aroma compounds.

  18. Clinical analysis of 246 patients with tuberculous meningitis%结核性脑膜炎246例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱敏; 尹良胜; 李锋; 刘健仁

    2010-01-01

    Objective To review the clinical and laboratory features of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Methods The clinical and laboratory data from 246 cases of TBM in Tuberculosis Treatment Center of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine Hospital of Zhejiang Province from January 1,1999 to December 31,2005 were collected and analyzed with SPSS 15.0 software. Results In 246 TBM patients,203(82.5%)was of basilar meningitis, 170(69. 1%)complicated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Fever,nausea, vomiting and headache were common symptoms in TBM patients. PPD skin tests were positive in 155(63.0%)patients, but only 12(4.9%)were acid-fast bacillus smear-positive in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF test showed that the white blood cells[(320 - 880)× 106/L], protein(0. 95 - 13.8 g/L)were increased, while glucose(1.53 - 3.2 mmol/L)and chloride content(90 - 111 mmol/L)were decreased. Adenosine deaminase ≥8 U/L was observed in 230(93.5%)patients, and 185(75.2%)patients were tuberculosis antibody positive. Eighty-one(32. 9%)patients showed nodular or annular shadows in cranial CT. After comprehensive therapy, 242(98.4%)patients recovered or improved and no sequela was observed, while 4(1.6%)patients died. Conclusion Early diagnosis of TBM should be based on clinical manifestations, changes of cerebrospinal fluid, imaging examination and PPD test.%目的 分析结核性脑膜炎(tuberculous meningitis,TBM)患者的临床特征及实验室检查特点,提高TBM早期诊断和治疗水平.方法 回顾分析1999年1月1日-2005年12月31日浙江省中西医结合医院结核病治疗中心收治的246例TBM患者的临床及实验室资料,应用SPSS 15.0软件进行统计分析.结果 246例TBM患者中,203例(82.5%)为颅底脑膜炎型,170例(69.1%)患者合并肺结核,临床症状以发热、恶心呕吐、头痛为主.155例(63.0%)患者结核菌素(PPD)试验阳性,仅12例(4.9%)患者脑脊髓液涂片抗酸杆菌阳性.脑脊髓液检查白细胞升高[(320~880)×106/L],

  19. Isopropyl 2-(4,6-dimethyl-3-methylsulfinyl-1-benzofuran-2-ylacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Dae Choi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecules of title compound, C16H20O4S, which was synthesized by the oxidation of isopropyl 2-(4,6-dimethyl-3-methylsulfanyl-1-benzofuran-2-ylacetate, interact through C—H...π interactions between a methylene H atom and the aromatic carbon ring of the benzofuran ring system, and by C—H...O hydrogen bonds. Adjacent stacked molecules exhibit a carbonyl–carbonyl interaction [3.295 (2 Å]. The O atom of the methylsulfinyl group is disordered over two positions with site-occupancy factors of 0.9 and 0.1.

  20. Toxicity and mutagenicity of 2,4,-6-trinitrotoluene and its microbial metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, W D; DiSalvo, L H; Ng, J

    1976-04-01

    TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) of explosive grade is highly toxic to marine forms that included fresh water unicellular green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), tidepool copepods (Tigriopus californicus), and oyster larvae (Crassostrea gigas), and mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium. On the basis of mutagenic assays carried out with a set of histidine-requiring strains of the bacterium, TNT was detected as a frameshift mutagen that significantly accelerates the reversion rate of a frameshift tester, TA-98. In contrast, the major microbial metabolites of TNT appeared to be nontoxic and nonmutagenic.

  1. Methyl 2-(4,6-dichloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylaminoacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio M. F. Vilela

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C6H6Cl2N4O2, was prepared by the nucleophilic substitution of 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine by glycine methyl ester hydrochloride, and was isolated from the reaction by using flash chromatography. The crystal structure at 150 K reveals the presence two crystallographically independent molecules in the asymmetric unit which differ in the orientation of the pendant methoxycarbonyl group. Each molecular unit is engaged in strong and highly directional N—H...N hydrogen-bonding interactions with a symmetry-related molecule, forming supramolecular dimers which act as the synthons in the crystal packing.

  2. 2,4,6-Triamino-1,3,5-triazine-1,3-diium aquapentafluoridoaluminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Maisonneuve

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, (C3H8N6[AlF5(H2O], was obtained by solvothermal synthesis from the reaction of aluminium hydroxide, 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (melamine, aqueous HF and water at 323 K for 48 h. The structure consists of [AlF5(H2O]2− octahedra and diprotonated melaminium cations. Cohesion is ensured by a three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds.

  3. Synthesis of 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5- trinitrobenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TATB is perhaps the most thermostable and insensitive explosive known. Its low sensibility to shock makes it suitable for military and civil applications. TATB application is done either alone or in combination with another high energetic material. This study aimed at reporting the review about many processes to produce TATB and the problems associated with them, as well as suggest techniques like Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, which can be useful in the characterization of this energetic compound.

  4. Thermal Decomposition Kinetics of Lead 2,4,6-Trinitroresorcinate Monohydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Rong-zu; YAO Pu; LI Jing; CHEN San-ping; GAO Sheng-li; ZHAO Feng-qi; SONG Ji-rong; SHI Qi-zhen; CHEN Pei; LUO Yang; ZHAO Hong-an

    2004-01-01

    The non-isothermal decomposition of lead 2,4,6-trinitroresorcinate monohydrate, Pb (TNR) · H2O. was investigated by means of TG-DTA, DSC and IR. The thermal decomposition mechanism and the dissociated kinetics were also investigated. The kinetic parameters were obtained from the analysis of the DSC curves by integral and differential methods. The most probable kinetic model function of the dehydration reaction of Pb(TNR) · H2O was suggested by the comparison of the kinetic parameters.

  5. Fermi LAT Detection of a Gamma-ray Flare from the BL Lac Object ON 246

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Josefa

    2015-06-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has observed increasing gamma-ray flux from a source positionally consistent with the BL Lac object ON 246 (RA=187.55871 deg, Dec=25.30198 deg, J2000, Beasley et al. 2002, ApJS, 141, 13; with redshift z=0.135, Nass et al. 1996, A&A, 309, 419), also known as S3 1227+25 and 3FGL J1230.3+2519 (3FGL; Acero et al. 2015, arXiv:1501.02003).

  6. Synthesis, loading control and applications of 2,4,6-triphenylpyrilium as a solar photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercher Perez, Rosa

    2005-07-01

    The technologies or processes of oxidation outpost that uses like energy the solar radiation for the degradation of polluting agents, suppose a novel alternative with important economic and environmental advantages. A proof of it has been the spectacular development which they have been these applications at world-wide level in the last years old, as well as the interest that the subject in international the scientific community has provoked. 2,4,6-trifenilpirilio by its singularity in this field has been chosen for this thesis the cation. It has been left from a study about the fotocatalitica activity of this cation, from the salt of hidrogenosulfato 2,4,6-trifenilpirilio and of the salt of tetrafluorborato 2,4,6-trifenilpirilio, when they act in homogenous phase on polluting agents, derivatives of dissolved fenolicos compounds in residual coming from the industry. In the first stage of the study I confirm the degradativo power of this cation but nevertheless a series of disadvantages in homogena phase was detected, had to the chemical characteristics of this organic species: hidrolitica opening of the ring and impossibility of reusability. With the purpose of correcting these problems it has been investigated and developed different methods from synthesis, in which this cation is supported in inorganic materials, concretely: silica gel, zeolites and sepiolitas. It has been come to the study, of individual form, the parameters that influence of significant form in the yield of the different processes and also has been verified the fotocatalitica activity of the new synthesized materials. In the developed methods it has been managed to totally control the amount of cation supported in the chosen materials and of this form to be able to know the effectiveness his activity like fotocatalizador in heterogenous phase. It is possible to emphasize, that the proposed procedures of synthesis, are quite simple and fast in his execution. The made studies have been carried

  7. Treatment of Vaccinia and Cowpox Virus Infections in Mice with CMX001 and ST-246

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl R. Kern

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although a large number of compounds have been identified with antiviral activity against orthopoxviruses in tissue culture systems, it is highly preferred that these compounds have activity in vivo before they can be seriously considered for further development. One of the most commonly used animal models for the confirmation of this activity has been the use of mice infected with either vaccinia or cowpox viruses. These model systems have the advantage that they are relatively inexpensive, readily available and do not require any special containment facilities; therefore, relatively large numbers of compounds can be evaluated in vivo for their activity. The two antiviral agents that have progressed from preclinical studies to human safety trials for the treatment of orthopoxvirus infections are the cidofovir analog, CMX001, and an inhibitor of extracellular virus formation, ST-246. These compounds are the ones most likely to be used in the event of a bioterror attack. The purpose of this communication is to review the advantages and disadvantages of using mice infected with vaccinia and cowpox virus as surrogate models for human orthopoxvirus infections and to summarize the activity of CMX001 and ST-246 in these model infections.

  8. Visual detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotolune by molecularly imprinted colloidal array photonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Asher, Sanford A; Meng, Zihui; Yan, Zequn; Xue, Min; Qiu, Lili; Yi, Da

    2016-10-05

    We developed a photonic crystal (PhC) sensor for the quantification of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in solution. Monodisperse (210nm in diameter) molecularly imprinted colloidal particles (MICs) for TNT were prepared by the emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate and acrylamide in the presence of TNT as a template. The MICs were then self-assembled into close-packed opal PhC films. The adsorption capacity of the MICs for TNT was 64mg TNT/g. The diffraction from the PhC depended on the TNT concentration in a methanol/water (3/2, v/v) potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution (pH=7.0, 30mM). The limit of detection (LOD) of the sensor was 1.03μg. The color of the molecularly imprinted colloidal array (MICA) changed from green to red with an 84nm diffraction red shift when the TNT concentration increased to 20mM. The sensor response time was 3min. The PhC sensor was selective for TNT compared to similar compounds such as 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2-nitromesitylene, 4-nitrotoluene, 2-nitrotoluene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, methylbenzene, 4-nitrophenol, 2-nitroaniline, 3-aminophenol and 3-nitroaniline. The sensor showed high stability with little response change after three years storage. This sensor technology might be useful for the visual determination of TNT.

  9. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in cork bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivella, M Àngels; Caixach, Josep; Planas, Carles; Oliveras, Anna; Jové, Patrícia

    2012-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are persistent lipophilic organic pollutants and tend to accumulate in growing plants. During growth, cork is in contact with the open air for long periods (9-12 years). Owing to the previous widespread use of organochlorine pesticides and their high persistence in the environment, there is a risk that residues of such pesticides may be present in cork. In this study, the concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticides-all of which are indicators of environmental pollution-were analyzed in cork bark samples from three regions in Spain and one in Portugal. In addition, the concentrations of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) were also analyzed. Our results show only very low concentrations of lindane, γ-HCH (cork sample from Extremadura (0.1 ng g(-1)) and p,p'-DDE was present at a maximum concentration of 2.9 ng g(-1) in a cork sample from Castile-La Mancha. However, all concentrations were well below the legal limit established by Regulation (EC) No. 396/2005 (10 ng g(-1) in foodstuffs). We can conclude, therefore, that the cork samples we studied complied with food safety standards.

  10. Meisenheimer complex between 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and its use for a paper-based sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantelle Hughes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT forms a red-colored Meisenheimer complex with 3-aminopropyltrienthoxysilane (APTES both in solution and on solid phase. The TNT–APTES complex is unique since it forms yellow-colored complexes with 2,4,6-trinitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol, and no complex with 2,4-dinitrotoluene. The absorption spectrum of TNT–APTES has two absorption bands at 530 and 650 nm, while APTES complexes with 2,4,6-trinitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol have absorption maxima at around 420 nm, and no absorption change for 2,4-dinitrotoluene. The TNT–APTES complex facilitates the exchange of the TNT-CH3 proton/deuteron with solvent molecules. The red color of TNT–APTES is immediately visible at 1 μM of TNT.

  11. 2-Carboxyquinolinium–2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonate–quinolinium-2-carboxylate (1/1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Smith

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title adduct compound, C10H8NO2+·C6H2N3O9S−·C10H7NO2, from the reaction of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (picrylsulfonic acid with quinoline-2-carboxylic acid (quinaldic acid in 2-propanol–water, has been determined at 130 (2 K. The cation and the adduct species form a twisted cyclic hydrogen-bonded R22(10 pseudo-dimer which is extended into a one-dimensional chain structure through short head-to-tail carboxylic acid O—H...Ocarboxyl associations [O...O = 2.4711 (19 Å]. The picrylsulfonate anions are attached peripherally by single N—H...Osulfonate hydrogen bonds [N...O = 2.8643 (19 Å].

  12. A Versatile Synthesis of 1,3,5-Triamino-2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene (TATB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, A R; Pagoria, P F; Schmidt, R D; Coburn, M D; Lee, G S; Hsu, P C

    2006-04-06

    A safe and versatile synthesis of high-purity 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) based on vicarious nucleophilic substitution (VNS) chemistry has now been achieved. The starting material can be selected from a variety of inexpensive nitroarenes obtained from commercial suppliers (4-nitroaniline, picric acid) or U.S. stockpiles (ammonium picrate, TNT). The use of picric acid and ammonium picrate (Explosive D) is preferred as both compounds are directly converted to picramide in the presence of ammonium salts (diammonium hydrogen phosphate, ammonium carbamate) in sulfolane at elevated temperature. The picramide resulting from this process is directly converted to TATB using an optimized VNS reaction employing inexpensive hydroxylamine as the nucleophilic aminating reagent. A crucial element in our synthesis is a novel and efficient purification of TATB.

  13. Creativity and inductive reasoning: the relationship between divergent thinking and performance on Wasons 246 task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Martindale, Colin; Kwiatkowski, Jonna

    2003-05-01

    This study was an investigation of the relationship between potential creativityas measured by fluency scores on the Alternate Uses Testand performance on Wasons 246 task. As hypothesized, participants who were successful in discovering the rule had significantly higher fluency scores. Successful participants also generated higher frequencies of confirmatory and disconfirmatory hypotheses, but a multiple regression analysis using the stepwise method revealed that the frequency of generating disconfirmatory hypotheses and fluency scores were the only two significant factors in task outcome. The results also supported earlier studies where disconfirmation was shown to play a more important role in the later stages of hypothesis testing. This was especially true of successful participants, who employed a higher frequency of disconfirmatory hypotheses after receiving feedback on the first announcement. These results imply that successful participants benefited from the provision of feedback on the first announcement by switching to a more successful strategy in the hypothesis-testing sequence.

  14. Reliability of optical fibres and components final report of COST 246

    CERN Document Server

    Griffioen, Willem; Gadonna, Michel; Limberger, Hans; Heens, Bernard; Knuuttila, Hanna; Kurkjian, Charles; Mirza, Shehzad; Opacic, Aleksandar; Regio, Paola; Semjonov, Sergei

    1999-01-01

    Reliability of Optical Fibres and Components reports the findings of COST 246 (1993-1998) - European research initiative in the field of optical telecommunications. Experts in the materials and reliability field of optical fibres and components have contributed to this unique study programme. The results, conclusions and achievements of their work have been obtained through joint experimentation and discussion with representatives from manufacturing and research groups. Topics covered include: Lifetime estimation; Failure mechanisms; Ageing test methods; Field data and service environments for components. For the first time the reader can explore the reliability of products and examine the results and conclusions in published form. This comprehensive volume is intended to provide a deeper understanding of the reliability of optical fibres and components. The book will be extremely useful to all scientists and practitioners involved in the industry.

  15. Chemically catalyzed uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Vetiveria zizanioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Shakya, Kabindra M; Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Pachanoor, Devanand

    2007-07-01

    The efficiency of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) in removing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) from aqueous media was explored in the presence of a common agrochemical, urea, used as a chaotropic agent. Chaotropic agents disrupt water structure, increasing solubilization of hydrophobic compounds (TNT), thus, enhancing plant TNT uptake. The primary objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize TNT absorption by vetiver in hydroponic media, and (ii) determine the effect of urea on chemically catalyzing TNT uptake by vetiver grass in hydroponic media. Results showed that vetiver exhibited a high TNT uptake capacity (1.026 mgg(-1)), but kinetics were slow. Uptake was considerably enhanced in the presence of urea, which significantly (pvetiver grass.

  16. High uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by vetiver grass--potential for phytoremediation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Shakya, Kabindra M; Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Pachanoor, Devanand

    2007-03-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a potent mutagen, and a Group C human carcinogen that has been widely used to produce munitions and explosives. Vast areas that have been previously used as ranges, munition burning, and open detonation sites are heavily contaminated with TNT. Conventional remediation activities in such sites are expensive and damaging to the ecosystem. Phytoremediation offers a cost-effective, environment-friendly solution, utilizing plants to extract TNT from contaminated soil. We investigated the potential use of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) to effectively remove TNT from contaminated solutions. Vetiver grass plants were grown in hydroponic systems containing 40 mg TNTL(-1) for 8d. Aqueous concentrations of TNT reached the method detection limit ( approximately 1 microg L(-1)) within the 8-d period, demonstrating high affinity of vetiver for TNT, without any visible toxic effects. Results from this preliminary hydroponic study are encouraging, but in need of verification using TNT-contaminated soils.

  17. Oral exposure of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 2,4,6-tribromophenol affects reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halden, Anna Norman; Nyholm, Jenny Rattfelt; Andersson, Patrik L;

    2010-01-01

    was not significantly affected, but yolk-sac oedema tended to increase in frequency in exposed groups with time. Our results show that dietary exposure to TBP, at concentrations found in marine organisms that are part of the natural diet of wild fish, can interfere with reproduction in zebrafish. We also observed low......The bromophenol 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP) is widely used as an industrial chemical, formed by degradation of tetrabromobisphenol-A, and it occurs naturally in marine organisms. Concentrations of TBP in fish have been related to intake via feed, but little is known about effects on fish health...... after oral exposure. In this study, we exposed adult male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) to TBP via feed in nominal concentrations of 33, 330, and 3300 mu g/g feed (or control feed) for 6 weeks to assess the effects of TBP on reproductive output, gonad morphology, circulatory vitellogenin levels...

  18. Crystal structure of [2-(triethylammonioethyl][(2,4,6-triisopropylphenylsulfonyl]amide tetrahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Golz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The zwitterionic title compound, C23H42N2O2S·4H2O, crystallized as a tetrahydrate from a solution of N-[(2,4,6-triisopropylphenylsulfonyl]aziridine in triethylamine, diethyl ether and pentane in the presence of moist air. It is formed by a nucleophillic ring-opening that is assumed to be reversible. The molecular structure shows a major disorder of the triisopropylphenyl group over two equally occupied locations. An interesting feature is the uncommon hydrate structure, exhibiting a tape-like motif which can be classified as a transition of the one-dimensional T4(26(2 motif into the two-dimensional L4(65(76(8 motif.

  19. Study of biosorbents application on the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes with americium-241; Estudo da aplicacao de biossorventes no tratamento de rejeitos radioativos liquidos contendo americio-241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borba, Tania Regina de

    2010-07-01

    The use of nuclear energy for many different purposes has been intensified and highlighted by the benefits that it provides. Medical diagnosis and therapy, agriculture, industry and electricity generation are examples of its application. However, nuclear energy generates radioactive wastes that require suitable treatment ensuring life and environmental safety. Biosorption and bioaccumulation represent an emergent alternative for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes, providing volume reduction and physical state change. This work aimed to study biosorbents for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes contaminated with americium-241 in order to reduce the volume and change the physical state from liquid to solid. The biosorbents evaluated were Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in calcium alginate beads, inactivated and free cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, calcium alginate beads, Bacillus subtilis, Cupriavidus metallidurans and Ochrobactrum anthropi. The results were quite satisfactory, achieving 100% in some cases. The technique presented in this work may be useful and viable for implementing at the Waste Management Laboratory of IPEN - CNEN/SP in short term, since it is an easy and low cost method. (author)

  20. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr body-burden in general public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.pl [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Edward B. [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Department of Physical Therapy Basics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Administration College, Bielsko-Biala (Poland); Tomankiewicz, Ewa [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Joanna [Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Nowak, Sebastian [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Szczygiel, Elzbieta [Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Brudecki, Kamil [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of {sup 238}Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. - Highlights: > Surgery for joint replacement as novel sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination. > Proposed way of sampling is not causing ethic doubts. > It is a convenient way of collecting human bone samples from global population. > The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. > The opposite patient age correlations trends were found for 90Sr (negative) and Pu, Am (positive).

  1. 2,4,6-三氯酚分子印迹光子晶体水凝胶传感器的研究%Molecularly Imprinted Photonic Crystal Hydrogel Sensor for Detection of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛亚峰; 刘根起; 高敏君; 陈小娟; 范晓东

    2016-01-01

    A molecularly imprinted photonic crystal hydrogel sensor was developed with 2 ,4 ,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) as imprinting molecule, methanol as solvent, methacrylic acid as monomers and ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate as cross-linkers. The three-dimension silica colloidal crystal template was removed by 1% HF (V/V) and molecularly imprinted template was removed by 0. 015 mol/L NaOH. The results showed that the maximum absorption peak red-shifted 31 nm when the concentration of 2 , 4 , 6-TCP changed from 0 to 6í10-4 mol/L. Then, with further increasing 2,4,6-TCP concentration, the maximum absorption peak began to blue-shift. When the concentration of 2,4,6-TCP changed to 1í10-3 mol/L, the maximum absorption peak blue-shifted 56 nm and the response time was just 30 min. This molecularly imprinted photonic crystal hydrogel sensor showed high sensitivity, high selectivity and easy operation, and was applied for the naked-eye detection of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.%以SiO2三维光子晶体为模板,2,4,6-三氯酚为印迹分子,甲醇为溶剂,甲基丙烯酸为功能单体,乙二醇二甲基丙烯酸甲酯为交联剂,通过紫外光引发聚合,在2%氢氟酸溶液中去除光子晶体模板,0.015 mol/L NaOH溶液中洗脱印迹分子,制得2,4,6-三氯酚检测用分子印迹光子晶体水凝胶传感器。结果表明,传感器对2,4,6-三氯酚具有良好的响应与识别能力,在2,4,6-三氯酚浓度由0增加到6×10-4 mol/L过程中,吸收峰红移31 nm;浓度继续增加,吸收峰开始发生蓝移;当浓度增加到1×10-3 mol/L时,吸收峰蓝移56 nm,响应时间仅需要30 min。2,4,6-三氯酚分子印迹光子晶体水凝胶传感器具有高灵敏、高选择、易操作等优点,可实现对2,4,6-三氯酚的裸眼检测。

  2. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE IN A CONTINUOUS-FLOW ANABAENA SP. SYSTEM. (R825513C013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reductive transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was observed in a continuous-flow system of Anabaena sp. operated for 33 d with a 5.7 d hydraulic retention time and a range of influent TNT concentrations of 1–58 mg/l. The TNT removal effici...

  3. 78 FR 42451 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 73 Listing of Color Additives Exempt From... color additive regulations in Sec. Sec. 73.3100 and 73.3106 (21 CFR 73.3100 and 73.3106), respectively... Blue 246), as color additives in contact lenses. We also corrected the nomenclature for Reactive...

  4. The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelaer, Jens

    2010-06-14

    The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium: Nuclear masses are an important quantity to study nuclear structure since they reflect the sum of all nucleonic interactions. Many experimental possibilities exist to precisely measure masses, out of which the Penning trap is the tool to reach the highest precision. Moreover, absolute mass measurements can be performed using carbon, the atomic-mass standard, as a reference. The new double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has been installed and commissioned within this thesis work, which is the very first experimental setup of this kind located at a nuclear reactor. New technical developments have been carried out such as a reliable non-resonant laser ablation ion source for the production of carbon cluster ions and are still continued, like a non-destructive ion detection technique for single-ion measurements. Neutron-rich fission products will be available by the reactor that are important for nuclear astrophysics, especially the r-process. Prior to the on-line coupling to the reactor, TRIGA-TRAP already performed off-line mass measurements on stable and long-lived isotopes and will continue this program. The main focus within this thesis was on certain rare-earth nuclides in the well-established region of deformation around N {proportional_to} 90. Another field of interest are mass measurements on actinoids to test mass models and to provide direct links to the mass standard. Within this thesis, the mass of {sup 241}Am could be measured directly for the first time. (orig.)

  5. Cyclic voltammetry: a tool to quantify 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in aqueous samples from cork planks boiling industrial process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, António M; Freitas, Patrícia; Dias, Luís G; Sousa, Mara E B C; Castro, Luís M; Veloso, Ana C A

    2013-12-15

    Chloroanisoles, namely 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, are pointed out as the primary responsible of the development of musty off-flavours in bottled wine, due to their migration from cork stoppers, which results in huge economical losses for wine industry. A prevention step is the detection of these compounds in cork planks before stoppers are produced. Mass spectrometry gas chromatography is the reference method used although it is far beyond economical possibilities of the majority of cork stoppers producers. In this work, a portable cyclic voltammetry approach was used to detect 2,4,6-trichloroanisole extracted from natural cork planks to the aqueous phase during the cork boiling industrial treatment process. Analyses were carried out under ambient conditions, in less than 15 min with a low use of solvent and without any sample pre-treatment. The proposed technique had detection (0.31±0.01 ng/L) and quantification (0.95±0.05 ng/L) limits lower than the human threshold detection level. For blank solutions, without 2,4,6-trichloroanisole addition, a concentration in the order of the quantification limit was estimated (1.0±0.2 ng/L), which confirms the satisfactory performance of the proposed methodology. For aqueous samples from the industrial cork planks boiling procedure, intra-day repeatabilities were lower than 3%, respectively. Also, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole contents in the aqueous samples determined by this novel approach were in good agreement with those obtained by GC-MS (correlation coefficient equal to 0.98), confirming the satisfactory accuracy of the proposed methodology. So, since this novel approach is a fast, low-cost, portable and user-friendly method, it can be an alternative and helpful tool for in-situ industrial applications, allowing accurate detection of releasable 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in an earlier phase of cork stoppers production, which may allow implementing more effective cork treatments to reduce or avoid future 2,4,6-trichloroanisole

  6. Susceptibility of male and female Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to 2,4,6-trichlorophenol-induced micronuclei in peripheral erythrocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nannan LIU; Mei MA; Yiping XU; Jinmiao ZHA; Kaifeng RAO; Zijian WANG

    2013-01-01

    2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) is a wide- spread probable human carcinogen and has been proven to have genotoxicity in in vitro assays. However, little genotoxicity information and no micronuclei induction data for 2,4,6-TCP is available from in vivo tests, especially for sex-specific differences. Following a preliminary test, a piscine peripheral erythrocyte micro- nucleus assay was conducted on medaka (Oryzias latipes) after a 28-day exposure to 2,4,6-TCE In the present study, the mean micronuclei (MNC) frequencies of all of the groups increased in a dose-dependent manner, which indicated the potential genotoxicity of 2,4,6-TCE More- over, males were found to be more susceptible compared with females after a 28-day exposure to 2,4,6-TCP in all of the dosed groups above 10 ~tg-L-1. This is the first report on the potential of micronuclei induction and a sex-susceptible effect in the peripheral erythrocytes of mature fish after 2,4,6-TCP in vivo exposure.

  7. HIP 3678: a hierarchical triple stellar system in the centre of the planetary nebula NGC 246

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, C

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection of a new low-mass stellar companion to the white dwarf HIP 3678 A, the central star of the planetary nebula NGC 246. The newly found companion is located about 1 arcsec (at projected separation of about 500 au) north-east of HIP 3678 A, and shares a common proper motion with the white dwarf and its known comoving companion HIP 3678 B. The hypothesis that the newly detected companion is a non-moving background object can be rejected on a significance level of more than 8 $\\sigma$, by combining astrometric measurements from the literature with follow-up astrometry, obtained with Wild Field Planetary Camera 2/\\textit{Hubble Space Telescope} and NACO/Very Large Telescope. From our deep NACO imaging data, we can rule out additional stellar companions of the white dwarf with projected separations between 130 up to 5500 au. In the deepest high-contrast NACO observation, we achieve a detection limit in the \\textit{Ks} band of about 20 mag, which allows the detection of brown dwarf companions w...

  8. Degradation mechanism of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in supercritical water oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a potential carcinogens and TNT contaminated wastewater, which could not be effectively disposed with conventional treatments. The supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) to treat TNT contaminated wastewater was studied in this article. The TNT concentration in wastewater was measured by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) and the degraded intermediates were analyzed using GC-MS. The results showed that SCWO could degrade TNT efficiently with O2. The reaction temperature, pressure, residence time and oxygen excess were the main contributing factors in the process. The decomposition of TNT was accelerated as the temperature or residence time increases. At 550℃, 24 MPa, 120 s and oxygen excess 300%, TNT removal rate could exceed 99.9%. Partial oxidation occurs in SCWO without oxygen. It was concluded that supercritical water was a good solvent and had excellent oxidation capability in the existence of oxygen. The main intermediates of TNT during SCWO include toluene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, nitrophenol, naphthalene, fluorenone, dibutyl phthalate, alkanes and several dimers based on the intermediate analysis. Some side reactions, such as coupled reaction, hydrolysis reaction and isomerization reaction may take place simultaneously as TNT is oxidized by SCWO.

  9. Solution and Aging of MAR-M246 Nickel-Based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldan, Renato; da Silva, Antonio Augusto Araújo Pinto; Nunes, Carlos Angelo; Couto, Antonio Augusto; Gabriel, Sinara Borborema; Alkmin, Luciano Braga

    2017-02-01

    Solution and aging heat-treatments play a key role for the application of the superalloys. The aim of this work is to evaluate the microstructure of the MAR-M246 nickel-based superalloy solutioned at 1200 and 1250 °C for 330 min and aged at 780, 880 and 980 °C for 5, 20 and 80 h. The γ' solvus, solidus and liquidus temperatures were calculated with the aid of the JMatPro software (Ni database). The as-cast and heat-treated samples were characterized by SEM/EDS and SEM-FEG. The γ' size precipitated in the aged samples was measured and compared with JMatPro simulations. The results have shown that the sample solutioned at 1250 °C for 330 min showed a very homogeneous γ matrix with carbides and cubic γ' precipitates uniformly distributed. The mean γ' size of aged samples at 780 and 880 °C for 5, 20 and 80 h did not present significant differences when compared to the solutioned sample. However, a significant increasing in the γ' particles was observed at 980 °C, evidenced by the large mean size of these particles after 80 h of aging heat-treatment.

  10. Transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) by Raoultella terrigena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, H; Bausinger, T; Lehmler, I; Perret, N; Fels, G; Dehner, U; Preuss, J; König, H

    2007-02-01

    Manufacture of nitroorganic explosives generates toxic wastes leading to contamination of soils and waters, especially groundwater. For that reason bacteria living in environments highly contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and other nitroorganic compounds were investigated for their capacity for TNT degradation. One isolate, Raoultella terrigena strain HB, removed TNT at concentrations between 10 and 100 mg l(-1) completely from culture supernatants under optimum aerobic conditions within several hours. Only low concentrations of nutrient supplements were needed for the cometabolic transformation process. Radioactivity measurements with ring-labelled (14)C-TNT detected about 10-20% of the initial radioactivity in the culture supernatant and the residual 80-90% as water-insoluble organic compounds in the cellular pellet. HPLC analysis identified aminodinitrotoluenes (2-ADNT, 4-ADNT) and diaminonitrotoluenes (2,4-DANT) as the metabolites which remained soluble in the culture medium and azoxy-dimers as the main products in the cell extracts. Hence, the new isolate could be useful for the removal of TNT from contaminated waters.

  11. Treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water by vacuum distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang; Zhang, Mohe

    2010-08-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water from Chinese explosive industry was treated by vacuum distillation. The water quality before and after distillation was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatograph, UV-vis spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS) and other physical and chemical analyses. The acute toxicity of TNT red water and its distillate was evaluated by determining the luminescence inhibition of Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov. The results showed that the parameters except pH of the distillate met the criterion specified by the Chinese discharge standard for water pollutants from ordnance industry. Distillation removed chemical oxygen demand almost completely and the chrominance was reduced from 100,000 degrees to 17 degrees . The concentrations of 2,4-dinitrotoluene-3-sulfonate and 2,4-dinitrotoluene-5-sulfonate decreased from 20 x 10(3) and 31 x 10(3)mg L(-1) to 1.3 and 1.8 mg L(-1), respectively. GC/MS results showed that most of the organic components of TNT red water can be removed by distillation. The acute toxicity of water sample after distillation reduced 96%, compared with that of unprocessed TNT red water.

  12. Integrated photocatalytic-biological reactor for accelerated 2,4,6-trichlorophenol degradation and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongming; Sun, Xia; Chen, Lujun; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2012-02-01

    An integrated photocatalytic-biological reactor (IPBR) was used for accelerated degradation and mineralization of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) through simultaneous, intimate coupling of photocatalysis and biodegradation in one reactor. Intimate coupling was realized by circulating the IPBR's liquid contents between a TiO(2) film on mat glass illuminated by UV light and honeycomb ceramics as biofilm carriers. Three protocols-photocatalysis alone (P), biodegradation alone (B), and integrated photocatalysis and biodegradation (photobiodegradation, P&B)-were used for degradation of different initial TCP concentrations. Intimately coupled P&B also was compared with sequential P and B. TCP removal by intimately coupled P&B was faster than that by P and B alone or sequentially coupled P and B. Because photocatalysis relieved TCP inhibition to biodegradation by decreasing its concentration, TCP biodegradation could become more important over the full batch P&B experiments. When phenol, an easy biodegradable compounds, was added to TCP in order to promote TCP mineralization by means of secondary utilization, P&B was superior to P and B in terms of mineralization of TCP, giving 95% removal of chemical oxygen demand. Cl(-) was only partially released during P experiments (24%), and this corresponded to its poor mineralization in P experiments (32%). Thus, intimately coupled P&B in the IPBR made it possible obtain the best features of each: rapid photocatalytic transformation in parallel with mineralization of photocatalytic products.

  13. Synthesis and pharmacological studies of aminoxy containing 2,4,6-trisubstituted-s-triazine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Shilpi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Arylamines on diazotization and further treatment with dicyandiamide yielded aryldicyandiamide (1a-d, which on addition with aminoxy compound (2 gave corresponding biguanides (3a-d. Cycloaddition of biguanide with ethylchloroacetate furnished 2,4,6-trisubstituted-s-triazines (4a-d. Subsequent treatment of these compounds with N-hydroxyphthalimide or N-hydroxysuccinimide in presence of triethylamine gave final compounds (5a-h. IR, 1 H NMR and mass spectra were used to confirm their structure. Compounds (5a-h were screened for antibacterial ( Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aureus and Staphylococcus aureus and antifungal ( Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus activities. Antibacterial activity revealed that compounds 5a, 5b, 5c, 5g showed comparable activity against bacteria P. vulgaris, P. aureus, where rest of the compounds showed weak activity against all the pathogenic bacteria. The fungicidal data indicated that compound 5d possess high level activity and rest of the compounds showed comparable to the standard.

  14. Fenton-like oxidation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene using different iron minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Roger; Hanna, Khalil; Chiron, Serge

    2007-10-15

    Degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was investigated in presence of different oxidants (Fenton's reagent, sodium persulfate, peroxymonosulfate and potassium permanganate) and different iron minerals (ferrihydrite, hematite, goethite, lepidocrocite, magnetite and pyrite) either in aqueous solution or in soil slurry systems. Fenton's reagent was the only oxidant able to degrade TNT in solution (k(app)=0.0348 min(-1)). When using iron oxide as heterogeneous catalyst at pH 3, specific reaction rate constants per surface area were k(surf)=1.47.10(-3) L min(-1) m(-2) and k(surf)=0.177 L min(-1) m(-2) for magnetite and pyrite, respectively while ferric iron minerals were inefficient for TNT degradation. The major asset of iron mineral catalyzed Fenton-like treatment has been the complete oxidation of the pollutant avoiding the accumulation of possible toxic by-products. In soil slurry systems, 38% abatement of the initial TNT concentration (2 g/kg) was reached after 24 h treatment time at neutral pH. Rate limiting steps were the availability of soluble iron at neutral pH together with desorption of the TNT fraction sorbed on the clay mineral surfaces.

  15. High uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by vetiver grass - Potential for phytoremediation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makris, Konstantinos C. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States); Shakya, Kabindra M. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States); Datta, Rupali [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States)]. E-mail: dibyendu.sarkar@utsa.edu; Pachanoor, Devanand [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a potent mutagen, and a Group C human carcinogen that has been widely used to produce munitions and explosives. Vast areas that have been previously used as ranges, munition burning, and open detonation sites are heavily contaminated with TNT. Conventional remediation activities in such sites are expensive and damaging to the ecosystem. Phytoremediation offers a cost-effective, environment-friendly solution, utilizing plants to extract TNT from contaminated soil. We investigated the potential use of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) to effectively remove TNT from contaminated solutions. Vetiver grass plants were grown in hydroponic systems containing 40 mg TNT L{sup -1} for 8 d. Aqueous concentrations of TNT reached the method detection limit ({approx}1 {mu}g L{sup -1}) within the 8-d period, demonstrating high affinity of vetiver for TNT, without any visible toxic effects. Results from this preliminary hydroponic study are encouraging, but in need of verification using TNT-contaminated soils. - Vetiver grass demonstrates ability to absorb TNT in aqueous media.

  16. Chemically catalyzed uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Vetiveria zizanioides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makris, Konstantinos C. [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Shakya, Kabindra M. [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Datta, Rupali [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)]. E-mail: dibyendu.sarkar@utsa.edu; Pachanoor, Devanand [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The efficiency of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) in removing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) from aqueous media was explored in the presence of a common agrochemical, urea, used as a chaotropic agent. Chaotropic agents disrupt water structure, increasing solubilization of hydrophobic compounds (TNT), thus, enhancing plant TNT uptake. The primary objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize TNT absorption by vetiver in hydroponic media, and (ii) determine the effect of urea on chemically catalyzing TNT uptake by vetiver grass in hydroponic media. Results showed that vetiver exhibited a high TNT uptake capacity (1.026 mg g{sup -1}), but kinetics were slow. Uptake was considerably enhanced in the presence of urea, which significantly (p<0.001) increased the 2nd-order reaction rate constant over that of the untreated (no urea) control. Three major TNT metabolites were detected in the roots, but not in the shoot, namely 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 4-amino 2,6-dinitrotoluene, and 2-amino 4,6-dinitrotoluene, indicating TNT degradation by vetiver grass. - A common agrochemical, urea catalyzes TNT removal by vetiver grass in aqueous media.

  17. 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) photobiodegradation and its effect on community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongming; Pu, Xuejing; Fang, Miaomiao; Zhu, Jun; Chen, Lujun; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2012-07-01

    The mechanisms occurring in a photolytic circulating-bed biofilm reactor (PCBBR) treating 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) were investigated using batch experiments following three protocols: photodegradation alone (P), biodegradation alone (B), and intimately coupled photodegradation and biodegradation (P&B). Initially, the ceramic particles used as biofilm carriers rapidly adsorbed TCP, particularly in the B experiments. During the first 10 min, the TCP removal rate for P&B was equal to the sum of the rates for P and B, and P&B continued to have the greatest TCP removal, with the TCP concentration approaching zero only in the P&B experiments. When phenol, an easily biodegradable compound, was added along with TCP in order to promote TCP mineralization by means of secondary utilization, P&B was superior to P and B in terms of mineralization of TCP, giving 95% removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). The microbial communities, examined by clone libraries, changed dramatically during the P&B experiments. Whereas Burkholderia xenovorans, a known degrader of chlorinated aromatics, was the dominant strain in the TCP-acclimated inoculum, it was replaced in the P&B biofilm by strains noted for biofilm formation and biodegrading non-chlorinated aromatics.

  18. Molecularly Imprinted Nanofiber Film for Sensitive Sensing 2,4,6-Tribromophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of brominated flame retardants is of great importance, but remains a challenge. Particularly, universal and facile approaches are limited. Here we report a new general approach, combining molecular imprinting and electrospinning, for the efficient and facile imprinting sensor of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP, which was used as a “novel” brominated flame retardant. With TBP as the template molecular, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD as the functional monomer, and poly-vinylbutyral (PVB as the electro-spinning matrix, the nanofiber film was deposited on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE via electrospinning technique directly. The β-CD-PVB/GCE sensor system exhibited excellent TBP sensing performances, such as a low detection limit (6.29 × 10−10 mol·L−1 at room temperature, selective recognition to TBP/phenol/4-methyl-phenol, and good regeneration performance. The approach of fabricating a molecular imprinting nanofiber sensor may shed new light in the detection of other phenolic pollutants.

  19. Degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by P. aeruginosa and characterization of some metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Aysun Mercimek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT, a nitroaromatic explosive found in the soil and ground water, was investigated using Pseudomonas aeruginosa in in vitroexperiments. Biodegradable abilitiy of this bacteria was performed with 50 and 75 mg L−1 TNT concentrations in a defined liquid medium for 96 h time period. Treatment of TNT in supernatant samples taken at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h from agitated vessels was followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. In cultures supplemented with 50 and 75 mgL−1 TNT, after 96 h of incubation 46% and 59% reduction were detected respectively. Two metabolites as degradation intermediates with nitrite release into the medium, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT and 4-aminodinitrotoluene (4-ADNT, were elucidated by thin layer chromatography (TLC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. These findings clearly indicate that Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be used in bioremediation of TNT contaminated sites.

  20. PBCDD/F formation from radical/radical cross-condensation of 2-Chlorophenoxy with 2-Bromophenoxy, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy with 2,4-Dibromophenoxy, and 2,4,6-Trichlorophenoxy with 2,4,6-Tribromophenoxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xiangli [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yu, Wanni [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); College of Resources and Environment, Linyi University, Linyi 276000 (China); Xu, Fei [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, Qingzhu, E-mail: zqz@sdu.edu.cn [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Hu, Jingtian; Wang, Wenxing [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We studied the formation of PBCDD/Fs from the reaction of three CPRs with BPRs. • The substitution pattern of halogenated phenols determines those of PBCDD/Fs. • The substitution of halogenated phenols influence the coupling of phenoxy radicals. • The rate constants of the crucial elementary steps were evaluated. - Abstract: Quantum chemical calculations were carried out to investigate the homogeneous gas-phase formation of mixed polybrominated/chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/benzofurans (PBCDD/Fs) from the cross-condensation of 2-chlorophenoxy radical (2-CPR) with 2-bromophenoxy radical (2-BPR), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy radical (2,4-DCPR) with 2,4-dibromophenoxy radical (2,4-DBPR), and 2,4,6-trichlorophenoxy radical (2,4,6-TCPR) with 2,4,6-tribromophenoxy radical (2,4,6-TBPR). The geometrical parameters and vibrational frequencies were calculated at the MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level, and single-point energy calculations were performed at the MPWB1K/6-311+G(3df,2p) level of theory. The rate constants of the crucial elementary reactions were evaluated by the canonical variational transition-state (CVT) theory with the small curvature tunneling (SCT) correction over a wide temperature range of 600–1200 K. Studies show that the substitution pattern of halogenated phenols not only determines the substitution pattern of the resulting PBCDD/Fs, but also has a significant influence on the formation mechanism of PBCDD/Fs, especially on the coupling of the halogenated phenoxy radicals.

  1. 2,4,6-三硝基间苯二酚钡一水化合物的热分解动力学%Thermal Decomposition Kinetics of Barium 2,4,6-trinitroresorecinate Monohydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡荣祖; 陈三平; 高胜利; 宋纪蓉; 史启祯; 赵宏安; 姚朴; 李静

    2004-01-01

    Studies of the non-isothermal decomposition of barium 2,4,6-trinitroresorecinate monohydrate, Ba(TNR)· H2O,were carried out by means of TG-DTA, DSC and IR. The thermal decomposition mechanism and associated kinetics were investigated. The kinetic parameters were obtained from an analysis of the DSC curves by integral was suggested by comparison of the kinetic parameters.

  2. The Oxidation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene with an Ozone-Oxygen Mixture: A Simple Method for Preparation of 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Zarei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT to 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB in one step, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid (TNBA, and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzaldehyde (TNBAl with an ozone-oxygen mixture in different solvents, catalysts, and temperatures has been investigated. Reducing the number of steps in the oxidation of TNT to TNB is the major advantage of this procedure with respect to conventional processes such as chromic acid and potassium permanganate. The oxidation of TNT to TNB was completed in one step as compared to two steps in the conventional approach. The products were obtained with relatively good yield.

  3. The statistical model calculation of prompt neutron spectra from spontaneous fission of {sup 244}Cm and {sup 246}Cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimenko, B.F. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst., Saint Peterburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The calculations of integral spectra of prompt neutrons of spontaneous fission of {sup 244}Cm and {sup 246}Cm were carried out. The calculations were done by the Statistical Computer Code Complex SCOFIN applying the Hauser-Feschbach method as applied to the description of the de-excitation of excited fission fragments by means of neutron emission. The emission of dipole gamma-quanta from these fragments was considered as a competing process. The average excitation energy of a fragment was calculated by two-spheroidal model of tangent fragments. The density of levels in an excited fragment was calculated by the Fermi-gas model. The quite satisfactory agreement was reached between theoretical and experimental results obtained in frames of Project measurements. The calculated values of average multiplicities of neutron number were 2,746 for {sup 244}Cm and 2,927 for {sup 246}Cm that was in a good accordance with published experimental figures. (author)

  4. Synthesis, loading control and preliminary tests of 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium supported onto Y-zeolite as solar photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amat, Ana M.; Arques, Antonio; Vercher, Rosa F. [Departamento de Ingeniera Textil y Papelera, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Alcoy, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Paseo Viaducto 1, 03801 Alcoy (Spain); Bossmann, Stefan H.; Braun, Andre M. [Lehrstuhl fuer Umweltmesstechnik, Engler-Bunte-Institut, Universitaet Karlsruhe, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Miranda, Miguel A. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Tecnologia Quiica UPV-CSIC, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2005-04-15

    A heterogeneous photocatalyst has been obtained by hosting the 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium cation inside the supercages of Y-zeolite. Preparation of the new material has been achieved by means of a formal ion exchange in aqueous medium. Nevertheless, the mechanism is more complex, as bulky 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium cation is unable to diffuse through the channels of Y-zeolite. The following steps are involved: (a) hydrolytic opening of the pyrylium ion to give a linear diketone; (b) diffusion of the diketone through the channels to reach the supercages; and (c) thermal recyclization under dehydrating conditions. Elemental analysis of the new material was consistent with the pyrylium cation located inside the zeolite. No sulfur was found in the loaded zeolite, indicating that hydrogensulfate is no longer the counter-ion of pyrylium. Accordingly, the stoichiometric amount of Na{sup +} was found in the filtered waters recovered after the synthesis. Besides, the IR spectrum of the dry material was coincident with that of 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium, while the spectrum of a less thoroughly dried sample showed, together with the absorption bands corresponding to pyrylium, other bands assignable to the diketone. Zeolite loading can be controlled in the range of 3-15% of organic carbon. The performance of the new material as a solar photocatalyst for oxidative pollutant degradation was checked using four cinnamic acid derivatives as target compounds. Aqueous solutions (250mL) of these model pollutants (0.001M) were irradiated by solar light in the presence of different amounts of solid photocatalyst. Oxidation was efficiently achieved as analysed by HPLC and followed in all cases a pseudo first order kinetics. The most satisfactory results were obtained using 1g/L of Y-zeolite containing 6% of 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium cation.

  5. Functional specificity of amino acid at position 246 in the tRNA mimicry domain of bacterial release factor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, M; Ito, K; Nakamura, Y

    1996-01-01

    The termination of protein synthesis in bacteria requires codon-specific polypeptide release factors RF-1 (UAG/UAA specific) and RF-2 (UGA/UAA specific). We have proposed that release factors mimic tRNA and recognize the stop codon for polypeptide release (Nakamura et al (1996) Cell 87, 147-150). In contrast to the textbook view, genetic experiments have indicated that Escherichia coli RF-2 terminates translation very weakly at UAA while Salmonella RF-2 decodes this signal efficiently. Moreover, an excess of E coli RF-2 was toxic to cells while an excess of Salmonella RF-2 was not. These two RF-2 proteins are identical except for 16 out of 365 amino acids. Fragment swap experiments and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that a residue at position 246 is solely responsible for these two phenotypes. Upon substituting Ala (equivalent to Salmonella RF-2) for Thr-246 of E coli RF-2, the protein acquired increased release activity for UAA as well as for UGA. These results led us to conclude that E coli RF-2 activity is potentially weak and that the amino acid at position 246 plays a crucial role, not for codon discrimination, but for stop codon recognition or polypeptide release, presumably constituting an essential moiety of tRNA mimicry or interacting with peptidyltransferase centers of the ribosome.

  6. Dual Role of Endogenous Serotonin in 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid-Induced Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapalli, Alberto; Bertoni, Simona; Arcaro, Valentina; Saccani, Francesca; Grandi, Andrea; Vivo, Valentina; Cantoni, Anna M.; Barocelli, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Changes in gut serotonin (5-HT) content have been described in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and in different experimental models of colitis: the critical role of this monoamine in the pathogenesis of chronic gastrointestinal inflammation is gradually emerging. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of endogenous 5-HT through the activation of its specific receptor subtypes to the local and systemic inflammatory responses in an experimental model of IBD. Materials and Methods: Colitis was induced by intrarectal 2,4,6-TriNitroBenzene Sulfonic acid in mice subacutely treated with selective antagonists of 5-HT1A (WAY100135), 5-HT2A (Ketanserin), 5-HT3 (Ondansetron), 5-HT4 (GR125487), 5-HT7 (SB269970) receptors and with 5-HT1A agonist 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin. Results: Blockade of 5-HT1A receptors worsened TNBS-induced local and systemic neutrophil recruitment while 5-HT1A agonist delayed and mitigated the severity of colitis, counteracting the increase in colonic 5-HT content. On the contrary, blockade of 5-HT2A receptors improved global health conditions, reduced colonic morphological alterations, down-regulated neutrophil recruitment, inflammatory cytokines levels and colonic apoptosis. Antagonism of 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptor sites did not remarkably affect the progression and outcome of the pathology or only slightly improved it. Conclusion: The prevailing deleterious contribution given by endogenous 5-HT to inflammation in TNBS-induced colitis is seemingly mediated by 5-HT2A and, to a lesser extent, by 5-HT4 receptors and coexists with the weak beneficial effect elicited by 5-HT1A stimulation. These findings suggest how only a selective interference with 5-HT pro-inflammatory actions may represent an additional potential therapeutic option for intestinal inflammatory disorders. PMID:27047383

  7. Dual role of endogenous serotonin in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eRapalli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Changes in gut serotonin content have been described in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and in different experimental models of colitis: the critical role of this monoamine in the pathogenesis of chronic gastrointestinal inflammation is gradually emerging. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of endogenous serotonin through the activation of its specific receptor subtypes to the local and systemic inflammatory responses in an experimental model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Methods: Colitis was induced by intrarectal 2,4,6-TriNitroBenzene Sulfonic acid in mice subacutely treated with selective antagonists of 5-HT1A (WAY100135, 5-HT2A (Ketanserin, 5-HT3 (Ondansetron, 5-HT4 (GR125487, 5-HT7 (SB269970 receptors and with 5-HT1A agonist 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylaminotetralin. Results: Blockade of 5-HT1A receptors worsened TNBS-induced local and systemic neutrophil recruitment while 5-HT1A agonist delayed and mitigated the severity of colitis, counteracting the increase in colonic 5-HT content. On the contrary, blockade of 5-HT2A receptors improved global health conditions, reduced colonic morphological alterations, down-regulated neutrophil recruitment, inflammatory cytokines levels and colonic apoptosis. Antagonism of 5-HT3, 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 receptor sites did not remarkably affect the progression and outcome of the pathology or only slightly improved it.Conclusions: The prevailing deleterious contribution given by endogenous serotonin to inflammation in TNBS-induced colitis is seemingly mediated by 5-HT2A and, to a lesser extent, by 5-HT4 receptors and coexists with the weak beneficial effect elicited by 5-HT1A stimulation. These findings suggest how only a selective interference with 5-HT pro-inflammatory actions may represent an additional potential therapeutic option for intestinal inflammatory disorders.

  8. Ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction for determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in wine samples by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Ariel R; Patil, Sangram H; Banerjee, Kaushik; Altamirano, Jorgelina C

    2010-04-28

    A fast and effective microextraction technique is proposed for preconcentration of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) from wine samples prior gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (GC-MS/MS) analysis. The proposed technique is based on ultrasonication (US) for favoring the emulsification phenomenon during the extraction stage. Several variables influencing the relative response of the target analyte were studied and optimized. Under optimal experimental conditions, 2,4,6-TCA was quantitatively extracted achieving enhancement factors (EF) > or = 400 and limits of detection (LODs) 0.6-0.7 ng L(-1) with relative standard deviations (RSDs) or = 0.9995. Validation of the methodology was carried out by standard addition method at two concentrations (10 and 50 ng L(-1)) achieving recoveries >80% indicating satisfactory robustness of the method. The methodology was successfully applied for determination of 2,4,6-TCA in different wine samples.

  9. Arvustus. Katri Lõhmus. Caring Autonomy. European Human Rights Law and the Challenge of Individualism. Cambridge University Press 2015, 246 lk / Lauri Mälksoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mälksoo, Lauri, 1975-

    2016-01-01

    Arvustus: Katri Lõhmus. Caring Autonomy. European Human Rights Law and the Challenge of Individualism. Cambridge University Press 2015, 246 lk. Euroopa inimõiguste ja põhivabaduste kaitse konventsiooni artikli 8 sisustamisest

  10. Biodegradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in a packed-bed biofilm reactor equipped with an internal net draft tube riser for aeration and liquid circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-De Jesus, A.; Romano-Baez, F.J.; Leyva-Amezcua, L.; Juarez-Ramirez, C.; Ruiz-Ordaz, N. [Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, IPN. Prol. Carpio y Plan de Ayala, Colonia Santo Tomas, s/n. CP 11340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Galindez-Mayer, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, IPN. Prol. Carpio y Plan de Ayala, Colonia Santo Tomas, s/n. CP 11340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: cmayer@encb.ipn.mx

    2009-01-30

    For the aerobic biodegradation of the fungicide and defoliant 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), a bench-scale packed-bed bioreactor equipped with a net draft tube riser for liquid circulation and oxygenation (PB-ALR) was constructed. To obtain a high packed-bed volume relative to the whole bioreactor volume, a high A{sub D}/A{sub R} ratio was used. Reactor's downcomer was packed with a porous support of volcanic stone fragments. PB-ALR hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer behavior was evaluated and compared to the observed behavior of the unpacked reactor operating as an internal airlift reactor (ALR). Overall gas holdup values {epsilon}{sub G}, and zonal oxygen mass transfer coefficients determined at various airflow rates in the PB-ALR, were higher than those obtained with the ALR. When comparing mixing time values obtained in both cases, a slight increment in mixing time was observed when reactor was operated as a PB-ALR. By using a mixed microbial community, the biofilm reactor was used to evaluate the aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCP. Three bacterial strains identified as Burkholderia sp., Burkholderia kururiensis and Stenotrophomonas sp. constituted the microbial consortium able to cometabolically degrade the 2,4,6-TCP, using phenol as primary substrate. This consortium removed 100% of phenol and near 99% of 2,4,6-TCP. Mineralization and dehalogenation of 2,4,6-TCP was evidenced by high COD removal efficiencies ({approx}95%), and by the stoichiometric release of chloride ions from the halogenated compound ({approx}80%). Finally, it was observed that the microbial consortium was also capable to metabolize 2,4,6-TCP without phenol as primary substrate, with high removal efficiencies (near 100% for 2,4,6-TCP, 92% for COD and 88% for chloride ions)

  11. Mutagenesis of residue betaArg-246 in the phosphate-binding subdomain of catalytic sites of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Senior, Alan E

    2004-07-23

    Residues responsible for phosphate binding in F(1)F(0)-ATP synthase catalytic sites are of significant interest because phosphate binding is believed linked to proton gradient-driven subunit rotation. From x-ray structures, a phosphate-binding subdomain is evident in catalytic sites, with conserved betaArg-246 in a suitable position to bind phosphate. Mutations betaR246Q, betaR246K, and betaR246A in Escherichia coli were found to impair oxidative phosphorylation and to reduce ATPase activity of purified F(1) by 100-fold. In contrast to wild type, ATPase of mutants was not inhibited by MgADP-fluoroaluminate or MgADP-fluoroscandium, showing the Arg side chain is required for wild-type transition state formation. Whereas 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-Cl) inhibited wild-type ATPase essentially completely, ATPase in mutants was inhibited maximally by approximately 50%, although reaction still occurred at residue betaTyr-297, proximal to betaArg-246 in the phosphate-binding pocket. Inhibition characteristics supported the conclusion that NBD-Cl reacts in betaE (empty) catalytic sites, as shown previously by x-ray structure analysis. Phosphate protected against NBD-Cl inhibition in wild type but not in mutants. The results show that phosphate can bind in the betaE catalytic site of E. coli F(1) and that betaArg-246 is an important phosphate-binding residue.

  12. Efficacy of tecovirimat (ST-246) in nonhuman primates infected with variola virus (Smallpox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucker, Eric M; Goff, Arthur J; Shamblin, Joshua D; Grosenbach, Douglas W; Damon, Inger K; Mehal, Jason M; Holman, Robert C; Carroll, Darin; Gallardo, Nadia; Olson, Victoria A; Clemmons, Cody J; Hudson, Paul; Hruby, Dennis E

    2013-12-01

    Naturally occurring smallpox has been eradicated but remains a considerable threat as a biowarfare/bioterrorist weapon (F. Fleck, Bull. World Health Organ. 81:917-918, 2003). While effective, the smallpox vaccine is currently not recommended for routine use in the general public due to safety concerns (http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/smallpox/vaccination). Safe and effective countermeasures, particularly those effective after exposure to smallpox, are needed. Currently, SIGA Technologies is developing the small-molecule oral drug, tecovirimat (previously known as ST-246), as a postexposure therapeutic treatment of orthopoxvirus disease, including smallpox. Tecovirimat has been shown to be efficacious in preventing lethal orthopoxviral disease in numerous animal models (G. Yang, D. C. Pevear, M. H. Davies, M. S. Collett, T. Bailey, et al., J. Virol. 79:13139-13149, 2005; D. C. Quenelle, R. M. Buller, S. Parker, K. A. Keith, D. E. Hruby, et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 51:689-695, 2007; E. Sbrana, R. Jordan, D. E. Hruby, R. I. Mateo, S. Y. Xiao, et al., Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 76:768-773, 2007). Furthermore, in clinical trials thus far, the drug appears to be safe, with a good pharmacokinetic profile. In this study, the efficacy of tecovirimat was evaluated in both a prelesional and postlesional setting in nonhuman primates challenged intravenously with 1 × 10(8) PFU of Variola virus (VARV; the causative agent of smallpox), a model for smallpox disease in humans. Following challenge, 50% of placebo-treated controls succumbed to infection, while all tecovirimat-treated animals survived regardless of whether treatment was started at 2 or 4 days postinfection. In addition, tecovirimat treatment resulted in dramatic reductions in dermal lesion counts, oropharyngeal virus shedding, and viral DNA circulating in the blood. Although clinical disease was evident in tecovirimat-treated animals, it was generally very mild and appeared to resolve earlier than in placebo

  13. 异位妊娠246例临床资料回顾与分析%Review and analysis of clinical data of 246 cases of ectopic pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正; 王鑫; 沈旭娜

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨异位妊娠的主要病因及各种治疗方法对异位妊娠治疗的临床价值,提高对异位妊娠的认识.方法 回顾分析2010年1-12月1年间所收治的246例异位妊娠病例的临床资料,其中药物保守治疗136例,转手术治疗33例.手术治疗共141例,55例腹腔镜下病灶切除或输卵管造口.结果 本研究246例异位妊娠患者,有人流或药流病史的190例,占77.24%,腹腔镜下病灶切除或输卵管造口术55例,占手术比例的41.78%.结论 人流或药流若并发感染可造成慢性输卵管炎、盆腔炎等增加异位妊娠的发病率.腹腔镜技术损伤小,恢复快,住院时间短,用药少,外观好,在治疗异位妊娠中已发挥越来越重要的作用.%Objective To find the main causes of ectopic pregnancy and the various methods of treatment of ectopic pregnancy treatment to better understand ectopic pregnancy. Methods Retrospective analysis of hospital treated 246 cases of ectopic pregnancy cases from January to December of 2010, including 136 cases of the conservative treatment ,33 cases turn to operation treatment. 141 cases of operation treatment, 55 cases of laparoscopic resection of lesions or tubal ostomy. Results In the 246 cases of patients with ectopic pregnancy 190 cases had abortion or medical abortion history, accounting for 77. 24% , laparoscopic resection of lesions or salpingostomy in 55 cases, accounting for the proportion of operation 41. 78%. Conclusions Abortion or medical abortion with concurrent infection can cause chronic tubal inflammation of pelvic inflammatory disease and increase the incidence of ectopic pregnancies. As laparoscopic technique has little injury, quick recovery, shorter hospitalization time, appearance in treatment of ectopic pregnancy has played an increasingly important role.

  14. A Nodule-Specific Lipid Transfer Protein AsE246 Participates in Transport of Plant-Synthesized Lipids to Symbiosome Membrane and Is Essential for Nodule Organogenesis in Chinese Milk Vetch1[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lei; Chen, Ling; Shi, Xiaofeng; Li, Yixing; Wang, Jianyun; Chen, Dasong; Xie, Fuli; Li, Youguo

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobia in legume root nodules fix nitrogen in symbiosomes, organelle-like structures in which a membrane from the host plant surrounds the symbiotic bacteria. However, the components that transport plant-synthesized lipids to the symbiosome membrane remain unknown. This study identified and functionally characterized the Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus) lipid transfer protein AsE246, which is specifically expressed in nodules. It was found that AsE246 can bind lipids in vitro. More importantly, AsE246 can bind the plant-synthesized membrane lipid digalactosyldiacylglycerol in vivo. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy showed that AsE246 and digalactosyldiacylglycerol localize in the symbiosome membrane and are present in infection threads. Overexpression of AsE246 resulted in increased nodule numbers; knockdown of AsE246 resulted in reduced nodule numbers, decreased lipids contents in nodules, diminished nitrogen fixation activity, and abnormal development of symbiosomes. AsE246 knockdown also resulted in fewer infection threads, nodule primordia, and nodules, while AsE246 overexpression resulted in more infection threads and nodule primordia, suggesting that AsE246 affects nodule organogenesis associated with infection thread formation. Taken together, these results indicate that AsE246 contributes to lipids transport to the symbiosome membrane, and this transport is required for effective legume-rhizobium symbiosis. PMID:24367021

  15. Structural studies of the polysaccharides from the lipopolysaccharides of Azospirillum brasilense Sp246 and SpBr14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigida, Elena N; Fedonenko, Yuliya P; Shashkov, Alexander S; Grinev, Vyacheslav S; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Konnova, Svetlana A; Ignatov, Vladimir V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2014-10-29

    Lipopolysaccharides from closely related Azospirillum brasilense strains, Sp246 and SpBr14, were obtained by phenol-water extraction. Mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharides followed by GPC on Sephadex G-50 resulted in polysaccharide mixtures. On the basis of sugar and methylation analyses, Smith degradation and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy data, it was concluded that both bacteria possess the same two distinct polysaccharides having structures 1 and 2: [structure: see text]. Structure 1 has been reported earlier for a polysaccharide of A. brasilense 54 [Fedonenko et al., 2011] whereas to our knowledge structure 2 has not been hitherto found in bacterial polysaccharides.

  16. EURADOS action for determination of americium in skull measures in vivo and Monte Carlo simulation; Accion EURADOS para la determinacion de americio en craneo mediante medidas in-vivo y simulacion Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Ponte, M. A.; Navarro Amaro, J. F.; Perez Lopez, B.; Navarro Bravo, T.; Nogueira, P.; Vrba, T.

    2013-07-01

    From the Group of WG7 internal dosimetry of the EURADOS Organization (European Radiation Dosimetry group, e.V.) which It coordinates CIEMAT, international action for the vivo measurement of americium has been conducted in three mannequins type skull with detectors of Germanium by gamma spectrometry and simulation by Monte Carlo methods. Such action has been raised as two separate exercises, with the participation of institutions in Europe, America and Asia. Other actions similar precede this vivo intercomparison of measurement and modeling Monte Carlo1. The preliminary results and associated findings are presented in this work. The laboratory of the body radioactivity (CRC) of service counter of dosimetry staff internal (DPI) of the CIEMAT, it has been one of the participants in vivo measures exercise. On the other hand part, the Group of numerical dosimetry of CIEMAT is participant of the Monte Carlo2 simulation exercise. (Author)

  17. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  18. Synthesis of bis(3-{[2-(allyloxyethoxy]methyl}-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl(phenylphosphine oxide – a tailor-made photoinitiator for dental adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Moszner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the poor solubility of the commercially available bisacylphosphine oxides in dental acidic aqueous primer formulations, bis(3-{[2-(allyloxyethoxy]methyl}-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl(phenylphosphine oxide (WBAPO was synthesized starting from 3-(chloromethyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acid by the dichlorophosphine route. The substituent was introduced by etherification with 2-(allyloxyethanol. In the second step, 3-{[2-(allyloxyethoxy]methyl}-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acid was chlorinated. The formed acid chloride showed an unexpected low thermal stability. Its thermal rearrangement at 180 °C resulted in a fast formation of 3-(chloromethyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acid 2-(allyloxyethyl ester. In the third step, the acid chloride was reacted with phenylphosphine dilithium with the formation of bis(3-{[2-(allyloxyethoxy]methyl}-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl(phenylphosphine, which was oxidized to WBAPO. The structure of WBAPO was confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 31P NMR, and IR spectroscopy, as well as elemental analysis. WBAPO, a yellow liquid, possesses improved solubility in polar solvents and shows UV–vis absorption, and a high photoreactivity comparable with the commercially available bisacylphosphine oxides. A sufficient storage stability was found in dental acidic aqueous primer formulations.

  19. Biosynthesis of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates by Sphingopyxis chilensis S37 and Wautersia sp. PZK cultured in cellulose pulp mill effluents containing 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobella, Lorena M; Bunster, Marta; Pooley, Amalia; Becerra, José; Godoy, Felix; Martínez, Miguel A

    2005-09-01

    Poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) polymer is synthesized by different bacterial species. There has been considerable interest in the development and production of biodegradable polymers; however, the high cost of PHA production has restricted its applications. Kraft cellulose industry effluents containing 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (10 or 20 microg ml(-1)) were used by the bacteria Sphingopyxis chilensis S37 and Wautersia sp. PZK to synthesize PHA. In this condition, S. chilensis S37 was able to grow and degrade 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (ca. 60%) and 80% of these cells accumulated PHA. Wautersia PZK completely degraded 2,4,6-TCP and more than 90% of the cells accumulated PHA in 72 h. The PHA detection was performed by flow cytometry and polyester composition was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), indicating that these polymers are made by 3-hydroxybutyric acid and 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid for S37 and PZK strains, respectively. Results demonstrated that strains' growth and PHA production and composition are not modified in cellulose effluents with or without 2,4,6-TCP (10-20 microg ml(-1)). Therefore, our results indicate that S. chilensis S37 and Wautersia sp. PZK are able to degrade a toxic compound such as a 2,4,6-TCP and simultaneously produce a valuable biopolymer using low-value substrates.

  20. Preparation of oil palm empty fruit bunch-based activated carbon for removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol: Optimization using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameed, B.H., E-mail: chbassim@eng.usm.my [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Tan, I.A.W.; Ahmad, A.L. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-05-30

    The effects of three preparation variables: CO{sub 2} activation temperature, CO{sub 2} activation time and KOH:char impregnation ratio (IR) on the 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) uptake and carbon yield of the activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) were investigated. Based on the central composite design, two quadratic models were developed to correlate the three preparation variables to the two responses. The activated carbon preparation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology by maximizing both the 2,4,6-TCP uptake and activated carbon yield within the ranges studied. The optimum conditions for preparing activated carbon from EFB for adsorption of 2,4,6-TCP were found as follows: CO{sub 2} activation temperature of 814 deg. C, CO{sub 2} activation time of 1.9 h and IR of 2.8, which resulted in 168.89 mg/g of 2,4,6-TCP uptake and 17.96% of activated carbon yield. The experimental results obtained agreed satisfactorily with the model predictions. The activated carbon prepared under optimum conditions was mesoporous with BET surface area of 1141 m{sup 2}/g, total pore volume of 0.6 cm{sup 3}/g and average pore diameter of 2.5 nm. The surface morphology and functional groups of the activated carbon were respectively determined from the scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis.

  1. Preparation of oil palm empty fruit bunch-based activated carbon for removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol: optimization using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, B H; Tan, I A W; Ahmad, A L

    2009-05-30

    The effects of three preparation variables: CO(2) activation temperature, CO(2) activation time and KOH:char impregnation ratio (IR) on the 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) uptake and carbon yield of the activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) were investigated. Based on the central composite design, two quadratic models were developed to correlate the three preparation variables to the two responses. The activated carbon preparation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology by maximizing both the 2,4,6-TCP uptake and activated carbon yield within the ranges studied. The optimum conditions for preparing activated carbon from EFB for adsorption of 2,4,6-TCP were found as follows: CO(2) activation temperature of 814 degrees C, CO(2) activation time of 1.9h and IR of 2.8, which resulted in 168.89 mg/g of 2,4,6-TCP uptake and 17.96% of activated carbon yield. The experimental results obtained agreed satisfactorily with the model predictions. The activated carbon prepared under optimum conditions was mesoporous with BET surface area of 1141 m(2)/g, total pore volume of 0.6 cm(3)/g and average pore diameter of 2.5 nm. The surface morphology and functional groups of the activated carbon were respectively determined from the scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis.

  2. Theoretical studies on vibrational spectra, thermodynamic properties, detonation properties and pyrolysis mechanism for 1,2-bis(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Hong, Li; Rui-Zhou, Zhang; Xian-Zhou, Zhang

    2012-07-01

    The thermal stability and pyrolysis mechanism of 1,2-bis(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazine were investigated based on fully optimized molecular geometric structures. The results demonstrate the existence of intramolecular hydrogen bond interactions 1,2-bis(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazine. The assigned infrared spectrum was also obtained; the results reveal four main characteristic regions in the calculated IR spectra of the title compound. Detonation velocities (D) and pressures (P) were also evaluated by using Kamlet-Jacobs equations based on the calculated density and heat of formation. Thermal stability and the pyrolysis mechanism of 1,2-bis(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazine were investigated by calculating the bond dissociation energies at the B3LYP/6-31 G* level.

  3. Sensitive determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in water samples by ultrasound assisted emulsification microextraction prior to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Ariel R; Altamirano, Jorgelina C

    2010-06-15

    A novel application of an ultrasound assisted emulsification microextraction (USAEME) technique is proposed for the extraction and preconcentration of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) from water samples prior to its determination by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). USAEME employs a non-polar high-density solvent (extractant solvent), which forms an oil-in-water emulsion (O/W) in the aqueous sample bulk assisted by ultrasonic radiation. Several factors including, solvent type and volume, extraction time, extraction temperature, shaking mode and matrix modifiers were studied and optimized over the relative recovery of the target analyte. An aliquot of 5mL water sample was conditioned by adding 150microL 6.15molL(-1) sodium chloride and 300microL 0.05molL(-1) phosphate buffer (pH 6), and finally extracted with 40microL chloroform by using USAEME technique. Under the optimal experimental conditions 2,4,6-TCA was quantitatively extracted achieving an enrichment factor (EF) of 555. The detection limit (LOD), calculated as three times the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), was 0.2ngL(-1) and the RSD was 6.3% (n=5) when 1ngL(-1) 2,4,6-TCA standard mixture was analyzed. The coefficients of estimation of the calibration curves obtained following the proposed methodology was >or=0.997 and the linear working range was 1-5000ngL(-1). Finally, the proposed technique was successfully applied for extraction and determination of the 2,4,6-TCA in water samples. Recovery studies lead values >or=94%, which showed a successfully robustness of the analytical methodology for determination of nanogram per liter of 2,4,6-TCA in water samples.

  4. Bis (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde-2,4,6-trinitrophenol) organic cocrystal: Synthesis and physico-chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudharsana, N.; Krishnakumar, V.; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2016-10-01

    A 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde-2,4,6-trinitrophenol (mhba-tnp) cocrystal was grown by the slow evaporation solution growth technique using ethanol as a solvent. As-grown crystals were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) study and crystallized with a centrosymmetric space group. Optical properties of the grown crystal have been studied by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra in the range from 200 to 800nm and the band gap energy of the crystal was obtained as 2.8eV. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and micro Raman spectral analyses have been carried out to confirm the functional groups present in the title compound. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized light thermomicroscopy (PLTM) analyses were carried out to find the melting point. In addition, the optimized geometric parameters and the molecular orbitals were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) with the help of the Gaussian 03W software.

  5. Application of a Homogenous Assay for the Detection of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene to Environmental Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen R. Goldman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A homogeneous assay was used to detect 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT spiked into environmental water samples. This assay is based on changes in fluorescence emission intensity when TNT competitively displaces a fluorescently labeled, TNT analog bound to an anti-TNT antibody. The effectiveness of the assay was highly dependent on the source of the sample being tested. As no correlation between pH and assay performance was observed, ionic strength was assumed to be the reason for variation in assay results. Addition of 10x phosphate-buffered saline to samples to increase their ionic strength to that of our standard laboratory buffer (about 0.17 M significantly improved the range over which the assay functioned in several river water samples.

  6. N-(2-{[5-Bromo-2-(piperidin-1-ylpyrimidin-4-yl]sulfanyl}-4-methoxyphenyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzenesulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C25H29BrN4O3S2, the benzene rings bridged by the sulfonamide group are tilted relative to each other by 63.9 (1° and the dihedral angle between the sulfur-bridged pyrimidine and benzene rings is 64.9 (1°. The molecular conformation is stabilized by a weak intramolecular π–π stacking interaction between the pyrimidine and the 2,4,6-trimethylbenzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.766 (2 Å]. The piperidine ring adopts a chair conformation. In the crystal, molecules are linked into inversion dimers by pairs of N—H...O hydrogen bonds and these dimers are further linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds into chains propagating along [010].

  7. PRIMA-1met (APR-246) inhibits growth of colorectal cancer cells with different p53 status through distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Lan; Zhou, Jianbiao; Chan, Zit-Liang; Chooi, Jing-Yuan; Chen, Zhi-Rong; Chng, Wee-Joo

    2015-11-03

    PRIMA-1met (APR-246) is a methylated derivative and structural analog of PRIMA-1 (p53 re-activation and induction of massive apoptosis). PRIMA-1met has been reported to restore both the wild type (wt) structure and function of mutant p53. Here, we show that PRIMA-1met is highly effective at limiting the growth of CRC cells regardless of p53 status. However, PRIMA-1met induces robust apoptosis only in CRC cells with mutant p53. Upregulation of Noxa, a proapoptotic molecule, is crucial for PRIMA-1met mediated activity. In human xenograft model of disease, PRIMA-1met effectively suppresses CRC tumor growth. Our results uncover distinct mechanisms of PRIMA-1met in CRC with different p53 status, thus providing a mechanistic rationale to evaluate the clinical efficacy of PRIMA-1met in CRC patients with different p53 status.

  8. Bis(1H-pyrazole-κN2bis(2,4,6-triisopropylbenzoato-κOcobalt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian G. Hrib

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Co(C16H23O22(C3H4N22] or (C3H4N22Co(O2CC6H2iPr3-2,4,6, is a rare example of a tetracoordinate cobalt(II carboxylate stabilized by ancillary N-heterocyclic ligands. The Co(II ion resides on a crystallographic twofold axis so that the asymmetric unit comprises one half-molecule. Due to the steric bulk of the 2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl substituents, the carboxylate ligands are both coordinated in a monodentate fashion despite the low coordination number. The coordination geometry around the central Co(II ion is distorted tetrahedral with angles at Co ranging from 92.27 (18° to 121.08 (14°.

  9. Determinació analítica de 2,4,6-ticloroanisole i altres cloroanisoles en vins i suros

    OpenAIRE

    Riu Rusell, Marc

    2011-01-01

    La determinació de 2,4,6-tricloroanisole (TCA) i altres cloroanisoles en vins i taps de suro és de vital importància, tant en la industria enològica com en al surera, pel control d’un dels defectes organolèptics del vi que ha causat més prejudicis: l’olor a humitat, clàssicament conegut com a gust a suro. En aquesta tesi doctoral s’han desenvolupat i validat aquestes metodologies, tot aplicant la microextracció en fase sòlida i la cromatografia de gasos, ja sigui en detecció de captura electr...

  10. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Electrochemical Properties of a One-dimensional Chain Coordination Polymer [Mn(phen)(2,4,6-TMBA)2(H2O)]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A one-dimensional chain-like coordination polymer [Mn(phen)(2,4,6-TMBA)2(H2O)]n has been synthesized from 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acid, 1,10-phenanthioline and anhydrous manganese(Ⅱ) sulfate and then characterized. Crystal data for this complex: tetragonal, space group I41, a = 2.05643(16), b = 2.05643(16), c = 1.3939(2) nm, V= 5.8946(11) nm3, Mr = 579.54, Z = 8, Dc = 1.306 g/cm3, λ(MoKα) = 0.490 mm-1, F(000) = 2424, S = 0.985, the final R = 0.0411 and wR = 0.0950. The Flack factor is -0.01(2). The crystal structure shows that two neighboring man-ganese(Ⅱ) ions are linked together by one bridge-chelating 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic group, forming a one-dimensional chain structure. The manganese(Ⅱ) ion is coordinated with two nitrogen atoms of one 1,10-phenanthroline, three oxygen atoms from three 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acids and one water oxygen atom, giving a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The cyclic voltametric behavior of the complex was also investigated.

  11. Headspace-multicapillary column-ion mobility spectrometry for the direct analysis of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in wine and cork samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Sillero, Isabel; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2012-11-23

    Headspace-multicapillary column-ion mobility spectrometry coupling has been evaluated for the direct analysis of wine and cork stopper samples for the determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA). The instrumental configuration permits the sample to be introduced in headspace vials which are placed into the autosampler oven in order to facilitate the transference of the volatile compounds from the sample to its headspace. Further, an aliquot of 200 μL of the homogenized gaseous phase is injected into the multicapillary column in order to separate the target compounds from potential interferents. The detection of 2,4,6-TCA was carried out in an ion mobility spectrometer with a radioactive source and working under negative mode. All the system was computer controlled, including data acquisition and treatment. The limits of detection achieved were 0.012 ng L(-1) for wine and 0.28 ng g(-1) for the cork stopper. The procedure was applied to the analysis of commercial wine samples in different packages and 2,4,6-TCA was found in all of those closed with a cork stopper. The excellent recovery values obtained testify for the goodness of the method as no interference from the sample matrix exits.

  12. Unprecedented trinuclear Ag(I) complex with 2,4,6-tris(2-pyrimidyl)-1,3,5-triazine as an efficient catalyst for the aziridination of olefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safin, Damir A; Pialat, Amélie; Korobkov, Ilia; Murugesu, Muralee

    2015-04-13

    An unprecedented trinuclear heteroleptic Ag(I) complex was isolated using a stable multidentate 2,4,6-tris(2-pyrimidyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPymT) ligand. The obtained compound is an efficient catalyst for the direct aziridination of terminal olefins.

  13. 40 CFR 721.5356 - Ethanol, 2,2′2″-nitrilotris-, compound with alpha-2,4,6-tris (1-phenylethyl)phenyl]-omega...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-, compound with alpha-2,4,6-tris (1-phenylethyl)phenyl]-omega-hydroxypoly (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) phosphate. 721...]-omega-hydroxypoly (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... alpha- -omega-hydroxypoly (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) phosphate (PMN P-98-185) is subject to reporting...

  14. Design of a novel Cu₂O/TiO₂/carbon aerogel electrode and its efficient electrosorption-assisted visible light photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yabo; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Zhao, Guohua; Tian, Hongyi; Shi, Huijie; Zhou, Tianchen

    2012-08-01

    Cu(2)O/TiO(2) heterojunction photocatalyst is built on carbon aerogel (CA) substrate with good adsorption properties by sol impregnation and seed-mediated synthesis approach. The Cu(2)O/TiO(2)/CA electrode has excellent electrosorptive and high efficient photocatalytic properties. Its morphology and surface chemical composition are characterized with SEM, TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectra. The UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra show that the optical absorption edge for Cu(2)O/TiO(2)/CA appears at 636 nm. Under visible-light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation, the photocurrent density increment on Cu(2)O/TiO(2)/CA is 60 times of that on Cu(2)O/TiO(2)/FTO. The electrochemical characteristic is investigated with electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS). The Cu(2)O/TiO(2)/CA electrode is further applied in the electrosorptive photodegradation of the 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) wastewater. The result shows that the removal ratio of 2,4,6-TCP in 5.5 h on Cu(2)O/TiO(2)/CA is 96.3% and the TOC removal is 91.3%. The intermediates generated in the degradation process are analyzed by GC-MS and HPLC. The possible mechanism of visible light photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,6-TCP on Cu(2)O/TiO(2)/CA is also studied.

  15. Anaerobic mineralization of 2,4,6-tribromophenol to CO2 by a synthetic microbial community comprising Clostridium, Dehalobacter, and Desulfatiglans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiling; Yoshida, Naoko; Wang, Aijie; Nan, Jun; Liang, Bin; Zhang, Chunfang; Zhang, Dongdong; Suzuki, Daisuke; Zhou, Xue; Xiao, Zhixing; Katayama, Arata

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic mineralization of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) was achieved by a synthetic anaerobe community comprising a highly enriched culture of Dehalobacter sp. phylotype FTH1 acting as a reductive debrominator; Clostridium sp. strain Ma13 acting as a hydrogen supplier via glucose fermentation; and a novel 4-chlorophenol-degrading anaerobe, Desulfatiglans parachlorophenolica strain DS. 2,4,6-TBP was debrominated to phenol by the combined action of Ma13 and FTH1, then mineralized into CO2 by sequential introduction of DS, confirmed using [ring-(14)C(U)] phenol. The optimum concentrations of glucose, SO4(2-), and inoculum densities were 0.5 or 2.5mM, 1.0 or 2.5mM, and the densities equivalent to 10(4)copiesmL(-1) of the 16S rRNA genes, respectively. This resulted in the complete mineralization of 23μM 2,4,6-TBP within 35days (0.58μmolL(-1)d(-1)). Thus, using a synthetic microbial community of isolates or highly enriched cultures would be an efficient, optimizable, low-cost strategy for anaerobic bioremediation of halogenated aromatics.

  16. Green and solvent-free procedure for microwave-assisted synthesis of 2,4,6-triarylpyridines catalysed using MgAl2O4 nanocrystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Javad Safari; Soheila Gandomi-Ravandi; Mahmoud Borjian Borujeni

    2013-09-01

    Design and development of a heterogeneous nanocatalyst for condensation reaction of acetophenone derivatives, aromatic aldehydes, and ammonium acetate to yield 2,4,6-triarylpyridines followed by microwave irradiation is described. Nanocrystalline MgAl2O4 as a novel heterogeneous recyclable catalyst shows high activity for the above reaction. In addition, the easily recoverable nanosized catalysts showed good reusability.

  17. A convenient route to symmetrically and unsymmetrically substituted 3,5-diaryl-2,4,6-trimethylpyridines via Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawkało, Joanna; Czarnocki, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Summary A series of differently substituted 3,5-diaryl-2,4,6-trimethylpyridines were prepared and characterized using the Suzuki–Miyaura coupling reaction with accordingly selected bromo-derivatives and arylboronic acids. The reaction conditions were carefully optimized allowing high yield of isolated products and also the construction of unsymmetrically substituted diarylpyridines, difficult to access by other methods. PMID:27340474

  18. Selectivity of bis-triazinyl bipyridine ligands for americium(III) in Am/Eu separation by solvent extraction. Part 1. Quantum mechanical study on the structures of BTBP complexes and on the energy of the separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbutt, Jerzy; Oziminski, Wojciech P

    2012-12-21

    Theoretical studies were carried out on two pairs of americium and europium complexes formed by tetra-N-dentate lipophilic BTBP ligands, neutral [ML(NO(3))(3)] and cationic [ML(2)](3+) where M = Am(III) or Eu(III), and L = 6,6'-bis-(5,6-diethyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine (C2-BTBP). Molecular structures of the complexes have been optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level and total energies of the complexes in various media were estimated using single point calculations performed at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) and MP2/6-311G(d,p) levels of theory. In the calculations americium and europium ions were treated using pseudo-relativistic Stuttgart-Dresden effective core potentials and the accompanying basis sets. Selectivity in solvent extraction separation of two metal ions is a co-operative function of contributions from all extractable metal complexes, which depend on physico-chemical properties of each individual complex and on its relative amount in the system. Semi-quantitative analysis of BTBP selectivity in the Am/Eu separation process, based on the contributions from the two pairs of Am(III) and Eu(III) complexes, has been carried out. To calculate the energy of Am/Eu separation, a model of the extraction process was used, consisting of complex formation in water and transfer of the formed complex to the organic phase. Under the assumptions discussed in the paper, this simple two-step model results in reliable values of the calculated differences in the energy changes for each pair of the Am/Eu complexes in both steps of the process. The greater thermodynamic stability (in water) of the Am-BTBP complexes, as compared with the analogous Eu species, caused by greater covalency of the Am-N than Eu-N bonds, is most likely the main reason for BTBP selectivity in the separation of the two metal ions. The other potential reason, i.e. differences in lipophilic properties of the analogous complexes of Am and Eu, is less important with regard to this selectivity.

  19. Use of radioanalytical methods for determination of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in radioactive wastes; Utilizacao de metodos radioanaliticos para a determinacao de isotopos de uranio, plutonio, americio e curio em rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Bianca

    2012-07-01

    Activated charcoal is a common type of radioactive waste that contains high concentrations of fission and activation products. The management of this waste includes its characterization aiming the determination and quantification of the specific radionuclides including those known as Difficult-to-Measure Radionuclides (RDM). The analysis of the RDM's generally involves complex radiochemical analysis for purification and separation of the radionuclides, which are expensive and time-consuming. The objective of this work was to define a methodology for sequential analysis of the isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium present in a type of radioactive waste, evaluating chemical yield, analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost. Three methodologies were compared and validated that employ ion exchange (TI + EC), extraction chromatography (EC) and extraction with polymers (ECP). The waste chosen was the activated charcoal from the purification system of primary circuit water cooling the reactor IEA-R1. The charcoal samples were dissolved by acid digestion followed by purification and separation of isotopes with ion exchange resins, extraction and chromatographic extraction polymers. Isotopes were analyzed on an alpha spectrometer, equipped with surface barrier detectors. The chemical yields were satisfactory for the methods TI + EC and EC. ECP method was comparable with those methods only for uranium. Statistical analysis as well the analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost revealed that EC method is the most effective for identifying and quantifying U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm present in charcoal. (author)

  20. Thermal decomposition and kinetic evaluation of decanted 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) for reutilization as composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. F.; Hussain, A.; Malik, A. Q.

    2016-08-01

    Use of energetic materials has long been considered for only military purposes. However, it is very recent that their practical applications in wide range of commercial fields such as mining, road building, under water blasting and rocket propulsion system have been considered. About 5mg of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in serviceable (Svc) as well as unserviceable (Unsvc) form were used for their thermal decomposition and kinetic parameters investigation. Thermogravimetric/ differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterize two types of TNT. Arrhenius kinetic parameters like activation energy (E) and enthalpy (AH) of both TNT samples were determined using TG curves with the help of Horowitz and Metzger method. Simultaneously, thermal decomposition range was evaluated from DTA curves. Distinct diffraction peaks showing crystalline nature were obtained from XRD analysis. SEM results indicated that Unsvc TNT contained a variety of defects like cracks and porosity. Similarly, it is observed that thermal as well as kinetic behavior of both TNT samples vary to a great extent. Likewise, a prominent change in the activation energies (E) of both samples is observed. This in-depth study provides a way forward in finding solutions for the safe reutilization of decanted TNT.

  1. 3D Visualization of Developmental Toxicity of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene in Zebrafish Embryogenesis Using Light-Sheet Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juneyong Eum

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination by trinitrotoluene is of global concern due to its widespread use in military ordnance and commercial explosives. Despite known long-term persistence in groundwater and soil, the toxicological profile of trinitrotoluene and other explosive wastes have not been systematically measured using in vivo biological assays. Zebrafish embryos are ideal model vertebrates for high-throughput toxicity screening and live in vivo imaging due to their small size and transparency during embryogenesis. Here, we used Single Plane Illumination Microscopy (SPIM/light sheet microscopy to assess the developmental toxicity of explosive-contaminated water in zebrafish embryos and report 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene-associated developmental abnormalities, including defects in heart formation and circulation, in 3D. Levels of apoptotic cell death were higher in the actively developing tissues of trinitrotoluene-treated embryos than controls. Live 3D imaging of heart tube development at cellular resolution by light-sheet microscopy revealed trinitrotoluene-associated cardiac toxicity, including hypoplastic heart chamber formation and cardiac looping defects, while the real time PCR (polymerase chain reaction quantitatively measured the molecular changes in the heart and blood development supporting the developmental defects at the molecular level. Identification of cellular toxicity in zebrafish using the state-of-the-art 3D imaging system could form the basis of a sensitive biosensor for environmental contaminants and be further valued by combining it with molecular analysis.

  2. Extraction-less, rapid assay for the direct detection of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) in cork samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolou, Theofylaktos; Pascual, Nuria; Marco, M-Pilar; Moschos, Anastassios; Petropoulos, Anastassios; Kaltsas, Grigoris; Kintzios, Spyridon

    2014-07-01

    2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA), the cork taint molecule, has been the target of several analytical approaches over the few past years. In spite of the development of highly efficient and sensitive tools for its detection, ranging from advanced chromatography to biosensor-based techniques, a practical breakthrough for routine cork screening purposes has not yet been realized, in part due to the requirement of a lengthy extraction of TCA in organic solvents, mostly 12% ethanol and the high detectability required. In the present report, we present a modification of a previously reported biosensor system based on the measurement of the electric response of cultured fibroblast cells membrane-engineered with the pAb78 TCA-specific antibody. Samples were prepared by macerating cork tissue and mixing it directly with the cellular biorecognition elements, without any intervening extraction process. By using this novel approach, we were able to detect TCA in just five minutes at extremely low concentrations (down to 0.2 ppt). The novel biosensor offers a number of practical benefits, including a very considerable reduction in the total assay time by one day, and a full portability, enabling its direct employment for on-site, high throughput screening of cork in the field and production facilities, without requiring any type of supporting infrastructure.

  3. The renaissance of 2,4,6-tris(2-pyrimidyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPymT) coordination chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safin, Damir A; Frost, Jamie M; Murugesu, Muralee

    2015-12-21

    In this perspective we report on recently accumulated data on the synthesis and coordination chemistry of 2,4,6-tris(2-pyrimidyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPymT). Although a highly attractive ligand, owing to the presence of three fused terpyridine-like coordination pockets, the coordination chemistry of TPymT has something of a chequered past. This can principally be attributed to the hydrolysis of the ligand, which readily occurs under mild conditions. Thus, after first being synthesised in 1959 it had only been used a handful of times to synthesise coordination compounds until we began reinvestigating its chemistry in early 2013. Despite the significant challenges associated with its use, our work over the past two years has demonstrated that coordination chemistry with TPymT is indeed possible. Herein, we describe an overview of this body of work as it stands, and discuss its potential impact in a variety of areas including porous materials, catalysis and crystal engineering.

  4. Microbial 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene degradation: could we learn from (bio)chemistry for bioremediation and vice versa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenuit, Ben A; Agathos, Spiros N

    2010-11-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is released in nature from manufacturing or demilitarization facilities but also after munitions firing/detonation or leakage from explosive remnants of war. Due to its toxicity and recalcitrance, life cycle of TNT-containing products and bioremediation are critical issues. As TNT is a strongly electron-deficient aromatic with a positive molecular quadrupole moment and three electrophilic nitro groups, its environmental fate is contingent upon specific sorptive electron donor-acceptor interactions and nucleophilic, reductive (bio)transformations. The microbial degradation of TNT is governed by cometabolism and therefore depends on the growth substrate(s) available in contaminated environments. Long considered an ecotoxicological safety endpoint, the immobilization of TNT metabolites derived from nitro moiety reduction in soil is controversial because they preferentially bind to the dissolved soil organic matter which can be released into surface and groundwaters. The ever-growing biochemical knowledge of TNT degradation has made bioaugmentation and phytoremediation attractive alternatives. While the discovery and engineering of microorganisms with novel/improved degradative abilities are very challenging, the deciphering of the physiological roles of promiscuous enzymes involved in TNT biodegradation, such as type II hydride transferases of the Old Yellow Enzyme family, opens new perspectives for bioremediation. Finally, transgenic plants have enabled effective phytoremediation at the field scale, which is emerging as the preferable in situ option to rehabilitate TNT-contaminated sites.

  5. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene mineralization and bacterial production rates of natural microbial assemblages from coastal sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Michael T., E-mail: michael.montgomery@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Code 6114, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Coffin, Richard B., E-mail: richard.coffin@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Code 6114, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Boyd, Thomas J., E-mail: thomas.boyd@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Code 6114, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Smith, Joseph P., E-mail: joseph.smith@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Code 6114, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Walker, Shelby E., E-mail: Shelby.Walker@noaa.gov [Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Code 6114, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Osburn, Christopher L., E-mail: chris_osburn@ncsu.edu [Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The nitrogenous energetic constituent, 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), is widely reported to be resistant to bacterial mineralization (conversion to CO{sub 2}); however, these studies primarily involve bacterial isolates from freshwater where bacterial production is typically limited by phosphorus. This study involved six surveys of coastal waters adjacent to three biome types: temperate broadleaf, northern coniferous, and tropical. Capacity to catabolize and mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO{sub 2} was a common feature of natural sediment assemblages from these coastal environments (ranging to 270+/-38 {mu}g C kg{sup -1} d{sup -1}). More importantly, these mineralization rates comprised a significant proportion of total heterotrophic production. The finding that most natural assemblages surveyed from these ecosystems can mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO{sub 2} is consistent with recent reports that assemblage components can incorporate TNT ring carbon into bacterial biomass. These data counter the widely held contention that TNT is recalcitrant to bacterial catabolism of the ring carbon in natural environments. - Highlights: > TNT mineralization is a common feature of natural bacterial assemblages in coastal sediments. > TNT mineralization rates comprised a significant proportion of total heterotrophic production. > These data counter the widely held contention that TNT is recalcitrant to bacterial catabolism of the ring carbon in natural environments. - The capacity to mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO{sub 2} is a common feature of natural bacterial assemblages in coastal sediment.

  6. Astragaloside IV ameliorates 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis implicating regulation of energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xu-Guang; Sun, Kai; Liu, Yu-Ying; Yan, Li; Wang, Ming-Xia; Fan, Jing-Yu; Mu, Hong-Na; Li, Chong; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Chuan-She; Han, Jing-Yan

    2017-02-02

    Dysfunction of energy metabolism is involved in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study was designed to investigate the potential of astragaloside IV (ASIV), an active ingredient of Radix Astragalus, to ameliorate colonic mucosal injury, with focusing on the implication of energy restoration in the underlying mechanism. Experimental colitis model was established in rats by injecting 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) through anus. After 24 hours, ASIV was administrated once daily by gavage for 6 days. On day 1 and day 7, colon tissue was collected for macroscopic and histological examination, ELISA, Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. TNBS impaired colonic mucosa with an injured epithelial architecture, increased inflammatory cell infiltration, and decreased colonic blood flow. Lgr5 positive cell number in crypt and β-catenin nuclear translocation were down-regulated by TNBS treatment. TNBS induced epithelial F-actin disruption and junctional protein degradation. Furthermore, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and ATP synthase subunit β expression in the colon tissue were significantly decreased after TNBS stimulation. All of the aforementioned alterations were relieved by ASIV post-treatment. The present study revealed that ASIV promoted mucosal healing process in TNBS-induced colitis, which was most likely attributed to regulating energy metabolism.

  7. Synthesis and Docking Studies of 2,4,6-Trihydroxy-3-Geranylacetophenone Analogs as Potential Lipoxygenase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chean Hui Ng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural product molecule 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-geranyl-acetophenone (tHGA isolated from the medicinal plant Melicope ptelefolia was shown to exhibit potent lipoxygenase (LOX inhibitory activity. It is known that LOX plays an important role in inflammatory response as it catalyzes the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid to form hydroperoxides. The search for selective LOX inhibitors may provide new therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases. Herein, we report the synthesis of tHGA analogs using simple Friedel-Craft acylation and alkylation reactions with the aim of obtaining a better insight into the structure-activity relationships of the compounds. All the synthesized analogs showed potent soybean 15-LOX inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 10.31–27.61 μM where compound 3e was two-fold more active than tHGA. Molecular docking was then applied to reveal the important binding interactions of compound 3e in soybean 15-LOX binding site. The findings suggest that the presence of longer acyl bearing aliphatic chain (5Cs and aromatic groups could significantly affect the enzymatic activity.

  8. Fate and stability of 14C-labeled 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in contaminated soil following microbial bioremediation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Martin; Geyer, Roland; Günther, Thomas; Kaestner, Matthias

    2004-09-01

    Biological treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in soil rarely results in complete mineralization of the parent compound. More often, the largest proportion of the TNT carbon is incorporated into the soil organic matrix. Therefore, we evaluated the stability of nonextractable residues from various bioremediation processes of 14C-TNT in soils. The extractable amounts of the residual radioactivity varied between 7 and 33% and thus the nonextractable amount between 93 and 67% (3-15% in fulvic acids, 26-46% in humic acids, and 27-44% in the humin fraction). The residue-containing soils were analyzed for the release of radioactivity after treatment by physical (freeze and thaw, grinding of soil, and steam extraction), chemical (acid rain and addition of metal complexing agent), and biological methods (addition of compost, white rot fungi, radical-generating enzymes, and germination of plants). Freeze and thaw treatment and grinding of the soil did not alter the partitioning of the label significantly. Steam extraction and acid rain extraction increased the water extractability to 11 to 29% and to 51.6% in the native TNT-contaminated soil. The addition of ethylenediamine-tetraacetate (EDTA) increased the extractability from 7 to 12%. After biological treatment, only slightly increased extractability (residues formed during microbial transformation of TNT may be biogenic residues with low mobilization potential and low hazardous impact.

  9. Phlebitis caused by intravenous administration of alprostadil: analysis of 246 reports%静脉给予前列地尔致静脉炎:246份报告分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高琲; 刘芳; 张俊

    2011-01-01

    目的:分析前列地尔致静脉炎的临床特点、相关因素、预防及治疗方法.方法:检索北京药品不良反应监测网络2003至2010年收到的前列地尔致静脉炎的报告,收集并分析患者的性别、年龄、静脉炎家族史和既往史、原患疾病、前列地尔剂型、给药途径、用药剂量、用药时间、用药至发生静脉炎的时间、临床表现、静脉炎程度、处置方法和预后.结果:共收集到前列地尔致静脉炎报告246份.246例患者中男性167例,平均年龄(66.7±16.1)岁,女性79例,平均年龄(68.1±12.3)岁.23例有静脉炎既往史,5例有静脉炎家族史.原患疾病主要为神经系统疾病(92例,37.4%)、外科疾病(26例,10.6%)和循环系统疾病(25例,10.2%).244例(99.2%)使用前列地尔注射液,2例(0.8%)使用前列地尔粉针.前列地尔注射液用药剂量分别为10μg/d(213例,87.3%)和20 μg/d(21例,8.6%).前列地尔粉针用药剂量为10 μg/d.前列地尔的给药方式:97.2%(239例)的患者采用静脉滴注,2.8%(7例)采用静脉注射.用药时间中位数为2 d(3.5±3.1)d.发生静脉炎的时间为给药后20 min.按照美国Intravenous Nurses Society制定的标准评判静脉炎严重程度,145例患者(66.5%)为1级静脉炎,57例(26.1%)为2级,15例(6.9%)为3级.主要临床表现为穿刺部位出现红斑、疼痛、形成静脉条纹和索状物.性别、年龄、给药途径、用药剂量及用药时间在1、2级与3级患者间的差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05).治疗方法包括停药、外敷、减慢静脉滴注速度、更换穿刺部位和用0.9%氯化钠注射液稀释前列地尔注射剂等.203份报告有静脉炎预后结果,其中124例治愈,79例好转.结论:静脉给予前列地尔可引起静脉炎,其程度较轻,停药或对症治疗后预后良好.%Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics, related factors, as well as prevention and treatment of phlebitis associated

  10. Synthesis and Low Temperature Spectroscopic Observation of 1,3,5-Trioxane-2,4,6-Trione: The Cyclic Trimer of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    Synthesis and Low Temperature Spectroscopic Observation of 1,3,5- Trioxane-2,4,6-Trione: The Cyclic Trimer of Carbon Dioxide Michael J. Rodig...concern, carbon dioxide has been the subject of much research directed at its reutilization. Various approaches toward this CO2 reutilization goal have...that increased with molecular size.10,11 Later experimental work found under extreme pressure/ temperature (40 GPa/1800 K), CO2 will transform to a

  11. 1,1´,1´´-(2,4,6-Trihydroxybenzene-1,3,5-triyl)triethanone tautomerism revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Kamounah, Fadhil S.; Zhiryakova, Diana;

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that 1,1′,1′′-(2,4,6-trihydroxybenzene-1,3,5-triyl)triethanone may be tautomeric. Using 13C NMR chemical shifts and deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts, it is demonstrated that this is not the case. This compound occurs as a strongly hydrogen bonded ben....... In addition, conventional UV–vis spectroscopy data suggest not tautomeric, but aggregation behaviour of the molecule in methanol and acetonitrile....

  12. Direct determination of 2,4,6-tricholoroanisole in wines by single-drop ionic liquid microextraction coupled with multicapillary column separation and ion mobility spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Sillero, Isabel; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2011-10-21

    This article evaluates the capability of single drop ionic liquid microextraction coupled with multicapillary column (MCC) and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) for the determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) in wines. The proposed methodology permits the direct analysis of the samples without any additional treatment other than dilution. This is achieved thanks to the selectivity provided by the ionic liquid selected as extractant, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide, as well as the response of the analyte in the IMS working in negative ionization mode. Moreover, the multicapillary column avoids the interference of ethanol in the ion mobility spectra. The analysis of the sample takes ca. 35 min to be completed. The limit of detection was low as 0.01 ng L(-1) using 2 mL of wine sample. Different calibration curves were constructed using aqueous standards, red and white wines, being the signals comparable, with an RSD similar to the method variability. Finally, a set of samples of different nature and packed in different containers were analysed. It was found than those with cork stoppers presented the highest concentration of 2,4,6-TCA.

  13. Structural properties, vibrational spectra and surface-enhanced Raman scattering of 2,4,6-trichloro- and tribromoanilines: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruna, Kabiru; Saleh, Tawfik A.; Al Thagfi, Jameel; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A.

    2016-10-01

    A comparative electronic and spectroscopic analysis of 2,4,6-trichloroaniline (TCA) and 2,4,6-tribromoaniline (TBA) was carried out by theoretical and experimental techniques. The NH2 inversion barrier in TCA and TBA molecules was predicted to be three times less than that in aniline and 2,4,6-trifluoroaniline. The size of the halogen substituents in the ortho positions is shown by density functional theory to play an important role in determining the electronic and structural properties of the amino group in the investigated haloaniline derivatives. A thorough interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra has been performed on the basis of the observed and calculated infrared and Raman spectra as well as calculated potential energy distribution values. In addition, the SERS spectra for both trihaloanilines were successfully collected up to a concentration of 10-6 M using aged hydroxylamine-reduced silver colloid as an active substrate for TCA and TBA. SERS intensities of several peaks were found to linearly change with concentration allowing quantitative analyses of TCA and TBA. A relatively stronger interaction in the case of TBA-silver colloids is predicted compared to the TCA analogue.

  14. Comparative Investigation on the Photocatalytic Degradation of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol Using Pure and M-Doped (M = Ba, Ce, Mg) ZnO Spherical Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, N Clament Sagaya; Jesudoss, S K; Rajan, P Iyyappa; Kennedy, L John; Vijaya, J Judith

    2015-08-01

    Pure and M-doped (Ba, Ce, Mg) ZnO spherical nanoparticles are synthesized by a simple low temperature co-precipitation method, and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The XRD results showed the formation of single phase ZnO with wurtzite crystal structure and the electron microscopic studies supported the validity for the formation of pure and M-doped (Ba, Ce, Mg) ZnO spherical nanoparticles. Photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, a potent endocrine disrupting chemical in aqueous medium was investigated by both pure and M-doped (Ba, Ce, Mg) ZnO spherical nanoparticles under UV-light irradiation. The influence of the metal dopants on the structure and photocatalytic (PC) activity of ZnO was investigated systematically. Furthermore, the effect of different parameters such as 2,4,6-trichlorophenol concentration, photocatalyst amount, pH and dopant wt% on the resulting PC activity was investigated. The kinetics of the photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol was found to follow the pseudo-first order reaction, and it was established that Ba-doped ZnO is photocatalytically more active than the other photocatalysts.

  15. Two New Iron Coordination Polymers Based on Fe-pyta ChainsIncorporating Pyridine-2,4,6-tricarboxylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zi-yun; PENG Meng-xia

    2008-01-01

    Reaction of FeCl2·6H2O,pyridine-2,4,6-tricarboxylie acid(H3pyta) and NaOH in the hydrothermal system at 185℃ resulted in the formation of 1D coordination polymer[Fe(Hpyta)(H2O)2](1) based on Fe-Hpyta chains,When the abpt[abpt=4-amino-3,5-bis(4-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole]ligand was employed in the reaction system,a 3D supramolecular porous network (H2bpt)[Fe(pyta)(H2O)2]·4H2O(2) was obtained,The framework was constructed with negative (Fe-pyta) chains and the positive H2bpt+ in situ,formed from the abpt reagent,to form 1D channels filled with guest water molecules via hydrogen-bonds,X-Ray diffraction crystal structure analysis shows that complex 1 crystallized in the monoclinic system,space group C2/c,a=1.1490(5) nm,b=0.9008(4) nm,c=1.0058(5) nm,β=107.254(9)°,V=0.9942(8) nm3,Z=4; and complex 2 crystallizes in the triclinic system,space group P(1) with a=0.90392(11) nm,b=0.96027(11) nm,c=1.55540(18)nm,a=73.558(2)°,β=86.126(2)°,y=68.745(2)°,V=1.2059(2) nm3 and Z=2.

  16. Pharmacokinetics and interspecies allometric scaling of ST-246, an oral antiviral therapeutic for treatment of orthopoxvirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Amantana

    Full Text Available Plasma pharmacokinetics of ST-246, smallpox therapeutic, was evaluated in mice, rabbits, monkeys and dogs following repeat oral administrations by gavage. The dog showed the lowest Tmax of 0.83 h and the monkey, the highest value of 3.25 h. A 2- to 4-fold greater dose-normalized Cmax was observed for the dog compared to the other species. The mouse showed the highest dose-normalized AUC, which was 2-fold greater than that for the rabbit and monkey both of which by approximation, recorded the lowest value. The Cl/F increased across species from 0.05 L/h for mouse to 42.52 L/h for dog. The mouse showed the lowest VD/F of 0.41 L and the monkey, the highest VD/F of 392.95 L. The calculated extraction ratios were 0.104, 0.363, 0.231 and 0.591 for mouse, rabbit, monkey and dog, respectively. The dog showed the lowest terminal half-life of 3.10 h and the monkey, the highest value of 9.94 h. The simple allometric human VD/F and MLP-corrected Cl/F were 2311.51 L and 51.35 L/h, respectively, with calculated human extraction ratio of 0.153 and terminal half-life of 31.20 h. Overall, a species-specific difference was observed for Cl/F with this parameter increasing across species from mouse to dog. The human MLP-corrected Cl/F, terminal half-life, extraction ratios were in close proximity to the observed estimates. In addition, the first-in-humans (FIH dose of 485 mg, determined from the MLP-corrected allometry Cl/F, was well within the dose range of 400 mg and 600 mg administered in healthy adult human volunteers.

  17. Transplacental transport and fetal localization of bispehnol A, tetrabromobisphenol A and 2,4,6-tribromophenol in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, A.; Brunstroem, B.; Brandt, I. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Toxicology; Cantillana, T.; Bergman, Aa. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an intermediate in the production of epoxy resins, while its brominated derivative tetrabromobishenol A (TBBPA) and its photolysis degradation product 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP) are widely used flame retardants. These brominated compounds have been identified in human blood. TBBPA, TBP and a number of 4-hydroxy-PCBs (e.g. 4-OH-CB107) are high affinity ligands for the thyroxin (T4) transporter transthyretin (TTR) in rodents and other species. Displacement of T4 from the TTR binding site has been proposed as an important mechanism of endocrine disruption by certain halogenated phenolic environmental pollutants. BPA is a fairly potent environmental estrogen receptor agonist that can induce an array of estrogenic effects in several species including mammals, birds and fish. Although the estrogenic activity of TBBPA is less obvious, this brominated BPA analog has been reported to interact with the estrogen receptor and induce estrogenic effects in some in vitro test systems. While the reproductive and developmental toxicity of BPA is well documented, there is evidence that also halogenated phenolic compounds can pass the placental barrier and induce such toxicity. Within the objectives of the COMPARE EU project we study the fetal and maternal kinetics and transplacental transport of phenolic environmental pollutants in pregnant mice. To explore the role of TTR in the placental and blood-brain barrier transport, we employ TTR-deficient mice. For comparative reasons, we also explore the transfer to bird embryos following injection into the yolk or administration to the egg-laying bird. In the present communication, we report on the disposition of BPA, TBBPA and TBP in the fetoplacental unit in pregnant wild-type mice.

  18. Alkaline Hydrolysis/Polymerization of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene: Characterization of Products by 13C and 15N NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, K.A.; Thorne, P.G.; Cox, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis has been investigated as a nonbiological procedure for the destruction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in explosives contaminated soils and munitions scrap. Nucleophilic substitutions of the nitro and methyl groups of TNT by hydroxide ion are the initial steps in the alkaline degradation of TNT. Potential applications of the technique include both in situ surface liming and ex situ alkaline treatment of contaminated soils. A number of laboratory studies have reported the formation of an uncharacterized polymeric material upon prolonged treatment of TNT in base. As part of an overall assessment of alkaline hydrolysis as a remediation technique, and to gain a better understanding of the chemical reactions underlying the hydrolysis/polymerization process, the soluble and precipitate fractions of polymeric material produced from the calcium hydroxide hydrolysis of unlabeled and 15N-labeled TNT were analyzed by elemental analysis and 13C and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Spectra indicated that reactions leading to polymerization included nucleophilic displacement of nitro groups by hydroxide ion, formation of ketone, carboxyl, alcohol, ether, and other aliphatic carbons, conversion of methyl groups to diphenyl methylene carbons, and recondensation of aromatic amines and reduced forms of nitrite, including ammonia and possibly hydroxylamine, into the polymer. Compared to the distribution of carbons in TNT as 14% sp 3- and 86% sp2-hybridized, the precipitate fraction from hydrolysis of unlabeled TNT contained 33% sp3- and 67% sp 2-hybridized carbons. The concentration of nitrogen in the precipitate was 64% of that in TNT. The 15N NMR spectra showed that, in addition to residual nitro groups, forms of nitrogen present in the filtrate and precipitate fractions include aminohydroquinone, primary amide, indole, imine, and azoxy, among others. Unreacted nitrite was recovered in the filtrate fraction. The toxicities and susceptibilities to

  19. Label-Free Electrochemiluminescence Aptasensor for 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Based on Bilayer Structure of Luminescence Functionalized Graphene Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guixin; Yu, Xiuxia; Liu, Danqing; Liu, Xiaoying; Li, Fang; Cui, Hua

    2015-11-03

    The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) behavior of N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol)/hemin dual-functionalized graphene hybrids (A-H-GNs) and luminol-functionalized silver/graphene oxide composite (luminol-AgNPs-GO) was investigated under cyclic voltammetry and pulse potential. It was found that A-H-GNs and luminol-AgNPs-GO exhibited excellent ECL activity. On this basis, a label-free ECL aptasensor for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) detection was developed based on bilayer structure of luminescence functionalized graphene hybrids consisting of A-H-GNs and luminol-AgNPs-GO. First, positively charged chitosan-coated A-H-GNs were modified on the surface of indium-doped tin oxide electrode by simple dripping and drying in the air; after that, the modified electrode was immersed in negatively charged luminol-AgNPs-GO modified with aptamer (apta-biotin-SA-luminol-AgNPs-GO) to form apta-biotin-SA-luminol-AgNPs-GO/CS-A-H-GNs/ITO electrode (i.e., aptasensor) by electrostatic interaction. In the presence of TNT, a remarkable decrease in ECL signals was observed due to the formation of aptamer-TNT complex. TNT could be detected based on the inhibition effect. The aptasensor exhibits a wide dynamic range from 1.0 × 10(-12) to 1.0 × 10(-9) g/mL, with a low detection limit of 6.3 × 10(-13) g/mL for the determination of TNT, which is superior to most previously reported bioassays for TNT. Moreover, the proposed aptasensor has been successfully applied to the detection of TNT in environmental water. It is sensitive, selective, and simple, avoiding complicated labeling and purification procedures. Due to the wide target recognition range of aptamer, this strategy provides a promising way to develop new aptasensor for other analytes.

  20. Effects of mimic of manganese superoxide dismutase on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Dong, Jiao; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Zhai, Jing; Ge, Bin

    2016-09-01

    The mimic of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSODm) has been synthesized and reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, whether MnSODm has anti-inflammatory effects on colitis and any underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study was to investigate therapeutic effects and mechanism of MnSODm on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis model in rats. Rats were intragastrically administered MnSODm (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) per day for 7 days after colitis was induced by TNBS. After treated with MnSODm, the colonic macroscopic and microscopic damage scores and colonic weight/length ratios were significantly decreased compared with colitis model group. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, malonyldialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 levels in colon tissues were also significantly decreased in MnSODm treatment groups. However, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly increased and phosphorylated inhibitory kappa B-alpha (IκBα), inhibitor kappa B kinase (IKKα/β), and nuclear factor-kappa Bp65 (NF-κBp65) as well as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation actor 88 (MyD88) in the colonic mucosa were significantly inhibited by MnSODm treatment. Thus, MnSODm was protective against colitis via antioxidant activity and by inhibiting inflammatory mediators by down-regulating TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathways. These data suggest a potential therapeutic effect of MnSODm in colitis.

  1. Chemical and physical data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN246 in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2010-01-15 to 2010-03-05 (NODC Accession 0117396)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0117396 includes chemical and physical data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN246 in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific...

  2. Uptake of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) by Vetiver grass (Vetiviera ziznoides L.) -- Preliminary results from a hydroponic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, K. M.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Makris, K.; Pachanoor, D.

    2006-05-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene(TNT) is a potent mutagen and a Group C human carcinogen that has been widely used to produce munitions and explosives. As a result, vast areas that have been previously used as military ranges, munition burning and open detonation sites have been heavily contaminated with TNT. Conventional remedial activities in such contaminated sites commonly rely on methods such as incineration, land filling and soil composting. Phytoremediation offers a cost-effective solution, utilizing plants to phytoextract TNT from the contaminated soil. We propose the use of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) to remove TNT from such contaminated soils. Vetiver is a fast-growing and adaptive grass, enabling its use in TNT-contaminated sites in a wide variety of soil types and climate. We also hypothesized that TNT removal by vetiver grass will be enhanced by utilizing a chaotropic agent (urea) to alter rhizosphere/root hair chemical environment. The objectives of this preliminary hydroponic study were: i) to investigate the effectiveness of vetiver grass in removing TNT from solution, and ii) to evaluate the use of a common agrochemical (urea) in enhancing TNT removal by vetiver grass. Vetiver plants were grown in a hydroponic system with five different TNT concentrations (0, 5, 10, 25, and 50 mg TNT L-1) and three urea concentrations (0, 0.01 and 0.1%). A plant density of 10 g L-1 and three replicate vessels per treatment were used. Aliquots were collected at several time intervals up to 192 hour, and were analyzed for TNT with HPLC. Results showed that vetiver was able to remove TNT from hydroponic solutions. The overall magnitude and kinetics of TNT removal by vetiver grass was enhanced in the presence of urea. TNT removal kinetics depended on TNT and urea initial concentrations, suggestive of second-order kinetic reactions. Preliminary results are encouraging, but in need for verification using more detailed studies involving TNT-contaminated soils. Ongoing

  3. SEMI SINTESIS SENYAWA 2,4,6-TRINITROFENILHIDRAZON KALANON DAN UJI AKTIVITAS TERHADAP SEL LEUKIMIA L1210

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Chasani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Kalanon adalah senyawa antikanker yang diisolasi dari Calophyllum biflorum Hends dan Ws. Aktivitas kalanon terhadap sel leukemia L1210 masih rendah yakni dengan niali IC50 = 59,4 ug/mL. Suatu senyawa dikatakan aktif sebagai antikanker jjika memiliki nilai IC50 di bawah 10 ug/mL. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mensintesis senyawa turunan kalanon dan diharapkan diperoleh senyawa baru yang mempunyai aktivitas lebih tinggi dibandingkan senyawa asal kalanon. Senyawa turunan kalanon diperoleh melalui reaksi antara kalanon dengan 2,4,6-trinitrofenilhidrazin. Reaksi dilakukan pada suhu 78 oC selama delapan jam. Analisis pendahuluan senyawa hasil sintesis dilakukan dengan metode kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT menggunakan eluen n-heksana dan etil asetat (2:1, v/v. Pemurnian senyawa hasil sintesis menggunakan teknik rekristalisasi dengan pelarut n-heksana dan diklorometan (3:1, v/v. Senyawa hasil sintesis diperoleh dengan Rf = 0,6609 dan rendemen 5,125 % ( b/b serta berupa kristal berwarna coklat. Identifikasi senyawa hasil sintesis dilakukan dengan spektrometer massa dan spektrofotometer IR. Hasil identifikasi menunjukkan bahwa senyawa hasil sintesis yang diharapkan telah terbentuk. Data spektrometer massa diperoleh ion molekul M+ = 647 dengan lepasnya molekul H2. Fragmen-fragmen yang terbentuk adalah pada m/e = 504, m/e = 479, m/e = 451, m/e = 429, m/e = 405, m/e = 377, m/e = 341, m/e = 316, m/e = 281, m/e = 253, m/e = 233, m/e = 207, m/e = 177, m/e = 156, m/e = 135, m/e = 96, m/e = 73, dan m/e = 41. Hasil spektrofotometer IR menunjukkan pita serapan pada 1654.8 cm-1 yang merupakan daerah regang ikatan rangkap C=N, pita serapan pada 3000 cm-1 – 3400 cm-1 adalah pita getaran OH fenol dan pita pada 1380 cm-1 menunjukkan rentangan simetri gugus nitro (NO2. Hasil uji sitotoksik terhadap sel leukemia L1210 menghasilkan nilai IC50 sebesr 47.69 μg/ml.

  4. Visceral hypersensitivity is provoked by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced ileitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Shah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Crohn’s Disease (CD, a chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease, can occur in any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but most frequently in the ileum. Visceral hypersensitivity contributes for development of chronic abdominal pain in this disease. Currently, the understanding of the mechanism underlying hypersensitivity of Crohn’s ileitis has been hindered by a lack of specific animal model. The present study is undertaken to investigate the visceral hypersensitivity provoked by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS-induced ileitis rats.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized and laparotomized for intraileal injection of TNBS (0.6 ml, 80 mg/kg body weight in 30% ethanol, n = 48, an equal volume of 30% Ethanol (n = 24 and Saline (n = 24, respectively. Visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by visceromotor responses (VMR to 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mmHg colorectal distension pressure (CRD at day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Immediately after CRD test, the rats were euthanized for collecting the terminal ileal segment for histopathological examinations and ELISA of myleoperoxidase and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and dorsal root ganglia (T11 for determination of calcitonin gene-related peptide by immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: Among all groups, TNBS-treatment showed transmural inflammation initially at 3 days, reached maximum at 7 days and persisted up to 21 days. The rats with ileitis exhibited (P < 0.05 VMR to CRD at day 7 to day 21. The calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive positive cells increased (P < 0.05 in dorsal root ganglia at day 7 to 21, which was persistently consistent with visceral hypersensitivity in TNBS-treated rats.Conclusions: TNBS injection into the ileum induced transmural ileitis including granuloma and visceral hypersensitivity. As this model mimics clinical manifestations of CD, it may provide a road map to probe the pathogenesis of gut inflammation and visceral

  5. Assembly of tetra, di and mononuclear molecular cadmium phosphonates using 2,4,6-triisopropylphenylphosponic acid and ancillary ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Sasikumar, Palani; Boomishankar, Ramamoorthy

    2008-10-14

    The reaction of ArPO(3)H(2) (Ar = 2,4,6-iPr(3)-C(6)H(2)) with Cd(CH(3)COO)(2).2H(2)O using various co-ligands such as methanol, dimethylformamide (DMF) and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (DMPZH) resulted in the formation of tetranuclear assemblies [Cd(4)(ArPO(3))(2)(ArPO(3)H)(4)(CH(3)OH)(4)].3(CH(3)OH) (1), [Cd(4)(ArPO(3))(2)(ArPO(3)H)(4)(DMF)(4)].3(DMF) (2) and [Cd(4)(ArPO(3))(2)(ArPO(3)H)(4)(DMF)(2)(DMPZH)(2)].2(DMF).2(H(2)O) (3). In all of these compounds the tetranuclear cadmium array, containing two five-coordinate and two six-coordinate cadmium atoms, is held together by two mu(4) capping [ArPO(3)](2-) and four anisobidentate mu(2) [ArPO(2)(OH)](-) ligands. Each cadmium atom is bound to an additional ancillary ligand. The reaction of ArPO(3)H(2) with Cd(CH(3)COO)(2).2H(2)O in the presence of the chelating ligand 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) leads to the exclusive formation of the dinuclear assembly [Cd(2)(ArPO(3)H)(4)(bipy)(2)].(CH(3)OH)(H(2)O) (4). The latter contains an eight-membered Cd(2)P(2)O(4) inorganic ring formed as a result of the bridging coordination action of two anisobidentate mu(2) [ArPO(2)(OH)](-) ligands. Each cadmium atom is bound by one chelating bipy and one monodentate [ArPO(2)(OH)](-) ligands. Use of four equivalents of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole leads to the formation of the mononuclear derivative [Cd(ArPO(3)H)(2)(DMPZH)(4)] (5). The molecular structure of the latter comprises of a central cadmium atom surrounded by six monodentate ligands. Four of these are neutral pyrazole ligands that occupy the equatorial plane; the remaining two are anionic phosphinate ligands which are present trans to each other. The thermal analysis of 1 and 4 reveals that the char residue obtained at 600 degrees C consists predominantly of Cd(2)P(2)O(7).

  6. Reactivity of partially reduced arylhydroxylamine and nitrosoarene metabolites of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) toward biomass and humic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Farrukh; Hughes, Joseph B

    2002-10-15

    Sequential anaerobic/aerobic treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) generally results in the incorporation of residues into biomass and natural organic matter fractions of a system. To better understand the potential contribution of hydroxylamine and nitroso moieties in these reactions, studies were conducted using model systems taking advantage of the biocatalytic-activity of Clostridium acetobutylicum that does not produce aminated TNT derivatives. To evaluate binding to biomass only, systems containing cell-free extracts of C. acetobutylicum and molecular hydrogen as a reductant were employed. At the end of treatment, mass balance studies showed that 10% of the total 14C was associated with an insoluble protein-containing precipitate that could not be extracted with organic solvents. Model reactions were conducted between a mixture of 2,4-dihydroxylamino-6-nitrotoluene (DHA6NT) and 4-hydroxylamino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4HADNT) and 1-thioglycerol to test the involvement of the nitroso-thiol reaction in binding to biomass. It was demonstrated that DHA6NT formed a new and relatively polar product with 1-thioglycerol only in the presence of oxygen. The oxygen requirement confirmed that the nitroso functionality was responsible for the binding reaction. The reactivity of arylhydroxylamino and nitrosoarene functionalities toward International Humic Substance Society (IHSS) peat humic acid was evaluated under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. 4HADNT showed no appreciable reactivity toward peat humic acid. Conversely, the nitrosoarene compound, nitrosobenzene, showed rapid reactivity with peat humic acid (50% removal in 48 h). When tested with two other humic acids (selected on the basis of their protein content), it became apparent that the proteinaceous fraction was responsible at least in part for the nitrosoarene's removal from solution. Furthermore, the pretreatment of the humic acids with a selective thiol derivatizing agent had a considerable effect

  7. Photophysical Diversity of Water-Soluble Fluorescent Conjugated Polymers Induced by Surfactant Stabilizers for Rapid and Highly Selective Determination of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Naader; Akbarinejad, Alireza; Ghoorchian, Arash

    2016-09-21

    The increasing application of fluorescence spectroscopy in development of reliable sensing platforms has triggered a lot of research interest for the synthesis of advanced fluorescent materials. Herein, we report a simple, low-cost strategy for the synthesis of a series of water-soluble conjugated polymer nanoparticles with diverse emission range using cationic (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB), anionic (sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, SDBS), and nonionic (TX114) surfactants as the stabilizing agents. The role of surfactant type on the photophisical and sensing properties of resultant polymers has been investigated using dynamic light scattering (DLS), FT-IR, UV-vis, fluorescence, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) spectroscopies. The results show that the surface polarity, size, and spectroscopic and sensing properties of conjugated polymers could be well controlled by the proper selection of the stabilizer type. The fluorescent conjugated polymers exhibited fluorescence quenching toward nitroaromatic compounds. Further studies on the fluorescence properties of conjugated polymers revealed that the emission of the SDBS stabilized polymer, N-methylpolypyrrole-SDBS (NMPPY-SDBS), is strongly quenched by 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene molecule with a large Stern -Volmer constant of 59 526 M(-1) and an excellent detection limit of 100 nM. UV-vis and cyclic voltammetry measurements unveiled that fluorescence quenching occurs through a charge transfer mechanism between electron rich NMPPY-SDBS and electron deficient 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene molecules. Finally, the as-prepared conjugated polymer and approach were successfully applied to the determination of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in real water samples.

  8. PRIMA-1Met/APR-246 induces apoptosis and tumor growth delay in small cell lung cancer expressing mutant p53

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandi, Roza; Selivanova, Galina; Christensen, Camilla Laulund;

    2011-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant disease with poor prognosis, necessitating the need to develop new and efficient treatment modalities. PRIMA-1(Met) (p53-dependent reactivation of massive apoptosis), also known as APR-246, is a small molecule, which restores tumor suppressor...... function to mutant p53 and induces cancer cell death in various cancer types. Since p53 is mutated in more than 90% of SCLC, we investigated the ability of PRIMA-1(Met) to induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth in SCLC with different p53 mutations....

  9. Synthesis, structural and solvent influence studies on solvatochromic mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes with the rigid nitrogen ligand: bis[ N-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imino]acenaphthene

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ayaan, Usama; Murata, Fumiko; El-Derby, Soheir; Fukuda, Yutaka

    2004-04-01

    Three mixed-ligand copper (II) complexes containing the rigid bidentate nitrogen ligand bis[ N-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imino]acenaphthene (abbr. 2,4,6-Me 3C 6H 2-BIAN) and β-diketonate (dike) ligands are reported and characterized. These complexes namely, [Cu(dike)(2,4,6-Me 3C 6H 2-BIAN)]ClO 4 {where dike=acac (acetylacetonate), bzac (benzoylacetonate) or (dibm) dibenzoylmethanate}have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic, magnetic and molar conductance measurements. In addition to their high solubility in various organic solvents, these three complexes show a color change on going from one solvent to another, that is, strong solvatochromism of their solutions. The observed solvatochromism is mainly due to the solute-solvent interaction between the chelate cation and the solvent molecules. Reported also are the X-ray crystal structures of the free 2,4,6-Me 3C 6H 2-BIAN ligand and the [Cu(acac)(2,4,6-Me 3C 6H 2-BIAN)]ClO 4 complex.

  10. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Novel Ladder-like Organooxotin Cluster from 2,4,6-Trimethylbenzolic Acid and N-Benzylhydroxylamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun-Hua; CHEN Man-Sheng; LI Wei; YANG Ying-Qun; KUANG Dai-Zhi; DENG Yi-Fang

    2007-01-01

    The title complex {[(C6H5CH2)4Sn2(OOCC9H11)(ONHCH2C6H5)]O}2 (C9H11COO= 2,4,6- trimethylbenzolicate) has been synthesized by the reaction of bis-benzyltin oxide with 2,4,6-trimethylbenzolic acid and N-benzylhydroxylamine in 1:1:1 molar radio (C45H47NO4Sn2) and characterized by IR,1H NMR spectra and elemental analysis,and its crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction.It crystallizes in monoclinic,space group P21/c with a = 1.5654(5),b = 1.6467(6),c = 1.7433(6) nm,β = 111.729(5)°,Z= 2,V= 4.175(2) nm3,Mr = 903.22,Dc = 1.437g/cm3,μ = 1.238 mm-1,F(000) = 1824,R = 0.0440 and wR = 0.0906.The structure shows that the central tin atom is five-coordinated to assume a distorted trigonal bipyramidal configuration.The compound belongs to centrosymmetric dimer structure with four-membered central endo-cyclic Sn2O2 units in which the bridging oxygen atoms are tri-coordinated.

  11. Fungal strains isolated from cork stoppers and the formation of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole involved in the cork taint of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prak, Sina; Gunata, Ziya; Guiraud, Joseph-Pierre; Schorr-Galindo, Sabine

    2007-05-01

    Cork taint is mainly due to 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) produced through the activity of undesirable fungal strains. We observed that CFU mould number in TCA-containing stoppers was not quantitatively different to that of the stoppers not containing TCA (ca. 10(5)CFU/g). In contrast more fungi diversity was observed in TCA-containing stoppers. Penicillium spp (Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium glabrum), Aspergillus spp (Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae), Chrysonilia sitophila, Mucor racemosus, Paecilomyces sp. and Trichoderma viride were found in TCA-containing stoppers, while C. sitophila and Penicillium sp. were the main fungi in the stoppers devoid of TCA. Conidia were numerous close to the lenticels and present from the lateral surface through to the centre of the stoppers. Strains of Aspergillus, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Penicillium and Trichoderma isolated from TCA-containing stoppers were able to convert 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) in TCA in resting cell or growing conditions. The best yields of conversion were obtained by green fungi Paecilomyces sp. and P. chrysogenum, 17% and 20%, respectively. Chysonilia sitophila and Penicillium sp. did not produce TCA from TCP in our conditions.

  12. Hexaaquabis[3,5-bis(hydroxyimino-1-methyl-2,4,6-trioxocyclohexanido-κ2N3,O4]barium tetrahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Dinh Do

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Ba(C7H5N2O52(H2O6]·4H2O, the Ba2+ cation lies on a twofold rotation axis and is ten-coordinated by two 3,5-bis(hydroxyimino-1-methyl-2,4,6-trioxocyclohexanide oxo O atoms [Ba—O = 2.8715 (17 Å], two hydroxyimino N atoms [Ba—N = 3.036 (2 Å], and six water molecules [Ba—O = 2.847 (2, 2.848 (2, and 2.880 (2 Å]. The 3,5-bis(hydroxyimino-1-methyl-2,4,6-trioxocyclohexanide monoanions act in a bidentate chelating manner, coordinating through an N atom of the non-deprotonated hydroxyimino group and an O atom of the neighboring oxo group. Two lattice water molecules are located in the cavities of the framework and are involved in hydrogen bonding to O atoms of one of the coordinating water molecules and the O atom of a keto group of the ligand. As a result, a three-dimensional network is formed.

  13. Decomposition of dinitrotoluene isomers and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in spent acid from toluene nitration process by ozonation and photo-ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Shing; Juan, Chien-Neng; Wei, Kuo-Ming

    2007-08-17

    Ozone and UV/O3 were employed to mineralize dinitrotoluene (DNT) isomers and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in spent acid from toluene nitration process. The oxidative degradation tests were carried out to elucidate the influence of various operating variables on the performance of mineralization of total organic compounds (TOC) in spent acid, including reaction temperature, intensity of UV (254 nm) irradiation, dosage of ozone and concentration of sulfuric acid. It is remarkable that the nearly complete mineralization of organic compounds can be achieved by ozonation combined with UV irradiation. Nevertheless, the hydroxyl radicals (*OH) would not be generated by either ozone decomposition or photolysis of ozone under the experimental condition of this study. According to the spectra identified by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) and further confirmed by gas chromatograph/flame ionization detector (GC/FID), the multiple oxidation pathways of DNT isomers are given, which include o-, m-, p-mononitrotoluene (MNT) and 1,3-dinitrobenzene, respectively. In addition, oxidative degradation of 2,4,6-TNT leads to a 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene intermediate.

  14. Syntheses, Characterization and Antitumour Activities of Rare Earth Metal Complexes with 2-(((4,6-dimethyl)-2-Pyrimidinyl)thio)-Acetic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Eight rare earth metal (Ⅲ) complexes with 2-(((4,6-dimethyl)-2-pyrimidinyl)thio)-acetic acid, LnL3*nH2O [HL=2-(((4,6-dimethyl)-2-pyrimidinyl)thio)-acetic acid; Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm Eu, Gd, Tb; n=4 or 5], were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, complexometric titration, thermal analysis, conductivity, IR and 1H-NMR. The results reveal that carboxyl group of the ligand coordinates with rare earth ions in bidentate mode after deprotonated. The water molecules exist as crystal water in the complexes. The anti-tumour activities of HL and some complexes were tested by both the MTT and SRB methods. The results show that the suppression ratios of some complexes against the tested tumour cells (HL-60 human leukemia cell lines, BGC-823 human gastric carcinoma cell lines, hela human cervix adenocarcinoma cell lines and Bel-7402 human hepatic carcinoma cell lines) are superior to HL.

  15. Unique structural properties of 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylanilide: isomerization and switching between separable amide rotamers through the reaction of anilide enolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukagoshi, Shiori; Ototake, Nobutaka; Ohnishi, Yusuke; Shimizu, Mayu; Kitagawa, Osamu

    2013-05-17

    Herein, we report a unique structural property of 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylanilide, which can be separated into its amide rotamers at room temperature. Interconversion between the rotamers of anilide enolates occurs readily at room temperature and their reaction with electrophiles gives mixtures of the rotamers in a ratio that depends on the reactivity of the corresponding electrophile. That is, the reaction of the 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylacetanilide enolate with reactive electrophiles, such as allyl bromide or protic acids, gives mixtures of the anilide rotamers in which the E rotamer is the major component, whereas less-reactive electrophiles, such as 1-bromopropane and 2-iodopropane, yield mixtures of the rotamers in which the Z rotamer is the major component. The rotameric ratio of the product is also strongly dependent on the reactivity of the anilide enolate. Switching between the anilide rotamers can be achieved through protonation of a less-reactive enolate by a less-reactive protic acid and thermal isomerization of the anilide.

  16. 1,3-Di(2-p-tolylvinyl)-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene: X-ray Crystallographic Analysis, Thermal Decomposition and DFT Calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG, Li-Qiong; LIU, Yan-Hong; ZHANG, Jian-Guo; ZHANG, Tong-Lai; YANG, Lia; QIAO, Xiao-Jing; HU, Xiao-Chun; GUO, Jin-Yu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the synthesis, crystal culturing and single-crystal X-ray crystallography of 1,3-di(2-p-tolylvingl)-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (DTTB) were reported. FT-IR, 1H NMR and mass spectroscopy techniques were employed to characterize this compound. The results show that this single crystal belongs to triclinic system with space group P-1. Density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP was employed to optimize structure and calculate frequencies of the title compound. The calculated geometrical parameters were close to the corresponding experiment ones. The thermal decomposition of DTTB was investigated by DSC and TG-DTG methods at the heating rate of 10 ℃/min. It was observed that the initial decomposing temperature of DTTB was higher than that of TNTM, although its melting point was lower than that of TNTM, indicating that DTTB has higher heat resistant ability.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of 1,2-bis(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazine: a key precursor for the synthesis of high performance energetic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgujar, D M; Talawar, M B; Harlapur, Sujata F; Asthana, S N; Mahulikar, P P

    2009-12-15

    1,2-Bis(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazine (3) is one of the precursors in the synthesis of an important energetic material viz., hexanitrazobenzene. The simple and convenient lab scale synthesis of title compound (3) was carried out by the condensation of picryl chloride (2) with hydrazine hydrate at 30-50 degrees C in methanol based on the lines of scanty literature reports. Picryl chloride was synthesized by the reaction of picric acid (1) with phosphorous oxychloride based on the lines of reported method. The synthesized compound (3) was characterized by IR and 1H NMR spectral data. Some of the energetic properties of the synthesized compound have also been studied. The theoretically computed energetic properties of the title compound (3) indicated the superior performance in comparison to tetranitrodibenzo tetraazapentalene (TACOT) and hexanitrostilbene (HNS) in terms of velocity of detonation.

  18. Graphene-based electrochemical sensor for detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in seawater: the comparison of single-, few-, and multilayer graphene nanoribbons and graphite microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Madeline Shuhua; Pumera, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The detection of explosives in seawater is of great interest. We compared response single-, few-, and multilayer graphene nanoribbons and graphite microparticle-based electrodes toward the electrochemical reduction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). We optimized parameters such as accumulation time, accumulation potential, and pH. We found that few-layer graphene exhibits about 20% enhanced signal for TNT after accumulation when compared to multilayer graphene nanoribbons. However, graphite microparticle-modified electrode provides higher sensitivity, and there was no significant difference in the performance of single-, few-, and multilayer graphene nanoribbons and graphite microparticles for the electrochemical detection of TNT. We established the limit of detection of TNT in untreated seawater at 1 μg/mL.

  19. Fabrication of surface plasmon resonance sensor surface with control of the nonspecific adsorption and affinity for the detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene using an antifouling copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui eYatabe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated a surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensor using a hydrophilic polymer for the highly sensitive detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT. The hydrophilic polymer was made from mono-2-(methacryloyloxyethylsuccinate (MES and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP. The detection of TNT was carried out by displacement assay with the SPR measurement. In displacement assay, the affinity between anti-TNT antibody and the sensor surface, affects to the sensitivity. In the SPR measurement, nonspecific adsorption should be controlled because SPR sensor cannot discriminate between specific and nonspecific adsorption. Therefore, the affinity and nonspecific adsorption were controlled by changing the ratio of HEMA to MES. A detection limit of 0.4 ng/ml (ppb for TNT was achieved using a sensor surface with the lowest affinity without nonspecific adsorption.

  20. Evaluation of the endocrine activity of 2,4,6-tribromophenol, benzanthrone and benzophenone-2 based on Appendix 7.8-5 of REACH guidance document

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duis, Karen; Holbech, Henrik; Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.

    was performed for benzanthrone, 2,4,6-tribromophenol and benzophenone-2, which differ in the amount of available data. Main focus was on effects on the estrogen/androgen axis. Potential endocrine activity was evaluated based on literature data and additional in vitro and in vivo testing. In the following......, the main findings and the conclusions with regard to Appendix 7.8-5 are highlighted. (1) For benzanthrone, no binding to the estrogen receptor (ER) is predicted using QSAR methods, but potential metabolites with strong affinity to the ER were identified. At present, the endocrine activity...... of such metabolites is not considered in Appendix 7.8-5. Since many in vitro assays have limited metabolic capacity, this is a shortcoming for substances, for which no in vivo data are available. (2) Reporter gene assays indicate weak ER agonism of benzanthrone; in vitro results on androgen receptor mediated effects...

  1. Intermolecular forces and molecular dynamics simulation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) using symmetry adapted perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, DeCarlos E

    2013-04-25

    The dimer potential energy surface (PES) of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) has been explored using symmetry adapted perturbation theory based on a Kohn-Sham density functional theory description of the monomers [SAPT(DFT)]. An intermolecular potential energy function was parametrized using a grid of 880 ab initio SAPT(DFT) dimer interaction energies, and the function was used to identify stationary points on the SAPT(DFT) dimer PES. It is shown that there exists a variety of minima with a range of bonding configurations and ab initio analyses of the interaction energy components, along with radial cross sections of the PES near each minimum, are presented. Results of isothermal-isostress molecular dynamics simulations are reported, and the simulated structure, thermal expansion, sublimation enthalpy, and bulk modulus of the TATB crystal, based on the SAPT(DFT) interaction potential, are in good agreement with experiment.

  2. Delocalization and new phase in Americium: theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soderlind, P

    1999-04-23

    Density-functional electronic structure calculations have been used to investigate the high pressure behavior of Am. At about 80 kbar (8 GPa) calculations reveal a monoclinic phase similar to the ground state structure of plutonium ({alpha}-Pu). The experimentally suggested {alpha}-U structure is found to be substantially higher in energy. The phase transition from fcc to the low symmetry structure is shown to originate from a drastic change in the nature of the electronic structure induced by the elevated pressure. A calculated volume collapse of about 25% is associated with the transition. For the low density phase, an orbital polarization correction to the local spin density (LSD) theory was applied. Gradient terms of the electron density were included in the calculation of the exchange/correlation energy and potential, according to the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The results are consistent with a Mott transition; the 5f electrons are delocalized and bonding on the high density side of the transition and chemically inert and non-bonding (localized) on the other. Theory compares rather well with recent experimental data which implies that electron correlation effects are reasonably modeled in our orbital polarization scheme.

  3. The proliferation potential of neptunium and americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, J. S.; Shin, J. S.; Kim, J. S.; Kwack, E. H.; Kim, B. K

    2000-05-01

    It is recognized that some trans-uranic elements other than plutonium, in particular Np and Am, if will be available in sufficient quantities, could be used for nuclear explosive devices. The spent fuel has been accumulating in number of nuclear power plant and operation of large scale commercial reprocessing plants. However, these materials are not covered by the definition of special fissionable material in the Agency Statute. At the time when the Statute was adopted, the availability of meaningful quantities of separated Np and Am was remote and they were not included in the definition of special fissionable material. Then, IAEA Board decided a measure for control of Np and Am on September 1999. This report contains the control method and the characteristic of Np and Am for using domestic nuclear industries, and it can be useful for understanding how to report and account of Np and Am. (author)

  4. Evaluation of neutron data for americium-241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov, V.M.; Sukhovitskij, E.Sh.; Porodzinskij, Yu.V.; Klepatskij, A.B.; Morogovskij, G.B. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    The evaluation of neutron data for {sup 241}Am is made in the energy region from 10{sup -5} eV up to 20 MeV. The results of the evaluation are compiled in the ENDF/B-VI format. This work is performed under the Project Agreement CIS-03-95 with the International Science and Technology Center (Moscow). The Financing Party for the Project is Japan. The evaluation was requested by Y. Kikuchi (JAERI). (author). 60 refs.

  5. (4E)-dehydrocitrals [(2E,4E)- and (2Z,4E )-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienals] from acarid mite Histiogaster sp. A096 (Acari: Acaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, H; Mori, N; Nishida, R; Kuwahara, Y

    2001-12-01

    A mixture of two monoterpenes was obtained as the opisthonotal gland secretion from unidentified Histiogaster sp. A096 (Acari: Acaridae), and their structures were elucidated to be (4E)-dehydrocitrals [(2E,4E)- and (2Z,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienals] by GC/MS, GC/FT-IR, UV and 1H-NMR spectra. Both isomers of (4E)-dehydrocitral prepared by syntheses in 4 steps from 3-methyl-2-butenal with 34.2% yields (based on the ylide) were separated by column chromatography into the (2E,4E)- and (2Z,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienal. Mass spectra together with GC retention times of the purified natural (4E)-dehydrocitrals were identical with those of synthetic (2E,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienal and (2Z,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienal. The geometry at the 2-C position of both synthetic (4E)-dehydrocitrals was confirmed by NOESY analyses. This is the first identification of (4E)-dehydrocitrals from the animal kingdom.

  6. Synthesis,Crystal Structure and Electrochemical Properties of a One-dimensional Chain Coordination Polymer[Cu(phen)(2,4,6-TMBA)2(H2O)]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; LI Chang-Hong; YANG Ying-Qun; KUANG Yun-Fei

    2008-01-01

    A one-dimensional chain coordination polymer[Cu(phen)(2,4,6-TMBA)2(H2O)]n has been synthesized by reacting 2,4,6-trimethyl-benzoic acid,1,10-phenanthroline and Cu(Ⅱ)per-chlorate and its structure Was characterized.Crystal data for this complex:tetragonal,space group I41,a=2.0293(3),b=2.0293(3),c=113758(2)nm,a=β=γ=90°,V=5.6657(13)nm3,Dc=1.379g/cm3,Z=8,μ(MoKa)=0.815mm-1,Mr=588.14,F(000)=2456,S=1.047,R=0.0459 and wR=O.1053.The crystal structure shows that two neighboring Cu(Ⅱ)ions are linked together by one bridging-chelating 2,4,6-trimethyl-benzoic group,forming a one-dimensional chain structure.Each Cu(Ⅱ)ion is coordinated with two nitrogen atoms from one 1,10-phenanthroline molecule,three oxygen atoms from three 2,4,6-trimethyl-benzoic acid molecules and one oxygen atom from one water molecule,giving a six-coordinate distorted octahedral coordination geometry.The cyclic voltamrnetry behavior of the complex was also investigated.

  7. 1,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6-triyltrisulfamic acid (TTSA): A new organic solid acid for the nitrosation of secondary amines and oxidation of urazoles in the presence of NaNO2 under mild and heterogeneous conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gholamabbas Chehardoli; Mohammad Ali Zolfigol; Toktam Faal-Rastegar; Shadpour Mallakpour; Arash Ghorbani-Choghamarani

    2009-07-01

    Melamine reacted with chlorosufonic acid (ClSO3H) to form a new sulfamic-type acid, 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyltrisulfamic acid (TTSA). Both nitrosation of secondary amines and oxidation of urazoles were accomplished by using TTSA/NaNO2 system under mild and heterogeneous conditions with good to excellent yields.

  8. Corrigendum to "The 3-D strain patterns in Turkey using geodetic velocity fields from the RTK-CORS (TR) network" [J. African Earth Sci. 115 (2016) 246-270

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutoglu, Hakan Senol; Toker, Mustafa; Mekik, Cetin

    2016-12-01

    In the article titled "The 3-D Strain patterns in Turkey using Geodetic velocity fields from the RTK-CORS (TR) Network" published in Journal of African Earth Sciences Vol. 11, pp.246-270, the black arrows on the Figs. 10 and 12 are shifted due to printing error to undesired places. The correct form of Figs. 10 and 12 are given below:

  9. Asymmetric Synthesis of Optical Activity 2,4,6-Trimethyl Phenylalanine by Chiral Phase Transfer Catalyst%利用手性相转移催化剂不对称合成旋光性2,4,6-三甲基苯丙氨酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鸿睿; 李靖柯; 彭俊; 冯悦; 胡湘南

    2012-01-01

    以甘氨酸(Ⅰ)为原料,在羧基保护下合成底物苯亚甲氨基乙酸乙酯(Ⅲ),然后经手性催化剂(-)-N-苄基氯化辛可尼定(BCDC)和(+)-N-苄基氯化辛可宁(BCNC)的催化,酸水解得到旋光性的2,4,6-三甲基苯丙氨酸(V-2,V-3),总收率分别为28%和31%,比旋光度分别为[α]20D=+16°和[α]20D=-9°.以氯化三乙基苄胺(TEBA)作非手性相转移催化剂得到了消旋2,4,6-三甲基苯丙氨酸(V-1),总收率为32%.并探讨了利用手性相转移催化剂不对称合成的反应机理.

  10. Safety and tolerability of sitagliptin in clinical studies: a pooled analysis of data from 10,246 patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Hua

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous pooled analysis of 12 double-blind clinical studies that included data on 6,139 patients with type 2 diabetes, treatment with sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitor, was shown to be generally well tolerated compared with treatment with control agents. As clinical development of sitagliptin continues, additional studies have been completed, and more patients have been exposed to sitagliptin. The purpose of the present analysis is to update the safety and tolerability assessment of sitagliptin by pooling data from 19 double-blind clinical studies. Methods The present analysis included data from 10,246 patients with type 2 diabetes who received either sitagliptin 100 mg/day (N = 5,429; sitagliptin group or a comparator agent (placebo or an active comparator (N = 4,817; non-exposed group. The 19 studies from which this pooled population was drawn represent the double-blind, randomized studies that included patients treated with the usual clinical dose of sitagliptin (100 mg/day for between 12 weeks and 2 years and for which results were available as of July 2009. These 19 studies assessed sitagliptin taken as monotherapy, initial combination therapy with metformin or pioglitazone, or as add-on combination therapy with other antihyperglycemic agents (metformin, pioglitazone, a sulfonylurea ± metformin, insulin ± metformin, or rosiglitazone + metformin. Patients in the non-exposed group were taking placebo, metformin, pioglitazone, a sulfonylurea ± metformin, insulin ± metformin, or rosiglitazone + metformin. The analysis used patient-level data from each study to evaluate between-group differences in the exposure-adjusted incidence rates of adverse events. Results Summary measures of overall adverse events were similar in the sitagliptin and non-exposed groups, except for an increased incidence of drug-related adverse events in the non-exposed group. Incidence rates of specific adverse events were

  11. The role of metabolism in the toxicity of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and its degradation products to the aquatic amphipod Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Jerre G; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2008-05-01

    Toxicological data on the effects of the explosive, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and its degradation products suggests an unpredictable toxicological response in aquatic organisms. Several studies suggest TNT becomes more toxic as it degrades while others suggest TNT becomes less toxic. This study focused on the toxicity of TNT and several degradation products as well as the role of oxidative metabolism in the toxicity of TNT. The aquatic invertebrate Hyalella azteca was used to evaluate the toxicity of TNT and four of its degradation products. The most reduced degradation product, 2,4-diamino, 6-nitrotoluene (2,4-DANT) was the most toxic to H. azteca. However, 2,4-DANT was only a minor metabolite in H. azteca. The influence of metabolism on the toxicokinetics of TNT was assessed indirectly through the use of a CYP450 inducer and inhibitor. Treatment of organisms with beta-napthoflavone (BNF), a CYP450 inducer, increased the toxicity of TNT and increased the rate of elimination and metabolism of TNT. Similar to BNF, organisms treated with clotrimazole (CTZ), a CYP450 inhibitor, resulted in increased toxicity and TNT metabolism. It is likely the ability to metabolize or bioactivate TNT to a more reactive intermediate plays a significant role in the sensitivity of organisms to TNT.

  12. catena-Poly[[[aquatripyridinecobalt(II]-μ-5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalato-κ2O1:O3] pyridine solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of cobalt(II nitrate with 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalic acid (ATPA in pyridine solution leads to the formation of the title compound, {[Co(C8H2I3NO4(C5H5N3(H2O]·C5H5N}n. The Co2+ ion is six-coordinated by three N atoms, one water O atom and two O atoms from two ATPA ligands to form a distorted octahedral geometry. The two carboxylate groups of ATPA act as bridging ligands connecting the CoII metal centers to form one-dimensional zigzag chains along the c axis, with Co—O distances in the range 2.104 (4–2.135 (4 Å. The average Co—N distance is 2.171 Å. A classical O—H...N hydrogen bond is formed by the coordinating water molecule and the pyridine solvent molecule. The structure was refined from a racemically twinned crystal with a twin ratio of approximately 8:1.

  13. 2,4,6-Tribromophenol Interferes with the Thyroid Hormone System by Regulating Thyroid Hormones and the Responsible Genes in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongoh; Ahn, Changhwan; Hong, Eui-Ju; An, Beum-Soo; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2016-07-12

    2,4,6-Tribromophenol (TBP) is a brominated flame retardant (BFR). Based on its affinity for transthyretin, TBP could compete with endogenous thyroid hormone. In this study, the effects of TBP on the thyroid hormone system were assessed in mice. Briefly, animals were exposed to 40 and 250 mg/kg TBP. Thyroid hormones were also administered with or without TBP. When mice were treated with TBP, deiodinase 1 (Dio1) and thyroid hormone receptor β isoform 2 (Thrβ2) decreased in the pituitary gland. The levels of deiodinase 2 (Dio2) and growth hormone (Gh) mRNA increased in response to 250 mg/kg of TBP, and the relative mRNA level of thyroid stimulating hormone β (Tshβ) increased in the pituitary gland. Dio1 and Thrβ1 expression in the liver were not altered, while Dio1 decreased in response to co-treatment with thyroid hormones. The thyroid gland activity decreased in response to TBP, as did the levels of free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine in serum. Taken together, these findings indicate that TBP can disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis and the presence of TBP influenced thyroid actions as regulators of gene expression. These data suggest that TBP interferes with thyroid hormone systems.

  14. Stand-off imaging Raman spectroscopy for forensic analysis of post-blast scenes: trace detection of ammonium nitrate and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceco, Ema; Önnerud, Hans; Menning, Dennis; Gilljam, John L.; Bââth, Petra; Östmark, Henric

    2014-05-01

    The following paper presents a realistic forensic capability test of an imaging Raman spectroscopy based demonstrator system, developed at FOI, the Swedish Defence Research Agency. The system uses a 532 nm laser to irradiate a surface of 25×25mm. The backscattered radiation from the surface is collected by an 8" telescope with subsequent optical system, and is finally imaged onto an ICCD camera. We present here an explosives trace analysis study of samples collected from a realistic scenario after a detonation. A left-behind 5 kg IED, based on ammonium nitrate with a TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) booster, was detonated in a plastic garbage bin. Aluminum sample plates were mounted vertically on a holder approximately 6 m from the point of detonation. Minutes after the detonation, the samples were analyzed with stand-off imaging Raman spectroscopy from a distance of 10 m. Trace amounts could be detected from the secondary explosive (ammonium nitrate with an analysis time of 1 min. Measurement results also indicated detection of residues from the booster (TNT). The sample plates were subsequently swabbed and analyzed with HPLC and GC-MS analyses to confirm the results from the stand-off imaging Raman system. The presented findings indicate that it is possible to determine the type of explosive used in an IED from a distance, within minutes after the attack, and without tampering with physical evidence at the crime scene.

  15. Ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry studies of ion processes in air at atmospheric pressure and their application to thermal desorption of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Martin; Malásková, Michaela; Matejčík, Štefan

    2014-02-01

    In this study we have investigated the negative reactant ion formation in a negative corona discharge (CD) using the corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight (CD-IMS-oaTOF) technique. The reactant ions were formed in the CD operating in the reverse gas flow mode at an elevated temperature of 363.5 K in synthetic and ambient air. Under these conditions mainly O_{2}^{-} and their clusters were formed. We have also studied the influence of CCl4 admixture to air (dopant gas) on the composition of the reactant ions, which resulted in the formation of Cl- and its clusters with a reduced ion mobility of 3.05 cm2 V-1 s-1 as a major reactant ion peak. Additional IMS peaks with reduced ion mobilities of 2.49, 2.25 and 2.03 cm2 V-1 s-1 were detected, and Cl- · (NO2) and Cl- · (NO)n(n = 2, 3) anions were identified. The negative reactant ions were used to detect 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT) using the thermal desorption (TD) technique using a CD-IMS instrument. Using TD sampling and a negative CD ion source doped by CCl4 we have achieved a limit of detection of 350 pg for direct surface analysis of TNT.

  16. Development of a microwave assisted extraction method for the analysis of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in cork stoppers by SIDA-SBSE-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestner, Jochen; Fritsch, Stefanie; Rauhut, Doris

    2010-02-15

    The aim of this research work was focused on the replacement of the time-consuming soaking of cork stoppers which is mainly used as screening method for cork lots in connection with sensory analysis and/or analytical methods to detect releasable 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) of natural cork stoppers. Releasable TCA from whole cork stoppers was analysed with the application of a microwave assisted extraction method (MAE) in combination with stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). The soaking of corks (SOAK) was used as a reference method to optimise MAE parameters. Cork lots of different quality and TCA contamination levels were used to adapt MAE. Pre-tests indicated that an MAE at 40 degrees C for 120 min with 90 min of cooling time are suitable conditions to avoid an over-extraction of TCA of low and medium tainted cork stoppers in comparison to SOAK. These MAE parameters allow the measuring of almost the same amounts of releasable TCA as with the application of the soaking procedure in the relevant range (SIDA) was applied to optimise quantification of the released TCA with deuterium-labelled TCA (TCA-d(5)) using a time-saving GC-MS technique in single ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The developed MAE method allows the measuring of releasable TCA from the whole cork stopper under improved conditions and in connection with a low use of solvent and a higher sample throughput.

  17. Quasi-monoenergetic neutron energy spectra for 246 and 389 MeV (7)Li(p,n) reactions at angles from 0 degrees to 300 degrees

    CERN Document Server

    Iwamoto, Y; Nakamura, T; Nakashima, H; Mares, V; Itoga, T; Matsumoto, T; Nakane, Y; Feldbaumer, E; Jaegerhofer, L; Pioch, C; Tamii, A; Satoh, D; Masuda, A; Sato, T; Iwase, H; Yashima, H; Nishiyama, J; Hagiwara, M; Hatanaka, K; Sakamoto, Y

    2011-01-01

    The authors measured the neutron energy spectra of a quasi-monoenergetic (7)Li(p,n) neutron source with 246 and 389 MeV protons set at seven angles (0 degrees, 2.5 degrees, 5 degrees, 10 degrees, 15 degrees, 20 degrees and 30 degrees), using a time-of-flight (TOF) method employing organic scintillators NE213 at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) of Osaka University. The energy spectra of the source neutrons were precisely deduced down to 2 MeV at 0 degrees and 10 MeV at other angles. The cross-sections of the peak neutron production reaction at 0 degrees were on the 35-40 mb line of other experimental data, and the peak neutron angular distribution agreed well with the Taddeucci formula. Neutron energy spectra below 100 MeV at all angles were comparable, but the shapes of the continuum above 150 MeV changed considerably with the angle. In order to consider the correction required to derive the response in the peak region from the measured total response for high-energy neutron monitors such as DAR...

  18. A New Indirect Spectrofluorimetric Method for Determination of Ascorbic Acid with 2,4,6-Tripyridyl-S-Triazine in Pharmaceutical Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Klepo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid (AA is a water-soluble vitamin which shows no fluorescence. However, in reaction with iron(III, AA is oxidised to dehydroascorbic acid and iron(III is reduced to iron(II which forms a complex with 2,4,6-tripyridyl-S-triazine (TPTZ in buffered medium. The relative fluorescence intensity of the resulting Fe(TPTZ22+ complex can be measured at excitation and emission wavelengths of 393 and 790 nm, respectively. Based on this data, a new indirect spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of AA in pharmaceutical samples was proposed. Influence of the reaction conditions, such as acidity of acetic buffer, concentration of TPTZ and iron(III, reaction time and instrumental parameters were investigated in detail. The linear range was from 5.4 × 10−4 to 5.4 × 10−6 mol·L−1 (R = 0.9971. The LOD was 7.7 × 10−7 mol·L−1 and LOQ was 2.3 × 10−4 mol·L−1. Fourteen pharmaceutical samples containing various amounts of AA were analysed. Influences of potential interfering substances were also examined. Analysis of commercial pharmaceutical formulations showed good correlation with the nominal values given by the manufacturers and with the results obtained by a titration method. The proposed method can be applied in routine quality control in the pharmaceutical industry due to its sensitivity, simplicity, selectivity and low cost.

  19. Accurate determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in wines at low parts per trillion by solid-phase microextraction followed by GC-ECD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzaga, Roberto; Ortiz, Laura; Sánchez-Baeza, Francisco; Marco, M-Pilar; Bayona, Josep Maria

    2003-06-01

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure at 30 degrees C with a 100 microm PDMS fiber of a saturated NaCl solution stirred at 1100 rpm combined to GC-ECD for the 2,4,6-trichloroanisol (TCA) determination in wines has been developed. Due to the matrix complexity and ethanol absorption into the fiber, the internal standard selection was crucial to obtain unbiased results. Thus, matrix effects were observed when analyzing different types of Spanish wines (white, early, and vintage red wines) spiked with TCA at low concentration levels (i.e., wine within 2.9-18 ng L(-)(1), with a relative standard deviation of 2.5-13.4%, depending on the TCA concentration level and wine characteristics. This analytical method is comparable to the existing methodologies based on HS-SPME followed by GC-MS in terms of accuracy, precision, length of determination, and length of quantification; however, analysis cost is reduced.

  20. Mechanisms and Kinetics of Alkaline Hydrolysis of the Energetic Nitroaromatic Compounds 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salter-Blanc, Alexandra J.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Ritchie, Julia J.; Tratnyek, Paul G.

    2013-07-02

    The environmental impacts of energetic compounds can be minimized through the design and selection of new energetic materials with favorable fate properties. Building predictive models to inform this process, however, is difficult because of uncertainties and complexities in some major fate-determining transformation reactions such as the alkaline hydrolysis of energetic nitroaromatic compounds (NACs). Prior work on the mechanisms of the reaction between NACs and OH– has yielded inconsistent results. In this study, the alkaline hydrolysis of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) was investigated with coordinated experimental kinetic measurements and molecular modeling calculations. For TNT, the results suggest reversible formation of an initial product, which is likely either a Meisenheimer complex or a TNT anion formed by abstraction of a methyl proton by OH–. For DNAN, the results suggest that a Meisenheimer complex is an intermediate in the formation of 2,4-dinitrophenolate. Despite these advances, the remaining uncertainties in the mechanisms of these reactions—and potential variability between the hydrolysis mechanisms for different NACs—mean that it is not yet possible to generalize the results into predictive models (e.g., quantitative structure–activity relationships, QSARs) for hydrolysis of other NACs.

  1. Synthesis, Structure and Quantum Chemical Study on the Organotin Complex [Di(2,4,6-trichlorobenzyl)]tin Bis(quinoline-2-formate)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The title compound was prepared by the reaction of di(2,4,6-trichlorobenzyl) stannic chloride with quinoline-2-formate and characterized with elemental analysis, 1H NMR, IR and X-ray diffraction methods. It crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/n with a = 1.3138(3), b = 1.8756(4), c = 1.4599(3) nm, β = 92.731(3)°, V = 3.5933(12) nm3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.795 g/cm3, μ(MoKα) = 1.425 mm-1, F(000) = 1920, R = 0.0778, wR = 0.2286 (for I > 2σ(I)) and R = 0.0932, wR = 0.2415 (for all data). The independent reflections were 6359, among which 5030 were observed (I > 2σ(I)) and used in the succeeding refinement. Structural analysis indicates that Sn is in a distorted octahedral coordination environment, and a three-dimensional network could be observed via intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Finally, the stability, frontier orbital composition and energy of the title compound were discussed with Lanl2dz basis set and G98W program.

  2. Retention of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and heavy metals from industrial waste water by using the low cost adsorbent pine bark in a batch experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehrenheim, E; Odlare, M; Allard, B

    2011-01-01

    Pine bark is a low cost sorbent originating from the forest industry. In recent years, it has been found to show promise as an adsorbent for metals and organic substances in contaminated water, especially landfill leachates and storm water. This study aims to investigate if pine bark can replace commercial adsorbents such as active carbon. An industrial effluent, collected from a treatment plant of a demilitarization factory, was diluted to form concentration ranges of contaminants and shaken with pine bark for 24 hours. Metals (e.g. Pb, Zn, Cd, As and Ni) and explosives, e.g., 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), were analysed before and after treatment. The aim of the experiment was twofold; firstly, it was to investigate whether metals are efficiently removed in the presence of explosives and secondly, if adsorption of explosive substances to pine bark was possible. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to describe the adsorption process where this was possible. It was found that metal uptake was possible in the presence of TNT and other explosive contaminants. The uptake of TNT was satisfactory with up to 80% of the TNT adsorbed by pine bark.

  3. A new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-based electrochemical sensor for monitoring 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in natural waters and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Taher; Zare, Mashaalah; Ganjali, Mohamad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz; Tavana, Babak

    2010-01-15

    A high selective voltammetric sensor for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was introduced. TNT selective MIP and non-imprinted polymer (NIP) were synthesized and then used for carbon paste (CP) electrode preparation. The MIP, incorporated in the carbon paste electrode, functioned as selectively recognition element and pre-concentrator agent for TNT determination. The prepared electrode was used for TNT measurement by the three steps procedure, including analyte extraction in the electrode, electrode washing and electrochemical measurement of TNT. The MIP-CP electrode showed very high recognition ability in comparison to NIP-CP. It was shown that electrode washing after TNT extraction led to enhanced selectivity. The response of square wave voltammetry for TNT determination by proposed electrode was higher than that of differential pulse voltammetry. Some parameters affecting sensor response were optimized and then a calibration curve plotted. A dynamic linear range of 5x10(-9) to 1x10(-6) mol l(-1) was obtained. The detection limit of the sensor was calculated equal to 1.5x10(-9) mol l(-1). This sensor was used successfully for TNT determination in different water and soil samples.

  4. Preconcentration of Co, Ni, Cd and Zn on naphthalene–2,4,6-trimorpholino-1,3,5-triazin adsorbent and flame atomic absorption determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAYYEBEH MADRAKIAN

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A preconcentration method was developed for the determination of trace amounts of Co, Ni, Cd and Zn by atomic absorption spectrometry. The method is based on the retention of the metal cations by naphthalene–2,4,6-trimorpholino-1,3,5-triazin adsorbent in a column. The adsorbed metals were then eluted from the column with hydrochloric acid and the Co, Ni, Cd and Zn were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimal extraction and elution conditions were studied. The effects of diverse ions on the preconcentration were also investigated. A preconcentration factor of 250 for Co(II, Ni(II and Zn(II, and 400 for Cd(II can easily be achieved. Calibration graphs were obtained and the detection limits of the method for Co(II, Ni(II, Cd(II and Zn(II were 0.51, 0.49, 0.17 and 0.10 ng mL-1, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD of 0.37–2.31 % for Co, 0.37–3.73 % for Ni, 2.20–2.40 % for Cd and 1.50–2.56 % for Zn were obtained. The method was also used for the simultaneous preconcentration of these elements and the method was successfully applied to their preconcentration and determination. The method was applied to the determination of Co, Ni, Cd and Zn in several real samples.

  5. Assembly of lipophilic tetranuclear (Cu4 and Zn4) molecular metallophosphonates from 2,4,6-triisopropylphenylphosponic acid and pyrazole ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Sasikumar, Palani; Boomishankar, Ramamoorthy; Anantharaman, Ganapathi

    2006-04-17

    A sterically hindered aryl phosphonic acid ArP(O)(OH)2 (2) (Ar = 2,4,6-isopropylphenyl) was synthesized and structurally characterized. ArP(O)(OH)2 forms an interesting hydrogen-bonded corrugated sheet-type supramolecular structure in the solid-state. A three-component reaction involving ArP(O)(OH)2, 3,5-dimethylpyrazole(DMPZH), and Cu(CH3COO)2.H2O produces the tetranuclear Cu(II) compound [Cu4(mu3-OH)2{ArPO2(OH)}2(CH3CO2)2(DMPZH)4][CH3COO]2.CH2Cl2 (3). A similar three-component reaction involving ArP(O)(OH)2, 3,5-dimethylpyrazole, and Zn(CH3COO)2.2H2O yields the tetranuclear Zn(II) compound [Zn4{ArPO3}2{ArPO2(OH)}2{DMPZH}4(DMPZ)2].5MeOH (4). While 3 has been found to have an asymmetric cage structure where two dinuclear copper cores are bridged by bidentate [ArPO2(OH)]- ligands, 4 possesses an open-book tricyclic structure composed of three fused metallophosphonate rings. Magnetic studies on 3 revealed antiferromagnetic behavior.

  6. Crystal structure of diaquabis(N,N-diethylnicotinamide-κN1bis(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoato-κO1cobalt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin Şefiye Aşkın

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The centrosymmetric molecule in the monomeric title cobalt complex, [Co(C10H11O22(C10H14N2O2(H2O2], contains two water molecules, two 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoate (TMB ligands and two diethylnicotinamide (DENA ligands. All ligands coordinate to the CoII atom in a monodentate fashion. The four O atoms around the CoII atom form a slightly distorted square-planar arrangement, with the distorted octahedral coordination sphere completed by two pyridine N atoms of the DENA ligands. The dihedral angle between the planar carboxylate group and the adjacent benzene ring is 84.2 (4°, while the benzene and pyridine rings are oriented at a dihedral angle of 38.87 (10°. The water molecules exhibit both intramolecular (to the non-coordinating carboxylate O atom and intermolecular (to the amide carbonyl O atom O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The latter lead to the formation of layers parallel to (100, enclosing R44(32 ring motifs. These layers are further linked via weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds, resulting in a three-dimensional network. One of the two ethyl groups of the DENA ligand is disordered over two sets of sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.490 (13:0.510 (13.

  7. The anti-inflammatory potential of phenolic compounds in grape juice concentrate (G8000™) on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiotti, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Neto, Ricardo Artigiani; Marchi, Patrícia; Silva, Roseane Mendes; Pazine, Vanessa Lima; Noguti, Juliana; Pastrelo, Mauricio Mercaldi; Gollücke, Andréa Pittelli Boiago; Miszputen, Sender Jankiel; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2013-09-28

    Chronic inflammatory bowel disease is characterised by an up-regulation of the synthesis and release of a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators leading to excessive tissue injury. Flavonoids are able to inhibit enzymes and/or due to their antioxidant properties regulate the immune response. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds present in grape juice on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. A total of forty-one male Wistar rats were randomised into seven groups: negative control group; TNBS non-treated induced colitis; 2% grape juice control group; 1% grape juice 24 h after TNBS colitis induction; 1% grape juice on day 7 after colitis induction; 2% grape juice 24 h after colitis induction; 2% grape juice on day 7 after colitis induction. The 1% grape juice-treated induced colitis group showed marked clinical improvement when compared with the TNBS-induced colitis group. Rats that received 1% grape juice, on day 7 after colitis induction, presented reduced intensity of macroscopic and histological scores. Statistically significant differences (P,0·05) of TNF-a and inducible NO synthase mRNA expression were detected in the groups treated with grape juice at the 1% dose after inducing experimental colitis when compared with the TNBS group. Grape juice reduced the noxious effects induced by colitis caused by TNBS, especially at the 1% dose.

  8. Adsorption isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamics and desorption studies of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol on oil palm empty fruit bunch-based activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, I.A.W.; Ahmad, A.L. [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Hameed, B.H., E-mail: chbassim@eng.usm.my [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-05-30

    The adsorption characteristics of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) on activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) were evaluated. The effects of TCP initial concentration, agitation time, solution pH and temperature on TCP adsorption were investigated. TCP adsorption uptake was found to increase with increase in initial concentration, agitation time and solution temperature whereas adsorption of TCP was more favourable at acidic pH. The adsorption equilibrium data were best represented by the Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The mechanism of the adsorption process was determined from the intraparticle diffusion model. Boyd plot revealed that the adsorption of TCP on the activated carbon was mainly governed by particle diffusion. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}), standard entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}), standard free energy ({Delta}G{sup o}) and activation energy were determined. The regeneration efficiency of the spent activated carbon was high, with TCP desorption of 99.6%.

  9. Adsorption isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamics and desorption studies of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol on oil palm empty fruit bunch-based activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, I A W; Ahmad, A L; Hameed, B H

    2009-05-30

    The adsorption characteristics of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) on activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) were evaluated. The effects of TCP initial concentration, agitation time, solution pH and temperature on TCP adsorption were investigated. TCP adsorption uptake was found to increase with increase in initial concentration, agitation time and solution temperature whereas adsorption of TCP was more favourable at acidic pH. The adsorption equilibrium data were best represented by the Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The mechanism of the adsorption process was determined from the intraparticle diffusion model. Boyd plot revealed that the adsorption of TCP on the activated carbon was mainly governed by particle diffusion. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard enthalpy (DeltaH degrees ), standard entropy (DeltaS degrees ), standard free energy (DeltaG degrees ) and activation energy were determined. The regeneration efficiency of the spent activated carbon was high, with TCP desorption of 99.6%.

  10. Crystal Structure and Thermal Behavior of Rubidium 3,5-dihydroxy-2,4,6-trinitrophenolate%3,5-二羟基-2,4,6-三硝基苯酚铷的晶体结构和热行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红艳; 张同来; 乔小晶; 杨利; 张建国; 郁开北

    2006-01-01

    A novel energetic coordination compound, rubidium 3,5-dihydroxy-2,4,6-trinitrophenolate ([Rb(DHTNP)]n),has been synthesized by reaction of trinitrophloroglueinol with Rb2CO3 in aqueous solution. Its crystal structure has been determined. The crystal belongs to monoclinic system with space group C2/c. In the crystal the Rb cation is coordinated to ten oxygen atoms from seven different DHTNP- anions to form an irregular polyhedron.Two independent molecule geometry structures are found for DHTNP- anion in the complex, which differ in benzene ring and their pattern of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The DHTNP- anion chains are interlaced with rubidium atoms as knots, and a three-dimensional infinite net structure is formed via coordination and hydrogen bonding. The hydrogen bond and cation-anion interactions are the predominant driving forces in the crystal packing. The thermal property of title complex was studied by using DSC and TG-DTG techniques. CCDC: 290623.

  11. 活血止痛汤加减治疗腰椎间盘突出症246例疗效观察%Clinical Observation on the Treatment of 246 Cases of Rupture Syndrome of the Fibrous Rings of the Lumbar Inter- vertebral Disc by Promoting Blood and Stopping Pain Decoction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾伟明

    2005-01-01

    目的:评价活血止痛汤加减治疗腰椎间盘突出症的临床疗效.方法:运用活血止痛汤加减治疗腰间盘突出症246例,并观察其近远期疗效.结果:治愈率为81.7%,治疗后随访10~12个月,无1例复发.部分复查CT/MRI对照,病例均显示有影像学不同改善.结论:提示活血止痛汤加减作为专方治疗腰间盘突出症可取得满意的疗效.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of acrylate-bridged dinuclear copper complex and acetate and 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine copper complex%Cu(Ⅱ))的丙烯酸桥联双核配合物及醋酸、2,4,6-三甲基吡啶三元配合物的合成与表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱永; 王建军

    2012-01-01

    在温和条件下合成了Cu(Ⅱ)的丙烯酸双核配合物[Cu2(C3H3O2)4].H2O和醋酸、2,4,6-三甲基吡啶三元配合物[Cu(C2H3O2)2(C8H11N)2]。通过元素分析、红外光谱、紫外光谱和核磁测试表征了该两种配合物的组成和结构,并用溶解度、电导率测试等物理化学手段对配合物的物理化学性质进行了初步研究。%The acrylate-bridged dinuclear copper complex [Cu2(C3H3O2)4]·H2O and acetate and 2,4,6-Trimethylpyridine copper complex [Cu(C2H3O2)2(C8H11N)2] were synthesized under tender conditions in this paper.The elemental components and structures of the two complexes were characterized and confirmed by elemental analyses,FT-IR,UV-Vis and 1H NMR.And the primary investigation on the physical and chemical characteristics of the two complexes has been carried out through some physical and chemical methods such as the solubility and molar conductivity in this work.

  13. 高含水层段堵水技术--以高升油田高246块底水油藏为例%WATER SHUT TECHNOLOGY OF HIGH WATER BEARING SECTION ILLUSTRATED BY NO.246 BOTTOM WATER RESERVOIR OF GAOSHENG OIL FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鼎一

    2015-01-01

    The paper confirm the stepping water shut technology of high water reservoir section according to the research on waterexit features of No.246 lateral well, accompany with the deposit section and oil property, waterexit quality and section as well as the production conditons. The shutting materials and afflux technics are the most important process for water shutting technology.The liquid bridge plug with chemical airproof materials and abio-agent are successfully used in the shutting examination. Water shutting manner and agent dosage are confirmed durling well logging explain and liquid profile test.%通过对高246块水平井出水特点的研究,结合水平井储层物性、原油性质、出水水质、出水井段及生产情况,确定了高含水层段分段堵水工艺。堵水的关键技术是封堵材料和注入工艺。根据现有的堵水材料,进行筛选、复配和改性,试验成功了液体桥塞、化学封隔材料和无机堵水剂。利用测井解释和产液剖面测试结果,制定了堵水方式和堵剂的用量。并成功应用于现场,取得了明显的增油效果。

  14. Self-assembly of novel supramolecular silver(I) compound based on mixed ligands bipy/TST3- H3TST=2,4,6-tris (4-sulfophenylamino)-1,3,5-triazine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Yunfang; Wei, Yongqin; Broer, Ria; Wu, Kechen

    2007-01-01

    The novel supramolecular silver(I) compound with formula [Ag-6(TST)(2)(bipy)(6)(H2O)(2)](n) center dot 3nH(2)O (1) based on assembly of Ag(I) and mixed ligand bipy/TST3-, bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine, H3TST = 2,4,6-tris(4-sulfophenylamino)-1,3,5-triazine, has been prepared by hydrothermal method. In the s

  15. Simultaneous dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on a low-density solvent and derivatization followed by gas chromatography for the simultaneous determination of chloroanisoles and the precursor 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiuzhi; Zhang, Ting; Li, Haipu; Yang, Zhaoguang

    2016-06-01

    Chloroanisoles, particularly 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, are commonly identified as major taste and odor compounds in water. In the present study, a simple and efficient method was established for the simultaneous determination of chloroanisoles and the precursor 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in water by using low-density-solvent-based simultaneous dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and derivatization followed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. 2,4-Dichloroanisole, 2,6-dichloroanisole, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, 2,3,4-trichloroanisole, and 2,3,6-trichloroanisole were the chloroanisoles evaluated. Several important parameters of the extraction-derivatization procedures, including the types and volumes of extraction solvent and disperser solvent, concentrations of derivatization agent and base, salt addition, extraction-derivatization time, and temperature were optimized. Under the optimized conditions (80 μL of isooctane as extraction solvent, 500 μL of methanol as disperser solvent, 60 μL of acetic anhydride as derivatization agent, 0.75% of Na2 CO3 addition w/v, extraction-derivatization temperature of 25°C, without salt addition), a good linearity of the calibration curve was observed by the square of correlation coefficients (R(2) ) ranging from 0.9936 to 0.9992. Repeatability and reproducibility of the method were < 4.5% and <7.3%, respectively. Recovery rates ranged from 85.2 to 101.4%, and limits of detection ranged from 3.0 to 8.7 ng/L. The proposed method was applied successfully for the determination of chloroanisoles and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in water samples.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of -phosphorylated thioureas RNHC(S)NHP(O)(OPr)2 (R = 2-MeC6H4, 2,6-Me2C6H3, 2,4,6-Me3C6H2)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Damir A Safin; Maria G Babashkina; Michael Bolte; Axel Klein

    2010-05-01

    Reaction of O,O'-diisopropylphosphoric acid isothiocyanate (PrO)2P(O)NCS with 2-methylaniline 2-MeC6H4NH2, 2,6-dimethylaniline 2,6-Me2C6H3NH2 or 2,4,6-trimethylaniline 2,4,6-Me3C6H2NH2 leads to the -phosphorylated thioureas RNHC(S)NHP(O)(OPr)2 (R = 2-MeC6H4-, HLI; 2,6-Me2C6H3-, HLII; 2,4,6-Me3C6H2-, HLIII). The new compounds were investigated by 1H and 31P{1H} NMR spectroscopy, and microanalysis. The molecular structure of the thiourea HLIII was elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed HLIII forms both intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds, which in turn leads to the formation of polymeric chains. One of the intermolecular hydrogen bonds is of the type N-H$\\cdots$S. Moreover, the formation of intermolecular C-H$\\cdots$ 6 -phenyl interactions was established.

  17. 1,3,5-Triferrocenyl-2,4,6-tris(ethynylferrocenyl)-benzene--a new member of the family of multiferrocenyl-functionalized cyclic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Ulrike; Filipczyk, Grzegorz; Hildebrandt, Alexander; Korb, Marcus; Lang, Heinrich

    2014-11-21

    The consecutive synthesis of 1,3,5-triferrocenyl-2,4,6-tris(ethynylferrocenyl)benzene (6c) is described using 1,3,5-Cl3-2,4,6-I3-C6 (2) as starting compound. Subsequent Sonogashira C,C cross-coupling of 2 with FcC≡CH (3) in the molar ratio of 1:4 afforded solely 1,3,5-Cl3-2,4,6-(FcC≡C)3-C6 (4c) (Fc = Fe(η(5)-C5H4)(η(5)-C5H5)). However, when 2 is reacted with 3 in a 1:3 ratio a mixture of 1,3,5-Cl3-2-(FcC≡C)-4,6-I2-C6 (4a) and 1,3,5-Cl3-2,4-(FcC≡C)2-6-I-C6 (4b) is obtained. Negishi C,C cross-coupling of 4c with FcZnCl (5) in the presence of catalytic amounts of [Pd(CH2C(CH3)2P(tC4H9)2)(μ-Cl)]2 gave 1,3-Cl2-5-Fc-2,4,6-(FcC≡C)3-C6 (6a), 1-Cl-3,5-Fc2-2,4,6-(FcC≡C)3-C6 (6b) and 1,3,5-Fc3-2,4,6-(FcC≡C)3-C6 (6c) of which 6b is the main product. Column chromatography allowed the separation of these organometallic species. The structures of 4a,b and 6a in the solid state were determined by single crystal X-ray diffractometry showing a π–π interacting dimer (4b) and a complex π–π pattern for 6a. The electrochemical properties of 4a–c and 6a–c were studied by cyclic voltammetry (=CV) and square wave voltammetry (=SWV). It was found that the FcC≡C-substituted benzenes 4a–c show only one reversible redox event, indicating a simultaneous oxidation of all ferrocenyl units, whereby 4c is most difficult to oxidise (4a, E°′1 = 190, ΔEp = 71; 4b, E°′1 = 195, ΔEp = 59; 4c, E°′1 = 390, ΔEp = 59 mV). In case of 4c, the oxidation states 4c(n+) (n = 2, 3) are destabilised by the partial negative charge of the electronegative chlorine atoms, which compensates the repulsive electrostatic Fc+–Fc+ interactions with attractive electrostatic Fc+–Cl(δ−) interactions. When ferrocenyl units are directly attached to the benzene C6 core, organometallic 6a shows three, 6b five and 6c six separated reversible waves highlighting that the Fc units can separately be oxidised. UV-Vis/NIR spectroscopy allowed to determine IVCT absorptions (=Inter Valence

  18. Influence of Halogen Substituents on the Catalytic Oxidation of 2,4,6-Halogenated Phenols by Fe(III-Tetrakis(p-hydroxyphenyl porphyrins and Potassium Monopersulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiya Nagao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of halogen substituents on the catalytic oxidation of 2,4,6-trihalogenated phenols (TrXPs by iron(III-porphyrin/KHSO5 catalytic systems was investigated. Iron(III-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(p-hydroxyphenylporphyrin (FeTHP and its supported variants were employed, where the supported catalysts were synthesized by introducing FeTHP into hydroquinone-derived humic acids via formaldehyde poly-condensation. F (TrFP, Cl (TrCP, Br (TrBP and I (TrIP were examined as halogen substituents for TrXPs. Although the supported catalysts significantly enhanced the degradation and dehalogenation of TrFP and TrCP, the oxidation of TrBP and TrIP was not enhanced, compared to the FeTHP catalytic system. These results indicate that the degree of oxidation of TrXPs is strongly dependent on the types of halogen substituent. The order of dehalogenation levels for halogen substituents in TrXPs was F > Cl > Br > I, consistent with their order of electronegativity. The electronegativity of a halogen substituent affects the nucleophilicity of the carbon to which it is attached. The levels of oxidation products in the reaction mixtures were analyzed by GC/MS after extraction with n-hexane. The most abundant dimer product from TrFP via 2,6-difluoroquinone is consistent with a scenario where TrXP, with a more electronegative halogen substituent, is readily oxidized, while less electronegative halogen substituents are oxidized less readily by iron(III-porphyrin/KHSO5 catalytic systems.

  19. Development of a microwave assisted extraction method for the analysis of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in cork stoppers by SIDA-SBSE-GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestner, Jochen [Forschungsanstalt Geisenheim, Fachgebiet Mikrobiologie und Biochemie, Von-Lade-Strasse 1, D-65366 Geisenheim (Germany); Hochschule RheinMain, Fachbereich Geisenheim, Von-Lade-Strasse 1, D-65366 Geisenheim (Germany); Fritsch, Stefanie [Forschungsanstalt Geisenheim, Fachgebiet Mikrobiologie und Biochemie, Von-Lade-Strasse 1, D-65366 Geisenheim (Germany); Rauhut, Doris, E-mail: doris.rauhut@fa-gm.de [Forschungsanstalt Geisenheim, Fachgebiet Mikrobiologie und Biochemie, Von-Lade-Strasse 1, D-65366 Geisenheim (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    The aim of this research work was focused on the replacement of the time-consuming soaking of cork stoppers which is mainly used as screening method for cork lots in connection with sensory analysis and/or analytical methods to detect releasable 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) of natural cork stoppers. Releasable TCA from whole cork stoppers was analysed with the application of a microwave assisted extraction method (MAE) in combination with stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). The soaking of corks (SOAK) was used as a reference method to optimise MAE parameters. Cork lots of different quality and TCA contamination levels were used to adapt MAE. Pre-tests indicated that an MAE at 40 deg. C for 120 min with 90 min of cooling time are suitable conditions to avoid an over-extraction of TCA of low and medium tainted cork stoppers in comparison to SOAK. These MAE parameters allow the measuring of almost the same amounts of releasable TCA as with the application of the soaking procedure in the relevant range (<25 ng L{sup -1} releasable TCA from one cork) to evaluate the TCA level of cork stoppers. Stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) was applied to optimise quantification of the released TCA with deuterium-labelled TCA (TCA-d{sub 5}) using a time-saving GC-MS technique in single ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The developed MAE method allows the measuring of releasable TCA from the whole cork stopper under improved conditions and in connection with a low use of solvent and a higher sample throughput.

  20. Highly sensitive determination of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and related byproducts using a diol functionalized column for high performance liquid chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Gumuscu

    Full Text Available In this work, a new detection method for complete separation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT; 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT; 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT; 2-aminodinitrotoluene (2-ADNT and 4-aminodinitrotoluene (4-ADNT molecules in high-performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC with UV sensor has been developed using diol column. This approach improves on cost, time, and sensitivity over the existing methods, providing a simple and effective alternative. Total analysis time was less than 13 minutes including column re-equilibration between runs, in which water and acetonitrile were used as gradient elution solvents. Under optimized conditions, the minimum resolution between 2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT peaks was 2.06. The recovery rates for spiked environmental samples were between 95-98%. The detection limits for diol column ranged from 0.78 to 1.17 µg/L for TNT and its byproducts. While the solvent consumption was 26.4 mL/min for two-phase EPA and 30 mL/min for EPA 8330 methods, it was only 8.8 mL/min for diol column. The resolution was improved up to 49% respect to two-phase EPA and EPA 8330 methods. When compared to C-18 and phenyl-3 columns, solvent usage was reduced up to 64% using diol column and resolution was enhanced approximately two-fold. The sensitivity of diol column was afforded by the hydroxyl groups on polyol layer, joining the formation of charge-transfer complexes with nitroaromatic compounds according to acceptor-donor interactions. Having compliance with current requirements, the proposed method demonstrates sensitive and robust separation.

  1. St. John's wort may ameliorate 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid colitis off rats through the induction of pregnane X receptors and/or P-glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehirli, A O; Cetinel, S; Ozkan, N; Selman, S; Tetik, S; Yuksel, M; Dulger, F G A

    2015-04-01

    It is reported that deficiencies of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the latter of which is encoded by the MDR1 gene, are important factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is also known that the activation of PXR is protective of IBD due to the mutual repression between PXR and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) expression and because NF-κB was reported to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. The goal of this study was to investigate whether St. John's wort (SJW) and spironolactone (SPL), both known to have strong inducing effects on cytochrome P 450 (CYP) enzymes as well as PXR and P-gp, have ameliorating effects on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis of rats through induction of PXR and/or P-gp. Wistar albino rats (250 - 300 g) were divided into control and TNBS-colitis groups. Each group was then divided into a) control (saline), b) SJW (300 mg/kg p.o. bid), and c) SPL (80 mg/kg p.o.) groups. Drugs were given for 7 days. Both treatments ameliorated the clinical hallmarks of colitis, as determined by body weight loss and assessment of diarrhea, colon length, and bowel histology. Plasma levels of NF-κB, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the oxidative stress markers that increased during colitis, decreased significantly after both treatments. The PXR and P-gp expression in the intestinal tissues was diminished in the colitis group but increased after drug treatments. Both drugs appeared to have significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and ameliorated the TNBS colitis of the rats, most likely through their PXR- and P-gp-inducing properties.

  2. Computational Investigation and Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange of the Fixed Charge Derivative Tris(2,4,6-Trimethoxyphenyl)Phosphonium: Implications for the Aspartic Acid Cleavage Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Kristin A.; Wysocki, Vicki H.; Vorpagel, Erich R.

    2005-05-25

    Aspartic acid (Asp)-containing peptides with the fixed charge derivative tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl) phosphonium (tTMP-P+) were explored computationally and experimentally by H/D exchange and fragmentation studies in order to probe the phenomenon of selective cleavage C-terminal to Asp in the absence of a ''mobile'' proton. Ab initio modeling of the tTMP-P+ electrostatic potential demonstrates the positive charge is distributed on the phosphonium group and therefore is not initiating or directing fragmentation as would a ''mobile'' proton. Geometry optimizations and vibrational analyses of different aspartic acid conformations show the aspartic acid structure with a hydrogen bond between the side chain hydroxy and backbone carbonyl lies 2.8 kcal/mol above the lowest energy conformer. In reactions with D2O, the phosphonium-derived doubly charged peptide (H+)P+LDIFSDF rapidly exchanges all 12 of its exchangeable hydrogens for deuterium and also displays a non-exchanging population. With no added proton, P+LDIFSDF exchanges a maximum of four of eleven exchangeable hydrogens for deuterium. No exchange is observed when all acidic groups are converted to the corresponding methyl esters. Together, these H/D exchange results indicate that the acidic hydrogens are ''mobile locally'' because they are able to participate in exchange even in the absence of an added proton. Fragmentation of two distinct (H+)P+LDIFSDF ion populations shows the non-exchanging population displays selective cleavage, while the exchanging population fragments more evenly across the peptide backbone. This result demonstrates that H/D exchange can sometimes distinguish between and provide a means of separation of different protonation motifs, and that these protonation motifs can have an effect on the fragmentation.

  3. Alkaline Hydrolysis/Polymerization of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene:  Characterization of Products by 13C and 15N NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Thorne, Philip G.; Cox, Larry G.

    2004-01-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis has been investigated as a nonbiological procedure for the destruction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in explosives contaminated soils and munitions scrap. Nucleophilic substitutions of the nitro and methyl groups of TNT by hydroxide ion are the initial steps in the alkaline degradation of TNT. Potential applications of the technique include both in situ surface liming and ex situ alkaline treatment of contaminated soils. A number of laboratory studies have reported the formation of an uncharacterized polymeric material upon prolonged treatment of TNT in base. As part of an overall assessment of alkaline hydrolysis as a remediation technique, and to gain a better understanding of the chemical reactions underlying the hydrolysis/polymerization process, the soluble and precipitate fractions of polymeric material produced from the calcium hydroxide hydrolysis of unlabeled and 15N-labeled TNT were analyzed by elemental analysis and 13C and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Spectra indicated that reactions leading to polymerization included nucleophilic displacement of nitro groups by hydroxide ion, formation of ketone, carboxyl, alcohol, ether, and other aliphatic carbons, conversion of methyl groups to diphenyl methylene carbons, and recondensation of aromatic amines and reduced forms of nitrite, including ammonia and possibly hydroxylamine, into the polymer. Compared to the distribution of carbons in TNT as 14% sp3- and 86% sp2-hybridized, the precipitate fraction from hydrolysis of unlabeled TNT contained 33% sp3- and 67% sp2-hybridized carbons. The concentration of nitrogen in the precipitate was 64% of that in TNT. The 15N NMR spectra showed that, in addition to residual nitro groups, forms of nitrogen present in the filtrate and precipitate fractions include aminohydroquinone, primary amide, indole, imine, and azoxy, among others. Unreacted nitrite was recovered in the filtrate fraction. The toxicities and susceptibilities to

  4. The problem of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in cork planks studied by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy: proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana R; Lopes, Luís F; Brito de Barros, Ricardo; Ilharco, Laura M

    2015-01-14

    Attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) proved to be a promising detection technique for 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA), which confers organoleptic defects to bottled alcoholic beverages, allowing the proposal of a criterion for cork plank acceptance when meant for stopper production. By analysis of a significant number of samples, it was proved that the presence of TCA, even in very low concentrations, imparts subtle changes to the cork spectra, namely, the growth of two new bands at ∼1417 (νC═C of TCA ring) and 1314 cm–1 (a shifted νCC of TCA) and an increase in the relative intensities of the bands at ∼1039 cm–1 (δCO of polysaccharides) and ∼813 cm–1 (τCH of suberin), the latter by overlapping with intense bands of TCA. These relative intensities were evaluated in comparison to a fingerprint of suberin (νasC–O–C), at 1161 cm–1. On the basis of those spectral variables, a multivariate statistics linear analysis (LDA) was performed to obtain a discriminant function that allows classifying the samples according to whether they contain or not TCA. The methodology proposed consists of a demanding acceptance criterion for cork planks destined for stopper production (with the guarantee of nonexistence of TCA) that results from combining the quantitative results with the absence of the two TCA correlated bands. ATR infrared spectroscopy is a nondestructive and easy to apply technique, both on cork planks and on stoppers, and has proven more restrictive than other techniques used in the cork industry that analyze the cleaning solutions. At the level of proof of concept, the method here proposed is appealing for high-value stopper applications.

  5. 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane-functionalized manganese doped ZnS quantum dots for room-temperature phosphorescence sensing ultratrace 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Qin; Zou, Wen-Sheng

    2011-07-15

    New strategies for silica coating of inorganic nanoparticles became a research hotspot for enhancing the mechanical stability of colloidal particles and protecting colloidal particles against oxidation and agglomeration, and so on. In this paper, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-functionalized Mn doped (AF MnD) ZnS QDs was prepared to be firsyly through the use of silane coupling agents to form an active layer of silica, then sol-gel reaction of TEOS co-deposited with APTES on the surface of resultant active layer of silica. The emitted long lifetime room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) of the resultant nanomaterials allows an appropriate delay time so that any fluorescent emission and scattering light can be easily avoided. The APTES anchored on the layer of silica can bind 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) species to form TNT anion through acid-base pairing interaction, the TNT anion species may increase the charge-transfer pathways from the nanocrystals to nitroaromatic analytes, therefore further enhance the quenching efficiency of RTP. Moreover, APTES as capped reagents can enlarge the spectral sensitivity and enhance RTP response of nanocrystals to the electron-deficient nitroaromatic and nitrophenol species. Meanwhile, AF MnD ZnS QDs also exhibited a highly selective response toward TNT analyte through significant color change and quenching of (4)T(1) to (6)A(1) transition emission. This AF MnD ZnS QDs based sensor showed a very good linearity in the range of 0.05-1.8μM with detection limit down to 50 nM (quenching percentage of phosphorescence intensity of 8%) and RSD of 3.5% (n=5). The reported QDs-based chemosensors here open up a promising prospect for the sensitive and convenient sensing of TNT explosive.

  6. Effects of sinomenine on the expression of microRNA-155 in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice.

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    Qiao Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sinomenine, a pure alkaloid isolated in Chinese medicine from the root of Sinomenium acutum, has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are gradually being recognized as critical mediators of disease pathogenesis via coordinated regulation of molecular effector pathways. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: After colitis was induced in mice by instillation of 5% (w/v 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS, sinomenine at a dose of 100 or 200 mg/kg was orally administered once daily for 7 days. We evaluated body weight, survival rate, diarrhea score, histological score and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity. The mRNA and protein expression levels of miR-155, c-Maf, TNF-α and IFN-γ were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Sinomenine (100 or 200 mg/kg-treated mice with TNBS-induced colitis were significantly improved in terms of body weight, survival rate, diarrhea score, histological score and MPO activity compared with untreated mice. Both dosages of sinomenine significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expression levels of c-Maf, TNF-α and IFN-γ, which elevated in TNBS-induced colitis. Furthermore, sinomenine at a dose of 200 mg/kg significantly decreased the level of miR-155 expression by 71% (p = 0.025 compared with untreated TNBS-induced colitis in mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study evaluated the effects and potential mechanisms of sinomenine in the anti-inflammatory response via miRNA-155 in mice with TNBS-induced colitis. Our findings suggest that sinomenine has anti-inflammatory effects on TNBS-induced colitis by down-regulating the levels of miR-155 and several related inflammatory cytokines.

  7. Arabidopsis Glutathione Transferases U24 and U25 Exhibit a Range of Detoxification Activities with the Environmental Pollutant and Explosive, 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Vanda; Tzafestas, Kyriakos; Sparrow, Helen; Johnston, Emily J; Brentnall, Andrew S; Potts, Jennifer R; Rylott, Elizabeth L; Bruce, Neil C

    2014-06-01

    The explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a major worldwide military pollutant. The presence of this toxic and highly persistent pollutant, particularly at military sites and former manufacturing facilities, presents various health and environmental concerns. Due to the chemically resistant structure of TNT, it has proven to be highly recalcitrant to biodegradation in the environment. Here, we demonstrate the importance of two glutathione transferases (GSTs), GST-U24 and GST-U25, from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that are specifically up-regulated in response to TNT exposure. To assess the role of GST-U24 and GST-U25, we purified and characterized recombinant forms of both enzymes and demonstrated the formation of three TNT glutathionyl products. Importantly, GST-U25 catalyzed the denitration of TNT to form 2-glutathionyl-4,6-dinitrotoluene, a product that is likely to be more amenable to subsequent biodegradation in the environment. Despite the presence of this biochemical detoxification pathway in plants, physiological concentrations of GST-U24 and GST-U25 result in only a limited innate ability to cope with the levels of TNT found at contaminated sites. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing GST-U24 and GST-U25 exhibit significantly enhanced ability to withstand and detoxify TNT, properties that could be applied for in planta detoxification of TNT in the field. The overexpressing lines removed significantly more TNT from soil and exhibited a corresponding reduction in glutathione levels when compared with wild-type plants. However, in the absence of TNT, overexpression of these GSTs reduces root and shoot biomass, and although glutathione levels are not affected, this effect has implications for xenobiotic detoxification.

  8. Crystal structure of tetrakis(μ-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoato-κ2O:O′bis[(nicotinamide-κN1copper(II

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    Gülçin Şefiye Aşkın

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title binuclear CuII complex, [Cu2(C10H11O24(C6H6N2O2], the two CuII cations [Cu...Cu = 2.5990 (5 Å] are bridged by four 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoate (TMB anions. The four nearest O atoms around each CuII cation form distorted square-planar arrangements and the distorted square-pyramidal coordinations are completed by the pyridine N atoms of nicotinamide molecules at distances of 2.164 (2 and 2.165 (2 Å, respectively. The CuII cations are displaced by −0.2045 (3 and 0.2029 (3 Å from the corresponding planes formed by the nearest four O atoms. In the molecule, the dihedral angles between the planes of the benzene rings and the adjacent carboxylate groups are 80.6 (2, 51.4 (2, 24.4 (2 and 32.5 (2°, while the planes of the pyridine rings are oriented at a dihedral angle of 11.28 (10°. In the crystal, bifurcated N—H...O and weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules, enclosing R22(8 and R44(8 ring motifs, into a three-dimensional network. The structure contains a solvent-accessible void of 72 Å3, but there is no solvent molecule located within this void. The crystal studied was an inversion twin refined with a minor component of 0.488 (8.

  9. Association between Exposure to Benzodiazepines and Related Drugs and Survivorship of Total Hip Replacement in Arthritis: A Population-Based Cohort Study of 246,940 Patients.

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    Dan Beziz

    Full Text Available Total hip replacement (THR is successful in treating hip arthritis. Prosthetic survivorship may depend on the medications taken by the patient; particularly, the role of benzodiazepines and related drugs (Z-drugs with THR revision has been poorly investigated. Our objective was to compare THR short-term survivorship according to level of exposure to benzodiazepine and Z-drugs.All French patients aged 40 years or older, having undergone primary THR from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2012, for arthritis according to French national health insurance databases were included in the cohort. Outcome of interest was THR revision, including any surgical procedure in which the implant or any component was changed or removed. Follow-up started the day the primary THR was performed. Observations were right-censored on December 31, 2014, if neither revision nor death had yet occurred. Exposure of interest was the cumulative defined daily doses per day (cDDD/day of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs dispensed within 6 months before or after inclusion. We defined four exposure groups; cDDD/d = 0: unexposed; 0.38: high exposure. THR survivorship was assessed according to level of exposure to benzodiazepines and Z-drugs in univariate and multivariate Cox models adjusted for patient, THR and implanting center characteristics.The study cohort comprised 246,940 individuals: mean age at baseline, 69.9 years; women, 57.9%; unexposed: 51.7%; low exposure: 16.7%; medium exposure: 15.9%; and high exposure: 15.7%. During the median 45-month follow-up, 9043 individuals underwent prosthetic revision. Adjusted hazard ratios in low, medium and high exposed groups were 1.18 (95%CI, 1.12-1.26; P<0.001, 1.32 (95%CI, 1.24-1.40; P<0.001 and 1.37 (95%CI, 1.29-1.45; P<0.001, respectively, compared to unexposed.Exposure to benzodiazepines and Z-drugs is associated with an increased risk of THR revision, with a dose-response relationship. Cautious prescribing might be needed as well

  10. Luminescence properties and crystal structure of europium complexes with phenoxyacetic acid and 2,4,6-tri(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ai-Ling; Zhou, Dan; Wei, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Zhong-Xia; Qu, Yan-Rong; Zhang, Hai-Xia; Chen, Ying-Nan; Li, Jing-Jing; Chu, Hai-Bin, E-mail: binghai99@gmail.com; Zhao, Yong-Liang, E-mail: hxzhaoyl@163.com

    2015-04-15

    Using anion ligand phenoxyacetic acid (HPOA) and neutral ligand 2,4,6-tri(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine (TPTZ), two complexes Eu{sub 2}(TPTZ){sub 2}(POA){sub 6}·6H{sub 2}O and EuY(TPTZ){sub 2}(POA){sub 6}·6H{sub 2}O have been synthesized and one crystal EuY(TPTZ){sub 2}(POA){sub 6}·2CH{sub 3}OH has been obtained. These complexes are characterized by elemental analysis, ICP-AES, IR and UV absorption spectroscopy. The luminescence spectra, luminescence lifetimes and emission quantum efficiencies of the complexes have been studied. The results show that the complex EuY(TPTZ){sub 2}(POA){sub 6}·6H{sub 2}O exhibits stronger luminescence intensity, longer luminescent lifetime and higher emission quantum efficiency than Eu{sub 2}(TPTZ){sub 2}(POA){sub 6}·6H{sub 2}O. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction of EuY(TPTZ){sub 2}(POA){sub 6}·2CH{sub 3}OH reveals that the crystal is heteronuclear and crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1 with following unit cell parameters a=12.2411(10) Å, b=13.2294(11) Å, c=13.5232(11) Å, α=74.8596(13)°, β=82.9593(16)°, γ=87.1641(14)°, and V=2097.7(3) Å{sup 3}. Each metal ion coordinates with three nitrogen atoms of one TPTZ and seven oxygen atoms of three POA{sup −} ions. And there exist two coordination forms between POA{sup −} and metal ions in the crystal. One is chelating bidentate, the other is the single-atom bridge. - Highlights: • One Eu/Y heteronuclear crystal and two complexes with HPOA and TPTZ were prepared. • Each metal ion in the crystal coordinates with three nitrogen and seven oxygen atoms. • The two complexes exhibit strong luminescence emissions. • The heteronuclear complex shows better luminescent properties than the homonuclear one. • The structure of the crystal and the sensitization mechanism are deeply discussed.

  11. SYNTHESIS OF 2,4,6-TRI(HYDROXYLPHENYLMETHYLAMINO)-s-TRIAZINE AND ITS CURING BEHAVIOR AND MECHANISM WITH DGEBA%2,4,6-三(羟基苯甲基氨基)-均三嗪的合成及其与双酚A型环氧树脂的固化行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵玉勤; 张兴宏; 赵晖; 戚国荣

    2006-01-01

    合成了一种含三嗪环结构的环氧树脂固化剂2,4,6-三(羟基苯甲基氨基)-均三嗪(MFP).用动态DSC和原位红外光谱对MFP/DGEBA(双酚A型环氧树脂)体系的固化行为进行了研究.动态DSC研究表明,由于MFP分子结构中存在两种活泼氢(酚羟基氢和仲胺氢),固化反应存在明显的两个峰,相对应的表观活化能分别为70.5 kJ·mol-1和86.5 kJ·mol-1(Kissinger法),通过与另一相似化合物固化DGEBA的比较可知,在MFP固化DGEBA的过程中,酚羟基与环氧基反应相对较难.原位红外动力学结果很好地支持了上述结论.

  12. Crystal structures of 2-[(4,6-di-amino-pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfan-yl]-N-(3-nitro-phen-yl)acetamide monohydrate and N-(2-chloro-phen-yl)-2-[(4,6-di-amino-pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfan-yl]acetamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasri, S; Timiri, Ajay Kumar; Barji, Nayan Sinha; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan; Vijayan, Viswanathan; Velmurugan, Devadasan

    2016-08-01

    The title compounds, C12H12N6O3S·H2O, (I), and C12H12ClN5OS, (II), are 2-[(4,6-di-amino-pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfan-yl]acetamides. Compound (I) crystallized as a monohydrate. In both compounds, the mol-ecules have a folded conformation, with the pyrimidine ring being inclined to the benzene ring by 56.18 (6)° in (I) and by 67.84 (6)° in (II). In both mol-ecules, there is an intra-molecular N-H⋯N hydrogen bond stabilizing the folded conformation. In (I), there is also a C-H⋯O intra-molecular short contact, and in (II) an intra-molecular N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bond is present. In the crystal of (I), mol-ecules are linked by a series of N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming undulating sheets parallel to the (100). The sheets are linked via an N-H⋯Owater hydrogen bond, forming a three-dimensional network. In the crystal of (II), mol-ecules are linked by a series of N-H⋯O, N-H⋯N and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming slabs parallel to (001).

  13. Crystal structures of 2-[(4,6-di­amino­pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfan­yl]-N-(3-nitro­phen­yl)acetamide monohydrate and N-(2-chloro­phen­yl)-2-[(4,6-di­amino­pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfan­yl]acetamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasri, S.; Timiri, Ajay Kumar; Barji, Nayan Sinha; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan; Vijayan, Viswanathan; Velmurugan, Devadasan

    2016-01-01

    The title compounds, C12H12N6O3S·H2O, (I), and C12H12ClN5OS, (II), are 2-[(4,6-di­amino­pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfan­yl]acetamides. Compound (I) crystallized as a monohydrate. In both compounds, the mol­ecules have a folded conformation, with the pyrimidine ring being inclined to the benzene ring by 56.18 (6)° in (I) and by 67.84 (6)° in (II). In both mol­ecules, there is an intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bond stabilizing the folded conformation. In (I), there is also a C—H⋯O intra­molecular short contact, and in (II) an intra­molecular N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bond is present. In the crystal of (I), mol­ecules are linked by a series of N—H⋯O, O—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming undulating sheets parallel to the (100). The sheets are linked via an N—H⋯Owater hydrogen bond, forming a three-dimensional network. In the crystal of (II), mol­ecules are linked by a series of N—H⋯O, N—H⋯N and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming slabs parallel to (001). PMID:27536406

  14. (E-N-[2-(9-Fluorenylidene-3a,5,7-trimethyl-3,3a-dihydro-2H-indol-3-ylidene]-2,4,6-trimethylaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Tokitoh

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C33H30N2, has an E configuration at the imine double bond. The angle between the least-squares planes of the imine C=N—C group and the benzene ring of the 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl substituent is 85.38 (11°. The crystal structure is sustained mainly by intermolecular π–π interactions (3.510 Å between the two fluorene rings and some C—H...π interactions.

  15. Effect of adsorption to elemental iron on the transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seok-Young; Cha, Daniel K; Kim, Byung J; Chiu, Peic

    2002-07-01

    The effect of adsorption to elemental iron on the reductive transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (royal demolition explosive [RDX]) in aqueous solution was studied with scrap iron and high-purity iron. In batch experiments with the same total iron surface area and a mixing rate of 100 rpm, TNT and RDX were removed from the solution within 30 min. With high-purity iron, adsorbed TNT was reduced to 2,4,6-triaminotoluene (TAT) rapidly, with little accumulation of intermediates at the surface. With scrap iron, the extent of adsorption of TNT and its daughter products was more significant and reduction of these adsorbed molecules to TAT was slower. Distribution of the intermediates indicated that the reaction with scrap iron occurred primarily through reduction of the ortho nitro group. Kinetic analysis suggests that mass transfer or adsorption of TNT controlled the overall rate of TNT reduction to TAT with pure iron, whereas with scrap iron, the rate of TAT formation was probably limited by other processes. Compared to TNT, transformation of adsorbed RDX was more rapid and less affected by iron type. The RDX was reduced to an unidentified, water-soluble intermediate and NH4+, which accounted for approximately 50% of the RDX nitrogen. No total organic carbon reduction was observed before and after RDX transformation with scrap iron.

  16. Hexa-aqua-bis-[3,5-bis-(hy-droxy-imino)-1-methyl-2,4,6-trioxo-cyclo-hexa-nido-κ(2) N (3),O (4)]barium tetrahydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh Do, Nguyen; Kovalchukova, Olga; Stash, Adam; Strashnova, Svetlana

    2013-10-16

    In the title compound, [Ba(C7H5N2O5)2(H2O)6]·4H2O, the Ba(2+) cation lies on a twofold rotation axis and is ten-coordinated by two 3,5-bis-(hy-droxy-imino)-1-methyl-2,4,6-trioxo-cyclo-hexa-n-ide oxo O atoms [Ba-O = 2.8715 (17) Å], two hy-droxy-imino N atoms [Ba-N = 3.036 (2) Å], and six water mol-ecules [Ba-O = 2.847 (2), 2.848 (2), and 2.880 (2) Å]. The 3,5-bis-(hy-droxy-imino)-1-methyl-2,4,6-trioxo-cyclo-hexa-nide monoanions act in a bidentate chelating manner, coordinating through an N atom of the non-deprotonated hy-droxy-imino group and an O atom of the neighboring oxo group. Two lattice water mol-ecules are located in the cavities of the framework and are involved in hydrogen bonding to O atoms of one of the coordinating water mol-ecules and the O atom of a keto group of the ligand. As a result, a three-dimensional network is formed.

  17. Synthesis,Crystal Structure,Quantum Chemistry and Thermal Stability of the Bis-Oxygen-Bridged Tetranuclear Dibutyltin (2,4,6-trimethyl) benzoate%双氧桥联四核二丁基锡(2,4,6-三甲基)苯甲酸酯配合物的合成、结构、量子化学及热稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋伍玖; 邝代治; 庾江喜; 冯泳兰; 张复兴; 王剑秋

    2012-01-01

    2,4,6-三甲基苯甲酸(TMBA)与(n-Bu)2SnO反应,合成氧桥联的四核二丁基锡(2,4,6-三甲基)苯甲酸酯配合物{[n-Bu)2Sn (2,4,6-TMBA)]2Oh,经元素分析、1H NMR、13C NMR、IR和X-射线衍射表征分子结构,该配合物晶体属三斜晶系,空间群P(1),晶体学参数:a=1.272 56(2) nm,b=1.322 73(2) nm,c=1.437 25(3) nm,α=111.197 0(10)°,β=99.691 0(10)°,γ=11 1.790 0(10)°,Z=1,V=1.962 35(6) nm3,Dc=1.368 g·cm-3,μ(Mo Kα)=1.308 mm-1,F(000)=828,R=0.040 9,wR=0.109 1.配合物以Sn2O2平面四元环中心对称,每个桥联氧原子还连接一个环外锡,形成双氧桥联四核二丁基锡结构.环上与环外Sn原子均呈现五配位畸变三角双锥构型.利用量子化学G03W软件,在Lanl2dz基组对配合物的稳定性、分子轨道能量、原子净电荷布居及前沿分子轨道组成进行了研究.并通过热重分析对配合物进行了热稳定性研究.%An organooxotin complex of {[n-Bu2Sn(2,4,6-TMBA)]2O}2 has been synthesized by the reaction of n-Bu2Sn0 with 2,4,6-TMBA and characterized by IR,1H NMR, 13C NMR and elemental analysis. The crystal structure has been determined by X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in the monoclinic, space group P1, with a= 1.272 56(2) nm, 6 = 1.322 73(2) nm, c = 1.437 25(3) nm, α=111.197 0(10)°, β=99.691 0(10)°,γ=111.790 0(10)°, Z=1, V=1.962 35(6)nm3, Dc=1.368 Mg·m-3(Mo Kα)=1.308 mm-1, F(000)=828, R=0.037 2, wR=0.096 1. This complex belongs to centrosymmetric structure mode with a four-membered central endocyclic Sn2O2 unit in which the bridging oxygen atoms are tri-coordinated. Each bridging oxygen atom also connects with an exocyclic tin atom. The endocyclic and exocyclic tin atoms all are five-coordinated in a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. The stabilities, some frontier molecular orbital energies, the populations of the atomic net charges and composition characteristics of some frontier molecular orbital of the complex have been investigated. The complex was studies by

  18. Bis[1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-ylidene]dinitrosyl(tetrahydroborato-κ2H,H′tungsten(0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Berke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title paramagnetic 19-electron neutral complex, [W(BH4(C21H24N22(NO2], the W(0 atom is coordinated by two 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenylimidazol-2-ylidene (IMes carbene ligands, two NO groups and two H atoms of an η2-tetrahydroborate ligand. Depending on the number of coordination sites (n assigned to the BH4− ligand, the coordination geometry of the W atom may either be described as approximately trigonal–bipyramidal (n = 1 or as very distorted octahedral with the bridging H atoms filling two coordination positions (n = 2. In the latter case, the coplanar NO groups and bridging H atoms (r.m.s. deviation = 0.032 Å form one octahedral plane, with mutually trans-oriented carbene ligands. In the crystal, molecules are connected via C—H...O interactions.

  19. Effects of Astragalus polysaccharides on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesuifonic acid-induced colitis in rats%黄芪多糖对2,4,6-三硝基苯磺酸诱导的大鼠结肠炎的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高永健; 朱峰; 钱家鸣

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of Astragalus polysaccarides (APS) on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Methods Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8 ): control group, TNBS group, low-dose APS group, high-dose APS group, and prednisone group. Experimental colitis was induced in rats by enema administration of TNBS. Rats in APS and sions and histological damages were determined, and the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured in the excised colonic tissues. Cytokine levels including interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Both macroscopic lesions and histological colonic damages induced by TNBS were reduced by low-dose APS treatment. These were accompanied by significantly attenuated colonic MPO activity (P = 0. 03) and the increase of IL-4 and IL-10 levels. The macroscopic lesions and MPO activities of high-dose APS group were higher than TNBS group, histological damage and level of IL-4 were lower, and level of IL-10 was higher, but all without statistical significance. Levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were lower than those of TNBS group, but there was no significant difference between prednisone group and TNBS group. Levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were significantly lower in prednisone group than in control group ( P = 0. 049, P = 0. 001 ). Conclusions Different doses of APS have different effects on TNBS-induced colitis. Lower dose of APS has the therapeutic potential inexperimental colitis, while higher dose of APS may aggravate the disease.%目的 探讨黄芪多糖(APS)对2,4,6-三硝基苯磺酸(TNBS)诱导的大鼠结肠炎的作用.方法 40只雄性SD大鼠随机分为5组(n=8):对照组、TNBS组、小剂量APS组、大剂量APS组、激素组.对照组给予生理盐水灌肠,其余4组大鼠均以TNBS灌肠造模.灌肠24 h后,APS组开始每天给予90%APS(小剂量组0.5 g·kg-1·d-1;大剂量组1 mg·kg-1·d-1)

  20. Study of the electrochemical oxidation of Am with lacunary heteropolyanions and silver nitrate; Etude de l'oxydation electrochimique de l'americium en presence d'heteropolyanions lacunaires et de nitrate d'argent en milieu aqueux acide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartier, D

    1999-07-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of Am(III) with certain lacunary heteropolyanions (LHPA {alpha}{sub 2}-P{sub 2}W{sub 17}O{sub 61}{sup 10-} or {alpha}SiW{sub 11}O{sub 39}{sup 8-}) and silver nitrate is an efficient way to prepare Am(VI). This document presents bibliographic data and an experimental study of the process. Thus, it has been established that Am(IV) is an intermediate species in the reaction and occurs in 1:1 (Amt{sup IV}LHPA) or 1:2 (Am {sup IV}(LHAP){sub 2}) complexes with the relevant LHPA. These 1:1 complexes of Am(IV) have been identified and isolated in this work whereas 1:2 complexes were known from previous studies. The reactivity of these complexes in oxidation shows that 1:1 complexes of Am(IV) are oxidised much more quickly than 1:2 complexes. Apparent stability constants of Am(III) and Am(IV) complexes with the relevant LHPA have been measured for a 1 M nitric acid medium. Thermodynamic data of the reaction are then assessed: redox potentials of Am pairs are computed for a 1 M nitric acid medium containing various amount of LHPA ligands. Those results show that the role of LHPA is to stabilize the intermediate species Am(IV) by lowering the Am(IV)/Am(III) pair potential of about 1 Volt. Nevertheless, if this stabilisation is too strong (i.e. of tungsto-silicate), the oxidation of Am(IV) requires high anodic potential (more than 2 V/ENH). Then, the faradic yield of the oxidation of americium is poor because of water oxidation. This study has also shown that the main role of silver is to catalyze the electrochemical oxidation of Am{sup IV}(LHPA){sub X} complexes. Indeed, these oxidations without silver are extremely slow. An oxygen tracer experiment has been performed during the oxidation of Am(III) in Am(VI). It has been shown that the oxygen atoms of Am(VI) (AMO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) come from water molecules of the solvent and not from the complexing oxygen atoms of the ligands. (author)

  1. Fabrication of targets for transmutation of americium : synthesis of inertial matrix by sol-gel method. Procedure study on the infiltration of a radioactive solutions; Fabricacion de blancos para la transmutacion de americio: sintesis de matrices inertes por el metodo sol-gel. Estudio del procedimiento de infiltracion de disoluciones radiactivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Carretero, A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    made. In addition a new and unexpected phase formed by the reaction of americium with spinel during the high temperature synthesis process has been identified. This new phase could provide a unique menas to stabilise Am in one particular oxidation state. (Author)

  2. Structural and Catalytic Differences between Two FADH2-Dependent Monooxygenases: 2,4,5-TCP 4-Monooxygenase (TftD from Burkholderia cepacia AC1100 and 2,4,6-TCP 4-Monooxygenase (TcpA from Cupriavidus necator JMP134

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChulHee Kang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 2,4,5-TCP 4-monooxygenase (TftD and 2,4,6-TCP 4-monooxygenase (TcpA have been discovered in the biodegradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP. TcpA and TftD belong to the reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2-dependent monooxygenases and both use 2,4,6-TCP as a substrate; however, the two enzymes produce different end products. TftD catalyzes a typical monooxygenase reaction, while TcpA catalyzes a typical monooxygenase reaction followed by a hydrolytic dechlorination. We have previously reported the 3D structure of TftD and confirmed the catalytic residue, His289. Here we have determined the crystal structure of TcpA and investigated the apparent differences in specificity and catalysis between these two closely related monooxygenases through structural comparison. Our computational docking results suggest that Ala293 in TcpA (Ile292 in TftD is possibly responsible for the differences in substrate specificity between the two monooxygenases. We have also identified that Arg101 in TcpA could provide inductive effects/charge stabilization during hydrolytic dechlorination. The collective information provides a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reaction mechanism and the parameters for substrate specificity. The information may provide guidance for designing bioremediation strategies for polychlorophenols, a major group of environmental pollutants.

  3. Structural and catalytic differences between two FADH(2)-dependent monooxygenases: 2,4,5-TCP 4-monooxygenase (TftD) from Burkholderia cepacia AC1100 and 2,4,6-TCP 4-monooxygenase (TcpA) from Cupriavidus necator JMP134.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Robert P; Webb, Brian N; Subramanian, Arun Kumar; Nissen, Mark; Popchock, Andrew; Xun, Luying; Kang, Chulhee

    2012-01-01

    2,4,5-TCP 4-monooxygenase (TftD) and 2,4,6-TCP 4-monooxygenase (TcpA) have been discovered in the biodegradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). TcpA and TftD belong to the reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH(2))-dependent monooxygenases and both use 2,4,6-TCP as a substrate; however, the two enzymes produce different end products. TftD catalyzes a typical monooxygenase reaction, while TcpA catalyzes a typical monooxygenase reaction followed by a hydrolytic dechlorination. We have previously reported the 3D structure of TftD and confirmed the catalytic residue, His289. Here we have determined the crystal structure of TcpA and investigated the apparent differences in specificity and catalysis between these two closely related monooxygenases through structural comparison. Our computational docking results suggest that Ala293 in TcpA (Ile292 in TftD) is possibly responsible for the differences in substrate specificity between the two monooxygenases. We have also identified that Arg101 in TcpA could provide inductive effects/charge stabilization during hydrolytic dechlorination. The collective information provides a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reaction mechanism and the parameters for substrate specificity. The information may provide guidance for designing bioremediation strategies for polychlorophenols, a major group of environmental pollutants.

  4. 241镅跟骨骨密度测定在骨质疏松症中的初步应用 ——与腰椎骨密度测定的对比研究%Preliminary application of 241-Americium calcaneus bone mineral density measurement in osteoporosis ——comparison with double X-ray densitometry of the lumber spine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管梁; 朱承谟; 李培勇; 王辉; 濮鸣芳; 仇季高

    2001-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) of calcaneus in 54 normals, 45 Osteoporosis, 25 suspected osteoporosis and 16 other non-osteoporosis patients, a total of 140 cases were measured by HUAKE (HK-1) 241-Americium BMD absorpmetry, among them 43 were compared with that of lumber spine (L2—L4) measured by Lunar Corporation's Expert-XL absorpmeter. BMD of normal group of calcaneus was (409.8±79.4)mg/cm2. The BMD were decreased slowly with the increased age. The BMD of osteoporosis, suspected osteoporosis and non-osteoporosis group were 230.3±62.3, 395.7±57.4 and 363.3±51.9mg/cm2 respectively. The BMD of osteoporosis group was much lower than that of normal group, and also lower than that of the other two groups, among 26 patients (57.78%) had bone fracture, all was in accordance with the clinical diagnosis of osteoporosis. The BMD of suspected ospteoporosis and non-osteoporosis had no significant difference with normal group. The coefficient variation (CV) of BMD in repeated measurement in calcaneus of 4 pariticipants was less than 1.2%. The correlative coefficient (r) between BMD of calcaneus and lumber spine (L2—L4) group was 0.6824. The correlative coefficient of normal young adult-matched percentage and T value in 2 groups were 0.6863 and 0.6755 respectively, whereas aged-matched percentage, Z value were 0.4614 and 0.5009 respectively. In conclusion 241-Americium calcaneus BMD absorpmetry has the advantage of low price, easy to operate, reliable and valuable in diagnosis osteoporosis. The correlations of calcaneus and lumber spine BMD, normal young adult-matched percentagy and T value were rather good.%为评价跟骨骨密度测定在骨质疏松症中的初步临床应用及与腰椎测定结果的相关性,用国产华科(HK-1型)241镅骨密度仪测定了140例跟骨骨密度(BMD)。其中正常人组54例,骨质疏松确诊组45例,骨质疏松可疑组25例和其他非骨质疏松组16例。其中43例与美国Luner 公司的Expert-XL图像骨密度仪腰

  5. Retrospective analysis of positive LEEP surgical margin and residual lesion in 246 patients with cervical high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and micro invasive cancer after LEEP conization%宫颈高度鳞状上皮内病变和微小浸润癌环形电切术切缘阳性与病灶残余情况的246例回顾性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高蜀君; 汪清; 郑瑞莲; 陈敏; 谢锋; 董晶; 刁雯静; 隋龙

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the residual lesion and suitable treatment in patients with cervical high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or micro invasive cancer underwent loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) conization with positive surgical margin. Methods: Two hundred and fortysix patients were included between January 2008 and December 2008 in this study for whom HSIL and micro invasive carcinoma were detected and then LEEP conizations were performed with positive surgical margin. The patients receiving conservative therapy were followed up with PAP-smear test, human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA test and cervical histological examination. The postoperative pathologic diagnosis and residual lesion were determined in patients receiving subsequent second operation.Results: Surgical margin was positive in 196 patients (16.87%, 196/1 162) of HSIL and 50 patients (43.48%, 50/115) of micro invasive cancer. The accuracy of colposcopic diagnosis and the rate of residual lesion were 90.82% (178/196) and 7.65% (15/196) for HSIL, and 8.00% (4/50) and 24.00% (12/50) for micro invasive cancer, respectively (P<0.05). The overall rate of residual lesion was 10.98% (27/246).Conclusion: Second LEEP or close monitoring are required for patients with positive surgical margin HSIL.Considered for high rates of positive surgical margin and residual disease in micro invasive cervical cancer, the active procedures should be performed on patients with positive LEEP surgical margin.%目的:探讨宫颈高度鳞状上皮内病变 (high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion,HSIL)和微小浸润癌环形电切术(loop electrosurgical excision procedure,LEEP)切缘阳性患者的病灶残留情况及其处理.方法:回顾性分析2008年1月-2008年12月因HSIL和微小浸润癌在本中心行LEEP的标本切缘阳性的246例患者的临床资料.对接受保守治疗者密切随访其宫颈细胞学、人乳头瘤病毒(human papilloma virus,HPV)感染情况

  6. Americium separation from nuclear fuel dissolution using higher oxidation states.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce J. Mincher

    2009-09-01

    Much of the complexity in current AFCI proposals is driven by the need to separate the minor actinides from the lanthanides. Partitioning and recycling Am, but not Cm, would allow for significant simplification because Am has redox chemistry that may be exploited while Cm does not. Here, we have explored methods based on higher oxidation states of Am (AmV and AmVI) to partition Am from the lanthanides. In a separate but related approach we have also initiated an investigation of the utility of TRUEX Am extraction from thiocyanate solution. The stripping of loaded TRUEX by Am oxidation or SCN- has not yet proved successful; however, the partitioning of inextractable AmV by TRUEX shows promise.

  7. Further Studies of Plutonium and Americium at Thule, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Asker; Dahlgaard, Henning; Nilsson, Karen Kristina;

    1984-01-01

    further away from the impact point and at some locations the vertical distribution indicated a downward displacement of Pu in the sediment column since 1974. Seawater and seaplants showed no evidence of the presence of Pu from sources other than fallout; but Pu in benthos varied nearly proportionally......, but in benthos 241Am/239,240Pu were two times higher than in sediments. Seaplants showed the same value of Am/Pu as seawater. There was no indication of any biomagnification of Pu or Am through the marine food chains at Thule....

  8. Property Data for Simulated Americium/Curium Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, B.J.; Smith, D.E.; Peeler, D.K.; Reamer, I.A.; Vienna, J.D.; Schweiger, M.J.

    1999-10-20

    The authors studied the properties of mixed lanthanide-alumino-borosilicate glasses. Fifty-five glasses were designed to augment a previous, Phase I, study by systematically varying the composition of Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} and the concentrations of Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and SrO in glass. These glasses were designed and fabricated at the Savannah River Technology Center and tested at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The properties measured include the high-temperature viscosity ({eta}) as a function of temperature (T) and the liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) of Phase II test glasses.

  9. Plutonium and americium contamination in Rocky Flats soil, 1973

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krey, P.; Hardy, E.; Volchok, H.; Toonkel, L.; Knuth, R.; Coppes, M.; Tamura, T.

    1976-03-01

    The plutonium mass isotopic analysis and the Am-241 analysis of soil samples from Rocky Flats identify the contamination as Pu which was processed in 1958. The Am-241 activity in the soil will reach its maximum in 2033 and represent 18 percent of the Pu-239-240 activity. Nuclide ratios indicate that current operations at Rocky Flats contribute little to the airborne Pu concentrations which are due to resuspension of the contaminated soil. Root uptake of Pu or Am by vegetation is slight or shows no discrimination among the isotopes and nuclides studied. The relationship between Pu deposition contour and the area enclosed by that contour has been verified for contour values extending over 7 orders of magnitude. This gives confidence to our calculations of the quantities of Pu released on and off the Rocky Flats plant site. (auth)

  10. Biosorption of americium-241 by immobilized Rhizopus arrihizus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Jiali E-mail: liaojiali@163.com; Yang Yuanyou; Luo Shunzhong; Liu Ning; Jin Jiannan; Zhang Taiming; Zhao Pengji

    2004-01-01

    Rhizopus arrihizus (R. arrihizus), a fungus, which in previous experiments had shown encouraging ability to remove {sup 241}Am from solutions, was immobilized by calcium alginate and other reagents. The various factors affecting {sup 241}Am biosorption by the immobilized R. arrihizus were investigated. The results showed that not only can immobilized R. arrihizus adsorb {sup 241}Am as efficiently as free R. arrihizus, but that also can be used repeatedly or continuously. The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 2 h, and more than 94% of {sup 241}Am was removed from {sup 241}Am solutions of 1.08 MBq/l by immobilized R. arrihizu in the pH range 1-7. Temperature did not affect the adsorption on immobilized R. arrihizus in the range 15-45 deg. C. After repeated adsorption for 8 times, the immobilized R. arrihizus still adsorbed more than 97% of {sup 241}Am. At this time, the total adsorption of {sup 241}Am was more than 88.6 KBq/g, and had not yet reached saturation. Ninety-five percent of the adsorbed {sup 241}Am was desorbed by saturated EDTA solution and 98% by 2 mol/l HNO{sub 3}.

  11. Hydroxonium hydrate tris(2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazin-1-ium bis[bis(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylatocuprate(II] pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid hexahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Hooshmand

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of copper(II nitrate hexahydrate with pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (pydcH2 and 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine (melamine in aqueous solution in a 1:2:2 molar ratio gave the title compound, (H5O2(C3H7N63[Cu(C7H3NO42]2·C7H5NO4·6H2O. The hydroxonium hydrate (H5O2+, also known as the Zundel cation, resides on a twofold rotation axis. The O—H distance is 1.274 (14 Å, the O...O distance is 2.518 (5 Å, and the O—H—O angle is 162 (8°. One of the melamine H+ cations, the uncoordinated pydcH2, and two water molecules also reside on crystallographic twofold axes. The CuII atom has a tetragonally distorted octahedral coordination environment. The structure features extensive hydrogen bonding, with 21 distinct interactions. There is also a centrosymmetric C=O...π interaction with an O...centroid distance of 3.288 (3 Å. The structure is similar to a mixed-valence manganese(II/III structure but shows interesting differences in the metal-atom coordination. One of the water molecules is equally disordered with respect to a twofold axis.

  12. Thermal Decomposition Characteristics of Low Signature Propellant Containing 1,7-diazido-2,4,6-trinitrazaptane (DATH)%含叠氮硝胺的低特征信号推进剂的热分解研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党智敏; 赵凤起; 李上文; 阴翠梅; 屠德民

    2000-01-01

    应用高压DSC(差示扫描量热法)、TG(热重法)和DTG(差示热重法)研究了DATH(1,7-二叠氮-2,4,6-三硝基氮杂庚烷)、RDX(黑索金)单组分以及RDX-CMDB(复合改性双基推进剂)和DATH-RDX-CMDB推进剂样品的热分解.温度达200 ℃时,首先是DATH中3个NO2从主链上断裂分解.接着是N3和其他残余分子在较短的时间剧烈地分解并释放出大量的热.在多组分体系中,DATH与(NC(硝化棉)+NG(硝化甘油))的相互作用比RDX与(NC+NG)的相互作用强烈.另外,DATH-RDX-CMDB(复合改性双基推进剂)分解反应的活化能比RDX-CMDB推进剂分解反应的活化能低,这一事实较好的解释了含DATH-RDX-CMDB推进剂燃速高的原因.

  13. Correlation of the solid-state reactivities of racemic 2,4(6)-di-O-benzoyl-myo-inositol 1,3,5-orthoformate and its 4,4'-bipyridine cocrystal with their crystal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboli, Majid I; Bahadur, Vir; Gonnade, Rajesh G; Shashidhar, Mysore S

    2014-11-01

    Racemic 2,4(6)-di-O-benzoyl-myo-inositol 1,3,5-orthoformate, C21H18O8, (1), shows a very efficient intermolecular benzoyl-group migration reaction in its crystals. However, the presence of 4,4'-bipyridine molecules in its cocrystal, C21H18O8·C10H8N2, (1)·BP, inhibits the intermolecular benzoyl-group transfer reaction. In (1), molecules are assembled around the crystallographic twofold screw axis (b axis) to form a helical self-assembly through conventional O-H···O hydrogen-bonding interactions. This helical association places the reactive C6-O-benzoyl group (electrophile, El) and the C4-hydroxy group (nucleophile, Nu) in proximity, with a preorganized El···Nu geometry favourable for the acyl transfer reaction. In the cocrystal (1)·BP, the dibenzoate and bipyridine molecules are arranged alternately through O-H···N interactions. The presence of the bipyridine molecules perturbs the regular helical assembly of the dibenzoate molecules and thus restricts the solid-state reactivity. Hence, unlike the parent dibenzoate crystals, the cocrystals do not exhibit benzoyl-transfer reactions. This approach is useful for increasing the stability of small molecules in the crystalline state and could find application in the design of functional solids.

  14. Monte Carlo simulations of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB): Pressure and temperature effects for the solid phase and vapor-liquid phase equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Neeraj; Bhatt, Divesh; Siepmann, J Ilja; Fried, Laurence E

    2008-11-21

    The transferable potentials for phase equilibria (TraPPE) force field was extended to nitro and amino substituents for aromatic rings via parametrization to the vapor-liquid coexistence curves of nitrobenzene and aniline, respectively. These groups were then transferred to model 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). Without any further parametrization to solid state data, the TraPPE force field is able to predict TATB's unit cell lengths and angles at 295 K with mean unsigned percentage errors of 0.3% and 1.8% and the specific density within 0.5%. These predictions are comparable in accuracy to the GRBF model [Gee et al., J. Chem. Phys. 120, 7059 (2004)] that was parametrized directly to TATB's solid state properties. Both force fields are able to reproduce the pressure dependence of TATB's unit cell volume, but they underestimate its thermal expansion. Due to its energetic nature and unusually large cohesive energy, TATB is not chemically stable at temperature in its liquid range. Gibbs ensemble simulations allow one to determine TATB's vapor-liquid coexistence curve at elevated temperatures and the predicted critical temperature and density for the TraPPE and GRBF model are 937+/-8 and 1034+/-8 K, and 0.52+/-0.02 and 0.50+/-0.02 gcm(3), respectively.

  15. Investigation of mitigating effect of colon-specific prodrugs of boswellic acid on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in Wistar rats: Design, kinetics and biological evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkate, Ajinkya; Dhaneshwar, Suneela S

    2017-01-01

    AIM To develop a colon-targeting bioreversible delivery system for β-boswellic acid (BBA) and explore utility of its prodrugs in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. METHODS Synthesis of 4 co-drugs of BBA with essential amino acids was achieved by CDI coupling, followed by their spectral characterization. In vitro kinetics were studied by HPLC in aqueous buffers, homogenates of gastrointestinal tract and fecal matter. In vivo kinetic studies were performed in Wistar rat plasma, urine and feces. The prodrugs were screened in TNBS-induced colitis modeled Wistar rats. Statistical significance was assumed at P rat fecal matter and homogenates of colon. In vivo studies of BBA with L-tryptophan (BT) authenticated colon-specific release of BBA. But, surprisingly substantial concentration of BBA was seen to reach the systemic circulation due to probable absorption through colonic mucosa. Site-specifically enhanced bioavailability of BBA could be achieved in colon, which resulted in demonstration of significant mitigating effect on TNBS-induced colitis in rats without inducing any adverse effects on stomach, liver and pancreas. Prodrug of BT was found to be 1.7% (P < 0.001) superior than sulfasalazine in reducing the inflammation to colon among all prodrugs tested. CONCLUSION The outcome of this study strongly suggests that these prodrugs might have dual applicability to inflammatory bowel disease and chronotherapy of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:28275295

  16. Characteristics of energy exchange between inter- and intramolecular degrees of freedom in crystalline 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) with implications for coarse-grained simulations of shock waves in polyatomic molecular crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroonblawd, Matthew P.; Sewell, Thomas D., E-mail: sewellt@missouri.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211-7600 (United States); Maillet, Jean-Bernard, E-mail: jean-bernard.maillet@cea.fr [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2016-02-14

    In this report, we characterize the kinetics and dynamics of energy exchange between intramolecular and intermolecular degrees of freedom (DoF) in crystalline 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to obtain predictions for relaxation from certain limiting initial distributions of energy between the intra- and intermolecular DoF. The results are used to parameterize a coarse-grained Dissipative Particle Dynamics at constant Energy (DPDE) model for TATB. Each TATB molecule in the DPDE model is represented as an all-atom, rigid-molecule mesoparticle, with explicit external (molecular translational and rotational) DoF and coarse-grained implicit internal (vibrational) DoF. In addition to conserving linear and angular momentum, the DPDE equations of motion conserve the total system energy provided that particles can exchange energy between their external and internal DoF. The internal temperature of a TATB molecule is calculated using an internal equation of state, which we develop here, and the temperatures of the external and internal DoF are coupled using a fluctuation-dissipation relation. The DPDE force expression requires specification of the input parameter σ that determines the rate at which energy is exchanged between external and internal DoF. We adjusted σ based on the predictions for relaxation processes obtained from MD simulations. The parameterized DPDE model was employed in large-scale simulations of shock compression of TATB. We show that the rate of energy exchange governed by σ can significantly influence the transient behavior of the system behind the shock.

  17. Species-specific differences in peroxisome proliferation, catalase, and SOD2 upregulation as well as toxicity in human, mouse, and rat hepatoma cells induced by the explosive and environmental pollutant 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, Ekaterina Anatolevna; Ahlemeyer, Barbara; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

    2017-03-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been widely used as an explosive substance and its toxicity is still of interest as it persisted in polluted areas. TNT is metabolized in hepatocytes which are prone to its toxicity. Since analysis of the human liver or hepatocytes is restricted due to ethical reasons, we investigated the effects of TNT on cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, peroxisome proliferation, and antioxidative enzymes in human (HepG2), mouse (Hepa 1-6), and rat (H4IIEC3) hepatoma cell lines. Under control conditions, hepatoma cells of all three species were highly comparable exhibiting identical proliferation rates and distribution of their cell cycle phases. However, we found strong differences in TNT toxicity with the lowest IC50 values (highest cell death rate) for rat cells, whereas human and mouse cells were three to sevenfold less sensitive. Moreover, a strong decrease in cellular dehydrogenase activity (MTT assay) and increased ROS levels were noted. TNT caused peroxisome proliferation with rat hepatoma cells being most responsive followed by those from mouse and human. Under control conditions, rat cells contained fivefold higher peroxisomal catalase and mitochondrial SOD2 activities and a twofold higher capacity to reduce MTT than human and mouse cells. TNT treatment caused an increase in catalase and SOD2 mRNA and protein levels in human and mouse, but not in rat cells. Similarly, human and mouse cells upregulated SOD2 activity, whereas rat cells failed therein. We conclude that TNT induced oxidative stress, peroxisome proliferation and mitochondrial damage which are highest in rat cells rendering them most susceptible toward TNT. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 989-1006, 2017.

  18. Characteristics of energy exchange between inter- and intramolecular degrees of freedom in crystalline 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) with implications for coarse-grained simulations of shock waves in polyatomic molecular crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroonblawd, Matthew P; Sewell, Thomas D; Maillet, Jean-Bernard

    2016-02-14

    In this report, we characterize the kinetics and dynamics of energy exchange between intramolecular and intermolecular degrees of freedom (DoF) in crystalline 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to obtain predictions for relaxation from certain limiting initial distributions of energy between the intra- and intermolecular DoF. The results are used to parameterize a coarse-grained Dissipative Particle Dynamics at constant Energy (DPDE) model for TATB. Each TATB molecule in the DPDE model is represented as an all-atom, rigid-molecule mesoparticle, with explicit external (molecular translational and rotational) DoF and coarse-grained implicit internal (vibrational) DoF. In addition to conserving linear and angular momentum, the DPDE equations of motion conserve the total system energy provided that particles can exchange energy between their external and internal DoF. The internal temperature of a TATB molecule is calculated using an internal equation of state, which we develop here, and the temperatures of the external and internal DoF are coupled using a fluctuation-dissipation relation. The DPDE force expression requires specification of the input parameter σ that determines the rate at which energy is exchanged between external and internal DoF. We adjusted σ based on the predictions for relaxation processes obtained from MD simulations. The parameterized DPDE model was employed in large-scale simulations of shock compression of TATB. We show that the rate of energy exchange governed by σ can significantly influence the transient behavior of the system behind the shock.

  19. THEORETICAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE NEW OFFENSE COVERED BY ART. 246 OF THE CRIMINAL CODE MISSAPPROPRIATION OF PUBLIC AUCTIONS AND OFFENCES COVERED BY ART. 65 OF LAW NO. 21/1996 REPUBLISHED. COMPETITION LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Aida POPA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to bring to the attention of the legal law specialists the theoretical aspects related to a new incrimination as the one covered by art. 246 of the Penal Code, the misappropriation of public auctions, as well as aspects of yet another incrimination, that is the one covered by art. 65 of Law no. 21/1996 republished-competition law, trying thus to prevent certain different interpretations about the typicality of the two incriminations and encourage the possibility of highlighting other arguments that will lead to an application as accurate as possible of the two incriminations. Presently there is no case law for the two incriminations therefore the theoretical analysis has to present interpretation arguments which will help the judicial bodies to easily classify the factual basis of the content of the two constitutive laws offering the possibility of a more detailed and contextual interpretation in relation to the reality. The way the public auctions take place is a constant preoccupation not only for the participants who are involved in the procedure and directly interested in abiding the under law and ensuring a fair competitive climate but also for the public opinion which is as equally interested in ensuring fair social-economical relationships based on the market principles. Simultaneously, the way the legal conditions of the second incriminations-that is the one from art.65 Law no.21/1996 republished - are interpreted in relation with the competition practices will lead to the clarification of the norm and its correct enforcement.

  20. 氯化四(4-磺酸钠苯基)卟啉铁(Ⅲ)催化过氧化氢氧化降解2,4,6-三氯苯酚的动力学研究%Kinetic study on the oxidative degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by tetrakis (4-sulfonate) porphyrinatoiron(Ⅲ) chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢燕; 谢斌; 黄春; 李玉龙; 曾倪; 邹立科; 何锡阳

    2013-01-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by water-soluble metalloporphyrins Fe (TPPS) Cl were studied by means of UV-vis spectrophotometer, where TPPS is tetrakis (4-sulfonate)porphyrin. The effect of reaction system acidity, hydrogen peroxide / catalyst molar ratio, and temperature on the catalytic oxidative reaction were investigated. The oxidative degradation mechanism of TCP catalyzed by Fe(TPPS)Cl was proposed, and a kinetic model was established. The results show that the degradation rate of 3. 8 × 10-4 mol·L-1 TCP can reach to 99% and the apparent activation energy Ea is 10.96 kJ·mol-1 with 4.0×10-5mol·L-1 of Fe(TPPS)Cl and 1.8 × 10-3mol·L-1 of H2O2 after 90 min at T = 25 ℃ and pH =6. 8. Therefore, Fe(TPPS)Cl as peroxidase in the simulation process of the oxidative degradation of TCP is an effective eatalyst.%用紫外-可见分光光度法研究了水溶性金属卟啉Fe (TPPS) Cl催化H2O2氧化降解2,4,6-三氯苯酚(TCP)的动力学(TPPS为四(4-磺酸钠苯基)卟啉),探讨了反应体系酸度、H2O2/Fe (TPPS)Cl物质的量之比、温度对氧化降解速率的影响,提出了反应机理,建立了反应动力学数学模型.研究结果表明,TCP初始浓度为3.8×10-4 mol·L-1、Fe(TPPS)Cl浓度为4.0 ×10-5 mol·L-1、H2O2浓度为1.8×10-3mol·L-1、温度为25℃、pH值为6.8、反应时间为90 min时,TCP的降解率可达到99%,其表观活化能为10.96 kJ· mol-1.因此,Fe(TPPS) Cl作为模拟过氧化物酶在催化降解TCP过程中是一种有效的催化剂.

  1. 7 CFR 246.14 - Program costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... must ensure that food costs do not exceed the customary sales price charged by the vendor, home food... not exceed the price limitations applicable to the vendor. (c) Specified allowable nutrition services... following: (1) The cost of nutrition education and breastfeeding promotion and support which meets...

  2. Teaching Science as Inquiry. Fastback 246.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.

    The use of the inquiry approach in the teaching of elementary science is examined and advocated in this publication. The position that an inquiry approach is the best way to teach and learn science is upheld and its influence on the development of positive attitudes towards science is stressed. Section titles include: (1) "A Tale of Two Teachers"…

  3. Melaminium 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Prior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C3H7N6+·C7H5O5−·2H2O, the melaminium and benzoate ions are approximately planar (r.m.s. deviation of the non-hydrogen atoms is 0.093 Å and there is a strong C22(8 hydrogen-bonding embrace between them. The centre of symmetry generates a second acid–base pair which is bound to the first by a C22(8 (N—H...N embrace common between melamine molecules in similar compounds. Further extensive hydrogen bonding assembles the components into a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network.

  4. 40 CFR 246.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (or materials which have been separated for the purpose of recycling) from a central storage point. (f... papers, miscellaneous business forms, stationery, typing paper, tablet sheets, and computer printout... or virgin material in manufacturing a product. (x) Recycling means the process by which...

  5. 7 CFR 246.8 - Nondiscrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN... Amendments of 1972, section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the Age Discrimination Act of 1975... discrimination under the Program. Compliance with title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, title IX of...

  6. 7 CFR 246.4 - State plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... based on relative need, within the jurisdiction of the State agency, the State agency's plans to... jurisdiction; (ii) Vendor limiting and selection criteria. Vendor limiting criteria, if used by the State... agency's Universal Identifier number. (b) Public comment. The State agency shall establish a...

  7. 32 CFR 246.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... through newspaper sales, resale of commercial publications, authorized advertising, job printing, and... security constraints prescribed by E.O. 12356 (47 FR 14874 and 15557, 3 CFR, 1982 Comp., p. 166). (3... classified national security information. (ii) Would adversely affect national security. (iii)...

  8. 27 CFR 19.246 - Strengthening bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Strengthening bonds. In all cases when the penal sum of any bond becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new... amount of any bond to less than its full penal sum. Strengthening bonds shall show the current date...

  9. 7 CFR 246.26 - Other provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN... of federal funds provided for nutrition services and administration to each participating...

  10. 7 CFR 246.20 - Audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN...'s review upon request. The cost of these audits shall be considered a part of nutrition services...

  11. 2,4,6-Trifluorobenzoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Betz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C7H3F3O2, the C—C—C angles in the ring are greater than 120° for F-bonded C atoms [123.69 (13, 123.88 (12 and 123.66 (12°]. In the crystal, intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds between carboxyl groups give rise to the formation of a centrosymmetric dimer, while dispersive F...O contacts [2.8849 (16 Å] connect the dimers into infinite strands along the a axis.

  12. 32 CFR 246.5 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operations that involve more than one area of responsibility. (5) Chair, as required, at the Deputy Assistant... APF accounting and reporting procedures required by DoD Instruction 7000.12 5 , in coordination with... successor-in-interest to the S&S, as agreed upon by the applicable Unified Command and the Director of...

  13. 7 CFR 246.3 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nutritional services, or other Program duties as assigned by the State agency. (3) For nutrition-related... for Program administration. FNS shall provide assistance to State and local agencies and evaluate all... and efficient manner possible. (b) Delegation to the State agency. The State agency is responsible...

  14. 7 CFR 246.10 - Supplemental foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... methodology described in accordance with paragraph (h)(2) of this section. 9 Fresh banana may replace up to 16 ounces of infant food fruit at a rate of 1 pound of bananas per 8 ounces of infant food fruit. 10 In lieu... juice may be regular or lower in sodium. 3 Eggs Fresh shell domestic hens' eggs or dried eggs mix...

  15. 7 CFR 246.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... must ensure the reliability and integrity of the technology used and the security and confidentiality... the authorization of mobile stores is necessary to meet the special needs described in the...

  16. Differential sensitivity of aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) leads to dissimilar growth and TNT transformation: Results of soil and pure culture studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, M.E.; Manning, J.F. Jr.

    1996-07-30

    The effects of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on indigenous soil populations and pure bacterial cultures were examined. The number of colony-forming units (CFU) appearing when TNT-contaminated soil was spread on 0.3% molasses plates decreased by 50% when the agar was amended with 67 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}, whereas a 99% reduction was observed when uncontaminated soil was plated. Furthermore, TNT-contaminated soil harbored a greater number of organisms able to grow on plates amended with greater than 10 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}. The percentage of gram-positive isolates was markedly less in TNT-contaminated soil (7%; 2 of 30) than in uncontaminated soil (61%; 20 of 33). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas corrugate, Pseudomonasfluorescens and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans made up the majority of the gram-negative isolates from TNT-contaminated soil. Gram-positive isolates from both soils demonstrated marked growth inhibition when greater than 8-16 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1} was present in the culture media. Most pure cultures of known aerobic gram-negative organisms readily degraded TNT and evidenced net consumption of reduced metabolites. However, pure cultures of aerobic gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to relatively low concentrations of TNT as indicated by the 50% reduction in growth and TNT transformation which was observed at approximately 10 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}. Most non-sporeforming gram-positive organisms incubated in molasses media amended with 80 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1} or greater became unculturable, whereas all strains tested remained culturable when incubated in mineral media amended with 98 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}, indicating that TNT sensitivity is likely linked to cell growth. These results indicate that gram-negative organisms are most likely responsible for any TNT transformation in contaminated soil, due to their relative insensitivity to high TNT concentrations and their ability to transform TNT.

  17. Actuación y Responsabilidad del Contador Público, en su Función como Auditor Externo, según la modificación introducida en la ley 25.246 ante la sanción de la ley 26.683

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A través de este trabajo, se investigará las nuevas obligaciones y responsabilidades que afectan a los Contadores públicos que actúen como Auditores Externos, ante la sanción de la ley 26.683 que modifica a la ley 25.246 sobre el lavado de dinero y financiación del terrorismo. A raíz de esta modificación en la ley, tanto la Unidad de Información Financiera como la Federación Argentina de Consejos Profesionales de Ciencias Económicas emitieron resoluciones (65/11 y la 420/11 ...

  18. Web Page Development and Management. SPEC Kit 246 and SPEC Flyer 246.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaping Peter, Comp.

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit and Flyer reports results of two surveys conducted in 1996 and 1998 that examined ARL (Association of Research Libraries) member libraries' World Wide Web history, development, use, and activities. Fifty-six out of the then 119 ARL member institutions responded to the 1996 survey, and 68 out…

  19. Administration of Lactobacillus plantarum reduces TNBSinduced colitis in mice%植物乳杆菌对2,4,6-三硝基苯磺酸诱导的小鼠结肠炎的治疗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶胜青; 赵志鸿; 夏阳; 陈红旗

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of administration of Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) on established colitis in mice and to explore possible mechanisms involved.METHODS: A model of colitis was induced by intracolonic injection of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid sodium salt (TNBS) in adult Balb/c mice. The mice were then treated with LP (109 CFU) or vehicle for three weeks. After treatment, all mice were killed and colonic damage was evaluated both histologically and biochemically, including determination of the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and the levels of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), tumor necrosis factor c (TNF-α) and interferon-γ(IFN-γ) in colon tissue.RESULTS: LP therapy resulted in amelioration of colitis induced with TNBS in mice when compared with control mice without undergoing LP treatment. This anti-inflammatory effect of LP was evidenced by a significant reduction of macroscopic and microscopic colonic damage scores (1.11 ± 0. 61 vs 4.62 ± 0. 40, P< 0.05; 1.48 ± 0.40 vs 5.39 ± 1.12, P < 0.05). Moreover, a reduction of neutrophil infiltrate in LP-treated mice was confirmed biochemically by a significant reduction of the activity of colonic MPO (25.14 U/g ± 5.22 U/g vs 90.3 U/g ± 7.70 U/g, P < 0.05), a marker of neutrophil infiltration, in comparison with non-treated colitic mice. In addition, treatment with LP resulted in a lower colonic content of LTB4 and in a significant reduction of proinflammatory factors, such as TNF-α and IFN-γ,when compared with control mice (3.13 ng/g ± 0.10 ng/g vs 8.43 ng/g ± 0. 49 ng/g, P <0.05; 205 ng/g ± 68 ng/g vs 375 ng/g ± 79 ng/g, P < 0.05;446 ng/g ± 116 ng/g vs 603 ng/g ± 109 ng/g, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Administration of LP is effective in accelerating the recovery of experimental colitis in mice possibly by reducing leukocyte accumulation and proinflammatory cytokine expression.%目的:评估益生菌植物乳杆菌(LP)对三硝基苯磺酸(TNBS)诱导小鼠肠道炎症损伤的

  20. Estudos biocatalíticos para a preparação de fragmentos do ácido (2S,4E,6R,8S)-8-hidróxi-2,4,6-trimetil-non-4-enóico, constituinte de depsipeptídeos marinhos

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Prof. Dr. Rodrigo Luiz Oliveira Rodrigues Cunha Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal do ABC, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência & Tecnologia - Química, 2014. O presente trabalho consiste na síntese dos fragmentos C1-C4 e C5-C9 do ácido (2S,4E,6R,8S)-8-hidróxi-2,4,6-trimetil-non-4-enóico (1) que corresponde à porção policetídica da Jaspamida e de diversos Geodiamolídeos. A metodologia empregada para a obtenção de tais fragmentos é raramente vista, pois os dois enantiomêros do precur...

  1. Magnetic solid-phase extraction based on a polydopamine-coated Fe3 O4 nanoparticles absorbent for the determination of bisphenol A, tetrabromobisphenol A, 2,4,6-tribromophenol, and (S)-1,1'-bi-2-naphthol in environmental waters by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Yuan; Long, Xing-Yu; Yin, He-Xing; Qiao, Jun-Qin; Lian, Hong-Zhen

    2016-07-01

    Polydopamine-coated Fe3 O4 magnetic nanoparticles synthesized through a facile solvothermal reaction and the self-polymerization of dopamine have been employed as a magnetic solid-phase extraction sorbent to enrich four phenolic compounds, bisphenol A, tetrabromobisphenol A, (S)-1,1'-bi-2-naphthol and 2,4,6-tribromophenol, from environmental waters followed by high-performance liquid chromatographic detection. Various parameters of the extraction were optimized, including the pH of the sample matrix, the amount of polydopamine-coated Fe3 O4 sorbent, the adsorption time, the enrichment factor of analytes, the elution solvent, and the reusability of the nanoparticles sorbent. The recoveries of these phenols in spiked water samples were 62.0-112.0% with relative standard deviations of 0.8-7.7%, indicating the good reliability of the magnetic solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography method. In addition, the extraction characteristics of the magnetic polydopamine-coated Fe3 O4 nanoparticles were elucidated comprehensively. It is found that there are hydrophobic, π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions between phenols and more dispersible polydopamine-coated Fe3 O4 in water, among which hydrophobic interaction dominates the magnetic solid-phase extraction performance.

  2. Ab initio determination of the framework structure of the heavy-metal oxide Cs{sub x}Nb{sub 2.54}W{sub 2.46}O{sub 14} from 100kV precession electron diffraction data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirich, Thomas E. [Gemeinschaftslabor fuer Elektronenmikroskopie der Rheinisch-Westfaelischen Technischen Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen, Ahornstrasse 55, Aachen D-52074 (Germany)]. E-mail: weirich@gfe.rwth-aachen.de; Portillo, Joaquim [NanoMEGAS, Boulevard Edmond Machtens 79, Brussels B-1080 (Belgium); SERVEIS Cientificotecnics, Universitat de Barcelona/Sole i Sabaris s/n, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Cox, Gerhard [BASF-AG, Polymer Physics Department, Ludwigshafen D-67065 (Germany); Hibst, Hartmut [BASF-AG, Catalysis Research Department Ludwigshafen D-67065 (Germany); Nicolopoulos, Stavros [NanoMEGAS, Boulevard Edmond Machtens 79, Brussels B-1080 (Belgium); Universidad Politecnica de Valencia /ITQ Avda de los Naranjos s/n, Valencia 46071 (Spain)

    2006-02-15

    The present work deals with the ab initio determination of the heavy metal framework in Cs{sub x}(Nb, W){sub 5}O{sub 14} from precession electron diffraction intensities. The target structure was first discovered by Lundberg and Sundberg [Ultramicroscopy 52 (1993) 429-435], who succeeded in deriving a tentative structural model from high-resolution electron microsopy (HREM) images. The metal framework of the compound was solved in this investigation via direct methods from hk0 precession electron diffraction intensities recorded with a Philips EM400 at 100kV. A subsequent (kinematical) least-squares refinement with electron intensities yielded slightly improved co-ordinates for the 11 heavy atoms in the structure. Chemical analysis of several crystallites by EDX is in agreement with the formula Cs{sub 0.44}Nb{sub 2.54}W{sub 2.46}O{sub 14}. Moreover, the structure was independently determined by Rietveld refinement from X-ray powder data obtained from a multi-phasic sample. The compound crystallises in the orthorhombic space group Pbam with refined lattice parameters a=27.145(2), b=21.603(2), and c=3.9463(3)A. Comparison of the framework structure from electron diffraction with the result from Rietveld refinement shows an average agreement for the heavy atoms within 0.09A.

  3. Enzymic determination of saliva glucose with use of 2,4,6-tribromo-3-hydroxybenzoic acid on biochemical analyzer%以TBHBA为色原的唾液葡萄糖全自动分析法的建立及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳琳; 王华忠; 左世友; 蒲晓允

    2006-01-01

    目的 建立一种灵敏、可靠的唾液葡萄糖全自动分析方法,并评价其在监测血糖浓度中的价值.方法 用2,4,6-三溴-3-羟基苯甲酸(TBHBA)取代葡萄糖氧化酶测定法的苯酚,在HATACHI 7150上测定唾液葡萄糖,并观察糖尿病患者唾液葡萄糖的变化及与血糖浓度之间的相关性.结果 经方法学评价,葡萄糖浓度在60mg/L范围内呈良好的线性关系,精密度检测CV值批内3.3%,批间3.8%,平均回收率100.3%,受干扰物影响较小.糖尿病患者唾液葡萄糖含量高于正常对照组的含量(P<0.05),唾液葡萄糖与血浆葡萄糖相关系数r=0.87(P<0.01).结论 以TBHBA为色原的全自动分析方法可准确地测定唾液葡萄糖,并可对糖尿病患者血糖浓度进行无创性检测.

  4. 2,4,6-三硝基苯磺酸致肠炎大鼠背根神经节神经元电生理特性%The electrophysiology characteristics of dorsal root ganglion neurons in rats with TNBS-induced colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟双平; 卢占英; 李星宇; 刘彬; 马蓓

    2014-01-01

    目的 研究2,4,6-三硝基苯磺酸(TNBS)致肠炎大鼠的背根神经节(DRG)神经元电生理特性,为更全面地了解炎症性肠病(IBD)提供借鉴.方法 SD大鼠(雄性,体质量160~200 g)随机分为实验组和对照组,实验组(n=5)给予30%TNBS溶液(剂量40mg/kg)灌肠,对照组(n=5)给予等效体积的生理盐水灌肠.在灌肠的第8天(炎症急性期)处死大鼠,对其结肠进行H-E染色,以确定造模是否成功;取其DRG神经元用全细胞膜片钳技术分析其电生理特性.结果 实验组大鼠体质量降低(P<0.001),H-E染色示肠黏膜腺体结构严重破坏,炎性细胞浸润明显,表明造模成功.TNBS致肠炎后大鼠DRG神经元动作电位的阈电流降低(P<0.05).结论 TNBS致肠炎后大鼠DRG神经元兴奋性增高.

  5. Americium and plutonium separation by extraction chromatography for determination by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Zakir H; Cornett, Jack R; Zhao, Xaiolei; Kieser, Liam

    2014-06-04

    A simple method was developed to separate Pu and Am using single column extraction chromatography employing N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide (DGA) resin. Isotope dilution measurements of Am and Pu were performed using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and alpha spectrometry. For maximum adsorption Pu was stabilized in the tetra valent oxidation state in 8M HNO3 with 0.05 M NaNO2 before loading the sample onto the resin. Am(III) was adsorbed also onto the resin from concentrated HNO3, and desorbed with 0.1 M HCl while keeping the Pu adsorbed. The on-column reduction of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) with 0.02 M TiCl3 facilitated the complete desorption of Pu. Interferences (e.g. Ca(2+), Fe(3+)) were washed off from the resin bed with excess HNO3. Using NdF3, micro-precipitates of the separated isotopes were prepared for analysis by both AMS and alpha spectrometry. The recovery was 97.7±5.3% and 95.5±4.6% for (241)Am and (242)Pu respectively in reagents without a matrix. The recoveries of the same isotopes were 99.1±6.0 and 96.8±5.3% respectively in garden soil. The robustness of the method was validated using certified reference materials (IAEA 384 and IAEA 385). The measurements agree with the certified values over a range of about 1-100 Bq kg(-1). The single column separation of Pu and Am saves reagents, separation time, and cost.

  6. Neutron capture and neutron-induced fission experiments on americium isotopes with DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Fowler, M. M.; Becker, J. A.; Bond, E. M.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Haslett, R. J.; Henderson, R. A.; Keksis, A. L.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron capture cross section data on Am isotopes were measured using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The neutron capture cross section was determined for 241Am for neutron energies between thermal and 320 keV. Preliminary results were also obtained for 243Am for neutron energies between 10 eV and 250 keV. The results on concurrent neutron-induced fission and neutron-capture measurements on 242mAm will be presented where the fission events were actively triggered during the experiments. In these experiments, a Parallel-Plate Avalanche Counter (PPAC) detector that surrounds the target located in the center of the DANCE array was used as a fission-tagging detector to separate (n,γ) events from (n,f) events. The first direct observation of neutron capture on 242mAm in the resonance region in between 2 and 9 eV of the neutron energy was obtained.

  7. Evaluation of the readsorption of plutonium and americium in dynamic fractionations of environmental solid samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Roongrat; Hou, Xiaolin; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2008-01-01

    A dynamic extraction system exploiting sequential injection (SI) for sequential extractions incorporating a specially designed extraction column is developed to fractionate radionuclides in environmental solid samples such as soils and sediments. The extraction column can contain a large amount...... of the two radionuclides. However, the dynamic system is fully automated, eliminates manual separations, significantly reduces the operational time required, and offers detailed kinetic information....

  8. Effect of solvent on in vitro dissolution: Summary of results for uranium, americium, and cobalt aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Hoover, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    The revised 10 CFR Part 20 has adopted the ICRP Publication 30 method for calculating the committed effective dose equivalent from intakes of radionuclides. This dosimetry scheme requires knowledge or assumptions about the chemical form of the radionuclide, its particle size, and its known or assumed solubility. The solubility is classified as being either D (relatively soluble), W, or Y (relatively insoluble), depending on whether the material dissolves over periods of days, weeks, or years. Although Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees may wish to take advantage of material-specific knowledge in order to adjust annual limits on intake and derived air concentrations, relatively few radioactive materials to which workers and the general population may be exposed have been adequately characterized either in terms of physicochemical form or solubility. Experimental measurement of solubility using some type of in vitro dissolution measurement system is therefore needed. However, there is currently no clear consensus regarding the appropriate design of in vitro dissolution systems, particularly when considering the range of different radionuclides to be studied, and the complexity of the biological mechanisms involved in the retention and clearance of inhaled deposited radioactive particles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the several solvents on the dissolution of four test aerosols ({sup 57}Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, {sup 241}AmO{sub 2}, ammonium diuranate [ADU], and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) selected to encompass a variety of chemical and biochemical properties in vivo. The results of this study provide some guidance on the usefulness of in vitro dissolution tests for estimating the solubility of unknown radionuclide particles within the context of a simple model such as the class D, W, and Y formulation of ICRP 30.

  9. Rapid selective separation of americium/curium from simulated nuclear forensic matrices using triazine ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginson, Matthew A.; Livens, Francis R.; Heath, Sarah L. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Radiochemistry Research; Thompson, Paul; Marsden, Olivia J. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading (United Kingdom); Harwood, Laurence M.; Hudson, Michael J. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Lewis, Frank W. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Northumbria Univ., Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical and Forensic Sciences

    2015-07-01

    In analysis of complex nuclear forensic samples containing lanthanides, actinides and matrix elements, rapid selective extraction of Am/Cm for quantification is challenging, in particular due the difficult separation of Am/Cm from lanthanides. Here we present a separation process for Am/Cm(III) which is achieved using a combination of AG1-X8 chromatography followed by Am/Cm extraction with a triazine ligand. The ligands tested in our process were CyMe{sub 4}-BTPhen, CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP, CA-BTP and CA-BTPhen. Our process allows for purification and quantification of Am and Cm (recoveries 80% - 100%) and other major actinides in < 2 d without the use of multiple columns or thiocyanate. The process is unaffected by high level Ca(II)/Fe(III)/Al(III) (10 mg mL{sup -1}) and thus requires little pre-treatment of samples.

  10. Americium-Curium Stabilization - 5'' Cylindrical Induction Melter System Design Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, D.C.

    1999-11-08

    Approximately 11,000 liters (3,600) gallons of solution containing isotopes of Am and Cm are currently stored in F-Canyon Tank 17.1. These isotopes were recovered during plutonium-242 production campaigns in the mid- and late-1970s. Experimental work for the project began in 1995 by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). Details of the process are given in the various sections of this document.

  11. Concordant plutonium-241-americium-241 dating of environmental samples: results from forest fire ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oldham, Warren J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murrell, Michael T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katzman, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-07

    We have measured the Pu, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 151}Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu (t{sub 1/2} = 14.4 y)-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components including global fallout. There are a number of approaches for subtracting the global fallout component for such samples. One approach is to use {sup 242}/{sup 239}Pu as a normalizing isotope ratio in a three-isotope plot, where this ratio for the nonglobal fallout component can be estimated or assumed to be small. This study investigates a new, complementary method of normalization using the long-lived fission product, {sup 151}Sm (t{sub 1/2} = 90 y). We find that forest fire ash concentrates actinides and fission products with {approx}1E10 atoms {sup 239}Pu/g and {approx}1E8 atoms {sup 151}Sm/g, allowing us to measure these nuclides by mass spectrometric (MIC-TIMS) and radiometric (liquid scintillation counting) methods. The forest fire ash samples are characterized by a western U.S. regional isotopic signature representing varying mixtures of global fallout with a local component from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our results also show that {sup 151}Sm is well correlated with the Pu nuclides in the forest fire ash, suggesting that these nuclides have similar geochemical behavior in the environment. Results of this correlation indicate that the {sup 151}Sm/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio for global fallout is {approx}0.164, in agreement with an independent estimate of 0.165 based on {sup 137}Cs fission yields for atmospheric weapons tests at the NTS. {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating of the non-global fallout component in the forest fire ash samples yield ages in the late 1950's-early 1960's, consistent with a peak in NTS weapons testing at that time. The age results for this component are in agreement using both {sup 242}Pu and {sup 151}Sm normalizations, although the errors for the {sup 151}Sm correction are currently larger due to the greater uncertainty of their measurements. Additional efforts to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections are underway with emphasis on soil cores.

  12. Functional sorbents for selective capture of plutonium, americium, uranium, and thorium in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yantasee, Wassana; Sangvanich, Thanapon; Creim, Jeffery A; Pattamakomsan, Kanda; Wiacek, Robert J; Fryxell, Glen E; Addleman, R Shane; Timchalk, Charles

    2010-09-01

    Self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous supports (SAMMS) are hybrid materials created from attachment of organic moieties onto very high surface area mesoporous silica. SAMMS with surface chemistries including three isomers of hydroxypyridinone, diphosphonic acid, acetamide phosphonic acid, glycinyl urea, and diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) analog were evaluated for chelation of actinides ((239)Pu, (241)Am, uranium, thorium) from blood. Direct blood decorporation using sorbents does not have the toxicity or renal challenges associated with traditional chelation therapy and may have potential applications for critical exposure cases, reduction of nonspecific dose during actinide radiotherapy, and for sorbent hemoperfusion in renal insufficient patients, whose kidneys clear radionuclides at a very slow rate. Sorption affinity (K(d)), sorption rate, selectivity, and stability of SAMMS were measured in batch contact experiments. An isomer of hydroxypyridinone (3,4-HOPO) on SAMMS demonstrated the highest affinity for all four actinides from blood and plasma and greatly outperformed the DTPA analog on SAMMS and commercial resins. In batch contact, a fifty percent reduction of actinides in blood was achieved within minutes, and there was no evidence of protein fouling or material leaching in blood after 24 h. The engineered form of SAMMS (bead format) was further evaluated in a 100-fold scaled-down hemoperfusion device and showed no blood clotting after 2 h. A 0.2 g quantity of SAMMS could reduce 50 wt.% of 100 ppb uranium in 50 mL of plasma in 18 min and that of 500 dpm mL(-1) in 24 min. 3,4-HOPO-SAMMS has a long shelf-life in air and at room temperature for at least 8 y, indicating its feasibility for stockpiling in preparedness for an emergency. The excellent efficacy and stability of SAMMS materials in complex biological matrices suggest that SAMMS can also be used as orally administered drugs and for wound decontamination. By changing the organic groups of SAMMS, they can be used not only for actinides but also for other radionuclides. By using the mixture of these SAMMS materials, broad spectrum decorporation of radionuclides is very feasible.

  13. Subsurface Behavior of Plutonium and Americium at Non-Hanford Sites and Relevance to Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Riley, Robert G.

    2008-02-01

    Seven sites where Pu release to the environment has raised significant environmental concerns have been reviewed. A summary of the most significant hydrologic and geochemical features, contaminant release events and transport processes relevant to Pu migration at the seven sites is presented.

  14. New Synthetic Methods and Structure-Property Relationships in Neptunium, Plutonium, and Americium Borates. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas Edward

    2013-09-14

    The past three years of support by the Heavy Elements Chemistry Program have been highly productive in terms of advanced degrees awarded, currently supported graduate students, peer-reviewed publications, and presentations made at universities, national laboratories, and at international conferences. Ph.D. degrees were granted to Shuao Wang and Juan Diwu, who both went on to post-doctoral appointments at the Glenn T. Seaborg Center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with Jeff Long and Ken Raymond, respectively. Pius Adelani completed his Ph.D. with me and is now a post-doc with Peter C. Burns. Andrea Alsobrook finished her Ph.D. and is now a post-doc at Savannah River with Dave Hobbs. Anna Nelson completed her Ph.D. and is now a post-doc with Rod Ewing at the University of Michigan. As can be gleaned from this list, students supported by the Heavy Elements Chemistry grant have remained interested in actinide science after leaving my program. This follows in line with previous graduates in this program such as Richard E. Sykora, who did his post-doctoral work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with R. G. Haire, and Amanda C. Bean, who is a staff scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Philip M. Almond and Thomas C. Shehee, who are both staff scientists at Savannah River National Laboratory, Gengbang Jin who is a staff scientist at Argonne National Lab, and Travis Bray who has been a post-doc at both LBNL and ANL. Clearly this program is serving as a pipe-line for students to enter into careers in the national laboratories. About half of my students depart the DOE complex for academia or industry. My undergraduate researchers also remain active in actinide chemistry after leaving my group. Dan Wells was a productive undergraduate of mine, and went on to pursue a Ph.D. on uranium and neptunium chalcogenides with Jim Ibers at Northwestern. After earning his Ph.D., he went directly into the nuclear industry.

  15. Americium-241 and plutonium-237 turnover in mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) living in field enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guary, J. C.; Fowler, S. W.

    1981-02-01

    Loss of 241Am and 237Pu from contaminated mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) living in situ in the Mediterranean Sea is described as the sum of three exponential functions. In the case of 241Am, two short-lived compartments representing a total of 80% of the incorporated radionuclide turned over rapidly with biological half-lives of 2 and 3 weeks. The remaining fraction of 241Am, associated with a long-lived compartment, was lost at an extremely slow rate ( Tb1/2=1·3 years). Plutonium-237 turnover in the two short-lived compartments (containing 70% of the Pu) was more rapid ( Tb1/2=1-2 days and 2 weeks) than that of 241Am; however, there was some indication that subsequent loss rates of the two radionuclides in long-lived compartments may be similar if determined over comparable periods of time. Loss rates of 241Am differed for the various tissues, with the most rapid rates occurring in gill, viscera and shell. Abrupt changes in loss observed in muscle and mantle suggested a translocation of 241Am to muscle and mantle during depuration. Whole shell contained by far the largest fraction (˜90%) of both 241Am and 237Pu taken up; in addition, these radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to mussel shell but readily leach into the water. These observations suggest that mollusc shell may influence the biogeochemistry of transuranic elements in littoral zones.

  16. Plutonium and americium inventories in atmospheric fallout and sediment cores from Blelham Tarn, Cumbria (UK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, H. E-mail: herve.michel@unice.fr; Barci-Funel, G.; Dalmasso, J.; Ardisson, G.; Appleby, P.G.; Haworth, E.; El-Daoushy, F

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to report on the results of a study of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am inventories onto Blelham Tarn in Cumbria (UK). The atmospheric fallout inventory was obtained by analysing soil cores and the results are in good agreement with the literature: 101 Bq m{sup -2} for {sup 239+240}Pu; 4.5 Bq m{sup -2} for {sup 238}Pu and 37 Bq m{sup -2} for {sup 241}Am. The sediment core inventory for the whole lake is compared to the atmospheric fallout inventory. The sediment activity is 60-80% higher than the estimated fallout activity, showing a catchment area contribution and in particular the stream input.

  17. Plutonium and americium inventories in atmospheric fallout and sediment cores from Blelham Tarn, Cumbria (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, H; Barci-Funel, G; Dalmasso, J; Ardisson, G; Appleby, P G; Haworth, E; El-Daoushy, F

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report on the results of a study of 238Pu, 239 + 240Pu and 241Am inventories onto Blelham Tarn in Cumbria (UK). The atmospheric fallout inventory was obtained by analysing soil cores and the results are in good agreement with the literature: 101 Bq m(-2) for 239 + 240Pu; 4.5 Bq m(-2) for 238Pu and 37 Bq m(-2) for 241Am. The sediment core inventory for the whole lake is compared to the atmospheric fallout inventory. The sediment activity is 60-80% higher than the estimated fallout activity, showing a catchment area contribution and in particular the stream input.

  18. Assessment of Neptunium, Americium, and Curium in the Savannah River Site Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-12-17

    A series of documents has been published in which the impact of various radionuclides released to the environment by Savannah River Site (SRS) operations has been assessed. The quantity released, the disposition of the radionuclides in the environment, and the dose to offsite individuals has been presented for activation products, carbon cesium, iodine, plutonium, selected fission products, strontium, technetium, tritium, uranium, and the noble gases. An assessment of the impact of nonradioactive mercury also has been published.This document assesses the impact of radioactive transuranics released from SRS facilities since the first reactor became operational late in 1953. The isotopes reported here are 239Np, 241Am, and 244Cm.

  19. Fundamental chemistry and materials science of americium in selected immobilization glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haire, R.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stump, N.A. [Winston-Salem State Univ., NC (United States). Dept. of Physical Sciences

    1996-12-01

    We have pursued some of the fundamental chemistry and materials science of Am in 3 glass matrices, two being high-temperature (850 and 1400 C mp) silicate-based glasses and the third a sol-gel glass. Optical spectroscopy was the principal tool. One aspect of this work was to determine the oxidation state exhibited by Am in these matrices, as well as factors that control or may alter this state. A correlation was noted between the oxidation state of the f-elements in the two high-temperature glasses with their high-temperature oxide chemistries. One exception was Am: although AmO{sub 2} is the stable oxide encountered in air, when this dioxide was incorporated into the high-temperature glasses, only trivalent Am was found in the products. When Am(III) was used to prepare the sol-gel glasses at ambient temperature, and after these products were heated in air to 800 C, only Am(III) was observed. Potential explanations for the unexpected Am behavior is offered in the context of its basic chemistry. Experimental spectra, spectroscopic assignments, etc. are discussed.

  20. Americium, curium and neodymium analysis in ECRIX-H irradiated pellet. Sample preparation for TIMS measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esbelin, E.; Buravand, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France). Centre de Marcoule; Bejaoui, S.; Lamontagne, J.; Bonnerot, J.M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France). Centre de Cadarache

    2013-08-01

    This paper concerns quantitative isotopic analysis of Am, Cm and Nd contained in an irradiated AmO{sub 1.62}/MgO pellet. The complete analysis protocol is described, from dissolution of the pellets in a shielded line to the laboratory glove separation processes box for TIMS analysis. Emphasis is placed on the separation processes: by ion exchange resin in a hot cell and by HPLC in the laboratory. Intermediate measurements by X-ray fluorescence, alpha spectrometry, and ICP-AES are described. (orig.)

  1. Optimization of TRPO Process Parameters for Americium Extraction from High Level Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jing; WANG Jianchen; SONG Chongli

    2001-01-01

    The numerical calculations for Am multistage fractional extraction by trialkyl phosphine oxide (TRPO) were verified by a hot test.1750 L/t-U high level waste (HLW) was used as the feed to the TRPO process.The analysis used the simple objective function to minimize the total waste content in the TRPO process streams.Some process parameters were optimized after other parameters were selected.The optimal process parameters for Am extraction by TRPO are:10 stages for extraction and 2 stages for scrubbing;a flow rate ratio of 0.931 for extraction and 4.42 for scrubbing;nitric acid concentration of 1.35 mol/L for the feed and 0.5 mol/L for the scrubbing solution.Finally,the nitric acid and Am concentration profiles in the optimal TRPO extraction process are given.

  2. Vertical distribution of radiocaesium, plutonium and americium in the Catalan Sea (northwestern Mediterranean)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molero, J.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Merino, J.; Pujol, Ll.; Vidal-Quadras, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias; Mitchell, P.I. [University Coll., Dublin (Ireland). Lab. of Radiation Physics

    1995-07-01

    Caesium-137, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am concentration profiles (0-1000 m) have been determined in unfiltered large volume water samples collected from the Catalan Sea (northwestern Mediterranean). Results showed that radiocaesium concentration decreases quickly through the water column while the transuranic concentration increases with depth, showing a faster migration to the bottom layers. Comparing our results with those reported by other authors (1975-1980), radiocaesium input from Chernobyl releases has been identified through the profile. In addition, transuranic concentrations have decreased considerably in the different layers of the profile. (Author).

  3. Americium and plutonium separation by extraction chromatography for determination by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazi, Zakir H. [Department of Earth Science, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur Avenue, Ottawa K1N 6N5 (Canada); Cornett, Jack R., E-mail: jack.cornett@uottawa.ca [Department of Earth Science, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur Avenue, Ottawa K1N 6N5 (Canada); Zhao, Xaiolei; Kieser, Liam [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur Avenue, Ottawa K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Am and Pu were adsorbed and separated using a single extraction chromatography DGA column. • Pu was eluted from the column completely using on-column reduction of Pu(IV) to Pu(III). • ²⁴¹Am and 239,240Pu measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) agree with the certified values in two SRMs. Abstract: A simple method was developed to separate Pu and Am using single column extraction chromatography employing N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide (DGA) resin. Isotope dilution measurements of Am and Pu were performed using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and alpha spectrometry. For maximum adsorption Pu was stabilized in the tetra valent oxidation state in 8 M HNO₃ with 0.05 M NaNO₂ before loading the sample onto the resin. Am(III) was adsorbed also onto the resin from concentrated HNO₃, and desorbed with 0.1 M HCl while keeping the Pu adsorbed. The on-column reduction of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) with 0.02 M TiCl₃ facilitated the complete desorption of Pu. Interferences (e.g. Ca²⁺, Fe³⁺) were washed off from the resin bed with excess HNO₃. Using NdF₃, micro-precipitates of the separated isotopes were prepared for analysis by both AMS and alpha spectrometry. The recovery was 97.7 ± 5.3% and 95.5 ± 4.6% for ²⁴¹Am and ²⁴²Pu respectively in reagents without a matrix. The recoveries of the same isotopes were 99.1 ± 6.0 and 96.8 ± 5.3% respectively in garden soil. The robustness of the method was validated using certified reference materials (IAEA 384 and IAEA 385). The measurements agree with the certified values over a range of about 1–100 Bq kg⁻¹. The single column separation of Pu and Am saves reagents, separation time, and cost.

  4. Criteria Considered in Selecting Feed Items for Americium-241 Oxide Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Louis D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-30

    The analysis in this document serves the purpose of defining a number of attributes in selection of feed items to be utilized in recovery/recycle of Pu and also production operations of 241AmO2 material intended to meet specification requirements. This document was written in response to a specific request on the part of the 2014 annual program review which took place over the dates of October 28-29, 2014. A number of feed attributes are noted including: (1) Non-interference with existing Pu recovery operations; (2) Content of sufficient 241Am to allow process efficiency in recovery operations; (3) Absence of indications that 243Am might be mixed in with the Pu/241Am material; (4) Absence of indications that Cm might be mixed in with the Pu/241Am material; (5) Absence of indications of other chemical elements that would present difficulty in chemical separation from 241Am; (6) Feed material not expected to present difficulty in dissolution; (7) Dose issues; (8) Process efficiency; (9) Size; (10) Hazard associated with items and package configuration in the vault; (11) Within existing NEPA documentation. The analysis in this document provides a baseline of attributes considered for feed materials, but does not presume to replace the need for technical expertise and judgment on the part of individuals responsible for selecting the material feed to be processed. This document is not comprehensive as regards all attributes that could prove to be important. The value of placing a formal QA hold point on accepting feed items versus more informal management of feed items is discussed in the summation of this analysis. The existing planned QA hold points on 241AmO2 products produced and packaged may be adequate as the entire project is based on QA of the product rather than QA of the process. The probability of introduction of items that would inherently cause the241AmO2 products produced to be outside of specification requirements appears to be rather small.

  5. 2,4,6-Tri-p-tolylpyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Ping Tang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C26H23N, the complete molecule is generated by crystallographic mirror symmetry, with the N atom and four C atoms lying on the reflection plane. The dihedral angles between the pyridine ring and pendant benzene rings are 2.9 (1, 14.1 (1 and 14.1 (1°. Neighbouring molecules are stabilized through intermolecular π–π interactions along the c axis [centroid-to-centroid distance = 3.804 (2 Å], forming one-dimensional chains.

  6. 7 CFR 246.16 - Distribution of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN... percent of poverty criterion. The Department will determine each State agency's population of persons categorically eligible for WIC which are at or below 185% of poverty, through the best available,...

  7. Dicty_cDB: SSJ246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ifihf*kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: kl*nviqiitinhkc*lnpkesnffnfsrkhtik**cstlrccstccnsrfid...nfsrkhtik**cstlrccstccnsrfidccrccsy lnlqriln*liihilipweifenlivylinn*LYLLIFKKKKKKK...AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA sequence update 1998.12.21 Translated Amino Acid sequence kl*nviqiitinhkc*lnpkesnff

  8. Dicty_cDB: SFJ246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cssiqfsfgyekaiasfypppgdlhptthnfwacnsvinqnggfgplecnnagi yaifstaneiidgneymlplfyigrstidvrdriadh...hnfwacnsvinqnggfgplecnnagi yaifstaneiidgneymlplfyigrstidvrdriadhsrrnhvdndfivcymrfpalddy gysnkvtpveqallhqfktq

  9. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 246 - Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... D. S&S Job Shop Printing. The S&S are authorized to operate job shop printing, to include book... daily basis for transportation to, and distribution in, the designated area of operations, as requested... on a timely basis and intratheater distribution of daily Stars and Stripes newspapers as part...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix to Part 246 - Recommended Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Belknap, M. Paper recycling: a business perspective. Subcommittee on Solid Waste, New York Chamber of... Publication SW-155. Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975. 26 p. Hansen, P. Solid waste recycling... Printing Office, 1973. 284 p. Lingle, S. A. Paper recycling in the United States. Washington,...

  11. The Reactivity of 2,4,6-Tirphenylpyridinium Ylids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Triphenylpyridinium ylid 2, generated by the decarboxylation of betaine 1, were noted to react with acetyl chloride, chloroform or acetone to form addition-elimination product and proton extraction - carbanion addition products, respectively. The reaction with chloroform was determined as pseudo first order from kinetic experiments. The values of kobsd and t1/2 for decarboxylation at 20, 40 and 50°C were calculated to be 4.6 x 10-4, 8.8 x 10-3, 2.8 x 10-2 min-1 and 1.5 x 103, 78, 24 minutes, respectively.

  12. 1935 15' Quad #246 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. Water Quality Criteria for 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    remove TNT from wastewater streams was evaluated by Kaplan and Kaplan (1982) using the Ames assay. The surfactants were Duoquad T-50 (N- tallow -N’N’N...8217-trimethvl-NN-dimethyl-l,3-diamino-propane). Duomeen T (N- tallow -l,3-diamino-propaoe, white waxy solid), and Arquad T-50 (N- tallow -trimethylammonium...chemical pol- lutant: a) Carcinogenicity, b) Toxicity, and c) Organoleptic (taste and odor ) effects. The meanings and practical uses of the criteria

  14. Dicty_cDB: SHB246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available JBW092C02 similar to undiscovered sequence, mRNA sequence. 30 0.004 3 AC141063 |AC141063.1 Homo sapiens chr...8982.1 JBW092C02.b_012.abi Pineapple week 5-10 nematode-infected gall cDNA library Ananas comosus cDNA clone

  15. 7 CFR 246.23 - Claims and penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN... otherwise, that any Program funds provided to a State agency for supplemental foods or nutrition...

  16. 7 CFR 246.25 - Records and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN..., equipment purchases and inventory, certification, nutrition education, civil rights and fair...

  17. 7 CFR 246.12 - Food delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN... the delivery of health and nutrition education services to participants. (e) Retail food...

  18. 7 CFR 246.1 - General purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN... Agriculture shall carry out the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children...

  19. 48 CFR 52.246-21 - Warranty of Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... remedy at the Contractor's expense any damage to Government-owned or controlled real or personal property...) Alternate I (APR 1984). If the Government specifies in the contract the use of any equipment by brand name... Government on a brand name and model basis, shall not be included in this warranty. In this event,...

  20. Dicty_cDB: CHM246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ryidstcsccfngdgxsgdwkelaksrglanlpstpealt ninsekniqlfcesnilspvelesrqxilfexynksikieanslyd*VSTLVLPACXAHQ KNIAES...ciq*nq*ryidstcsccfngdgxsgdwkelaksrglanlpstpealt ninsekniqlfcesnilspvelesrqxilfexy

  1. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 246 - Editorial Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standard code of personal and professional ethics and general editorial principles similar to those... professional ethics. d. Emphasis on content accuracy, objectivity, and fair representation of all sides of an... news of independent investigations furnished by commercial media and, therefore, in the public...

  2. Dicty_cDB: VHD246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l*defpitlsidrnwssrs*ilfihveinsrik*tfs*nsstfttcrc*ly pssfk**eyl*nrxkxxxnsr Translated Amino Acid sequence (Al...gitksreill*defpitlsidrnwssrs*ilfihveinsrik*tfs*nsstfttcrc*ly pssfk**eyl*nrxkxxxnsr Frame B: isn*hahiikili*si

  3. Dicty_cDB: SHI246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 111 length of database: 80,480,566 effective HSP length: 17 effective length of query: 94 effective length o...f database: 78,821,179 effective search space: 7409190826 effective search space used: 7409190826 T: 0 A: 0 ...han 10.0: 0 length of query: 111 length of database: 61,358,773,460 effective HSP length: 22 effective length of query: 89 effective... length of database: 60,109,362,660 effective search space: 5349733276740 effective

  4. Dicty_cDB: VFN246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ELPDGQVITIGNERFRXPEALFQPSX LGMEXAGIHGTTYXSIMKCDVXIRKXLYGXVVXXGGTXMFPGXADRMNKELXALAPSXHE N*nhcstrt*xlcldwwixl...YELPDGQVITIGNERFRXPEALFQPSX LGMEXAGIHGTTYXSIMKCDVXIRKXLYGXVVXXGGTXMFPGXADRMNKELXALAPSXHE N*nhcstrt*xlcldwwix

  5. Bromido(2,4,6-trimethylphenylmercury(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Meyer-Wegner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Molecules of the title compound, [HgBr(C9H11], are located on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis. Due to the molecular symmetry, the HgII atom is linearly coordinated by the ipso-C of the mesityl group and the Br atom. In the crystal, molecules lie in planes parallel to (001.

  6. Analytical Chemistry of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    resonance absorption spectroscopy techniques involving NMR, electron spin resonance, and nuclear quadrupole resonance ( NQR ), were investigated for the...ref 135). The NQR was used for the determination of the chemical structure, crystalline states, and morphology of TNT (ref 136). The NMR was used...157). The detection of TNT vapors with an ion mobility spectrometer , a type of PCMS, is described, together with other methods of detection (ref 158

  7. 7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... The State agency must conduct the procurement in a manner that maximizes full and open competition... manufacturer. The State agency must use the aggregate market share of the manufacturers submitting bids in... with developing and implementing—but not operating—each cost containment system. This includes...

  8. Dicty_cDB: SHH246 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available influenzae Rd Genome,Fragments Thereof, and Uses Thereof. 44 1e-04 2 U32767 |U32767.1 Haemophilus influenza...e Nucleotide Sequence of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd Genome,Fragments Thereof, and Uses Thereof. 44 1e-04

  9. 48 CFR 252.246-7001 - Warranty of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Remedies. The following remedies shall apply to all breaches of the warranty, whether the Contractor... exceed ten percent of the total contract price. (ii) If the breach of the warranty is with respect to the..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions...

  10. Decree number 1.246 of September 16, 1994; Decreto no. 1.246 de 16 de setembro de 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-16

    Promulgates the Treaty for Proscription of Nuclear Weapon in Latin America and Caribbean - Tlatelolco Treaty, held in Mexico City in February 14, 1967 an the Resolutions numbers 267(E-V), of July 3, 1990, 268 (XII), of May 10, 1991 and 290 (VII), of August 26, 1992, all of them adopted by the General Conference of the Organism for the Proscription of Nuclear Weapon in Latin America and Caribbean (OPANAL) in Mexico City.

  11. Hypericin from St. John's Wort (hypericum perforatum) as a novel natural fluorophore for chemiluminescence reaction of bis (2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-imidazole and quenching effect of some natural lipophilic hydrogen peroxide scavengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazemi, Sayed Yahya [Department of Basic Sciences, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, P.O. Box 578, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abedirad, Seyed Mohammad, E-mail: mabedirad@yahoo.com [Department of Basic Sciences, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, P.O. Box 578, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zali, Seyed Hassan; Amiri, Mohadeseh [Department of Range and Watershed Management, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, P.O. Box 578, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Hypericin (HYP) molecule is a natural photoactive pigment, which plays a role as an effective photoreceptor in some plants of the Hypericum species (the most common of which is Saint John's Wort) and some insect species. The present work deals with the first attempt to the study of peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence (POCL) system in the presense of HYP as a natural fluorophore. Reaction of bis (2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate(TCPO)-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-imidazole can transfer energy to a HYP via formation of dioxetane through the chemically initiated electron exchange luminescence (CIEEL) mechanism and can emits a very intense red light. The effects of HYP, hydrogen peroxide, TCPO and imidazole concentrations on kinetic chemiluminescence parameters were also studied. These parameters including rise and fall rate constant for the chemiluminescence burst, theoretical and experimental maximum intensity, theoretical and experimental time to reach maximum intensity and total light yield emission were evaluated by using a pooled intermediate model for a non-linear least-squares curve fitting program, KINFIT. Moreover, quenching effect of two lipophilic natural antioxidant, Quercetin and {beta}-carotene on it system was also investigated. The measurable concentration range of 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M to 7.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M of antioxidants were evaluated from the proper Stern-Volmer plots with satisfactory RSD% and corresponding detection limits of 2.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} and 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} for {beta}-carotene and quercetin respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Red fluorophores may therefore chemiluminescence more intensely than other commonly chemiluminophores and emits light in longer wavelengths. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypericin from St. John's wort (hypericum perforatum) as natural red fluorophore for peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence was introduced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quenching

  12. 超声波辅助-顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱法测定软木塞中痕量2,4,6-三氯苯甲醚%Determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole(TCA)in corks by ultrasonic oscillation assisted headspace solid-phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素娟

    2015-01-01

    Through the optimization of the extraction process of Wine corks, a method for determining 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) in wine corks has been estabilished by using Ultrasonic Oscillation assisted HS-SPME-GC .The correlation coefficient for linearity (R2), limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of this method were 0.999 8, 0.2 ng/g, and 0.5 ng/g, respectively. The precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was between 1.35%~5.47%, and recoveries ranged from 81.5%to 97.8%. The method is simple, quick, easy op-erating, high accuracy, good reproducibility and suitable for general laboratory to detect trace TCA residues in wine corks.%通过对软木塞样品提取过程的优化,建立了超声波法辅助顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱仪检测软木塞中痕量2,4,6-三氯苯甲醚(TCA)的方法。试验结果表明,该方法的线性范围0.5 ng/L~80.0 ng/L,R2为0.9998,线性关系良好。方法检出限为0.2 ng/g,方法定量限为0.5 ng/g,精密度(RSD)在1.35%~5.47%之间,加标回收率为81.5%~97.8%。该方法操作简便、快速、易操作、准确度高、重现性好,适用于普通实验室对软木塞中痕量2,4,6-三氯苯甲醚残留的检测。

  13. Neutron Nuclear Data Evaluation of Actinoid Nuclei for CENDL-3.1

    CERN Document Server

    Guo-Chang, Chen; Bao-Sheng, Yu; Guo-You, Tang; Zhao-Min, Shi; Xi, Tao

    2011-01-01

    New evaluations for several actinoids of the third version of China Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (CENDL-3.1) have been completed during the period between 2000 and 2005. The evaluations are for all neutron induced reactions with Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium and Americium in the mass range A=232-241, 236-239, 236-246 and 240-244, respectively, and cover the incident neutron energy up to 20 MeV. In present evaluation, much more efforts were devoted to improve reliability of nuclide for available new measured data, especially scarce experimental data. A general description for the evaluation of several actinoids data were presented.

  14. 类石墨相氮化碳量子点(g-CNQDs)用于水质中三硝基苯酚的检测%Fluorescent Sensor Based on Graphite Carbon Nitride Quantum Dots for Detection of 2,4,6-Trinitrophenol in Water Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓学祖; 王方明; 王彩荷; 秦冬冬; 李毅然; 陕多亮; 卢小泉

    2016-01-01

    An extremely efficient, sensitive and facile fluorescent sensing approach for detection of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol ( TNP ) based on the graphite carbon nitride quantum dots ( g-CNQDs ) was reported. The g-CNQDs material, a novel nanometer sized semiconductor with distinct characteristics of good water-solubility, biocompatibility, environmental-friendly nontoxicity property, was successfully prepared by solid-state reaction strategy at an extremely low temperature, and we revealed that the fluorescence quenching of g-CNQDs ascribe to the molecular interactions ( such as electrostatic,仔-仔, and hydrogen bonding interactions) between TNP and g-CNQDs. This fluorescence sensor presented high selectivity toward TNP with quick response. In the experiment, we found that g-CNQDs exhibited fine linear relationship in the concentration of 0. 1 -100 μmol/L and 0. 1-100 μmol/L of TNP with a low detection limit (0. 05 nmol/L, S/N=3). The proposed approach has a perfectly potential application prospect in fluorescence sensing field, and can be employed for determination of TNP in natural water samples and supervision of TNP in the natural water environment.%基于类石墨相氮化碳量子点( g-CNQDs)建立了一种高效、灵敏、简单的荧光化学传感器用于检测水相中的三硝基苯酚( TNP)。 g-CNQDs是一种新型纳米半导体材料,具有很好的水溶性、生物相容性、环境友好、良好荧光特性,无毒性,通过简单的固相反应法,制备了g-CNQDs材料,探讨了g-CNQDs与TNP之间的相互作用(如仔-仔共轭作用、氢键相互作用和静电作用)引起的g-CNQDs荧光猝灭过程。此荧光传感器响应速度快,对TNP具有良好的选择性。实验结果表明,本方法在0.1~100 nmol/L和0.1~100μmol/L的浓度范围内呈现良好的线性关系,检出限为0.05 nmol/L ( S/N=3)。 g-CNQDs材料在化学传感器方面有很好的应用前景,利用此荧光传感器对实际水样中的TNP进行了

  15. A Review of Subsurface Behavior of Plutonium and Americium at the 200-PW-1/3/6 Operable Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Riley, Robert G.

    2008-01-31

    This report begins with a brief summary of the history and current status of 200-PW-1/3/6 OUs in section 2.0. This is followed by a description of our concentual model of Pu/Am migration at the 200-PW-1/3/6 OUs, during both past artificial recharge conditions and current natural recharge condictions (section 3.0). Section 4.0 discusses data gaps and information needs. The final section (section 5.0) provides recommendations for futher work to address the data gaps and information needs identified in section 4.0.

  16. Input contribution and vertical migration of plutonium, americium and cesium in lake sediments (Belham Tarn, Cumbria, UK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, H.; Barci-Funel, G.; Barci, V.; Ardisson, G. [Lab. de Radiochimie et de Radioecologie, Univ. de Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice (France)

    2002-07-01

    The record of the global atmospheric fallout could be found in the lake sediments. A mass balance for fallout radionuclides in Blelham Tarn and its catchment is established. The sediment activity contribution is coming from direct atmospheric fallout and from indirect atmospheric fallout via the catchment. The catchement activity is conveyed to the sediment by the rivers and the direct streaming. A comparison of the fallout and the sediment inventory allows the activity estimation of these different contributions and to understand the mobility of these elements on the catchment and in the sediments. The study of activity profile in sediment core allows to characterise the different radioactive events occurred in the past. For the lake Blelham, the results show two cesium activity peaks and only one peak for transuranic activities. The deepest peaks correspond to the atmospheric nuclear test fallout in the sixties (1963) and the second peak to the Chernobyl accident (1986). The activity ratio {sup 239-240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs allows estimating the ratio between cesium activities in sediments coming from these two events. Plutonium and cesium diffusion coefficients are calculated with a simple analytical model. (orig.)

  17. Analysis of cascade impactor and EPA method 29 data from the americium/curium pilot melter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J.R.

    1997-11-01

    The offgas system of the Am/Cm pilot melter at TNX was characterized by measuring the particulate evolution using a cascade impactor and EPA Method 29. This sampling work was performed by John Harden of the Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory, under SCUREF Task SC0056. Elemental analyses were performed by the SRTC Mobile Laboratory.Operation of the Am/Cm melter with B2000 frit has resulted in deposition of PbO and boron compounds in the offgas system that has contributed to pluggage of the High Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME). Sampling of the offgas system was performed to quantify the amount of particulate in the offgas system under several sets of conditions. Particulate concentration and particle size distribution were measured just downstream of the melter pressure control air addition port and at the HEME inlet. At both locations, the particulate was measured with and without steam to the film cooler while the melter was idled at about 1450 degrees Celsius. Additional determinations were made at the melter location during feeding and during idling at 1150 degrees Celsius rather than 1450 degrees Celsius (both with no steam to the film cooler). Deposition of particulates upstream of the melter sample point may have, and most likely did occur in each run, so the particulate concentrations measured do no necessarily reflect the total particulate emission at the melt surface. However, the data may be used in a relative sense to judge the system performance.

  18. Rapid selective separation of americium/curium\\ud from simulated nuclear forensic matrices using\\ud triazine ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Higginson, Matthew A.; Thompson, Paul; Marsden, Olivia J.; Livens, Francis R.; Harwood, Laurence M.; Lewis, Frank W.; Hudson, Michael J.; Heath, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    In analysis of complex nuclear forensic samples\\ud containing lanthanides, actinides and matrix elements,\\ud rapid selective extraction of Am/Cm for quantification\\ud is challenging, in particular due the difficult separation\\ud of Am/Cm from lanthanides. Here we present\\ud a separation process for Am/Cm(III) which is achieved\\ud using a combination of AG1-X8 chromatography followed\\ud by Am/Cm extraction with a triazine ligand. The ligands\\ud tested in our process were CyMe4-BTPhen, CyMe4-\\u...

  19. LITERATURE REVIEW ON THE SORPTION OF PLUTONIUM, URANIUM, NEPTUNIUM, AMERICIUM AND TECHNETIUM TO CORROSION PRODUCTS ON WASTE TANK LINERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.; Kaplan, D.

    2012-02-29

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has conducted performance assessment (PA) calculations to determine the risk associated with closing liquid waste tanks. The PA estimates the risk associated with a number of scenarios, making various assumptions. Throughout all of these scenarios, it is assumed that the carbon-steel tank liners holding the liquid waste do not sorb the radionuclides. Tank liners have been shown to form corrosion products, such as Fe-oxyhydroxides (Wiersma and Subramanian 2002). Many corrosion products, including Fe-oxyhydroxides, at the high pH values of tank effluent, take on a very strong negative charge. Given that many radionuclides may have net positive charges, either as free ions or complexed species, it is expected that many radionuclides will sorb to corrosion products associated with tank liners. The objective of this report was to conduct a literature review to investigate whether Pu, U, Np, Am and Tc would sorb to corrosion products on tank liners after they were filled with reducing grout (cementitious material containing slag to promote reducing conditions). The approach was to evaluate radionuclides sorption literature with iron oxyhydroxide phases, such as hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) and ferrihydrite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} {center_dot} 0.5H{sub 2}O). The primary interest was the sorption behavior under tank closure conditions where the tanks will be filled with reducing cementitious materials. Because there were no laboratory studies conducted using site specific experimental conditions, (e.g., high pH and HLW tank aqueous and solid phase chemical conditions), it was necessary to extend the literature review to lower pH studies and noncementitious conditions. Consequently, this report relied on existing lower pH trends, existing geochemical modeling, and experimental spectroscopic evidence conducted at lower pH levels. The scope did not include evaluating the appropriateness of K{sub d} values for the Fe-oxyhydroxides, but instead to evaluate whether it is a conservative assumption to exclude this sorption process of radionuclides onto tank liner corrosion products in the PA model. This may identify another source for PA conservatism since the modeling did not consider any sorption by the tank liner.

  20. Neutron nuclear data evaluation of actinide nuclei for CENDL-3.1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo-Chang; CAO Wen-Tian; YU Bao-Sheng; TANG Guo-You; SHI Zhao-Min; TAO Xi

    2012-01-01

    New evaluations for several actinide nuclei of the third version of Chinese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library for Neutron Reaction Data (CENDL-3.1) have been completed and released.The evaluation is for all neutron induced reactions with uranium,neptunium,plutonium and americium in the mass range A=232-241,236-239,236-246 and 240-244,respectively,and cover the incident neutron energy up to 20 MeV.In the present evaluation,much more effort was devoted to improving the reliability of the evaluated nuclear data for available new measured data,especially scarce or absent experimental data.A general description for the evaluation of several actinides' data is presented.

  1. Thermophilic Transformation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene in Composting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION O𔄁rHIS PAGES(WhO DOa Eaif.MQ 20. original 14C-label became bound into humus -like components, becoming un- ’extractable with...generally followed the procedure of Kononova and Bel’Chicova 15 and Stevenson . 16 Extracts were analyzed by IR and mass spectroscopy on a Finnegan...lOOmL IN NaOH, a drying tube, and an activated carbon 15 Kononova, M. M. and N. P. Bel’chikova. 1961. Quick methods of determining the humus

  2. Fate of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene in a Simulated Compost System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    of agricultural and other wastes. J. K. R. Gasser, ed., Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London, 42-55. Stevenson , F. J. (1989). Humus chemistry...vii 1 Introduction Background and Rationale Composting is generally defined as a microbial process for conversion of organic wastes into humus under...acetonitrile. Organic matter fractionation: Experiment IV. The organic matter frac- tionation procedure was adapted from Stevenson (1989) (Figure 3

  3. Crystal structure of 5-chloro-3-cyclohexylsulfinyl-2,4,6-trimethyl-1-benzofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Dae Choi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C17H21ClO2S, the cyclohexyl ring adopts a chair conformation with the C—S bond in an equatorial orientation. In the crystal, molecules are linked by C—H...O and C—H...π hydrogen bonds and a Cl...π [3.594 (2 Å] contact into chains along the a-axis direction.

  4. 3-(4-Fluorophenylsulfinyl-2,4,6-trimethyl-1-benzofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uk Lee

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C17H15FO2S, the O atom and the 4-fluorophenyl group of the 4-fluorophenylsulfinyl substituent lie on opposite sides of the plane of the benzofuran; the 4-fluorophenyl ring is almost perpendicular to this plane, making a dihedral angle of 88.99 (4°. The crystal structure exhibits intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds and C—H...π interactions between the methyl H atom and the 4-fluorophenyl ring.

  5. 3-(3-Fluorophenylsulfinyl-2,4,6-trimethyl-1-benzofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Ja Seo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C17H15FO2S, the 3-fluorophenyl ring makes a dihedral angle of 78.38 (4° with the mean plane of the benzofuran fragment. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak C—H...O and C—H...π interactions. The crystal structure also exhibits a slipped π–π interaction between the furan and benzene rings of neighbouring molecules [centroid–centroid distances = 3.628 (2 Å, interplanar distance = 3.417 (2 Å and slippage = 1.219 (2 Å].

  6. 3-(2-Fluorophenylsulfinyl-2,4,6-trimethyl-1-benzofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Dae Choi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C17H15FO2S, the 2-fluorophenyl ring makes a dihedral angle of 87.53 (5° with the mean plane [r.m.s. deviation = 0.013 (1 Å] of the benzofuran fragment. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak C—H...F, C—H...O and C—H...π interactions, forming a three-dimensional network.

  7. 48 CFR 252.246-7003 - Notification of Potential Safety Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Administrative Contracting Officer (ACO) and the Procuring Contracting Officer (PCO) as soon as practicable, but... notification to the ACO and the PCO within 5 working days that includes— (i) A summary of the defect or... ACO and the PCO, if the subcontractor is aware of the ACO and the PCO for the contract. (End of clause)...

  8. A meta-analysis of 120 246 individuals identifies 18 new loci for fibrinogen concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Paul S; Chasman, Daniel I; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Chen, Ming-Huei; Huffman, Jennifer E; Steri, Maristella; Tang, Weihong; Teumer, Alexander; Marioni, Riccardo E; Grossmann, Vera; Hottenga, Jouke J; Trompet, Stella; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brody, Jennifer A; Kleber, Marcus E; Guo, Xiuqing; Wang, Jie Jin; Auer, Paul L; Attia, John R; Yanek, Lisa R; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Lahti, Jari; Venturini, Cristina; Tanaka, Toshiko; Bielak, Lawrence F; Joshi, Peter K; Rocanin-Arjo, Ares; Kolcic, Ivana; Navarro, Pau; Rose, Lynda M; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Riess, Helene; Mazur, Johanna; Basu, Saonli; Goel, Anuj; Yang, Qiong; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Willemsen, Gonneke; Rumley, Ann; Fiorillo, Edoardo; de Craen, Anton J M; Grotevendt, Anne; Scott, Robert; Taylor, Kent D; Delgado, Graciela E; Yao, Jie; Kifley, Annette; Kooperberg, Charles; Qayyum, Rehan; Lopez, Lorna M; Berentzen, Tina L; Räikkönen, Katri; Mangino, Massimo; Bandinelli, Stefania; Peyser, Patricia A; Wild, Sarah; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Wright, Alan F; Marten, Jonathan; Zemunik, Tatijana; Morrison, Alanna C; Sennblad, Bengt; Tofler, Geoffrey; de Maat, Moniek P M; de Geus, Eco J C; Lowe, Gordon D; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Sattar, Naveed; Binder, Harald; Völker, Uwe; Waldenberger, Melanie; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Mcknight, Barbara; Huang, Jie; Jenny, Nancy S; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Qi, Lihong; Mcevoy, Mark G; Becker, Diane M; Starr, John M; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Hysi, Pirro G; Hernandez, Dena G; Jhun, Min A; Campbell, Harry; Hamsten, Anders; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Mcardle, Wendy L; Slagboom, P Eline; Zeller, Tanja; Koenig, Wolfgang; Psaty, Bruce M; Haritunians, Talin; Liu, Jingmin; Palotie, Aarno; Uitterlinden, André G; Stott, David J; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Polasek, Ozren; Rudan, Igor; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Wilson, James F; Kardia, Sharon L R; Ferrucci, Luigi; Spector, Tim D; Eriksson, Johan G; Hansen, Torben; Deary, Ian J; Becker, Lewis C; Scott, Rodney J; Mitchell, Paul; März, Winfried; Wareham, Nick J; Peters, Annette; Greinacher, Andreas; Wild, Philipp S; Jukema, J Wouter; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hayward, Caroline; Cucca, Francesco; Tracy, Russell; Watkins, Hugh; Reiner, Alex P; Folsom, Aaron R; Ridker, Paul M; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Smith, Nicholas L; Strachan, David P; Dehghan, Abbas

    2016-01-15

    Genome-wide association studies have previously identified 23 genetic loci associated with circulating fibrinogen concentration. These studies used HapMap imputation and did not examine the X-chromosome. 1000 Genomes imputation provides better coverage of uncommon variants, and includes indels. We conducted a genome-wide association analysis of 34 studies imputed to the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel and including ∼120 000 participants of European ancestry (95 806 participants with data on the X-chromosome). Approximately 10.7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 1.2 million indels were examined. We identified 41 genome-wide significant fibrinogen loci; of which, 18 were newly identified. There were no genome-wide significant signals on the X-chromosome. The lead variants of five significant loci were indels. We further identified six additional independent signals, including three rare variants, at two previously characterized loci: FGB and IRF1. Together the 41 loci explain 3% of the variance in plasma fibrinogen concentration.

  9. A meta-analysis of 120 246 individuals identifies 18 new loci for fibrinogen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Paul S; Chasman, Daniel I; Sabater-Lleal, Maria;

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have previously identified 23 genetic loci associated with circulating fibrinogen concentration. These studies used HapMap imputation and did not examine the X-chromosome. 1000 Genomes imputation provides better coverage of uncommon variants, and includes indels. We...... examined. We identified 41 genome-wide significant fibrinogen loci; of which, 18 were newly identified. There were no genome-wide significant signals on the X-chromosome. The lead variants of five significant loci were indels. We further identified six additional independent signals, including three rare...... variants, at two previously characterized loci: FGB and IRF1. Together the 41 loci explain 3% of the variance in plasma fibrinogen concentration....

  10. 48 CFR 552.246-70 - Source Inspection by Quality Approved Manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Standard 368 or the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standard 9001:2000... required inspections and tests. (2) In addition to the requirements in Federal Standard 368, ISO...

  11. 3-Nitrophenol–1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (2/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sangeetha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C3H6N6·2C6H5NO3, contains one melamine and two 3-nitrophenol molecules. The mean planes of the 3-nitrophenol molecules are almost orthogonal to the plane of melamine, making dihedral angles of 82.77 (4 and 88.36 (5°. In the crystal, molecules are linked via O—H...N, N—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. The crystal also features weak C—H...π and π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.9823 (9 Å].

  12. Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction: Measurement and Policy Issues. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 246

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this Working Paper is to broaden the debate on "pro-poor growth". An exclusive focus on the income dimension of poverty has neglected the non-income dimensions. After an examination of prominent views on the linkages between economic growth, inequality, and poverty reduction this paper discusses the proper definition and…

  13. Coupled anaerobic/aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6 trichlorophenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Degradation of 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol(TCP) with co-immobilizing anaerobic granular sludge and isolated aerobic bacterial specieswas studied in coupled anaerobic/aerobic integrated reactors. The synergism of aerobes and anaerobes within co-immobilized granule mightfacilitate degrading the TCP and exchange of anaerobic metabolites 4-CP, which promoted system organic removal efficiency and recovered fromorganic shock-loads more quickly. The biomass specific activities experiment further confirmed that strict anaerobes be not affected over thecourse of this experiment by the presence of an oxic environment, aerobic activity predominated in the outer co-immobilized granule layers,while the interior was characterized by anaerobic activity. The co-immobilized granule could thus enable both aerobic and anaerobic microbesfunction in the same reactor and thereby integrate the oxidative and reductive catabolism.

  14. Molecular screening of 246 Portuguese Aspergillus isolates among different clinical and environmental sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Raquel; Veríssimo, Cristina; Parada, Helena; Brandão, João; Viegas, Carla; Carolino, Elisabete; Clemons, Karl V; Stevens, David A

    2014-07-01

    Clinical and environmental samples from Portugal were screened for the presence of Aspergillus and the distributions of the species complexes were determined in order to understand how their distributions differ based on their source. Fifty-seven Aspergillus isolates from clinical samples were collected from 10 health institutions. Six species complexes were detected by internal transcribed spacer sequencing; Fumigati, Flavi, and Nigri were found most frequently (50.9%, 21.0%, and 15.8%, respectively). β-tubulin and calmodulin sequencing resulted in seven cryptic species (A. awamorii, A. brasiliensis, A. fructus, A. lentulus, A. sydowii, A. tubingensis, Emericella echinulata) being identified among the 57 isolates. Thirty-nine isolates of Aspergillus were recovered from beach sand and poultry farms, 31 from swine farms, and 80 from hospital environments, for a total 189 isolates. Eleven species complexes were found in these 189 isolates, and those belonging to the Versicolores species complex were found most frequently (23.8%). There was a significant association between the different environmental sources and distribution of the species complexes; the hospital environment had greater variability of species complexes than other environmental locations. A high prevalence of cryptic species within the Circumdati complex was detected in several environments; from the isolates analyzed, at least four cryptic species were identified, most of them growing at 37ºC. Because Aspergillus species complexes have different susceptibilities to antifungals, knowing the species-complex epidemiology for each setting, as well as the identification of cryptic species among the collected clinical isolates, is important. This may allow preventive and corrective measures to be taken, which may result in decreased exposure to those organisms and a better prognosis.

  15. Symposium on Energy Storage Materials Energy and Fuel Division, 246th ACS National Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-17

    SooYeon Lim, Ramazan Kahraman, Yousung Jung, Jangwook Choi.   2:05 pm 449 Development of high energy density Li­organic redox flow battery Wei  Wang , Wu...entrapped catalysts Qiang Gu, Bruce Tatarchuk.   9:00 am 507 Natural cellulose fiber as substrate for supercapacitor with extra ion diffusion pathway Zhe ...Yun Hu  Wednesday, September 11, 2013  449 ­ Development of high energy density Li­organic redox flow battery Wei  Wang , wei.wang@pnnl.gov, Wu Xu

  16. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

  17. Numerical Solutions of the Coupled Klein-Gordon-Schrand#246;dinger Equations by Differential Quadrature Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoudam Roshan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerical solutions of the coupled Klein-Gordon-Schrödinger equations is obtained by using differential quadrature methods based on polynomials and quintic B-spline functions for space discretization and Runge-Kutta fourth order for time discretization. Stability of the schemes are studied using matrix stability analysis. The accuracy and efficiency of the methods are shown by conducting some numerical experiments on test problems. The motion of single soliton and interaction of two solitons are simulated by the proposed methods.

  18. Rapid restoration of methanogenesis in an acidified UASB reactor treating 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Báez, María Consuelo; Valderrama-Rincon, Juan Daniel

    2017-02-15

    Anaerobic bioreactors are often used for removal of xenobiotic and highly toxic pollutants from wastewater. Most of the time, the pollutant is so toxic that the stability of the reactor becomes compromised. It is well known that methanogens are one of the most sensitive organisms in the anaerobic consortia and hence the stability of the reactors is highly dependant on methanogenesis. Unfortunately few studies have focused on recovering the methanogenic activity once it has been inhibited by highly toxic pollutants. Here we establish a quick recovery strategy for neutralization of an acidified UASB reactor after failure by intoxication with an excess of TCP in the influent. Once the reactor returned to pH values compatible with methanogenesis, biogas production was re-started after one day and the system was re-acclimated to TCP. Successful removal of TCP from synthetic wastewater was shown for concentrations up to 70mg/L after restoration.

  19. 12 CFR 24.6 - Examples of qualifying public welfare investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... individuals or areas or targeted redevelopment areas, or small businesses, including minority- and women-owned... primarily low- and moderate-income individuals or low- and moderate-income areas or targeted redevelopment..., rehabilitates, manages, sells, or rents housing primarily for low- and moderate-income individuals;...

  20. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YBR246W, YDR520C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a screen for mutants with increased levels of rDNA transcription; null mutants display a weak carboxypeptid...h increased levels of rDNA transcription; null mutants display a weak carboxypeptidase Y missorting/secretio

  1. 19 CFR 10.246 - Maintenance of records and submission of Certificate by importer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... having knowledge of the relevant facts; (3) Must be completed either in the English language or in the language of the country from which the article is exported. If the Certificate is completed in a language... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A...

  2. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) IN ANABAENA SP. CULTURES. (R825513C013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. Mineralization of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoleune (TNT) in Coastal Waters and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-21

    degradation as well. Lignin is degraded by fungi using several key enzyme systems: manganese peroxidase ( MnP ), lignin peroxidase (LiP), and...et al. 2006). TNT transformation occurs primarily as two types of enzymes systems are used, oxidative and nitroreductive, with the oxidative enzymes ...those found in microbial degradation (Bhadra et al. 1999). The oxidative enzyme system (peroxidase, phenoloxidase) is generally constitutively

  4. 2,4,6-Trimethyl-3,5-bis[(phenylcarbonothioylsulfanylmethyl]benzyl benzenecarbodithioate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kannan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound C33H30S6, the three pendant methylene benzodithioate groups lie to one side of the central benzene ring in a cis-cis-cis `tripod' arrangement. The dihedral angles between the central benzene ring and the three pendant rings are 72.54 (4, 89.68 (4 and 86.74 (4°. In the crystal structure, one of the benzene rings is disordered over two orientations in a 0.559 (13:0.441 (13 ratio.

  5. (E-2,4,6-Trimethyl-N-[(1H-pyrrol-2-ylmethylidene]aniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Imhof

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H16N2, is a pyrrole-2-carbaldimine ligand that shows an E conformation at the imine double bond. The dihedral angle between the rings is 78.3 (1°. In the crystal, pairs of molecules form centrosymmetric dimers [graph-set descriptor is presumably R22(10] via N—H...N hydrogen bonds between the pyrrole N—H group and the imine N atom of a neighbouring molecule.

  6. Soil Sorption and Plant Uptake of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    More severe symptoms are methemoglobinemia, severe Jaundice due to liver damage and aplastic anemia caused by disfunction of the bone marrow (Urbanski...possible that simple partitioning with lipid -rich tubers occurs in the soil. The environmental implications of bioaccumulation in seeds or tubers is

  7. 26 CFR 1.246-5 - Reduction of holding periods in certain situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of a strategy to substantially offset changes in the fair market value of the stock. (ii) Conversion.... Because Corporation A and Corporation B common stock are affected not only by the general level of growth... substantially similar or related property involving the following types of transactions— (i) The short sale...

  8. The clinical and pathological features of idiopathic membranous nephropathy in 246 Chinese adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUAN Hong-di; ZHANG Jing-hong; LIU Zhi-hong; LI Lei-shi; CHEN Hui-ping; ZHENG Feng

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical and pathological features of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) in Chinese adults. Methods: From 1986 to 1997, 264 patients with biopsy proven membranous nephropathy were selected in this study. Clinical and pathological features were compared between patients at different ages by t test. Results: (1) Patients from 21- 40 years old were inclined to membranous nephropathy. (2) One hundred and six of the patients had heavy proteinuria at presentation. Hypertension was found in 35 patients. Renal insuffeiency occurred in 7.7% of the patients in renal biopsy. Microscopic hematuria was found in 40.2% of the patients. Seventy-four patients presented nephrotic syndrome. (3) Eight of the 57 patients had deterioration of renal function during an average 49-month follow-up. (4) Patients of stage Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ accounted for 42.3%, 48.7%, 6.0% and 3.0% respectively. Glomeruli IgG, C3 and C1qdeposition was found in 93.2%, 98.8% and 58.3% of the patients. Conclusion: Younger patients are inclined to membranous nephropathy. The incidence of hypertension, microscopic hematuria and renal insuffcieney is similar to that of other countries, while nephrotic syndrome is uncommon.

  9. 27 CFR 24.246 - Materials authorized for the treatment of wine and juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... derived from Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Bacillus subtilis, or barley malt per FDA advisory... shall be derived from Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus oryzae per FDA advisory opinion dated 8/18/83 or... clarify and to stabilize wine The enzyme activity used shall be derived from Aspergillus niger or...

  10. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 246 - Business and Financial Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... “customer-complaint” feedback system to monitor its service and provide the best possible service to its customers. The results of those surveys shall be provided to the Unified Command with recommendations to the...-effective levels that still consider the servicing needs of overseas customers. b. The S&S shall...

  11. Soft rotator model and {sup 246}Cm low-lying level scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porodzinskij, Yu.V.; Sukhovitskij, E.Sh. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    Non-axial soft rotator nuclear model is suggested as self-consistent approach for interpretation of level schemes, {gamma}-transition probabilities and neutron interaction with even-even nuclei. (author)

  12. A meta-analysis of 120 246 individuals identifies 18 new loci for fibrinogen concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.S. de Vries (Paul); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); M. Sabater-Lleal (Maria); M.-H. Chen (Ming-Huei); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer E.); M. Steri (Maristella); W. Tang (Weihong); A. Teumer (Alexander); R.E. Marioni (Riccardo); V. Grossmann (Vera); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); S. Trompet (Stella); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); J. Brody (Jennifer); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); X. Guo (Xiuqing); J.J. Wang (Jie Jin); P. Auer (Paul); J. Attia (John); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); J. Lahti (Jari); C. Venturini (Cristina); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); L.F. Bielak (Lawrence F.); P.K. Joshi (Peter); A. Rocanin-Arjo (Ares); I. Kolcic (Ivana); P. Navarro (Pau); L.M. Rose (Lynda); C. Oldmeadow (Christopher); H. Riess (Helene); J. Mazur (Johanna); S. Basu (Saonli); A. Goel (Anuj); Q. Yang (Qiong); M. Ghanbari (Mohsen); Gonnekewillemsen; A. Rumley (Ann); E. Fiorillo (Edoardo); A.J. de Craen (Anton); A. Grotevendt (Anne); R.A. Scott (Robert); K.D. Taylor (Kent D.); G.E. Delgado (Graciela E.); J. Yao (Jie); A. Kifley (Annette); C. Kooperberg (Charles); Q. Qayyum (Rehan); L. Lopez (Lornam); T.L. Berentzen (Tina L.); K. Räikkönen (Katri); Massimomangino; S. Bandinelli (Stefania); P.A. Peyser (Patricia A.); S. Wild (Sarah); D.-A. Tregouet (David-Alexandre); A.F. Wright (Alan); J. Marten (Jonathan); T. Zemunik (Tatijana); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); B. Sennblad (Bengt); G.H. Tofler (Geoffrey); M.P.M. de Maat (Moniek); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); G.D. Lowe (Gordon D.); M. Zoledziewska (Magdalena); N. Sattar (Naveed); H. Binder (Harald); U. Völker (Uwe); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); K.-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); B. McKnight (Barbara); J. Huang (Jian); N.S. Jenny (Nancy); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); L. Qi (Lihong); M.G. Mcevoy (Mark G.); D.M. Becker (Diane); J.M. Starr (John); A.-P. Sarin; P.G. Hysi (Pirro); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); M.A. Jhun (Min A.); H. Campbell (Harry); A. Hamsten (Anders); F. Sarin (Fernando); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); P. Eline Slagboom; T. Zeller (Tanja); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); B. Psaty (Brucem); T. Haritunians (Talin); J. Liu (Jingmin); A. Palotie (Aarno); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); D.J. Stott (David J.); A. Hofman (Albert); O.H. Franco (Oscar); O. Polasek (Ozren); I. Rudan (Igor); P.-E. Morange (P.); J.F. Wilson (James F.); S.L. Kardia (Sharon L.r); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T.D. Spector (Timothy); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); T. Hansen (Torben); I.J. Deary (Ian); L.C. Becker (Lewis); R.J. Scott (Rodney); P. Mitchell (Paul); W. März (Winfried); N.J. Wareham (Nick J.); A. Peters (Annette); A. Greinacher (Andreas); P.S. Wild (Philipp S.); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret I.); C. Hayward (Caroline); F. Cucca (Francesco); R.P. Tracy (Russell); H. Watkins (Hugh); A.P. Reiner (Alex P.); A.R. Folsom (Aaron); P.M. Ridker (Paul); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher J.); N.L. Smith (Nicholas L.); D.P. Strachan (David P.); A. Dehghan (Abbas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGenome-wide association studies have previously identified 23 genetic loci associated with circulating fibrinogen concentration. These studies used HapMap imputation and did not examine the X-chromosome. 1000 Genomes imputation provides better coverage of uncommon variants, and includes

  13. 48 CFR 52.246-18 - Warranty of Supplies of a Complex Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in this contract. (c) Remedies available to the Government. (1) In the event of a breach of the... contract price. (3) The Contracting Officer shall notify the Contractor in writing of any breach of the... written recommendation within __ as to the corrective action required to remedy the breach. After...

  14. 48 CFR 52.246-17 - Warranty of Supplies of a Noncomplex Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... obligation contained in this contract. (c) Remedies available to the Government. (1) The Contracting Officer... notice of any breach of the warranties specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this clause, the Contracting... REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions...

  15. Investigation of the chemical explosion of an ion exchange resin column and resulting americium contamination of personnel in the 242-Z building, August 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-10-19

    As a result of an explosion in the Waste Treatment Facility, 242-Z Building, 200 West Area of the Hanford Reservation on August 30, 1976, the Manager of the Richland Operations Office (RL), Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), appointed an ERDA Committee to conduct a formal investigation and to prepare a report on their findings of this occurrence. The Committee was instructed to conduct the investigation in accordance with ERDAMC 0502, insofar as circumstances would permit, to cover and explain technical elements of the casual sequence(s) of the occurrence, and to describe management systems which should have or could have prevented the occurrence. This report is the result of the investigation and presents the conclusions of the review.

  16. Aqueous complexation of citrate with neodymium(III) and americium(III): a study by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, microcalorimetry, and XAFS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M Alex; Kropf, A Jeremy; Paulenova, Alena; Gelis, Artem V

    2014-05-07

    The aqueous complexation of Nd(III) and Am(III) with anions of citrate was studied by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, microcalorimetry, and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). Using potentiometric titration data fitting the metal-ligand (L) complexes that were identified for Nd(III) were NdHL, NdL, NdHL2, and NdL2; a review of trivalent metal-citrate complexes is also included. Stability constants for these complexes were calculated from potentiometric and spectrophotometric titrations. Microcalorimetric results concluded that the entropy term of complex formation is much more dominant than the enthalpy. XAFS results showed a dependence in the Debye-Waller factor that indicated Nd(iii)-citrate complexation over the pH range of 1.56-6.12.

  17. Americium(III) oxidation by copper(III) periodate in nitric acid solution as compared with the action of Bi(V) compounds of sodium, lithium, and potassium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Radiochemical Processing Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The oxidative action of a Cu(III) periodate compound toward Am(III) in nitric acid was studied. The extent of oxidation of Am(III) to Am(VI) was investigated using a constant initial Cu(III)-to-Am(III) molar ratio of 10:1 and varying nitric acid concentrations from 0.25 to 3.5 mol/L. From 0.25 to 3 mol/L HNO3, more than 98% of the Am(III) was oxidized to Am(VI); however, at 3.5 mol/L HNO{sub 3}, the conversion to Am(VI) was only 80%. Increasing the Cu(III)-to-Am(III) molar ratio to 20:1 in 3.5 mol/L HNO{sub 3} resulted in 98% conversion to Am(VI). For comparison, oxidation of Am(III) with NaBiO{sub 3} was studied at 3.5 mol/L HNO{sub 3} and the same stoichiometric excess of Bi(V) oxidant over Am(III) (stoichiometric ratio of 3.33:1). With NaBiO{sub 3}, the extent of Am(III) conversion to Am(VI) was only 19%, while with the Cu(III) compound this value was found to be about 4 times higher under otherwise identical conditions. Similar results were obtained with other Bi(V) salts. These results show that the Cu(III) periodate compound is a superior oxidant to NaBiO{sub 3}, yielding rapid conversion to Am(VI) in a homogeneous acidic solution, and is, therefore, an excellent candidate for further development of Am separation systems.

  18. Chemical speciation of strontium, americium, and curium in high level waste: Predictive modeling of phase partitioning during tank processing. Annual progress report, October 1996--September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felmy, A.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (US); Choppin, G. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (US)

    1997-12-31

    'The program at Florida State University was funded to collaborate with Dr. A. Felmy (PNNL) on speciation in high level wastes and with Dr. D. Rai (PNNL) on redox of Pu under high level waste conditions. The funding provided support for 3 research associates (postdoctoral researchers) under Professor G. R. Choppin as P.I. Dr. Kath Morris from U. Manchester (Great Britain), Dr. Dean Peterman and Dr. Amy Irwin (both from U. Cincinnati) joined the laboratory in the latter part of 1996. After an initial training period to become familiar with basic actinide chemistry and radiochemical techniques, they began their research. Dr. Peterman was assigned the task of measuring Th-EDTA complexation prior to measuring Pu(IV)-EDTA complexation. These studies are associated with the speciation program with Dr. Felmy. Drs. Morris and Irwin initiated research on redox of plutonium with agents present in the Hanford Tanks as a result of radiolysis or from use in separations. The preliminary results obtained thus far are described in this report. It is expected that the rate of progress will continue to increase significantly as the researchers gain more experience with plutonium chemistry.'

  19. Studies on the feasibility of using completely incinerable reagents for the single-cycle separation of americium(III) from simulated high-level liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, P.K.; Kumaresan, R.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Subramanian, G.G.S.; Prathibha, T.; Syamala, K.V.; Selvan, B. Robert; Rajeswari, S.; Antony, M.P.; Rao, P.R. Vasudeva [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.; Chaurasia, Shivkumar; Bhanage, B.M. [Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai (India)

    2015-06-01

    The extraction and stripping behavior of various metal ions present in the fast reactor simulated high-level liquid waste (FR-SHLLW) was studied using a solvent phase composed of a neutral extractant, N,N,-didodecyl-N',N'-dioctyl-3-oxapentane-1,5-diamide (D{sup 3}DODGA) and an acidic extractant, di-2-ethylhexyl diglycolamic acid (HDEHDGA) in n-dodecane (n-DD). The third phase formation behavior of the solvent formulation D{sup 3}DODGA + HDEHDGA/n-DD, was studied when it was contacted with FR-SHLLW, and the concentration of neutral and acidic extractant needed to avoid the third phase formation was optimized. The distribution ratio of various metal ions present in FR-SHLLW was measured in a solution of 0.1 M D{sup 3}DODGA + 0.2 M HDEHDGA/n-DD. The extraction of Am(III) was accompanied by the co-extraction of lanthanides and unwanted metal ions such as Zr(IV), Y(III), and Pd(II). A procedure was developed to minimize the extraction of unwanted metal ions by using aqueous soluble complexing agents in FR-SHLLW. Based on those results, the counter-current mixer-settler run was performed in a 20-stage mixer-settler. Quantitative extraction of Am(III), Ln(III), Y(III), and Sr(II) in 0.1 M D{sup 3}DODGA + 0.2 M HDEHDGA/n-DD was observed. The recovery of Am(III) from the loaded organic phase was carried out by the optimized aqueous formulation composed of 0.01 M diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) + 0.5 M citric acid (CA) at pH 1.5. The stripping of Am(III) was accompanied by co-stripping of some early lanthanides. However the later lanthanides (Eu(III) and beyond) were not back extracted to Am(III) product. Therefore, the studies foresee the possibility of intra-lanthanides as well as lanthanide-actinide separation in a single-processing cycle.

  20. Proceedings of the specialists' meeting on nuclear data of plutonium and americium isotopes for reactor applications. [BNL, Nov. 20-21, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrien, R E [ed.

    1979-05-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 17 of the papers in these Proceedings. The remaining six have already been cited in ERA, and can be located by referring to the entry CONF-781174-- in the Report Number Index. (RWR)

  1. Determination of Neptunium, Americium and Curium in Spent Nuclear Fuel Samples by Alpha Spectrometry Using {sup 239}Np and {sup 243}Am as a Spike and a Tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeo, Kih-Soo; Song, Byung-Chul; Kim, Young-Bok; Han, Sun-Ho; Jeon, Young-Shin; Jung, Euo-Chang; Jee, Kwang-Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Determination of actinide elements and fission products in spent nuclear fuels is of importance for a burnup determination and source term evaluation. Especially, the amounts of uranium and plutonium isotopes are used for the evaluation of a burnup credit in spent nuclear fuels. Additionally, other actinides such as Np, Am and Cm in spent nuclear fuel samples is also required for the purposes mentioned above. In this study, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am and {sup 244}Cm were determined by an alpha spectrometry for the source term data for high burnup spent nuclear fuels ranging from 37 to 62.9 GWD/MtU as a burnup. Generally, mass spectrometry has been known as the most powerful method for isotope determinations such as high concentrations of uranium and plutonium. However, in the case of minor actinides such as Np, Am and Cm, alpha spectrometry would be recommended instead. Determination of the transuranic elements in spent nuclear fuel samples is different from that for environmental samples because the amount of each nuclide in the spent fuel samples is higher and the relative ratios between each nuclide are also different from those for environmental samples. So, it is important to select an appropriate tracer and an optimum sample size depending on the nuclides and analytical method. In this study {sup 237}Np was determined by an isotope dilution alpha(gamma) spectrometry using {sup 239}Np as a spike, and {sup 241}Am and curium isotopes were determined by alpha spectrometry using {sup 243}Am as a tracer. The content of each nuclide was compared with that by the Origen-2 code.

  2. 有13-(4,m)型的二元自对偶码(m=2,4,6)%Binary Self-dual Codes with Type of 13-(4,m) (m=2,4,6)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣

    2014-01-01

    论述纠错码中的二元自对偶码,把码字看成二元域GF(2n)上的多项式,并分解因式。根据码长较短的二元自对偶码,构造出长度较长的二元自对偶码,并给出生成矩阵。运用2个码等价的类型,得到在等价下可能的码的分类情况,运行Matlab程序,证明具有13-(4,2)型自同构的二元自对偶码[54,27,10]只有8个等价的自对偶码。应用该方法,得到二元自对偶码[56,28,10]的生成矩阵。运行程序证明在等价情况下,存在16个有13-(4,4)型的自对偶码,而有13-(4,6)型的二元自对偶码[58,29,10]在等价下只有10种码。%The paper discusses the binary self-dual code of error correcting code,looking the code as a polynomial on the field GF(2) n and factorizing it. It constructs the longer length code by the shorter length code and gives the code’ s generator matrix. Owning to code’ s equivalence,the possible classification of length 54 binary self-dual codes with an automorphism of order 13 is given. By implementing Matlab procedures,there are eight self-dual codes up to equivalence. By similar method,there are 16 self-dual codes with type of 13-(4,4) and there are 10 self-dual codes with type of 13-(4,6) up to equinalence. Therefore,the generator matrices and classifications of the binary self-dual code with type of 13-(4,2),13-(4,4) and 13-(4,6) are solved completely.

  3. A DUF-246 family glycosyltransferase-like gene affects male fertility and the biosynthesis of pectic arabinogalactans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stonebloom, Solomon; Ebert, Berit; Xiong, Guangyan

    2016-01-01

    enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of pectin have been described. Here we report the identification of a highly conserved putative glycosyltransferase encoding gene, Pectic ArabinoGalactan synthesis-Related (PAGR), affecting the biosynthesis of RG-I arabinogalactans and critical for pollen tube growth...... rates of pollen tube formation in pollen from pagr heterozygotes. To characterize a loss-of-function phenotype for PAGR, the Nicotiana benthamiana orthologs, NbPAGR-A and B, were transiently silenced using Virus Induced Gene Silencing. NbPAGR-silenced plants exhibited reduced internode and petiole......BACKGROUND: Pectins are a group of structurally complex plant cell wall polysaccharides whose biosynthesis and function remain poorly understood. The pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) has two types of arabinogalactan side chains, type-I and type-II arabinogalactans. To date few...

  4. Recent Advances in Nanoparticle-Based F&#246;rster Resonance Energy Transfer for Biosensing, Molecular Imaging and Drug Release Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Nai-Tzu Chen; Shih-Hsun Cheng; Ching-Ping Liu; Jeffrey S. Souris; Chen-Tu Chen; Chung-Yuan Mou; Leu-Wei Lo

    2012-01-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) may be regarded as a “smart” technology in the design of fluorescence probes for biological sensing and imaging. Recently, a variety of nanoparticles that include quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, polymer, mesoporous silica nanoparticles and upconversion nanoparticles have been employed to modulate FRET. Researchers have developed a number of “visible” and “activatable” FRET probes se...

  5. Di-μ-bromido-bis[(diethyl ether-κO(2,4,6-trimethylphenylmagnesium]: the mesityl Grignard reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Seven

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, [Mg2Br2(C9H112(C4H10O2], features a centrosymmetric two-centre magnesium complex with half a molecule in the asymmetric unit. The Mg atom is in a considerably distorted Br2CO coordination. Bond lengths and angles are comparable with already published values. The crystal packing is stabilized by C—H...π interactions linking the complexes into sheets parallel to (0-11.

  6. Clean Manufacture of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) via Improved Regioselectivity in the Nitration of Toluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Ross W.; Arber, Anthony W.; Endsor, Robert M.; Hamid, Javid; Eamon Colclough, M.

    2011-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense requires an environmentally benign synthesis route to manufacture military grade trinitrotoluene (TNT), which eliminates the production of red water arising from the sulfiting process for removing unsymmetrical trinitrotoluene isomers. We have found that by using a novel nitrating system, N2O5 in dichloromethane, the proportion of metasubstituted nitrotoluenes can be suppressed, and improvements have also been made to the di- and trinitration steps. As a result, TNT with a set point near that of the Mil. Spec. can be made by our process, without the need for sulfite washing; after recrystallization it exceeds the specification.

  7. Toxicity of TNT Wastewaters to Aquatic Organisms. Volume 3. Chronic Toxicity of LAP Wastewater and 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    3 Manganese ɘ.02 - 7 (0.02 - 4 ɘ.01 - 3 * Selenium ɘ.01 - 6 ɘ.01 - 4 (0.01 - 3 Silver ɘ.03 - 7 ɘ.06 - 4 ɘ.005 - 3 Zinc 0.04 ɘ.01-0.06 3...S. .. . . S S S . -. . . . . . .’k".." -N . In addition to hatchability and mortality, records of deformities and total lengths and weights...None- theless, data on egg hatchability and fry survival from tests performed on TNT and LAP water are shown in Tables 4 and 5, respectively. Table 4

  8. Toxicity of TNT Wastewaters to Aquatic Organisms. Volume 1. Acute Toxicity of LAP Wastewater and 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    34Task 3-The purpose of Task 3 was to determine the effect of contin- uous exposure to the test materials on egg hatchability and on fry growth and...0.02 - 7 (0.02 - 4 (0.01 - Selenium ɘ.01 - 7 10.02- 4 20.05-.silver ɘ.03 7 (0.06 4 ɘ.005 Zinc 0 0.001-0.008 7 0.01.6 0.00"-0.03 1 0.012...variance revealed that nonphotolyzed LAP water had a sig- nificant (p j 0.001), concentration-related effect on egg hatchability . William’s test

  9. The Synthesis of 2,4,6-Triisopropyl-1,3,5-trioxane Catalyzed by Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Guo YANG; Xin Yu YU; Hai Hong WU; Zhi Lin CHENG; Yue Ming LIU; Ming Yuan HE

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis of 2, 4, 6-triisopropyl- 1, 3, 5-trioxane with high yield and desirable selectivity from solvent-free cyclotrimerization of isobutyraldehyde catalyzed by ionic liquids was reported in this work.

  10. Theoretical determination of anisotropic thermal conductivity for crystalline 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroonblawd, Matthew; Sewell, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    Bond stretching and three-center angle bending potentials have been developed to extend an existing rigid-bond TATB molecular dynamics (MD) force field (FF) for simulations requiring fully flexible molecules. The FF potentials were fit to experimental vibrational spectra and electronic structure predictions of vibrational normal modes and frequencies using a combination of zero Kelvin eigenmode analysis for the isolated molecule and finite-temperature power spectra for the isolated molecule and bulk crystal. Crystal structures computed using the revised FF are in good agreement with results from other computational models and experimental data. A non-equilibrium MD method was used to obtain the room temperature, atmospheric pressure thermal conductivity along three directions in a well-defined, non-orthogonal basis. The thermal conductivity was found to be significantly anisotropic with values of 1.13 +/- 0.07, 1.07 +/- 0.07 and 0.65 +/- 0.03 W m-1 K-1 for directions nominally parallel to the a, b, and c crystal directions, respectively. The U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research supported this research.

  11. Self-deflagration rates of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). [burning tate, thermal stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, T. L.; Price, C. F.; Zurn, D. E.; Atwood, A. I.; Eisel, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal stability and resistance to impact was investigated for the ingredient TABA. Particular attention was given to determining the use of TABA as a possible alternative ingredient or substitute for HMX in explosives and high energy propellants. The burn rate of TABA was investigated as a function of pressure. It was concluded that the self deflagration rate of TABA is an order of magnitude lower than HMX over the range 2000-15000 psi; TABA will not sustain self deflagration at low pressures (less than or equal to 1500 psi) in the sample configuration and apparatus used.

  12. 78 FR 19413 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... Applied Chemistry, 81(6), pp. 1131-1186, 2009. 2. Memorandum from H. Lee, Division of Petition Review, Chemistry Review Team, to J. Kidwell, Division of Petition Review, Regulatory Group I, FDA, July 26, 2011. 3... Petition Review, Chemistry Review Team, to T.Croce, Division of Petition Review, Regulatory Group II,...

  13. Detoxification of the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in Arabidopsis: discovery of bifunctional O- and C-glucosyltransferases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    the roots has been observed (Pavlostathis et al., 1998), although little TNT is transported to the aerial parts of the plant (Sens et al., 1998). ª...of retention times and MSn fragmentation with standards, confirming in planta the activities previously character- ized in vitro: 4-HADNT-C-glucoside...Thulke, O. and Schaffner, A.R. (2003) Arabidopsis glucosyltransferases with activities toward both endogenous and xenobiotic substrates. Planta , 217

  14. The Role of Oxophytodienoate Reductases in the Detoxification of the Explosive 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene by Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    hydrophilic molecules such as Glc are conjugated to the activated TNT molecule (Gandia-Herrero et al., 2008), facilitating transport and subsequent compart...truncation predic- ted to reduce activity, we concluded that OPR4/5 and OPR6 were unlikely to play a significant role in TNT detoxification in planta ...localization is likely to reduce accessibility toward TNT in planta . The in vitro activity data clearly show that OPR1, OPR2, and OPR3 all have

  15. 78 FR 37962 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ...): Judith Kidwell, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-265), Food and Drug Administration... Blue 247): Teresa Croce, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-265), Food and Drug... Cosmetic Act and under authority delegated to the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, and redelegated to...

  16. Species Differences in the Disposition and Metabolism of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene as a Function of Route of Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    nephropathies .] Gig. Tr. Prof. Zabol., 13, 31-35 (1969). 16. Kennedy, A. M., and J. Ingham. Prophyrinuria in trinitrotoluene poison- ing. Br. Med. J., 1, 490...Skripnichenko, and E. T. Tkachenko. [Trinitrotoluene (TNT) cataract in miners, its diagnosis and prevention.] Oftalmol. Zh., 25, 579-584 (1970). 22...nature, diagnosis and prevention. J. Ind. Hyg., 3, 239-254 (1921). 48. Von Oettingen, W. F., D. D. Donahue, R. K. Snyder, T. R. Sweeney, and A. R. Monaco

  17. (E)-2,4,6-Trimethyl-N-[(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)methyl-idene]aniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C14H16N2, is a pyrrole-2-carbaldimine ligand that shows an E conformation at the imine double bond. The dihedral angle between the rings is 78.3 (1)°. In the crystal, pairs of mol-ecules form centrosymmetric dimers [graph-set descriptor is presumably R(2)2(10)] via N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds between the pyrrole N-H group and the imine N atom of a neighbouring mol-ecule.

  18. Toxicological responses of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) to subchronic soil exposures of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazar, Mathew A; Quinn, Michael J; Mozzachio, Kristie; Johnson, Mark S

    2008-06-01

    Since World War I, trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been the most commonly used explosive. Environmental contamination associated with synthesis, manufacture of weapons, and use during training exercises has been extensive, with soil concentrations reaching 145,000 mg/kg. Some of these areas include habitats for amphibian species. Earlier studies have shown that salamanders dermally absorb TNT from soil. To ascertain what soil concentrations of TNT are toxic to amphibians, red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) were exposed to one of five concentrations of TNT in soil for 28 d and evaluated for indicators of toxicity. A total of 100 salamanders were randomly sorted by weight and assigned to target TNT concentrations in soil of either 3,000, 1,500, 750, 325, or 0 mg/kg dry weight. Food consisted of uncontaminated flightless Drosophila melanogaster. Survival was reduced in salamanders exposed to 1,500 and 3,000 mg/kg by 10 and 55%, respectively. Most mortality/morbidity occurred within the first week of exposure. Salamanders had a reduction in hemoglobin at 750 mg/kg or greater and a reduction in red blood cell concentration at 1,500 mg/kg or greater. Food consumption was affected in salamanders at 750 mg/kg or greater; a reduction in body mass and liver glycogen content also occurred at and above this concentration. Splenic congestion also was observed in salamanders from these groups. These data suggest that soil TNT concentrations of 373 +/- 41.0 mg/kg or greater result in reduced body mass, reduced feed intake, and hematological effects.

  19. Bis(2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazin-1-ium 2-[bis(carboxylatomethylazaniumyl]acetate trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreshnik Hoxha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, 2C3H7N6+·C6H7NO62−·3H2O, was obtained by mixing melamine and nitrilotriacetic acid in aqueous solution. There is proton transfer from the nitrilotriacteic acid to melamine to produce two melaminium cations and an internal proton transfer to generate the [HN(CH2COO]2− zwitterion. The melaminium cations are arranged in hydrogen-bonded tapes formed by N—H...N interactions. These tapes extend parallel to the [010] direction and are stacked parallel to the a axis at a mean separation of 3.3559 (11 Å. Between these tapes lie the anions and lattice water molecules. Further O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds exist between the water molecules, the anions, and the melaminium cations, generating a three-dimensional array. The crystal examined was found to be twinned by a twofold rotation about the direct lattice direction [100]. The two twin components were present in the ratio 0.5918:0.4082 (14.

  20. Use of Propolis Hydroalcoholic Extract to Treat Colitis Experimentally Induced in Rats by 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cely Cristina Martins Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the therapeutic effect of a propolis SLNC 106PI extract on experimental colitis. Wistar adult rats received 0.8 mL rectal dose of one of the following solutions: saline (group S, 20 mg TNBS in 50% ethanol (group TNBS, 20 mg TNBS in 50% ethanol and propolis extract in saline (group TNBS-P, propolis extract in saline (group SP, and 20 mg TNBS in 50% ethanol and 50 mg/kg mesalazine (group TNBS-M. The animals were euthanized 7 or 14 days after the colitis induction. Samples of the distal colon were harvested for the analysis of myeloperoxidase (MPO enzyme activity and for morphometric analysis in paraffin-embedded histological sections with hematoxylin-eosin or histochemical staining. The animals treated with TNBS exhibited the typical clinical signs of colitis. Increased MPO activity confirmed the presence of inflammation. TNBS induced the development of megacolon, ulceration, transmural inflammatory infiltrate, and thickened bowel walls. Treatment with propolis moderately reduced the inflammatory response, decreased the number of cysts and abscesses, inhibited epithelial proliferation, and increased the number of goblet cells. The anti-inflammatory activity of the propolis SLNC 106 extract was confirmed by the reductions in both the inflammatory infiltrate and the number of cysts and abscesses in the colon mucosa.

  1. The Structure and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Octupolar Compound: 2,4,6-Tristyryl-s-triazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Zhi CUI; Qi FANG; Hong LEI; Gang XUE; Wen Tao YU

    2003-01-01

    The crystal of 2, 4, 6-tristyryl-s-triazine (TSTA) has been prepared and its crystal structure been determined to be in the polar non-centrosymmetric space group Cmc21. The molecular structure of TSTA is characterized by the slightly curved planar configuration and the octupolar C3v molecular symmetry. As expected, TSTA crystal shows a quite novel nonlinear optical (NLO) property with its powder second harmonic generating (SHG) intensity of 1.8 times as that of urea. It also shows excellent transparency (with the peak position of 322 nm in absorption spectrum) and good thermal stability (with the melting point of 225-229℃).

  2. Interaction and transport of actinides in natural clay rock with consideration of humic substances and clay organics. Characterization and quantification of the influence of clay organics on the interaction and diffusion of uranium and americium in the clay. Joint project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard, Gert [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. (Germany). Inst. of Radiochemistry; Schmeide, Katja; Joseph, Claudia; Sachs, Susanne; Steudtner, Robin; Raditzky, Bianca; Guenther, Alix

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this project was the study of basic interaction processes in the systems actinide - clay organics - aquifer and actinide - natural clay - clay organics - aquifer. Thus, complexation, redox, sorption and diffusion studies were performed. To evaluate the influence of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur containing functional groups of humic acid (HA) on the complexation of actinides in comparison to carboxylic groups, the Am(III) and U(VI) complexation by model ligands was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy and TRLFS. The results show that Am(III) is mainly coordinated via carboxylic groups, however, probably stabilized by nitrogen groups. The U(VI) complexation is dominated by carboxylic groups, whereas nitrogen and sulfur containing groups play a minor role. Phosphorus containing groups may contribute to the U(VI) complexation by HA, however, due to their low concentration in HA they play only a subordinate role compared to carboxylic groups. Applying synthetic HA with varying sulfur contents (0 to 6.9 wt.%), the role of sulfur functionalities of HA for the U(VI) complexation and Np(V) reduction was studied. The results have shown that sulfur functionalities can be involved in U(VI) humate complexation and act as redox-active sites in HA for the Np(V) reduction. However, due to the low content of sulfur in natural HA, its influence is less pronounced. In the presence of carbonate, the U(VI) complexation by HA was studied in the alkaline pH range by means of cryo-TRLFS (-120 C) and ATR FT-IR spectroscopy. The formation of the ternary UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}HA(II){sup 4-} complex was detected. The complex formation constant was determined with log {beta}{sub 0.1} M = 24.57 {+-} 0.17. For aqueous U(VI) citrate and oxalate species, luminescence emission properties were determined by cryo-TRLFS and used to determine stability constants. The existing data base could be validated. The U(VI) complexation by lactate, studied in the temperature range 7 to 65 C, was found to be endothermic and entropy-driven. In contrast, the complex stability constants determined for U(VI) humate complexation at 20 and 40 C are comparable, however, decrease at 60 C. For aqueous U(IV) citrate, succinate, mandelate and glycolate species stability constants were determined. These ligands, especially citrate, increase solubility and mobility of U(IV) in solution due to complexation. The U(VI) sorption onto crushed Opalinus Clay (OPA, Mont Terri, Switzerland) was studied in the absence and presence of HA or low molecular weight organic acids, in dependence on temperature and CO2 presence using OPA pore water as background electrolyte. Distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) were determined for the sorption of U(VI) and HA onto OPA with (0.0222 {+-} 0.0004) m{sup 3}/kg and (0.129 {+-} 0.006) m{sup 3}/kg, respectively. The U(VI) sorption is not influenced by HA ({<=}50 mg/L), however, decreased by low molecular weight organic acids ({>=} 1 x 10{sup -5} M), especially by citrate and tartrate. With increasing temperature, the U(VI) sorption increases both in the absence and in the presence of clay organics. The U(VI) diffusion in compacted OPA is not influenced by HA at 25 and 60 C. Predictions of the U(VI) diffusion show that an increase of the temperature to 60 C does not accelerate the migration of U(VI). With regard to uranium-containing waste, it is concluded that OPA is suitable as host rock for a future nuclear waste repository since OPA has a good retardation potential for U(VI). (orig.)

  3. Monitored Natural Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants in Ground Water Volume 3 Assessment for Radionuclides IncludingTritium, Radon, Strontium, Technetium, Uranium, Iodine, Radium, Thorium, Cesium, and Plutonium-Americium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current document represents the third volume of a set of three volumes that address the technical basis and requirements for assessing the potential applicability of MNA as part of a ground-water remedy for plumes with nonradionuclide and/or radionuclide inorganic contamina...

  4. Study of plutonium and americium contamination in agricultural area, radiological impact caused by consumption of vegetables of this area; Estudio de la contaminacion de plutonio y americio en un area agricola, impacto radiologico ocasionado por consumo de vegetales contaminados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, Assuncion; Aragon, Antonio; Cruz, Berta de la; Gutierrez, Jose [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia

    2001-07-01

    The transuranide concentration has been studied for 30 years in vegetable production, crops in wide extensions and in private-owned farms, all of them situated within the Pu-contaminated area of Palomares due to an air accident in 1966. Based on these studies, a preliminary estimation of the radiological risk caused by the consumption of these products by the inhabitants was possible. The results show that most of the fruits present a surface contamination, which disappears or is significantly reduced when they are washed. The contamination present in edible parts of the vegetables, as well as the contamination of other products included in the diet, has facilitated the estimation of the effective dose for ingestion and the committed effective dose for 50 years for the inhabitants. The main conclusions are: those plants, whose cultivation period is less than a year, present a low level of contamination; the green parts of the plants have a higher contamination than the fruits; the Pu soil to plant transfer factor is very low. In general, those plants that have remained in the contaminated land for several years present a high contamination level; the ingestion of products from Palomares does not represent an important risk for the population, even in the case that the products were totally consumed by a critical group.( author)

  5. Supported liquid inorganic membranes for nuclear waste separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhave, Ramesh R; DeBusk, Melanie M; DelCul, Guillermo D; Delmau, Laetitia H; Narula, Chaitanya K

    2015-04-07

    A system and method for the extraction of americium from radioactive waste solutions. The method includes the transfer of highly oxidized americium from an acidic aqueous feed solution through an immobilized liquid membrane to an organic receiving solvent, for example tributyl phosphate. The immobilized liquid membrane includes porous support and separating layers loaded with tributyl phosphate. The extracted solution is subsequently stripped of americium and recycled at the immobilized liquid membrane as neat tributyl phosphate for the continuous extraction of americium. The sequestered americium can be used as a nuclear fuel, a nuclear fuel component or a radiation source, and the remaining constituent elements in the aqueous feed solution can be stored in glassified waste forms substantially free of americium.

  6. Corrigendum to "Development of ANFIS model for air quality forecasting and input optimization for reducing the computational cost and time" [Atmos. Environ. 128 (2016) 246-262

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kanchan; Gorai, Amit Kumar; Goyal, Pramila

    2016-10-01

    In the paper entitled "Development of ANFIS model for air quality forecasting and input optimization for reducing the computational cost and time" the correlation coefficient values of O3 with the other parameters (shown in Table 4) were mistakenly written from some other results. But, the analyses were done based on the actual results. The actual values are listed in the revised Table 4.

  7. The unusual stability of TATB (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene): A review of the scientific literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, S.F.; Simpson, R.L.

    1990-07-04

    This review is intended as an up-to-date review of the scientific literature on TATB since its discovery as a high explosive. In particular, it focuses on clarifying our current understanding of the relationship between the structure of TATB and its unique thermal stability. We review a large number of different publications by many authors. A small portion of the work on TATB'' presented actually consists of experimental studies on TATB formulated as PBX-9502 or as LX-17. Where relevant, this distinction is indicated. However, inasmuch as this review focuses on thermal response and the relationship of chemical reactivity to the molecular and lattice structure of TATB as a pure material, results from these other formulations may not be directly applicable, and in general we have omitted them. 4 refs.

  8. Corrigendum to "Early dispersals of maize and other food plants into the Southern Caribbean and Northeastern South America" [Quat. Sci. Rev. 123 (2015) 231-246

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán-Jiménez, Jaime R.; Rodríguez-Ramos, Reniel; Reid, Basil A.; van den Bel, Martijn; Hofman, Corinne L.

    2016-09-01

    When this paper was first published online, the authors mistyped the species name Capsicum chinense (a chili pepper species) in two of the four instances where it was mentioned in the above article. This typographic error does not change the results of the reported study. However, due to the potential implications of the findings on Capsicum spp., the correct paragraphs are printed below:

  9. Assessing the acid properties of desilicated ZSM-5 by FTIR using CO and 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine (collidine) as molecular probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Svelle, S.; Joensen, F.;

    2009-01-01

    A series of desilicated ZSM-5 catalysts previously shown to have improved catalytic performance in the MTG (methanol-to-gasoline) reaction [M. Bjorgen, F. Joensen, M.S. Holm, U. Olsbye, K.-P. Lillerud, S. Svelle, Appl. Catal. A 345 (2008) 43] was subjected to thorough examination using FTIR. Clea...

  10. A Literature Review - Problem Definition Studies on Selected Toxic Chemicals. Volume 3. Occupational Health and Safety Aspects of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    observed (79). CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF’TNT TOXICITY The main pathological manifestations of TNT toxicity are acute yellow atrophy of the liver, aplasia ...epithelium of the convuluted tubules. Straight tubules in the medullary zone contained brownish material. No fat globules were observed in the glomerult...heavily loaded with fat globules; the medullary portion, on the other hand, contained some brownish material which did not stain as hemosiderin. No

  11. Treatment with the smallpox antiviral tecovirimat (ST-246) alone or in combination with ACAM2000 vaccination is effective as a postsymptomatic therapy for monkeypox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhanu, Aklile; Prigge, Jonathan T; Silvera, Peter M; Honeychurch, Kady M; Hruby, Dennis E; Grosenbach, Douglas W

    2015-07-01

    The therapeutic efficacies of smallpox vaccine ACAM2000 and antiviral tecovirimat given alone or in combination starting on day 3 postinfection were compared in a cynomolgus macaque model of lethal monkeypox virus infection. Postexposure administration of ACAM2000 alone did not provide any protection against severe monkeypox disease or mortality. In contrast, postexposure treatment with tecovirimat alone or in combination with ACAM2000 provided full protection. Additionally, tecovirimat treatment delayed until day 4, 5, or 6 postinfection was 83% (days 4 and 5) or 50% (day 6) effective.

  12. Inhibitory effect of a formulated extract from multiple citrus peels on LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 246.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Etoh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Formulated Citrus Peel Extract (GL made from the peels of six citrus fruits available in Japan, namely navel oranges, citrus hassaku, citrus limon, citrus natsudaidai, citrus miyauchi and satsuma, was initially developed as a cosmetic product to protect skin from UV irradiation. Anecdotal evidences of anti-cancer property of GL have been reported by consumers based on the cases such as topical application for melanoma, and oral ingestion for prostate, lung and liver cancers.Those anecdotal reports stimulated us to investigate anti-tumorigenesis activity of GL. In the previous study, we reported that the topical application of GL inhibited DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumor formation by decreasing inflammatory gene parameters.Objective: In this study, we mainly investigated the effect of GL on translocation of NF-kB together with production of nitric-oxide and TNF-α induced by LPS in RAW 264.7 cells.Results: This investigation showed that GL decreased the release of TNF-α and nitric oxide from macrophage RAW264.7 cells stimulated by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, GL suppressed the expression of iNOS and nuclear translocation of NF-kB in RAW264.7 cells, inhibited the degradation of IκB-α, and scavenged hydroxyl radicals (DMPO/OH adduct in vitro.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that GL suppresses the inflammation in vitro, and exerts chemopreventive activity through the inhibition of production of TNF-α and iNOS proteins due to the inhibition of nuclear translocation of NF-kB and oxidative stress. GL appears to be a novel functional natural product capable of preventing inflammation and inflammation-associated tumorigenesis.Keywords: GL, Citrus peel extract, anti-inflammation, Nitric oxide, iNOS, NF-kB, TNF-α

  13. Comments on Li et al. Effects of in Utero Exposure to Dicyclohexyl Phthalate on Rat Fetal Leydig Cells. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 246

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, Terje

    2016-01-01

    Profiling the expression levels of genes or proteins in tissues comprising two or more cell types is commonplace in biological sciences. Such analyses present particular challenges, however, for example a potential shift in cellular composition, or ‘cellularity’, between specimens. That is, does ...... the mammalian testis and a recent study on the effects of phthalate exposure on testis function as an example....

  14. Crystal structure of the heptamolybdate(VI) (paramolybdate) ion, [Mo7O24]6-, in the ammonium and potassium tetrahydrate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, H.T.; Gatehouse, B.M.; Leverett, P.

    1975-01-01

    The crystal structures of the isomorphous salts MI6 [Mo7O24],4H2O (M = NH4 or K) have been refined by three-dimensional X-ray diffraction methods. Unit cell dimensions of these monoclinic compounds, space group P21/C with Z = 4, are, ammonium salt: a = 8.3934 ?? 0.0008, b = 36.1703 ?? 0.0045, c = 10.4715 ?? 0.0011 A??, ?? = 115.958?? ?? 0.008??; and potassium salt: a = 8.15 ?? 0.02, b = 35.68 ?? 0.1, c = 10.30 ?? 0.02 A??, ?? = 115.2?? ?? 02??. By use of multiple Weissenberg patterns, 8197 intensity data (Mo-K?? radiation) for the ammonium compound and 2178 (Cu-K?? radiation) for the potassium compound were estimated visually and used to test and refine Lindqvist's proposed structure in the space group P21/c. Lindqvist's structure was confirmed and the full matrix least-squares isotropic refinement led to R 0.076 (ammonium) 0.120 (potassium), with direct unambiguous location of the cations and water molecules in the potassium compound.

  15. Guillen Fabienne P. et Trabelsi Salah (dir., Les esclavages en Méditerranée. Espaces et dynamiques économiques, Madrid, Casa de Velazquez, 2012, 246 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Stella

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Les études réunies par Fabienne Plazolles Guillen et Salah Trabelsi trouvent leur place dans le courant historiographique qui depuis trente ans tente de contrebalancer la prépondérance des études sur l’esclavage aux Amériques, au point d’assimiler l’esclavage aux Noirs dans les plantations du Nouveau Monde. Le succès de cette entreprise intellectuelle est loin d’être assuré, du fait que la littérature anglophone dominante refuse obstinément d’intégrer dans sa bibliographie les ouvrages publié...

  16. Highly enriched isotope samples of uranium and transuranium elements for scientific investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesnovskii, Stanislav P.; Polynov, Vladimir N.; Danilin, Lev. D.

    1992-02-01

    The paper describes the production of highly enriched isotopes of uranium, plutonium, americium and curium by electromagnetic separation for scientific and applied researches in physics, chemistry, geology, medicine, biology and other fields. Using the equipment described, the isotopes are produced in quantities sufficient to set up nuclear physical experiments, to produce nuclear reference materials and standard sources for calibration of radiometrical and mass spectrometrical equipment, in radionuclide metrology, etc. For the following isotopes the indicated degrees of isotopic enrichment were achieved: 233U - 99.97%; 235U - 99.97%; 236U - 98.0%; 238U - 99.997%; 238Pu - 99.6%; 239Pu - 99.9977%; 240Pu - 99.9-100%; 241Pu - 96.998%; 242Pu - 97.8-99.96%; 244Pu - 96.7%; 241Am - 99.6%; 242Am - 73.6%; 243Am - 99.2-99.94%; 243Cm - 99.99%; 245Cm - 99.998%; 246Cm - 99.8%; 247Cm - 90%; 248Cm - 97%. Methods for preparing layers of highly enriched isotopes on various substances are presented: - electrochemical deposition of transuranic elements from aqueous-organic and organic media and vacuum spraying: - the method of foil and coating formation via compounds in the vapour phase; - the method of fabrication of layers of transuranic elements on superthin (1-2 μm) metal substrates with additional isolating polymer-metal coatings (0.2-0.4 μm), that substantially decrease material transfer from the active layer and increase safety of product handling.

  17. Crystal structures of 2-[(4,6-di­amino­pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfan­yl]-N-(naphthalen-1-yl)acetamide and 2-[(4,6-di­amino­pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfan­yl]-N-(4-fluoro­phen­yl)acetamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasri, S.; Kumar, Timiri Ajay; Sinha, Barij Nayan; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan; Viswanathan, Vijayan; Velmurugan, Devadasan

    2017-01-01

    The title compounds, C16H15N5OS, (I), and C12H12FN5OS, (II), are [(di­amino­pyrimidine)­sulfan­yl]acetamide derivatives. In (I), the pyrimidine ring is inclined to the naphthalene ring system by 55.5 (1)°, while in (II), the pyrimidine ring is inclined to the benzene ring by 58.93 (8)°. In (II), there is an intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bond and a short C—H⋯O contact. In the crystals of (I) and (II), mol­ecules are linked by pairs of N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with R 2 2(8) ring motifs. In the crystal of (I), the dimers are linked by bifurcated N—H⋯(O,O) and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (100). In the crystal of (II), the dimers are linked by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, also forming layers parallel to (100). The layers are linked by C—H⋯F hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional architecture.

  18. Industrial research for transmutation scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarcat, Noel; Garzenne, Claude; Le Mer, Joël; Leroyer, Hadrien; Desroches, Estelle; Delbecq, Jean-Michel

    2011-04-01

    This article presents the results of research scenarios for americium transmutation in a 22nd century French nuclear fleet, using sodium fast breeder reactors. We benchmark the americium transmutation benefits and drawbacks with a reference case consisting of a hypothetical 60 GWe fleet of pure plutonium breeders. The fluxes in the various parts of the cycle (reactors, fabrication plants, reprocessing plants and underground disposals) are calculated using EDF's suite of codes, comparable in capabilities to those of other research facilities. We study underground thermal heat load reduction due to americium partitioning and repository area minimization. We endeavor to estimate the increased technical complexity of surface facilities to handle the americium fluxes in special fuel fabrication plants, americium fast burners, special reprocessing shops, handling equipments and transport casks between those facilities.

  19. Chemistry research and development progress report, May-October, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miner, F. J.

    1979-08-30

    Work in progress includes: calorimetry and thermodynamics of nuclear materials; americium recovery and purification; optimization of the cation exchange process for recovering americium and plutonium from molten salt extraction residues, photochemical separations of actinides; advanced ion exchange materials and techniques; secondary actinide recovery; removal of plutonium from lathe coolant oil; evaluation of tributyl phosphate-impregnated sorbent for plutonium-uranium separations; plutonium recovery in advance size reduction facility; plutonium peroxide precipitation; decontamination of Rocky Flats soil; soil decontamination at other Department of Energy sites; recovery of actinides from combustible wastes; induction-heated, tilt-pour furnace; vacuum melting; determination of plutonium and americium in salts and alloys by calorimetry; plutonium peroxide precipitation process; silica removal study; a comparative study of annular and Raschig ring-filled tanks; recovery of plutonium and americium from a salt cleanup alloy; and process development for recovery of americium from vacuum melt furnace crucibles.

  20. The behaviour of Eu, Pu, Am radionuclide at burning radioactive graphite in an oxygen atmosphere. Computer experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolbin T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Be means of the method of computer thermodynamic simulation we studied the behaviour of the europium, plutonium and americium from the combustion of radioactive graphite in oxygen. Europe is in the form of condensed EuOCl, Eu2O3 and vapour EuO. Pluto is in the form of condensed vapour PuO2 and PuO2. Americium is a condensed AmO2, Am2O3 and vapour Am. The basic reactions occurring compounds with europium, plutonium and americium. Equilibrium constants of the reactions have been determined.