WorldWideScience

Sample records for americium 244

  1. Safe handling of kilogram amounts of fuel-grade plutonium and of gram amounts of plutonium-238, americium-241 and curium-244

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louwrier, K.P.; Richter, K.

    1976-01-01

    During the past 10 years about 600 glove-boxes have been installed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements at Karlsruhe. About 80% of these glove-boxes have been designed and equipped for handling 100-g to 1-kg amounts of 239 Pu containing 8-12% 240 Pu (low-exposure plutonium). A small proportion of the glove-boxes is equipped with additional shielding in the form of lead sheet or lead glass for work with recycled plutonium. In these glove-boxes gram-amounts of 241 Am have also been handled for preparation of Al-Am targets using tongs and additional shielding inside the glove-boxes themselves. Water- and lead-shielded glove-boxes equipped with telemanipulators have been installed for routine work with gram-amounts of 241 Am, 243 Am and 244 Cm. A prediction of the expected radiation dose for the personnel is difficult and only valid for a preparation procedure with well-defined preparation steps, owing to the fact that gamma dose-rates depend strongly upon proximity and source seize. Gamma radiation dose measurements during non-routine work for 241 Am target preparation showed that handling of gram amounts leads to a rather high irradiation dose for the personnel, despite lead or steel glove-box shielding and shielding within the glove-boxes. A direct glove-hand to americium contact must be avoided. For all glove-handling of materials with gamma radiation an irradiation control of the forearms of the personnel by, for example, thermoluminescence dosimeters is necessary. Routine handling of americium and curium should be executed with master-slave equipment behind neutron and gamma shielding. (author)

  2. 1976 Hanford americium accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heid, K.R.; Breitenstein, B.D.; Palmer, H.E.; McMurray, B.J.; Wald, N.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the 2.5-year medical course of a 64-year-old Hanford nuclear chemical operator who was involved in an accident in an americium recovery facility in August 1976. He was heavily externally contaminated with americium, sustained a substantial internal deposition of this isotope, and was burned with concentrated nitric acid and injured by flying debris about the face and neck. The medical care given the patient, including the decontamination efforts and clinical laboratory studies, are discussed. In-vivo measurements were used to estimate the dose rates and the accumulated doses to body organs. Urinary and fecal excreta were collected and analyzed for americium content. Interpretation of these data was complicated by the fact that the intake resulted both from inhalation and from solubilization of the americium embedded in facial tissues. A total of 1100 μCi was excreted in urine and feces during the first 2 years following the accident. The long-term use of diethylenetriaminepentate (DTPA), used principally as the zinc salt, is discussed including the method, route of administration, and effectiveness. To date, the patient has apparently experienced no complications attributable to this extensive course of therapy, even though he has been given approximately 560 grams of DTPA. 4 figures, 1 table

  3. Chemistry of americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1976-01-01

    Essential features of the descriptive chemistry of americium are reviewed. Chapter titles are: discovery, atomic and nuclear properties, collateral reading, production and uses, chemistry in aqueous solution, metal, alloys, and compounds, and, recovery, separation, purification. Author and subject indexes are included. (JCB)

  4. Americium in water and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, C.H.; Thorne, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Data for americium 241 in aquatic environments are presented derived from areas contaminated solely by global fallout, and also from areas contaminated by radioactive waste discharges. For several water bodies, in particular the Mediterranean, comprehensive data are given characterising the inputs, distribution, geochemical behaviour and biological availability of americium. Many data are also reported for concentrations of americium in North European coastal waters (e.g. English Channel, North Sea, Irish Sea, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea and the Eastern Atlantic). Much of the discussion in this section is in terms of the behaviour of americium relative to plutonium. (Auth.)

  5. Recycling of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagstroem, Ingela

    1999-12-01

    Separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel is a part of the process of recycling fissile material. Extracting agents for partitioning the high level liquid waste (HLLW) from conventional PUREX reprocessing is studied. The CTH-process is based on three consecutive extraction cycles. In the first cycle protactinium, uranium, neptunium and plutonium are removed by extraction with di-2-ethylhexyl-phosphoric acid (HDEHP) from a 6 M nitric acid HLLW solution. Distribution ratios for actinides, fission products and corrosion products between HLLW and 1 M HDEHP in an aliphatic diluent have been investigated. To avoid addition of chemicals the acidity is reduced by a tributylphosphate (TBP) extraction cycle. The distribution ratios of elements present in HLLW have been measured between 50 % TBP in an aliphatic diluent and synthetic HLLW in range 0.1-6 M nitric acid. In the third extraction cycle americium and curium are extracted. To separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides a method based on selective stripping of the actinides from 1 M HDEHP is proposed. The aqueous phase containing ammonia, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and lactic acid is recycled in a closed loop after reextraction of the actinides into a second organic phase also containing 1 M HDEHP. Distribution ratios for americium and neodymium have been measured at varying DTPA and lactic acid concentrations and at varying pH. Nitrogen-donor reagents have been shown to have a potential to separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides. 2,2':6,2''-terpyridine as extractant follows the CHON-principle and can in synergy with 2-bromodecanoic acid separate americium from europium. Distribution ratios for americium and europium, in the range of 0.02-0.12 M nitric acid, between nitric acid and 0.02 M terpyridine with 1 M 2-bromodecanoic acid in tert-butylbenzene (TBB) was investigated. Comparison with other nitrogen-donor reagents show that increasing lipophilicity of the molecule, by substitution of

  6. Americium-241 - ED 4308

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, M.; Frot, P.; Gambini, D.; Gauron, C.; Moureaux, P.; Herbelet, G.; Lahaye, T.; Le Guen, B.; Pihet, P.; Rannou, A.; Vidal, E.

    2012-12-01

    This sheet presents the characteristics of Americium-241, its origin, and its radio-physical and biological properties. It briefly describes its use in nuclear medicine. It indicates its dosimetric parameters for external exposure, cutaneous contamination, and internal exposure due to acute contamination or to chronic contamination. It indicates and comments the various exposure control techniques: ambient dose rate measurement, surface contamination measurement, atmosphere contamination. It addresses the means of protection: premise design, protection against external exposure and against internal exposure. It describes how areas are delimited and controlled within the premises: regulatory areas, controls to be performed. It addresses the personnel classification, training and medical survey. It addresses the issue of wastes and effluents. It briefly recalls the administrative procedures related to the authorization and declaration of possession and use of sealed and unsealed sources. It indicates regulatory aspects related to the road transport of Americium-241, describes what is to be done in case of incident or accident (for the different types of contamination or exposure)

  7. Plutonium and americium separation from salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, P.G.; Miner, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Salts or materials containing plutonium and americium are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, heated, and contacted with an alkali metal carbonate solution to precipitate plutonium and americium carbonates which are thereafter readily separable from the solution

  8. Transmutation of Americium in Fast Neutron Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Youpeng

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, the feasibility to use a medium sized sodium cooled fast reactor fully loaded with MOX fuel for efficient transmutation of americium is investigated by simulating the safety performance of a BN600-type fast reactor loaded with different fractions of americium in the fuel, using the safety parameters obtained with the SERPENT Monte Carlo code. The focus is on americium mainly due to its long-term contribution to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel and its deterioration on c...

  9. Metabolism of americium-241 in dairy animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, W.W.; Patzer, R.G.; Mullen, A.A.; Hahn, P.B.; Potter, G.D.

    1978-10-01

    Groups of lactating cows and goats were used to examine americium-241 metabolism in dairy animals. Following either single oral or intravenous nuclide doses, samples of milk, urine, blood, and feces were taken over a 168-hr collection period and the americium concentrations were determined by gamma counting. Gastrointestinal uptake of americium by both cows and goats was estimated to be 0.014% of the respective oral doses. The cumulative percentage of oral dose transported to milk and urine was 4.4 x 10 -4 and 1.1 x 10 -3 respectively for cows and 4.4 x 10 -3 and 1.2 x 10 -3 respectively for goats. The relatively high americium concentrations noted in caprine milk following the oral doses are discussed. Plasma concentrations of americium decreased rapidly following all intravenous injections. The average percentage of injected americium transferred to milk, urine, and feces was 3, 6, and 2% respectively for cows and 2, 4, and 2% respectively for goats. In both intravenously dosed groups, approximately 30% of all americium released from the body was found in the urine during the first 24 hrs after injection. All animals were sacrificed 8 to 9 days after dosing. Bovine bone retained the greatest fraction of the administered dose followed by the liver. However, liver retained the greatest amount of americium in the goats following both oral and intravenous doses. Comparisons are presented between americium-241 and plutonium-238 transport in dairy cows

  10. Test plan for headspace gas concentration measurement and headspace ventilation rate measurement for DCRTs 241-A-244, 241-BX-244, 241-S-244, 241-TX-244

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    This test plan provides the directions to characterize the headspace gas concentrations and the headspace ventilation rate for double contained receiver tanks 241-A-244, 241-BX-244, 241-S-244, and 241-TX-244

  11. Production of americium isotopes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehly, G.; Bourges, J.; Madic, C.; Nguyen, T.H.; Lecomte, M.

    1984-12-01

    The program of productions of americium 241 and 243 isotopes is based respectively on the retreatment of aged plutonium alloys or plutonium dioxide and on the treatment of plutonium targets irradiated either in CELESTIN reactors for Pu-Al alloys or OSIRIS reactor for plutonium 242 dioxide. All the operations, including americium final purifications, are carried out in hot cells equipped with remote manipulators. The chemical processes are based on the use of extraction chromatography with hydrophobic SiO 2 impregnated with extracting agents. Plutonium targets and aged plutonium alloys are dissolved in nitric acid using conventional techniques while plutonium dioxide dissolutions are performed routine at 300 grams scale with electrogenerated silver II in 4M HNO 3 at room temperature. The separation between plutonium and americium is performed by extraction of Pu(IV) either on TBP/SiO 2 or TOAHNO 3 /SiO 2 column. Americium recovery from waste streams rid of plutonium is realized by chromatographic extraction of Am(III) using mainly TBP and episodically DHDECMP as extractant. The final purification of both americium isotopes uses the selective extraction of Am(VI) on HDDiBMP/SiO 2 column at 60 grams scale. Using the overall process a total amount of 1000 grams of americium 241 and 100 grams of americium 243 has been produced nowadays and the AmO 2 final product indicates a purity better than 98.5%

  12. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  13. Formation of americium and europium humate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minai, Y.; Tominaga, T.; Meguro, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Binding constants of americium and europium with a humic acid were determined to study if complex formation of trivalent actinide-humates affects dissolved species of the actinides in hydrosphere. The purified humic acid was characterized by means of UV-vis, IR, and pH titration, indicating high carboxylate capacity and low aromaticity. Binding constants of americium and europium humates were determined at pH 4.6 and 6.0 by solvent extraction using 241 Am or 152 Eu as a tracer. The binding constants for americium-humate obtained preliminarily suggest that complexes with humic acid are not negligible in speciation of trivalent actinides in hydrosphere. The obtained binding constants were nearly identical with those determined previously by the same procedures, but with humic acids of different origin and compositions. (author)

  14. Biosorption of americium by alginate beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borba, Tania Regina de; Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Goes, Marcos Maciel de; Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Sakata, Solange Kazumi

    2009-01-01

    The use of biotechnology to remove heavy metals from wastes plays great potential in treatment of radioactive wastes and therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the biosorption of americium by alginate beads. Biosorption has been defined as the property of certain biomolecules to bind and remove selected ions or other molecules from aqueous solutions. The calcium alginate beads as biosorbent were prepared and analyzed for americium uptaking. The experiments were performed in different solution activity concentrations, pH and exposure time. The results suggest that biosorption process is more efficient at pH 4 and for 75, 150, 300 Bq/mL and 120 minutes were necessary to remove almost 100% of the americium-241 from the solution. (author)

  15. New Fecal Method for Plutonium and Americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L. III

    2000-01-01

    A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as thorium-228

  16. New fecal method for plutonium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L.; Fauth, D.J.; Nichols, S.T.

    2001-01-01

    A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin R (Eichrom Technologies), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin R , which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Technologies). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as 228 Th. (author)

  17. Transmutation of Americium in Fast Neutron Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youpeng

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, the feasibility to use a medium sized sodium cooled fast reactor fully loaded with MOX fuel for efficient transmutation of americium is investigated by simulating the safety performance of a BN600-type fast reactor loaded with different fractions of americium in the fuel, using the safety parameters obtained with the SERPENT Monte Carlo code. The focus is on americium mainly due to its long-term contribution to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel and its deterioration on core's safety parameters. Applying the SAS4A/SASSYS transient analysis code, it is demonstrated that the power rating needs to be reduced by 6% for each percent additional americium introduction into the reference MOX fuel, maintaining 100 K margin to fuel melting, which is the most limiting failure mechanism. Safety analysis of a new Accelerator Driven System design with a smaller pin pitch-to-diameter ratio comparing to the reference EFIT-400 design, aiming at improving neutron source efficiency, was also performed by simulating performance for unprotected loss of flow, unprotected transient overpower, and protected loss-of-heat-sink transients, using neutronic parameters obtained from MCNP calculations. Thanks to the introduction of the austenitic 15/15Ti stainless steel with enhanced creep rupture resistance and acceptable irradiation swelling rate, the suggested ADS design loaded with nitride fuel and cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic could survive the full set of transients, preserving a margin of 130 K to cladding rupture during the most limiting transient. The thesis concludes that efficient transmutation of americium in a medium sized sodium cooled fast reactor loaded with MOX fuel is possible but leads to a severe power penalty. Instead, preserving transmutation rates of minor actinides up to 42 kg/TWh th , the suggested ADS design with enhanced proton source efficiency appears like a better option for americium transmutation

  18. Preparation of americium source for smoke detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaswami, A.; Singh, R.J.; Manohar, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the method developed for the preparation of 241 Am source for smoke detector. Americium was electrodeposited from iso-propyl alcohol medium on silver backing. Thin layer of gold (few hundred micro gram thick) was plated on the americium source to make it safe for handling. The thickness of plated gold was such that the alpha radiations from the 241 Am source could escape out of the gold layer and cause ionisation in the surrounding air. The performance of the prepared sources were checked in a smoke detector and was found to be satisfactory and comparable to the imported sources. (author). 1 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. Redox chemistry of americium in nitric acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picart, S.; Jobelin, I.; Armengol, G.; Adnet, JM.

    2004-01-01

    The redox properties of the actinides are very important parameters for speciation studies and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing based on liquid-liquid extraction of actinides at different oxidation states (as in the Purex or Sesame process). They are also very useful for developing analytical tools including coulometry and redox titration. This study addressed the americium(IV)/americium(III) and americium(VI)/americium(V) redox couples, focusing on exhaustive acquisition of the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of americium oxidation at an electrode in a complexing nitric acid medium. (authors)

  20. 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident: psychological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Accidents involving exposure to radiation or radioactive materials may involve an unusual degree of emotional trauma. Methods that may be employed in dealing with such trauma are discussed in relation to a specific accident in which a radiation worker was injured and seriously contaminated with americium-241

  1. 48 CFR 244.301 - Objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Objective. 244.301 Section 244.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... 244.301 Objective. The administrative contracting officer (ACO) is solely responsible for initiating...

  2. 8 CFR 244.4 - Ineligible aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 244.4 Section 244.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.4 Ineligible aliens. An alien is ineligible for Temporary...

  3. 8 CFR 244.15 - Travel abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel abroad. 244.15 Section 244.15 Aliens... NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.15 Travel abroad. (a) After the grant of Temporary Protected Status... to travel abroad. Permission to travel may be granted by the director pursuant to the Service's...

  4. 49 CFR 244.3 - Preemptive effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preemptive effect. 244.3 Section 244.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL General § 244.3 Preemptive effect. Under 49 U.S.C. 20106, issuance of...

  5. 48 CFR 244.304 - Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surveillance. 244.304 Section 244.304 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Reviews 244.304 Surveillance. (b) The ACO, or the purchasing system analyst (PSA) with the concurrence of...

  6. 12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks and... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a) Limits on aggregate outstanding investments. A national bank's aggregate outstanding investments under...

  7. Americium migration in basalt and implications to repository risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickert, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were performed with americium as a minor component in groundwater. Batch adsorption, migration through column, and filtration experiments were performed. It was determined in batch experiments that americium is strongly adsorbed from solution. It was determined with filtration experiments that large percentages of the americium concentrations suspended by the contact solutions in batch experiments and suspended by the infiltrating groundwater in migration experiments were associated with particulate. Filtration was determined to be the primary mode of removal of americium from infiltrating groundwater in a column of granulated basalt (20 to 50 mesh) and an intact core of permeable basalt. Fractionally, 0.46 and 0.22 of the americium component in the infiltrating groundwater was transported through the column and core respectively. In view of these filtration and migration experiment results, the concept of K/sub d/ in the chromatographic sense is meaningless for predicting americium migration in bedrock by groundwater transport at near neutral pH

  8. Procedure for the analysis of americium in complex matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knab, D.

    1978-02-01

    A radioanalytical procedure for the analysis of americium in complex matrices has been developed. Clean separations of americium can be obtained from up to 100 g of sample ash, regardless of the starting material. The ability to analyze large masses of material provides the increased sensitivity necessary to detect americium in many environmental samples. The procedure adequately decontaminates from rare earth elements and natural radioactive nuclides that interfere with the alpha spectrometric measurements

  9. The relative physiological and toxicological properties of americium and plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.E.; Busch, E.; Johnson, O. [and others

    1951-11-15

    The relative physiological and toxicological properties of americium and plutonium have been studied following their intravenous administration to rats. The urinary and fecal excretion of americium was similar to that of plutonium administered as Pu(N0{sub 3}){sub 4}. The deposition of americium the tissues and organs of the rat was also similar to that observed for plutonium. The liver and the skeleton were the major sites of deposition. Zirconium citrate administered 15 minutes after injection of americium increased the urinary excretion of americium and decreased the amount found in the liver and the skeleton at 4 and 16 days. LD{sub 30}{sup 50} studies showed americium was slightly less toxic when given in the acute toxic range than was plutonium. The difference was, however, too slight to be important in establishing a larger tolerance does for americium. Survival studies, hematological observations, bone marrow observations, comparison of tumor incidence and the incidence of skeletal abnormalities indicated that americium and plutonium have essentially the same chronic toxicity when given on an equal {mu}c. basis. These studies support the conclusion that the tolerance values for americium should be essentially the same as those for Plutonium.

  10. Investigation of americium-241 metal alloys for target applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.; Rockwell International Corp., Golden, CO

    1982-01-01

    Several 241 Am metal alloys have been investigated for possible use in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Radiochemical Diagnostic Tracer Program. Several properties were desired for an alloy to be useful for tracer program applications. A suitable alloy would have a fairly high density, be ductile, homogeneous and easy to prepare. Alloys investigated have included uranium-americium, aluminium-americium, and cerium-americium. Uranium-americium alloys with the desired properties proved to be difficult to prepare, and work with this alloy was discontinued. Aluminium-americium alloys were much easier to prepare, but the alloy consisted of an aluminium-americium intermetallic compound (AmAl 4 ) in an aluminum matrix. This alloy could be cast and formed into shapes, but the low density of aluminum, and other problems, made the alloy unsuitable for the intended application. Americium metal was found to have a high solid solubility in cerium and alloys prepared from these two elements exhibited all of the properties desired for the tracer program application. Cerium-americium alloys containing up to 34 wt% americium have been prepared using both co-melting and co-reduction techniques. The latter technique involves co-reduction of cerium tetrafluoride and americium tetrafluoride with calcium metal in a sealed reduction vessel. Casting techniques have been developed for preparing up to eight 2.2 cm (0.87 in) diameter disks in a single casting, and cerium-americium metal alloy disks containing from 10 to 25 wt% 241 Am have been prepared using these techniques. (orig.)

  11. Surface complexation modeling of americium sorption onto volcanic tuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, M; Kelkar, S; Meijer, A

    2014-10-01

    Results of a surface complexation model (SCM) for americium sorption on volcanic rocks (devitrified and zeolitic tuff) are presented. The model was developed using PHREEQC and based on laboratory data for americium sorption on quartz. Available data for sorption of americium on quartz as a function of pH in dilute groundwater can be modeled with two surface reactions involving an americium sulfate and an americium carbonate complex. It was assumed in applying the model to volcanic rocks from Yucca Mountain, that the surface properties of volcanic rocks can be represented by a quartz surface. Using groundwaters compositionally representative of Yucca Mountain, americium sorption distribution coefficient (Kd, L/Kg) values were calculated as function of pH. These Kd values are close to the experimentally determined Kd values for americium sorption on volcanic rocks, decreasing with increasing pH in the pH range from 7 to 9. The surface complexation constants, derived in this study, allow prediction of sorption of americium in a natural complex system, taking into account the inherent uncertainty associated with geochemical conditions that occur along transport pathways. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. 50 CFR 216.244 - Mitigation.

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    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mitigation. 216.244 Section 216.244 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... object or disturbance (e.g., trash, periscope, surface disturbance, discoloration) in the water may be...

  13. 14 CFR 135.244 - Operating experience.

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    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operating experience. 135.244 Section 135... Crewmember Requirements § 135.244 Operating experience. (a) No certificate holder may use any person, nor may... that make and basic model aircraft and in that crewmember position, the following operating experience...

  14. 48 CFR 244.403 - Contract clause.

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    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 244.403... OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SUBCONTRACTING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Subcontracts for Commercial Items and Commercial Components 244.403 Contract clause. (1) 252.225-7009, Restriction on Acquisition of...

  15. Self-irradiation and oxidation effects on americium sesquioxide and Raman spectroscopy studies of americium oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horlait, Denis [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Caraballo, Richard [CEA, DEN, DTCD/SECM/LMPA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Lebreton, Florent [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Jégou, Christophe [CEA, DEN, DTCD/SECM/LMPA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Roussel, Pascal [Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, UMR 8012 CNRS, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille BP 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Delahaye, Thibaud, E-mail: thibaud.delahaye@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France)

    2014-09-15

    Americium oxides samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, with an emphasis on their structural behavior under oxidation and self-irradiation. Raman spectra of americium dioxide (AmO{sub 2}) and sesquioxide (Am{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were obtained for the first time. With the help of literature data on isostructural oxides, Raman signatures of Ia-3 C-type Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} and P-3m1 A-type Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} are identified. For AmO{sub 2,} a clear band is noted at 390 cm{sup −1}. Its nature is compared to that of the other actinide dioxides. Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} evolution under ambient conditions and against {sup 241}Am α self-irradiation was monitored by powder XRD. The sample, initially composed of A-type Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} as major phase as well as C2/m B-type and C-type structures as minor phases, progressively oxidizes to Fm-3m AmO{sub 2−δ} over a few months. On the basis of diffractogram refinements, evolutions of unit cell volumes caused by self-irradiation are also determined and discussed. - Graphical abstract: The evolution of americium oxide under ambient conditions was monitored using XRD (X-ray diffraction) and Raman spectroscopy. After a thermal treatment under reducing conditions, a polyphasic sample mainly composed of A- and C-type americium sesquioxides is evidenced by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The sample then evolves through two processes: oxidation and self-irradiation. The first one provokes the progressive appearance of F-type americium dioxide while the initial phases disappear, whereas the main effect of the second is a structural swelling with time. - Highlights: • The first Raman spectroscopy measurements on americium oxides were performed. • Observed Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} Raman bands were identified thanks to data on analogue compounds. • AmO{sub 2} assumed T{sub 2g} band presents a shift compared to the actinide dioxide series. • Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} evolution under self-irradiation and oxidation was also

  16. Higher Americium Oxidation State Research Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincher, Bruce J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Law, Jack D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Goff, George S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shehee, Thomas C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hobbs, David T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-18

    The partitioning of hexavalent Am from dissolved nuclear fuel requires the ability to efficiently oxidize Am(III) to Am(VI) and to maintain that oxidation state for a length of time sufficient to perform the separation. Several oxidants have been, or are being developed. Chemical oxidants include Ag-catalyzed ozone, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate, Cu(III) periodate, and sodium bismuthate. Hexavalent americium has also now successfully been prepared by electrolysis, using functionalized electrodes. So-called auto-reduction rates of Am(VI) are sufficiently slow to allow for separations. However, for separations based on solvent extraction or ion exchange using organic resins, the high valence state must be maintained under the reducing conditions of the organic phase contact, and a holding oxidant is probably necessary. Until now, only Cu(III) periodate and sodium bismuthate oxidation have been successfully combined with solvent extraction separations. Bismuthate oxidation provided the higher DAm, since it acts as its own holding oxidant, and a successful hot test using centrifugal contactors was performed. For the other oxidants, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate will not oxidize americium in nitric acid concentrations above 0.3 M, and it is not being further investigated. Peroxydisulfate in the absence of Ag catalysis is being used to prepare Am(V) in ion exchange work, discussed below. Preliminary work with Ag-catalyzed ozone has been unsuccessful for extractions of Am(VI) from 6.5 M HNO3, and only one attempt at extraction, also from 6.5 M HNO3, using the electrolytic oxidation has been attempted. However, this high acid concentration was based on the highest Am extraction efficiency using the bismuthate oxidant; which is only sparingly soluble, and thus the oxidation yield is based on bismuthate solubility. Lower acid concentrations may be sufficient with alternative oxidants and work with Ag-ozone, Cu(III) and electrolysis is on-going. Two non

  17. Feasibility of the fabrication of americium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, D.; Somers, J.

    1999-01-01

    The paper compares the processes used at ITU for the fabrication of americium targets for transmutation: powder mixing process, sol-gel method and the infiltration by an active solution of inactive pellets. The advantages of the latter process, related mainly to the lower level of dust formation, are stressed. Moreover, the radiological constraints on the fabrication as a function of Am content and of selected fabrication process are evaluated. As conclusion, the feasibility of Am target fabrication has been demonstrated on a laboratory scale, based on experimental results evaluation. The penalties due to radiological constraints in a semi-industrial process are acceptable. The future developments consist in the construction of a laboratory fully dedicated to minor actinides fuel pins or targets fabrication. (author)

  18. Analysis procedure for americium in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, R.W.; Hayes, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Several methods for the analysis of 241 Am in environmental samples were evaluated and a preferred method was selected. This method was modified and used to determine the 241 Am content in sediments, biota, and water. The advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. The method is also suitable for 244 Cm analysis

  19. Americium/Curium Disposition Life Cycle Planning Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, W.N.; Krupa, J.; Stutts, P.; Nester, S.; Raimesch, R.

    1998-01-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy Savannah River Office (DOE- SR), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) evaluated concepts to complete disposition of Americium and Curium (Am/Cm) bearing materials currently located at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

  20. Plutonium and Americium Geochemistry at Hanford: A Site Wide Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-08-23

    This report was produced to provide a systematic review of the state-of-knowledge of plutonium and americium geochemistry at the Hanford Site. The report integrates existing knowledge of the subsurface migration behavior of plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site with available information in the scientific literature regarding the geochemistry of plutonium and americium in systems that are environmentally relevant to the Hanford Site. As a part of the report, key research needs are identified and prioritized, with the ultimate goal of developing a science-based capability to quantitatively assess risk at sites contaminated with plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site and the impact of remediation technologies and closure strategies.

  1. Americium/Curium Disposition Life Cycle Planning Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, W.N. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Krupa, J.; Stutts, P.; Nester, S.; Raimesch, R.

    1998-04-30

    At the request of the Department of Energy Savannah River Office (DOE- SR), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) evaluated concepts to complete disposition of Americium and Curium (Am/Cm) bearing materials currently located at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  2. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING AMERICIUM AND CURIUM FROM RARE EARTH ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baybarz, R.D.; Lloyd, M.H.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to methods of separating americium and curium values from rare earth values. In accordance with the invention americium, curium, and rare earth values are sorbed on an anion exchange resin. A major portion of the rare earth values are selectively stripped from the resin with a concentrated aqueous solution of lithium chloride, and americium, curium, and a minor portion of rare earth values are then stripped from the resin with a dilute aqueous solution of lithium chloride. The americium and curium values are further purified by increasing the concentration of lithium chloride in the solution to at least 8 molar and selectively extracting rare earth values from the resulting solution with a monoalkylphosphoric acid. (AEC)

  3. 15 CFR 24.4 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...), and (ii) School Breakfast (section 4 of the Act). (6) Entitlement grants for State Administrative... local education agencies under 20 U.S.C. 236 through 241-1(a), and 242 through 244 (portions of the...

  4. 49 CFR 244.19 - Disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL Safety Integration Plans § 244.19 Disposition. (a) Standard of review. FRA reviews an...

  5. 49 CFR 244.17 - Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL Safety Integration Plans § 244.17 Procedures. (a) Each applicant shall file one...

  6. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  7. 1976 Hanford americium-exposure incident: external decontamination procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jech, J.J.; Berry, J.R.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    An accident resulted in the deposition on an injured workman's skin surfaces, in acid-burned areas and in lacerations, of something in excess of 6 mCi americium-241. The external decontamination procedures used, the change in americium content of the skin during the course of treatment, and some of the unusual problems encountered from the extrusion of foreign material and flaking of skin and scar tissue are described

  8. Preparation of americium metal of high purity and determination of the heat of formation of the hydrated trivalent americium ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirlet, J.C.

    1975-10-01

    In order to redetermine some physical and chemical properties of americium metal, several grams of Am-241 have been prepared by two independent methods: lanthanum reduction of the oxide and thermal dissociation of the intermetallic compound Pt 5 Am. After its separation from excess lanthanum or alloy constituent by evaporation, americium metal was further purified by sublimation at 1100 deg C and 10 -6 Torr. Irrespective of the method of preparation, the americium samples displayed the same d.h.c.p. crystal structure. As determined by vacuum hot extraction, the oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen contents are equal to or smaller than 250, 50 and 20 ppm, respectively. The heats of solution of americium metal (d.c.h.p. structure) in aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions have been measured at 298.15+-0.05K. The standard enthalpy of formation of Am 3+ (aq) is obtained as -616.7+-1.2 kJ mol -1 [fr

  9. Citric complexes, neodymium citrate and americium citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhlassa, Saidati.

    1981-06-01

    The behaviour of neodymium and americium has been studied in citric aqueous medium by two methods: solvent extraction of elements at tracer scale as chelates and by potentiometry. So range of pH and concentrations of elements and citric acid never reached before have been explored: 10 -7 -1 M, 10 -10 -3 , Csub(H3 Cit) -1 M, 1 2 O; AmCit, xH 2 O; NdCit 2 Co(NH 3 ) 6 , 8H 2 O; AmCit 2 Co(NH 3 ) 6 , xH 2 O and Nd 3 (OH) 4 (Cit) 4 NH 4 (Co(NH 3 ) 6 ) 2 , 18H 2 O. Their spectroscopic and crystallographic characteristics have been listed and studied. The nephelauxetic effect has been estimated from citric complexes as well as from citrates of these elements. The structure of the complexes in solution has been discussed on the basis of analysis of hypersensitive transition in different complexes [fr

  10. Applicability of insoluble tannin to treatment of waste containing americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, T.; Usuda, S.

    1998-01-01

    The applicability of insoluble tannin adsorbent to the treatment of aqueous waste contaminated with americium has been investigated. Insoluble tannin is considered highly applicable because it consists of only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and so its volume can be easily reduced by incineration. This report describes measurements of the americium distribution coefficient in low concentration nitric acid. The americium distribution coefficients were found to decrease with increasing concentration of nitric acid and sodium nitrate, and with increasing temperature. At 25 C in 2.0 x 10 -3 M HNO 3 , the distribution coefficient was found to be 2000 ml g -1 . The adsorption capacity was determined by column experiments using europium as a simulant of americium, and found to be 7 x 10 -3 mmol g -1 -dried tannin in 0.01 M HNO 3 at 25 C, which corresponds to approximately 1.7 mg- 241 Am/g-adsorbent(dried). The prospect of applying the adsorbent to the treatment of aqueous waste contaminated with americium appears promising. (orig.)

  11. 26 CFR 1.244-2 - Computation of deduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of deduction. 1.244-2 Section 1.244... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Special Deductions for Corporations § 1.244-2 Computation of deduction. (a) General rule. Section 244(a) provides a formula for the computation of the deduction for dividends received on...

  12. Hazard Evaluation for 244-CR Vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRAMS, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents the results of a hazards identification and evaluation performed on the 244-CR Vault to close a USQ (USQ No.TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed In HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities

  13. Hazard Evaluation for 244-CR Vault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRAMS, W.H.

    1999-08-19

    This document presents the results of a hazards identification and evaluation performed on the 244-CR Vault to close a USQ (USQ No.TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed In HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities.

  14. Hazard evaluation for 244-AR vault facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRAUN, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents the results of a hazard identification and evaluation performed on the 244-AR Vault Facility to close a USQ (USQ No. TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed in HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities

  15. A process for the recovery of americium from analytical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossard, P.; Kwinta, J.; Schwander, Y.

    1984-12-01

    The object of the present work is to define a procedure for the extraction of americium contained in hundreds of liters of liquid analytical wastes. The main objective is to produce wastes for which the americium concentration is lower than 0,5 mg/l, the operations being carried out in glove boxes. Dihexyl N, N-diethylcarbamylmethylene phosphonate (DHDECMP) is used for the extraction of americium. Experimental laboratory results and procedure design are described. Distribution coefficient, DHDECMP concentration, addition of TBP, influence of PH and temperature are studied. A bank of mixer-settlers appears to be the most appropriate laboratory equipment to handle large volume of solution with a good efficiency

  16. The selective extraction of americium from high level liquid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adnet, J.M.; Donnet, L.; Brossard, P.; Bourges, J.

    1996-12-31

    One of the possible ways selected by CEA for the partitioning of minor actinides from solutions containing fission products is the selective extraction of the oxidized species. This papers deals with the latest developments in the electrochemical oxidation of americium in nitric media to the oxidation states (IV) and (VI). Oxidized americium is generated and stabilized through the use of poly anionic ligands such as the phospho tungstate. With in view the use of such ligands in the treatment of real liquid wastes, the complexation of several metallic ions has been investigated A first experiment done with a real liquid waste to prove the possibility to selectively extract the oxidized americium is presented. (authors). 8 refs.

  17. Synergistic extraction behaviour of americium from simulated acidic waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, P.N.; Veeraraghavan, R.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    1998-01-01

    The extraction behaviour of americium has been investigated with mixtures of 3-phenyl-4-benzoyl-5-isoxazolone (PBI) and oxodonors viz. tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) and di-n-butyl octanamide (DBOA) using dodecane as the diluent from 1-6 M HNO 3 media. It is observed that D Am remains unaltered with PBI concentration (in the range 0.06-0.1 M) at 1.47 M TBP in the entire range of HNO 3 concentration. PBI and TBP in combination appears more promising compared to other synergistic systems. The possibility of using this mixture for americium removal from high level liquid waste solution has been explored. Extraction studies indicated that prior removal of uranium by 20% TBP in dodecane is helpful in the quantitative recovery of americium in three contacts. Effect of lanthanides on D Am is found to be marginal. (orig.)

  18. Covalency in Americium(III) Hexachloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Justin N; Su, Jing; Batista, Enrique R; Cary, Samantha K; Evans, William J; Kozimor, Stosh A; Mocko, Veronika; Scott, Brian L; Stein, Benjamin W; Windorff, Cory J; Yang, Ping

    2017-06-28

    Developing a better understanding of covalency (or orbital mixing) is of fundamental importance. Covalency occupies a central role in directing chemical and physical properties for almost any given compound or material. Hence, the concept of covalency has potential to generate broad and substantial scientific advances, ranging from biological applications to condensed matter physics. Given the importance of orbital mixing combined with the difficultly in measuring covalency, estimating or inferring covalency often leads to fiery debate. Consider the 60-year controversy sparked by Seaborg and co-workers ( Diamond, R. M.; Street, K., Jr.; Seaborg, G. T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1954 , 76 , 1461 ) when it was proposed that covalency from 5f-orbitals contributed to the unique behavior of americium in chloride matrixes. Herein, we describe the use of ligand K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and electronic structure calculations to quantify the extent of covalent bonding in-arguably-one of the most difficult systems to study, the Am-Cl interaction within AmCl 6 3- . We observed both 5f- and 6d-orbital mixing with the Cl-3p orbitals; however, contributions from the 6d-orbitals were more substantial. Comparisons with the isoelectronic EuCl 6 3- indicated that the amount of Cl 3p-mixing with Eu III 5d-orbitals was similar to that observed with the Am III 6d-orbitals. Meanwhile, the results confirmed Seaborg's 1954 hypothesis that Am III 5f-orbital covalency was more substantial than 4f-orbital mixing for Eu III .

  19. The ingestion of plutonium and americium by range cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blincoe, C.; Bohman, V.R.; Smith, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The intake of plutonium and americium in the diet of cattle grazing on plutonium contaminated desert range was determined. Daily feed intake of the grazing animals was also determined so that the amount of nuclides ingested daily could be ascertained. Soil ingested by range cattle constituted the principal and possibly only source of ingested plutonium and americium and resulted in a daily intake of 3600-6600 pCi 238 Pu, 85,000-400,000 pCi 239 Pu, and 11,000-31,000 pCi 241 Am daily. Determining transuranic intake by direct measurement and from the composition and contamination of the diet gave identical results. (author)

  20. 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LANEY, T.

    2000-01-01

    The 244-AR Vault Facility, constructed between 1966 and 1968, was designed to provide lag storage and treatment for the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Facility (PUREX) tank farm sludges. Tank farm personnel transferred the waste from the 244-AR Vault Facility to B Plant for recovery of cesium and strontium. B Plant personnel then transferred the treatment residuals back to the tank farms for storage of the sludge and liquids. The last process operations, which transferred waste supporting the cesium/strontium recovery mission, occurred in April 1978. After the final transfer in 1978, the 244-AR facility underwent a cleanout. However, 2,271 L (600 gal) of sludge were left in Tank 004AR from an earlier transfer from Tank 241-AX-104. When the cleanout was completed, the facility was placed in a standby status. The sludge had been transferred to Tank 004AR to support Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL] vitrification work. Documentation of waste transfers suggests that a portion of the sludge may have been moved from Tank 004AR to Tank 002AR in preparation for transfer back to the AX Tank Farm; however, quantities of the sludge that were moved to Tank 002AR from that transfer must be estimated

  1. 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident: overview and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Salient features of the 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident are discussed. Comparisons are made with previous human and animal exposure data, and conclusions drawn relative to the injured workman, to health physics practices, and to the adequacy of current exposure limits

  2. Determination of plutonium, americium and curium in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaut, CLaude; Germain, Pierre; Miramand, Pierre.

    1982-01-01

    The method used in the Laboratory for plutonium, americium and curium determination in marine samples (water, sediments, animals, plants) is presented. It is a modification of a procedure based on adsorption on ion exchange resins developed by other authors. The preliminary preparation of the samples, the radiochemical procedures and electrodeposition are described so as to be used as a practical handbook [fr

  3. Routine radiochemical method for the determination of 90Sr, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 244Cm in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageyev, V.A.; Sajeniouk, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Routine analytical procedures have been developed for the reliable simultaneous determination of 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am and 242-244 Cm, Chernobyl derived radioisotopes and fallout after nuclear weapon tests in a wide range of environmental samples: soil (100-200 g), sediments, aerosols, water and vegetation. This procedure has been applied to thousands of soil and sediment samples and hundreds of biological and water samples taken in the exclusive zone of Chernobyl NPP and different regions of Ukraine from 1989 to the present. After the sample has been properly prepared and isotopic tracers added, plutonium, americium and curium are precipitated with calcium oxalate and then lanthanum fluoride. Plutonium is separated from americium and curium by anion-exchange. Americium and curium are separated from rare earths by cation-exchange with gradient elute α-hydroxy-iso-butyric acid. During projects by AQCS IAEA 'Evaluation of Methods for 90 Sr in a Mineral Matrix' and 'Proficiency Test for 239 Pu, 241 Pu and 241 Am Measurement in a Mineral Matrix' accuracy and precision for 90 Sr, 239 Pu and 241 Am by present procedure was evaluated. Advantages, difficulties and limitations of the method are discussed. (author)

  4. Reduction Rates for Higher Americium Oxidation States in Nitric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Travis Shane [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mincher, Bruce Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schmitt, Nicholas C [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The stability of hexavalent americium was measured using multiple americium concentrations and nitric acid concentrations after contact with the strong oxidant sodium bismuthate. Contrary to our hypotheses Am(VI) was not reduced faster at higher americium concentrations, and the reduction was only zero-order at short time scales. Attempts to model the reduction kinetics using zero order kinetic models showed Am(VI) reduction in nitric acid is more complex than the autoreduction processes reported by others in perchloric acid. The classical zero-order reduction of Am(VI) was found here only for short times on the order of a few hours. We did show that the rate of Am(V) production was less than the rate of Am(VI) reduction, indicating that some Am(VI) undergoes two electron-reduction to Am(IV). We also monitored the Am(VI) reduction in contact with the organic diluent dodecane. A direct comparison of these results with those in the absence of the organic diluent showed the reduction rates for Am(VI) were not statistically different for both systems. Additional americium oxidations conducted in the presence of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ions showed that Am(VI) is reduced without the typical growth of Am(V) observed in the systems sans Ce ion. This was an interesting result which suggests a potential new reduction/oxidation pathway for Am in the presence of Ce; however, these results were very preliminary, and will require additional experiments to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. Overall, these studies have shown that hexavalent americium is fundamentally stable enough in nitric acid to run a separations process. However, the complicated nature of the reduction pathways based on the system components is far from being rigorously understood.

  5. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of americium(III) to americium(VI) in dilute phosphoric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyukova, M.S.; Litvina, M.N.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1980-01-01

    The reaction between trivalent americium and a mixture of silver with ammonium persulfate in 0.1-3M H 3 PO 4 solutions was studied. Hexavalent americium was found to be the product of interaction under these conditions. Americium oxidation is described with a first order equation with rate constants k=18.7 hr -1 and k=8.74 hr -1 for 0.1-0.5M and 1M H 3 PO 4 , respectively. The activation energy calculated from the temperature dependence of the rate of americium oxidation by a mixture of Ag 3 PO 4 with (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 is 9.1 kcal/mole. The stability of Am(VI) in 0.1-1M H 3 PO 4 was studied. No reduction of Am(VI) over a period of 30-40 hrs was observed; after that the reduction of Am(VI) follows a zero order law with the apparent rate constant k=0.0036 hr -1 . The mechanism of Am(III) oxidation with a mixture of silver and ammonium persulfate is discussed. (author)

  6. 42 CFR 456.244 - Data sources for studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Data sources for studies. 456.244 Section 456.244 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...: Medical Care Evaluation Studies § 456.244 Data sources for studies. Data that the committee uses to...

  7. 27 CFR 28.244 - Shipment to manufacturing bonded warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bonded warehouse. 28.244 Section 28.244 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Export Consignment § 28.244 Shipment to manufacturing bonded warehouse. Distilled spirits and wines withdrawn for shipment to a manufacturing bonded warehouse shall be consigned to the proprietor of such...

  8. Americium extraction by alkylpyrocatechin from alkaline salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karalova, Z.K.; Rodionova, L.M.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1984-01-01

    Effect of iron, aluminium, calcium, and sodium nitrates on americium extraction by 0.1 mol/l DOP solution [4-(α-α dioctylethyl) pyrocatechin] in toluene from a mixture of 2 mol/l NaOH with 0.1 mol/l EDTA has been investigated. It has been shown that americium extraction does not change essen-- tially in the presence of salts that permits to use DOP for Am extraction from alkaline solutions in the presence of outside salts. Verification of the above method of extraction of radioactive isotopes has been carried out. According to the data obtained double extraction provides a preparation of alkaline solutions practically free from radioactive isotopes. DOP application for Am extraction from alkaline salt solutions allows one to carry out repeated Am concentration and separation from accompanying elements. Conditions, under which Fe(3)-Am(3) pair separation coefficient achieves nx10 2 -10 4 , have been found out

  9. Contribution to the study of higher valency states of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlet, Jean.

    1976-01-01

    Study of the chemistry of the higher valencies of americium in aqueous solutions and especially the autoreduction phenomenon. First a purification method of americium solutions is studied by precipitation, solvent extraction and ion exchange chromatography. Studies of higher valency states chemical properties are disturbed by the autoreduction phenomenon changing Am VI and Am V in Am III more stable. Stabilization of higher valency states, characterized by a steady concentration of Am VI in solution, can be done by complexation of Am VI and Am V ions or by a protecting effect of foreign ions. The original medium used has a complexing effect by SO 4 2- ions and a protecting effect by the system S 2 O 8 2- -Ag + consuming H 2 O 2 main reducing agent produced by water radiolysis. These effects are shown by the study of Am VI in acid and basic solutions. A mechanism of the stabilization effect is given [fr

  10. Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzPatrick, J.R.; Dunn, J.G.; Avens, L.R.

    1987-02-13

    Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides. AmF/sub 4/ is not further oxidized to AmF/sub 6/ by the application of O/sub 2/F at room temperature thereto, while plutonium compounds present in the americium sample are fluorinated to volatile PuF/sub 6/, which can readily be separated therefrom, leaving the purified americium oxides and/or fluorides as the solid tetrafluoride thereof.

  11. Research program on development of advanced treatment technology for americium-containing aqueous waste in NUCEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineo, Hideaki; Matsumura, Tatsuro; Tsubata, Yasuhiro

    1996-10-01

    A research program was prepared on the development of an advanced treatment process for the americium-containing concentrated aqueous waste in NUCEF, than allows americium recovery for the reuse and the reduction of TRU waste generation. A preliminary analysis was conducted on the separation requirements based on the components estimated for the waste. An R and D strategy was proposed from the view to reduce TRU waste generated in the processing that the highest priority is given on the control of TRU leakage such as americium into the effluent stream after americium recovery and the minimization of salt used in the separation over the decontamination of impurities from americium. The extraction chromatographic method was selected as a candidate technology for americium separation under the principle to use reagents that are functional in acidic conditions such as bidentate extractants of DHEDECMP, CMPO or diamides, considering the larger flexibilities in process modification and possible multi-component separation with compact equipment and the past achievements on the recovery of kg quantities of americium. Major R and D items extracted are screening and evaluation of extractants for americium and plutonium, optimization of separation conditions, selection of denitration method, equipment developments and development of solidification methods of discarded americium after reuse and of various kinds of separation residues. In order to cope these items, four steps of R and D program were proposed, i.e., fundamental experiment in beaker-scale on screening and evaluation of extractants, flowsheet study in bench-scale using simulated and small amount of americium aqueous waste solution to evaluate candidate process, americium recovery test in iron-shielded cell to be installed in NUCEF. It is objected to make recovery of 100g orders of americium used for research on fundamental TRU fuel properties. (J.P.N.)

  12. Ingestion Pathway Transfer Factors for Plutonium and Americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-07-28

    Overall transfer factors for major ingestion pathways are derived for plutonium and americium. These transfer factors relate the radionuclide concentration in a given foodstuff to deposition on the soil. Equations describing basic relationships consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.109 are followed. Updated values and coefficients from IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 364 are used when a available. Preference is given to using factors specific to the Savannah River Site.

  13. 1976 Hanford americium-exposure incident: decontamination and treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.R.; McMurray, B.J.; Jech, J.J.; Breitenstein, B.D.; Quigley, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    An injured worker, contaminated with over 6 mCi of americium-241, required special treatment and housing for 4 months. This paper is a description of the design and management of the facility in which most of the treatment and housing occurred. The problems associated with contamination control, waste handling, supplies, and radiological concerns during the two-stage transfer of the patient from a controlled situation to his normal living environment are discussed in detail

  14. Americium-241: the most useful isotope of the actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Used extensively in nuclear gauges and in many other areas, this man-made element (Atomic Number 95) was first isolated in weighable amounts during World War II. Americium is now a very useful by-product of the nuclear industry and is produced in kilogram amounts by appropriate recovery, separation and purification processes. A review will be presented of its discovery, nuclear and chemical properties, and uses, with emphasis on its production process and separations chemistry

  15. Extraction separation of americium and curium. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrzilova, H.

    1976-11-01

    A survey is given of extraction systems suitable for transplutonium element separation and preparation as well as for the practical application of their nuclear properties. Methods are discussed in detail of separating the actinide and the lanthanide fractions from fission and corrosion products and of separating americium from curium. The description is completed with flowsheets showing the separation of transplutonium elements from irradiated targets and waste solutions after spent fuel reprocessing. (L.K.)

  16. Ingestion Pathway Transfer Factors for Plutonium and Americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-01-01

    Overall transfer factors for major ingestion pathways are derived for plutonium and americium. These transfer factors relate the radionuclide concentration in a given foodstuff to deposition on the soil. Equations describing basic relationships consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.109 are followed. Updated values and coefficients from IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 364 are used when a available. Preference is given to using factors specific to the Savannah River Site

  17. On the structure of thorium and americium adenosine triphosphate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostapha, Sarah; Berton, Laurence; Boubals, Nathalie; Zorz, Nicole; Charbonnel, Marie-Christine; Fontaine-Vive, Fabien; Den Auwer, Christophe; Solari, Pier Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The actinides are chemical poisons and radiological hazards. One challenge to better appraise their toxicity and develop countermeasures in case of exposure of living organisms is to better assess pathways of contamination. Because of the high chemical affinity of those actinide elements for phosphate groups and the ubiquity of such chemical functions in biochemistry, nucleotides and in particular adenosine triphosphate nucleotide (ATP) may be considered critical target building blocks for actinides. Combinations of spectroscopic techniques (Fourier transformed Infra Red [FTIR], Electro-spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry [ESI-MS], and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure [EXAFS]) with quantum chemical calculations have been implemented in order to assess the actinides coordination arrangement with ATP. We describe and compare herein the interaction of ATP with thorium and americium; thorium(IV) as a representative of actinide(IV) like plutonium(IV) and americium(III) as a representative of all heavier actinides. In the case of thorium, an insoluble complex is readily formed. In the case of americium, a behavior identical to that described previously for lutetium has been observed with insoluble and soluble complexes. The comparative study of ATP complexation with Th(IV) and Am(III) shows their ability to form insoluble complexes for which a structural model has been proposed by analogy with previously described Lu(III) complexes. (authors)

  18. On the structure of thorium and americium adenosine triphosphate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostapha, Sarah; Fontaine-Vive, Fabien; Berthon, Laurence; Boubals, Nathalie; Zorz, Nicole; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Charbonnel, Marie Christine; Den Auwer, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    The actinides are chemical poisons and radiological hazards. One challenge to better appraise their toxicity and develop countermeasures in case of exposure of living organisms is to better assess pathways of contamination. Because of the high chemical affinity of those actinide elements for phosphate groups and the ubiquity of such chemical functions in biochemistry, nucleotides and in particular adenosine triphosphate nucleotide (ATP) may be considered critical target building blocks for actinides. Combinations of spectroscopic techniques (Fourier transformed Infra Red [FTIR], Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry [ESI-MS], and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure [EXAFS]) with quantum chemical calculations have been implemented in order to assess the actinides coordination arrangement with ATP. We describe and compare herein the interaction of ATP with thorium and americium; thorium(IV) as a representative of actinide(IV) like plutonium(IV) and americium(III) as a representative of all heavier actinides. In the case of thorium, an insoluble complex is readily formed. In the case of americium, a behavior identical to that described previously for lutetium has been observed with insoluble and soluble complexes. The comparative study of ATP complexation with Th(IV) and Am(III) shows their ability to form insoluble complexes for which a structural model has been proposed by analogy with previously described Lu(III) complexes.

  19. The EFTTRA-T4 experiment on americium transmutation

    CERN Document Server

    Konings, R J M; Dassel, G; Pijlgroms, B J; Somers, J; Toscano, E

    2000-01-01

    In the EFTTRA-T4 experiment the irradiation behaviour of a target containing americium dispersed in MgAl sub 2 O sub 4 was studied. Pellets containing 10-12 wt% sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am were fabricated by the infiltration method. However, it was found that the americium, intended to be present as AmO sub 2 sub - sub x , formed a compound, probably AmAlO sub 3 , during sintering. The T4 target was irradiated in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) Petten from August 1996 to January 1998 (358.4 fpd's). Post-test burn-up calculations indicated that the sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am concentration is reduced to 4% of the initial value at the end of the irradiation. The fraction of the initial americium atoms that were fissioned is 28%. Non-destructive and destructive examinations of the target indicated that swelling of the target pellets occurred. This is attributed to accumulation of helium, produced by alpha decay of sup 2 sup 4 sup 2 Cm that occurs in the transmutation scheme of sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am.

  20. Gut uptake factors for plutonium, americium and curium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Data on estimates of the absorption of plutonium, americium and curium from the human gut based on measurements of uptake in other mammalian species are reviewed. It is proposed that for all adult members of the public ingesting low concentrations of plutonium in food and water, 0.05% would be an appropriate value of absorption except when the conditions of exposure are known and a lower value can be justified. For dietary intakes of americium and curium, the available data do not warrant a change from the ICRP value of 0.05%. For newborn children ingesting americium, curium and soluble forms of plutonium, a value of 1% absorption is proposed for the first 3 months of life during which the infant is maintained on a milk diet. It is proposed that a value of 0.5% should be used for the first year of life to take account of the gradual maturation of the gut. In considering the ingestion of insoluble oxides of plutonium by infants, it is proposed that absorption is taken as 0.1% for the first 3 months and 0.05% for the first year. (author)

  1. Determination of 241Am and 244Cm in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonino, N.O.; Grinman, A.D.R.; Serdeiro, N.H.

    1998-01-01

    The present technique describes a method to separate, purify and measure low levels of americium and curium in different environmental samples such as sediments, soils, water, vegetables, and air filters. The determination of radionuclides in theses environmental matrices have analytical problems, since a simple method doesn't exist for the purification, which is indispensable for its later measuring alpha spectrometry. The developed technique consist on taking an aliquot of the sample to analyze, to add tracer as americium 243 and curium 242, and to dissolve the matrix in a such way to have a clear solution. For the isolation of the americium and curium of the other actinides ar used as separation techniques: precipitation with Fe 3+ , anionic and cationic exchange, and extraction with a appropriate organic solvent. The purification of the americium and curium is followed by the electrodeposition habitually used. The measurement is carried out by alpha spectrometry with a detector of implanted ion. The detection limit for this techniques is of 0,002 Bq/l or 0,2 mBq in the case of filters. (author)

  2. Extraction of pentavalent americium by di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molochnikova, N.P.; Myasoedov, B.F.; Frenkel, V.Ya.

    1983-01-01

    Conditions have been found for the extraction of americium(V) by HDEHP in octane from acetate buffer solutions at pH 4.5-5.0 in the presence of ammonium persulphate which was necessary to stabilize oxidized americium under these conditions. The effect of the nature of a solvent on the extraction coefficient of americium(V) was studied. Macroamounts of americium(V) were extracted by 0.5M HDEHP in octane. The absorption spectrum of americium(V) in the extract has been recorded. The stability of americium(V) in the organic phase was evaluated. The absence of interfering influence of the anions of phosphotungstic acids on the extraction of americium(V) by 0.5M HDEHP in octane makes it possible to separate americium(V) from trivalent actinides during one extraction from acetate solutions at pH 4.5-5.0 in the presence of 10 -3 M potassium phosphotungstate; the separation factor is about 10 3 . (author)

  3. Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations measured from the 125-meter Hanford Meteorological Tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations and fluxes were measured at six heights from 1.9 to 122 m on the Hanford meteorological tower. The data show that plutonium-239 was transported on nonrespirable and small particles at all heights. Airborne americium-241 concentrations on small particles were maximum at the 91 m height

  4. Robotic sample preparation for radiochemical plutonium and americium analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalnaker, N.; Beugelsdijk, T.; Thurston, A.; Quintana, J.

    1985-01-01

    A Zymate robotic system has been assembled and programmed to prepare samples for plutonium and americium analyses by radioactivity counting. The system performs two procedures: a simple dilution procedure and a TTA (xylene) extraction of plutonium. To perform the procedures, the robotic system executes 11 unit operations such as weighing, pipetting, mixing, etc. Approximately 150 programs, which require 64 kilobytes of memory, control the system. The system is now being tested with high-purity plutonium metal and plutonium oxide samples. Our studies indicate that the system can give results that agree within 5% at the 95% confidence level with determinations performed manually. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Implications of plutonium and americium recycling on MOX fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, A.; Pilate, S.; Maldague, Th.; La Fuente, A.; Evrard, G.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of the multiple recycling of plutonium in power reactors on the radiation dose rates is analyzed for the most critical stage in a MOX fuel fabrication plant. The limitation of the number of Pu recycling in light water reactors would rather stem from reactor core physics features. The case of recovering americium with plutonium is also considered and the necessary additions of shielding are evaluated. A comparison between the recycling of Pu in fast reactors and in light water reactors is presented. (author)

  6. Effect of 241-americium on bone marrow stroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuvel, R. van den

    1990-01-01

    The regulation of haemopoiesis occurs via complex interactions between the stroma and the haemopoietic cells. An attempt to further clarifying the mechanisms and the exact role of the stroma in the regulation was made in a study. Results revealed that the murine bone marrow stromal cells are highly radiosensitive after injection with 241-americium and can thus be considered as a target population after internal contamination. In addition, observations are made which may be important for risk estimation for the developing animal and during pregnancy. Contamination in utero and by lactation shows persistent damage up to 1 year after contamination at an average annual dose of 5 cGy. (author)

  7. Solubility of americium-241 in in vitro bovine ruminal-gastrointestinal fluids and predicted tissue retention and milk secretion of field-ingested americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, J.

    1978-01-01

    The alimentary solubility and behavior of americium-241 were studied in an artificial rumen and simulated bovine gastrointestinal fluids. Rumen juice was augmented with americium-241 nitrate solution and incubated for 24 hours. This juice was successively converted by the addition of bile and enzymes and adjustment of the pH to simulate the digestive stages of the abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, and lower small intestine. Fluid samples were collected from each of these digestive stages and radioanalyzed for soluble americium-241. Shortly after the addition of americium-241 to rumen juice, an average of 15.3% remained soluble while 7.2% remained soluble following the incubation period. The solubility decreased to 5.3% following the abomasal period and increased to 11.6% and 20.0% when maintained at pH 4.0 and 5.0, respectively, in the duodenal phase. The solubility increased to 52% during the jejunal incubation period and was reduced to 44.8% during the lower intestinal incubation period. The sharp rise in americium-241 solubility during the jejunal incubation perid was found to be due mainly to the action of bile. Predictions of tissue retention and milk secretion of americium-241 ingested by grazing cattle at Area 13 of the Nevada Test Site are included

  8. Crippling load test of Budd Pioneer Car 244, test 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This report summarizes Test 3, a crippling load test on Budd Pioneer Car 244, conducted on June 28, 2011. Before the crippling load test, Transportation Technology Center, Inc., conducted two 800,000-pound (lb) quasi-static tests on Car 244 in accord...

  9. 40 CFR 52.244 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52.244... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.244 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Approval of the motor vehicle emissions budgets for the following ozone rate-of-progress and...

  10. Analysis of americium, plutonium and technetium solubility in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Seiji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-08-01

    Safety assessments for geologic disposal of radioactive waste generally use solubilities of radioactive elements as the parameter restricting the dissolution of the elements from a waste matrix. This study evaluated americium, plutonium and technetium solubilities under a variety of geochemical conditions using the geochemical model EQ3/6. Thermodynamic data of elements used in the analysis were provided in the JAERI-data base. Chemical properties of both natural groundwater and interstitial water in buffer materials (bentonite and concrete) were investigated to determine the variations in Eh, pH and ligand concentrations (CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, F{sup -}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -} and NH{sub 4}{sup +}). These properties can play an important role in the complexation of radioactive elements. Effect of the groundwater chemical properties on the solubility and formation of chemical species for americium, plutonium and technetium was predicted based on the solubility analyses under a variety of geochemical conditions. The solubility and speciation of the radioactive elements were estimated, taking into account the possible range of chemical compositions determined from the groundwater investigation. (author)

  11. Plutonium and americium in the foodchain lichen-reindeer-man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaakkola, T.; Hakanen, M.; Keinonen, M.; Mussalo, H.; Miettinen, J.K.

    1977-01-01

    The atmospheric nuclear tests have produced a worldwide fallout of transuranium elements. In addition to plutonium measurable concentrations of americium are to be found in terrestrial and aquatic environments. The metabolism of plutonium in reindeer was investigated by analyzing plutonium in liver, bone, and lung collected during 1963-1976. To determine the distribution of plutonium in reindeer all tissues of four animals of different ages were analyzed. To estimate the uptake of plutonium from the gastrointestinal tract in reindeer, the tissue samples of elk were also analyzed. Elk which is of the same genus as reindeer does not feed on lichen but mainly on deciduous plants, buds, young twigs, and leaves of trees and bushes. The composition of its feed corresponds fairly well to that of reindeer during the summer. Studies on behaviour of americium along the foodchain lichen-reindeer-man were started by determining the Am-241 concentrations in lichen and reindeer liver. The Am-241 results were compared with those of Pu-239,240. The plutonium contents of the southern Finns, whose diet does not contain reindeer tissues, were determined by analyzing autopsy tissue samples (liver, lung, and bone). The southern Finns form a control group to the Lapps consuming reindeer tissues. Plutonium analyses of the placenta, blood, and tooth samples of the Lapps were performed

  12. Uptake and recovery of americium and uranium by Anacystis biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.H.; Jiunntzong Wu

    1993-01-01

    The optimum conditions for the uptake of americium and uranium from wastewater solutions by Anacystis nidulans cells, and the recovery of these radionuclides were studied. The optimum pH range for both actinides was in the acidic region between 3.0 and 5.0. In a pH 3.5 solution with an algal biomass of 70 μg/mL, up to 95% of the Am and U were taken up by the cells. However, the uptake levels were lowered considerably when ethylene dinitrilotetraacetic acid (EDTA) or iron or calcium ions were present in the solutions. Most of the radionuclides taken up by the cells could also be desorbed by washing with salt solutions. Of nine salt solutions tested, ammonium carbonate was the most effective. Our experiments using algal biomass to remove radionuclides from wastewater showed that about 92% of americium and 85% of uranium in wastewater could be taken up by algal biomass, from which about 46% of the Am and 82% of the U originally present in the wastewater could be recovered by elution with a salt solution. 17 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Extraction of americium of different oxidation states in two-phase aqueous system based on polyethylene glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molochnikova, N.P.; Frenkel', V.Ya.; Myasoedov, B.F.; Shkinev, V.M.; Spivakov, B.Ya.; Zolotov, Yu.A.

    1987-01-01

    Americium extraction in different oxidation states in two-phase aqueous system based on polyethylene glycol is investigated. Conditions for quantitative extraction of americium (3) and americium (5) from ammonium sulfate solutions within pH=3-5 interval in the presence of arsenazo 3 are found. Composition of the produced americium complexes with reagent is determined; americium (3) interacts with arsenazo 3 in ammonium sulfate solutions with the formation of MeR and Me 2 R composition complexes. Absorption spectrum characteristics of americium (3) and- (5) complexes with arsenazo 3 in ammonium sulfate solutions and extracts based polyethylene glycol aqueous solutions are given. Molar extinction coefficients of americium complexes with arsenazo (3) in these solutions are determined

  14. Rare earth elements during diagenesis of abyssal sediments: analogies with a transuranic element americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boust, D.

    1987-03-01

    One of the possibilities for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes consists in burying them into abyssal sediments, the sediments being supposed to barrier out radionuclides migration. The objective of the work was to estimate the efficiency of sediment barrier with respect to americium. As there is no americium in abyssal sediments, an indirect approach was used: the behaviour of the rare earth elements, the best natural analogs of americium. They were analysed in a 15 m long core, from the Cap Verde abyssal plateau. The terrigenous phase derived from the African continent was modified by short-term processes (1-1000 years); the intermediate rare earth elements were dissolved. Mineral coatings, enriched in rare earth appeared. After burial, the evolution continued at a much slower rate (10 5 - 10 6 years). The rare elements of the mineral coatings derived from the dissolution of the terrigenous phase and from an additional source, deeper in the sediment column. The fluxes of rare earth elements from sediment to water column were estimated. In suboxic sediments, the dissolved particulate equilibrium was related to redox conditions. The short-term reactivity of americium was studied in laboratory experiments. Simple americium migration models showed that the sediments barrier was totally efficient with respect to americium. In the conditions, neptunium 237 a daughter product of americium 241 could induce fluxes of 10 16 atoms per year per ton of stored waste (10 -8 Ci y-1), during millions years, towards the water column [fr

  15. OTP for 244-U radiation monitoring system. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhart, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    This Operability Test Procedure (OTP) will be used to ensure the operability of the beta/gamma alarms for the Continuous Air Monitoring System installed in 244-U DCRT (Double Containment Receiver Tank). The complete system consists of two subsystems: one for Exhaust Stack Monitoring and one for Annulus Monitoring. Completion of this OTP will provide the necessary verification for the operability of the Exhaust Stack and Annulus Monitoring Systems, and for determining the operability of the Receiver Vessel 244-U. This OTP may be performed in conjunction with or following the vendor's Site Acceptance Test Procedure of Continuous Air Monitoring System for 244-U DCRT

  16. 49 CFR 244.21 - Compliance and Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL Safety Integration Plans § 244.21 Compliance and Enforcement. (a...

  17. Analysis of biological samples for americium and curium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miglio, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    A method of analyzing biological materials by liquid scintillation counting for americium and curium which greatly reduces the contribution from 40 K is described. The method employs an extractant liquid scintillation cocktail using N,N,N-trioctyl-N-methyl-ammonium chloride as the extractant. Instrument as well as tissue backgrounds are reduced. The lowered backgrounds allow picocurie level samples to be analyzed by liquid scintillation counting instead of alpha pulse height analysis. The samples are reduced to a carbon-free ash and then dissolved in 8M LiNo 3 which is also 10 -2 M in HNO 3 . An aliquot is placed in a liquid scintillation vial along with the extractant-scintillator, shaken and counted

  18. Pretreatment of americium/curium solutions for vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to the heavy isotope programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Prior to vitrification, an in-tank oxalate precipitation and a series of oxalic/nitric acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Pretreatment development experiments were performed to understand the behavior of the lanthanides and the metal impurities during the oxalate precipitation and properties of the precipitate slurry. The results of these experiments will be used to refine the target glass composition allowing optimization of the primary processing parameters and design of the solution transfer equipment

  19. Determination of the oxygen-metal-ratio of uranium-americium mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartscher, W.

    1982-01-01

    During the dissolution of uranium-americium mixed oxides in phosphoric acid under nitrogen tetravalent uranium is oxidized by tetravalent americium. The obtained hexavalent uranium is determined by constant potential coulometry. The coulombs measured are equivalent to the oxygen in excess of the minimum composition of UO 2 x AmO 1 . 5 . The total uranium content of the sample is determined in a subsequent coulometric titration. The oxygen-metal ratio of the sample can be calculated for a given uranium-americium ratio. An excess of uranium dioxide is necessary in order to suppress the oxidation of water by tetravalent americium. The standard deviation of the method is 0.0017 O/M units. (orig.) [de

  20. Double-contained receiver tank 244-TX, grab samples, 244TX-97-1 through 244TX-97-3 analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    This document is the final report for the double-contained receiver tank (DCRT) 244-TX grab samples. Three grabs samples were collected from riser 8 on May 29, 1997. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in a table

  1. In-line measurement of plutonium and americium in mixed solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.K.

    1981-01-01

    A solution assay instrument (SAI) has been developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and installed in the plutonium purification and americium recovery process area in the Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility. The instrument is designed for accurate, timely, and simultaneous nondestructive analysis of plutonium and americium in process solutions that have a wide range of concentrations and Am/Pu ratios. For a 25-mL sample, the assay precision is 5 g/L within a 2000-s count time

  2. Biochemical fractionation and cellular distribution of americium and plutonium in the biomass of freshwater macrophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotina, T.A.; Kalacheva, G.S.; Bolsunovsky, A.Ya.

    2011-01-01

    Accumulation of americium ( 241 Am) and plutonium ( 238,242 Pu) and their distribution in cell compartments and biochemical components of the biomass of freshwater aquatic plants Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum and Myrioplyllum spicatum and aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica have been investigated in laboratory experiments. Americium and plutonium taken up from water by Elodea canadensis apical shoots were mainly absorbed by structural components of plant cells (90% for 241 Am; 89% for 238 Pu and 82-87% for 242 Pu). About 10-18% of isotope activity was recorded in the cytosol fraction. The major concentration (76-92%) of americium was bound to cell wall cellulose-like polysaccharides of Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum, Ceratophyllum demersum and Fontinalis antipyretica, 8-24% of americium activity was registered in the fraction of proteins and carbohydrates, and just a minor concentration (<1%) in the lipid fraction. The distribution of plutonium in the biomass fractions of Elodea was similar to that of americium. Hence, americium and plutonium had the highest affinity to cellulose-like polysaccharides of cell walls of freshwater submerged macrophytes. (author)

  3. Distribution of uranium, americium and plutonium in the biomass of freshwater macrophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotina, T.A.; Kalacheva, G.S.; Bolsunovsky, A.YA.

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of uranium ( 238 U), americium ( 241 Am) and plutonium ( 242 Pu) and their distribution in cell compartments and biochemical components of the biomass of aquatic plants Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Myrioplyllum spicatum and aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica have been investigated in laboratory batch experiments. Isotopes of uranium, americium and plutonium taken up from the water by Elodea canadensis apical shoots were mainly absorbed by cell walls, plasmalemma and organelles. A small portion of isotopes (about 6-13 %) could be dissolved in cytoplasm. The major portion (76-92 %) of americium was bound to cell wall cellulose-like polysaccharides of Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum, Ceratophyllum demersum and Fontinalis antipyretica, 8-23 % of americium activity was registered in the fraction of proteins and carbohydrates, and just a small portion (< 1%) in lipid fraction. The distribution of plutonium in the biomass fraction of Elodea was similar to that of americium. Hence, americium and plutonium had the highest affinity to cellulose-like polysaccharides in Elodea biomass. Distribution of uranium in the biomass of Elodea differed essentially from that of transuranium elements: a considerable portion of uranium was recorded in the fraction of protein and carbohydrates (51 %). From our data we can assume that uranium has higher affinity to carbohydrates than proteins. (authors)

  4. Distribution of uranium, americium and plutonium in the biomass of freshwater macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotina, T.A.; Kalacheva, G.S.; Bolsunovsky, A.YA. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    Accumulation of uranium ({sup 238}U), americium ({sup 241}Am) and plutonium ({sup 242}Pu) and their distribution in cell compartments and biochemical components of the biomass of aquatic plants Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Myrioplyllum spicatum and aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica have been investigated in laboratory batch experiments. Isotopes of uranium, americium and plutonium taken up from the water by Elodea canadensis apical shoots were mainly absorbed by cell walls, plasmalemma and organelles. A small portion of isotopes (about 6-13 %) could be dissolved in cytoplasm. The major portion (76-92 %) of americium was bound to cell wall cellulose-like polysaccharides of Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum, Ceratophyllum demersum and Fontinalis antipyretica, 8-23 % of americium activity was registered in the fraction of proteins and carbohydrates, and just a small portion (< 1%) in lipid fraction. The distribution of plutonium in the biomass fraction of Elodea was similar to that of americium. Hence, americium and plutonium had the highest affinity to cellulose-like polysaccharides in Elodea biomass. Distribution of uranium in the biomass of Elodea differed essentially from that of transuranium elements: a considerable portion of uranium was recorded in the fraction of protein and carbohydrates (51 %). From our data we can assume that uranium has higher affinity to carbohydrates than proteins. (authors)

  5. Selective dissolution of americium by ferricyanide ions in basic aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, D.; Fouchard, S.; Simoni, E.

    2000-01-01

    Americium exhibits a soluble form in aqueous alkaline media under oxidizing conditions which is not the case for the other Transplutonium Elements (TPE). This property can be exploited for High Level Liquid Waste (HLLW) treatment to extract Am, one of the main radionuclides responsible for the long term radiotoxicity of nuclear waste. The Soluble Am compound can be obtained by adding a concentrated basic solution of ferricyanide ions (Fe(CN) 6 3- ) to a trivalent americium hydroxide precipitate. The method allows complete and rapid extraction of americium via its soluble form in alkaline solutions. Under these conditions, other TPE and lanthanides remain in the solid state as precipitates of highly insoluble trivalent hydroxides. In the case of dissolution involving large amounts of americium, the formation of the soluble americium species is followed by the appearance of a reddish precipitate in the basic solution. Dissolution of the reddish solid in NaOH or NaOH/Fe(CN) 6 3- media demonstrated the existence of a media dependent solubility of the precipitate, and therefore the existence of at least two forms of soluble Am. Spectroscopic studies (UV-visible, EXAFS-XANES) of this reddish solid led to the determination of an Am oxidation state (pentavalent americium) and its possible formula (Na 2 AmVO 2 (OH) 3 .nH 2 O). Electrochemical studies show that the only possible oxidation reaction of trivalent americium in the working media yields the pentavalent form, and that the hexavalent state is unattainable. Stoichiometric and spectroscopic studies show that not all the ferricyanide ions required for complete dissolution of Am remain in the free Fe(CN) 6 3- form. This observation supports the view that this dissolution of Am(III) solid compound is much more complex than a simple oxidation by the ferricyanide ions. The existence of a molecular interaction between Am(V)O 2 + and ferricyanide ions is highly probable. This work demonstrates that the selective dissolution

  6. Effect of americium-241 on luminous bacteria. Role of peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrova, M., E-mail: maka-alexandrova@rambler.r [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Rozhko, T. [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Vydryakova, G. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kudryasheva, N. [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-15

    The effect of americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), an alpha-emitting radionuclide of high specific activity, on luminous bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum was studied. Traces of {sup 241}Am in nutrient media (0.16-6.67 kBq/L) suppressed the growth of bacteria, but enhanced luminescence intensity and quantum yield at room temperature. Lower temperature (4 {sup o}C) increased the time of bacterial luminescence and revealed a stage of bioluminescence inhibition after 150 h of bioluminescence registration start. The role of conditions of exposure the bacterial cells to the {sup 241}Am is discussed. The effect of {sup 241}Am on luminous bacteria was attributed to peroxide compounds generated in water solutions as secondary products of radioactive decay. Increase of peroxide concentration in {sup 241}Am solutions was demonstrated; and the similarity of {sup 241}Am and hydrogen peroxide effects on bacterial luminescence was revealed. The study provides a scientific basis for elaboration of bioluminescence-based assay to monitor radiotoxicity of alpha-emitting radionuclides in aquatic solutions. - Highlights: {yields} Am-241 in water solutions (A = 0.16-6.7 kBq/L) suppresses bacterial growth.{yields} Am-241 (A = 0.16-6.7 kBq/L) stimulate bacterial luminescence. {yields} Peroxides, secondary radiolysis products, cause increase of bacterial luminescence.

  7. Americium/Curium Melter 2A Pilot Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.E.; Fellinger, A.P.; Jones, T.M.; Miller, C.B.; Miller, D.H.; Snyder, T.K.; Stone, M.E.; Witt, D.C.

    1998-05-01

    Isotopes of americium (Am) and curium (Cm) were produced in the past at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for research, medical, and radiological applications. These highly radioactive and valuable isotopes have been stored in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years. Vitrification of this solution will allow the material to be more safely stored until it is transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation for use in research and medical applications. To this end, the Am/Cm Melter 2A pilot system, a full-scale non- radioactive pilot plant of the system to be installed at the reprocessing facility, was designed, constructed and tested. The full- scale pilot system has a frit and aqueous feed delivery system, a dual zone bushing melter, and an off-gas treatment system. The main items which were tested included the dual zone bushing melter, the drain tube with dual heating and cooling zones, glass compositions, and the off-gas system which used for the first time a film cooler/lower melter plenum. Most of the process and equipment were proven to function properly, but several problems were found which will need further work. A system description and a discussion of test results will be given

  8. Density of simulated americium/curium melter feed solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1997-09-22

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to Oak Ridge National Laboratory and use in heavy isotope production programs. Prior to vitrification, a series of in-tank oxalate precipitation and nitric/oxalic acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Following nitric acid dissolution and oxalate destruction, the solution will be denitrated and evaporated to a dissolved solids concentration of approximately 100 g/l (on an oxide basis). During the Am/Cm vitrification, an airlift will be used to supply the concentrated feed solution to a constant head tank which drains through a filter and an in-line orifice to the melter. Since the delivery system is sensitive to the physical properties of the feed, a simulated solution was prepared and used to measure the density as a function of temperature between 20 to 70{degrees} C. The measured density decreased linearly at a rate of 0.0007 g/cm3/{degree} C from an average value of 1.2326 g/cm{sup 3} at 20{degrees} C to an average value of 1.1973g/cm{sup 3} at 70{degrees} C.

  9. Density of simulated americium/curium melter feed solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1997-01-01

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to Oak Ridge National Laboratory and use in heavy isotope production programs. Prior to vitrification, a series of in-tank oxalate precipitation and nitric/oxalic acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Following nitric acid dissolution and oxalate destruction, the solution will be denitrated and evaporated to a dissolved solids concentration of approximately 100 g/l (on an oxide basis). During the Am/Cm vitrification, an airlift will be used to supply the concentrated feed solution to a constant head tank which drains through a filter and an in-line orifice to the melter. Since the delivery system is sensitive to the physical properties of the feed, a simulated solution was prepared and used to measure the density as a function of temperature between 20 to 70 degrees C. The measured density decreased linearly at a rate of 0.0007 g/cm3/degree C from an average value of 1.2326 g/cm 3 at 20 degrees C to an average value of 1.1973g/cm 3 at 70 degrees C

  10. Americium adsorption on the surface of macrophytic algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, F.P.; Fowler, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Data are presented on the rates at which americium (Am) deposits upon blade surfaces of three benthic algal species (Ulva rigida, Fucus vesiculosus and Gigartina stellata) following short-term exposures (1-6 h). Am is taken up in direct proportion to the ambient radionuclide concentration in sea water. Uptake by the green alga was 3 to 5 times greater than that for the brown and red species. Experimental evidence indicated that Am accumulation is a passive process and that adsorption takes place mainly on the thin outer organic coating of the seaweed. The Am transport coefficients are quite similar to that previously found for the naturally occurring ..cap alpha..-emitter /sup 210/Po, but are an order of magnitude lower than a plutonium transport coefficient reported in the literature. Release of labelled extracellular products associated with the algal surface coating is considered to be responsible for the rapid loss of Am observed previously in macroalgae and may in fact serve as a mechanism for transferring Am to filter feeding zooplankton. (author).

  11. Americium adsorption on the surface of macrophytic algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.P.; Fowler, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Data are presented on the rates at which americium (Am) deposits upon blade surfaces of three benthic algal species (Ulva rigida, Fucus vesiculosus and Gigartina stellata) following short-term exposures (1-6 h). Am is taken up in direct proportion to the ambient radionuclide concentration in sea water. Uptake by the green alga was 3 to 5 times greater than that for the brown and red species. Experimental evidence indicated that Am accumulation is a passive process and that adsorption takes place mainly on the thin outer organic coating of the seaweed. The Am transport coefficients are quite similar to that previously found for the naturally occurring α-emitter 210 Po, but are an order of magnitude lower than a plutonium transport coefficient reported in the literature. Release of labelled extracellular products associated with the algal surface coating is considered to be responsible for the rapid loss of Am observed previously in macroalgae and may in fact serve as a mechanism for transferring Am to filter feeding zooplankton. (author)

  12. 244-AR vault cooling water stream-specific report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    The proposed wastestream designation for the 244-AR Vault cooling water wastestream is that this stream is not a dangerous waste, pursuant to the Washington (State) Administration Code (WAC) 173-303, Dangerous Waste Regulations. A combination of process knowledge and sampling data was used to make this determination. 21 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  13. The rapid determination of americium curium, and uranium in urine by ultrafiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.N.; Popplewell, D.S.; Ham, G.J.; Griffin, R.

    1975-01-01

    The rapid ultrafiltration method developed for the assay of plutonium has been extended to the determination of americium, curium and uranium in urine. The limits of detection for americium and curium, and uranium are 0.09 and 0.12 dm -1 l -1 respectively, and the analysis time excluding counting less than 2 hours. The method can therefor be effectively used as a rapid screening procedure. When the reference level for plutonium is exceeded, the α activity may require to be characterised. The single ultrafiltration technique must be modified for turbid urine samples. The method is inappropriate, except for uranium, when the urine contains DTPA. (author)

  14. Unsafe Coulomb excitation of $^{240-244}Pu$

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedenhöver, I; Hackman, L; Ahmad, I; Greene, J P; Amro, H; Carpenter, M P; Nisius, D T; Reiter, P; Lauritsen, T; Lister, C J; Khoo, T L; Siem, S; Cizewski, J A; Seweryniak, D; Uusitalo, J; Macchiavelli, A O; Chowdhury, P; Seabury, E H; Cline, D; Wu, C Y

    1999-01-01

    The high spin states of /sup 240/Pu and /sup 244/Pu have been investigated with GAMMASPHERE at ATLAS, using Coulomb excitation with a /sup 208/Pb beam at energies above the Coulomb barrier. Data on a transfer channel leading to /sup 242/Pu were obtained as well. In the case of /sup 244/Pu, the yrast band was extended to 34h(cross), revealing the completed pi i/sub 13/2/ alignment, a "first" for actinide nuclei. The yrast sequence of /sup 242/Pu was also extended to higher spin and a similar backbend was delineated. In contrast, while the ground state band of /sup 240/Pu was measured up to the highest rotational frequencies ever reported in the actinide region (~300 keV), no sign of particle alignment was observed. (11 refs).

  15. Medical management after contamination and incorporation of americium in occupational exposure. Medizinische Massnahmen nach Kontamination und Inkorporation von Americium bei beruflicher Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensicke, F.; Stopp, G.; Scheler, R.; Klucke, H.; Czarwinski, R.; Naumann, M.; Hoelzer, F.; Ott, R.; Schmidt, I. (Staatliches Amt fuer Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Strahlenschutzmedizin)

    1990-10-01

    In handling with an ampule of {sup 241}Am-nitrate solution one person received an contamination of the body surface, especially the face and the hairs, and an internal contamination of americium. The paper presents the results obtained in medical management to reduced the contamination of the skin and of the incorporated radionuclide. The radioactivity of the body surface could be reduced up to small local areas. After treatment with DTPA (Ditripentat) the internal exposure decrease about 83%. (orig.).

  16. Adsorption-desorption characteristics of plutonium and americium with sediment particles in the estuarine environment: studies using plutonium-237 and americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C.N.; Fukai, R.

    1975-01-01

    The particle formation of plutonium and americium, their adsorption onto fresh water sediments and the desorption from the sediments in sea water were studied in the Laboratory under simulated river-estuary conditions, using γ-emitting plutonium-237 and americium-241. The results of the experiments show that the particle formation of plutonium depends on its valence states, on pH and on the salinity of the medium. For river water at pH4, some 25%, 20% and 30% of the added 237 Pu was in particulate form, larger than 0.45 μm, for Pu (III), Pu (IV) and Pu (VI), respectively, while 65%, 90% and 50% of the respective valence states was associated with particles at pH 8. In sea water the general pattern remains similar, although Pu (VI) is more soluble in sea water owing to higher ligand concentrations for carbonate and bicarbonate complexes. The pH-dependency of particle formation of Am (III) is more steep than that of plutonium and seems to be influenced by colloidal substances occurring in the experimental media. The adsorption-desorption characteristics of plutonium and americium with the sediment in river water as well as sea water reflect the characteristics of their particle formation, being dependent upon such properties as valence states, the pH and salinity of the medium. A sewage effluent added to the media has small but measurable effects on the adsorption-desorption processes of plutonium. (author)

  17. Total and Compound Formation Cross Sections for Americium Nuclei: Recommendations for Coupled-Channels Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    Calculations for total cross sections and compound-nucleus (CN) formation cross sections for americium isotopes are described, for use in the 2017 NA-22 evaluation effort. The code ECIS 2006 was used in conjunction with Frank Dietrich's wrapper `runtemplate'.

  18. Evaluation of the readsorption of plutonium and americium in dynamic fractionations of environmental solid samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Roongrat; Hou, Xiaolin; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2008-01-01

    extractions. The degree of readsorption in dynamic and conventional batch extraction systems are compared and evaluated by using a double-spiking technique. A high degree of readsorption of plutonium and americium (>75%) was observed in both systems, and they also exhibited similar distribution patterns...

  19. Migration ability of plutonium and americium in the soils of Polessie State Radiation-Ecological Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetlana Ovsiannikova; Maryna Papenia; Katsiaryna Voinikava; Galina Sokolik; Sergey Svirschevsky; Justin Brown; Lindys Skipperud

    2010-01-01

    The physicochemical forms of radionuclides in soils determine the processes of their entry into the soil solutions, redistribution in the soil profile, soil-plant and soil-ground or surface waters transfer as well as spreading outside the contaminated area. The vertical distribution of plutonium and americium and their physicochemical forms in soils of Polessie State Radiation-Ecological Reserve (PSRER) were studied with the aim of establishing the potential for radionuclide migration. Samples of alluvial soddy-podzolic and peaty soils with a low (1-3%) and relatively high (∼80% of dry sample mass) content of organic matter have been selected for investigation. A method employing sequential selective extraction has been used for analysis of radionuclide physicochemical forms in the soils. Activity concentrations of 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am in the samples were determined via radiochemical analysis with alpha-spectrometric identification of radionuclides. The results indicate that the main proportion of plutonium and americium remains in the 0-20 cm soil layer. The inventories of mobile and biologically available forms of plutonium and americium, expressed as a percentage of the total radionuclide content in soil, lie in the ranges of 1.1-9.4 and 2.7-29% respectively. Greater proportions of mobile and biologically available forms of radionuclides appear to be associated with mineral soil as compared to organic soil. In both mineral and organic soils, the portion of mobile americium is higher than plutonium. The inventories of mobile forms of plutonium and americium increase with the depth of soils. (author)

  20. Operability test procedure for 244-U DCRT. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhart, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    This OPT will insure the operability of various systems and their general equipment, used in the operation of the 244-U DCRT. Systems that will be tested include the following: Leak Detection Systems; Heat Trace System; Vessel Temperature Measurement System; Dip Tube Water System; Weight Factor and Specific Gravity System; Instrument Air System; Vessel Liquid Level System; Vessel Liquid Transfer System; and Exhauster Differential Pressure Indicating Controller System. The tests will cover checks on equipment operation and electrical interlocks, but will not cover checks on associated annunciator alarms which are covered in a separate OTP

  1. 8 CFR 244.11 - Renewal of application; appeal to the Board of Immigration Appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Immigration Appeals. 244.11 Section 244.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.11 Renewal of application; appeal to the Board of Immigration Appeals. If a charging document is served on the alien with a...

  2. 48 CFR 1852.244-70 - Geographic participation in the aerospace program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the aerospace program. 1852.244-70 Section 1852.244-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Provisions and Clauses 1852.244-70 Geographic participation in the aerospace program. As prescribed in 1844.204-70, insert the following clause: Geographic Participation in the Aerospace Program (APR 1985) (a...

  3. Interaction and diffusion transport of americium in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Guinart, Oriol; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry department, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    The final disposal of High Level Radioactive Wastes (HLRW) is based on its long-term storage in underground facilities located in geological stable sites with a multi-barrier system, the so called Deep Geological Repositories (DGR), that will keep HLRW confined for >10.000 years. After this period of time, leachates rich in long-live radioisotopes might escape from DGR and start to transport towards the biosphere. There is still a lack of information concerning the interaction and transport in soils of some radionuclides present in HLRW, especially for radionuclides that present a high sorption, such as americium (Am). Having reliable information about the mobility of radionuclides in soils is crucial in order to develop risk assessment models and to take proper decisions in case of soil contamination. The aim of the present work was, by means of laboratory scale experiments, to study the interaction and, for first time, to evaluate the diffusion transport of {sup 241}Am in soils. The {sup 241}Am interaction in soils was assessed by applying sorption batch assays to 20 soil samples with contrasted edaphic properties which allowed us to quantify the solid-liquid distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) and desorption percentage. K{sub d} (Am) values ranged from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 5} L kg{sup -1} and desorption percentages were always less than 2% which denoted a high capacity of the soil to incorporate the Am and a low reversibility of the sorption process. The influence of soil properties in {sup 241}Am interaction was studied by means of multiple linear and multivariate regressions. Although a single correlation between K{sub d} (Am) values and a soil property was not found, the main properties affecting {sup 241}Am interaction in soils were soil pH, carbonate and organic matter contents in the soil. Finally, additional batch assays at different controlled pH were done to study Am sorption as a function of the contact solution pH. A variation of the Am sorption

  4. Unsafe Coulomb excitation of 240-244Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Amro, H.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chowdhury, P.; Cizewski, J.; Cline, D.; Greene, J. P.; Hackman, G.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Nisius, D. T.; Reiter, P.; Seabury, E. H.; Seweryniak, D.; Siem, S.; Uusitalo, J.; Wiedenhoever, I.; Wu, C. Y.

    1999-01-01

    The high spin states of 240 Pu and 244 Pu have been investigated with GAMMASPHERE at ATLAS, using Coulomb excitation with a 208 Pb beam at energies above the Coulomb barrier. Data on a transfer channel leading to 242 Pu were obtained as well. In the case of 244 Pu, the yrast band was extended to 34h b ar revealing the completed πi 13/2 alignment, a ''first'' for actinide nuclei. The yrast sequence of 242 Pu was also extended to higher spin and a similar backbend was delineated. In contrast, while the ground state band of 240 Pu was measured up to the highest rotational frequencies ever reported in the actinide region (approximately300 keV), no sign of particle alignment was observed. In this case, several observable such as the large B(E1)/B(E2) branching ratios in the negative parity band, and the vanishing energy staggering between the negative and positive parity bands suggest that the strength of octupole correlations increases with rotational frequency. These stronger correlations may well be responsible for delaying or suppressing the πi 13/2 particle alignment

  5. Structural characterisations and mechanistic investigations of the selective dissolution of americium by the ferricyanide ions in alkaline media. Application for the partitioning americium curium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouchard, Sebastien

    2000-01-01

    Americium exhibits a high solubility form in basic media under oxidant conditions, unlike the other Transplutonium elements (TPE). This property can be used in the frame of High Level Liquid Waste (HLLW) treatment in order to extract preferentially the americium element, the main responsible of the long term radiotoxicity of the nuclear waste. This soluble compound can be obtained by addition of a concentrated basic solution of Fe(CN) 6 3- ions on Am(OH) 3 precipitates. This technique enables a rapid extraction of Am by the synthesis of this soluble form in alkaline solutions. Under these conditions, the other TPE remain in the solid state as trivalent hydroxide solids, strongly insoluble. In the case of dissolutions involving large amounts of Am(OH) 3 , the formation of the soluble complex is concomitant with the appearance of a reddish precipitate in the basic solution. Dissolution experiments which were carried out on this solid in NaOH/Fe(CN) 6 3- have demonstrated the dependency of the solubility equilibria with the media. Spectroscopic studies (UV Visible, XAS) on the precipitate have enabled the determination of the chemical structure and the oxidation state of the americium in the solid: Na 2 Am(V)O 2 (OH) 3 ,nH 2 O. Electrochemical studies on the americium solution have confirmed that the oxidation of Am(OH) 3 by the Fe(CN) 6 3- ions in basic media could only lead to the pentavalent form. A stoichiometric study carries out between a AmO 2 + ion and one Fe(CN) 6 3- ion and the spectroscopic characterisation of this reaction have demonstrated that the Fe(CN) 6 3- ion didn't remain as an un-complexed form in solution after the alkaline mixing. These results tend to prove that this dissolution of Am(OH) 3 is much more complex than a simple oxidation by the Fe(CN) 6 3- ions. The existence of molecular interactions between AmO 2 + and Fe(CN) 6 3- has been postulated and a mechanistic scheme has been proposed in order to explain the appearance of the soluble

  6. Evaluation of neutron nuclear data for 244Cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarasi, Sin-iti; Nakagawa, Tsuneo

    1977-06-01

    Evaluation of neutron nuclear data for 244 Cm was performed below 16 MeV. The energy region above 1000 eV was separated from the lower region where the resonance parameters were given. Evaluation was made to select suitable resonance parameters, and thermal values of the capture and fission cross sections were obtained with the adopted resonance parameters. Using a semi-empirical formula, the fission cross section was reproduced above 1000 eV. Optical and statistical model calculations were made in order to obtain the total, capture, inelastic and elastic scattering, and (n,2n) reaction cross sections. The number of neutrons per neutron-induced fission was estimated with an empirical formula. (auth.)

  7. In-beam spectroscopic study of 244Cf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konki, J.; Sulignano, B.; Greenlees, P. T.; Theisen, Ch.; Auranen, K.; Badran, H.; Briselet, R.; Cox, D. M.; Defranchi Bisso, F.; Dobaczewski, J.; Grahn, T.; Herzán, A.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Leino, M.; Lightfoot, A.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Partanen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sarén, J.; Scholey, C.; Shi, Y.; Smolen, M.; Sorri, J.; Stolze, S.; Uusitalo, J.

    2018-02-01

    The ground-state rotational band of the neutron-deficient californium (Z =98 ) isotope 244Cf was identified for the first time and measured up to a tentative spin and parity of Iπ=20+ . The observation of the rotational band indicates that the nucleus is deformed. The kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia were deduced from the measured γ -ray transition energies. The behavior of the dynamic moment of inertia revealed an up-bend due to a possible alignment of coupled nucleons in high-j orbitals starting at a rotational frequency of about ℏ ω =0.20 MeV . The results were compared with the systematic behavior of the even-even N =146 isotones as well as with available theoretical calculations that have been performed for nuclei in the region.

  8. Plutonium and americium in arctic waters, the North Sea and Scottish and Irish coastal zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallstadius, L.; Aarkrog, Asker; Dahlgaard, Henning

    1986-01-01

    of the Irish Sea) to Spitsbergen. 241Am found in Arctic waters probably originates from the decay of fallout 241Pu and, like Pu, tentatively has a residence time of the order of several years. Americium from Sellafield has an estimated mean residence time of 4–6 months in Scottish waters.......Plutonium and americium have been measured in surface waters of the Greenland and Barents Seas and in the northern North Sea from 1980 through 1984. Measurements in water and biota, Fucus, Mytilus and Patella, were carried out in North-English and Scottish waters in 1982 and Fucus samples were...... collected from the Irish coast in 1983. Fallout is found to dominate as a source of 239+240Pu north of latitude 65°N, while for 238Pu a substantial fraction originates from European nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. The 238Pu/239+240Pu isotope ratio provides clear evidence of the transport of effluent...

  9. Biochemical behaviour of plutonium and americium and geochemical modelling of the soil solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, N.D.; Livens, F.R.; Horrill, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    Field observations suggest that plutonium and americium in the environment are present in very different chemical forms in the interstitial waters of an intertidal sediment. Thermodynamic modelling using the PHREEQE code predicts that plutonium is present entirely in oxidation state (V) as the PuO 2 CO 3 - ion, whereas americium is present entirely in oxidation state (III), largely as the uncharged Am(OH)CO 3 species, but with significant concentrations of the Am 3+ and the AmSO 4 + ions. There are, however, differences between these predictions and others published for a very similar system which apparently arise from uncertainties in the thermodynamic data. Field data cannot resolve these differences unambiguously. (author) 29 refs.; 3 tabs

  10. High-purity germanium detection system for the in vivo measurement of americium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyree, W.H.; Falk, R.B.; Wood, C.B.; Liskey, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    A high-purity germanium (HPGe) array, photon-counting system has been developed for the Rocky Flats Plant Body-Counter Medical Facility. The newly improved system provides exceptional resolutions of low-energy X-ray and gamma-ray spectra associated with the in vivo deposition of plutonium and americium. Described are the operational parameters of the system and some qualitative results illustrating detector performance for the photon emissions produced from the decay of plutonium and americium between energy ranges from 10 to 100 kiloelectron volts. Since large amounts of data are easily generated with the system, data storage, analysis, and computer software developments continue to be an essential ingredient for processing spectral data obtained from the detectors. Absence of quantitative data is intentional. The primary concern of the study was to evaluate the effects of the various physical and electronic operational parameters before adding those related entirely to a human subject

  11. Electrodeposition of americium on a liquid cadmium cathode from a molten salt bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplace, A.; Lacquement, J.; Maillard, C.; Donner, L.

    2004-01-01

    A high-activity experiment involving the electrode position of americium on a liquid cadmium cathode from a LiCl-KCl eutectic with about 3 g of AmO 2 was conducted in a shielded cell in the ATALANTE complex. After describing the electrolyzer and the experimental conditions, the authors discuss the preparation of the LiCl-KCl-AmCl 3 solution and briefly review its electrochemical properties. It was clearly confirmed that Am(III) reduction on an inert solid cathode occurs in two steps forming Am(II) before Am(0), whereas only one reduction step was observed on liquid cadmium. The main results of this study concern americium electrode position on the liquid cadmium cathode (recovery yields, current densities, problems encountered). The solvent properties of cadmium for actinide/lanthanide separation are discussed. (authors)

  12. Determination of americium and plutonium in autopsy tissue: methods and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, H.A.; Eutsler, B.C.; McInroy, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The current methods used by the tissue analysis program at LASL for the determination of americium and plutonium in autopsy tissue are described. Problems affecting radiochemical yield are discussed. Included are problems associated with sample preparation, separation of plutonium from large amounts of bone ash, and reagent contamination. The average 242 Pu tracer yield for 1800 Pu determinations is 78 +- 12%. The average 242 Am tracer yield is 85 +- 7% for 40 determinations

  13. Final Radiological Assessment of External Exposure for CLEAR-Line Americium Recovery Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Adam C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Belooussova, Olga N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hetrick, Lucas Duane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently planning to implement an americium recovery program. The americium, ordinarily isotopically pure 241Am, would be extracted from existing Pu materials, converted to an oxide and shipped to support fabrication of americium oxide-beryllium neutron sources. These operations would occur in the currently proposed Chloride Extraction and Actinide Recovery (CLEAR) line of glove boxes. This glove box line would be collocated with the currently-operational Experimental Chloride Extraction Line (EXCEL). The focus of this document is to provide an in-depth assessment of the currently planned radiation protection measures and to determine whether or not further design work is required to satisfy design-goal and ALARA requirements. Further, this document presents a history of americium recovery operations in the Department of Energy and high-level descriptions of the CLEAR line operations to provide a basis of comparison. Under the working assumptions adopted by this study, it was found that the evaluated design appears to mitigate doses to a level that satisfies the ALARA-in-design requirements of 10 CFR 835 as implemented by the Los Alamos National Laboratory procedure P121. The analyses indicate that extremity doses would also meet design requirements. Dose-rate calculations were performed using the radiation transport code MCNP5 and doses were estimated using a time-motion study developed in consort with the subject matter expert. A copy of this report and all supporting documentation are located on the Radiological Engineering server at Y:\\Rad Engineering\\2013 PROJECTS\\TA-55 Clear Line.

  14. Quantitative determination of americium and curium in solutions using potassium tungstophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chistyakov, V.M.; Baranov, A.A.; Erin, E.A.; Timoaeev, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Two methods of americium (4) and curium (4) titration-replacement and redox ones - have been considered. According to the replacement method thorium nitrate solution was used as a titrant and the final point of titration was determined spectophotometrically. Using the method developed, on the basis of experimental data, the composition of thorium (4) complex with potassium tungstophosphate was determined. In case of the redox titration sodium nitrite was used, and the final titration point was indicated either spectrophotometrically or potentiometrically

  15. Medical management after contamination and incorporation of americium in occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gensicke, F.; Stopp, G.; Scheler, R.; Klucke, H.; Czarwinski, R.; Naumann, M.; Hoelzer, F.; Ott, R.; Schmidt, I.

    1990-01-01

    In handling with an ampule of 241 Am-nitrate solution one person received an contamination of the body surface, especially the face and the hairs, and an internal contamination of americium. The paper presents the results obtained in medical management to reduced the contamination of the skin and of the incorporated radionuclide. The radioactivity of the body surface could be reduced up to small local areas. After treatment with DTPA (Ditripentat) the internal exposure decrease about 83%. (orig.) [de

  16. Experimental studies to validate model calculations and maximum solubility limits for Plutonium and Americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This report focuses on studies of KIT-INE to derive a significantly improved description of the chemical behaviour of Americium and Plutonium in saline NaCl, MgCl 2 and CaCl 2 brine systems. The studies are based on new experimental data and aim at deriving reliable Am and Pu solubility limits for the investigated systems as well as deriving comprehensive thermodynamic model descriptions. Both aspects are of high relevance in the context of potential source term estimations for Americium and Plutonium in aqueous brine systems and related scenarios. Americium and Plutonium are long-lived alpha emitting radionuclides which due to their high radiotoxicity need to be accounted for in a reliable and traceable way. The hydrolysis of trivalent actinides and the effect of highly alkaline pH conditions on the solubility of trivalent actinides in calcium chloride rich brine solutions were investigated and a thermodynamic model derived. The solubility of Plutonium in saline brine systems was studied under reducing and non-reducing conditions and is described within a new thermodynamic model. The influence of dissolved carbonate on Americium and Plutonium solubility in MgCl 2 solutions was investigated and quantitative information on Am and Pu solubility limits in these systems derived. Thermodynamic constants and model parameter derived in this work are implemented in the Thermodynamic Reference Database THEREDA owned by BfS. According to the quality assurance approach in THEREDA, is was necessary to publish parts of this work in peer-reviewed scientific journals. The publications are focused on solubility experiments, spectroscopy of aquatic and solid species and thermodynamic data. (Neck et al., Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 81, (2009), pp. 1555-1568., Altmaier et al., Radiochimica Acta, 97, (2009), pp. 187-192., Altmaier et al., Actinide Research Quarterly, No 2., (2011), pp. 29-32.).

  17. Adsorption-Desorption Characteristics of Plutonium and Americium with Sediment Particles in the Estuarine Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C.N.; Fukai, R.

    1976-01-01

    The particle formation of plutonium and americium, their adsorption onto fresh water sediments and the desorption from the sediments in sea water were studied in the Laboratory under simulated river-estuary conditions, using γ-emitting plutonium-237 and americium-241. The results of the experiments show that the particle formation of plutonium depends on its valence states, on pH and on the salinity of the medium. For river water at pH4, some 25%, 20% and 30% of the added 237 Pu was in particulate form, larger than 0.45pm, for Pu (III), Pu (IV) and Pu (VI), respectively, while 65%, 90% and 50% of the respective valence states was associated with particles at pH 8. In sea water the general pattern remains similar, although Pu (VI) is more soluble in sea water owing to higher ligand concentrations for carbonate and bicarbonate complexes. The pH-dependency of particle formation of Am (III) is more steep than that of plutonium and seems to be influenced by colloidal substances occurring in the experimental media. The adsorption-desorption characteristics of plutonium and americium with the sediment in river water as well as sea water reflect the characteristics of their particle formation, being dependent upon such properties as valence states, the pH and salinity of the medium. A sewage effluent added to the media has small but measurable effects on the adsorption-desorption processes of plutonium. (author)

  18. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfoxide as an extractant for americium(III) from aqueous nitrate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, J.P.; Kedari, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    Solvent extraction separation of Am(III) from dilute aqueous nitrate media into n-dodecane by bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfoxide (BESO) has been investigated over a wide range of experimental conditions. Very poor extractability of Am(III) necessitated the use of calcium nitrate as the salting-out agent. Effects of certain variables such as acidity, extractant concentration, salting-out agent concentration, organic diluents on the metal extraction by BESO have been examined in detail. By increasing the concentration of BESO in organic phase or calcium nitrate in aqueous phase, nearly quantitative extraction of americium even from moderate acidity is accomplished. Slope analyses applied to Am(III) distribution experiments from acidic nitrate solutions indicate predominant formation of the trisolvated organic phase complex, Am(NO 3 ) 3 *3BESO for which equilibrium constant is found to be, log K x = 1.99. Extraction behavior of Am(III) has also been evaluated in the presence of several water-miscible polar organic solvents to study their possible synergistic effects on its extraction. Extractability of americium increased 5 to 10-fold with increasing concentration of some of these additives, with maximum enhancement being observed in the presence of acetone or acetonitrile. Recovery of BESO from loaded americium is easily obtained using dilute nitric acid as the strippant. (author) 30 refs.; 2 figs.; 5 tabs

  19. Fabrication of uranium-americium mixed oxide pellet from microsphere precursors: Application of CRMP process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, E.; Picart, S.; Delahaye, T.; Jobelin, I.; Lebreton, F.; Horlait, D.; Bisel, I.; Blanchart, P.; Ayral, A.

    2014-10-01

    Mixed uranium-americium oxides are one of the materials envisaged for Americium Bearing Blankets dedicated to transmutation in fast neutron reactors. Recently, several processes have been developed in order to validate fabrication flowchart in terms of material specifications such as density and homogeneity but also to suggest simplifications for lowering industrial costs and hazards linked to dust generation of highly contaminating and irradiating compounds. This study deals with the application of an innovative route using mixed oxide microspheres obtained from metal loaded resin bead calcination, called Calcined Resin Microsphere Pelletization (CRMP). The synthesis of mixed oxide microsphere precursor of U0.9Am0.1O2±δ is described as well as its characterisation. The use of this free-flowing precursor allows the pressing and sintering of one pellet of U0.9Am0.1O2±δ. The ceramic obtained was characterised and results showed that its microstructure is dense and homogeneous and its density attains 95% of the theoretical density. This study validates the scientific feasibility of the CRMP process applied to the fabrication of uranium and americium-containing materials.

  20. Influence of dissolved organic substances in groundwater on sorption behavior of americium and neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggs, S. Jr.; Seitz, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Groundwaters typically contain dissolved organic carbon consisting largely of high molecular weight compounds of humic and fulvic acids. To evaluate whether these dissolved organic substances can enhance the tranport of radionuclides through the groundwater system, experiments were conducted to examine the sorption of americium and neptunium onto crushed basalt in the presence of dissolved humic- and fulvic-acid organic carbon introduced into synthetic groundwater. The partitioning experiments with synthetic groundwater show that increasing the concentration of either humic or fulvic acid in the water has a significant inhibiting effect on sorption of both americium and neptunium. At 22 0 C, adsorption of these radionuclides, as measured by distribution ratios (the ratio of nuclide sorbed onto the solid to nuclide in solution at the end of the experiment), decreased by 25% to 50% by addition of as little as 1 mg/L dissolved organic carbon and by one to two orders of magnitude by addition of 100 to 200 mg/L dissolved organic carbon. Distribution ratios measured in solutions reacted at 90 0 C similarly decreased with the addition of dissolved organic carbon but generally ranged from one to two orders of magnitude higher than those determined in the 22 0 C experiment. These results suggest that organic carbon dissolved in deep groundwaters may significantly enhance the mobility of radionuclides of americium and neptunium. 23 references, 5 figures, 11 tables

  1. 27 CFR 24.244 - Use of acid to stabilize standard wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of acid to stabilize standard wine. 24.244 Section 24.244 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.244 Use of acid to stabilize standard wine....

  2. 60-day waste compatibility safety issues and final results for TX-244 grab samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuzum, J.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-05

    Three grab samples (244-TX-96-1, 244-TX-96-2, and 244-TX-96-3) were taken from Riser 8 of Tank 241-TX-244 on October 18, 1996, and received by 222-S Laboratory on October 18, 1996. These samples were analyzed in accordance with Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) in support ofthe Waste Compatibility Program. Notifications were made in accordance with TSAP for pH and OH- analyses. Upon further review, the pH notification was deemed unnecessary, as the notification limit did not apply to this tank.

  3. 48 CFR 52.244-4 - Subcontractors and outside associates and consultants (Architect-engineer services).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... associates and consultants (Architect-engineer services). 52.244-4 Section 52.244-4 Federal Acquisition... consultants (Architect-engineer services). As prescribed in 44.204(b), insert the following clause: Subcontractors and Outside Associates and Consultants (Architect-Engineer Services) (AUG 1998) Any subcontractors...

  4. Stability of 244− 260Fm isotopes against alpha and cluster ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 73; Issue 6. Stability of 244-260Fm isotopes against alpha and cluster radioactivity. K P Santhosh ... Taking Coulomb and proximity potentials as the interacting barrier we have studied the cold valley in the radioactive decay of 244-260Fm isotopes. It is found that in ...

  5. 8 CFR 244.5 - Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens. 244.5 Section 244.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION... for eligible aliens. (a) Prior to the registration period. Prior to the registration period...

  6. 49 CFR 244.11 - Contents of a Safety Integration Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contents of a Safety Integration Plan. 244.11 Section 244.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD...

  7. Physics of plutonium and americium recycling in PWR using advanced fuel concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcade, E.

    2004-01-01

    PWR waste inventory management is considered in many countries including Frances as one of the main current issues. Pu and Am are the 2 main contents both in term of volume and long term radio-toxicity. Waiting for the Generation IV systems implementation (2035-2050), one of the mid-term solutions for their transmutation involves the use of advanced fuels in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). These have to require as little modification as possible of the core internals, the cooling system and fuel cycle facilities (fabrication and reprocessing). The first part of this paper deals with some neutronic characteristics of Pu and/or Am recycling. In a second part, 2 technical solutions MOX-HMR and APA-DUPLEX-84 are presented and the third part is devoted to the study of a few global strategies. The main neutronic parameters to be considered for Pu and Am recycling in PWR are void coefficient, Doppler coefficient, fraction of delayed neutrons and power distribution (especially for heterogeneous configurations). The modification of the moderation ratio, the opportunity to use inert matrices (targets), the optimisation of Uranium, Plutonium and Americium contents are the key parameters to play with. One of the solutions (APA-DUPLEX-84) presented here is a heterogeneous assembly with regular moderation ratio composed with both target fuel rods (Pu and Am embedded in an inert matrix) and standard UO 2 fuel rods. An EPR (European Pressurised Reactor) type reactor, loaded only with assemblies containing 84 peripheral targets, can reach an Americium consumption rate of (4.4; 23 kg/TWh) depending on the assembly concept. For Pu and Am inventories stabilisation, the theoretical fraction of reactors loaded with Pu + Am or Pu assemblies is about 60%. For Americium inventory stabilisation, the fraction decreases down to 16%, but Pu is produced at a rate of 18.5 Kg/TWh (-25% compared to one through UOX cycle)

  8. Accumulation of americium-241 in the biomass of aquatic plants of the Yenisei river: experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotina, T.A.; Bolsunovsky, A.Y.A.; Bondareva, L.G. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Due to the operation of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (Krasnoyarsk-26), which has been manufacturing weapons-grade plutonium for several decades, the Yenisei River is contaminated with transuranic elements (including {sup 241}Am). {sup 241}Am was found in the riverside soil, sediment and in the biomass of aquatic plants (Bolsunovsky et al., 1999, 2002). Aquatic plants are an important link in the migration of radionuclides in an aquatic ecosystem. In laboratory experiments, we investigated accumulation of {sup 241}Am by the submerged macrophyte from the Yenisei River: the pond weed (Elodea canadensis) and the aquatic moss (Fontinalis antipyretica), and release of {sup 241}Am from the biomass. The content of {sup 241}Am was measured on a Canberra (USA) gamma-spectrometer. The experiments showed that specific accumulation and concentration factors of {sup 241}Am in the plants were in inverse proportion to their biomass. We obtained new data on release of {sup 241}Am from the biomass of macrophyte. Americium-241 was more firmly fixed in the biomass of the aquatic moss. In 12 months, the biomass of the aquatic moss released about 30% of the initial americium activity into the water. To compare, the biomass of the pond weed released into the water medium up to 64% of the initial {sup 241}Am activity in 1.5 4 months. The release rate was dependent on the decomposition rate of the plant biomass. The experiments showed that submerged macrophyte of the Yenisei River can accumulate considerable activities of {sup 241}Am and retain americium for long periods of time in biomass. (author)

  9. Speciation of americium in seawater and accumulation in the marine sponge Aplysina cavernicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloubier, Melody; Michel, Hervé; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Moisy, Philippe; Tribalat, Marie-Aude; Oberhaensli, François R; Dechraoui Bottein, Marie Yasmine; Thomas, Olivier P; Monfort, Marguerite; Moulin, Christophe; Den Auwer, Christophe

    2015-12-21

    The fate of radionuclides in the environment is a cause of great concern for modern society, seen especially in 2011 after the Fukushima accident. Among the environmental compartments, seawater covers most of the earth's surface and may be directly or indirectly impacted. The interaction between radionuclides and the marine compartment is therefore essential for better understanding the transfer mechanisms from the hydrosphere to the biosphere. This information allows for the evaluation of the impact on humans via our interaction with the biotope that has been largely undocumented up to now. In this report, we attempt to make a link between the speciation of heavy elements in natural seawater and their uptake by a model marine organism. More specifically, because the interaction of actinides with marine invertebrates has been poorly studied, the accumulation in a representative member of the Mediterranean coralligenous habitat, the sponge Aplysina cavernicola, was investigated and its uptake curve exposed to a radiotracer (241)Am was estimated using a high-purity Ge gamma spectrometer. But in order to go beyond the phenomenological accumulation rate, the speciation of americium(III) in seawater must be assessed. The speciation of (241)Am (and natural europium as its chemically stable surrogate) in seawater was determined using a combination of different techniques: Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF), Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) at the LIII edge, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the resulting data were compared with the speciation modeling. In seawater, the americium(III) complex (as well as the corresponding europium complex, although with conformational differences) was identified as a ternary sodium biscarbonato complex, whose formula can be tentatively written as NaAm(CO3)2·nH2O. It is therefore this chemical form of americium that is

  10. Uptake of plutonium and americium by barley from two contaminated Nevada Test Site soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Tompkins, G.A.; Leventhal, L.; Babcock, K.L.

    1976-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare, Var. Atlas 68) plant uptake of Pu 239 , Pu 240 , and Am 241 was studied using two soil samples collected from widely separated areas of the Nevada Test Site. Each area had been previously contaminated with plutonium and americium as a result of a separate high explosive (nonnuclear) detonation of a device containing plutonium. The plants were grown on 3-kg soil samples in a controlled environment chamber. The plutonium concentration ratio (plutonium concentration in dry plant tissue/plutonium concentration in dry soil) was in the order of 10 -5 for plant vegetative material. The plutonium concentration ratio for the grain was 20 to 100 times lower than that in the vegetative material. Concentration ratios for americium were in the order of 10 -4 for vegetative growth and 25 to 75 times lower for the grain. These results imply that americium is more available to plants than plutonium. Plutonium-bearing particles were identified in a soil sample using an autoradiographic technique and then separated from the soil samples. The Pu 239 oxide equivalent diameters of plutonium-bearing particles could be described by a log-normal distribution function in the range of 0.2 to 0.7 μm. The actual diameters of the particles were 2 to 3 times the PuO 2 equivalent diameter. Microprobe analyses of the surface region of particles greater than 2 μm showed the following order of abundance: U, Pu is greater than O is greater than Al is greater than Si is greater than Fe is greater than Mg. Photographs obtained with a scanning electron microscope revealed that some of the particles are quite irregular and have large specific surface areas which might enhance solubility and plant uptake

  11. Fabrication of uranium–americium mixed oxide pellet from microsphere precursors: Application of CRMP process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, E. [Radiochemistry and Processes Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Picart, S., E-mail: sebastien.picart@cea.fr [Radiochemistry and Processes Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Delahaye, T. [Fuel Cycle Technology Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Jobelin, I. [Radiochemistry and Processes Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Lebreton, F.; Horlait, D. [Fuel Cycle Technology Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Bisel, I. [Radiochemistry and Processes Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Blanchart, P. [Heterogeneous Materials Research Group, Centre Européen de la Céramique, F-87068 Limoges (France); Ayral, A. [Institut Européen des Membranes, CNRS-ENSCM-UM2, CC47, University Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier cedex 5 (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Dust free process for (U,Am)O{sub 2} transmutation target fabrication. • Synthesis of U{sub 0.9}Am{sub 0.1}O{sub 2} mixed oxide microspheres from ion exchange resin. • Fabrication of dense U{sub 0.9}Am{sub 0.1}O{sub 2} pellet with 95% TD from mixed oxide microspheres. - Abstract: Mixed uranium–americium oxides are one of the materials envisaged for Americium Bearing Blankets dedicated to transmutation in fast neutron reactors. Recently, several processes have been developed in order to validate fabrication flowchart in terms of material specifications such as density and homogeneity but also to suggest simplifications for lowering industrial costs and hazards linked to dust generation of highly contaminating and irradiating compounds. This study deals with the application of an innovative route using mixed oxide microspheres obtained from metal loaded resin bead calcination, called Calcined Resin Microsphere Pelletization (CRMP). The synthesis of mixed oxide microsphere precursor of U{sub 0.9}Am{sub 0.1}O{sub 2±δ} is described as well as its characterisation. The use of this free-flowing precursor allows the pressing and sintering of one pellet of U{sub 0.9}Am{sub 0.1}O{sub 2±δ}. The ceramic obtained was characterised and results showed that its microstructure is dense and homogeneous and its density attains 95% of the theoretical density. This study validates the scientific feasibility of the CRMP process applied to the fabrication of uranium and americium-containing materials.

  12. Recovery of Americium-241 from lightning rod by the method of chemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    About 95% of the lightning rods installed in the Peruvian territory have set in their structures, pose small amounts of radioactive sources such as Americium-241 ( 241 Am), fewer and Radium 226 ( 226 Ra) these are alpha emitters and have a half life of 432 years and 1600 years respectively. In this paper describes the recovery of radioactive sources of 241 Am radioactive lightning rods using the conventional chemical treatment method using agents and acids to break down the slides. The 241 Am recovered was as excitation source and alpha particle generator for analysing samples by X Ray Fluorescence, for fixing the stainless steel 241 Am technique was used electrodeposition. (author)

  13. Comparison of acid leachate and fusion methods to determine plutonium and americium in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.L.; Markun, F.; TenKate, T.

    1992-06-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at Argonne National Laboratory performs radiochemical analyses for a wide variety of sites within the Department of Energy complex. Since the chemical history of the samples may vary drastically from site to site, the effectiveness of any analytical technique may also vary. This study compares a potassium fluoride-pyrosulfate fusion technique with an acid leachate method. Both normal and high-fired soils and vegetation samples were analyzed for both americium and plutonium. Results show both methods work well, except for plutonium in high-fired soils. Here the fusion method provides higher accuracy

  14. Influence of biofilms on migration of uranium, americium and europium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Nils; Zirnstein, Isabel; Arnold, Thuro

    2015-01-01

    The report on the influence of biofilms on migration of uranium, americium and europium in the environment deals with the contamination problems of uranium mines such as SDAG WISMUT in Saxonia and Thuringia. In mine waters microorganisms form a complex microbiological biocoenosis in spite of low pH values and high heavy metal concentrations including high uranium concentrations. The analyses used microbiological methods like confocal laser scanning microscopy and molecular-biological techniques. The interactions of microorganism with fluorescent radioactive heavy metal ions were performed with TRLFS (time resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy).

  15. Rad Calc III: Radioanalysis calculation program for plutonium and americium determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackadar, J.M.; Wong, A.S.; Stalnaker, N.D.; Willerton, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    The radiochemistry team of the Analytical Chemistry Group has supported nuclear materials production and management programs at Los Alamos National Laboratory since the 1940s. Routinely, plutonium and americium contents in various matrices (such as metals, oxides, process solutions, and waste streams) are determined by direct alpha and gamma analyses. Over the years, analysts have written a number of computer programs to calculate analytical results. In 1999, the program was enhanced and upgraded to produce Rad Calc III. The new program, written in Visual Basic 4.0, corrects limitations of previous versions, offers enhanced features, and incorporates user suggestions to customize the program and make it more user friendly

  16. Recovery of americium from slag and crucible wastes and its purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, K.M.; Dabholkar, G.M.; Vijayan, K.; Ramamoorthy, N.; Narayanan, C.V.; Jambunathan, U.; Kapoor, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    A method of recovery and purification of americium-241 from slag waste streams is described. Extraction of Am from slag solution of 0.16 M HNO 3 was carried out by tri-n-butyl phosphate. After stripping with acetic acid, Am was precipitated at pH 1. This was followed by metathesis to remove Ca. Final separation of Pu from Am solution was achieved by anion exchange method using Dowex 1x4 anion exchange resin. Details of large scale recovery of Am from slag are also described. (author). 12 refs., 11 tabs., 1 fig

  17. Distribution coefficients for plutonium and americium on particulates in aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, A.L.; Schell, W.R.; Sibley, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution coefficients of two transuranic elements, plutonium and americium, were measured experimentally in laboratory systems of selected freshwater, estuarine, and marine environments. Gamma-ray emitting isotopes of these radionuclides, 237 Pu and 241 Am, were significantly greater than the sorption Ksub(d) values, suggesting some irreversibility in the sorption of these radionuclides onto sediments. The effects of pH and of sediment concentration on the distribution coefficients were also investigated. There were significant changes in the Ksub(d) values as these parameters were varied. Experiments using sterilized and nonsterilized samples for some of the sediment/water systems indicate possible bacterial effects on Ksub(d) values. (author)

  18. Plutonium and americium in arctic waters, the North Sea and Scottish and Irish coastal zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallstadius, L.; Aarkrog, Asker; Dahlgaard, Henning

    1986-01-01

    collected from the Irish coast in 1983. Fallout is found to dominate as a source of 239+240Pu north of latitude 65°N, while for 238Pu a substantial fraction originates from European nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. The 238Pu/239+240Pu isotope ratio provides clear evidence of the transport of effluent...... of the Irish Sea) to Spitsbergen. 241Am found in Arctic waters probably originates from the decay of fallout 241Pu and, like Pu, tentatively has a residence time of the order of several years. Americium from Sellafield has an estimated mean residence time of 4–6 months in Scottish waters....

  19. Laboratory investigation of the role of desorption kinetics on americium transport associated with bentonite colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Timothy Mark; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Ware, Stuart Douglas; Reimus, Paul William

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the parameters that control colloid-mediated transport of radionuclides is important for the safe disposal of used nuclear fuel. We report an experimental and reactive transport modeling examination of americium transport in a groundwater-bentonite-fracture fill material system. A series of batch sorption and column transport experiments were conducted to determine the role of desorption kinetics from bentonite colloids in the transport of americium through fracture materials. We used fracture fill material from a shear zone in altered granodiorite collected from the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland and colloidal suspensions generated from FEBEX bentonite, a potential repository backfill material. The colloidal suspension (100 mg L(-1)) was prepared in synthetic groundwater that matched the natural water chemistry at GTS and was spiked with 5.5 × 10(-10) M (241)Am. Batch characterizations indicated that 97% of the americium in the stock suspension was adsorbed to the colloids. Breakthrough experiments conducted by injecting the americium colloidal suspension through three identical columns in series, each with mean residence times of 6 h, show that more than 95% of the bentonite colloids were transported through each of the columns, with modeled colloid filtration rates (k(f)) of 0.01-0.02 h(-1). Am recoveries in each column were 55-60%, and Am desorption rate constants from the colloids, determined from 1-D transport modeling, were 0.96, 0.98, and 0.91 h(-1) in the three columns, respectively. The consistency in Am recoveries and desorption rate constants in each column indicates that the Am was not associated with binding sites of widely-varying strengths on the colloids, as one binding site with fast kinetics represented the system accurately for all three sequential columns. Our data suggest that colloid-mediated transport of Am in a bentonite-fracture fill material system is unlikely to result in transport over long distance scales because

  20. Involvement of CD244 in regulating CD4+ T cell immunity in patients with active tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingfen Yang

    Full Text Available CD244 (2B4 is a member of the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM family of immune cell receptors and it plays an important role in modulating NK cell and CD8(+ T cell immunity. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of CD244/2B4 on CD4(+ T cells from active TB patients and latent infection individuals. Active TB patients had significantly elevated CD244/2B4 expression on M. tuberculosis antigen-specific CD4(+ T cells compared with latent infection individuals. The frequencies of CD244/2B4-expressing antigen-specific CD4(+ T cells were significantly higher in retreatment active TB patients than in new active TB patients. Compared with CD244/2B4-dull and -middle CD4(+ T cells, CD244/2B4-bright CD4(+ T cell subset had significantly reduced expression of IFN-γ, suggesting that CD244/2B4 expression may modulate IFN-γ production in M. tuberculosis antigen-responsive CD4(+ T cells. Activation of CD244/2B4 signaling by cross-linking led to significantly decreased production of IFN-γ. Blockage of CD244/2B4 signaling pathway of T cells from patients with active TB resulted in significantly increased production of IFN-γ, compared with isotype antibody control. In conclusion, CD244/2B4 signaling pathway has an inhibitory role on M. tuberculosis antigen-specific CD4(+ T cell function.

  1. Study of the extraction and the purification of americium and trivalent actinides contained in effluents with supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillou, P.

    1990-12-01

    The supported liquid membrane technique is studied and developed for americium recovery from uranium or plutonium matrices and decontamination of liquid radioactive wastes. First tests on uranium-nickel solutions with a flat membrane showed the easiness of the operation and the efficiency of the process. Acid-resistant (10 N), interchangeable elements with hollow fibers, are developed and also a computerized automatic device. The different tests on americium solutions demonstrate the feasibility and the reliability of the system. Influence of various parameters on transfer kinetics is investigated

  2. Transmutation of americium and curium incorporated in zirconia-based host materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raison, P.E. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles; Haire, R.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Presented are studies involving the incorporation of americium and curium in zirconia-based materials. First explored was the pseudo ternary system AmO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. It was determined that selected Y-CSZ materials can incorporate significant quantities of americium oxide and remain cubic single-phase. The cell parameters of these fluorite-type products were established to be linear with the AmO{sub 2} content. The Cm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} system was also investigated. It was found that at 25 mol% of CmO{sub 1.5}, the Cm(III) stabilized zirconia in its cubic form (a = 5.21 {+-}0.01 Angstrom). At higher and lower concentrations, diphasic materials were encountered. At 50 mol% of CmO{sub 1.5}, a pyrochlore oxide - Cm{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} - is formed (a = 10.63 {+-}0.02 Angstrom). (author)

  3. Fuel cycle covariance of plutonium and americium separations to repository capacity using information theoretic measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scopatz, Anthony; Schneider, Erich; Li, Jun; Yim, Man-Sung

    2011-01-01

    A light water reactor, fast reactor symbiotic fuel cycle scenario was modeled and parameterized based on thirty independent inputs. Simultaneously and stochastically choosing different values for each of these inputs and performing the associated fuel cycle mass-balance calculation, the fuel cycle itself underwent Monte Carlo simulation. A novel information theoretic metric is postulated as a measure of system-wide covariance. This metric is the coefficient of variation of the set of uncertainty coefficients generated from 2D slices of a 3D contingency table. It is then applied to the fuel cycle, taking fast reactor used fuel plutonium and americium separations as independent variables and the capacity of a fully-loaded tuff repository as the response. This set of parameters is known from prior studies to have a strong covariance. When measured with all 435 other input parameters possible, the fast reactor plutonium and americium separations pair was found to be ranked the second most covariant. This verifies that the coefficient of variation metric captures the desired sensitivity of sensitivity effects in the nuclear fuel cycle. (author)

  4. Contribution to the prediction of americium, plutonium and neptunium behaviour in the geosphere: chemical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robouch, P.

    1989-01-01

    An exhaustive bibliographic review on hydrolysis of americium gives the stability constants, at zero ionic strength. No evidence of Am(OH) 4 - formation was found by solubility studies up to pH 2 (CO 3 ) 3 characterised by its X-ray diffraction pattern is studied at a high ionic strength. All the published results on Am in carbonate media are reinterpreted using these stability constants (Am-OH-CO 3 complexes are not needed). No evidence of Am(CO 3 ) 4 5- formation was found by spectrophotometry up to 3M. Literature results are used to determine the formal redox potentials at pH = 9.4 and to calculate the formation constants, at zero ionic strength. The formation of complexes between americium and humic materials (purified fulvic and humic acids) has been studied by a spectrophotometric technique. The results are interpreted by the formation of a 1:1 complexe. Solubility of the solid PuO 2 (CO 3 ) is measured in bicarbonate media at high ionic strength, to obtain the solubility product and formation constants of the PuO 2 (CO 3 ) i 2-2i complexes [fr

  5. Production of a square geometry Americium standard source for use with photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Priscila; Geraldo, Bianca; Raele, Marcus P.; Marumo, Júlio T.; Vicente, Roberto; Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A., E-mail: priscila3.costa@usp.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In the development of a thermal neutron detector using a square photodiode and a thin boron film, a radioactive calibration source with the same geometry was needed. An americium-243 standard source was produced by electrodeposition aiming at the calibration of a PIN-type silicon photodiode with a detection area of 10 x 10 mm{sup 2}. To produce the samples two tests were performed. In the first test, a square stainless steel plate (10 x 10 mm{sup 2}) was fixed on the surface of the conventional plate, which was removed after deposition. To reduce the loss of activity of the source, in the second test nail polish was applied on the silver plate leaving only an area of 10 x 10 mm{sup 2} without varnish coating. Once the electrodeposition process was completed, the activity concentration measurement was performed by alpha particle spectrometry. The first method presented a lower activity when compared to the total activity of Am-243 added initially. For the second method, the total activity was concentrate in the exposed square region (without nail polish). The results showed that it is possible to obtain a square geometry source; furthermore, the surrounding nail polish was not contaminated by {sup 243}Am. The comparison of these two approaches indicated that the second method was more efficient as it was possible to concentrate all the americium activity in the delimited square area. (author)

  6. Comparison of Americium-Beryllium neutron spectrum obtained using activation foil detectors and NE-213 spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunny, Sunil; Subbaiah, K.V.; Selvakumaran, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron spectrum of Americium - Beryllium (α,n) source is measured with two different spectrometers vis-a-vis activation foils (foil detectors) and NE-213 organic scintillator. Activity induced in the foils is measured with 4π-β-γ sodium iodide detector by integrating counts under photo peak and the saturation activity is found by correcting to elapsed time before counting. The data on calculated activity is fed into the unfolding code, SAND-II to obtain neutron spectrum. In the case of organic scintillator, the pulse height spectrum is obtained using MCA and this is processed with unfolding code DUST in order to get neutron spectrum. The Americium - Beryllium (α,n) neutron spectrum thus obtained by two different methods is compared. It is inferred that the NE-213 scintillator spectrum is in excellent agreement with the values beyond 1MeV. Neutron spectrum obtained by activation foils depends on initial guess spectrum and is found to be in reasonable agreement with NE-213 spectrum. (author)

  7. The distribution of plutonium-239 and americium-241 in the Syrian hamster following its intravenous administration as citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodwell, P.; Stather, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    Actinide distribution in various tissues and the skeleton of hamsters by liquid scintillation counting or isotope dilution. For plutonium 57% of activity was concentrated in the skeleton and more than 90% in the liver and skeleton after seven days. For americium the liver retained more than 50% of total activity and 25% was excreted in urine within seven days. (U.K.)

  8. Evaluation of neutron cross sections for 244Cm, 246Cm, and 248Cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.W.; McCrosson, F.J.; Gettys, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of neutron cross sections for 244 246 248 Cm using the ENDF/B format is presented. Primary data input included differential measurements, integral measurements, nuclear model calculations, and reactor production experience

  9. Design analysis report for the 244-AR vault Interim Stabilization interior transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARLSON, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation note is to verify that the 244-AR Vault Interior Transfer System piping installed in the vault meets ASME B31.3 code requirements. This calculation also evaluates the pipe support loads

  10. Evaluation of neutron cross sections for /sup 244/Cm, /sup 246/Cm, and /sup 248/Cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, R.W.; McCrosson, F.J.; Gettys, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of neutron cross sections for /sup 244/ /sup 246/ /sup 248/Cm using the ENDF/B format is presented. Primary data input included differential measurements, integral measurements, nuclear model calculations, and reactor production experience. (SDF)

  11. Measurements and modeling of LLE and HE for (methanol + 2,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentene), and LLE for (water + methanol + 2,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardani, Saeed; Laavi, Helena; Bouget, Emeline; Pokki, Juha-Pekka; Uusi-Kyyny, Petri; Alopaeus, Ville

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Simultaneous description of VLE, LLE and H E using NRTL model is investigated. • Measurement and modeling for LLE and H E of (methanol + 2,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentene). • Measurement and modeling for LLE of (water + methanol + 2,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentene). - Abstract: Excess enthalpy (H E ) for the binary system of (methanol + 2,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentene) (TMP-1) is reported at T = 298.15 K and 101 kPa. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) for the same system is measured at atmospheric pressure (101 kPa). LLE for ternary system of (water + methanol + 2,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentene) is measured at T = (283 and 298) K. The parameters of Non-Random Two-Liquid (NRTL) model were regressed for the system of (methanol + TMP-1) using H E and LLE from this work combined with isobaric (101 kPa) and isothermal (T = 331 K) VLE data from literature. The NRTL parameters for the binary system of (water + TMP-1) were fitted to a binary LLE data set from literature. NRTL parameters for the binary system of (water + methanol) were taken from ASPEN PLUS. The LLE for the ternary system was modeled by the three binary NRTL interaction parameters systems. The binary and ternary models were compared against the measured data

  12. Above-threshold structure in {sup 244}Cm neutron-induced fission cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov, V.M. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    The quasi-resonance structure appearing above the fission threshold in neutron-induced fission cross section of {sup 244}Cm(n,f) is interpreted. It is shown to be due to excitation of few-quasiparticle states in fissioning {sup 245}Cm and residual {sup 244}Cm nuclides. The estimate of quasiparticle excitation thresholds in fissioning nuclide {sup 245}Cm is consistent with pairing gap and fission barrier parameters. (author)

  13. Worldwide bioassay data resources for plutonium/americium internal dosimetry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.; Bertelli, L.; Little, T.; Guilmette, R.; Riddell, T.; Filipy, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Biokinetic models are the scientific underpinning of internal dosimetry. These models describe how materials of interest taken into the body by various routes (for example inhalation) are transported through the body, allowing the modelling of bioassay measurements and the estimation of radiation dose. The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) publishes biokinetic models for use in internal dosimetry. These models represent the consensus judgement of a committee of experts, based on human and animal data. Nonetheless, it is important to validate biokinetic models using directly applicable data, in a scientifically transparent manner, especially for internal dosimetry research purposes (as opposed to radiation protection), as in epidemiology studies. Two major goals would be to determine individual variations of model parameters for the purpose of assessing this source of uncertainty in internal dose calculations, and to determine values of workplace specific parameters (such as particle solubility in lung fluids) for different representative workplaces. Furthermore, data on the observed frequency of intakes under various conditions can be used in the interpretation of bioassay data. All of the above may be couched in the terminology of Bayesian statistical analysis and amount to the determination of the Bayesian prior probability distributions needed in a Bayesian interpretation of bioassay data. The authors have direct knowledge of several significant databases of plutonium/americium bioassay data (including autopsy data). The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the worldwide community with these resources and to invite others who may know of other such databases to participate with us in a publication that would document the content, form, and the procedures for seeking access to these databases. These databases represent a tremendous scientific resource in this field. Examples of databases known to the authors include: the

  14. Complex formation of trivalent americium with salicylic acid at very low concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanie Mueller; Margret Acker; Steffen Taut; Gert Bernhard; Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden

    2010-01-01

    For the first time, the complexation of americium(III) with salicylic acid was studied at trace metal concentrations using a 2.0 m Long Path Flow Cell for UV-vis spectroscopy. The detection limit of Am(III) in aqueous solution at pH 3.0 was found to be 5 x 10 -9 M. Two Am(III)-salicylate complexes were formed at pH 5.0 in 0.1 M NaClO 4 , indicated by a clear red shift of the absorption maximum. The absorption spectra obtained from spectrophotometric titration were analyzed by means of factor analysis and complex stabilities were calculated to be log β 110 = 2.56 ± 0.08 and log β 120 = 3.93 ± 0.19. (author)

  15. Plutonium and americium concentrations and vertical profiles in some Italian mosses used as bioindicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Meli, M.A.; Guerra, F.; Degetto, S.; Jia, G.; Gerdol, R.

    1998-01-01

    We have examined the uptake of actinide elements Am and Pu by different species of lichen and moss collected in two locations (Urbino, Central Italy; Alps region, North-east Italy). Plutonium and americium were separated and determined by extraction chromatography, electrodeposition and alpha-spectrometry. This paper summarizes our results with a special emphasis on the vertical profiles of these actinides in two different species of mosses. Several 1-2 cm depth sections were obtained and dated by 210 Pb method. A typical peak for 239,240 Pu and 241 Am was found in the very old moss species ('Sphagnum Compactum') at a depth corresponding to the period 1960-1970 which was the period characterized by the maximum nuclear weapon tests. In a younger moss species ('Neckeria Crispa') no peak was observed and the regression curves showed that Am is more mobile than 239,240 Pu and 238 Pu. (author)

  16. The uptake of plutonium-239, 240, americium-241, strontium-90 into plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popplewell, D.S.; Ham, G.J.; Johnson, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the results of measurements on the uptake of plutonium, americium, strontium-90 and caesium-137 into peas, beet, oats, sweet corn, tomatoes and vegetable marrow grown in tubs containing radioactively-contaminated silts. The silts had been taken from an area of West Cumbria commonly referred to as the Ravenglass estuary. The experiments are categorised as being carried out under non-standard conditions because of the manner in which the radioactivity came to be incorporated into the growth medium. The growth medium was representative of conditions which could arise when the estuarine silt moves inland under the influence of wind and tide and mixes with the adjacent farm land. The silt had been contaminated by radioactive effluents from the nuclear fuels reprocessing plant at Sellafield and this contamination had been brought about by natural means. (Auth.)

  17. Separation of trivalent americium and europium by purified Cyanex 301 immobilized in macro porous polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Chen; Veltkamp, A.C.; Booij, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    High separation ability of purified Cyanex 301 towards trivalent americium over europium in liquid-liquid extraction is confirmed. Solvent 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) lowered the partitioning of Am 3+ but remained the separation ability over europium. Solvent toluene and 3-octanone lowered the separation factor to ∼ 1000. It is feasible to separate Am 3+ from Eu 3+ by Cyanex 301 which was immobilized in the macro porous polymer (MPP). 3-Octanone is a suitable solvent for dissolving NH 4 OH-saponified Cyanex 301 and MPP is a suitable solid supported material for column operation. A five-step column experiment demonstrated the feasibility to separate Am 3+ from Eu 3+ in column which was packed with Cyanex 301-impregnated MPP. (author)

  18. Spectral properties of americium(III) in silicate matrices. Concentration-dependent up-conversion emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assefa, Zerihun; Haire, R.G.; Stump, N.

    2002-01-01

    We have been pursuing the spectroscopic properties of actinide ions in silicate matrices. One facet of these studies involves the behavior of Stokes and anti-Stokes emissions exhibited by Am 3+ in these hosts. Several attributes have been found to influence the spectral profile, which include excitation wavelength, laser power, and dopant-concentration. Excitation with the 514.5 nm (19435 cm -1 ) line of argon laser provides anti-Stokes emissions at 21100 and ∼19920 cm -1 in the borosilicate matrices. This up-conversion was found to proceed through a multi-photon scheme, and the efficiency increases with increased dopant concentration. Based on our concentration-dependent studies, the up-conversion is suggested to involve a cross-relaxation process [( 5 D 1' , 7 F 0' ) ( 7 F 6' , 7 F 2' )] between neighboring americium ions. (author)

  19. Standard practice for The separation of americium from plutonium by ion exchange

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes the use of an ion exchange technique to separate plutonium from solutions containing low concentrations of americium prior to measurement of the 241Am by gamma counting. 1.2 This practice covers the removal of plutonium, but not all the other radioactive isotopes that may interfere in the determination of 241Am. 1.3 This practice can be used when 241Am is to be determined in samples in which the plutonium is in the form of metal, oxide, or other solid provided that the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved (See Test Methods C758, C759, and C1168). 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Magnesium ionophore II as an extraction agent for trivalent europium and americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makrlik, Emanuel [Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Environmental Sciences; Vanura, Petr [Univ. of Chemistry and Technology, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    2016-11-01

    Solvent extraction of microamounts of trivalent europium and americium into nitrobenzene by using a mixture of hydrogen dicarbollylcobaltate (H{sup +}B{sup -}) and magnesium ionophore II (L) was studied. The equilibrium data were explained assuming that the species HL{sup +}, HL{sup +}{sub 2}, ML{sup 3+}{sub 2}, and ML{sup 3+}{sub 3} (M{sup 3+} = Eu{sup 3+}, Am{sup 3+}; L=magnesium, ionophore II) are extracted into the nitrobenzene phase. Extraction and stability constants of the cationic complex species in nitrobenzene saturated with water were determined and discussed. From the experimental results it is evident that this effective magnesium ionophore II receptor for the Eu{sup 3+} and Am{sup 3+} cations could be considered as a potential extraction agent for nuclear waste treatment.

  1. Separation of oxidized americium from lanthanides by use of pillared metal(IV) phosphate-phosphonate hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, J.D.; Clearfield, A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Borkowski, M.; Reed, D.T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad, NM (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences Div.

    2012-07-01

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle in the US poses many challenges, one of which is found in the waste streams, which contain both trivalent lanthanides and actinides. The separation of americium from the raffinate will dramatically reduce the long-term radiotoxicity of the waste. The sorption of americium in both the tri- and pentavalent oxidation states was observed for four M(IV) phosphate-phosphonate ion exchange materials in nitric acid at pH 2. High selectivity was observed for reduced Am(III) with K{sub d} values ca. 6 x 10{sup 5} mL/g, while the K{sub d} values for Am(V) were much lower. A new method of synthesizing and stabilizing AmO{sub 2}{sup +} to yield a lifetime of at least 24 h in acidic media using a combination of sodium persulfate and calcium hypochlorite will be described.

  2. Separation of oxidized americium from lanthanides by use of pillared metal(IV) phosphate-phosphonate hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.D.; Clearfield, A.; Borkowski, M.; Reed, D.T.

    2012-01-01

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle in the US poses many challenges, one of which is found in the waste streams, which contain both trivalent lanthanides and actinides. The separation of americium from the raffinate will dramatically reduce the long-term radiotoxicity of the waste. The sorption of americium in both the tri- and pentavalent oxidation states was observed for four M(IV) phosphate-phosphonate ion exchange materials in nitric acid at pH 2. High selectivity was observed for reduced Am(III) with K d values ca. 6 x 10 5 mL/g, while the K d values for Am(V) were much lower. A new method of synthesizing and stabilizing AmO 2 + to yield a lifetime of at least 24 h in acidic media using a combination of sodium persulfate and calcium hypochlorite will be described.

  3. Theoretical analysis of element 120 synthesized in the 58Fe+244Pu hot fusion reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu-Jie; Zhu, Min; Liu, Zu-Hua; Wang, Wen-Zhong

    2012-09-01

    Synthesis of element 120 in the 58Fe+244Pu hot fusion reaction has been evaluated by means of a modified “fusion by diffusion” (FBD) model. In the model, dynamic evolution from dinucleus to mononucleus is taken into account with the two-dimensional coupled Langenvin equations. The calculated maximum evaporation residue cross sections in 3n- and 4n-evaporation channels of 58Fe+244Pu reaction are 0.005 and 0.016 pb, which are far below the present experimental sensitivity for the detection of one decay. The fusion probability calculated with the modified FBD model clearly shows that fusion of the heavy system 58Fe+244Pu is severely hindered.

  4. Upper limits to americium concentration in large sized sodium-cooled fast reactors loaded with metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youpeng; Wallenius, Janne

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The americium transmutation capability of Integral Fast Reactor was investigated. • The impact from americium introduction was parameterized by applying SERPENT Monte Carlo calculations. • Higher americium content in metallic fuel leads to a power penalty, preserving consistent safety margins. - Abstract: Transient analysis of a large sized sodium-cooled reactor loaded with metallic fuel modified by different fractions of americium have been performed. Unprotected loss-of-offsite power, unprotected loss-of-flow and unprotected transient-over-power accidents were simulated with the SAS4A/SASSYS code based on the geometrical model of an IFR with power rating of 2500 MW th , using safety parameters obtained with the SERPENT Monte Carlo code. The Ti-modified austenitic D9 steel, having higher creep rupture strength, was considered as the cladding and structural material apart from the ferritic/martensitic HT9 steel. For the reference case of U–12Pu–1Am–10Zr fuel at EOEC, the margin to fuel melt during a design basis condition UTOP is about 50 K for a maximum linear rating of 30 kW/m. In order to maintain a margin of 50 K to fuel failure, the linear power rating has to be reduced by ∼3% and 6% for 2 wt.% and 3 wt.% Am introduction into the fuel respectively. Hence, an Am concentration of 2–3 wt.% in the fuel would lead to a power penalty of 3–6%, permitting a consumption rate of 3.0–5.1 kg Am/TW h th . This consumption rate is significantly higher than the one previously obtained for oxide fuelled SFRs

  5. The measurement of prompt neutron spectrum in spontaneous fission of {sup 244}Cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batenkov, O.I.; Boykov, G.S.; Drapchinsky, L.V.; Majorov, M.Ju.; Trenkin, V.A. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst., Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    Under the Program of Measurements of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Minor Actinides for Transmutation Purposes the integral neutron spectrum in spontaneous fission of {sup 244}Cm has been measured by the time-of-flight method in the energy range of 0.1-15 MeV relative to the standard neutron spectrum in {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission. Essential attention was paid to revealing of possible systematic errors. It is shown, that the {sup 244}Cm spectrum shape may be well described by using Mannhart evaluation with appropriate parameter of Maxwell temperature T{sub M} = 1.37 MeV. (author)

  6. Evaluation of nuclear data of {sup 244}Pu and {sup 237}Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Konshin, V.A. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1995-10-01

    The evaluation of nuclear data for {sup 244}Pu and {sup 237}Pu was made in the neutron energy region from 10{sup -5} eV to 20 MeV. For the both nuclides, the total, elastic and inelastic scattering, fission, capture, (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections were evaluated on the basis of theoretical calculation. The resonance parameters were given for {sup 244}Pu. The angular and energy distributions of secondary neutrons were also estimated for the both nuclides. The results were compiled in the ENDF-5 format and will be adopted in JENDL Actinoid File. (author).

  7. HAYNES 244 alloy – a new 760 ∘C capable low thermal expansion alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrmann Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available HAYNES® 244TM alloy is a new 760∘C capable, high strength low thermal expansion (CTE alloy. Its nominal chemical composition in weight percent is Ni – 8 Cr – 22.5 Mo – 6 W. Recently, a first mill-scale heat of 244 alloy was melted by Haynes International, and processed to various product forms such as re-forge billet, plate, and sheet. This paper presents key attributes of this new alloy (CTE, strength, low-cycle fatigue performance, oxidation resistance, thermal stability as they pertain to the intended use in rings and seals of advanced gas turbines.

  8. Uptake of americium-241 by plants from contaminated Chernobyl exclusive zone test site soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashydov, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    Americium-241 was found to accumulate in soils and biological objects of the environment. Its concentration has increased many times after the Chernobyl disaster and can be expected to increase about 40 times in the future. This research concentrated on the contaminated exclusive Chernobyl zone polluted by trace radionuclides, their behavior and accumulation by various plant species. Special attention is devoted to the bioavailability of 241 Am to the plants Galium rivale, G. tinctorium, G. aparine, G. intermedium, Berteroa incana, Artemisia absinthium, A. vulgaris, Centaurea borysthenica, C. arenaria, Cirsium arvense, Succissa pratensis, Solidago virgaurea, Linaria vulgaris, Lepidium ruderale, Stenactis annua, Veronica maxima, Verbascum lychnitis, Euphorbia cyparissias, Genista tinctoria, Erigeron canadensis, Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur, which were collected from the Chernobyl, Kopachi, and Yanov districts. The plant samples of Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur were collected from the Yanov district, where the soil contamination by 241 Am and 137 Cs was at the level of 660 and 27 MBq/m 2 , respectively. Gamma spectroscopy and radiochemical methods were used to estimate the activity concentration of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am. The radionuclides were measured in the dry green mass of the plant samples and in the dry soils. The contamination of the Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur samples by 137 Cs was (5.8±1,5)x10 6 , (7.4±1.1)x10 5 , and (2.6±0.2)x10 6 Bq/kg dry mass, respectively, and contamination by 241 Am was 47±5, 45±3 and 3.2±0.2 Bq/kg, respectively. The soil-to-plant transfer ratio for 137 Cs ranged lay within the interval of 0.2 to 0.03 Bq/kg : Bq/m 2 , the the transfer ratio for 241 Am did not exceed 7x10 -5 Bq/kg : Bq/m 2 . The coefficient of the relative contents of the 241 Am/ 239+240 Pu radionuclides in the various plant samples varied from 3.2 to 8.3, while for soil from

  9. Measurements of neutron cross section of the {sup 243}Am(n,{gamma}){sup 244}Am reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Shinohara, Nobuo; Hata, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    The effective thermal neutron cross section of {sup 243}Am(n,{gamma}){sup 244}Am reaction was measured by the activation method. Highly-purified {sup 243}Am target was irradiated in an aluminum capsule by using a research reactor JRR-3M. The tentative effective thermal neutron cross sections are 3.92 b, and 84.44 b for the production of {sup 244g}Am and {sup 244m}Am, respectively. (author)

  10. 27 CFR 28.244a - Shipment to a customs bonded warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipment to a customs... Export Consignment § 28.244a Shipment to a customs bonded warehouse. Distilled spirits and wine withdrawn for shipment to a customs bonded warehouse shall be consigned in care of the customs officer in charge...

  11. Stability of 244−260Fm isotopes against alpha and cluster radioactivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The computed half-life values, barrier penetrability and other char- acteristics of 244−250Fm isotopes with zero angular momentum transfers. Here the interacting potential is taken as VC + Vp. Parent Emitted Daughter Q-value Penetrability. Decay log10(T1/2) nuclei cluster nuclei. (MeV) P constant Present I Present II.

  12. 241 244

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    et al. 1994) or by using high frequency chopping mechanism (like the ZIMPOL, Povel. 1995) which eliminates seeing induced spurious polarisation signals. In an earlier attempt at the KTT (Ananth et al. 1994), a chopping scheme was utilised with a peltier cooled CCD detector achieving a rate of 0.5 Hz. However, this CCD ...

  13. Contrasts between the marine and freshwater biological interactions of plutonium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, H.D.; Bowen, V.T.

    1975-01-01

    Whether in lakes or the oceans the transuranic elements plutonium and americium are taken up by marine organisms, with concentration factors that would class them as nice, typical heavy metals. There is no evidence for strong, widespread discrimination against the transuranics by either plant or animal absorptive surfaces. In both freshwater and marine situations the major reservoir of Pu and Am soon becomes the sediments, and organisms are more exposed to uptake of these nuclides the closer is their ecological involvement with the sediments. Although there is little evidence that this can be an ionic strength effect, it does appear that Pu may be somewhat more available, biologically, in marine environments, and Am, conversely, in fresh water. We incline to the belief that details of these behaviors are usually controlled by local availability of organic complexers. No compelling evidence exists of increase in Pu concentration at higher levels of food chains; in marine situations this appears true of Am as well, but a few data suggest that in fresh water fish there is a progressive increase, in higher trophic levels, in the ratio Am to Pu. Although marine and fresh water biogeochemistries of transuranics are much more similar than we had expected, it will generally be dangerous to extrapolate from one to the other. In both systems there appears to us no question that we are observing real element biogeochemistry, not the redistribution of inert, labelled, fallout fragments

  14. Multicompartment kinetic models for the metabolism of americium, plutonium and uranium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sontag, W.

    1986-01-01

    To examine the kinetic behaviour of americium, plutonium and uranium in male and female rats, an extended mammillary model has been developed, composed of 10 compartments connected with 17 linear transfer coefficients. The 10 compartments describe the behaviour of the three nuclides in the blood, skeleton, liver and kidney; the remaining activity is assigned to one residual organ. Each organ is divided into two compartments, short- and long-term. In the skeleton the short-term compartment has been assumed to be the bone surface and marrow, and the long-term compartment the deep bone; in the liver, evidence suggests that the short-term compartment is physiologically associated with lysosomes and the long-term compartment identical with telolysosomes. Influence of age, sex and different nuclides on the transfer coefficients and the absorbed radiation dose are discussed. By using the transfer coefficients calculated for intravenous injection, the behaviour of the nuclides in skeleton and liver during continuous intake has been calculated. The behaviour of the three nuclides in skeleton and liver after intravenous injection has also been calculated with the additional assumption that from the fifth day the animals were treated continuously with a chelating agent. (UK)

  15. Development and Testing of an Americium/Lanthanide Separation Flowsheet Using Sodium Bismuthate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Law; Bruce Mincher; Troy Garn; Mitchell Greenhalgh; Nicholas Schmitt; Veronica Rutledge

    2014-04-01

    The separation of Am from the lanthanides and curium is a key step in proposed advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The partitioning and transmutation of Am is desirable to minimize the long-term heat load of material interred in a future high-level waste repository. A separation process amenable to process scale-up remains elusive. Given only subtle chemistry differences within and between the ions of the trivalent actinide and lanthanide series this separation is challenging ; however, higher oxidation states of americium can be prepared using sodium bismuthate and separated via solvent extraction using diamylamylphosphonate (DAAP) extraction. Among the other trivalent metals only Ce is also oxidized and extracted. Due to the long-term instability of Am(VI) , the loaded organic phase is readily selectively stripped to partition the actinide to a new acidic aqueous phase. Batch extraction distribution ratio measurements were used to design a flowsheet to accomplish this separation. Additionally, crossflow filtration was investigated as a method to filter the bismuthate solids from the feed solution prior to extraction. Results of the filtration studies, flowsheet development work and flowsheet performance testing using a centrifugal contactor are detailed.

  16. Speciation and bioavailability of Americium-241 in the fresh water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierkens, J.

    1986-01-01

    Due to its anthropogenic origin, the transuranic americium 241 confronts physiologists with the intriguing question, which mechanisms are involved in the incorporation or elimination of such artificial elements in biological cycles. The investigations on the speciation and bioavailability of 241 Am in the freshwater environment aim to establish a relation between the behavior of 241 Am in freshwater ecosystems and its availability for biota. In the limnic environment, most often characterized by a high organic load and a low conductivity, the effect of complexation of 241 Am with humic acids and competition with trivalent cations such as A1 and Fe, were proven to be significant on the speciation of 241 Am. Based on the registration of the 241 Am uptake by a large number of freshwater organisms, the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz was chosen to study the whole-body uptake of 241 Am, its corresponding organ distribution and its retention in the animal. The share of external fixation and ingestion in the global uptake, and the effect of speciation on it, were studied more carefully. Other aspects in this physiological part were: the kinetics of 241 Am in the hemolymph and the hepatopancreas, and its subcellular distribution in the digestive gland. Finally, by comparing the physiology of 241 Am with some other metals ( 240 Pu, 64 Cu, 198 Au) with analogous or contradictional properties, we tried to find out whether the behavior of 241 Am in organisms can be explained from its chemical characteristics

  17. Americium and plutonium in water, biota, and sediment from the central Oregon coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Reinald Dreas [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Plutonium-239, 240 and americium-241 were measured in the mussel Mytilus californianus from the region of Coos Bay, OR. The flesh of this species has a plutonium concentration of about 90 fCi/kg, and an Am-241/Pu-239, 240 ratio that is high relative to mixed fallout, ranging between two and three. Transuranic concentrations in sediment, unfiltered water, and filterable particulates were also measured; none of these materials has an Am/Pu ratio as greatly elevated as the mussels, and there is no apparent difference in the Am/Pu ratio of terrestrial runoff and coastal water. Sediment core profiles do not allow accumulation rates or depositional histories to be identified, but it does not appear that material characterized by a high Am/Pu ratio has ever been introduced to this estuary. Other bivalves (Tresus capax and Macoma nasuta) and a polychaete (Abarenicola sp.) do not have an elevated Am/Pu ratio, although the absolute activity of plutonium in the infaunal bivalves is roughly four times that in the mussels.

  18. Americium and plutonium in water, biota, and sediment from the central Oregon coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, R.D.

    1982-06-01

    Plutonium-239, 240 and americium-241 were measured in the mussel Mytilus californianus from the region of Coos Bay, OR. The flesh of this species has a plutonium concentration of about 90 fCi/kg, and an Am-241/Pu-239, 240 ratio that is high relative to mixed fallout, ranging between two and three. Transuranic concentrations in sediment, unfiltered water, and filterable particulates were also measured; none of these materials has an Am/Pu ratio as greatly elevated as the mussels, and there is no apparent difference in the Am/Pu ratio of terrestrial runoff and coastal water. Sediment core profiles do not allow accumulation rates or depositional histories to be identified, but it does not appear that material characterized by a high Am/Pu ratio has ever been introduced to this estuary. Other bivalves (Tresus capax and Macoma nasuta) and a polychaete (Abarenicola sp.) do not have an elevated Am/Pu ratio, although the absolute activity of plutonium in the infaunal bivalves is roughly four times that in the mussels

  19. In Vitro Dissolution Tests of Plutonium and Americium Containing Contamination Originating From ZPPR Fuel Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William F. Bauer; Brian K. Schuetz; Gary M. Huestis; Thomas B. Lints; Brian K. Harris; R. Duane Ball; Gracy Elias

    2012-09-01

    Assessing the extent of internal dose is of concern whenever workers are exposed to airborne radionuclides or other contaminants. Internal dose determinations depend upon a reasonable estimate of the expected biological half-life of the contaminants in the respiratory tract. One issue with refractory elements is determining the dissolution rate of the element. Actinides such as plutonium (Pu) and Americium (Am) tend to be very refractory and can have biological half-lives of tens of years. In the event of an exposure, the dissolution rates of the radionuclides of interest needs to be assessed in order to assign the proper internal dose estimates. During the November 2011 incident at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) involving a ZPPR fuel plate, air filters in a constant air monitor (CAM) and a giraffe filter apparatus captured airborne particulate matter. These filters were used in dissolution rate experiments to determine the apparent dissolution half-life of Pu and Am in simulated biological fluids. This report describes these experiments and the results. The dissolution rates were found to follow a three term exponential decay equation. Differences were noted depending upon the nature of the biological fluid simulant. Overall, greater than 95% of the Pu and 93% of the Am were in a very slow dissolving component with dissolution half-lives of over 10 years.

  20. Removal of plutonium and Americium from hydrochloric acid waste streams using extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, L.D.; FitzPatrick, J.R.; Salazar, R.R.; Schake, B.S.; Martinez, B.T.

    1995-01-01

    Extraction chromatography is under development as a method to lower actinide activity levels in hydrochloric acid (HCl) effluent streams. Successful application of this technique for radioactive liquid waste treatment would provide a low activity feedstream for HCl recycle, reduce the loss of radioactivity to the environment in aqueous effluents, and lower the quantity and improve the form of solid waste generated. The extraction of plutonium and americium from HCl solutions was examined for several commercial and laboratory-produced sorbed resin materials. Polymer beads were coated with n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl- methylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and either tributyl phosphate (TBP), or diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP). Distribution coefficients for Pu and Am were measured by contact studies in 1-10 M HCl, while varying REDOX conditions, actinide loading levels, and resin formulations. Flow experiments were run to evaluate actinide loading and elution under varied conditions. Significant differences in the actinide distribution coefficients in contact experiments, and in actinide retention in flow experiments were observed as a function of resin formulation

  1. Cleanex process: a versatile solvent extraction process for recovery and purification of lanthanides, americium, and curium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, J.E.; Collins, E.D.; King, L.J.

    1979-01-01

    At a concentration of 1 M in straight-chain hydrocarbon diluent, HDEHP will extract americium, curium, and other trivalent actinide and lanthanide elements from dilute acid or salt solutions. The solute is back-extracted with more concentrated acid, either nitric or hydrochloric. The process has been used in the continuous, countercurrent mode, but its greatest advantage arises in batch extractions where the excess acid can be titrated with NaOH to produce a final acidity of about 0.03 M. Under these conditions, 99% recovery can be achieved, usually in one stage. Cleanex was used on the 50-liter scale at the Transuranium Processing Plant at Oak Ridge for 12 years to provide a broad spectrum cleanup to transuranium elements before applying more sophisticated techniques for separating individual products. The process is also used routinely to recover excessive losses of curium and/or californium from plant waste streams. The solvent system is relatively resistant to radiation damage, being usable up to 200 W-h/liter

  2. Assessment of radiation doses from residential smoke detectors that contain americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, F.R.; Etnier, E.L.; Holton, G.A.; Travis, C.C.

    1981-10-01

    External dose equivalents and internal dose commitments were estimated for individuals and populations from annual distribution, use, and disposal of 10 million ionization chamber smoke detectors that contain 110 kBq (3 μCi) americium-241 each. Under exposure scenarios developed for normal distribution, use, and disposal using the best available information, annual external dose equivalents to average individuals were estimated to range from 4 fSv (0.4 prem) to 20 nSv (2 μrem) for total body and from 7 fSv to 40 nSv for bone. Internal dose commitments to individuals under post disposal scenarios were estimated to range from 0.006 to 80 μSv (0.0006 to 8 mrem) to total body and from 0.06 to 800 μSv to bone. The total collective dose (the sum of external dose equivalents and 50-year internal dose commitments) for all individuals involved with distribution, use, or disposal of 10 million smoke detectors was estimated

  3. Study of biosorbents application on the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes with americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borba, Tania Regina de

    2010-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy for many different purposes has been intensified and highlighted by the benefits that it provides. Medical diagnosis and therapy, agriculture, industry and electricity generation are examples of its application. However, nuclear energy generates radioactive wastes that require suitable treatment ensuring life and environmental safety. Biosorption and bioaccumulation represent an emergent alternative for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes, providing volume reduction and physical state change. This work aimed to study biosorbents for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes contaminated with americium-241 in order to reduce the volume and change the physical state from liquid to solid. The biosorbents evaluated were Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in calcium alginate beads, inactivated and free cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, calcium alginate beads, Bacillus subtilis, Cupriavidus metallidurans and Ochrobactrum anthropi. The results were quite satisfactory, achieving 100% in some cases. The technique presented in this work may be useful and viable for implementing at the Waste Management Laboratory of IPEN - CNEN/SP in short term, since it is an easy and low cost method. (author)

  4. Assessment of Neptunium, Americium, and Curium in the Savannah River Site Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlton, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    A series of documents has been published in which the impact of various radionuclides released to the environment by Savannah River Site (SRS) operations has been assessed. The quantity released, the disposition of the radionuclides in the environment, and the dose to offsite individuals has been presented for activation products, carbon cesium, iodine, plutonium, selected fission products, strontium, technetium, tritium, uranium, and the noble gases. An assessment of the impact of nonradioactive mercury also has been published.This document assesses the impact of radioactive transuranics released from SRS facilities since the first reactor became operational late in 1953. The isotopes reported here are 239Np, 241Am, and 244Cm

  5. 48 CFR 252.244-7000 - Subcontracts for Commercial Items and Commercial Components (DoD Contracts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... under this contract: (a) 252.225-7009 Restriction on Acquisition of Certain Articles Containing... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subcontracts for Commercial Items and Commercial Components (DoD Contracts). 252.244-7000 Section 252.244-7000 Federal...

  6. Separation of neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium from uranium with di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (HDEHP) for radiometric and ICP-MS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramebaeck, H.; Skaalberg, M.

    1998-01-01

    The possibility of using di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in solvent extraction for the separation of neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium from large amounts of uranium was studied. Neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium (as well as uranium) were extracted from HNO 3 , whereafter americium and curium were back-extracted with 5M HNO 3 . Thereafter was neptunium back-extracted in 1M HNO 3 containing hydroxylamine hydronitrate. Finally, plutonium was back-extracted in 3M HCl containing Ti(III). The method separates 238 Pu from 241 Am for α-spectroscopy. For ICP-MS analysis, the interferences from 238 U are eliminated: tailing from 238 U, for analysis of 237 Np, and the interference of 238 UH + for analysis of 239 Pu. The method has been used for the analysis of actinides in samples from a spent nuclear fuel leaching and radionuclide transport experiment. (author)

  7. Use of radioisotopes in the study of tetracycline analytical application. Extraction of compounds formed between tetracycline and neptunium and americium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Lima, F.W. de

    1986-01-01

    The behavior of tetracycline as complexing agent, in solvent extraction studies of neptunium and americium, using benzyl alcohol as the organic phase, is presented. By using radioactive tracers of 239 Np and 2 4 1 Am the extraction percent of these elements were determined as a function of pH in the absence and in the presence of several masking agents. The influence of shaking time and the use of different types of supporting eletrolytes upon the extraction behavior was also studied. The extraction curves obtained using EDTA as masking agent show that tetracycline can be used for neptunium and americium separation. In this condition neptunium is extracted into the organic phase and americium remains in the aqueous phase. (Author) [pt

  8. Transport of plutonium, americium, and curium from soils into plants by roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimpl, M.; Schuettelkopf, H.

    1979-12-01

    For assessing the dose from radionuclides in agricultural products by ingestion it is necessary to know the soil to plant transfer factors. The literature was entirely investigated, in order to judge the size of the soil to plant transfer factors. In total, 92 publications - from 1948 to 1978 -have been evaluated. As result, transfer factors from 10 -9 to 10 -3 have been found for Plutonium, and from 10 -6 to 1 for Americium. For Curium only few data are available in literature. The considerable variation of the measured transfer factors is based on the dependence of these transfer factors from the ion exchange capacity of soils, from the amount of organic materials, from the pH-value, and from the mode of contamination. There are, in any case, contradictory data, although there has been detected a dependence of the transfer factors from these parameters. Chelating agenst increase the transfer factors to approximately 1300. As well, fertilizers have an influence on the size of the transfer factors - however, the relationships have been scarcely investigated. The distribution of actinides within the individual parts of plants has been investigated. The highest concentrations are in the roots; in the plant parts above ground the concentration of actinides decreases considerably. The most inferior transfer factors were measured for the respective seed or fruits. The soil to plant transfer factors of actinides are more dependend on the age of the plants within one growing period. At the beginning of the period, the transfer factor is considerably higher than at the end of this period. With respect to plants with a growing period of several years, correlations are unknown. (orig.) [de

  9. Experiments comparing the uptake of americium from chloride media using extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzPatrick, J.R.; Schake, B.S.; Schulte, L.D.; Martinez, B.T.; Salazar, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    Clean-up of actinide effluent waste steams is of increasing importance at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility, TA-55, and removing the actinide elements to very low levels allows less radioactivity to go the Los Alamos National Laboratory Water Treatment Facility, TA-50, thus reducing the number of drums of TRU waste. Americium (Am) is a difficult element to remove from chloride media because the +3 state is difficult to oxidize and chelating resins work better with elements such as plutonium which are more readily oxidized to the +4 and/or +6 state. Currently in hydrochloric acid (HC1) media, the acidic liquid waste is neutralized with potassium hydroxide to precipitate the metal hydroxides, before disposal to TA-50. This process is not very efficient. The removal of Am from chloride media was compared using a series of resins, some commercial and some made in our laboratory, using different percentages by weight of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diiso- butylcarbamoyl-methylphosphine oxide (CMPO ) along with diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP) or tributyl phosphate (TBP) as diluents. Resins were also made with no added diluent. Early comparisons using small-scale contact studies with 0.5 grams of resin in 0.1M-12M HC1, and subsequent small-scale flow experiments show a trend in which Am uptake is proportional to the amount of CMPO on the resins and the diluent plays a minor role in the uptake of Am from these solutions. Redox chemistry effects were also investigated. From these studies, it is possible to determine the best conditions for the removal of Am from HC1 media thus reducing the gross alpha content of the waste stream by a factor of 10-100 which reduces the number of barrels of waste produced at the Water Treatment Facility

  10. Concentration and vertical distribution of plutonium and americium in Italian mosses and lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, G.; Desideri, D.; Guerra, F.; Meli, M.A.; Testa, C.

    1997-01-01

    The plutonium and americium concentration and vertical distribution in some Italian mosses and lichens have been determined. The 239,240 Pu, 238 Pu and 241 Am concentration ranges in tree trunk lichens 0.83-1.87, 0.052-0.154 and 0.180-0.770 Bq/kg, respectively. The corresponding values in tree mosses are higher and more scattered ranging from 0.321 to 4.96, from 0.029 to 0.171 and from 0.200 to 1.93 Bq/kg. The mean 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu and 241 Am/ 239,240 Pu ratios are 0.088±0.037 and 0.38 ± 0.13 in lichens and 0.091±0.072 and 0.54±0.16 in tree mosses. The Pu and Am concentrations are relatively low in terrestrial mosses. The 239,240 Pu, 238 Pu and 241 Am vertical distributions in a terrestrial moss core (Neckera Crispa) collected near Urbino (central Italy) show an exponential decrease with the height. On the contrary the 241 Am vertical distribution in another terrestrial moss core (Sphagnum Compactum) collected in the Alps (northern Italy) shows an interesting peak at 16 cm which corresponds to the deposition of fallout from the nuclear weapon tests in 1960's. The 241 Am movement upward and downward in the moss core is also studied. The results show once again that both mosses and lichens are very effective accumulators of Pu and Am and that they can be used as good biological indicators of the radionuclide airborne pollution from nuclear facilities and nuclear weapon tests. They can play a very important role in cycling naturally or artificially enhanced radionuclides in the atmosphere over long time scales. (author)

  11. Americium/Lanthanide Separations in Alkaline Solutions for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, George S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Long, Kristy Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reilly, Sean D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jarvinen, Gordon D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Runde, Wolfgang H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-11

    Project goals: Can used nuclear fuel be partitioned by dissolution in alkaline aqueous solution to give a solution of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium and a filterable solid containing nearly all of the lanthanide fission products and certain other fission products? What is the chemistry of Am/Cm/Ln in oxidative carbonate solutions? Can higher oxidation states of Am be stabilized and exploited? Conclusions: Am(VI) is kinetically stable in 0.5-2.0 M carbonate solutions for hours. Aliquat 336 in toluene has been successfully shown to extract U(VI) and Pu(VI) from carbonate solutions. (Stepanov et al 2011). Higher carbonate concentration gives lower D, SF{sub U/Eu} for = 4 in 1 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Experiments with Am(VI) were unsuccessful due to reduction by the organics. Multiple sources of reducing organics...more optimization. Reduction experiments of Am(VI) in dodecane/octanol/Aliquat 336 show that after 5 minutes of contact, only 30-40% of the Am(VI) has been reduced. Long enough to perform an extraction. Shorter contact times, lower T, and lower Aliquat 336 concentration still did not result in any significant extraction of Am. Anion exchange experiments using a strong base anion exchanger show uptake of U(VI) with minimal uptake of Nd(III). Experiments with Am(VI) indicate Am sorption with a Kd of 9 (10 minute contact) but sorption mechanism is not yet understood. SF{sub U/Nd} for = 7 and SF{sub U/Eu} for = 19 after 24 hours in 1 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.

  12. Extraction of lanthanide nitrates with trioctylmethylammonium di(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khol'kin, A.I.; Belova, V.V.; Egorova, N.S.; Pyartman, A.K.; Keskinov, V.A.

    2007-01-01

    A binary extractant based on trioctylmethylammonium di(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinate, R 4 NA, was prepared. The extraction of lanthanide (Gd-Lu) nitrates from aqueous solutions with 0.6 M toluene solutions of R 4 NA and trioctylmethylammonium nitrate was studied. The extraction isotherms of lanthanide nitrates with these extractants were obtained and physicochemical and mathematical models of extraction of lanthanides were developed. The extraction isotherms with the binary extractant were analyzed assuming that the Ln(III) extractable complexes LnA 3 , (R 4 N) 2 [Ln(NO 3 ) 5 ], (R 4 N) 3 [Ln(NO 3 ) 6 ], (R 4 N) 2 [Ln(NO 3 ) 3 A 2 ], and (R 4 N)[Ln(NO 3 ) 3 A] [A is di(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinate anion] are formed in the organic phase. The extraction constants were calculated [ru

  13. Estimation of 244Cm intake by bioassay measurements following a contamination incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thein, M.; Bogard, J.S.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1988-01-01

    An employee was contaminated with radioactive material consisting primarily of 244 Cm and 246 Cm as a consequence of handling a curium nitrate solution at a reprocessing facility. In vivo gamma analysis and in vitro (urine and fecal) analysis were initiated soon after the incident. Further in vivo measurements were performed regularly through hour 528, and in vitro bioassay measurements were obtained through day 74. A sample of the curium solution from the workplace was obtained to confirm that the nitrate was the chemical form and to identify the curium isotopes present. The mass ratio of 244 Cm: 246 Cm was determined to be 91:7. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) was administered on hours 33 and 71. Observed excretion rates were consistent with available information for curium in the literature. In this paper, the results of the in vivo and in vitro measurements are presented and intake estimates for the incident are developed using various excretion rate functions. 11 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Determination of americium and curium using ion-exchange in the nitric-acid-methanol medium for environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Fukai, R.

    1976-01-01

    While transplutonic elements are only slightly sorbed to anion exchangers from hydrochloric or nitric acid media, the presence of alcohol enhances the anionic exchange of these elements, especially in nitric and sulfuric solutions. In the present work a method has been developed for determining americium and curium in environmental samples, on the basis of the difference between the sorption characteristics to anion exchangers in the acid-methanol system of these transplutonic elements and those of plutonium, polonium and thorium. The method also permits us to perform sequential determination of plutonium, when necessary

  15. OXA-244-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates, a Challenge for Clinical Microbiology Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos-Mallecot, Yannick; Naas, Thierry; Bonnin, Rémy A; Patino, Rafael; Glaser, Philippe; Fortineau, Nicolas; Dortet, Laurent

    2017-09-01

    OXA-244 is a single-point-mutant derivative of OXA-48 displaying reduced carbapenemase activity. Here, we report the microbiological features of seven OXA-244-producing Escherichia coli isolates. Only one isolate grew on ChromID Carba Smart medium (bioMérieux), but six of the seven isolates grew on ChromID extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) medium (bioMérieux), as they coproduced an ESBL and/or a plasmid-encoded cephalosporinase. The production of a carbapenemase was detected in 57.1%, 71.4%, 71.4%, and 100% of the E. coli isolates using the Carba NP test, the Rapidec Carba NP test (bioMérieux), a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) hydrolysis assay (Bruker), and the OXA-48 K-SeT assay (Coris BioConcept), respectively. Our results indicate that OXA-244-producing E. coli isolates are difficult to detect, which may lead to their silent spread. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Temperature and concentration dependences of the electrical resistivity for alloys of plutonium with americium under normal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiovkin, Yu. Yu.; Povzner, A. A.; Tsiovkina, L. Yu.; Dremov, V. V.; Kabirova, L. R.; Dyachenko, A. A.; Bystrushkin, V. B.; Ryabukhina, M. V.; Lukoyanov, A. V.; Shorikov, A. O.

    2010-01-01

    The temperature and concentration dependences of the electrical resistivity for alloys of americium with plutonium are analyzed in terms of the multiband conductivity model for binary disordered substitution-type alloys. For the case of high temperatures ( T > ΘD, ΘD is the Debye temperature), a system of self-consistent equations of the coherent potential approximation has been derived for the scattering of conduction electrons by impurities and phonons without any constraints on the interaction intensity. The definitions of the shift and broadening operator for a single-electron level are used to show qualitatively and quantitatively that the pattern of the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity for alloys is determined by the balance between the coherent and incoherent contributions to the electron-phonon scattering and that the interference conduction electron scattering mechanism can be the main cause of the negative temperature coefficient of resistivity observed in some alloys involving actinides. It is shown that the great values of the observed resistivity may be attributable to interband transitions of charge carriers and renormalization of their effective mass through strong s-d band hybridization. The concentration and temperature dependences of the resistivity for alloys of plutonium and americium calculated in terms of the derived conductivity model are compared with the available experimental data.

  17. Osteosarcoma induction by plutonium-239, americium-241 and neptunium-237 : the problem of deriving risk estimates for man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Spontaneous bone cancer (osteosarcoma) represents only about 0.3% of all human cancers, but is well known to be inducible in humans by internal contamination with radium-226 and radium-224. plutonium-239, americium-241 and neptunium-237 form, or will form, the principal long-lived alpha particle emitting components of high activity waste and burnt-up nuclear fuel elements. These three nuclides deposit extensively in human bone and although, fortunately, no case of a human osteosarcoma induced by any of these nuclides is known, evidence from animal studies suggests that all three are more effective than radium-226 in inducing osteosarcoma. The assumption that the ratio of the risk factors, the number of osteosarcoma expected per 10000 person/animal Gy, for radium-226 and any other bone-seeking alpha-emitter will be independent of animal species has formed the basis of all the important studies of the radiotoxicity of actinide nuclides in experimental animals. The aim of this communication is to review the risk factors which may be calculated from the various animal studies carried out over the last thirty years with plutonium-237, americium-241 and neptunium-237 and to consider the problems which may arise in extrapolating these risk factors to homo sapiens

  18. The photoluminescence of crystallophosphors on the base of NaBi(WO4)2 activated by americium, plutonium and neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliva, V.R.; Novikov, Yu.P.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1989-01-01

    The luminescence properties of crystallophosphors based on NaBi(WO 4 ) 2 activated by americium, plutonium and neptunium were studied. The synthesis of crystallophosphors is described. Crystallophosphors luminesce in the near infrared region. The excitation and luminescence spectra of crystallophosphors are considered. The dependence of luminescence yield is linear in the wide interval of activator concentration. (author) 3 refs.; 4 figs

  19. Software Verification and Validation Report for the 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization Ventilation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YEH, T.

    2002-01-01

    This document reports on the analysis, testing and conclusions of the software verification and validation for the 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization ventilation system. Automation control system will use the Allen-Bradley software tools for programming and programmable logic controller (PLC) configuration. The 244-AR Interim Stabilization Ventilation System will be used to control the release of radioactive particles to the environment in the containment tent, located inside the canyon of the 244-AR facility, and to assist the waste stabilization efforts. The HVAC equipment, ducts, instruments, PLC hardware, the ladder logic executable software (documented code), and message display terminal are considered part of the temporary ventilation system. The system consists of a supply air skid, temporary ductwork (to distribute airflow), and two skid-mounted, 500-cfm exhausters connected to the east filter building and the vessel vent system. The Interim Stabilization Ventilation System is a temporary, portable ventilation system consisting of supply side and exhaust side. Air is supplied to the containment tent from an air supply skid. This skid contains a constant speed fan, a pre-filter, an electric heating coil, a cooling coil, and a constant flow device (CFD). The CFD uses a passive component that allows a constant flow of air to pass through the device. Air is drawn out of the containment tent, cells, and tanks by two 500-cfm exhauster skids running in parallel. These skids are equipped with fans, filters, stack, stack monitoring instrumentation, and a PLC for control. The 500CFM exhaust skids were fabricated and tested previously for saltwell pumping activities. The objective of the temporary ventilation system is to maintain a higher pressure to the containment tent, relative to the canyon and cell areas, to prevent contaminants from reaching the containment tent

  20. Type B investigation report of curium-244 exposure at the ORNL TRU Facility, January 15, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, G.L.; Butler, H.M.; Duncan, D.T.; Oakes, T.W.

    1986-04-01

    This Type B Investigative Report provides an evaluation of relevant events and activities that led to, were a part of, or resulted from the release of curium-244 in the Building 7920 facility at ORNL in January 1986. Impacts have been evaluated with respect to employee exposures and the costs and loss of productivity resulting from increased bioassay analyses and activities of investigative committees. Management systems evaluated include (1) training of employees performing lab analyses, (2) adherence to procedures, and (3) response to unusual circumstances

  1. Peculiar Behavior of (U,Am)O(2-δ) Compounds for High Americium Contents Evidenced by XRD, XAS, and Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Florent; Horlait, Denis; Caraballo, Richard; Martin, Philippe M; Scheinost, Andreas C; Rossberg, Andre; Jégou, Christophe; Delahaye, Thibaud

    2015-10-19

    In U(1-x)Am(x)O(2±δ) compounds with low americium content (x ≤ 20 atom %) and oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratios close to 2.0, Am(III+) cations are charge-balanced by an equivalent amount of U(V+) cations while the fluorite structure of pure U(IV+)O2 is maintained. Up to now, it is unknown whether this observation also holds for higher americium contents. In this study, we combined X-ray diffraction with Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopies to investigate a U(0.5)Am(0.5)O(2±δ) compound. Our results indicate that americium is again only present as Am(III+), while U(V+) remains below the amount required for charge balance. Unlike lower americium contents, this leads to an overall oxygen hypostoichiometry with an average O/M ratio of 1.92(2). The cationic sublattice is only slightly affected by the coexistence of large amounts of reduced (Am(III+)) and oxidized (U(V+)) cations, whereas significant deviations from the fluorite structure are evidenced by both extended X-ray absorption fine structure and Raman spectroscopies in the oxygen sublattice, with the observation of both vacancies and interstitials, the latter being apparently consistent with the insertion of U6O12 cuboctahedral-type clusters (as observed in the U4O9 or U3O7 phases). These results thus highlight the specificities of uranium-americium mixed oxides, which behave more like trivalent lanthanide-doped UO2 than U(1-x)Pu(x)O(2±δ) MOX fuels.

  2. Chemical behaviour of trivalent and pentavalent americium in saline NaCl-solutions. Studies of transferability of laboratory data to natural conditions. Interim report. Reported period: 1.2.1993-31.12.1993; Chemisches Verhalten von drei- und fuenfwertigem Americium in Salinen NaCl-Loesungen. Untersuchung der Uebertragbarkeit von Labordaten auf natuerliche Verhaeltnisse. Zwischenbericht. Berichtszeitraum 1.2.1993-31.12.1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runde, W.; Kim, J.I.

    1994-09-15

    In order to clarify the chemical behaviour of Americium in saline aqueous systems relevant for final storage this study deals with the chemical reactions of trivalent and pentavalent Americium in NaCl-solutions under the influence of radiolysis from its own alpha radiation. The focus of the study was on investigating the geologically relevant reactions, such as hydrolysis or carbonate- and chloride complexing in solid-liquid equilibriums. Comprehensive measurements on solubility and spectroscopic studies in NaCl-solutions were carried out in a CO{sub 2}-free atmosphere and 10{sup -2} atm CO{sub 2} partial pressure. Identification and characterisation of the AM (III) and AM(V) solid phases were supplemented by structural research with the chemically analogue EU (III) and Np(V) compounds. The alpha-radiation induced radiolysis in saline NaCl solutions and the redox behaviour of Americium which was influenced thereby were spectroscopically quantified. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Klaerung des chemischen Verhaltens von Americium in endlagerrelevanten salinen aquatischen Systemen befasst sich die vorliegende Arbeit mit den chemischen Reaktionen des drei- und fuenfwertigen Americiums in NaCl-Loesungen unter dem Einfluss der Radiolyse durch die eigene {alpha}-Strahlung. Der Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit lag auf der Untersuchung der geologisch relevanten Reaktionen, wie Hydrolyse sowie Carbonat- und Chloridkomplexierung in fest-fluessig Gleichgewichtssystemen. Hierzu wurden umfassende Loeslichkeitsmessungen und spektroskopische Untersuchungen in NaCl-Loesungen, sowohl unter CO{sub 2}-freier Atmosphaere als auch unter 10{sup -2} atm CO{sub 2}-Partialdruck, durchgefuehrt. Die Identifizierung und Charakterisierung der Am(III)- und Am(V)-Festphasen wurde ergaenzt durch strukturelle Untersuchungen mit den chemisch analogen Eu(III)- und Np(V)-Verbindungen. Die von der {alpha}-Strahlung induzierte Radiolyse in salinen NaCl-Loesungen und das dadurch beeinflusste Redoxverhalten von Americium

  3. Sequential separation method for the determination of Plutonium and Americium in fecal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raveendran, Nanda; Rao, D.D.; Yadav, J.R.; Baburajan, A.

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of internal contamination due to Plutonium and Americium of radiation workers of Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility (AFFF) at Tarapur was carried out by the bioassay (Fecal sample) of the workers. Conventionally the separation of 'Pu' and 'Am' was carried out by alkali fusion followed by the anion exchange separation for Pu and cation exchange separation for Am. This paper deals with an alternative method in which initially the entire ash of the sample added with 236 Pu tracer (3-11 mBq) and 243 Am tracer (2.8-14.5 mBq) was acid leached and Pu was separated by anion exchange as per standard analytical procedure and Am by using TRU resin. In this work the extraction chromatography method using TRU resin procured from Eichrom,U.K. which contains N-N-di isobutyl carbanoyl methyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) as extractant, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) as diluent absorbed on inert polymeric support has been used for the separation of Am from fecal sample. The 8N HNO 3 effluent from Pu separation step was dried and the residue was dissolved in 10 ml 1M Al(NO 3 ) 3 in 3M HNO 3 and pinch of Ascorbic acid was added and loaded on a TRU resin column (dia ∼ 4 mm and height 60 mm) preconditioned with 30 ml 1M Al(NO 3 ) 3 in 3 MHNO 3 . The column was washed with 5 ml 3M HNO 3 and 5 ml 2M HNO 3 . The nitrate concentration was lowered using addition of 10 ml 0.05 M HNO 3 . Am was eluted with 3 ml 9M HCl and 20 ml 2M HCl. The elute was dried and electrodeposited on a SS planchet in NH 4 (SO 4 ) 2 solution at pH 2.2 for two hours. Pu and Am activity estimated by counting in passivated ion implanted planner Silicon detector (PIPS) coupled to 8K channel alpha spectrometer. The sample was counted for duration of 3-4 lacs of seconds. In this study the numbers of samples analyzed are 25. The paper gives detail of analytical recoveries of Pu tracer varies from 55-90 % with a mean of 70% and std. deviation 9.9%. The Am tracer recovery was in the range of 20-89.3% with a mean of

  4. Crystallographic and Spectroscopic Characterization of Americium Complexes Containing the Bis[(phosphino)methyl]pyridine-1-oxide (NOPOPO) Ligand Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbey, Jordan F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Rapko, Brian M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Wang, Zheming [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; McNamara, Bruce K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Surbella, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Pellegrini, Kristi L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Schwantes, Jon M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States

    2018-02-06

    Abstract The crystal structures of americium species containing a common multi-functional phosphine oxide ligand, reported for its ability to extract f elements from acidic solutions, namely 2,6-[Ph2P(O)CH2]2C5H3-NO, L, have finally been determined after over three decades of separations studies involving these species and their surrogates. The molecular compounds Am(L)(NO3)3, Am 1:1, and [Am(L)2(NO3)][NO3]2, Am 2:1, along with their neodymium and europium analogs were synthesized and characterized using single-crystal X-ray crystallography, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR) spectroscopy and luminescence spectroscopy to provide a comprehensive comparison with new and known analogous complexes.

  5. Moessbauer spectroscopy of 237Np created by α-decay of 241Am in some compounds of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebizant, Jean.

    1977-01-01

    The Moessbauer emission spectra of 237 Np impurities fed by α decay of 241 Am were measured in the following compounds: Am metal, AmPtsub(x) (x=1, 3, 5), AmAs, AmBi, Am 2 O 3 , AmO 2 , Lisub(x)AmOsub(x+1) (x=1, 2, 3, 4) and Li 6 AmO 6 . The studies concerned the consequences of the recoil and ionization effects, associated with the α-decay of 241 Am in the solid phase; these are analysed in situ and on a time scale of about 100 ns after the α emission; the dependence of these effects on the physico-chemical nature of the host and on the temperature; information about the electronic, magnetic and structural properties and, also, about the vibrational properties of the Np impurity in the investigated solid matrice as far as the previous effects do not hamper such conclusions. The existence itself of the Moessbauer effect shows that the Np ions are stabilized in well-defined lattice locations at the time of emission of the 59.5keV γ quanta (approximately 100ns), once this level is reached after the 241 Am decay. In Am metal and AmPtsub(x) alloys, the observation of a single charge state for neptunium indicates that the electronic effects associated with the α-decay are recovered in less than 100ns. In the americium oxide compounds and the monopnictides AmAs and AmBi, several charge states of neptunium recoil ions are observed; this shows unambiguously the importance of the ionization effects caused by the α-decay. Some informations about magnetic and electronic properties of the americium host matrices were obtained. The vibration modes of 237 Np impurities in the lattice of Am metal are described by means of the Debye model with a characteristic temperature thetasub(D)=115K [fr

  6. Separation of americium by liquid-liquid extraction using diglycol-amides water-soluble complexing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapron, S.; Marie, C.; Pacary, V.; Duchesne, M.T.; Miguirditchian, M. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Processses Departement, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Arrachart, G.; Pellet-Rostaing, S. [Institut de Chimie Separative de Marcoule, LTSM, Bat 426, F-30207 Bagnols-sur- Ceze (France)

    2016-07-01

    Recycling americium (Am) alone from spent nuclear fuels is an important option studied for the future nuclear cycle (Generation IV systems) since Am belongs to the main contributors of the long-term radiotoxicity and heat power of final waste. Since 2008, a liquid-liquid extraction process called EXAm has been developed by the CEA to allow the recovery of Am alone from a PUREX raffinate (a dissolution solution already cleared from U, Np and Pu). A mixture of DMDOHEMA (N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-dioctyl-2-(2-(hexyloxy)ethyl)-malonamide) and HDEHP (di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid) in TPH is used as the solvent and the Am/Cm selectivity is improved using TEDGA (N,N,N',N'-tetraethyl-diglycolamide) as a selective complexing agent to maintain Cm and heavier lanthanides in the acidic aqueous phase (5 M HNO{sub 3}). Americium is then stripped selectively from light lanthanides at low acidity (pH=3) with a poly-aminocarboxylic acid. The feasibility of sole Am recovery was already demonstrated during hot tests in ATALANTE facility and the EXAm process was adapted to a concentrated raffinate to optimize the process compactness. The speciation of TEDGA complexes formed in the aqueous phase with Am, Cm and lanthanides was studied to better understand and model the behavior of TEDGA in the process. Some Ln-TEDGA species are extracted into the organic phase and this specific chemistry might play a role in the Am/Cm selectivity improvement. Hence the hydrophilicity-lipophilicity balance of the complexing agent is an important parameter. In this comprehensive study, new analogues of TEDGA were synthesized and tested in the EXAm process conditions to understand the relationship between their structure and selectivity. New derivatives of TEDGA with different N-alkyl chain lengths and ramifications were synthesized. The impact of lipophilicity on ligand partitioning and Am/Cm selectivity was investigated. (authors)

  7. Extinct lunar radio activities - Xenon from Pu-244 and I-129 in Apollo 14 breccias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, C. J.; Drozd, R. J.; Hohenberg, C. M.

    1973-01-01

    Two Apollo 14 breccias have been found to contain xenon from the spontaneous fission of 82 my Pu-244. A third contains 60 times as much fission xenon as local uranium can account for and is probably of similar character. One of the breccias shows a Xe-129 excess most likely due to the decay of 17 my I-129. That these components can be separated and identified at all implies that complete isotopic homogenization has not occurred over a period which encompasses both extinction of these radionuclides and compaction of the breccias into their final form. In this sense isotope pre-history has been preserved in some lunar breccias providing information that pre-dates the formation of the rock itself (as determined by conventional techniques).

  8. Inspection report of unauthorized possession and use of unsealed americium-241 and subsequent confiscation, J.C. Haynes Company, Newark, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This US Nuclear Regulatory Commission report documents the circumstances surrounding the March 26, 1985, confiscation and subsequent decontamination activities related to the use of unauthorized quantities of americium-241 at the John C. Haynes Company (licensee) of Newark, Ohio. It focuses on the period from early February to July 26, 1985. The incident started when NRC Region III recieved information that John C. Haynes possessed unauthorized quantities of americium-241 and was conducting unauthorized activities (diamond irradiation). By July 26, 1985, the decontamination activities at the licensee's laboratory were concluded. The licensee's actions with diamond irradiation resulted in contamination in restricted and unrestricted areas of the facility. The confiscation and decontamination activities required the combined efforts of NRC, Federal Bureau of Investigation, US Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, the State of Ohio, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. The report describes the factual information and significant findings associated with the confiscation and decontamination activities

  9. Experimental study of Americium-241 biokinetics in Homarus Gammarus lobster. Analysis of the accumulation and detoxication mechanisms at the sub-cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquet, F.

    1991-12-01

    The Americium 241 radioelement accumulation and elimination rate and mechanisms in the lobster organism have been experimentally studied; incorporation and detoxification capacities of each organ are evaluated. The existence of various biological compartments is shown; the major role of the digestive gland in accumulation of the radioelement, its distribution towards the various organs, and its resorption is comprehensively described, with an analysis at the subcellular and molecular levels. 401 p., 65 fig., 43 tab., 428 ref

  10. An experimental study of americium-241 biokinetics in the Lobster Homarus Gammarus. Analysis of the accumulation/storage and detoxification processes at the subcellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquet, F.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental study of americium-241 kinetics has been conducted in the lobster Homarus gammmarus. The investigations were conducted at all the levels from the whole body to the subcellular and molecular levels. The animals were contaminated by a single or chronic ingestion of 241 Am labelled mussels. Assessments of accumulation, elimination and distribution of the radionuclide were established on organisms kept in the laboratory; they made it possible to demonstrate the importance of the digestive gland in the radionuclide transfer pathways. The preliminary results led to structural then ultrastructural investigations of the digestive gland in association with radioautographic studies and cellular extractions methods. Four cellular types were demonstrated, only two of them being implied in the radionuclide retention, the former being responsible for americium intake and the latter for its long-term retention. By means of biochemical techniques, subcellular accumulation was studied and the organelles implied in the nuclide retention were specified. Finally, a method of cellular nuclei dissociation was developed; it made it possible to analyse the molecular nature of americium ligands and to demonstrate the function of the protein nuclear matrix in the nuclide retention

  11. Preliminary results from uranium/americium affinity studies under experimental conditions for cesium removal from NPP ''Kozloduy'' simulated wastes solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforova, A.; Kinova, L.; Peneva, C.; Taskaeva, I.; Petrova, P.

    2005-01-01

    We use the approach described by Westinghouse Savannah River Company using ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) to remove elevated concentrations of radioactive cesium to facilitate handling waste samples from NPP K ozloduy . Preliminary series of tests were carried out to determine the exact conditions for sufficient cesium removal from five simulated waste solutions with concentrations of compounds, whose complexing power complicates any subsequent processing. Simulated wastes solutions contain high concentrations of nitrates, borates, H 2 C 2 O 4 , ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and Citric acid, according to the composition of the real waste from the NPP. On this basis a laboratory treatment protocol was created. This experiment is a preparation for the analysis of real waste samples. In this sense the results are preliminary. Unwanted removal of non-cesium radioactive species from simulated waste solutions was studied with gamma spectrometry with the aim to find a compromise between on the one hand the AMP effectiveness and on the other hand unwanted affinity to AMP of Uranium and Americium. Success for the treatment protocol is defined by proving minimal uptake of U and Am, while at the same time demonstrating good removal effectiveness through the use of AMP. Uptake of U and Am were determined as influenced by oxidizing agents at nitric acid concentrations, proposed by Savannah River National laboratory. It was found that AMP does not significantly remove U and Am when concentration of oxidizing agents is more than 0.1M for simulated waste solutions and for contact times inherent in laboratory treatment protocol. Uranium and Americium affinity under experimental conditions for cesium removal were evaluated from gamma spectrometric data. Results are given for the model experiment and an approach for the real waste analysis is chosen. Under our experimental conditions simulated wastes solutions showed minimal affinity to AMP when U and Am are most probably in

  12. 29 CFR 779.244 - “Covered enterprises” of interest to retailers of goods or services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... part 776 of this chapter. The statutory definitions of enterprises of interest to retailers under the... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Covered Retail Enterprise § 779.244 “Covered enterprises” of interest to retailers of goods or services. Retailers of goods or services are primarily concerned with the enterprises...

  13. 30 CFR 250.244 - What geological and geophysical (G&G) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What geological and geophysical (G&G... Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.244 What geological and geophysical (G&G) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? The following G&G information must accompany your DPP or DOCD: (a) Geological...

  14. Reversible photorheology in solutions of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, salicylic acid, and trans-2,4,4'-trihydroxychalcone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M; Leal, C R; Parola, A J; Scheven, U M

    2010-11-16

    We show photorheology in aqueous solutions of weakly entangled wormlike micelles prepared with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), salicylic acid (HSal), and dilute amounts of the photochromic multistate compound trans-2,4,4'-trihydroxychalcone (Ct). Different chemical species of Ct are associated with different colorations and propensities to reside within or outside CTAB micelles. A light-induced transfer between the intra- and intermicellar space is used to alter the mean length of wormlike micelles and hence the rheological properties of the fluid, studied in steady-state shear flow and in dynamic rheological measurements. Light-induced changes of fluid rheology are reversible by a thermal relaxation process, at relaxation rates which depend on pH and which are consistent with photochromic reversion rates measured by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Parameterizing viscoelastic rheological states by their effective relaxation time τ(c) and corresponding response modulus G(c), we find the light and dark states of the system to fall onto a characteristic state curve defined by comparable experiments conducted without photosensitive components. These reference experiments were prepared with the same concentration of CTAB, but different concentrations of HSal or sodium salicylate (NaSal), and tested at different temperatures.

  15. Analytical utility of the M series x-ray emission lines applied to uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.G.

    1976-01-01

    Secondary emission x-ray analysis for actinide elements has usually meant utilizing the L series x-ray lines. The major disadvantage of these x-ray lines is that they fall in the region of high level Bremsstrahlung radiation, producing a high background and, subsequently, larger error and high detection limits. The utilization of the M series x-ray lines of actinide elements with wavelength dispersive x-ray spectrometers greatly minimizes these problems. Calibration curves for uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium were prepared by the ''coprex'' method, and the analytical characteristics of the L and M series compared. The Mα and β x-ray lines, under optimum conditions, are several times more sensitive than their L series counterparts. With the greater sensitivity in addition to the lower background, peak to background ratios for M lines up to 40 times greater than those for L lines were obtained. Detection limits can be lowered from about 0.7 μg using the Lα 1 line to 0.05 μg when M x-ray lines are used. The relative advantages and disadvantages of utilizing the L and M series x-ray lines for secondary emission x-ray analysis are discussed

  16. Use of radioanalytical methods for determination of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldo, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    Activated charcoal is a common type of radioactive waste that contains high concentrations of fission and activation products. The management of this waste includes its characterization aiming the determination and quantification of the specific radionuclides including those known as Difficult-to-Measure Radionuclides (RDM). The analysis of the RDM's generally involves complex radiochemical analysis for purification and separation of the radionuclides, which are expensive and time-consuming. The objective of this work was to define a methodology for sequential analysis of the isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium present in a type of radioactive waste, evaluating chemical yield, analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost. Three methodologies were compared and validated that employ ion exchange (TI + EC), extraction chromatography (EC) and extraction with polymers (ECP). The waste chosen was the activated charcoal from the purification system of primary circuit water cooling the reactor IEA-R1. The charcoal samples were dissolved by acid digestion followed by purification and separation of isotopes with ion exchange resins, extraction and chromatographic extraction polymers. Isotopes were analyzed on an alpha spectrometer, equipped with surface barrier detectors. The chemical yields were satisfactory for the methods TI + EC and EC. ECP method was comparable with those methods only for uranium. Statistical analysis as well the analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost revealed that EC method is the most effective for identifying and quantifying U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm present in charcoal. (author)

  17. Vertical transport of particulate-associated plutonium and americium in the upper water column of the Northeast Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Ballestra, S.; La Rosa, J.; Fukai, R.

    1983-01-01

    Concentrations of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) were determined in seawater, suspended particulate matter, sediment trap samples, and biogenic material collected at the VERTEX I site in the North Pacific off central California. From a vertical profile taken over the upper 1500 m, the presence of sub-surface maxima of sup(239+240)Pu and 241 Am were identified between 100 to 750 m and 250 to 750 m, respectively. A large fraction (32%) of the filterable sup(239+240)Pu in surface waters was associated with cells during a phytoplankton bloom; Pu:Am activity ratios in surface water and the suspended particles indicated that Pu was concentrated by the cells to a greater degree than Am. However, similar measurements beneath the surface layer showed an overall enrichment of Am over Pu on fine suspended particles with depth. Freshly produced zooplankton fecal pellets and large, fast sinking particles collected in PITS contained relatively high concentrations of Pu and Am. Both transuranic concentrations in trapped particles and transuranic flux tended to increase with depth down to 750 m, suggesting that their scavenging is in the upper water column. Am appeared to be scavenged by sinking biogenic particles to a greater extent than Pu. The results are discussed. (author)

  18. The statistical model calculation of prompt neutron spectra from spontaneous fission of {sup 244}Cm and {sup 246}Cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimenko, B.F. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst., Saint Peterburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The calculations of integral spectra of prompt neutrons of spontaneous fission of {sup 244}Cm and {sup 246}Cm were carried out. The calculations were done by the Statistical Computer Code Complex SCOFIN applying the Hauser-Feschbach method as applied to the description of the de-excitation of excited fission fragments by means of neutron emission. The emission of dipole gamma-quanta from these fragments was considered as a competing process. The average excitation energy of a fragment was calculated by two-spheroidal model of tangent fragments. The density of levels in an excited fragment was calculated by the Fermi-gas model. The quite satisfactory agreement was reached between theoretical and experimental results obtained in frames of Project measurements. The calculated values of average multiplicities of neutron number were 2,746 for {sup 244}Cm and 2,927 for {sup 246}Cm that was in a good accordance with published experimental figures. (author)

  19. Molten salt extraction (MSE) of americium from plutonium metal in CaCl2-KCl-PuCl3 and CaCl2-PuCl3 salt systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, K.E.

    1992-01-01

    Molten salt extraction (MSE) of americium-241 from reactor-grade plutonium has been developed using plutonium trichloride salt in stationary furnaces. Batch runs with oxidized and oxide-free metal have been conducted at temperature ranges between 750 and 945C, and plutonium trichloride concentrations from one to one hundred mole percent. Salt-to-metal ratios of 0.10, 0.15, and 0 30 were examined. The solvent salt was either eutectic 74 mole percent CaCl 2 endash 26 mole percent KCl or pure CaCl 2 . Evidence of trivalent product americium, and effects of temperature, salt-to-metal ratio, and oxide contamination on the americium extraction efficiency are given. 24 refs, 20 figs, 13 tabs

  20. Problem Assessment for a Formal Decision on the Future of the 244-S Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEDERBURG, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the background, concerns, and issues associated with continued use of the 244-S DCRT. A problem statement is defined such that management may in the future make a decision about the preferred path forward on this DCRT. Influences and potential answers are outlined and presented such that costs, waste volume projections, projects (such as W-314), and other facilities (such as 222-S and PFP) are accurately represented

  1. Observations on the redistribution of plutonium and americium in the Irish Sea sediments, 1978 to 1996: concentrations and inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, P.J.; Denoon, D.C.; Woodhead, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of plutonium and americium in the sub-tidal sediments of the Irish Sea is described following major surveys in 1978, 1983, 1988 and 1995. Concentrations in surface sediments have declined near the source at Sellafield since 1988. Time-series of inter-tidal surface sediment concentrations are presented from 1977 onwards, revealing the importance of sediment reworking and transport in controlling the evolution of the environmental signal. The surface and near-surface sediments, in the eastern Irish Sea 'mud-patch', are generally well mixed with respect to Pu (α) and 241 Am distributions but show increasing variability with depth - up to 4 orders of magnitude in concentration. The inventories of 239,240 Pu and 241 Am in the sub-tidal sediments have been estimated and compared with the reported decay-corrected discharges. These amounted to 360 and 545 TBq respectively, in 1995, about 60% of the total decay-corrected discharge. Part of the unaccounted fraction may be due to unrepresentative sampling of the seabed. It is speculated that some tens of TBq of plutonium and 241 Am reside undetected in the large volumes of coarse-grained, sub-tidal and inter-tidal sediment which characterise much of the Irish Sea. This has been due to the inability of the available corers to penetrate to the base of contamination in these mobile sediments. Further observations are needed to verify and quantify the missing amount. A budget of plutonium-α and 241 Am has been estimated based on published observations in the three main compartments: water column, sub-tidal and inter-tidal sediments. This amounts to 460-540 TBq and 575-586 TBq respectively, or 64-75% and 60-61%, of the decay-corrected reported discharge. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Picomolar traces of americium(III) introduce drastic changes in the structural chemistry of terbium(III). A break in the ''gadolinium break''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, Jan M. [TU Wien, Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria); Mueller, Danny; Knoll, Christian; Wilkovitsch, Martin; Weinberger, Peter [TU Wien, Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna (Austria); Giester, Gerald [University of Vienna, Institute of Mineralogy and Crystallography, Vienna (Austria); Ofner, Johannes; Lendl, Bernhard [TU Wien, Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna (Austria); Steinhauser, Georg [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institute of Radioecology and Radiation Protection (Germany)

    2017-10-16

    The crystallization of terbium 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] (ZT) in the presence of trace amounts (ca. 50 Bq, ca. 1.6 pmol) of americium results in 1) the accumulation of the americium tracer in the crystalline solid and 2) a material that adopts a different crystal structure to that formed in the absence of americium. Americium-doped [Tb(Am)(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}ZT]{sub 2} ZT.10 H{sub 2}O is isostructural to light lanthanide (Ce-Gd) 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] compounds, rather than to the heavy lanthanide (Tb-Lu) 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] (e.g., [Tb(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}]{sub 2}ZT{sub 3}.6 H{sub 2}O) derivatives. Traces of Am seem to force the Tb compound into a structure normally preferred by the lighter lanthanides, despite a 10{sup 8}-fold Tb excess. The americium-doped material was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy, radiochemical neutron activation analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the inclusion properties of terbium 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] towards americium were quantified, and a model for the crystallization process is proposed. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Measurement of total alpha activity of neptunium, plutonium, and americium in highly radioactive Hanford waste by iron hydroxide precipitation and 2-heptanone solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, T.C.; Kaye, J.H.

    1992-06-01

    An improved method has been developed to concentrate the major alpha-emitting actinide elements neptunium, plutonium, and americium from samples with high salt content such as those resulting from efforts to characterize Hanford storage tank waste. Actinide elements are concentrated by coprecipitation of their hydroxides using iron carrier. The iron is removed by extraction from 8M HCI with 2-heptanone. The actinide elements remain in the aqueous phase free from salts, iron, and long-lived fission products. Recoveries averaged 98 percent

  4. Synthesis of zirconia sol stabilized by trivalent cations (yttrium and neodymium or americium): a precursor for Am-bearing cubic stabilized zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemonnier, Stephane; Grandjean, Stephane; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Jolivet, Jean-Pierre

    2010-03-07

    Recent concepts for nuclear fuel and targets for transmuting long-lived radionuclides (minor actinides) and for the development of innovative Gen-IV nuclear fuel cycles imply fabricating host phases for actinide or mixed actinide compounds. Cubic stabilized zirconia (Zr, Y, Am)O(2-x) is one of the mixed phases tested in transmutation experiments. Wet chemical routes as an alternative to the powder metallurgy are being investigated to obtain the required phases while minimizing the handling of contaminating radioactive powder. Hydrolysis of zirconium, neodymium (a typical surrogate for americium) and yttrium in aqueous media in the presence of acetylacetone was firstly investigated. Progressive hydrolysis of zirconium acetylacetonate and sorption of trivalent cations and acacH on the zirconia particles led to a stable dispersion of nanoparticles (5-7 nm) in the 6-7 pH range. This sol gels with time or with temperature. The application to americium-containing solutions was then successfully tested: a stable sol was synthesized, characterized and used to prepare cubic stabilized zirconia (Zr, Y, Am)O(2-x).

  5. Determining the americium transmutation rate and fission rate by post-irradiation examination within the scope of the ECRIX-H experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamontagne, J., E-mail: jerome.lamontagne@cea.fr [Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), DEN, DEC, Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Pontillon, Y. [Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), DEN, DEC, Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Esbelin, E. [CEA, DEN, DRCP, Marcoule, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Béjaoui, S.; Pasquet, B. [Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), DEN, DEC, Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Bourdot, P. [CEA, DEN, DER, Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Bonnerot, J.M. [Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), DEN, DEC, Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2013-09-15

    The ECRIX-H experiment aims to assess the feasibility of transmuting americium micro-dispersed in an inert magnesia matrix under a locally moderated neutron flux in the Phénix reactor. A first set of examinations demonstrated that pellet behaviour was satisfactory with moderate swelling at the end of the irradiation. Additional post-irradiation examinations needed to be conducted to confirm the high transmutation rate so as to definitively conclude on the success of the ECRIX-H experiment. This article presents and discusses the results of these new examinations. They confirm the satisfactory behaviour of the MgO matrix not only during the basic irradiation but also during post-irradiation thermal transients. These examinations also provide additional information on the behaviour of fission products both in the americium-based particles and in the MgO matrix. These results particularly validate the transmutation rate predicted by the calculation codes using several different analytical techniques. The fission rate is also determined.

  6. Analytical performance of radiochemical method for americium determination in urine; Desempenho analitico do metodo radioquimico para determinacao de americio em urina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Juliana Ferreira; Carneiro, Janete C.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: ju_barreto@terra.com.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents an analytical method developed and adapted for separation and analysis of Plutonium (Pu) isotopes and Americium (Am) in urine samples. The proposed method will attend the demand of internal exposure monitoring program for workers involved mainly with dismantling rods and radioactive smoke detectors. In this experimental procedure four steps are involved as preparation of samples, sequential radiochemical separation, preparation of the source for electroplating and quantification by alpha spectrometry. In the first stage of radiochemical separation, plutonium is conventionally isolated employing the anion exchange technique. Americium isolation is achieved sequentially by chromatographic extraction (Tru.spec column) from the load and rinse solutions coming from the anion exchange column. The {sup 243}Am tracer is added into the sample as chemical yield monitors and to correct the results improving the precision and accuracy. The mean recovery obtained is 60%, and the detection limit for 24h urine sample is 1.0 mBq L{sup -1} in accordance with the literature. Based in the preliminary results, the method is appropriate to be used in monitoring programme of workers with a potential risk of internal contamination. (author)

  7. A multi-channel 24.4 ps bin size Time-to-Digital Converter for HEP applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mester, C; Morira, P

    2008-01-01

    A multi-channel time-tagging Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) ASIC with a resolution of 24.4 ps (bin size) has been implemented and fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS technology. An on-chip PLL is used to generate an internal timing reference from an external 40 MHz clock source. The circuit is based on a 32 element Delay Locked Loop (DLL) which performs the time interpolation. The 32 channel architecture of the TDC is suitable for both triggered and non-triggered applications. The prototype contains test structures such as a substrate noise generator. The paper describes the circuit architecture and its principles of operation.

  8. When the non-contrast-enhanced phase is unnecessary in abdominal computed tomography scans? A retrospective analysis of 244 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Danilo Manuel Cerqueira; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Monjardim, Rodrigo da Fonseca; Bretas, Elisa Almeida Sathler; Torres, Lucas Rios; Caldana, Rogerio Pedreschi; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; D' ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Departamento de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2013-06-15

    Objective: to evaluate the necessity of the non contrast-enhanced phase in abdominal computed tomography scans. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study was developed, evaluating 244 consecutive abdominal computed tomography scans both with and without contrast injection. Initially, the contrast-enhanced images were analyzed (first analysis). Subsequently, the observers had access to the non-contrast-enhanced images for a second analysis. The primary and secondary diagnoses were established as a function of the clinical indications for each study (such as tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation for abdominal collection and hepatocellular carcinoma, among others). Finally, the changes in the diagnoses resulting from the addition of the non-contrast-enhanced phase were evaluated. Results: Only one (0.4%; p > 0.999; non-statistically significant) out of the 244 reviewed cases had the diagnosis changed after the reading of non-contrast-enhanced images. As the secondary diagnoses are considered, 35 (14%) cases presented changes after the second analysis, as follows: nephrolithiasis (10%), steatosis (3%), adrenal nodule (0.7%) and cholelithiasis (0.3%). Conclusion: For the clinical indications of tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation of abdominal collections and hepatocellular carcinoma, the non-contrast-enhanced phase can be excluded from abdominal computed tomography studies with no significant impact on the diagnosis. (author)

  9. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster at 244-AR vault. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrell, D.J.

    1997-12-17

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96, a portable exhauster at the 244-AR Vault. The exhauster would be used during air jetting of accumulated liquids from the cell sumps into the tanks and to make transfers among the tanks within the vault when needed. The 244-AR Vault is considered to be a double-contained receiver tank (OCRT) based on its functional characteristics, although it is not listed as one of the five designated DCRTs in the 200 Area Tank Farm systems. Process operations at the vault have been inactive since 1978 and the vault`s two stacks have not operated since 1993. Since cessation of vault operations an extremely large amount of rain water and snow melt have accumulated in the cell sumps. The water level in the sumps is substantially above their respective operating levels and there is concern for leakage to the environment through containment failure due to corrosion from backed-up sump liquid. Active ventilation is required to provide contamination control during air jetting operations within the vault. It has been determined that it would not be cost effective to repair the existing exhaust systems to an operational condition; thus, a portable exhauster will be used to support the intermittent operations.

  10. When the non-contrast-enhanced phase is unnecessary in abdominal computed tomography scans? A retrospective analysis of 244 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Manuel Cerqueira Costa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the necessity of the non contrast-enhanced phase in abdominal computed tomography scans. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study was developed, evaluating 244 consecutive abdominal computed tomography scans both with and without contrast injection. Initially, the contrast-enhanced images were analyzed (first analysis. Subsequently, the observers had access to the non-contrast-enhanced images for a second analysis. The primary and secondary diagnoses were established as a function of the clinical indications for each study (such as tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation for abdominal collection and hepatocellular carcinoma, among others. Finally, the changes in the diagnoses resulting from the addition of the non-contrast-enhanced phase were evaluated. Results: Only one (0.4%; p > 0.999; non-statistically significant out of the 244 reviewed cases had the diagnosis changed after the reading of non-contrast-enhanced images. As the secondary diagnoses are considered, 35 (14% cases presented changes after the second analysis, as follows: nephrolithiasis (10%, steatosis (3%, adrenal nodule (0.7% and cholelithiasis (0.3%. Conclusion: For the clinical indications of tumor staging, acute abdomen, investigation of abdominal collections and hepatocellular carcinoma, the non-contrast-enhanced phase can be excluded from abdominal computed tomography studies with no significant impact on the diagnosis.

  11. Abundance of live 244Pu in deep-sea reservoirs on Earth points to rarity of actinide nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, A.; Faestermann, T.; Feige, J.; Feldstein, C.; Knie, K.; Korschinek, G.; Kutschera, W.; Ofan, A.; Paul, M.; Quinto, F.; Rugel, G.; Steier, P.

    2015-01-01

    Half of the heavy elements including all actinides are produced in r-process nucleosynthesis, whose sites and history remain a mystery. If continuously produced, the Interstellar Medium is expected to build-up a quasi-steady state of abundances of short-lived nuclides (with half-lives ≤100 My), including actinides produced in r-process nucleosynthesis. Their existence in today’s interstellar medium would serve as a radioactive clock and would establish that their production was recent. In particular 244Pu, a radioactive actinide nuclide (half-life=81 My), can place strong constraints on recent r-process frequency and production yield. Here we report the detection of live interstellar 244Pu, archived in Earth’s deep-sea floor during the last 25 My, at abundances lower than expected from continuous production in the Galaxy by about 2 orders of magnitude. This large discrepancy may signal a rarity of actinide r-process nucleosynthesis sites, compatible with neutron-star mergers or with a small subset of actinide-producing supernovae. PMID:25601158

  12. Inhaled americium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    This project includes experiments to determine the effects of Zn-DTPA therapy on the retention, translocation and biological effects of inhaled 241 AmO 2 . Beagle dogs that received inhalation exposure to 241 AmO 2 developed leukopenia, clincial chemistry changes associated with hepatocellular damage, and were euthanized due to respiratory insufficiency caused by radiation pneumonitis 120 to 131 days after pulmonary deposition of 22 to 65 μCi 241 Am. Another group of dogs that received inhalation exposure to 241 AmO 2 and were treated daily with Zn-DTPA had initial pulmonary deposition of 19 to 26 μCi 241 Am. These dogs did not develop respiratory insufficiency, and hematologic and clinical chemistry changes were less severe than in the non-DTPA-treated dogs

  13. Artificial radionuclides in the Northern European Marine Environment. Distribution of radiocaesium, plutonium and americium in sea water and sediments in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groettheim, Siri

    2000-01-01

    This study considers the distribution of radiocaesium, plutonium and americium in the northern marine environment. The highest radiocaesium activity in sea water was observed in Skagerrak, 26 Bq/m 3 , and in surface sediments in the Norwegian Sea, 60 Bq/kg. These enhanced levels were related to Chernobyl. The highest 239,240Pu activity in surface water was measured in the western North Sea, 66 mBq/m 3 . In sea water, sub-surface maxima were observed at several locations with an 239,240Pu activity up to 160 mBq/m 3 , and were related to Sellafield. With the exception to the North Sea, surface sediments reflected Pu from global fallout from weapons tests only. (author)

  14. Recovery of Americium-241 from lightning rod by the method of chemical treatment; Recuperacion del Americio-241 provenientes de los pararrayos por el metodo de tratamiento quimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, W.H., E-mail: wcruz@ipen.gob.pe [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (GRRA/IPEN), Lima (Peru). Division de Gestion de Residuos Radiactivos

    2013-07-01

    About 95% of the lightning rods installed in the Peruvian territory have set in their structures, pose small amounts of radioactive sources such as Americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), fewer and Radium 226 ({sup 226}Ra) these are alpha emitters and have a half life of 432 years and 1600 years respectively. In this paper describes the recovery of radioactive sources of {sup 241}Am radioactive lightning rods using the conventional chemical treatment method using agents and acids to break down the slides. The {sup 241}Am recovered was as excitation source and alpha particle generator for analysing samples by X Ray Fluorescence, for fixing the stainless steel {sup 241}Am technique was used electrodeposition. (author)

  15. Artificial radionuclides in the Northern European Marine Environment. Distribution of radiocaesium, plutonium and americium in sea water and sediments in 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groettheim, Siri

    2000-07-01

    This study considers the distribution of radiocaesium, plutonium and americium in the northern marine environment. The highest radiocaesium activity in sea water was observed in Skagerrak, 26 Bq/m{sub 3}, and in surface sediments in the Norwegian Sea, 60 Bq/kg. These enhanced levels were related to Chernobyl. The highest 239,240Pu activity in surface water was measured in the western North Sea, 66 mBq/m{sub 3}. In sea water, sub-surface maxima were observed at several locations with an 239,240Pu activity up to 160 mBq/m{sub 3}, and were related to Sellafield. With the exception to the North Sea, surface sediments reflected Pu from global fallout from weapons tests only. (author)

  16. Preliminary application of 241-Americium calcaneus bone mineral density measurement in osteoporosis. Comparison with double X-ray densitometry of the lumber spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Liang; Zhu Chengmo; Li Peiyong; Wang Hui; Pu Mingfang; Qiu Jigao

    2001-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) of calcaneus in 54 normals, 45 Osteoporosis, 25 suspected osteoporosis and 16 other non-osteoporosis patients, a total of 140 cases were measured by HUAKE (HK-1) 241-Americium BMD absorpmetry, among them 43 were compared with that of lumber spine (L2 - L4) measured by Lunar Corporation's Expert-XL absorpmeter. BMD of normal group of calcaneus was (409.8 +- 79.4) mg/cm 2 . The BMD were decreased slowly with the increasing age. The BMD of osteoporosis, suspected osteoporosis and non-osteoporosis group were 230.3 +- 62.3, 395.7 +- 57.4 and 363.3 +- 51.9 mg/cm 2 respectively. The BMD of osteoporosis group was much lower than that of normal group, and also lower than that of the other two groups, among 26 patients (57.78%) had bone fracture, all was in accordance with the clinical diagnosis of osteoporosis. The BMD of suspected osteoporosis and non-osteoporosis had no significant difference with normal group. The coefficient variation (CV) of BMD in repeated measurement in calcaneus of 4 participants was less than 1.2%. The correlative coefficient (r) between BMD of calcaneus and lumber spine (L2 - L4) group was 0.6824. The correlative coefficient of normal young adult-matched percentage and T value in 2 groups were 0.6863 and 0.6755 respectively, whereas aged-matched percentage, Z value were 0.4614 and 0.5009 respectively. In conclusion 241-Americium calcaneus BMD absorpmetry has the advantage of low price, easy to operate, reliable and valuable in diagnosis osteoporosis. The correlations of calcaneus and lumber spine BMD, normal young adult-matched percentage and T value were rather good

  17. Correction factor K calculation for Americium-Beryllium neutron sources measured in a manganese sulfate bath; Calculo do fator de correcao K para fontes de neutrons de Americio-Berilio medida no banho de sulfato de manganes do LNMRI/IRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Sandro P.; Fonseca, Evaldo S. da; Patrao, Karla C.S.; Goncalves, Marcello G. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Neutrons; Pereira, Walsan W. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)

    2005-03-15

    This paper simulates a manganese sulfate bath at the Ionizing Radiation Metrology National Laboratory for the calculation of K correction factor for the neutro emission ratio in some Americium-Beryllium sources.

  18. Economic development, urbanization, technological change and overweight: what do we learn from 244 Demographic and Health Surveys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc

    2014-07-01

    Obesity and overweight are spreading fast in developing countries, and have reached world record levels in some of them. Capturing the size, patterns and trends of the problem has, however, been severely hampered by the lack of comparable data in low and middle income countries. We seek to begin to fill this gap by testing several hypotheses on the determinants/correlates of overweight among women, related to the influence of economic and technological development. We undertake econometric analysis of nationally representative data on about 878,000 women aged 15-49 from 244 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for 56 countries over the years 1991-2009. Our findings support most previously expressed hypotheses of what might explain obesity patterns in developing countries, but they also reject some prior notions and add considerable nuance to the emerging pattern. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Uranium and Cobalt Separation by Liquid-Liquid Extraction with Bis (2,4,4-Trimethylpentyl) Phosphinic Acid in Kerosene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.M.I; Ahmed, I.M; Daoud, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The extraction and separation of Co(II) and U(VI) from aqueous solution using bis (2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid, commercially known as CYANEX 272 (H 2 A 2 ) in kerosene have been investigated. Different parameters affecting the extraction of Co(II) and U(VI) from aqueous solutions were studied such as CYANEX 272, Co(II), U(VI), sulphate, chloride, and nitrate concentrations, as well as the effect of temperature. Slope analysis of the results indicated that the stoichiometry of Co(II) and U(VI) compounds were CoSO 4 A(HA) 3 and UO 2 (HA 2 ) 2 . 2(HA) 2 , respectively. The separation between the two metal ions from different aqueous media takes the sequence nitrate>sulphate>chloride

  20. 14.8 MeV neutron induced fission studies of 239Pu, 242Pu, 244Pu and 241Am

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naeem A.; Khan, Hameed A.; Gul, Khunab; Anwar, Muhammad; Hussain, Gulzar; Akber, Riaz A.; Waheed, Abdul; Saleem Shaikh, M.

    1980-06-01

    A Muscovite mica track detector has been employed for the measurement of (a) fission cross-section, and (b) the angular anisotropy of the fission fragments emitted in fission of 239Pu, 242Pu, 244Pu, and 241Am induced by 14.8 MeV neutrons. A new approach has been tried to extract the above mentioned angular distribution information from experiments carried out in 2π-geometry instead of the conventional vacuum chamber measurements. This has drastically cut down the neutron generator time needed to carry out such experiments. The cross-section and the anisotropy results are found to be in close agreement with those theoretically predicted or reported earlier.

  1. Mass yield and angular distribution of rare earth elements produced in proton-induced fission of Pu-244

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, K.; Shinohara, N.; Nagame, Y.; Ichikawa, S.; Magara, M.; Hoshi, M.; Sueki, K.; Tanikawa, M.; Nishinaka, I.; Kobayashi, T.

    1994-10-01

    In the fission system Pu-244 + p, formation cross sections of rare earth products were observed in the proton energy range 10 to 16 MeV, and their angular distributions were measured in detail of proton energy of 15 MeV. The highest mass number of rare earth products was 162 which corresponded to a highly asymmetric mass division of A(sub H)/A(sub L) approximately equals 2. The incident energy dependence and angular anisotropies of rare earth products were found to be the same, even for highly asymmetric mass division, and no clear evidence was observed for the effect of neutron numbers 50 and 97 on cross section and angular anisotropy. These observations lead to the conclusion that the fission process, leading to highly asymmetric mass division, experiences the same saddle point in the course of deformation toward scission as that for other typical asymmetric mass division.

  2. Deformation effects in the alpha accompanied cold ternary fission of even-even {sup 244-260}Cf isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh, K.P.; Krishnan, Sreejith [Kannur University, School of Pure and Applied Physics, Payyanur, Kerala (India)

    2016-04-15

    Within the unified ternary fission model (UTFM), the alpha accompanied ternary fission of even-even {sup 244-260}Cf isotopes has been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potential. For the alpha accompanied ternary fission of the {sup 244}Cf isotope, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combination {sup 108}Ru + {sup 4}He + {sup 132}Te, which contains the near doubly magic nucleus {sup 132}Te (N = 80, Z = 52). In the case of {sup 246}Cf and {sup 248}Cf isotopes, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combinations with the near doubly magic nucleus {sup 134}Te (N = 82, Z = 52) as the heaviest fragment. The highest yield obtained for {sup 250}Cf, {sup 252}Cf, {sup 254}Cf, {sup 256}Cf, {sup 258}Cf and {sup 260}Cf isotopes is for the fragment combination with the doubly magic nucleus {sup 132}Sn (N = 82), Z = 50 as the heaviest fragment. We have included the effect of deformation and orientation of fragments and this has revealed that in addition to the closed shell effect, ground-state deformation also plays an important role in the calculation of the relative yield of favorable fragment combinations. The computed isotopic yields for the alpha accompanied ternary fission of the {sup 252}Cf isotope are found to be in agreement with the experimental data. The emission probability and kinetic energy of the long-range alpha particle is calculated for the various isotopes of Cf and are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. (orig.)

  3. CM-244 as multiplier and breeder in a ThO/sub 2/ hybrid blanket driven by a (D,T) source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, S.; Al-Kusayer, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The safeguard aspects of Cm-244 - a nuclear waste product in LWRs - in a cylindrical hybrid blanket, driven by a (D,T) fusion neutron source have been analyzed. Cm-244 is investigated for two different applications: 1) as a neutron multiplier between the first wall and the fuel zone in a blanket with ThO/sub 2/; and 2) as a component of the mixed fuel, ThO/sub 2/-Cm/sup 244/O/sub 2/, used for power flattening in a hybrid blanket. The calculations show that a relatively small driven with 100 MW/sub th/ fusion power could produce about 5 kg/year Cm-245, enough to provide nuclear fuel for up to 50 explosives. The study suggests an extension of the safe-guarding regulations prior to the commercial introduction of fusion reactors in the energy market

  4. Actinide Oxidation State and O/M Ratio in Hypostoichiometric Uranium-Plutonium-Americium U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x Mixed Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Lebreton, Florent; Aufore, Laurence; Scheinost, Andreas C; Martin, Philippe M

    2016-03-07

    Innovative americium-bearing uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x are envisioned as nuclear fuel for sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors (SFRs). The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio, directly related to the oxidation state of cations, affects many of the fuel properties. Thus, a thorough knowledge of its variation with the sintering conditions is essential. The aim of this work is to follow the oxidation state of uranium, plutonium, and americium, and so the O/M ratio, in U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x samples sintered for 4 h at 2023 K in various Ar + 5% H2 + z vpm H2O (z = ∼ 15, ∼ 90, and ∼ 200) gas mixtures. The O/M ratios were determined by gravimetry, XAS, and XRD and evidenced a partial oxidation of the samples at room temperature. Finally, by comparing XANES and EXAFS results to that of a previous study, we demonstrate that the presence of uranium does not influence the interactions between americium and plutonium and that the differences in the O/M ratio between the investigated conditions is controlled by the reduction of plutonium. We also discuss the role of the homogeneity of cation distribution, as determined by EPMA, on the mechanisms involved in the reduction process.

  5. 8 CFR 240.21 - Suspension of deportation and adjustment of status under section 244(a) of the Act (as in effect...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...)(i) of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA), as amended by... Section 240.21 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS... 244(a)(3) of the Act (as in effect prior to April 1, 1997). The Immigration Court and the Board shall...

  6. In vivo characterization of radioiodinated (+)-2-[4-(4-iodophenyl) piperidino] cyclohexanol as a potential σ-1 receptor imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, Nasima; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Kazuma; Kinuya, Seigo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Mori, Hirofumi

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the (+)-enantiomer of radioiodinated 2-[4-(4-iodophenyl)piperidino]cyclohexanol [(+)-[ 125 I]-p-iodovesamicol] [(+)-[ 125 I]pIV], which is reported to bind with high affinity to σ-1 receptors in vitro, was tested for its usefulness in imaging σ-1 receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) in vivo. In biodistribution studies, significant amounts (approximately 3% of the injected dose) of (+)-[ 125 I]pIV accumulated in rat brain, and its retention was prolonged. In blocking studies, the accumulation of (+)-[ 125 I]pIV in the rat brain was significantly reduced by the coadministration of σ-ligands such as pentazocine (5.0 μmol), haloperidol (0.5 μmol) or SA4503 (0.5 μmol). The blocking effect of pentazocine (selective σ-1 ligand) was similar to the blocking effects of SA4503 and haloperidol [nonselective σ (σ-1 and σ-2) ligands]. Ex vivo autoradiography of the rat brain at 45 min following intravenous injection of (+)-[ 125 I]pIV showed high localization in brain areas rich in σ-1 receptors. Thus, the distribution of (+)-[ 125 I]pIV was thought to bind to σ-1 receptors in the CNS in vivo. These results indicate that radioiodinated (+)-pIV may have the potential to image σ-1 receptors in vivo

  7. In vivo characterization of radioiodinated (+)-2-[4-(4-iodophenyl) piperidino] cyclohexanol as a potential sigma-1 receptor imaging agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Nasima; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Kazuma; Kinuya, Seigo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Mori, Hirofumi

    2007-08-01

    In this study, the (+)-enantiomer of radioiodinated 2-[4-(4-iodophenyl)piperidino]cyclohexanol [(+)-[(125)I]-p-iodovesamicol] [(+)-[(125)I]pIV], which is reported to bind with high affinity to sigma-1 receptors in vitro, was tested for its usefulness in imaging sigma-1 receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) in vivo. In biodistribution studies, significant amounts (approximately 3% of the injected dose) of (+)-[(125)I]pIV accumulated in rat brain, and its retention was prolonged. In blocking studies, the accumulation of (+)-[(125)I]pIV in the rat brain was significantly reduced by the coadministration of sigma-ligands such as pentazocine (5.0 micromol), haloperidol (0.5 micromol) or SA4503 (0.5 micromol). The blocking effect of pentazocine (selective sigma-1 ligand) was similar to the blocking effects of SA4503 and haloperidol [nonselective sigma (sigma-1 and sigma-2) ligands]. Ex vivo autoradiography of the rat brain at 45 min following intravenous injection of (+)-[(125)I]pIV showed high localization in brain areas rich in sigma-1 receptors. Thus, the distribution of (+)-[(125)I]pIV was thought to bind to sigma-1 receptors in the CNS in vivo. These results indicate that radioiodinated (+)-pIV may have the potential to image sigma-1 receptors in vivo.

  8. Chromosomal Aberrations in ETV6/RUNX1-positive Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia using 244K Oligonucleotide Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Zubaidah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is a heterogeneous form of hematological cancer consisting of various subtypes. We are interested to study the genetic aberration in precursor B-cell ALL with specific t(12;21 translocation in childhood ALL patients. A high resolution 244K array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array-CGH was used to study eleven ETV6/RUNX1-positive childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL patients. Result 155 chromosomal aberrations (119 losses, 36 gains were reported in the array findings, corresponding to 76.8% deletions and 23.2% amplifications. The ETV6 gene deletion occurred in 4 of the patients, corresponding to 45% of the sample. The most common alterations above 1 Mb were deletion 6q (13%, 12p (12% and 9p (8%, and duplication 4q (6% and Xq (4%. Other genes important in ALL were also identified in this study including RUNX1, CDKN2A, FHIT, and PAX5. The array-CGH technique was able to detect microdeletion as small as 400 bp. Conclusion The results demonstrate the usefulness of high resolution array-CGH as a complementary tool in the investigation of ALL.

  9. Evolving role of 2B4/CD244 in T and NK cell responses during virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Noel Waggoner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM family receptor, 2B4/CD244, was first implicated in anti-viral immunity by the discovery that mutations of the SLAM-associated protein, SAP/SH2D1A, impaired 2B4-dependent stimulation of T and natural killer (NK cell anti-viral functions in X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP syndrome patients with uncontrolled Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infections. Engagement of 2B4 has been variably shown to either activate or inhibit lymphocytes which express this receptor. While SAP expression is required for stimulatory functions of 2B4 on lymphocytes, it remains unclear whether inhibitory signals derived from 2B4 can predominate even in the presence of SAP. Regardless, mounting evidence suggests that 2B4 expression by NK and CD8 T cells is altered by virus infection in mice as well as in humans, and 2B4-mediated signaling may be an important determinant of effective immune control of chronic virus infections. In this review, recent findings regarding the expression and function of 2B4 as well as SAP on T and NK cells during virus infection is discussed, with a focus on the role of 2B4-CD48 interactions in crosstalk between innate and adaptive immunity.

  10. Americium, plutonium and uranium contamination and speciation in well waters, streams and atomic lakes in the Sarzhal region of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Vintró, L; Mitchell, P I; Omarova, A; Burkitbayev, M; Jiménez Nápoles, H; Priest, N D

    2009-04-01

    New data are reported on the concentrations, isotopic composition and speciation of americium, plutonium and uranium in surface and ground waters in the Sarzhal region of the Semipalatinsk Test Site, and an adjacent area including the settlement of Sarzhal. The data relate to filtered water and suspended particulate from (a) streams originating in the Degelen Mountains, (b) the Tel'kem 1 and Tel'kem 2 atomic craters, and (c) wells on farms located within the study area and at Sarzhal. The measurements show that (241)Am, (239,240)Pu and (238)U concentrations in well waters within the study area are in the range 0.04-87mBq dm(-3), 0.7-99mBq dm(-3), and 74-213mBq dm(-3), respectively, and for (241)Am and (239,240)Pu are elevated above the levels expected solely on the basis of global fallout. Concentrations in streams sourced in the Degelen Mountains are similar, while concentrations in the two water-filled atomic craters are somewhat higher. Suspended particulate concentrations in well waters vary considerably, though median values are very low, at 0.01mBq dm(-3), 0.08mBq dm(-3) and 0.32mBq dm(-3) for (241)Am, (239,240)Pu and (238)U, respectively. The (235)U/(238)U isotopic ratio in almost all well and stream waters is slightly elevated above the 'best estimate' value for natural uranium worldwide, suggesting that some of the uranium in these waters is of test-site provenance. Redox analysis shows that on average most of the plutonium present in the microfiltered fraction of these waters is in a chemically reduced form (mean 69%; 95% confidence interval 53-85%). In the case of the atomic craters, the proportion is even higher. As expected, all of the americium present appears to be in a reduced form. Calculations suggest that annual committed effective doses to individual adults arising from the daily ingestion of these well waters are in the range 11-42microSv (mean 21microSv). Presently, the ground water feeding these wells would not appear to be contaminated with

  11. Americium, plutonium and uranium contamination and speciation in well waters, streams and atomic lakes in the Sarzhal region of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon Vintro, L. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)], E-mail: luis.leon@ucd.ie; Mitchell, P.I.; Omarova, A. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Burkitbayev, M. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Al-Faraby Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Jimenez Napoles, H. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Priest, N.D. [School of Health and Social Sciences, Middlesex University, Enfield, EN3 4SA (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    New data are reported on the concentrations, isotopic composition and speciation of americium, plutonium and uranium in surface and ground waters in the Sarzhal region of the Semipalatinsk Test Site, and an adjacent area including the settlement of Sarzhal. The data relate to filtered water and suspended particulate from (a) streams originating in the Degelen Mountains, (b) the Tel'kem 1 and Tel'kem 2 atomic craters, and (c) wells on farms located within the study area and at Sarzhal. The measurements show that {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 238}U concentrations in well waters within the study area are in the range 0.04-87 mBq dm{sup -3}, 0.7-99 mBq dm{sup -3}, and 74-213 mBq dm{sup -3}, respectively, and for {sup 241}Am and {sup 239,240}Pu are elevated above the levels expected solely on the basis of global fallout. Concentrations in streams sourced in the Degelen Mountains are similar, while concentrations in the two water-filled atomic craters are somewhat higher. Suspended particulate concentrations in well waters vary considerably, though median values are very low, at 0.01 mBq dm{sup -3}, 0.08 mBq dm{sup -3} and 0.32 mBq dm{sup -3} for {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 238}U, respectively. The {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U isotopic ratio in almost all well and stream waters is slightly elevated above the 'best estimate' value for natural uranium worldwide, suggesting that some of the uranium in these waters is of test-site provenance. Redox analysis shows that on average most of the plutonium present in the microfiltered fraction of these waters is in a chemically reduced form (mean 69%; 95% confidence interval 53-85%). In the case of the atomic craters, the proportion is even higher. As expected, all of the americium present appears to be in a reduced form. Calculations suggest that annual committed effective doses to individual adults arising from the daily ingestion of these well waters are in the range 11-42 {mu}Sv (mean 21 {mu

  12. Cysteine residues 244 and 458–459 within the catalytic subunit of Na,K-ATPase control the enzyme's hydrolytic and signaling function under hypoxic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Yu. Petrushanko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Our previous findings suggested that reversible thiol modifications of cysteine residues within the actuator (AD and nucleotide binding domain (NBD of the Na,K-ATPase may represent a powerful regulatory mechanism conveying redox- and oxygen-sensitivity of this multifunctional enzyme. S-glutathionylation of Cys244 in the AD and Cys 454-458-459 in the NBD inhibited the enzyme and protected cysteines’ thiol groups from irreversible oxidation under hypoxic conditions. In this study mutagenesis approach was used to assess the role these cysteines play in regulation of the Na,K-ATPase hydrolytic and signaling functions. Several constructs of mouse α1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase were produced in which Cys244, Cys 454-458-459 or Cys 244-454-458-459 were replaced by alanine. These constructs were expressed in human HEK293 cells. Non-transfected cells and those expressing murine α1 subunit were exposed to hypoxia or treated with oxidized glutathione (GSSG. Both conditions induced inhibition of the wild type Na,K-ATPase. Enzymes containing mutated mouse α1 lacking Cys244 or all four cysteines (Cys 244-454-458-459 were insensitive to hypoxia. Inhibitory effect of GSSG was observed for wild type murine Na,K-ATPase, but was less pronounced in Cys454-458-459Ala mutant and completely absent in the Cys244Ala and Cys 244-454-458-459Ala mutants. In cells, expressing wild type enzyme, ouabain induced activation of Src and Erk kinases under normoxic conditions, whereas under hypoxic conditions this effect was inversed. Cys454-458-459Ala substitution abolished Src kinase activation in response to ouabain treatment, uncoupled Src from Erk signaling, and interfered with O2-sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase signaling function. Moreover, modeling predicted that S-glutathionylation of Cys 458 and 459 should prevent inhibitory binding of Src to NBD. Our data indicate for the first time that cysteine residues within the AD and NBD influence hydrolytic as well as receptor

  13. Cysteine residues 244 and 458-459 within the catalytic subunit of Na,K-ATPase control the enzyme's hydrolytic and signaling function under hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrushanko, Irina Yu; Mitkevich, Vladimir A; Lakunina, Valentina A; Anashkina, Anastasia A; Spirin, Pavel V; Rubtsov, Peter M; Prassolov, Vladimir S; Bogdanov, Nikolay B; Hänggi, Pascal; Fuller, William; Makarov, Alexander A; Bogdanova, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Our previous findings suggested that reversible thiol modifications of cysteine residues within the actuator (AD) and nucleotide binding domain (NBD) of the Na,K-ATPase may represent a powerful regulatory mechanism conveying redox- and oxygen-sensitivity of this multifunctional enzyme. S-glutathionylation of Cys244 in the AD and Cys 454-458-459 in the NBD inhibited the enzyme and protected cysteines' thiol groups from irreversible oxidation under hypoxic conditions. In this study mutagenesis approach was used to assess the role these cysteines play in regulation of the Na,K-ATPase hydrolytic and signaling functions. Several constructs of mouse α1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase were produced in which Cys244, Cys 454-458-459 or Cys 244-454-458-459 were replaced by alanine. These constructs were expressed in human HEK293 cells. Non-transfected cells and those expressing murine α1 subunit were exposed to hypoxia or treated with oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Both conditions induced inhibition of the wild type Na,K-ATPase. Enzymes containing mutated mouse α1 lacking Cys244 or all four cysteines (Cys 244-454-458-459) were insensitive to hypoxia. Inhibitory effect of GSSG was observed for wild type murine Na,K-ATPase, but was less pronounced in Cys454-458-459Ala mutant and completely absent in the Cys244Ala and Cys 244-454-458-459Ala mutants. In cells, expressing wild type enzyme, ouabain induced activation of Src and Erk kinases under normoxic conditions, whereas under hypoxic conditions this effect was inversed. Cys454-458-459Ala substitution abolished Src kinase activation in response to ouabain treatment, uncoupled Src from Erk signaling, and interfered with O 2 -sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase signaling function. Moreover, modeling predicted that S-glutathionylation of Cys 458 and 459 should prevent inhibitory binding of Src to NBD. Our data indicate for the first time that cysteine residues within the AD and NBD influence hydrolytic as well as receptor function of the Na

  14. Theoretical and experimental study of the bio-geochemical behaviour of americium 241 in simplified rhizosphere conditions. Application to a calcareous agricultural soil; Etude theorique et experimentale du comportement biogeochimique de l'americium-241 en conditions rhizospheriques simplifiees. Application dans un sol agricole calcaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrier, T

    2004-06-01

    Americium 241, is one of the most radio-toxic contaminant produced during the nuclear fuel cycle. It can be found in all environmental compartments, in particular the soils. The main goals of this study are to identify, quantify and model the effect of the main factors controlling the mobility of {sup 241}Am in the rhizosphere and the agricultural soils. The physico-chemical parameters of the soil and of the soil solution, the potential role of microorganisms on the sorption-desorption processes, and the speciation of americium in solution have been more particularly studied. {sup 241}Am remobilization has been studied at the laboratory using leaching experiments performed in controlled conditions on reworked calcareous soils artificially contaminated with {sup 241}Am. The soil samples have been washed out in different hydrodynamic conditions by solutions with various compositions. The eluted solution has been analyzed (pH, conductivity, ionic composition, Fe{sub tot}, organic acids, {sup 241}Am) and its bacterial biomass content too. The overall results indicate that {sup 241}Am remobilization is contrasted and strongly linked with the condition under study (pH, ionic strength, glucose and/or citrate concentration). Therefore, a solution in equilibrium with the soil or containing small exudate concentrations (10{sup -4} M) re-mobilizes only a very small part of the americium fixed on the solid phase. The desorption of {sup 241}Am corresponds to a solid/liquid coefficient of partition (K{sub d}) of about 10{sup 5} L.kg{sup -1}. A significant addition of glucose induces an important dissolution of soil carbonates by the indirect action of microorganisms, but does not significantly favor the {sup 241}Am remobilization. On the other hand, the presence of strong citrate concentrations ({>=} 10{sup -2} M) allows 300 to 10000 time greater re-mobilizations by the complexing of {sup 241}Am released after the dissolution of the carrying phases. Finally, the colloidal

  15. Study of biosorbents application on the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes with americium-241; Estudo da aplicacao de biossorventes no tratamento de rejeitos radioativos liquidos contendo americio-241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borba, Tania Regina de

    2010-07-01

    The use of nuclear energy for many different purposes has been intensified and highlighted by the benefits that it provides. Medical diagnosis and therapy, agriculture, industry and electricity generation are examples of its application. However, nuclear energy generates radioactive wastes that require suitable treatment ensuring life and environmental safety. Biosorption and bioaccumulation represent an emergent alternative for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes, providing volume reduction and physical state change. This work aimed to study biosorbents for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes contaminated with americium-241 in order to reduce the volume and change the physical state from liquid to solid. The biosorbents evaluated were Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in calcium alginate beads, inactivated and free cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, calcium alginate beads, Bacillus subtilis, Cupriavidus metallidurans and Ochrobactrum anthropi. The results were quite satisfactory, achieving 100% in some cases. The technique presented in this work may be useful and viable for implementing at the Waste Management Laboratory of IPEN - CNEN/SP in short term, since it is an easy and low cost method. (author)

  16. Diluent and extractant effects on the enthalpy of extraction of uranium(VI) and americium(III) nitrates by trialkyl phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Sood, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of various diluents such as n-hexane, n-heptane n-octane, isooctane, n-decane, n-undecane, n-dodecane, n-tetradecane, n-hexadecane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, p-xylene, mesitylene and o-dichlorobenzene on the enthalpy of extraction of uranyl nitrate by tri-n-amyl phosphate (TAP) over the temperature range 283 K--333 K has been studied. The results indicate that the enthalpy of extraction does not vary significantly with the diluents studied. Also enthalpies of extraction of uranyl nitrate and americium(III) nitrate by neutral organo phosphorous extractants such as tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), tri-n-amyl phosphate (TAP), tri-sec-butyl phosphate (TsBP), tri-isoamyl phosphate (TiAP) and tri-n-hexyl phosphate (THP) have been studied. An attempt has been made to explain the trends, on the basis of the nature of the solvate formed and the different terms which contribute to the overall enthalpy change

  17. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr body-burden in general public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.pl [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Edward B. [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Department of Physical Therapy Basics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Administration College, Bielsko-Biala (Poland); Tomankiewicz, Ewa [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Joanna [Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Nowak, Sebastian [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Szczygiel, Elzbieta [Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Brudecki, Kamil [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of {sup 238}Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. - Highlights: > Surgery for joint replacement as novel sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination. > Proposed way of sampling is not causing ethic doubts. > It is a convenient way of collecting human bone samples from global population. > The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. > The opposite patient age correlations trends were found for 90Sr (negative) and Pu, Am (positive).

  18. Americium-241 integral radiative capture cross section in over-moderated neutron spectrum from pile oscillator measurements in the Minerve reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geslot Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental program, called AMSTRAMGRAM, was recently conducted in the Minerve low power reactor operated by CEA Cadarache within the frame of the CHANDA initiative (Solving CHAllenges in Nuclear Data. Its aim was to measure the integral capture cross section of 241Am in the thermal domain. Motivation of this work is driven by large differences in this actinide thermal point reported by major nuclear data libraries. The AMSTRAMGRAM experiment, that made use of well characterized EC-JRC americium samples, was based on the oscillation technique commonly implemented in the Minerve reactor. First results are presented and discussed in this article. A preliminary calculation scheme was used to compare measured and calculated results. It is shown that this work confirms a bias previously observed with JEFF-3.1.1 (C/E-1 = −10.5 ± 2%. On the opposite, the experiment is in close agreement with 241Am thermal point reported in JEFF-3.2 (C/E-1 = 0.5 ± 2%.

  19. Resíduos de glifosato e ácido aminometilfosfônico e teores de isoflavonas em soja BRS 244 RR e BRS 154 Residues of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid and levels of isoflavones in BRS 244 RR and BRS 154 soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani Mariza Bärwald Bohm

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A principal forma de controle das plantas daninhas durante o cultivo de soja geneticamente modificada (GM RR BRS 244 RR é o uso de glifosato. Porém, existem dúvidas quanto à segurança desse herbicida, à qualidade dos grãos e do solo da soja GM RR cultivada em Planossolo. Resíduos da molécula do glifosato e do metabólito ácido aminometilfosfônico (AMPA podem estar presentes nos grãos, bem como, podem afetar a concentração de isoflavonas. Por isso, avaliaram-se as sojas BRS 244 RR e BRS 154 cultivadas nos seguintes tratamentos: T1 - soja BRS 244 RR, sem aplicação de herbicida, com capina manual aos 28 dias após o plantio (dap; T2 - soja BRS 154 sem aplicação de herbicida, com capina manual também aos 28 dap; T3 - soja BRS 244 RR com uma aplicação de glifosato a 960 g ia ha-1 aos 28 dap; T4 - soja BRS 244 RR com duas aplicações de glifosato a 960 g ia ha-1 aos 28 e 56 dap; T5 - soja BRS 244 RR com uma aplicação de herbicida imazetapir a 100 g ia ha-1 aos 28 dap; T6 - soja BRS 154 com uma aplicação de herbicida imazetapir a 100 g ia ha-1 aos 28 dap. Verificou-se que a aplicação de glifosato no controle de plantas daninhas resultou em teores elevados de glifosato e ácido aminometilfosfônico no solo. Nos grãos, o teor de isoflavonas não parece ser significativamente afetado pela aplicação de glifosato, mas os resíduos desse herbicida foram superiores ao permitido pela legislação vigente, que é de 10 mg.kg-1.The use of Glyphosate is the best way to control weed growing when cultivating genetically modified soybean (GMRR BRS 244 RR. However, there have been doubts about the safety of this herbicide use concerning its effects on the quality of grains and on the soil of Albaqualf cultivated GMRR soybean. Glyphosate and the metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA residues can be present in the grains and affect the isoflavones concentration. Therefore, BRS 244 RR and BRS 154 soybeans with the following

  20. Studying of distribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 244Cm according to the organic acids fractions of the alienation zone soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odintsov, A.A.; Sazhenyuk, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with data of research on the distribution of the radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 244Cm of ''the Chornobyl rains'' by the fractions of the organic matters of derno-podzolic sandy, derno-meadow and peat soils sampled in the alienation zone of the Chornobyl NPP. Functioning of organic matters was carried according to Tyurin's method. It is stressed that, independently on soil type, 137Cs is connected with the mineral contituent by 80-95%. It is found out that, independently on the soil type, 50-70% 137Sr and 15-45% 241Am are associated with fulvic acid fractions. The 241Am and 244Cm distribution according to organic acids taking into account deviations while carrying out determinations is unambiguous. It is found out that in all the soils tested the main quality of 239+24Pu is connected with humic acids

  1. Separation of americium(III) and europium(III) from nitrate medium using a binary mixture of Cyanex-301 with neutral donor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, A.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2005-01-01

    Separation behaviour of Am 3+ and Eu 3+ was investigated from aqueous nitrate medium using a binary mixture of Cyanex-301 (bis(2,4,4- trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid) and several N, O or S donor ligands such as 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), TPTZ (2,4,6- tri(2-pyridyl)- 1,3,5- triazine), 2,2'-bipyridyl(bipy), hexa thia 18 crown 6 (S 6 18C6), TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate), TBTP (tri-n-butyl thiophosphate) in toluene. The S.F. values of >40,000 obtained with bipy and phen are the highest reported to date. (author)

  2. Solubility of plutonium and americium-241 from rumen contents of cattle grazing on plutonium-contaminated desert vegetation in in vitro bovine gastrointestinal fluids - August 1975 to January 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, J.; Giles, K.R.; Brown, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    The alimentary solubility of plutonium and americium-241 ingested by cattle grazing at Area 13 of the Nevada Test Site and the Clean Slate II site on the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada was studied in a series of experiments. For each experiment, or trial, rumen contents collected from a fistulated steer or a normal animals at the time of sacrifice were incubated in simulated bovine gastrointestinal fluids, and the solubility of plutonium and americium was analyzed following the abomasal, duodenal, jejunal, and lower intestinal digestive states. For Area 13, the peak plutonium-238 solubilities ranged from 1.09 to 9.60 percent for animals grazing in the inner enclosure that surrounds ground zero (GZ); for animals grazing in the outer enclosure, the peaks ranged from 1.86 to 18.46%. The peak plutonium-239 solubilities ranged from 0.71 to 4.81% for animals from the inner enclosure and from 0.71 to 3.61% for animals from the outer enclosure. Plutonium-238 was generally more soluble than plutonium-239. Plutonium ingested by cattle grazing in the outer enclosure was usually more soluble than plutonium ingested by cattle grazing in the inner enclosure. The highest concentrations of plutonium in the rumen contents of cattle grazing in the inner enclosure were found in trials conducted during August and November 1975 and January 1976. These concentrations decreased during the February, May, and July 1976 trials. The decrease was followed by an increase in plutonium concentration during the November 1976 trial. The concentration of americium-241 followed the same trend. 13 references, 13 tables

  3. The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelaer, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium: Nuclear masses are an important quantity to study nuclear structure since they reflect the sum of all nucleonic interactions. Many experimental possibilities exist to precisely measure masses, out of which the Penning trap is the tool to reach the highest precision. Moreover, absolute mass measurements can be performed using carbon, the atomic-mass standard, as a reference. The new double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has been installed and commissioned within this thesis work, which is the very first experimental setup of this kind located at a nuclear reactor. New technical developments have been carried out such as a reliable non-resonant laser ablation ion source for the production of carbon cluster ions and are still continued, like a non-destructive ion detection technique for single-ion measurements. Neutron-rich fission products will be available by the reactor that are important for nuclear astrophysics, especially the r-process. Prior to the on-line coupling to the reactor, TRIGA-TRAP already performed off-line mass measurements on stable and long-lived isotopes and will continue this program. The main focus within this thesis was on certain rare-earth nuclides in the well-established region of deformation around N ∝ 90. Another field of interest are mass measurements on actinoids to test mass models and to provide direct links to the mass standard. Within this thesis, the mass of 241 Am could be measured directly for the first time. (orig.)

  4. The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelaer, Jens

    2010-06-14

    The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium: Nuclear masses are an important quantity to study nuclear structure since they reflect the sum of all nucleonic interactions. Many experimental possibilities exist to precisely measure masses, out of which the Penning trap is the tool to reach the highest precision. Moreover, absolute mass measurements can be performed using carbon, the atomic-mass standard, as a reference. The new double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has been installed and commissioned within this thesis work, which is the very first experimental setup of this kind located at a nuclear reactor. New technical developments have been carried out such as a reliable non-resonant laser ablation ion source for the production of carbon cluster ions and are still continued, like a non-destructive ion detection technique for single-ion measurements. Neutron-rich fission products will be available by the reactor that are important for nuclear astrophysics, especially the r-process. Prior to the on-line coupling to the reactor, TRIGA-TRAP already performed off-line mass measurements on stable and long-lived isotopes and will continue this program. The main focus within this thesis was on certain rare-earth nuclides in the well-established region of deformation around N {proportional_to} 90. Another field of interest are mass measurements on actinoids to test mass models and to provide direct links to the mass standard. Within this thesis, the mass of {sup 241}Am could be measured directly for the first time. (orig.)

  5. Decay properties of Bk97243 and Bk97244

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Kondev, F. G.; Greene, J. P.; Zhu, S.

    2018-01-01

    Electron capture decays of Bk-243 and Bk-244 have been studied by measuring the gamma-ray spectra of mass-separated sources and level structures of Cm-243 and Cm-244 have been deduced. In Cm-243, the electron capture population to the ground state, 1/2(+)[631], and 1/2(+)[620] Nilsson states have been observed. The octupole K-pi = 2(-) band was identified in Cm-244 at 933.6 keV. In addition, spins and parities were deduced for several other states and two-quasiparticle configurations have been tentatively assigned to them

  6. Update of JAEA-TDB. Additional selection of thermodynamic data for solid and gaseous phases on nickel, selenium, zirconium, technetium, thorium, uranium, neptunium plutonium and americium, update of thermodynamic data on iodine, and some modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akira; Fujiwara, Kenso; Doi, Reisuke; Yoshida, Yasushi

    2012-07-01

    We additionally selected thermodynamic data for solid and gaseous phases of nickel, selenium, zirconium, technetium, thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium to our thermodynamic database JAEA-TDB for geological disposal of radioactive waste of high-level and TRU wastes. We thermodynamically obtained equilibrium constant from addition and subtraction of Gibbs free energy of formation on nickel, selenium, zirconium, technetium, thorium, uranium, neptunium plutonium and americium, which were selected in the Thermochemical Database Project by the Nuclear Energy Agency in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Furthermore, we collected and updated thermodynamic data on iodine, changed master species of technetium(IV), and added thermodynamic data on selenium due to improving reliability of the thermodynamic database. We prepared text files of the updated thermodynamic database (JAEA-TDB) for geochemical calculation programs of PHREEQC, EQ3/6 and Geochemist's Workbench. These text files are contained in the attached CD-ROM and will be available on our Website (http://migrationdb.jaea.go.jp/). (author)

  7. Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Section of Uranium, Americium and Curium Isotopes. Progress report - Research Contract 14485, Coordinated Research Project on Minor Actinide Neutron Reaction Data (MANREAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A.A.; Bergman, A.A.; Berlev, A.I.; Koptelov, E.A.; Samylin, B.F.; Trufanov, A.M.; Fursov, B.I.; Shorin, V.S.

    2009-12-01

    This report contains brief description of the Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer and results of measurements of neutron-induced fission cross sections for 236 U, 242m Am, 243 Cm, 244 Cm, 245 Cm and 246 Cm done at this spectrometer. The work was partially supported through the IAEA research contract RC-14485-RD in the framework of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project 'Minor Actinide Neutron Reaction Data (MANREAD)'. The detailed description of the experimental set up, measurements procedure and data treatment can be found in the JIA-1182 (2007) and JIA-1212 (2009) reports from the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Science published in Russian. Part 1 contains the first year report of the research contract and part 2 the second year report. (author)

  8. Structure of methylene chloride addition product to zirconium tetrachloride complex with 1-tert.-butyl-2,4,4-trimethyl-2-thio-trimethylsilyl-1,3,2,4-diazaphosphasilatedine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusilovets, A.I.; Rusanov, Eh.B.; Chernega, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    Complex of zirconium tetrachloride with 1-tert.-butyl-2,4,4-trimethyl--2-thio-3-trimethyl-silyl-1,3,2,4-diazaphosphasilatedine interacts with methylene chloride with formation of bis[3-tert.-butyl-2,4,4-trimethyl-1--trimethylsilyl-2-chloremethylthio-1,3,2,4-diazaphosphasilatedinium] decachlorodizirconate. Specific features of crystal and molecular structure of the compound prepared have been studied by X-ray diffraction method. 21 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  9. Determining the americium transmutation rate and fission rate by post-irradiation examination within the scope of the ECRIX-H experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, J.; Pontillon, Y.; Esbelin, E.; Béjaoui, S.; Pasquet, B.; Bourdot, P.; Bonnerot, J. M.

    2013-09-01

    The ECRIX-H experiment aims to assess the feasibility of transmuting americium micro-dispersed in an inert magnesia matrix under a locally moderated neutron flux in the Phénix reactor. A first set of examinations demonstrated that pellet behaviour was satisfactory with moderate swelling at the end of the irradiation. Additional post-irradiation examinations needed to be conducted to confirm the high transmutation rate so as to definitively conclude on the success of the ECRIX-H experiment. This article presents and discusses the results of these new examinations. They confirm the satisfactory behaviour of the MgO matrix not only during the basic irradiation but also during post-irradiation thermal transients. These examinations also provide additional information on the behaviour of fission products both in the americium-based particles and in the MgO matrix. These results particularly validate the transmutation rate predicted by the calculation codes using several different analytical techniques. The fission rate is also determined. Moderate pellet swelling under irradiation (6.7 vol.%), while only 23% of the produced He and 4% of the fission gases were released from the fuel. No interaction between the pellets and the cladding. Formation of bubbles due to the precipitation of fission gases and He mainly in bubbles located inside the americium-based particles. These bubbles are the main cause of macroscopic swelling in the pellets. Well-crystallised structure of the MgO matrix which shows no amorphisation after irradiation despite the presence of fission products. The absence of any reaction of MgO with the americium-based phase, Formation of a PuO2-type crystalline phase from AmO1.62 particles following the Am transmutation process. A shielded electron probe micro-analyser (EPMA) 'CAMECA' Camebax equipped to collect and exploit the measurements using the 'SAMx' system. A Philips XL30 scanning electron microscope (SEM). Field acquisitions were performed thanks to

  10. Fabrication of targets for transmutation of americium : synthesis of inertial matrix by sol-gel method. Procedure study on the infiltration of a radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Carretero, A.

    2002-01-01

    addition a new and unexpected phase formed by the reaction of americium with spinel during the high temperature synthesis process has been identified. This new phase could provide a unique menas to stabilise Am in one particular oxidation state. (Author)

  11. Synthesis of [PtCl2(4,4'-dialkoxy-2,2'-bipyridine)] complexes and their in vitro anticancer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Van; Tanthmanatham, Ontida; Han, Haesook; Bhowmik, Pradip K; Spangelo, Bryan L

    2013-08-01

    A series of [Pt(II)Cl2(4,4'-dialkoxy-2,2'-bipyridine)] complexes of the general formula of [Pt(II)Cl2(4,4'-bis(RO)-2,2'-bipyridine)] (where R = -(CH2)n-1CH3, n = 2-6, 8) were synthesized and characterized using (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, mass spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. The in vitro anti-proliferative activities of these compounds were evaluated against human cancer cell lines A549 (lung adenocarcinoma), DU145 (prostate carcinoma), MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), and MDA-MB-435 (melanoma) using the MTS cell proliferation assay. Several Pt(II) coordination compounds were found to have greatly enhanced activity compared to cisplatin after a one hour treatment in all cell lines tested. A structure-activity relationship was observed, that is, the activity increases as the carbon chain length of the alkyl group increases. The activity was maximum when the carbon chain length reached four or five carbons and decreased with the longer carbon chain length. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry data indicate that the main mode of cell death is through apoptosis with some necrotic responses.

  12. Synthesis of [PtCl2(4,4′-dialkoxy-2,2′-bipyridine)] complexes and their in vitro anticancer properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Van; Tanthmanatham, Ontida; Han, Haesook; Bhowmik, Pradip K.; Spangelo, Bryan L.

    2013-01-01

    A series of [Pt(II)Cl2(4,4′-dialkoxy-2,2′-bipyridine)] complexes of the general formula of[Pt(II)Cl2(4,4′-bis(RO)-2,2′-bipyridine)] (where R = −(CH2)n−1CH3, n = 2–6,8) were synthesized and characterized using 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, mass spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. The in vitro anti-proliferative activities of these compounds were evaluated against human cancer cell lines A549 (lung adenocarcinoma), DU145 (prostate carcinoma), MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), and MDA-MB-435 (melanoma) using the MTS cell proliferation assay. Several Pt(II) coordination compounds were found to have greatly enhanced activity compared to cisplatin after a one hour treatment in all cell lines tested. A structure-activity relationship was observed, that is, the activity increases as the carbon chain length of the alkyl group increases. The activity was maximum when the carbon chain length reaches four or five carbons and decreased with the longer carbon chain length. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry data indicate that the main mode of cell death is through apoptosis with some necrotic responses. PMID:23817622

  13. A 233U/236U/242Pu/244Pu spike for isotopic and isotope dilution analysis by mass spectrometry with internal calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A.; Belyaev, B.; Buljanitsa, L.

    1989-11-01

    The Khlopin Radium Institute prepared on behalf of the IAEA a synthetic mixture of 233 U, 236 U, 242 Pu and 244 Pu isotopes. The isotopic composition and elemental concentration of uranium and plutonium were certified on the basis of analyses done by four laboratories of the IAEA Network, using mass spectrometry with internal standardization. The certified values for 233 U/ 236 U ratio and the 236 U chemical concentration have a coefficient of variation of 0.05%. The latter is fixed by the uncertainty in the 235 U/ 238 U ratio of NBS500 used as internal standard. The coefficients of variation of the 244 Pu/ 242 Pu ratio and the 242 Pu chemical concentration are respectively 0.10% and 0.16% and limited by the uncertainty in the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio of NBS947. This four isotope mixture was used as an internal standard as well as a spike, to analyze 30 batches of LWR spent fuel solutions. The repeatability of the mass spectrometric measurements have a coefficient of variation of 0.025% for the uranium concentration, and of 0.039% for the plutonium concentration. The spiking and treatment errors had a coefficient of variation of 0.048%. (author). Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Met244Ala variant of catalase–peroxidase (KatG) from the haloarchaeon Haloarcula marismortui

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten-i, Tomomi; Kumasaka, Takashi; Higuchi, Wataru; Tanaka, Satoru; Yoshimatsu, Katsuhiko; Fujiwara, Taketomo; Sato, Takao

    2007-01-01

    The Met244Ala variant of the H. marismortui KatG enzyme was expressed in haloarchaeal host cells and purified to homogeneity. The variant was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with ammonium sulfate and NaCl as precipitants. The reddish-brown rod-shaped crystals obtained belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 315.24, b = 81.04, c = 74.77 Å, β = 99.81°. The covalent modification of the side chains of Trp95, Tyr218 and Met244 within the active site of Haloarcula marismortui catalase–peroxidase (KatG) appears to be common to all KatGs and has been demonstrated to be particularly significant for its bifunctionality [Smulevich et al. (2006 ▶), J. Inorg. Biochem.100, 568–585; Jakopitsch, Kolarich et al. (2003 ▶), FEBS Lett.552, 135–140; Jakopitsch, Auer et al. (2003 ▶), J. Biol. Chem.278, 20185–20191; Jakopitsch et al. (2004 ▶), J. Biol. Chem.279, 46082–46095; Regelsberger et al. (2001 ▶), Biochem. Soc. Trans.29, 99–105; Ghiladi, Knudsen et al. (2005 ▶), J. Biol. Chem.280, 22651–22663; Ghiladi, Medzihradzky et al. (2005 ▶), Biochemistry, 44, 15093–15105]. The Met244Ala variant of the H. marismortui KatG enzyme was expressed in haloarchaeal host cells and purified to homogeneity. The variant showed a complete loss of catalase activity, whereas the peroxidase activity of this mutant was highly enhanced owing to an increase in its affinity for the peroxidatic substrate. The variant was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with ammonium sulfate and NaCl as precipitants. The reddish-brown rod-shaped crystals obtained belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 315.24, b = 81.04, c = 74.77 Å, β = 99.81°. A crystal frozen using lithium sulfate as the cryoprotectant diffracted to beyond 2.0 Å resolution. Preliminary X-ray analysis suggests the presence of a dimer in the asymmetric unit

  15. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  16. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.; Abelairas, A.

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of 241 Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of 241 Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of 241 Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  17. EURADOS action for determination of americium in skull measures in vivo and Monte Carlo simulation; Accion EURADOS para la determinacion de americio en craneo mediante medidas in-vivo y simulacion Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Ponte, M. A.; Navarro Amaro, J. F.; Perez Lopez, B.; Navarro Bravo, T.; Nogueira, P.; Vrba, T.

    2013-07-01

    From the Group of WG7 internal dosimetry of the EURADOS Organization (European Radiation Dosimetry group, e.V.) which It coordinates CIEMAT, international action for the vivo measurement of americium has been conducted in three mannequins type skull with detectors of Germanium by gamma spectrometry and simulation by Monte Carlo methods. Such action has been raised as two separate exercises, with the participation of institutions in Europe, America and Asia. Other actions similar precede this vivo intercomparison of measurement and modeling Monte Carlo1. The preliminary results and associated findings are presented in this work. The laboratory of the body radioactivity (CRC) of service counter of dosimetry staff internal (DPI) of the CIEMAT, it has been one of the participants in vivo measures exercise. On the other hand part, the Group of numerical dosimetry of CIEMAT is participant of the Monte Carlo2 simulation exercise. (Author)

  18. Novel and highly effective chemoenzymatic synthesis of (2R)-2-[4-(4-cyano-2-fluorophenoxy)phenoxy]butylpropanoate based on lipase mediated transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Genlin; Yao, Risheng; Zhu, Huixia; Wang, Huai

    2012-04-01

    (2R)-2-[4-(4-Cyano-2-fluorophenoxy)phenoxy]butylpropanoate (cyhalofop-butyl, CyB) was synthesized by a chemoenzymatic route involving enantioselective transesterification with Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435). The optimum organic solvent, acyl donor, a ( w ), reaction temperature and shaking rate for the transesterification were acetonitrile, n-butanol, 0.11, 45°C and 200 rpm, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the maximum substrate conversion and the enantiomeric purity of the product were 96.9 and >99%, respectively. The total yield and enantiomeric purity of CyB by this chemoenzymatic synthesis were 60.4 and >99%, respectively; 15.3 and 21% higher than that of the traditional way (45 and 78%).

  19. A study of nuclear structure for 244Cm, 241Am, 238Pu, 210Po, 147Pm, 137Cs, 90Sr and 63Ni nuclei used in nuclear battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artun, Ozan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we intend to extend the nuclear data of 244Cm, 241Am, 238Pu, 210Po, 147Pm, 137Cs, 90Sr and 63Ni nuclei used in nuclear battery technology, because, these nuclei are quite important for space investigations in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) and for microelectronic technologies in betavoltaic batteries. Therefore, the nuclear structure properties of nuclei such as separation energies, neutron skin thicknesses, proton, charge and neutron density distributions as a function of radius, the root mean square (rms) proton, charge and neutron radii, binding energies per particle, have been investigated by Hartree-Fock with eight different Skyrme forces. The obtained results have been compared with the experimental data in literature and relativistic mean field theory (RMFT) results.

  20. Is there an improvement of antibiotic use in China? Evidence from the usage analysis of combination antibiotic therapy for type I incisions in 244 hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Juan; Luo, Zhen-Ni; Tang, Chang-Min; Zou, Xiao-Xu; Zhao, Lu; Fang, Peng-Qian

    2016-10-01

    The improvement of antibiotic rational use in China was studied by usage analysis of combination antibiotic therapy for type I incisions in 244 hospitals. Five kinds of hospitals, including general hospital, maternity hospital, children's hospital, stomatological hospital and cancer hospital, from 30 provinces were surveyed. A systematic random sampling strategy was employed to select outpatient prescriptions and inpatient cases in 2011 and 2012. A total of 29 280 outpatient prescriptions and 73 200 inpatient cases from 244 hospitals in each year were analyzed. Data were collected with regards to the implementation of the national antibiotic stewardship program (NASP), the overall usage and the prophylactic use of antibiotic for type I incisions. Univariate analysis was used for microbiological diagnosis rate before antimicrobial therapy, prophylactic use of antibiotics for type I incision operation, and so on. For multivariate analysis, the use of antibiotics was dichotomized according to the guidelines, and entered as binary values into logistic regression analysis. The results were compared with the corresponding criteria given by the guidelines of this campaign. The antibiotic stewardship in China was effective in that more than 80% of each kind of hospitals achieved the criteria of recommended antibiotics varieties. Hospital type appeared to be a factor statistically associated with stewardship outcome. The prophylactic use of antibiotics on type I incision operations decreased by 16.22% (Pantibiotic therapy for type I incisions was also decreased. Region and bed size were the main determinants on surgical prophylaxis for type I incision. This national analysis of hospitals on antibiotic use and stewardship allows relevant comparisons for bench marking. More efforts addressing the root cause of antibiotics abuse would continue to improve the rational use of antibiotics in China.

  1. Critical and shielding parametric studies with the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI to identify the key points to take into account during the transportation of blanket assemblies with high ratio of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosmain, Cecile-Aline

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of French research program on Generation IV sodium cooled fast reactor, one possible option consists in burning minor actinides in this kind of Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor. Two types of transmutation mode are studied in the world : the homogeneous mode of transmutation where actinides are scattered with very low enrichment ratio in fissile assemblies and the heterogeneous mode where fissile core is surrounded by blanket assemblies filled with minor actinides with ratio of incorporated actinides up to 20%. Depending on which element is considered to be burnt and on its content, these minor actinides contents imply constraints on assemblies' transportation between Nuclear Power Plants and fuel cycle facilities. In this study, we present some academic studies in order to identify some key constraints linked to the residual power and neutron/gamma load of such kind of blanket assemblies. To simplify the approach, we considered a modeling of a 'model cask' dedicated to the transportation of a unique irradiated blanket assembly loaded with 20% of Americium and basically inspired from an existent cask designed initially for the damaged fissile Superphenix assembly transport. Thermal calculations performed with EDF-SYRTHES code have shown that due to thermal limitations on cladding temperature, the decay time to be considered before transportation is 20 years. This study is based on explicit 3D representations of the cask and the contained blanket assembly with the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI/JEFF3.1.1 library and concludes that after such a decay time, the transportation of a unique Americium radial blanket is feasible only if the design of our model cask is modified in order to comply with the dose limitation criterion. (author)

  2. Determination of Neptunium, Americium and Curium in Spent Nuclear Fuel Samples by Alpha Spectrometry Using 239Np and 243Am as a Spike and a Tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeo, Kih-Soo; Song, Byung-Chul; Kim, Young-Bok; Han, Sun-Ho; Jeon, Young-Shin; Jung, Euo-Chang; Jee, Kwang-Yong

    2007-01-01

    Determination of actinide elements and fission products in spent nuclear fuels is of importance for a burnup determination and source term evaluation. Especially, the amounts of uranium and plutonium isotopes are used for the evaluation of a burnup credit in spent nuclear fuels. Additionally, other actinides such as Np, Am and Cm in spent nuclear fuel samples is also required for the purposes mentioned above. In this study, 237 Np, 241 Am and 244 Cm were determined by an alpha spectrometry for the source term data for high burnup spent nuclear fuels ranging from 37 to 62.9 GWD/MtU as a burnup. Generally, mass spectrometry has been known as the most powerful method for isotope determinations such as high concentrations of uranium and plutonium. However, in the case of minor actinides such as Np, Am and Cm, alpha spectrometry would be recommended instead. Determination of the transuranic elements in spent nuclear fuel samples is different from that for environmental samples because the amount of each nuclide in the spent fuel samples is higher and the relative ratios between each nuclide are also different from those for environmental samples. So, it is important to select an appropriate tracer and an optimum sample size depending on the nuclides and analytical method. In this study 237 Np was determined by an isotope dilution alpha(gamma) spectrometry using 239 Np as a spike, and 241 Am and curium isotopes were determined by alpha spectrometry using 243 Am as a tracer. The content of each nuclide was compared with that by the Origen-2 code

  3. The spread of bla OXA-48 and bla OXA-244 carbapenemase genes among Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Enterobacter spp. isolated in Moscow, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fursova, Nadezhda K; Astashkin, Eugeny I; Knyazeva, Anastasia I; Kartsev, Nikolay N; Leonova, Ekaterina S; Ershova, Olga N; Alexandrova, Irina A; Kurdyumova, Natalia V; Sazikina, Svetlana Yu; Volozhantsev, Nikolay V; Svetoch, Edward A; Dyatlov, Ivan A

    2015-11-02

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is a great problem of healthcare worldwide. Study of the spread for bla OXA-48-like genes coding epidemically significant carbapenemases among hospital pathogens is important for the regional and global epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. Antibacterial resistant isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 95) from 54 patients, P. mirabilis (n = 32) from 20 patients, Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 6) from four patients, and Enterobacter cloacae (n = 4) from four patients were collected from January, 2013 to October, 2014 in neurosurgical intensive care unit (ICU) of the Burdenko Neurosurgery Institute, Moscow. Characteristics of the isolates were done using susceptibility tests, PCR detection of the resistance genes, genotyping, conjugation, DNA sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis. Major strains under study were multi drug resistant (MDR), resistant to three or more functional classes of drugs simultaneously-98.9 % K. pneumoniae, 100 % P. mirabilis, one E. aerogenes isolate, and one E. cloacae isolate. Molecular-genetic mechanism of MDR in K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis isolates were based on carrying of epidemic extended-spectrum beta-lactamase bla CTX-M-15 gene (87.2 and 90.6 % accordingly), carbapenemase bla OXA-48-like gene (55.3 and 23.3 % accordingly), and class 1 (54.8 and 31.3 % accordingly) and class 2 (90.6 % P. mirabilis) integrons. The bla OXA-48-like-positive K. pneumoniae were collected during whole two-year surveillance period, while P. mirabilis and Enterobacter spp. carrying bla OXA-48-like genes were detected only after four and 18 months after the research start, respectively. The bla OXA-48-like gene acquisition was shown for P. mirabilis isolates collected from five patients and for E. cloacae isolate collected from one patient during their stay in the ICU, presumably from bla OXA-48-like-positive K. pneumoniae. The source of the bla OXA-244 gene acquired by E

  4. Synergistic extraction and separation of yttrium from heavy rare earths using mixture of sec-octylphenoxy acetic acid and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaobo; Zhao Junmei; Meng Shulan; Li Deqian

    2005-01-01

    Synergistic extraction and separation of yttrium (Y) from heavy rare earths (HRE) in chloride medium using mixture of sec-octylphenoxy acetic acid (CA-12, HA) and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid (Cyanex272, HL) in n-heptane has been investigated. The synergistic enhancement coefficients, R max , were obtained for Ho 3+ (5.12), Y 3+ (5.34), Er 3+ (7.04), Tm 3+ (7.50), Yb 3+ (13.12) and Lu 3+ (17.58). The separation factors (SF) between Y 3+ and HRE were obtained, and it was found that Er 3+ would form the new complex as ErH 6 A 4 L 5 in the mixture system. A cation exchange mechanism was proposed. The equilibrium constant, formation constant and thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG = -18.48 kJ/mol, ΔH = -1.36 kJ/mol and ΔS = 0.058 kJ/mol were determined. The CA-12 and Cyanex272 mixture system showed higher extraction efficiency, larger separation factors as well as excellent stripping behaviors. The application potential of the mixture system to separate Y from HRE has been discussed

  5. Measurement of the fission yields of selected prompt and decay fission product gamma-rays of spontaneously fissioning 252Cf and 244Cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reber, E.L.; Gehrke, R.J.; Aryaeinejad, R.; Hartwell, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometry measurements have been made of the fission yields of selected γ -rays emitted by the spontaneously fissioning isotopes 252 Cf and 244 Cm. The measured γ-rays were selected based on their relative abundance in the spectrum and their freedom from interference or, in a few instances, ease of interference correction. From these data and the cumulative and independent yield data of England and Rider, those γ-rays that are primarily produced by radioactive decay, as opposed to direct yield, were converted into the decays per spontaneous fission expressed in percent and compared to cumulative yield values of England and Rider. For those γ-rays whose production is dominated by direct (independent) yield, the ratio of γ-rays per spontaneous fission is reported. The γ-ray yield can be compared to the independent yield values of England and Rider when 100% of the direct feeding passes through the γ-ray. In those cases where both cumulative and independent yields contribute to the observed γ-ray emission rate, a direct comparison is not possible but a method to quantify the contribution from each is proposed. (author)

  6. In-vivo characteristics of high and low specific activity radioiodinated (+)-2-[4-(4-iodophenyl) piperidino] cyclohexanol [(+)-pIV] for imaging sigma-1 receptor in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, Nasima; Kinuya, Seigo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Kazuma; Mori, Hirofumi

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In this study, (+)-enantiomer of radioiodinated 2-[4-(4- iodophenyl)piperidino]cyclohexanol ((+)-[ 125 I]-p- iodovesamicol) [(+)-[ 125 I]pIV], which is reported to bind with high affinity to the sigma-1 receptor both in vitro and in vivo, was tested to compare the in vivo characteristics between high and low specific activity (+)-[ 125 I]pIV to image sigma-1 receptor in the central nervous system. In the biodistribution study, no significant difference was observed between two methods. Accumulation of (+)- [ 125 I]pIV in rat brain was significant (approximately 3% of the injected dose) and its retention was prolonged. In the blocking study, the accumulation of (+)-[ 125 I] pIV in the rat brain was significantly reduced by the co-administration of sigma ligands such as pentazocine, haloperidol or SA4503 in both methods. But the blocking effect was relatively stronger in the study using high specific activity radioiodinated (+)pIV. Though, the distribution of high and low specific activity (+)-[ 125 I] pIV was more or less similar to bind to sigma-1 receptor in the central nervous system in vivo, high specific activity radioiodinated (+) pIV might have a better specificity to bind sigma-1 receptor in brain. (author)

  7. Synthesis of 2',4-dihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone and 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone as a candidate anticancer against cervical (WiDr), colon (HeLa), and breast (T47d) cancer cell lines in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsjeh, Sabirin; Swasono, Respati Tri; Anwar, Chairil; Solikhah, Eti Nurwening; Lestari, Endang

    2017-03-01

    The compound 2',4-dihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone and 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone have been synthesized through Claisen-Schmidt reaction from 2-hydroxyacetophenone and 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone with 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehida (vanillin) in aqueous KOH 40% and KSF montmorillonite as catalyst in methanol. All these products were characterized by FT-IR, TLC Scanner, GC-MS, MS-Direct, and 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectrometer. Both of these compounds were tested citotoxycity activity as an anticancer against cervical, colon, and breast cancer cells (Hela, WiDr, and T47D cell lines) using MTT assay in vitro. Dose series given test solution concentration on Hela, WiDr, and T47D cells started from 6,25; 25; 50 and 100 µg/mL with incubation treatment for 24 hours. The result of study showed that the 2',4-dihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone as bright yellow crystal with the melting point of 114-115 °C and the yield of 13.77% and the 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone as bright yellow crystals with the melting point of 195-197 °C and the yield of 6%. Other 2',4-dihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone and 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone also exhibited cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines, with the 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone showed greater activities than the 2',4-dihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone in WiDr cell lines. The 2',4-dihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone and 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone exhibited strong anticancer activities with IC50 value below 20 µg/mL. The activity of 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone showed the most active against Hela and WiDr cell lines with IC50 value 8.53 and 2.66 µg/mL respectively, than T47D cell lines with IC50 value 24.61 µg/mL. The test results cytotoxic of 2',4-dihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone showed the most active against Hela and WiDr cell lines with IC50 value 12.80, 19.57 µg/mL than T47D cell lines with IC50 value of 20.73 µg/mL. IC50 value indicated that 2',4-dihydroxy-3-methoxychalcone and 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3

  8. Selectivity of bis-triazinyl bipyridine ligands for americium(III) in Am/Eu separation by solvent extraction. Part 1. Quantum mechanical study on the structures of BTBP complexes and on the energy of the separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbutt, Jerzy; Oziminski, Wojciech P

    2012-12-21

    Theoretical studies were carried out on two pairs of americium and europium complexes formed by tetra-N-dentate lipophilic BTBP ligands, neutral [ML(NO(3))(3)] and cationic [ML(2)](3+) where M = Am(III) or Eu(III), and L = 6,6'-bis-(5,6-diethyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine (C2-BTBP). Molecular structures of the complexes have been optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level and total energies of the complexes in various media were estimated using single point calculations performed at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) and MP2/6-311G(d,p) levels of theory. In the calculations americium and europium ions were treated using pseudo-relativistic Stuttgart-Dresden effective core potentials and the accompanying basis sets. Selectivity in solvent extraction separation of two metal ions is a co-operative function of contributions from all extractable metal complexes, which depend on physico-chemical properties of each individual complex and on its relative amount in the system. Semi-quantitative analysis of BTBP selectivity in the Am/Eu separation process, based on the contributions from the two pairs of Am(III) and Eu(III) complexes, has been carried out. To calculate the energy of Am/Eu separation, a model of the extraction process was used, consisting of complex formation in water and transfer of the formed complex to the organic phase. Under the assumptions discussed in the paper, this simple two-step model results in reliable values of the calculated differences in the energy changes for each pair of the Am/Eu complexes in both steps of the process. The greater thermodynamic stability (in water) of the Am-BTBP complexes, as compared with the analogous Eu species, caused by greater covalency of the Am-N than Eu-N bonds, is most likely the main reason for BTBP selectivity in the separation of the two metal ions. The other potential reason, i.e. differences in lipophilic properties of the analogous complexes of Am and Eu, is less important with regard to this selectivity.

  9. In vitro characterization of radioiodinated (+)-2-[4-(4-iodophenyl) piperidino]cyclohexanol [(+)-pIV] as a sigma-1 receptor ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Kazuma; Mori, Hirofumi

    2005-02-15

    We investigated the binding characteristics of a (+)-enantiomer of radioiodinated 2-[4-(4-iodophenyl)piperidino]cyclohexanol [(+)-[125I]pIV], radioiodinated at the para-position of the 4-phenylpiperidine moiety, to sigma receptors (sigma-1, sigma-2) and to vesicular acetylcholine transporters (VAChT) in membranes of the rat brain and liver. In competitive inhibition studies, (+)-pIV (Ki=1.30 nM) had more than 10 times higher affinity to the sigma-1 (sigma-1) receptor than (+)-pentazocine (Ki=19.9 nM) or haloperidol (Ki=13.5 nM) known as sigma ligands. Also, the binding affinity of (+)-pIV for the sigma-1 receptor (Ki=1.30 nM), was about 16 times higher than the sigma-2 (sigma-2) receptor (Ki=20.4 nM). (+)-pIV (Ki=1260 nM) had a much lower affinity for VAChT than (-)-vesamicol (Ki=13.0 nM) or (-)-pIV (Ki=412 nM). (+)-[125I]pIV had low affinity for the dopamine, serotonin, adrenaline, and acetylcholine receptors. Furthermore, in a saturation binding study, (+)-[125I]pIV exhibited a K) of 6.96 nM with a Bmax of 799 fmol/mg of protein. These results showed that (+)-pIV binds to the sigma-1 receptor with greater affinity than sigma receptor ligands such as (+)-pentazocine or haloperidol, and that radioiodinated (+)-pIV is suitable as radiotracer for sigma-1 receptor studies in vitro.

  10. Alarming increase in the registration of degenerative rotator cuff-related lesions a nationwide epidemiological study investigating 244,519 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monrad, Nina; Ganestam, Ann; Kallemose, Thomas; Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner

    2018-01-01

    Shoulder lesions are common and a challenge to diagnose. They often result in significant disability for the patient and are an economic burden to society. From recent studies, an increasing incidence has been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate and map the incidence of shoulder lesions in Denmark from 1996 to 2013 with focus on sex, age and geographical area. The Danish National Patient Registry was searched retrospectively to find the number of shoulder lesions in Denmark during the period 1996-2013. Regional population data were retrieved from the services of Statistics Denmark. Incidence rates were analysed using Poisson regression models, and all analyses were done in R 3.2.2, and p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. During the 18-year period, 244,519 patients with a DM 75 diagnosis were registered. Male-to-female ratio was 51:49, and median age was 51. Most frequent were rotator cuff syndrome with a mean incidence rate of 313.3 (confidence interval 241.8-384.8) per 10 5 person-years at risk (PYRS). A statistically significant increase in overall incidence rate from 149.4 per 10 5 PYRS in 1996 to 715.3 per 10 5 PYRS in 2013 was found (p shoulder lesions rapidly increased mainly due to an increase among people of working age (31-70 years). There were no significant differences in incidence between sexes. Rural areas had a 1.4-fold higher incidence rate than urban areas. As shoulder lesions impose a huge socioeconomic burden on society, not to mention a great distress to the patient, the present findings is highly relevant for political decision-making regarding preventive and health promoting initiatives.

  11. In silico enhanced restriction enzyme based methylation analysis of the human glioblastoma genome using Agilent 244K CpG Island microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Tran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome wide methylation profiling of gliomas is likely to provide important clues to improving treatment outcomes. Restriction enzyme based approaches have been widely utilized for methylation profiling of cancer genomes and will continue to have importance in combination with higher density microarrays. With the availability of the human genome sequence and microarray probe sequences, these approaches can be readily characterized and optimized via in silico modeling. We adapted the previously described HpaII/MspI based Methylation Sensitive Restriction Enzyme (MSRE assay for use with two-color Agilent 244K CpG island microarrays. In this assay, fragmented genomic DNA is digested in separate reactions with isoschizomeric HpaII (methylation-sensitive and MspI (methylation-insensitive restriction enzymes. Using in silico hybridization, we found that genomic fragmentation with BfaI was superior to MseI, providing a maximum effective coverage of 22,362 CpG islands in the human genome. In addition, we confirmed the presence of an internal control group of fragments lacking HpaII/MspI sites which enable separation of methylated and unmethylated fragments. We used this method on genomic DNA isolated from normal brain, U87MG cells, and a glioblastoma patient tumor sample and confirmed selected differentially methylated CpG islands using bisulfite sequencing. Along with additional validation points, we performed a receiver operating characteristics (ROC analysis to determine the optimal threshold (p ≤ 0.001. Based on this threshold, we identified ~2400 CpG islands common to all three samples and 145 CpG islands unique to glioblastoma. These data provide more general guidance to individuals seeking to maximize effective coverage using restriction enzyme based methylation profiling approaches.

  12. 1.3.3. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure of a new ruthenium polypyridyl complex [Ru(phen2(4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'- bipyridine]PF6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxi Chen, Jing Sun*, Jufang Kong, Wenxiu Chen and Hongqing Hao*

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A new Ru(II polypyridyl complex, [Ru(phen2(4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine]PF6·1.5H2O, was synthesized andcharacterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, elementalanalyses, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, infraredspectra, ultraviolet (UV spectra, and emission spectra. Thestructure of the cation [Ru(phen2(4,4'-(COO-,(COOH-2,2'-bpy]+ consists of a six-coordinated ruthenium atom chelated bytwo phen ligands and one 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine ligand.The absorption spectrum of the Ru(II complex is characterizedby two intense ligand-centered transitions in the UV region andone metal to ligand charge transfer in the visible region. Moreover,the complex can display luminescence in water at roomtemperature, with maximum emission at 623 nm.Supporting information: Cif file

  13. Comment on "Period function and normalizers of vector fields in R with n-1 first integrals" by D. Peralta-Salas [J. Differential Equations 244 (6) (2008) 1287-1303

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, G. E.

    In a recent paper by D. Peralta-Salas in this journal (J. Differential Equations 244 (6) (2008) 1287-1303) there appears an incorrect result relating symmetries and first integrals of a vector field. The proof relies on a nonexistent theorem in a paper by Sherring and Prince (Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 334 (1992) 433-453); the error is corrected in this comment.

  14. Soil washing in combination with homogeneous Fenton-like oxidation for the removal of 2,4,4'-trichlorodiphenyl from soil contaminated with capacitor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Ling; Lin, Zhi-Rong; Dong, Yuan-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Detoxification by chemical oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in contaminated soils is very difficult and inefficient because PCBs typically associate with the solid phase or exist as non-aqueous-phase liquids due to their low solubility and slow desorption rates, and thus, they are difficult to remove from soils by using traditional, water-based elution techniques. Surfactant can enhance washing efficiency of PCBs from contaminated soils. This study used Brij 58, Brij 30, Tween 80, and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) to solubilize 2,4,4'-trichlorodiphenyl (PCB28) from soil contaminated with capacitor oil into solution. The feasibility of PCB28 oxidation in soil washing wastewater through a Fe(3+)-catalyzed Fenton-like reaction was subsequently examined. Washing with 10 g L(-1) Brij 58 solution showed the highest extraction efficiency (up to 61.5 %) compared with that of the three other surfactants. The total concentration of PCB28 in contaminated soil at 25 °C after 48-h extraction was 286 mg L(-1). In contrast to conditions in which no washing agent was added, addition of the four washing agents decreased the efficiency of PCB28 degradation by the Fenton-like reaction, with the decrease due to addition of 10 g L(-1) Brij 58 solution being the smallest. The optimal concentration of H2O2 for preventing its useless decomposition was found to be 50 mM. The efficiency of PCB28 removal was lower when the initial concentration of PCB28 treated in the Fenton-like reaction was higher. The degradation efficiencies of PCB28 at initial concentrations of 0.1, 10, and 176 mg L(-1) in 10 g L(-1) Brij 58 solution at 25 °C and pH 3.0 and 9 h of reaction using 50 mM H2O2 were 64.1, 42.0, and 34.6 %, respectively. This result indicates that soil washing combined with Fenton-like oxidation may be a practical approach for the remediation of PCB-contaminated soil.

  15. 10 CFR 110.23 - General license for the export of byproduct material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Actinium-225 and -227, americium-241 and -242m, californium-248, -249, -250, -251, -252, -253, and -254, curium-240, -241, -242, -243, -244, -245, -246 and -247, einsteinium-252, -253, -254 and -255, fermium...

  16. AG Turbo, Turbotech II, project 1.244. Experimental investigations of rotary instabilities in axial compressors and their effects in terms of compressor stability. Final report; AG Turbo, Turbotech II, Vorhaben 1.244. Experimentelle Untersuchungen rotierender Instabilitaeten in Axialverdichtern und ihr Einfluss auf die Verdichterstabilitaet. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holste, F.; Haukap, C.; Kameier, F.

    2000-07-10

    The physical phenomena of rotary instabilities in industrial compressors and high-pressure aircraft compressors were investigated, which may be a cause of compressor blade fracture. The investigations were carried out by Duesseldorf Technical University on behalf of Rolls-Royce Deutschland GmbH at the new four-stage low-pressure compressor test stand of TU Dresden University. Extensive measurements were made both in the rotary and stationary system in the third compressor stage. Rotary instabilities could be detected by increasing the clearance between the blade tip and compressor wall. Modal analyses yielded a rate of about 30 for 63 blades, i.e. a characteristic wavelength of about twice the length of a blade. So far, an accurate description of the physical mechanism was impossible. Investigations using a Snubber model showed no significant influence on the rotary instabilities. [German] Im Turbotech II Forschungsvorhaben 1.244 wurden die physikalischen Vorgaenge der rotierenden Instabilitaet untersucht, die sowohl in industriellen Verdichtern als auch in Hochdruckverdichtern von Flugtriebwerken auftreten koennen. Diese Instabilitaeten stellen eine zusaetzliche Belastung fuer die Verdichterblaetter dar und koennen damit die Ursache fuer Blattbrueche sein. Im Auftrag von Rolls-Royce Deutschland wurden die Untersuchungen von der Faachhochschule Duesseldorf durchgefuehrt. Testobjekt war der neu aufgebaute vier stufige Niedergeschwindigkeitsverdichter der TU Dresden. In enger Kooperation mit den Vorhaben 1.243 und 1.246 wurden umfangreiche Messungen sowohl im rotierenden als auch im festen System an der dritten Stufe des Verdichters durchgefuehrt. Durch Vergroesserung des Spaltes zwischen Schaufelspitze und Verdichterwandung konnten rotierenden Instabilitaeten nachgewiesen werden. Modenanalysen ergaben Umfangsordnungen von ungefaehr 30 bei einer Blattzahl von 63, wodurch die charakteristische Wellenlaenge etwa zwei Schaufelwellenlaengen entspricht. Eine exakte

  17. Design of an adenosine phosphorylase by active-site modification of murine purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Enzyme kinetics and molecular dynamics simulation of Asn-243 and Lys-244 substitutions of purine nucleoside phosphorylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynes, J T; Yam, W; Jenuth, J P; Gang Yuan, R; Litster, S A; Phipps, B M; Snyder, F F

    1999-12-01

    Our objective was to alter the substrate specificity of purine nucleoside phosphorylase such that it would catalyse the phosphorolysis of 6-aminopurine nucleosides. We modified both Asn-243 and Lys-244 in order to promote the acceptance of the C6-amino group of adenosine. The Asn-243-Asp substitution resulted in an 8-fold increase in K(m) for inosine from 58 to 484 microM and a 1000-fold decrease in k(cat)/K(m). The Asn-243-Asp construct catalysed the phosphorolysis of adenosine with a K(m) of 45 microM and a k(cat)/K(m) 8-fold that with inosine. The Lys-244-Gln construct showed only marginal reduction in k(cat)/K(m), 83% of wild type, but had no activity with adenosine. The Asn-243-Asp;Lys-244-Gln construct had a 14-fold increase in K(m) with inosine and 7-fold decrease in k(cat)/K(m) as compared to wild type. This double substitution catalysed the phosphorolysis of adenosine with a K(m) of 42 microM and a k(cat)/K(m) twice that of the single Asn-243-Asp substitution. Molecular dynamics simulation of the engineered proteins with adenine as substrate revealed favourable hydrogen bond distances between N7 of the purine ring and the Asp-243 carboxylate at 2.93 and 2.88 A, for Asn-243-Asp and the Asn-243-Asp;Lys-244-Gln constructs respectively. Simulation also supported a favourable hydrogen bond distance between the purine C6-amino group and Asp-243 at 2.83 and 2.88 A for each construct respectively. The Asn-243-Thr substitution did not yield activity with adenosine and simulation gave unfavourable hydrogen bond distances between Thr-243 and both the C6-amino group and N7 of the purine ring. The substitutions were not in the region of phosphate binding and the apparent S(0.5) for phosphate with wild type and the Asn-243-Asp enzymes were 1.35+/-0.01 and 1.84+/-0.06 mM, respectively. Both proteins exhibited positive co-operativity with phosphate giving Hill coefficients of 7.9 and 3.8 respectively.

  18. Identification of VIM-2-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Tanzania is associated with sequence types 244 and 640 and the location of blaVIM-2 in a TniC integron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Sabrina; Haldorsen, Bjørg; Aboud, Said; Blomberg, Bjørn; Maselle, Samuel Y; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Langeland, Nina; Samuelsen, Ørjan

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological data on carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria on the African continent are limited. Here, we report the identification of VIM-2-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in Tanzania. Eight out of 90 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa from a tertiary care hospital in Dar es Salaam were shown to harbor bla(VIM-2). The bla(VIM-2)-positive isolates belonged to two different sequence types (ST), ST244 and ST640, with bla(VIM-2) located in an unusual integron structure lacking the 3' conserved region of qacΔE1-sul1. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Facile synthesis of new nano sorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction by self assembling of bis-(2,4,4-trimethyl pentyl)-dithiophosphinic acid on Fe3O4-Ag core-shell nanoparticles: Characterization and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahmasebi, Elham; Yamini, Yadollah

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Self assembling of bis-(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)-dithiophosphinic acid on Fe 3 O 4 -Ag core-shell nanoparticles and application of it for solid phase extraction of PAHs. Highlights: ► A novel sorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction of PAHs was introduced. ► Silver was coated on Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (MNPs) by reduction of AgNO 3 with NaBH 4 . ► Bis-(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)-dithiophosphinic acid self-assembled on silver coated MNPs. ► Size, morphology, composition and properties of the nanoparticles were characterized. ► Extraction efficiency of the sorbent was investigated by extraction of five PAHs. - Abstract: A novel sorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction by self-assembling of organosulfur compound, (bis-(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)-dithiophosphinic acid), onto the silver-coated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles was introduced. Due to the formation of covalent bond of S-Ag, the new coating on the silver surface was very stable and showed high thermal stability (up to 320 °C). The size, morphology, composition, and properties of the prepared nanoparticles have also been characterized and determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Extraction efficiency of the new sorbent was investigated by extraction of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model compounds. The optimum extraction conditions for PAHs were obtained as of extraction time, 20 min; 50 mg sorbent from 100 mL of the sample solution, and elution with 100 μL of 1-propanol under fierce vortex for 2 min. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curves were obtained in the range of 0.05–100 μg L −1 (R 2 > 0.9980) and the LODs (S/N = 3) were obtained in the range of 0.02–0.10 μg L −1 . Relative standard deviations (RSDs) for intra- and inter-day precision were 2.6–4.2% and 3.6–8

  20. Evaluation of neutron data for americium-241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov, V.M.; Sukhovitskij, E.Sh.; Porodzinskij, Yu.V.; Klepatskij, A.B.; Morogovskij, G.B. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    The evaluation of neutron data for {sup 241}Am is made in the energy region from 10{sup -5} eV up to 20 MeV. The results of the evaluation are compiled in the ENDF/B-VI format. This work is performed under the Project Agreement CIS-03-95 with the International Science and Technology Center (Moscow). The Financing Party for the Project is Japan. The evaluation was requested by Y. Kikuchi (JAERI). (author). 60 refs.

  1. The proliferation potential of neptunium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, J. S.; Shin, J. S.; Kim, J. S.; Kwack, E. H.; Kim, B. K.

    2000-05-01

    It is recognized that some trans-uranic elements other than plutonium, in particular Np and Am, if will be available in sufficient quantities, could be used for nuclear explosive devices. The spent fuel has been accumulating in number of nuclear power plant and operation of large scale commercial reprocessing plants. However, these materials are not covered by the definition of special fissionable material in the Agency Statute. At the time when the Statute was adopted, the availability of meaningful quantities of separated Np and Am was remote and they were not included in the definition of special fissionable material. Then, IAEA Board decided a measure for control of Np and Am on September 1999. This report contains the control method and the characteristic of Np and Am for using domestic nuclear industries, and it can be useful for understanding how to report and account of Np and Am. (author)

  2. Experiments of pyrochemical process with americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hirokazu; Minato, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    Experiments of pyrochemical process of minor actinide nitrides are scheduled. Experimental procedures of electrochemical study of the molten salts containing minor actinides (10-100mg) were established. Preliminary study with a rare earth element used as a surrogate was carried out in the hot cells using master-slave manipulators. (author)

  3. 1976 Hanford Americium exposure incident: hematologic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1982-05-01

    Hematologic evaluation of an individual with an initial systemic body burden of approx. 200 μCi 241 Am revealed a significant (P < 0.01) reduction of total leukocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes. This effect on total leukocytes and neutrophils was evident approx. 30 days after exposure, appeared to stabilize at about 3 months after exposure, and remained at this lower level thorugh a 52-months observation period. The effect on lymphocytes was apparent by 3 days after exposure, stabilizing at approx. 50% of pre-exposure values for about 7 months, with a return to pre-exposure levels in the following 4 y. There was a progressive and significant (P < 0.001) decline in platelet counts during the 52-months postexposure period. The pattern of response in erythrocyte parameters was complex. Immediately after the accident, these values were less than the pre-exposure mean level; they gradually increased (P < 0.001) for approx. 2 y and then began a progressive decline (P < 0.001)

  4. Cutting edge: The adapters EAT-2A and -2B are positive regulators of CD244- and CD84-dependent NK cell functions in the C57BL/6 mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ninghai; Calpe, Silvia; Westcott, Jill; Castro, Wilson; Ma, Chunyan; Engel, Pablo; Schatzle, John D; Terhorst, Cox

    2010-11-15

    EWS/FLI1-activated transcript 2 (EAT-2)A and EAT-2B are single SH2-domain proteins, which bind to phosphorylated tyrosines of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family receptors in murine NK cells. While EAT-2 is a positive regulator in human cells, a negative regulatory role was attributed to the adapter in NK cells derived from EAT-2A-deficient 129Sv mice. To evaluate whether the genetic background or the presence of a selection marker in the mutant mice could influence the regulatory mode of these adapters, we generated EAT-2A-, EAT-2B-, and EAT-2A/B-deficient mice using C57BL/6 embryonic stem cells. We found that NK cells from EAT-2A- and EAT-2A/B-deficient mice were unable to kill tumor cells in a CD244- or CD84-dependent manner. Furthermore, EAT-2A/B positively regulate phosphorylation of Vav-1, which is known to be implicated in NK cell killing. Thus, as in humans, the EAT-2 adapters act as positive regulators of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family receptor-specific NK cell functions in C57BL/6 mice.

  5. Interfacial Electron Transfer Dynamics Following Laser Flash Photolysis of [Ru(bpy)2((4,4'-PO3H2)2bpy)]2+ in TiO2 Nanoparticle Films in Aqueous Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennaman, M. Kyle; Patrocinio, Antonio Otávio T.; Song, Wenjing; Jurss, Jonah W.; Concepcion, Javier J.; Hoertz, Paul G.; Traub, Matthew C.; Murakami Iha, Neyde Y.; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2011-02-16

    Nanosecond laser flash photolysis has been used to investigate injection and back electron transfer from the complex [(Ru(bpy)2(4,4'-(PO3H2)2bpy)]2+ surface-bound to TiO2 (TiO2-RuII). The measurements were conducted under conditions appropriate for water oxidation catalysis by known single-site water oxidation catalysts. Systematic variations in average lifetimes for back electron transfer, <τbet>, were observed with changes in pH, surface coverage, incident excitation intensity, and applied bias. The results were qualitatively consistent with a model involving rate-limiting thermal activation of injected electrons from trap sites to the conduction band or shallow trap sites followed by site-to-site hopping and interfacial electron transfer, TiO2(e-)-Ru3+→TiO2-Ru2+. The appearance of pH-dependent decreases in the efficiency of formation of TiO2-Ru3+ and in incident-photon-to-current efficiencies with the added reductive scavenger hydroquinone point to pH-dependent back electron transfer processes on both the sub-nanosecond and millisecond–microsecond time scales, which could be significant in limiting long-term storage of multiple redox equivalents.

  6. Publications | Page 244 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Through books, articles, research publications, and studies, we aim to widen the impact of our investment and advance development research. We share the results of our funded research, and offer ... Young China Scholars Poverty Research Network: A bridge linking China and Canada. For the past three years, Canada's ...

  7. Publications | Page 244 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Circle of life: organic farming in Mexico. Every two weeks in Guadalajara, in Jalisco State, Mexico, perhaps half a dozen farm producers sell organic foods and household cleaners at a tiny community market, in a friendly participant's yard. The market is really peddling ideas,.

  8. 42 CFR 24.4 - Eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shape the course of drug or device evaluation or exert a similar influence on the PHS handling of other... implications for clinical research or resulted in a widespread economic effect in the health-care delivery...

  9. Publications | Page 244 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC works with developing-country researchers and institutions to build local capacity through funding, knowledge sharing, and training. Through books, articles, research publications, and studies, we aim to widen the impact of our investment and advance development research. We share the results of our funded ...

  10. 8 CFR 244.9 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... showing medical treatment or hospitalization of the applicant or his or her children, showing the name of the medical facility or physician as well as the date(s) of the treatment or hospitalization; (v... dates of membership; (D) States the address where applicant resided during the membership period; (E...

  11. 17 CFR 244.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applicable to the registrant. (b) GAAP. GAAP refers to generally accepted accounting principles in the United... prepared in accordance with non-U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, GAAP refers to the principles under which those primary financial statements are prepared; and (2) In the case of foreign...

  12. 49 CFR 244.5 - Penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND...,000 per violation may be assessed. Each day a violation continues shall constitute a separate offense...

  13. 244. Seudoaneurisma del seno de valsalva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Montoto López

    2010-01-01

    Presentamos el caso de un varón de 74 años, con varios ingresos cardiológicos previos por infarto de miocardio y clínica sincopal y de dolor torácico atípico, en el que las pruebas diagnósticas angiográficas y de resonancia magnética pusieron de manifiesto un seudoaneurisma de génesis espontánea a nivel del seno coronariano izquierdo. Asociaba, además, dilatación de aorta ascendente e insuficiencia aórtica grave sobre una válvula bicúspide. La corrección se llevó a cabo mediante sustitución valvular aórtica y de aorta ascendente sinusal y tubular proximal mediante tubo valvulado de dacrón (prótesis biológica, con buen resultado quirúrgico. En el periodo postoperatorio precisó implantación de marcapasos definitivo por fibrilación auricular (FA con bloqueo auriculoventricular (AV completo. El paciente se halla, en la actualidad y tras 8 meses de seguimiento, asintomático.

  14. 49 CFR 244.9 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND... oral directives, and practices that make up the way a railroad's management and its employees operate... (2) Any other means. See 49 U.S.C. 10102. Consolidation means the creation of a new Class I railroad...

  15. Americium-curium separation by means of selective extraction of hexavalent americium using a centrifugal contactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikas, C.; Germain, M.; Bathellier, A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper deals with Am (VI) - Cm (III) separation in nitrate media. The kinetics of oxidation of Am (III) by sodium persulfate in the presence of Ag + ions were reinvestigated by studying the effect of additions of small amounts of reagents which do not drastically change the distribution coefficients of Am (VI) or Cm (III) ions. Organo phosphorus solvents were selected because they are radiation resistant, possess weak reductant properties and that their affinity for hexavalent ion is high. The operating procedure was selected by consideration of the results of the two previous investigations. This can be done by using a centrifugal contactor enabling in to set organic-aqueous phase contact time in accordance with the kinetics of extraction of Am (VI), oxidation of Am (III) in aqueous phase, and reduction of Am (VI) in organic phase

  16. Analysis of the tumor-promoting potency of 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl and 2,2',4,5,5'-pentachlorobiphenyl in rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, S.; Schmitz, H.J.; Schrenk, D. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Food Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology; Buchmann, A.; Schwarz, M. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Toxicology; Schilling, B.; Paepke, O. [ERGO Research, Hamburg (Germany); Robertson, L.W.; Lehmler, H.J. [Iowa Univ, Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Health

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are potent persistent environmental pollutants exhibiting neurotoxic, teratogenic and tumor-promoting effects in experimental animal models. PCB congeners can be divided into 'dioxin-like' and 'non-dioxin-like' congeners on the basis of their ability to act as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Like the most toxic dioxin congener 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) 'dioxin-like' PCBs bind to the AhR and show characteristic effects on the expression of AhR-regulated genes including the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1. On the other hand, 'non-dioxin-like' PCB congeners have a lower or no binding affinity to the AhR, but exhibit a 'phenobarbital-type' induction of CYP 2B1/2 activity. The tumor-promoting potency of several PCBs has been demonstrated in two-stage initiation-promotion experiments in rat liver. Preneoplastic cell clones, targets for tumor promotion, can be identified as phenotypically altered foci showing characteristic enzyme patterns including the decreased activity of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) or the increased expression of the placental form of gluthatione S-transferase (GSTP). In the present study, the effect of the 'non-dioxin-like' 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 28) and 2,2',4,5,5'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 101) on the promotion of enzyme-altered hepatic foci was investigated in female Wistar rats after initiation with diethylnitrosamine (DEN).

  17. Efficacy and safety of an oral contraceptive containing ethinylestradiol 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg (24/4 regimen) in three indications in the People's Republic of China: a comparison with international studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Joachim; Huang, Zirong; Wang, Baoxi; Zhang, Hongyan; Roth, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    While combined oral contraceptives are a popular choice in developed Western countries, they are used by only 1% of women who are married or in a relationship in the People's Republic of China. The purpose of this review is to describe the efficacy and safety of the combined oral contraceptive containing ethinylestradiol (EE) 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg taken in a 24/4 regimen (YAZ ® ; Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin, Germany) by Chinese women and to compare these results with those in women assessed in the international studies. Studies of EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg in three different indications (contraception, acne, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder [PMDD]) have been conducted in Chinese women. The results of these three studies indicate that the EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg combined oral contraceptive is a good long-term contraceptive option in Chinese women, providing 99% contraceptive protection over the observed 1-year treatment period, and additionally had a favorable effect on moderate acne vulgaris and relieved the symptoms of PMDD. The contraceptive efficacy, improvement in acne, and relief from PMDD symptoms observed in these studies did not differ from the effects observed in other international studies of EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg, indicating that EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg is as effective in Chinese women as in other ethnicities. Further, EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg demonstrated a similar safety and tolerability profile in women enrolled in the Chinese and international trials, with no unexpected adverse events reported in any of the three Chinese trials. Overall, the efficacy, tolerability, and degree of non-contraceptive benefits with EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg appear similar in Chinese women when compared with those reported in larger studies done at other international centers.

  18. Efficacy and safety of an oral contraceptive containing ethinylestradiol 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg (24/4 regimen in three indications in the People's Republic of China: a comparison with international studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marr J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Joachim Marr,1 Zirong Huang,2 Baoxi Wang,3 Hongyan Zhang,4 Katrin Roth1 1Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany; 2Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, 3Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 4Peking University Sixth Hospital, Peking University Institute of Mental Health, Ministry of Health (Peking University, Beijing, People's Republic of China Abstract: While combined oral contraceptives are a popular choice in developed Western countries, they are used by only 1% of women who are married or in a relationship in the People's Republic of China. The purpose of this review is to describe the efficacy and safety of the combined oral contraceptive containing ethinylestradiol (EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg taken in a 24/4 regimen (YAZ®; Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin, Germany by Chinese women and to compare these results with those in women assessed in the international studies. Studies of EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg in three different indications (contraception, acne, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder [PMDD] have been conducted in Chinese women. The results of these three studies indicate that the EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg combined oral contraceptive is a good long-term contraceptive option in Chinese women, providing 99% contraceptive protection over the observed 1-year treatment period, and additionally had a favorable effect on moderate acne vulgaris and relieved the symptoms of PMDD. The contraceptive efficacy, improvement in acne, and relief from PMDD symptoms observed in these studies did not differ from the effects observed in other international studies of EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg, indicating that EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg is as effective in Chinese women as in other ethnicities. Further, EE 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg demonstrated a similar safety and tolerability profile in women enrolled in the Chinese and international trials, with no unexpected adverse

  19. Fabrication of targets for transmutation of americium : synthesis of inertial matrix by sol-gel method. Procedure study on the infiltration of a radioactive solutions; Fabricacion de blancos para la transmutacion de americio: sintesis de matrices inertes por el metodo sol-gel. Estudio del procedimiento de infiltracion de disoluciones radiactivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Carretero, A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    made. In addition a new and unexpected phase formed by the reaction of americium with spinel during the high temperature synthesis process has been identified. This new phase could provide a unique menas to stabilise Am in one particular oxidation state. (Author)

  20. Study of the electrochemical oxidation of Am with lacunary heteropolyanions and silver nitrate; Etude de l'oxydation electrochimique de l'americium en presence d'heteropolyanions lacunaires et de nitrate d'argent en milieu aqueux acide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartier, D

    1999-07-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of Am(III) with certain lacunary heteropolyanions (LHPA {alpha}{sub 2}-P{sub 2}W{sub 17}O{sub 61}{sup 10-} or {alpha}SiW{sub 11}O{sub 39}{sup 8-}) and silver nitrate is an efficient way to prepare Am(VI). This document presents bibliographic data and an experimental study of the process. Thus, it has been established that Am(IV) is an intermediate species in the reaction and occurs in 1:1 (Amt{sup IV}LHPA) or 1:2 (Am {sup IV}(LHAP){sub 2}) complexes with the relevant LHPA. These 1:1 complexes of Am(IV) have been identified and isolated in this work whereas 1:2 complexes were known from previous studies. The reactivity of these complexes in oxidation shows that 1:1 complexes of Am(IV) are oxidised much more quickly than 1:2 complexes. Apparent stability constants of Am(III) and Am(IV) complexes with the relevant LHPA have been measured for a 1 M nitric acid medium. Thermodynamic data of the reaction are then assessed: redox potentials of Am pairs are computed for a 1 M nitric acid medium containing various amount of LHPA ligands. Those results show that the role of LHPA is to stabilize the intermediate species Am(IV) by lowering the Am(IV)/Am(III) pair potential of about 1 Volt. Nevertheless, if this stabilisation is too strong (i.e. of tungsto-silicate), the oxidation of Am(IV) requires high anodic potential (more than 2 V/ENH). Then, the faradic yield of the oxidation of americium is poor because of water oxidation. This study has also shown that the main role of silver is to catalyze the electrochemical oxidation of Am{sup IV}(LHPA){sub X} complexes. Indeed, these oxidations without silver are extremely slow. An oxygen tracer experiment has been performed during the oxidation of Am(III) in Am(VI). It has been shown that the oxygen atoms of Am(VI) (AMO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) come from water molecules of the solvent and not from the complexing oxygen atoms of the ligands. (author)

  1. Historical review of californium-252 discovery and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddard, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving 252 Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed

  2. 77 FR 75610 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Abbott...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... trials; radioactive elements and isotopes and compounds other than those of subheadings 2844.10, 2844.20... elements; isotopes or compounds; radioactive residues; elements, isotopes and compounds with cobalt-60 radioactivity only; and other elements, isotopes and compounds: Americium-241, californium-252, curium-244...

  3. Historical Review of Californium-252 Discovery and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed. (PLG)

  4. Plutonium and americium behavior in coral atoll environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.L.; Eagle, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Inventories of 239+240 Pu and 241 Am greatly in excess of global fallout levels persist in the benthic environments of Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. Quantities of 239+240 Pu and lesser amounts of 241 Am are continuously mobilizing from these sedimentary reservoirs. The amount of 239+240 Pu mobilized to solution at any time represents 0.08 to 0.09% of the sediment inventories to a depth of 16 cm. The mobilized 239+240 Pu has solute-like characteristics and different valence states coexist in solution - the largest fraction of the soluble plutonium is in an oxidized form (+V,VI). The adsorption of plutonium to sediments is not completely reversible because of changes that occur in the relative amounts of the mixed oxidation states in solution with time. Further, any characteristics of 239+240 Pu described at one location may not necessarily be relevant in describing its behavior elsewhere following mobilization and migration. The relative amounts of 241 Am to 239+240 Pu in the sedimentary deposits at Enewetak and Bikini may be altered in future years because of mobilization and radiological decay. Mobilization of 239+240 Pu is not a process unique to these atolls, and quantities in solution derived from sedimentary deposits can be found at other global sites. These studies in the equatorial Pacific have significance in assessing the long-term behavior of the transuranics in any marine environment. 22 references, 1 figure, 13 tables

  5. Gastrointestinal absorption of americium in rats: effect of citrate concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, J.; Ishigure, N.; Oghiso, Y.; Sato, H.

    1994-01-01

    The gastrointestinal absorption of 241 Am was studied in relation to the amount of sodium citrate administered with it. Fasted Wistar strain female rats received 241 Am orally in sodium citrate solution of various concentrations and 5 days after administration animals were sacrificed and the retention and distribution of 241 Am was studied. The results indicated that the f 1 value was very high at about 10% of administered activity when 241 Am was given to fasted rats with a large amount of sodium citrate. (author)

  6. Further Studies of Plutonium and Americium at Thule, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Asker; Dahlgaard, Henning; Nilsson, Karen Kristina

    1984-01-01

    further away from the impact point and at some locations the vertical distribution indicated a downward displacement of Pu in the sediment column since 1974. Seawater and seaplants showed no evidence of the presence of Pu from sources other than fallout; but Pu in benthos varied nearly proportionally...

  7. Uptake of plutonium and americium by plants from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Tompkins, G.A.; Babcock, K.L.

    1975-01-01

    Plant uptake of 239 , 240 Pu and 241 Am was studied on two soil samples collected on the Nevada Test Site. These soils had each been previously contaminated with the radionuclides by high explosive detonation of devices containing plutonium. The 239 PuO 2 equivalent diameters of plutonium bearing particles present in the soil samples were determined and found to be log-normal in the range of 0.2 to 0.7 μm. Particles were examined by electronmicroscopy and found to be 2 to 3 times larger than the 239 PuO 2 equivalent diameter. Electron microprobe analysis showed that these particles consisted primarily of Pu, U, and O, with Al, Si, Fe and Mg present in much smaller amounts. The plutonium distribution ratio (D. R. = nuclide concentration in plant/nuclide concentration in soil) was in the order of 10 -5 for barley plant vegetation and was 20 to 100 times lower for barley grain. The D. R. for 241 Am was in the order of 10 -4 for vegetative growth and 25-75 times lower for the grain. In other uptake experiments three different soils were utilized: slightly acid forest soil, neutral valley soil, and calcareous alkaline soil. The 239 240 Pu and 241 Am were added to the soil as nitrate or chloride solution to facilitate the addition of Pu to soil in different oxidation states. Where Pu in the higher oxidation states (nitrate) was added to the alkaline calcareous soil, the highest plant uptake was observed. In uptake experiments with wheat the plutonium distribution ratio of the grain ranged from about 4 x 10 -8 to 4 x 10 -6 . The 241 Am D. R.'s ranged from 3 x 10 -7 to 3 x 10 -5 . (U.S.)

  8. Biosorption of americium-241 by immobilized Rhizopus arrihizus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Jiali; Yang Yuanyou; Luo Shunzhong; Liu Ning; Jin Jiannan; Zhang Taiming; Zhao Pengji

    2004-01-01

    Rhizopus arrihizus (R. arrihizus), a fungus, which in previous experiments had shown encouraging ability to remove 241 Am from solutions, was immobilized by calcium alginate and other reagents. The various factors affecting 241 Am biosorption by the immobilized R. arrihizus were investigated. The results showed that not only can immobilized R. arrihizus adsorb 241 Am as efficiently as free R. arrihizus, but that also can be used repeatedly or continuously. The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 2 h, and more than 94% of 241 Am was removed from 241 Am solutions of 1.08 MBq/l by immobilized R. arrihizu in the pH range 1-7. Temperature did not affect the adsorption on immobilized R. arrihizus in the range 15-45 deg. C. After repeated adsorption for 8 times, the immobilized R. arrihizus still adsorbed more than 97% of 241 Am. At this time, the total adsorption of 241 Am was more than 88.6 KBq/g, and had not yet reached saturation. Ninety-five percent of the adsorbed 241 Am was desorbed by saturated EDTA solution and 98% by 2 mol/l HNO 3

  9. Further Studies of Plutonium and Americium at Thule, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Asker; Dahlgaard, Henning; Nilsson, Karen Kristina

    1984-01-01

    Eleven years after the accidental loss of nuclear weapons in 1968, the fourth scientific expedition to Thule occurred. The estimated inventory of 1 TBq 239,240Pu in the marine sediments was unchanged when compared with the estimate based on the 1974 data. Plutonium from the accident had moved...

  10. Europium (III) and americium (III) stability constants with humic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, R.A.; Choppin, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The stability constants for tracer concentrations of Eu(III) and Am(III) complexes with a humic acid extracted from a lake-bottom sediment were measured using a solvent extraction system. The organic extractant was di(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid in toluene while the humate aqueous phase had a constant ionic strength of 0.1 M (NaClO 4 ). Aqueous humic acid concentrations were monitored by measuring uv-visible absorbances at approx.= 380 nm. The total carboxylate capacity of the humic acid was determined by direct potentiometric titration to be 3.86 +- 0.03 meq/g. The humic acid displayed typical characteristics of a polyelectrolyte - the apparent pKsub(a), as well as the calculated metal ion stability constants increased as the degree of ionization (α) increased. The binding data required a fit of two stability constants, β 1 and β 2 , such that for Eu, log β 1 = 8.86 α + 4.39, log β 2 = 3.55 α + 11.06 while for Am, log β 1 = 10.58 α + 3.84, log β 2 = 5.32 α + 10.42. With hydroxide, carbonate, and humate as competing ligands, the humate complex associated with the β 1 constant is calculated to be the dominant species for the trivalent actinides and lanthanides under conditions present in natural waters. (orig.)

  11. Ecological behavior of plutonium and americium in a freshwater pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Garland, T.R.; Weimer, W.C.

    1975-03-01

    A Pu processing waste pond on the Hanford Reservation has been studied since mid-1973 to characterize the pond's limnology and determine the ecological behavior in this ecosystem. About 8.1 kg of Pu was reported to have been discharged into waste trenches leading to the pond. Mean ratios of isotopes in the sediments are 0.85 for 238 Pu to 239 240 Pu, 0.61 for 241 Am to 238 Pu, and 0.49 for 241 Am to 239 240 Pu. Levels of Pu and Am in the interstitial water range from 0.5 to 13 pCi/g (dry wt. of sediment). For 238 Pu in pond water the mean concentration is 0.007 pCi/l, for 239 240 Pu it is 0.002 pCi/l, and for 241 Am it is 1.08 pCi/l. The remaining biota had Pu and Am levels which were generally well below those of the sediments. (U.S.)

  12. A bioassay method for americium and curium in feces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre Gagne; Dominic Lariviere; Joel Surette; Sheila Kramer-Tremblay; Xiongxin Dai; Candice Didychuk

    2013-01-01

    Fecal radiobioassay is an essential and sensitive tool to estimate the internal intake of actinides after a radiological incident. A new fecal analysis method, based on lithium metaborate fusion of fecal ash for complete sample dissolution followed by sequential column chromatography separation of actinides, has been developed for the determination of low-level Am and Cm in a large size sample. Spiked synthetic fecal samples were analyzed to evaluate method performance against the acceptance criteria for radiobioassay as defined by ANSI N13.30; both satisfactory accuracy and repeatability were achieved. This method is a promising candidate for reliable dose assessment of low level actinide exposure to meet the regulatory requirements of routine radiobioassay for nuclear workers and the public. (author)

  13. Biosorption of americium-241 by immobilized Rhizopus arrihizus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Jiali E-mail: liaojiali@163.com; Yang Yuanyou; Luo Shunzhong; Liu Ning; Jin Jiannan; Zhang Taiming; Zhao Pengji

    2004-01-01

    Rhizopus arrihizus (R. arrihizus), a fungus, which in previous experiments had shown encouraging ability to remove {sup 241}Am from solutions, was immobilized by calcium alginate and other reagents. The various factors affecting {sup 241}Am biosorption by the immobilized R. arrihizus were investigated. The results showed that not only can immobilized R. arrihizus adsorb {sup 241}Am as efficiently as free R. arrihizus, but that also can be used repeatedly or continuously. The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 2 h, and more than 94% of {sup 241}Am was removed from {sup 241}Am solutions of 1.08 MBq/l by immobilized R. arrihizu in the pH range 1-7. Temperature did not affect the adsorption on immobilized R. arrihizus in the range 15-45 deg. C. After repeated adsorption for 8 times, the immobilized R. arrihizus still adsorbed more than 97% of {sup 241}Am. At this time, the total adsorption of {sup 241}Am was more than 88.6 KBq/g, and had not yet reached saturation. Ninety-five percent of the adsorbed {sup 241}Am was desorbed by saturated EDTA solution and 98% by 2 mol/l HNO{sub 3}.

  14. High-Resolution Measurements of Neutron Energy Spectra from Americium-Beryllium and Americium-Boron Neutron Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, James W.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. A Helium-3 sandwich spectrometer incorporating two semiconductor detectors was designed and constructed to enable the measurement of high resolution neutron energy spectra in the energy range from 100 keV to 15 MeV. The instrument is novel in respect of the inclusion of an anode wire which enables the gas chamber to function as a gas proportional counter. Few similar instruments have been constructed and no similar instrument is known to be currently (1990) in use in the UK. The efficiency of the spectrometer was determined experimentally, using a Californium-252 spontaneous fission source, in the low-scatter facility of the National physical Laboratory. A Monte Carlo code has been written to determine the absolute efficiency over an energy range from 81 keV to 20 MeV. The calculated values were used to extrapolate the measured efficiency to higher energies. Furthermore the Monte Carlo code was used to determine certain operating parameters to optimise the efficiency of the spectrometer. The neutron energy spectra from two different size standard Am-Be neutron sources and a standard Am-B neutron source available at NPL were measured. Although these types of neutron sources have been subject to energy spectra measurements elsewhere, the present work improves considerably on the previous poorer energy resolution and energy range. The new data indicates for the three neutron sources studied that the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10) per unit fluence, for each, were identical, being within 2% of 3.70 E-10 Sv cm^2.

  15. 7 CFR 58.244 - Number of samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION...

  16. 24.4 news 918-9 MH IF new

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    x

    Physicists in Italy claimed last week to have seen particles of dark matter. Their announcement has got their rivals riled and raises questions about what constitutes evidence of a new particle. Rita Bernabei of the National Institute of. Nuclear Physics in Rome presented her team's latest results on 16 April at an international.

  17. 48 CFR 52.244-6 - Subcontracts for Commercial Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clauses in subcontracts for commercial items: (i) 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and... Recovery Act. (iii) 52.219-8, Utilization of Small Business Concerns (MAY 2004) (15 U.S.C. 637(d)(2) and (3... subcontracts to small business concerns) exceeds $650,000 ($1.5 million for construction of any public facility...

  18. 8 CFR 244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for withdrawal is § 240.14(a)(3), the notice shall provide that the alien has thirty (30) days within which to provide evidence of good cause for failure to register. If the alien fails to respond within... Status. (a) Authority of director. The director may withdraw the status of an alien granted Temporary...

  19. 18 CFR 367.2440 - Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Derivative instrument liabilities. This account must include the change in the fair value of all derivative instrument liabilities not designated as cash flow or fair value hedges. Account 426.5, Other deductions... the fair value of the derivative instrument. ...

  20. All projects related to | Page 244 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-02-07

    Research aimed at policymakers in Ukraine, Russia, and Belarus will highlight how tobacco taxation policies can serve public health goals and reduce the burden of tobacco-related diseases and deaths. Start Date: February 7, 2012. End Date: March 12, 2013. Topic: TOBACCO, SMOKING, TAXATION, PUBLIC HEALTH.

  1. 244-IJBCS-Article-Dr Obodai E A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RHUMSIKI

    Chloroscombus chrysurus,. Pseudotolithus senegalensis, Sardinella aurita, Scombus japonicus and Syacium micurum) landed at the. Elmina landing quay were analyzed using standard analytical techniques. The results indicate significant differences ...

  2. Poweo 2006 consolidated revenue at euro 244 million, up 121%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    POWEO, the leading independent energy operator in France, presents in this document its key business indicators for the 4. quarter of 2006 and the full year: POWEO records again a strong rise of its annual revenue, exceeding its euro 220 million target. This progression relates to all the business components. The particularly soft climatic conditions recorded in France at the end of the year did not result in a significant fall of revenue compared to initial forecasts. The number of customer sites amounts to 80.300 at December 31, 2006, in progression of 23% compared to the end of 2005. The customer base remained overall stable during the second half of 2006, POWEO limiting voluntarily the acquisition of customers in electricity during the preparation of the opening to competition of the residential market due to take place on July 1, 2007. The gas customer base for its part more than doubled compared to end June 2006, with more than 5.000 customer sites transferred as at December 31, 2006. The Energy Management net margin, realised or un-realised, amounted to euro 49.7 million in 2006, recognised as revenue under IFRS standards. This includes the euro 22 million exceptional capital gain mentioned in previous financial releases in 2006, as well as a euro 7.9 million un-realised capital gain resulting from the transfer of some contracts into the Energy Management portfolio further to the capacity swap agreement with EDF announced publicly on January 3, 2007. The services provided by POWEO to its customers enjoy a high level of acceptance and represented revenue of euro 2.9 million in 2006. As from 2007, the revenue realised through these services will be presented separately from other components of revenue in order to better reflect its expected growth. The services offering will be indeed a key element of the marketing strategy of POWEO in the years to come, with a potentially significant impact on the results taking into account their level of gross margin which is structurally high. POWEO announced on January 3, 2007 to have concluded with EDF a long-term industrial agreement relating to a power generation capacity exchange, which will allow POWEO to have access from 2007 to 2021 to base-load electricity generated by EDF nuclear power plants. POWEO actively prepares the launch of its offering to residential customers, with in particular a communication campaign planned from next March to June in order to increase its notoriety and to create the conditions necessary to its commercial success on this segment. In parallel POWEO will dedicate specific sales resources to the acquisition of large accounts in industry and services. The public opinion poll carried out in the 4. quarter 2006 by BVA at the request of the Commission of Regulation of the Energy (CRE), and whose results have been just published, indicates that POWEO is already enjoying a global notoriety of 24% near companies only consuming electricity and 37% near companies consuming both electricity and gas. In addition, according to a TNS Sofres study ordered by POWEO, the assisted notoriety of the company near the specific segment of residential customers targeted by POWEO amounts to 13%. These results make POWEO feel confident in its ability to grow significantly its customer base in 2007

  3. 40 CFR 408.244 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard BOD5 No limitation. TSS Do. pH Do. Oil and grease Do... subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment...

  4. Dicty_cDB: SHD244 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BAC clone RP11-487E13 from 4, complete sequence. 48 0.52 1 AJ410884 |AJ410884.1 Influenza A virus (swine/Cotes d'Armor/1515/99 (H1N1...Influenza A virus (swine/Cotes d'Armor/1482/99 (H1N1)) partial N1NA gene for Neur

  5. Dicty_cDB: SHK244 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uence. 48 0.52 1 AJ410884 |AJ410884.1 Influenza A virus (swine/Cotes d'Armor/1515/99 (H1N1)) partial N1NA ge...us (swine/Cotes d'Armor/1482/99 (H1N1)) partial N1NA gene for Neuraminidase, genomic RNA. 42 0.97 2 CJ477883

  6. Dicty_cDB: VHE244 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available vliyfvehg*rpdlticqltm*hlmnlfnw**k*rdlil*fcdlfkgkh*pnnqnkk *vl*licnsd*yhdtcylha*lvdpasshmlvskikpcms... Frame A: vgkvliyfvehg*rpdlticqltm*hlmnlfnw**k*rdlil*fcdlfkgkh*pnnqnkk *vl*licnsd*yhdtcylha*lvdpasshmlvskikpcms

  7. Dicty_cDB: AHA244 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available one) Pichia stipitis CBS 6054 chromos... 35 4.8 EU095850_1( EU095850 |pid:none) Turkey coronavirus isolate M...G10, c... 35 4.8 EU095850_2( EU095850 |pid:none) Turkey coronavirus isolate MG10, c... 35 4.8 CP000094_2730(

  8. Alternative synthetic route for the heterometallic CO-releasing [Sb@Rh12(CO27]3− icosahedral carbonyl cluster and synthesis of its new unsaturated [Sb@Rh12(CO24]4− and dimeric [{Sb@Rh12Sb(CO25}2Rh(CO2PPh3]7− derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Femoni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The hetero-metallic [Sb@Rh12(CO27]3− cluster has been known as for over three decades thanks to Vidal and co-workers, and represents the first example of an E-centered (E=heteroatom icosahedral rhodium carbonyl cluster. However, its synthesis required high temperature (140–160 °C and elevated CO pressure (400 atm. Applying the redox condensation method for cluster preparation, we herein report a new synthetic, high-yield route for preparing [Sb@Rh12(CO27]3− under much milder conditions of temperature and pressure. Notably, when the same synthesis was carried out under N2 instead of CO atmosphere, the new isostructural but unsaturated derivative [Sb@Rh12(CO24]4− was obtained, for which we report the full X-ray structural characterization. This species represents one of the few examples of an icosahedral cluster disobeying the electron-counting Wade-Mingos rules, possessing less than the expected 170 cluster valence electrons (CVEs. Judging from IR monitoring, the two species can be obtained one from the other by switching between N2 and CO atmosphere, making [Sb@Rh12(CO27]3− a spontaneous CO-releasing molecule. Finally, the study of the chemical reactivity of [Sb@Rh12(CO27]3− with PPh3 allowed us to obtain the new [{Sb@Rh12Sb(CO25}2Rh(CO2PPh3]7− dimeric compound, for which we herein report the full X-ray structural and 31P NMR analyses.

  9. The uptake of radionuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawse, P.A.; Turner, G.S.

    1982-02-01

    A review of the literature, since 1970, on the research into the uptake of radionuclides by plants, with references to earlier soil and plant studies on the fate of nuclear weapons fallout. Experimental data on the uptake of plutonium isotopes, americium 241, cesium 137, radium 226, curium 244 and neptunium 237 and details of the chemical form of the radionuclide, soil type and plant growth period are tabulated. (U.K.)

  10. Size dispersion and colloid mediated radionuclide transport in a synthetic porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delos, A; Walther, C; Schäfer, T; Büchner, S

    2008-08-01

    Size dispersion effects during the migration of natural submicron bentonite colloids (model predictions and earlier findings with carboxylated polystyrene spheres. By addition of trace amounts of americium(III) and plutonium(IV), colloid mediated transport of these radionuclides is studied. The peak arrival times of Pu-244 and Am-241, as measured by ICP-MS, match the bentonite colloid breakthrough and occur significantly prior to the conservative tracer (HTO) indicating the colloid-borne migration of tri- and tetravalent radionuclides.

  11. Investigation of the retention and distribution of americium-241 in the baboon and the enhanced removal of americium-241 from the body by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Cohen, N.; Wrenn, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the metabolism and distribution of intravenously administered 241 Am in the adult and juvenile baboon; in addition, decorporation therapy using Na 3 -CaDTPA was performed on selected baboons to assess the efficacy of this drug in removing systemic burdens of 241 Am from this primate species. Determination of the kinetics of 241 Am was accomplished principally by in vivo methodologies and by radiochemical analysis of 241 Am activity of biological material. The use of Na 3 -CaDTPA as a therapeutic agent for the removal of 241 Am from the body proved to be an effective form of treatment in the case of early administration. (U.S.)

  12. Poweo 2006 consolidated revenue at euro 244 million, up 121%; Poweo chiffre d'affaires 2006 de 244 millions euro, en hausse de 121%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    POWEO, the leading independent energy operator in France, presents in this document its key business indicators for the 4. quarter of 2006 and the full year: POWEO records again a strong rise of its annual revenue, exceeding its euro 220 million target. This progression relates to all the business components. The particularly soft climatic conditions recorded in France at the end of the year did not result in a significant fall of revenue compared to initial forecasts. The number of customer sites amounts to 80.300 at December 31, 2006, in progression of 23% compared to the end of 2005. The customer base remained overall stable during the second half of 2006, POWEO limiting voluntarily the acquisition of customers in electricity during the preparation of the opening to competition of the residential market due to take place on July 1, 2007. The gas customer base for its part more than doubled compared to end June 2006, with more than 5.000 customer sites transferred as at December 31, 2006. The Energy Management net margin, realised or un-realised, amounted to euro 49.7 million in 2006, recognised as revenue under IFRS standards. This includes the euro 22 million exceptional capital gain mentioned in previous financial releases in 2006, as well as a euro 7.9 million un-realised capital gain resulting from the transfer of some contracts into the Energy Management portfolio further to the capacity swap agreement with EDF announced publicly on January 3, 2007. The services provided by POWEO to its customers enjoy a high level of acceptance and represented revenue of euro 2.9 million in 2006. As from 2007, the revenue realised through these services will be presented separately from other components of revenue in order to better reflect its expected growth. The services offering will be indeed a key element of the marketing strategy of POWEO in the years to come, with a potentially significant impact on the results taking into account their level of gross margin which is structurally high. POWEO announced on January 3, 2007 to have concluded with EDF a long-term industrial agreement relating to a power generation capacity exchange, which will allow POWEO to have access from 2007 to 2021 to base-load electricity generated by EDF nuclear power plants. POWEO actively prepares the launch of its offering to residential customers, with in particular a communication campaign planned from next March to June in order to increase its notoriety and to create the conditions necessary to its commercial success on this segment. In parallel POWEO will dedicate specific sales resources to the acquisition of large accounts in industry and services. The public opinion poll carried out in the 4. quarter 2006 by BVA at the request of the Commission of Regulation of the Energy (CRE), and whose results have been just published, indicates that POWEO is already enjoying a global notoriety of 24% near companies only consuming electricity and 37% near companies consuming both electricity and gas. In addition, according to a TNS Sofres study ordered by POWEO, the assisted notoriety of the company near the specific segment of residential customers targeted by POWEO amounts to 13%. These results make POWEO feel confident in its ability to grow significantly its customer base in 2007.

  13. Rapid selective separation of americium/curium from simulated nuclear forensic matrices using triazine ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginson, Matthew A.; Livens, Francis R.; Heath, Sarah L. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Radiochemistry Research; Thompson, Paul; Marsden, Olivia J. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading (United Kingdom); Harwood, Laurence M.; Hudson, Michael J. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Lewis, Frank W. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Northumbria Univ., Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical and Forensic Sciences

    2015-07-01

    In analysis of complex nuclear forensic samples containing lanthanides, actinides and matrix elements, rapid selective extraction of Am/Cm for quantification is challenging, in particular due the difficult separation of Am/Cm from lanthanides. Here we present a separation process for Am/Cm(III) which is achieved using a combination of AG1-X8 chromatography followed by Am/Cm extraction with a triazine ligand. The ligands tested in our process were CyMe{sub 4}-BTPhen, CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP, CA-BTP and CA-BTPhen. Our process allows for purification and quantification of Am and Cm (recoveries 80% - 100%) and other major actinides in < 2 d without the use of multiple columns or thiocyanate. The process is unaffected by high level Ca(II)/Fe(III)/Al(III) (10 mg mL{sup -1}) and thus requires little pre-treatment of samples.

  14. Criteria Considered in Selecting Feed Items for Americium-241 Oxide Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Louis D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-30

    The analysis in this document serves the purpose of defining a number of attributes in selection of feed items to be utilized in recovery/recycle of Pu and also production operations of 241AmO2 material intended to meet specification requirements. This document was written in response to a specific request on the part of the 2014 annual program review which took place over the dates of October 28-29, 2014. A number of feed attributes are noted including: (1) Non-interference with existing Pu recovery operations; (2) Content of sufficient 241Am to allow process efficiency in recovery operations; (3) Absence of indications that 243Am might be mixed in with the Pu/241Am material; (4) Absence of indications that Cm might be mixed in with the Pu/241Am material; (5) Absence of indications of other chemical elements that would present difficulty in chemical separation from 241Am; (6) Feed material not expected to present difficulty in dissolution; (7) Dose issues; (8) Process efficiency; (9) Size; (10) Hazard associated with items and package configuration in the vault; (11) Within existing NEPA documentation. The analysis in this document provides a baseline of attributes considered for feed materials, but does not presume to replace the need for technical expertise and judgment on the part of individuals responsible for selecting the material feed to be processed. This document is not comprehensive as regards all attributes that could prove to be important. The value of placing a formal QA hold point on accepting feed items versus more informal management of feed items is discussed in the summation of this analysis. The existing planned QA hold points on 241AmO2 products produced and packaged may be adequate as the entire project is based on QA of the product rather than QA of the process. The probability of introduction of items that would inherently cause the241AmO2 products produced to be outside of specification requirements appears to be rather small.

  15. Role of americium interference in analysis of samples containing rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, P.K.; Adya, V.C.; Thulasidas, S.K.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Kumar, Mithlesh; Godbole, S.V.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2007-01-01

    Quality control of nuclear fuel samples requires precise estimation of rare earths which have high neutron absorption cross sections and act as neutron poisons. Am is generated by nuclear decay where as lanthanides may be present as impurities picked up during reprocessing/fuel fabrication. Precise estimation of the rare earths by ICP-AES method in presence of 241 Am is a challenging task due to the likelihood of spectral interference of the latter. Rare earths impurities in the purified Am sample were estimated by ICP-AES method. Known amounts of the rare earths viz. Sm, Eu, Dy and Gd were used as synthetic sample and the interference due to Am was investigated. (author)

  16. Extraction of Americium and Europium by Diphosphine Dioxides and Their Mixtures with Chlorinated Cobalt Dicarbollide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Scott Herbst; Dean R. Peterman; Terry A. Todd

    2005-01-01

    Extraction of Am and Eu using mixtures of diphosphine dioxides (DPDO, e.g., (R1)2P(O)(CH2)nP(O)(R2)2 where R1, R2 = Ph, Bu; n = 1,2), with and without chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) in the polar diluents 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE), meta-nitrobenzotrifluoride (F-3), bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of diethylene glycol (F-8) and phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone (FS-13) from HNO3, HClO4, LiNO3 and LiClO4 solutions has been investigated. The anomalous aryl strengthening (AAS) effect, i.e. the anomalous increase of extraction ability of methylene bridged diphosphine dioxides due to substitution of aromatic (i.e., phenyl) for alkyl (e.g., butyl or octyl) moieties (DAm increases by three to four orders of magnitude), is only observed during the extraction of Am and Eu from acidic media. In salt media the AAS effect is weakly observed, and is practically absent in such diluents as F-3 and FS-13. The extraction isotherm in the case of DPDO with an observed AAS effect indicates the distribution coefficients of Eu decrease by a factor of two to three, even at the concentration ratio of DPDO:Eu = 50:1; however, these values decrease only by 10% for the DPDO that do not indicate an observed AAS effect. It is proposed that the presence of water in the diluent is necessary for manifestation of the AAS effect. The synergistic effects of adding chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) with the DPDO that has been reported for other systems was also found to prevail in several of the systems investigated in this study. On addition of CCD with the DPDO, a considerable synergistic effect is observed (DAm increases by three to four orders of magnitude) during Am and Eu extraction from nitrate media. In perchlorate media the synergistic effect is absent. The most probable reason for synergism in the presence of CCD is the higher hydrophobicity of the CCD anion as compared to the nitrate anion. The results of this work will be of utility in understanding existing and developing new extraction systems designed for the simultaneous removal of multiple radionuclides from acidic streams

  17. Multi-recycling of plutonium and incineration of americium, curium, and technetium in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golfier, H.; Bergeron, J.; Puill, A.; Rohart, M.

    2000-01-01

    The future of nuclear power requires a clear strategy for radwaste and Plutonium management. Pressurized water reactors (PWR) and the associated fuel cycle installations represent the largest part of the French power plants (and are partly paid off). The reactors in service produce an annual 10 tons of Pu, 1.4 tons of minor actinides (MA), and 3.8 tons of long-lived fission products (LLFP). The spent fuel is reprocessed in La Hague plant to recover the energetic elements U and Pu. The latter was initially dedicated to power Fast Breeder Reactors that converted the depleted and reprocessed, thus ensuring a significant part of the French national energy resources. The shut-down of Super-Phenix, the postponement of building of Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) and the relaxed need for stretching natural U resources raise the issue of Pu management. In fact, the Pu mono-recycling practiced in France since 1987 (St Laurent B1) only slows down the Pu accumulation in spent nuclear fuel, yet it is unable to stabilize the Pu inventory. Beyond the cooperation with its industrial partners, CEA investigates solutions for short and medium term Pu management thus contributing to research required for keeping nuclear power as an energy option. The range of these investigations shall cover both adaptations for light water reactors to facilitate Pu recycling and more innovative solutions concerning reactors, fuel and fuel cycle. The aim of using Pu more efficiently in PWR has led, not only for economic and non-proliferation reasons, but also for considerations related to the optimization of Pu and MA management. The mastery of Pu inventory is a requirement for all long-lived radwaste management methods. In this context, the potential of innovative PWRs has been investigated to control the Pu fluxes and to make them a milestone on the way to clean nuclear power. This paper presents the most recent results related to Pu utilization and MA and LLFP incineration like (Am+Cm) and Tc. To determine the influence of the Pu fluxes, a 1450 MWe PWR with one standard and one innovative concept (code named APA for Advanced Plutonium fuel Assembly) have been performed. A multi-recycling scenario is simulated with a 400 TWhe power plant park. (authors)

  18. Fundamental chemistry and materials science of americium in selected immobilization glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haire, R.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stump, N.A. [Winston-Salem State Univ., NC (United States). Dept. of Physical Sciences

    1996-12-01

    We have pursued some of the fundamental chemistry and materials science of Am in 3 glass matrices, two being high-temperature (850 and 1400 C mp) silicate-based glasses and the third a sol-gel glass. Optical spectroscopy was the principal tool. One aspect of this work was to determine the oxidation state exhibited by Am in these matrices, as well as factors that control or may alter this state. A correlation was noted between the oxidation state of the f-elements in the two high-temperature glasses with their high-temperature oxide chemistries. One exception was Am: although AmO{sub 2} is the stable oxide encountered in air, when this dioxide was incorporated into the high-temperature glasses, only trivalent Am was found in the products. When Am(III) was used to prepare the sol-gel glasses at ambient temperature, and after these products were heated in air to 800 C, only Am(III) was observed. Potential explanations for the unexpected Am behavior is offered in the context of its basic chemistry. Experimental spectra, spectroscopic assignments, etc. are discussed.

  19. Plutonium, americium and 90Sr in bones of the some wild animals living in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J.W.; Kitowski, I.; Tomankiewicz, E.; Gaca, P.; Blazej, S.

    2006-01-01

    Bones of the wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), deer (Cervus elaphus), wild boars (Sus scorf), mooses (Alces alces), as well as of certain kinds of rodents and insectivorous animals were ashed and milled prior to the radioactivity measurement in the γ-spectrometer. 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, 241 Am and 90 Sr contents were determined. The results are presented in terms of the kind and origin of the animals. North-east, central-east and south-est parts of Poland were taken into an account

  20. Kinetics of the oxidation-reduction reactions of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, T.W.

    1975-01-01

    This is a review with about 250 references. Data for 240 reactions are cataloged and quantitative activation parameters are tabulated for 79 of these. Some empirical correlations are given. Twelve typical reactions are discussed in detail, along with the effects of self-irradiation and ionic strength. (U.S.)

  1. Treatment of selected primary gynecologic and pelvic malignancies with 241Americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Joyce Y.; Peschel, Richard E.; Kacinski, Barry; Nath, Ravinder; Pourang, Rauman; Roberts, Kenneth; Fischer, Diana; Chambers, Joseph; Schwartz, Peter E.; Wilson, Lynn

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of encapsulated 241 Am in the treatment of primary gynecological malignancies and in previously irradiated patients with recurrent disease in the pelvis. Materials and Methods: Encapsulated 241 Am primarily emits 60keV photons which are effectively shielded by thin layers of high atomic number materials. Dose distributions in water are similar to those produced by Cs-137 photons but with a half-value layer that is considerably less. Cases of 28 patients (12-primary, 16-recurrent) who have been treated with 241 Am at the Yale University School of Medicine since 1986 were retrospectively reviewed. Data concerning dosimetry, disease site, prior treatment, recurrence, disease-free survival, overall survival, and complications were evaluated. Results: Median follow up for the 12 patients with primary gynecological tumors was 19 months (7mo-51mo). There were 6 vulvar, 3 vaginal, 2 cervical and 1 endometrial carcinomas. Median surface dose of 241 Am was 42.2 Gy (23.3Gy-106.6Gy). As part of their initial therapy 11 received pelvic external beam radiation therapy, 6 underwent surgery and 2 received other forms of intracavitary brachytherapy. Of these 12 patients, 11 achieved a complete response (CR) with the duration of CR ranging from 7 to 51 months. Actuarial disease-free survival at 3 years was 66% (S.E.=.16) and actuarial overall survival at 3 years was 91% (S.E.=.08). Median follow up for the 16 patients with recurrent pelvic malignancies was 72 months (20mo-99mo). There were 9 cases of endometrial, 3 vulvar, 3 colorectal, and 1 cervical carinomas. Fifteen of 16 received some form of surgery and radiotherapy prior to their treatment with 241 Am. Median surface dose of 241 Am was 40.3 (17.6Gy-141.7Gy). Of these 16 patients, 10 achieved a CR with the duration of CR ranging from 3 to 88 months. Actuarial disease-free survival at 5 years was 51% (S.E.=.16) and actuarial overall survival at 5 years was 43% (S.E.=.14). Complications were observed in 1 primarily treated patient (soft tissue necrosis) and in 3 patients with recurrent disease (colonic obstruction, rectal fissure, and GI bleed, respectively). Conclusion: The unique dosimetric characteristics of 241 Am allow effective and safe treatment of selected primary gynecological malignancies and in previously irradiated patients with recurrent pelvic malignancies

  2. Fabrication of uranium-americium mixed oxide fuels: thermodynamical modeling and materials properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, D.

    2011-01-01

    Fuel irradiation in pressurized water reactors lead to the formation of fission products and minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) which can be transmuted in fast neutrons reactors. In this context, the aim of this work was to study the fabrication conditions of the U 1-y Am y O 2+x fuels which exhibit particular thermodynamical properties requiring an accurate monitoring of the oxygen potential during the sintering step. For this reason, a thermodynamical model was developed to assess the optimum sintering conditions for these materials. From these calculations, U 1-y Am y O 2+x (y=0.10; 0.15; 0.20; 0.30) were sintered in two range of atmosphere. In hyper-stoichiometric conditions at low temperature, porous and multiphasic compounds are obtained whereas in reducing conditions at high temperature materials are dense and monophasic. XAFS analyses were performed in order to obtain additional experimental data for the thermodynamical modeling refinement. These characterizations also showed the reduction of Am(+IV) to Am(+III) and the partial oxidation of U(+IV) to U(+V) due to a charge compensation mechanism occurring during the sintering. Finally, taking into account the high - activity of Am, self-irradiation effects were studied for two types of microstructures and two Am contents (10 and 15%). For each composition, a lattice parameter increase was observed without structural change coupled with a macroscopic swelling of the pellet diameter up to 1.2% for the dense compounds and 0.6% for the tailored porosity materials. (author) [fr

  3. Thermochemistry of selected trivalent lanthanide and americium compounds: orthorhombic and hexagonal hydroxycarbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rorif, F.; Fuger, J.; Desreux, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    The molar enthalpies of dissolution of a number of well-characterized hexagonal hydroxycarbonates Ln(OH)CO 3 (hex) (Ln = La, Nd, Sm, Eu) in 6.00 mol dm -3 HCl were measured at 298.15K. A new sealed solution micro-calorimeter was developed for this purpose. It was made of an 18-carat gold alloy in order to improve the performances of a calorimeter previously built in our laboratory. The following standard molar enthalpies of formation, Δ f H m [Ln(OH)CO 3 , hex], in kJ mol -1 , were calculated: -(1627.8±1.6), -(1614.8±1.9), -(1613.4±1.6), and -(1523.0±3.0), for the La, Nd, Sm, and Eu compounds, respectively. These results allowed an extrapolation to Δ f H m [Eu(OH)CO 3 .0.5H 2 O, orth] = -(1653.4±3.6) kJ mol -1 and to Δ f H m [Am(OH)CO 3 , hex] = -(1552.5±3.3) kJ mol -1 . Using auxiliary data and estimated entropies, the solubility products of the hexagonal hydroxycarbonates were calculated. They are compared here with values deduced from solubility and calorimetric measurements for the corresponding orthorhombic hydroxycarbonates. Our approach generally leads to values similar to those deduced from solubility studies. The orthorhombic form is found to be metastable with respect to the hexagonal form. (orig.)

  4. Distribution of plutonium and americium in whole bodies donated to the United States Transuranium Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInroy, J.F.; Kathren, R.L.; Swint, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Radiochemical analysis of whole body donations from six former nuclear industry workers 30 or more years post-exposure revealed about 45% of the total body deposition of 239 Pu and 35% of the 241 Am in the respiratory tract of the four cases with inhalation exposure. These proportions are greater than predicted by the current ICRP lung model. Exclusive of the respiratory tract, the mean fractional systemic deposition of 239 Pu in the tissues of five whole bodies was: liver 35.4% ± 12.5%; skeleton 53.7% ± 12.5%; striated muscle 6.5% ± 1.8% and all other organs and tissues 4.4% ± 1.7%. For 241 Am, the comparable values in four cases were liver 6.5% ± 4.8%; skeleton 73.5% ± 12.4%; muscle 14.3% ± 7.6%; and all other tissues and organs 6.65% ± 4.2%. The systemic distribution of 239 Pu was generally consistent with ICRP Publication 30. A significant fraction of both nuclides was retained in the muscle and other soft tissues which serve as long-term storage depots. Initial fractionation of 241 Am between skeleton and liver is consistent with the 50:30 ratio proposed in ICRP Publication 48 assuming an effective clearance half-time from the liver of about 2 y. Estimates of 239 Pu deposition made on the basis of urinalysis results in vivo were typically greater than the observed deposition measured in the tissues of the whole body after death. (author)

  5. Controlling Hexavalent Americium – A Centerpiece to a Compact Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer/Braley, Jenifer; Nash, Kenneth L; Lumetta, Gregg; McCann, Kevin; Sinkov, Sergey I

    2014-10-01

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle could be simplified by recovering the actinides U through Am as a group. This could be achieved by converting U, Np, Pu and Am to the hexavalent state. Uranium, Np and Pu are readily oxidized to the hexavalent state. Generation of hexavalent Am in acidic solutions is more difficult, as the standard reduction potential of the Am(VI) /Am(III) couple (+1.68 V in 1 M HClO4) is well outside of the electrochemical stability window of water. While the oxidation and separation of Am has been demonstrated under laboratory conditions, several issues could plague scale up and implementation of this separation with used fuel. Two primary concerns are considered. The first issue concerns the stability of the oxidized Am. The second involves the undesirable co-extraction of tetravalent f-elements with the hexavalent actinides. To address the first concern regarding Am redox instability, Am reduction will be monitored under a variety of different conditions to establish the means of improving the stability of Am(VI) in the organic phase. Identifying the components contributing most significantly to its reduction will allow thoughtful modification of the process. To address the second concern, we propose to apply branched chain extractants to separate hexavalent actinides from tetravalent f-elements. Both branched monoamide and organophosphorus extractants have demonstrated significant selectivity for UO22+ versus Th4+, with separation factors generally on the order of 100. The efforts of this two-pronged research program should represent a significant step forward in the development of aqueous separations approaches designed to recover the U-Am actinides based on the availability of the hexavalent oxidation state. For the purposes of this proposal, separations based on this approach will be called SAn(VI) separations, indicating the Separation of An(VI).

  6. Separation of americium from lanthanides in nitric acid medium by DPTP in octanol-dodecane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Hongbin; Ye Guoan; Cheng Qifu; Ye Yuxing; Jiang Dexiang; Zhu Wenbin; Chen Hui; Zhang Hu; He Hui; Li Gaoliang

    2008-01-01

    Considering the good solubility of 2,6-bis(5,6-di-n-propyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)- pyridine (DPTP) and avoiding the third phase formation, octanol-dodecane (ODOD) with a volume fraction of 30% was selected as the diluent. The distribution ratios of Am(III) and Eu(III) were studied as a function of a number of parameters such as con- tact time, nitrate ion and the nitric acid concentration in aqueous phase, the concentration of DPTP in the organic phase. A counter-current cascade (10 mL glass tube with plug) extraction experiment was carried out with 0.04 mol/L DPTP/ODOD. In the experiments, the flow rate ratios are as following: F:X:S=1:0.63:0.25, BF:BX=1:1; the feed solution, Eu(III) + Am(III) in 1.0 mol/L HNO 3 solution; scrubbing solution, 1.0 mol/L HNO 3 solution; stripping reagent, 0.01 mol/L HNO 3 . The results show that the recovery of Am is 98.42%, only containing Am/Eu is 45, SF Eu/Am is more than 10 3 . (authors)

  7. A consistent set of thermodynamic constants for americium (III) species with hydroxyl and carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerrisk, J.F.; Silva, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A consistent set of thermodynamic constants for aqueous species, and compounds of Am(III) with hydroxyl and carbonate ligands has been developed. The procedure used to develop these constants involved establishing a value for one formation constant at a time in a sequential order, starting with the hydrolysis products and hydroxide solids, and then proceeding to carbonate species. The EQ3NR chemical-equilibrium model was used to test the constants developed. These constants are consistent with most of the experimental data that form their basis; however, considerable uncertainty still exists in some aspects of the Am(III) data

  8. Optimization of TRPO process parameters for americium extraction from high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jing; Wang Jianchen; Song Chongli

    2001-01-01

    The numerical calculations for Am multistage fractional extraction by trialkyl phosphine oxide (TRPO) were verified by a hot test. 1750L/t-U high level waste (HLW) was used as the feed to the TRPO process. The analysis used the simple objective function to minimize the total waste content in the TRPO process streams. Some process parameters were optimized after other parameters were selected. The optimal process parameters for Am extraction by TRPO are: 10 stages for extraction and 2 stages for scrubbing; a flow rate ratio of 0.931 for extraction and 4.42 for scrubbing; nitric acid concentration of 1.35 mol/L for the feed and 0.5 mol/L for the scrubbing solution. Finally, the nitric acid and Am concentration profiles in the optimal TRPO extraction process are given

  9. Separation of americium (III) and strontium (II) using TEHDGA and 18-crown-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinharoy, Prithwish; Khan, Pasupati Nath; Nair, Deepika; Jagasia, Poonam; Dhami, P.S.; Kaushik, C.P.; Banerjee, Kalyan [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Nuclear Recycle Group; Anitha, M. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Rare Earth Development Section; Sharma, J.N. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Process Development Div.

    2017-06-01

    This work describes extraction of Am(III) and Sr(II) together with tetra(2-ethylhexyl) diglycolamide (TEHDGA) and selective back-extraction of strontium with a strontium complexant, 18-crown-6, leading to their separation from each other. 0.3 M TEHDGA+5% isodecyl alcohol/n-dodecane was used to extract Am(III) and Sr(II) from 4 M nitric acid into organic phase with very high D (D{sub Am}=1000, D{sub Sr}=22) and 0.1 M 18-crown-6 dissolved in 4 M nitric acid is used for selective stripping of Sr(II) from loaded extract phase. Am(III) left in the extract phase was then stripped with 0.01 M nitric acid. Stripping of Sr(II) was found to increase with increase in 18-crown-6 concentration, at 0.1 M 18-crown-6 dissolved in 4 M nitric acid, 83% of the loaded strontium (D{sub Sr}=0.20) was back-extracted in a single contact while loss of Am(III) was 0.8% (D{sub Am}=122.45). Stoichiometry limit of 1:1 was observed between strontium and 18-crown-6. Strontium was precipitated and separated from the complexant by Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. This process was tested with simulated solution of high level waste and found suitable for quantitative recovery of strontium with high purity.

  10. Fundamental chemistry and materials science of americium in selected immobilization glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, R.G.; Stump, N.A.

    1996-01-01

    We have pursued some of the fundamental chemistry and materials science of Am in 3 glass matrices, two being high-temperature (850 and 1400 C mp) silicate-based glasses and the third a sol-gel glass. Optical spectroscopy was the principal tool. One aspect of this work was to determine the oxidation state exhibited by Am in these matrices, as well as factors that control or may alter this state. A correlation was noted between the oxidation state of the f-elements in the two high-temperature glasses with their high-temperature oxide chemistries. One exception was Am: although AmO 2 is the stable oxide encountered in air, when this dioxide was incorporated into the high-temperature glasses, only trivalent Am was found in the products. When Am(III) was used to prepare the sol-gel glasses at ambient temperature, and after these products were heated in air to 800 C, only Am(III) was observed. Potential explanations for the unexpected Am behavior is offered in the context of its basic chemistry. Experimental spectra, spectroscopic assignments, etc. are discussed

  11. Standard test method for the radiochemical determination of americium-241 in soil by alpha spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This method covers the determination of americium–241 in soil by means of chemical separations and alpha spectrometry. It is designed to analyze up to ten grams of soil or other sample matrices that contain up to 30 mg of combined rare earths. This method allows the determination of americium–241 concentrations from ambient levels to applicable standards. The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precaution statements, see Section 10.

  12. Photochemical oxidation of americium(3) in bicarbonate-carbonate solutions saturated with N2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilov, V.P.; Yusov, A.B.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of UV radiation on 1.1x10 -4 mol/l Am(3) in bicarbonate-carbonate solutions of sodium and potassium saturated with N 2 O was studied by spectrographic method. In all the cases Am(4) was formed as a primary product. Initial rate of Am(4) accumulation remains stable in solutions up to HCO 3 - or HCO 3 - +CO 3 2- concentration of approximately 1.5 mol/l, but it decreases in case of their higher concentration. In solutions with pH 8.4-10 Am(4) disproportionates at a slow rate and the method suggested permits attaining practically 100% yield of it

  13. Sorption of carbon, cobalt, nickel, strontium, iodine, cesium, americium and neptumium in rocks and minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnoja, S.; Jaakkola, T.; Kaemaeraeinen, E.L.; Koskinen, A.; Lindberg, A.

    1984-09-01

    Sorption of the radionuclides C-14, Co-58, Ni-63, I-125, Sr-85, Cs-134, Am-241 and Np-237, which are important in nuclear waste, were studied in rock by autoradiographic method. Samples were selected to represent common rocks and minerals in Finnish bedrock: rapakivi granite, tonalite, mica gneiss, granodiorite, biotite, quartz, plagioclase, K feldspar and hornblende. Polished thin sections were used to determine the contributions of different minerals to the sorption of the radionuclides. Sawn rock pieces (1.2 x 1.2 x 1.6 cm) were used to determine the Ksub(a)-values for rough rock surfaces where penetration into the rock matrix was found. The sorption order of the elements determined with the rock pieces was Ksub(a)sup(Cs)>Ksub(a)sup(Ni)>Ksub(a)sup(Co)>Ksub(a)sup(Sr)>Ksub(a)sup(C)>Ksub(a)sup(I). The same order of sorption was determined with thin sections for all nuclides except carbon, which was not sorbed on thin sections. Wide differences in the Ksub(a)-values for different minerals were found for Cs and Sr. The sorption mechanism for these elements is presumed to be ion exchange. The Ksub(a)-values of Cs varied between 0.1 x 10 -4 and 600 x 10 -4 m 3 /m 2 and those for Sr between 0.01 x 10 -4 and 10 x 10 -4 m 3 /m 2 . The lowest values were determined for quartz and the highest for biotite. Radionuclides having a tendency to form pseudocolloids and hydroxide precipitates (Am, Np, Ni) were sorbed on thin sections with only small variation in Ksub(a)-values: all values were between 1 x 10 -4 and 10 x 10 -4 and 100 x 10 -4 m 3 /m 2 . A very good agreement was found between experimental and calculated Ksub(a)-values for rock thin sections. Ksub(a)-values were calculated by multiplying the percentages of individual minerals in the rock by the Ksub(a)-values of the corresponding pure minerals and summing the results. Calculated Ksub(a)-values were occasionally up to 50% smaller than the experimental ones, owing to the low contents of some high adsorbing minerals not included in the calculations

  14. New Synthetic Methods and Structure-Property Relationships in Neptunium, Plutonium, and Americium Borates. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas Edward

    2013-01-01

    The past three years of support by the Heavy Elements Chemistry Program have been highly productive in terms of advanced degrees awarded, currently supported graduate students, peer-reviewed publications, and presentations made at universities, national laboratories, and at international conferences. Ph.D. degrees were granted to Shuao Wang and Juan Diwu, who both went on to post-doctoral appointments at the Glenn T. Seaborg Center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with Jeff Long and Ken Raymond, respectively. Pius Adelani completed his Ph.D. with me and is now a post-doc with Peter C. Burns. Andrea Alsobrook finished her Ph.D. and is now a post-doc at Savannah River with Dave Hobbs. Anna Nelson completed her Ph.D. and is now a post-doc with Rod Ewing at the University of Michigan. As can be gleaned from this list, students supported by the Heavy Elements Chemistry grant have remained interested in actinide science after leaving my program. This follows in line with previous graduates in this program such as Richard E. Sykora, who did his post-doctoral work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with R. G. Haire, and Amanda C. Bean, who is a staff scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Philip M. Almond and Thomas C. Shehee, who are both staff scientists at Savannah River National Laboratory, Gengbang Jin who is a staff scientist at Argonne National Lab, and Travis Bray who has been a post-doc at both LBNL and ANL. Clearly this program is serving as a pipe-line for students to enter into careers in the national laboratories. About half of my students depart the DOE complex for academia or industry. My undergraduate researchers also remain active in actinide chemistry after leaving my group. Dan Wells was a productive undergraduate of mine, and went on to pursue a Ph.D. on uranium and neptunium chalcogenides with Jim Ibers at Northwestern. After earning his Ph.D., he went directly into the nuclear industry

  15. A Study of the Translocation of Plutonium and Americium from Wounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watters, R. L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Lebel, Jacques L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Johnson, LaMar J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Bull, Emory H. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The technological feasibility and economic advantages of the use of plutonium in power reactors and in other plutoniumfueled systems have been widely explored and demonstrated (1). As the use of plutonium and other transuranic nuclides has increased, the chance of their deposition within the human body has increased. A relatively complete review of the literature regarding the modes of entry, distribution, excretion, and means of evaluating plutonium within living systems has been recently published (2, 3).

  16. New Synthetic Methods and Structure-Property Relationships in Neptunium, Plutonium, and Americium Borates. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas Edward

    2013-09-14

    The past three years of support by the Heavy Elements Chemistry Program have been highly productive in terms of advanced degrees awarded, currently supported graduate students, peer-reviewed publications, and presentations made at universities, national laboratories, and at international conferences. Ph.D. degrees were granted to Shuao Wang and Juan Diwu, who both went on to post-doctoral appointments at the Glenn T. Seaborg Center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with Jeff Long and Ken Raymond, respectively. Pius Adelani completed his Ph.D. with me and is now a post-doc with Peter C. Burns. Andrea Alsobrook finished her Ph.D. and is now a post-doc at Savannah River with Dave Hobbs. Anna Nelson completed her Ph.D. and is now a post-doc with Rod Ewing at the University of Michigan. As can be gleaned from this list, students supported by the Heavy Elements Chemistry grant have remained interested in actinide science after leaving my program. This follows in line with previous graduates in this program such as Richard E. Sykora, who did his post-doctoral work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with R. G. Haire, and Amanda C. Bean, who is a staff scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Philip M. Almond and Thomas C. Shehee, who are both staff scientists at Savannah River National Laboratory, Gengbang Jin who is a staff scientist at Argonne National Lab, and Travis Bray who has been a post-doc at both LBNL and ANL. Clearly this program is serving as a pipe-line for students to enter into careers in the national laboratories. About half of my students depart the DOE complex for academia or industry. My undergraduate researchers also remain active in actinide chemistry after leaving my group. Dan Wells was a productive undergraduate of mine, and went on to pursue a Ph.D. on uranium and neptunium chalcogenides with Jim Ibers at Northwestern. After earning his Ph.D., he went directly into the nuclear industry.

  17. Subsurface Behavior of Plutonium and Americium at Non-Hanford Sites and Relevance to Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Riley, Robert G.

    2008-02-01

    Seven sites where Pu release to the environment has raised significant environmental concerns have been reviewed. A summary of the most significant hydrologic and geochemical features, contaminant release events and transport processes relevant to Pu migration at the seven sites is presented.

  18. Neutron activation analysis: Modelling studies to improve the neutron flux of Americium Beryllium source

    OpenAIRE

    Didi, Abdessamad; Dadouch, A.; Jaï, O.; Tajmouati, J.; El Bekkouri, H.

    2017-01-01

    Americium–beryllium (Am-Be; n, γ) is a neutron emitting source used in various research fields such as chemistry, physics, geology, archaeology, medicine, and environmental monitoring, as well as in the forensic sciences. It is a mobile source of neutron activity (20 Ci), yielding a small thermal neutron flux that is water moderated. The aim of this study is to develop a model to increase the neutron thermal flux of a source such as Am-Be. This study achieved multiple advantageous results: pr...

  19. Radioanalytical determination of plutonium and americium using ion exchange and extraction chromatography technique in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhanakrishnan, V.; Sreedevi, K.R.; Rajaram, S.; Ravi, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of anion exchange chromatography for the separation of Pu and extraction chromatography technique for the separation of Am from urine samples was studied. In the earlier method, Pu separation was carried out by anion exchange chromatography followed by Am separation by cation exchange chromatography. The chemical recovery of Am obtained by cation exchange separation method was inconsistent and low in the range 30-70%. In this study, the average Pu recovery obtained using anion exchange chromatography was 89.2 with standard deviation of 10.4 and the average Am recovery obtained using extraction chromatography with TRU resin was 77.4 with standard deviation of 14.8. Moreover, Am separation could be completed within three hours using the TRU column compared to two days that were required for the cation exchange chromatography. (author)

  20. Computer modelling of the chemical speciation of Americium (III) in human body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Shu-bin; Lei, Jia-rong; Wang, He-yi; Zhong, Zhi-jing; Yang, Yong; Du, Yang

    2008-01-01

    A multi-phase equilibrium model consisted of multi-metal ion and low molecular mass ligands in human body fluid has been constructed to discuss the speciation of Am 3+ in gastric juice, sweat, interstitial fluid, intracellular fluid and urine of human body, respectively. Computer simulations indicated that the major Am(III)P Species were Am 3+ , [Am Cl] 2+ and [AmH 2 PO 4 ] 2+ at pH 4 became dominant with higher pH value when [Am] = 1 x 10 -7 mol/L in gastric juice model and percentage of AmPO 4 increased with [Am]. in sweat system, Am(III) existed with soluble species at pH 4.2∼pH 7.5 when [Am] = 1 x 10 -7 mol/L and Am(III) existed with Am 3+ and [Am OH] 2+ at pH 6.5 when [Am] -10 mol/L or [Am] > 5 x 10 -8 mol/L . With addition of EDTA, the Am(III) existed with soluble [Am EDTA] - whereas the Am(III) existed with insoluble AmPO 4 when [Am] > 1 x 10 -12 mol/L at interstitial fluid. The major Am(III) species was AmPO 4 at pH 7.0 and [Am]=4 x 10 -12 mol/L in intracellular fluid, which implied Am(III) represented strong cell toxicity. The percentage of Am(III) soluble species increased at lower pH hinted that the Am(III), in the form of aerosol, ingested by macrophage, could released into interstitial fluid and bring strong toxicity to skeleton system. The soluble Am(III) species was dominant when pH 4 when pH > 4.5 when [Am] = 1 x 10 -10 Pmol/L in human urine, so it was favorable to excrete Am(III) from kidney by taking acid materials. (author)

  1. Neutron activation analysis: Modelling studies to improve the neutron flux of Americium-Beryllium source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didi, Abdessamad; Dadouch, Ahmed; Tajmouati, Jaouad; Bekkouri, Hassane [Advanced Technology and Integration System, Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Science Dhar Mehraz, University Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Fez (Morocco); Jai, Otman [Laboratory of Radiation and Nuclear Systems, Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Tetouan (Morocco)

    2017-06-15

    Americium–beryllium (Am-Be; n, γ) is a neutron emitting source used in various research fields such as chemistry, physics, geology, archaeology, medicine, and environmental monitoring, as well as in the forensic sciences. It is a mobile source of neutron activity (20 Ci), yielding a small thermal neutron flux that is water moderated. The aim of this study is to develop a model to increase the neutron thermal flux of a source such as Am-Be. This study achieved multiple advantageous results: primarily, it will help us perform neutron activation analysis. Next, it will give us the opportunity to produce radio-elements with short half-lives. Am-Be single and multisource (5 sources) experiments were performed within an irradiation facility with a paraffin moderator. The resulting models mainly increase the thermal neutron flux compared to the traditional method with water moderator.

  2. Plutonium, americium, and uranium concentrations in Nevada Test Site soil profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essington, E.H.; Gilbert, R.O.; Eberhardt, L.L.; Fowler, E.B.

    1975-01-01

    Many soil profile samples were collected by the Nevada Applied Ecology Group from five nuclear safety test sites on the Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range in Nevada, U.S.A. The profile samples were analyzed for 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Am, and in some cases 235 U and 238 U, in order to estimate the depth of radionuclide penetration and level of contamination at specific sampling depths after an extended period of time since deposition on the surface. Nearly 70 individual profiles were examined. About one-half of the profiles exhibited a smooth leaching pattern with more than 95 percent of the plutonium in the top 5 cm. Other profile patterns are discussed relative to mechanical disturbance of the profile after the initial deposition, accumulation of plutonium in specific zones within the soil profile, and occurrence of large amounts of plutonium in the deepest parts of the soil profile. The implications of these observations are discussed with respect to redistribution of radioactivity by wind, water, and burrowing animals, ingestion by burrowing and grazing animals, uptake by vegetation, and cleanup operations. (auth)

  3. Effect of solvent on in vitro dissolution: Summary of results for uranium, americium, and cobalt aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Hoover, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    The revised 10 CFR Part 20 has adopted the ICRP Publication 30 method for calculating the committed effective dose equivalent from intakes of radionuclides. This dosimetry scheme requires knowledge or assumptions about the chemical form of the radionuclide, its particle size, and its known or assumed solubility. The solubility is classified as being either D (relatively soluble), W, or Y (relatively insoluble), depending on whether the material dissolves over periods of days, weeks, or years. Although Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees may wish to take advantage of material-specific knowledge in order to adjust annual limits on intake and derived air concentrations, relatively few radioactive materials to which workers and the general population may be exposed have been adequately characterized either in terms of physicochemical form or solubility. Experimental measurement of solubility using some type of in vitro dissolution measurement system is therefore needed. However, there is currently no clear consensus regarding the appropriate design of in vitro dissolution systems, particularly when considering the range of different radionuclides to be studied, and the complexity of the biological mechanisms involved in the retention and clearance of inhaled deposited radioactive particles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the several solvents on the dissolution of four test aerosols ({sup 57}Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, {sup 241}AmO{sub 2}, ammonium diuranate [ADU], and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) selected to encompass a variety of chemical and biochemical properties in vivo. The results of this study provide some guidance on the usefulness of in vitro dissolution tests for estimating the solubility of unknown radionuclide particles within the context of a simple model such as the class D, W, and Y formulation of ICRP 30.

  4. Smith D., 2000, Moral Geographies. Ethics in a World of Difference, Edinburgh University Press, 244 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Milhaud, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    The deeply geographical nature of moral issues « Our choices are, in effect, guided by a map of moral alternatives, a map of which we are not aware. Through our everyday interactions, we trace the moral geography of our lives » Stephen Birdsall, 1996 “This book explores the interface between geography, ethics, and morality” and David Smith helps us to understand “how geographical context is significant to moral practice, and how ethical deliberation is incomplete without recognition of the ge...

  5. : tous les projets | Page 244 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Projet. Le delta du Paraná, en Argentine, est considéré comme extrêmement exposé aux changements climatiques. Date de début : 27 juillet 2011. End Date: 27 septembre 2014. Sujet: Climate change, ADAPTATION TO CHANGE, RIVER BASINS, FLOODS, LAND USE, PLANNING, RISK MANAGEMENT. Région: ...

  6. Stability of 244−260Fm isotopes against alpha and cluster radioactivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Theor. Phys. 113, 305 (2005). [46] G Royer, J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 26, 1149 (2000). [47] R K Gupta and W Greiner, Int. J. Mod. Phys. E3, 335 (1994). [48] P Moller, J R Nix, W D Myers and W J Swiatecki, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 59,. 185 (1995). [49] S Wang, D Snowden-Ifft, P B Price, K J Moody and E K Hulet, Phys.

  7. Phenotype and 244k array-CGH characterization of chromosome 13q deletions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhoff, Maria; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Stoeva, Radka

    2009-01-01

    malformations (13q33.1-qter), Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) (13q32.2-q33.1), corpus callosum agenesis (CCA) (13q32.3-q33.1), meningocele/encephalocele (13q31.3-qter), DWM, CCA, and neural tube defects (NTDs) taken together (13q32.3-q33.1), ano-/microphthalmia (13q31.3-13qter), cleft lip/palate (13q31.3-13q33...

  8. U. S. Atlantic Fleet, Eighth Amphibious Force. Operation Plan Number 2-44

    Science.gov (United States)

    1944-01-01

    8217 , • , . , (c) 84»3 . YELLOW Beach Assault Group,. Commodore Edgar • 84.3*1 Transport^ Unit, commodore Edgar ^g . , . r APA SAMUEL CHASE (26), HEOTICO (-13...F) : 2’ APA . ’ - ’ /, XAP ANNE ARUNDEL (76), TEURSTON (77) , .2 ’ZAP \\\\ • A&V OBERON .(14), ANDROlvEDA (15) 2 AKi ’ ’HMS HIGHWAY ’ ’.’ . ... 1 LSD...suffering underwater damage make emergency requests,for assist^ . ’, ance from nearby ships or7 salvage "units,;’ Norma ?.ly, re quests, for

  9. Consistent evaluation of neutron cross sections for the 242-244Cm isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatyuk, A.V.; Maslov, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    The knowledge of neutron cross-sections for Curium isotopes is necessary for solving the problems of the external fuel cycle. Experimental information on the cross-sections is very meager and does not satisfy requirements and existing evaluations in different libraries differ substantially for fission and (n,2n) reaction cross-sections. This situation requires a critical review of the entire set of evaluations of the neutron cross-sections for Curium. 17 refs, 3 figs

  10. Poly[bis?(?2-4,4?-bipyridine)bis?(3-nitro?benzoato)cobalt(II)

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, Pei-Hsuan; Hsu, Shih-Chen; Lin, Chia-Her

    2009-01-01

    The hydrothermal reaction of cobalt nitrate with 4,4′-bipyridine and 3-nitrobenzoic acid lead to the formation of the title complex, [Co(C7H4NO4)2(C10H8N2)2]n. In the crystal structure, the CoII atoms are coordinated by two terminal carboxylate anions and four 4,4′-bipyridine ligands within slightly distorted octahedra. The CoII atom and one of the two independent 4,4′-bipyridine ligands are located on a twofold rotation axis, while the second independent 4,4&...

  11. 244 Nasal Poliposis and Allergic Disease. Dr. Salvador Allende Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Ada Castillo

    2012-01-01

    Background The edematous irritation of the corium of the pituitary mucosa wakes it suffers a degeneration that causes what is known as nasal polyposis, hypertrophy of the nasal mucosa as a result of a chronic inflamatory process. It is said that its formation is due to infectious processes, vascular changes as local disorders of the immunity of the nasal mucosa. However many concide in including the allergic factors as the cause of the nasal polypos and they give a special interest to the constitutional factor inside the genesis of them. The investigation had as objectives to know the relationship that there is between the nasal polyposis and the allergic diseases, as well as to study some parameters of the humoral and celular immunity in our patients. Methods 15 patients diagnosed wiht nasal polyposis were taken from the otorhinolaryngologists and they were sent to the allergic department to be evaluated. Patient's charts of all of thems were made and they were indicated some studies such as eosinophil global count, nasal exudate,sample radiographic study of paranasal sinus, serology, hemogram, glycemia and minimal clotting test, study of the humoral immunity and making determination of IgE, IgA, IgG, IgM. The celular immunity was also studied by making a determination of active and expontaneous Roseta test. And a life evaluation was made too by means of the hypersensitivity retard tests. Results High figures of elevated IgE were obtained in a 67 % of the patients studied. A control group was made for the Igs determination and the Roseta test. No significant difference was found in the Roseta test. Conclusions The elevation of the IgE in the patients studied makes us infer that there is an evident relation ship between these 2 pathologies. There is no evidence. That shows that there is an alteration of the celular immunity in the sample of the patients with nasal polyposis that were studied.

  12. 244G>A(rs673) polymorphisms at the promoter region of the TNF-α

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF-α) is a multifunctional pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of malaria. The level of expression of this cytokine is however suggested to be under genetic control. This study evaluated the frequency of two single nucleotide polymorphisms ...

  13. Determination of Am-241, Cm-242 and Cm-244 in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afsar, M.; Schuettelkopf, H.

    1988-01-01

    An analytical procedure for the determination of Am and Cm in environmental, liquid and gaseous effluent samples was developed. It is based on extraction chromatography with subsequent anion and cation exchange to remove matrix elements and to purify Am and Cm, which are then electrode posited from an oxalate/HCl medium. The mean value of the chemical yield is about 90%. A detection limit of 7 μBq/g is achieved. The decontamination factors for important α emitters are > 10 4 . Four analyses/week can be performed by one technician. (orig./RB) [de

  14. Riding Bare-Back on unstructured meshes for 21. century criticality calculations - 244

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, K.C.; Martz, R.L.; Crane, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    MCNP has a new capability that permits tracking of neutrons and photons on an unstructured mesh which is embedded as a mesh universe within its legacy geometry capability. The mesh geometry is created through Abaqus/CAE using its solid modeling capabilities. Transport results are calculated for mesh elements through a path length estimator while element to element tracking is performed on the mesh. The results from MCNP can be exported to Abaqus/CAE for visualization or other-physics analysis. The simple Godiva criticality benchmark problem was tested with this new mesh capability. Computer run time is proportional to the number of mesh elements used. Both first and second order polyhedrons are used. Models that used second order polyhedrons produced slightly better results without significantly increasing computer run time. Models that used first order hexahedrons had shorter runtimes than models that used first order tetrahedrons. (authors)

  15. 7 CFR 2.44 - Administrator, Risk Management Agency and Manager, Federal Crop Insurance Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, Risk Management Agency and Manager... Secretary for Farm and Foreign Agricultural Services to the Administrator, Risk Management Agency, and... for the transaction of the business of the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation and the Risk Management...

  16. 40 CFR 81.244 - Northwest Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipalities (as defined in section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 1857h(f)) geographically located..., Norman County, Otter Tail County, Pennington County, Polk County, Pope County, Red Lake County, Roseau...

  17. Determination and speciation of plutonium, americium, uranium, thorium, potassium and 137Cs in a Venice canal sediment sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Guerra, F.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C.; Degetto, S.

    1998-01-01

    A sequential extraction method consisting of six operationally-defined fractions has been developed for determining the geochemical partitioning of natural (U, Th, 40 K) and anthropogenic (Pu, Am, 137 Cs) radionuclides in a 40-50 cm deep sediment sample collected in a Venice canal. Extraction chromatography was used for the chemical separation of a single radionuclide; the final recoveries were calculated by adding 232 U, 228 Th, 242 Pu and 243 Am as the yield tracers. After electrodeposition the alpha spectrometry was carried out. 137 Cs and 40 K were measured by gamma spectrometry. The total concentrations in the wet sample, obtained by a complete disgregation of the matrix by NaOH fusion, were the following: 239+240 Pu = 610 ± 80 mBq/kg, 238 Pu = 13 ± 5mBq/kg, 241 Am 200 ± 30 mBq/kg, 137 Cs = 6.9 ± 1.1 Bq/kg, U = 1.33 ± 0.14 ppm, Th = 2.69 ± 0.26 ppm, K = 0.72 ± 0.04 %. The mean ratio 238 Pu/ 239+240 Pu ( 0.02) shows a contamination due essentially to fall-out and U and Th alpha spectra indicate the natural origin of two elements. The absence of 134 Cs proves that the sediment was not affected by the Chernobyl fall-out. For the speciation, the following fractions were considered: water soluble, carbonates, Fe-Mn oxides, organic matter, acid soluble, residue. Pu (about 65%) and Am (about 90%) were present predominantly in the carbonate fraction; U was more distributed and about 30% appeared both in the carbonate fraction and in the residue; the majority of Th was present in the residue (about 67%); 40 K was totally present in the residue; and 137 Cs was found mostly in the acid soluble fraction (about 46%) and in the residue (about 40%)

  18. A Review of Subsurface Behavior of Plutonium and Americium at the 200-PW-1/3/6 Operable Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Riley, Robert G.

    2008-01-31

    This report begins with a brief summary of the history and current status of 200-PW-1/3/6 OUs in section 2.0. This is followed by a description of our concentual model of Pu/Am migration at the 200-PW-1/3/6 OUs, during both past artificial recharge conditions and current natural recharge condictions (section 3.0). Section 4.0 discusses data gaps and information needs. The final section (section 5.0) provides recommendations for futher work to address the data gaps and information needs identified in section 4.0.

  19. A highly efficient solvent system containing functionalized diglycolamides and an ionic liquid for americium recovery from radioactive wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengupta, A; Mohapatra, P.K.; Iqbal, M.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem

    2012-01-01

    Three room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), viz. C4mim+·PF6−, C6mim+·PF6− and C8mim+·PF6−, were evaluated as diluents for the extraction of Am(III) by N,N,N′,N′-tetraoctyl diglycolamide (TODGA). At 3 M HNO3, the DAm-values by 0.01 M TODGA were found to be 102, 34 and 74 for C4mim+·PF6−,

  20. The extraction of americium and strontium by P,P'-Di(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2- diphosphonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otu, E.O.; Chiarizia, R.; Rickert, P.G.; Nash, K.L.

    2002-01-01

    A new acidic organophosphorus extractant, P,P'-di(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2-diphosphonic acid (H2DEH[1,2-BzDP]), has been synthesized. Though the extractant proved unstable with respect to acid hydrolysis upon storage at room temperature, it was sufficiently stable in o-xylene solution under refrigeration to determine its aggregation and extraction properties for Sr 2+ and Am 3+ between 25 and 60 C. Slope analysis of radioanalytical data and the results of osmometric measurements indicate that the dominant extraction reaction for both metal ions is M n+ +n HL(l e quilibrium)ML n +n H + where n=2 for Sr(II) and 3 for Am(III). In the Sr system there is also evidence for the extraction of SrNO 3 + . As the extractant aggregation and extraction stoichiometries do not change significantly with temperature, it was possible to derive enthalpies and entropies of extraction from the temperature dependence of the metal extraction equilibrium constants between 25.0 and 60.0 C. The extraction of both metal ions is driven by an exothermic enthalpy and opposed by unfavorable entropies. The thermodynamic data are discussed in comparison with earlier data on the thermodynamics of extraction of these metal ions by analogous ligands containing aliphatic alkyl linkages between the functional groups and other data from the literature.

  1. Salicylic acid failed to increase the efficacy of Ca-DTPA in the decorporation of plutonium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Mays, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Male and female C57BL/Do mice were each given a single i.p. injection of 237+239 Pu + 241 Am as the citrate complex at 45 days of age. Twice weekly i.p. injecctions of either 500 μmol/kg Ca-DTPA or 500 μmol/kg Ca-DTPA, mixed just before injection with 2000 μmol/kg salicylic acid (SA), were begun 3 days after nuclide administration and continued for 5 weeks. Control mice were injected each time with isotonic saline. Nuclide retention was determined by in vivo counting using NaI(T1) spectrometry. At the end of treatment, total-body retention of Pu or Am in the mice given Ca-DTPA was significantly lower (P < 0.001) than in the control animals. Mice treated with Ca-DTPA + SA were statistically indistinguishable from mice treated with Ca-DTPA

  2. Theoretical investigation of pressure-induced structural transitions in americium using GGA+U and hybrid density functional theory methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verma, Ashok K.; Modak, P.; Sharma, Surinder M.

    2013-01-01

    and pressure-induced structural transitions. Both methods yield equilibrium volume and bulk modulus in good agreement with the experimental results. The GGA+spin orbit coupling+U method reproduced all structural transitions under pressure correctly, but the HYB-DFT method failed to reproduce the observed Am......-I to Am-II transition. Good agreement was found between calculated and experimental equations of states for all phases, but the first three phases need larger U (α) parameters (where α represents the fraction of Hartree-Fock exchange energy replacing the DFT exchange energy) than the fourth phase in order...... to match the experimental data. Thus, neither the GGA+U nor the HYB-DFT methods are able to describe the energetics of Am metal properly in the entire pressure range from 0 GPa to 50 GPa with a single choice of their respectiveU and α parameters. Low binding-energy peaks in the experimental photoemission...

  3. Evaluation of thermal neutron cross-sections and resonance integrals of protactinium, americium, curium, and berkelium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanova, T.S.

    1994-12-01

    Data on the thermal neutron fission and capture cross-sections as well as their corresponding resonance integrals are reviewed and analysed. The data are classified according to the form of neutron spectra under investigation. The weighted mean values of the cross-sections and resonance integrals for every type of neutron spectra were adopted as evaluated data. (author). 87 refs, 2 tabs

  4. Thermodynamic properties of chemical species in nuclear waste: Topical report: The solubilities of crystalline neodymium and americium trihydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.J.

    1982-12-01

    The solubilities of crystalline Nd(OH) 3 and Am(OH) 3 were measured at 25 +- 1 0 C in aqueous solutions of 0.1 M NaClO 4 under argon as a function of pH by determination of the solution concentrations of Nd and Am. Prior to use in the solubility measurements, the solid materials were characterized through their x-ray powder patterns. Analyses of the solubility data with the computer code MINEQL allowed estimates of the solubility product constants, K/sub s10/, and the second and third hydrolysis constants, K 12 and K 13 , for Nd 3+ and Am 3+ . Upper limits for the fourth hydrolysis constants were also estimated. For Nd, they are: log K/sub s10/ = 16.0 +- .2, log K 12 = -15.8 +- .5, log K 13 = -23.9 +- .2 and log K 14 12 = -16.0 +- .7, log K 13 = -24.3 +- .3 and log K 14 3 was found to be a factor of 100 to 300 less soluble than predicted from previously reported thermodynamic data over much of the pH range of environmental interest. The measured solubility of crystalline Am(OH) 3 was also considerably less than predicted from the previously estimated solubility product constant, i.e., a factor of about 600. For Am, the solubility of the crystalline material was a factor of about 30 less than the amorphous material. The solubilities of crystalline Nd(OH) 3 and Am(OH) 3 as a function of pH were found to be very similar and Nd(OH) 3 should be a good analog compound for Am(OH) 3

  5. LITERATURE REVIEW ON THE SORPTION OF PLUTONIUM, URANIUM, NEPTUNIUM, AMERICIUM AND TECHNETIUM TO CORROSION PRODUCTS ON WASTE TANK LINERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.; Kaplan, D.

    2012-02-29

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has conducted performance assessment (PA) calculations to determine the risk associated with closing liquid waste tanks. The PA estimates the risk associated with a number of scenarios, making various assumptions. Throughout all of these scenarios, it is assumed that the carbon-steel tank liners holding the liquid waste do not sorb the radionuclides. Tank liners have been shown to form corrosion products, such as Fe-oxyhydroxides (Wiersma and Subramanian 2002). Many corrosion products, including Fe-oxyhydroxides, at the high pH values of tank effluent, take on a very strong negative charge. Given that many radionuclides may have net positive charges, either as free ions or complexed species, it is expected that many radionuclides will sorb to corrosion products associated with tank liners. The objective of this report was to conduct a literature review to investigate whether Pu, U, Np, Am and Tc would sorb to corrosion products on tank liners after they were filled with reducing grout (cementitious material containing slag to promote reducing conditions). The approach was to evaluate radionuclides sorption literature with iron oxyhydroxide phases, such as hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) and ferrihydrite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} {center_dot} 0.5H{sub 2}O). The primary interest was the sorption behavior under tank closure conditions where the tanks will be filled with reducing cementitious materials. Because there were no laboratory studies conducted using site specific experimental conditions, (e.g., high pH and HLW tank aqueous and solid phase chemical conditions), it was necessary to extend the literature review to lower pH studies and noncementitious conditions. Consequently, this report relied on existing lower pH trends, existing geochemical modeling, and experimental spectroscopic evidence conducted at lower pH levels. The scope did not include evaluating the appropriateness of K{sub d} values for the Fe-oxyhydroxides, but instead to evaluate whether it is a conservative assumption to exclude this sorption process of radionuclides onto tank liner corrosion products in the PA model. This may identify another source for PA conservatism since the modeling did not consider any sorption by the tank liner.

  6. Studies on the binding and transport processes of americium-241 hydroxide polymers in rat lung and bovine alveolar macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taya, A.

    1986-03-01

    The binding of Am-241 hydroxide polymers to the cell components of rat lung was investigated using differential centrifugation, density gradient centrifugation with different media, gel chromatography, free flow electrophoresis and electron microscopic autoradiography with Pu-241. The bovine alveolar macrophage cultures were introduced as an in vitro test system for Am-241 uptake. Form the biochemical and electron microscopic studies it can be concluded that Am-241 is taken up by pulmonary macrophages, where its first storage site is probably the lysosome. Then the Am-241 seems to be solubilized in the lysosomes and to be bound to the cytosolic ferritin of macrophages. Am-241 might be released from the cells and crosses the alveolar membranes as bound to transferrin or as low molecular weight form. (orig.) [de

  7. Handling of a glove box accident. Surgical treatment of a wound contaminated by a mixture of plutonium-239 and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalu, P.

    1977-01-01

    An employee of the Valduc Centre (France) suffered an injury to his right thumb when working in a glove-box on a pipeline which had contained a solution of 239 Pu and Am. The lesion was slight but attempts at decontamination were fruitless. The contamination was deep-seated (activity of not less than 18nCi). DTPA was injected intravenously, and it was decided to excise the lesion surgically. Thanks to the quality of its physical facilities and the professional quality of its radiation medicine and surgery team, the Valduc Centre was able to carry out the operation successfully. The result was excellent, and the contamination was eliminated to the satisfaction of both the patient and the physician. (author)

  8. Selective extraction of americium(III) over europium(III) ions with pyridylpyrazole ligands. Structure-property relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Dongping; Liu, Ying; Li, Shimeng; Ding, Songdong; Jin, Yongdong; Wang, Zhipeng; Hu, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Lirong [Department of chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2017-01-18

    To clarify the structure-property relationships of pyridylpyrazole ligands and provide guidance for the design of new and more efficient ligands for the selective extraction of actinides over lanthanides, a series of alkyl-substituted pyridylpyrazole ligands with different branched chains at different positions of the pyrazole ring were synthesized. Extraction experiments showed that the pyridylpyrazole ligands exhibited good selective extraction abilities for Am{sup III} ions, and the steric effects of the branched chain had a significant impact on the distribution ratios of Am{sup III} and Eu{sup III} ions as well as the separation factor. Moreover, both slope analyses and UV/Vis spectrometry titrations indicated the formation of a 1:1 complex of 2-(1-octyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine (C8-PypzH) with Eu{sup III} ions. The stability constant (log K) for this complex obtained from the UV/Vis titration was 4.45 ± 0.04. Single crystals of the complexes of 3-(2-pyridyl)pyrazole (PypzH) with Eu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and Sm(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} were obtained; PypzH acts as a bidentate ligand in the crystal structures, and the N atom with a bound H atom did not participate in the coordination. In general, this study revealed some interesting findings on the effects of the alkyl-chain structure and the special complexation between pyridylpyrazole ligands and Ln{sup III} ions. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Measurements of Plutonium and Americium in Soil Samples from Project 57 using the Suspended Soil Particle Sizing System (SSPSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John L. Bowen; Rowena Gonzalez; David S. Shafer

    2001-01-01

    As part of the preliminary site characterization conducted for Project 57, soils samples were collected for separation into several size-fractions using the Suspended Soil Particle Sizing System (SSPSS). Soil samples were collected specifically for separation by the SSPSS at three general locations in the deposited Project 57 plume, the projected radioactivity of which ranged from 100 to 600 pCi/g. The primary purpose in focusing on samples with this level of activity is that it would represent anticipated residual soil contamination levels at the site after corrective actions are completed. Consequently, the results of the SSPSS analysis can contribute to dose calculation and corrective action-level determinations for future land-use scenarios at the site

  10. UNDERSTANDING VARIATION IN PARTITION COEFFICIENT KD, VALUES, VOLUME III: AMERICIUM, ARSENIC, CURIUM, IODINE, NEPTUNIUM, RADIUM, AND TECHNETIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the conceptualization, measurement, and use of the partition (or distribution) coefficient, Kd, parameter, and the geochemical aqueous solution and sorbent properties that are most important in controlling adsorption/retardation behavior of selected contamin...

  11. New data on transuranium elements in the ecosystem of the Yenisei river floodplain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolsunovsky, A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biophysics; Ermakov, A.; Sobolev, A. [SIA ' RADON' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate levels of transuranium elements in the ecosystem of the Yenisei river floodplain in the vicinity of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine of Rosatom. For the first time, the transuranium isotopes {sup 243,244}Cm have been detected in sediment, floodplain soil, and a berry shrub (Ribes nigrum - the blackcurrant) in the floodplain of the Yenisei river. The highest level of curium isotopes registered in the sediment of the Yenisei river is 21.4Bq/kg (dry), which is more than twice higher than maximum curium levels reported for soils sampled not far from the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant. Blackcurrant plants growing on radioactively contaminated soils contain the same transuranium elements as the soil (plutonium isotopes, americium, and curium). The highest activity concentrations of all transuranic elements have been found in ashed roots of the blackcurrant plants: {sup 239,240}Pu - 9.3Bq/kg, {sup 241}Am - 6.9Bq/kg, and {sup 243,244}Cm - 1.8Bq/kg. The highest soil-plant transfer factor (TF) for {sup 243,244}Cm is determined for roots - 0.073; the TF of {sup 243,244}Cm in berries is 0.027. The TF for {sup 239,240}Pu in berries is 0.006, which is several times lower than the TF for {sup 243,244}Cm. Analysis of our results and the literature data suggests that TFs for {sup 243,244}Cm are higher than those for {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. (orig.)

  12. 19 CFR 24.4 - Optional method for payment of estimated import taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... taxes. (c) Content of application and supporting documents. (1) An importer must state his estimate of the largest amount of taxes to be deferred in any semimonthly period based on the largest amount of... accordance with 26 U.S.C. 6621(b). (g) Restrictions on deferring tax deposits. An importer may not on one...

  13. Metabolites of 2,4,4'-tribrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-28) in pumpkin after in vivo and in vitro exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Liu, Jiyan; Wang, Thanh; Sun, Jianteng; Liu, Runzeng; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-01-01

    There is currently limited knowledge on PBDE metabolism in plants although they could play an important role in the environmental transformation of these persistent organic pollutants. In this study, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima × C. moschata) was chosen as the model to understand the fate of BDE-28 in plants. MeO-tri-BDEs, OH-tri-BDEs, and OH-tri-BDEs were found as metabolites in plant samples of both in vivo hydroponic and in vitro tissue culture exposure. Three MeO-tri-BDEs were further identified as para-substituted metabolites. MeO-BDEs and OH-BDEs, respectively, accounted for about 1.6% and 1.5% (recovery corrected) of initial amount of BDE-28 according to the semiquantitative results. Other PBDEs, especially less brominated PBDEs as impurities in the standard of BDE-28, were also detected. The impurities and evaporation of the standard must be considered when trace metabolites are studied in exposure experiments.

  14. Investigation of the soil-to-plant transfer of Np-237, Pu-238, Am-241 and Cm-244

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimpl, M.

    1988-08-01

    Inside a greenhouse for radioecological studies the root uptake of Np, Pu, Am, and Cm from 5 different soils into 19 crop plants have been measured. The soils have been artificially contaminated with the 4 nuclides in range from 1-20 Bq/g dry soil. Within 7 vegetation periods about 380 transfer measurements have been performed. The obtained results show that the soil-to-plant transfer is mainly influenced by the following parameters: physical and chemical properties of the different radionuclides, plant species and variety, soil type, time of soil utilization and soil management. The transfer factors measured are compared with those data which are proposed for the calculation of the long term radiation burden of the population by ingestion of contaminated food inside the Federal Republic of Germany. The experiments have been performed from the beginning of 1983 to the end of 1986. The results summarized within this report have already been published in annual reports or as contributions to scientific meetings. (orig.) [de

  15. Poly[bis-(μ(2)-4,4'-bipyridine)bis-(3-nitro-benzoato)cobalt(II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Pei-Hsuan; Hsu, Shih-Chen; Lin, Chia-Her

    2009-10-03

    The hydro-thermal reaction of cobalt nitrate with 4,4'-bipyridine and 3-nitro-benzoic acid lead to the formation of the title complex, [Co(C(7)H(4)NO(4))(2)(C(10)H(8)N(2))(2)](n). In the crystal structure, the Co(II) atoms are coordinated by two terminal carboxyl-ate anions and four 4,4'-bipyridine ligands within slightly distorted octa-hedra. The Co(II) atom and one of the two independent 4,4'-bipyridine ligands are located on a twofold rotation axis, while the second independent 4,4'-bipyridine mol-ecule is located on a centre of inversion. One of the two rings of one 4,4'-bipyridine ligand is disordered over two orientations and was refined using a split model [occupancy ratio 0.68 (2):0.32 (2)]. The Co(II) atoms are connected by the 4,4'-bipyridine ligands into layers, which are located parallel to the ab plane.

  16. Comparison of photosensitivity in germanium doped silica fibers using 244 nm and 266 nm continuous wave lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bo; Varming, Poul; Liu, B.

    2001-01-01

    Diode pumped continuous-wave UV lasers offer an interesting alternative to frequency doubled argon-ion lasers. We report the first photosensitivity comparison using these lasers on deuterium loaded standard telecommunication fibers and unloaded experimental fibers.......Diode pumped continuous-wave UV lasers offer an interesting alternative to frequency doubled argon-ion lasers. We report the first photosensitivity comparison using these lasers on deuterium loaded standard telecommunication fibers and unloaded experimental fibers....

  17. 49 CFR 244.15 - Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration Plan not involving an amalgamation of operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND...

  18. 49 CFR 244.13 - Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration Plan involving an amalgamation of operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration... Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF...

  19. Poly[[diaquabis(μ2-4,4′-bipyridinemanganese(II] bis[2-(2-carboxyphenyldisulfanylbenzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Ming Fang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The title complex, {[Mn(C10H8N22(H2O2](C14H9O4S22}n, contains an octahedrally coordinated MnII cation and 2-(2-carboxyphenyldisulfanylbenzoate anions. The MnII center is situated on a crystallographic center of inversion and is coordinated by four 4,4′-bipyridine (4,4′-bipy ligands and two water molecules. The 4,4′-bipy ligands act as bridging ligands, producing a fishing-net-like two-dimensional framework. In the crystal structure, this positively charged framework is charge balanced by 2-(2-carboxyphenyldisulfanylbenzoate anions that form a separate anionic two-dimensional framework via intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds and C—H...π stacking interactions. Additional intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the cationic and anionic frameworks to form the three-dimensional crystal structure.

  20. Page 1 244 M K Saha et al. As the frequency is measured by flºſt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As the frequency is measured by flºſt), there is a frequency error when measurement. Is made over an Integration time T. The error in f is. 1. F ~~~~~~~ . 9. Af 4TT.(SNR), (9). 5.3. Specifications. Sensitivity —130 dBm. Antenna : Same as Interferometry. IF bandwidth : 10 kHz. PLL bandwidth 15 Hz. 6. Performance. 6.1.

  1. INL DPAH STAAR 2015 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterman, Dean Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Research conducted at the INL has demonstrated the synergistic extraction of americium using solvents comprised of bis(o,o-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl) dithiophosphinic acid (DPAH “1”) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO), butyl bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate (BuCy272), or dibutyl butylphosphonate (DBBP). One potential drawback of this separations scheme is that soft metals such as silver, cadmium, or palladium and fission products such as zirconium are well extracted by these solvents. Several potential scrubbing reagents were examined. Of the scrubbing reagents studied, cysteine and methione exhibited some ability to scrub soft metals from the loaded solvent. More conventional scrub reagents such as ammonium fluoride or oxalic acid were not effective. Reagents like Bimet and CDTA were not soluble at the acidities used in these studies. Unfortunately, these results indicate that the identification of effective scrubbing reagents for use in a flowsheet based upon the INL DPAH is going to be very difficult.

  2. Environmental, safety, and health plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 10, Operable Unit 3, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This document outlines the environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) approach to be followed for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 10 at Oak at Ridge National Laboratory. This ES&H Plan addresses hazards associated with upcoming Operable Unit 3 field work activities and provides the program elements required to maintain minimal personnel exposures and to reduce the potential for environmental impacts during field operations. The hazards evaluation for WAG 10 is presented in Sect. 3. This section includes the potential radiological, chemical, and physical hazards that may be encountered. Previous sampling results suggest that the primary contaminants of concern will be radiological (cobalt-60, europium-154, americium-241, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, cesium-134, cesium-137, and curium-244). External and internal exposures to radioactive materials will be minimized through engineering controls (e.g., ventilation, containment, isolation) and administrative controls (e.g., procedures, training, postings, protective clothing).

  3. Environmental, safety, and health plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 10, Operable Unit 3, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This document outlines the environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) approach to be followed for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 10 at Oak at Ridge National Laboratory. This ES ampersand H Plan addresses hazards associated with upcoming Operable Unit 3 field work activities and provides the program elements required to maintain minimal personnel exposures and to reduce the potential for environmental impacts during field operations. The hazards evaluation for WAG 10 is presented in Sect. 3. This section includes the potential radiological, chemical, and physical hazards that may be encountered. Previous sampling results suggest that the primary contaminants of concern will be radiological (cobalt-60, europium-154, americium-241, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, cesium-134, cesium-137, and curium-244). External and internal exposures to radioactive materials will be minimized through engineering controls (e.g., ventilation, containment, isolation) and administrative controls (e.g., procedures, training, postings, protective clothing)

  4. Measurements of the neutron capture cross sections and incineration potentials of minor-actinides in high thermal neutron fluxes: Impact on the transmutation of nuclear wastes; Mesures des sections efficaces de capture et potentiels d'incineration des actinides mineurs dans les hauts flux de neutrons: Impact sur la transmutation des dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringer, O

    2007-10-15

    This thesis comes within the framework of minor-actinide nuclear transmutation studies. First of all, we have evaluated the impact of minor actinide nuclear data uncertainties within the cases of {sup 241}Am and {sup 237}Np incineration in three different reactor spectra: EFR (fast), GT-MHR (epithermal) and HI-HWR (thermal). The nuclear parameters which give the highest uncertainties were thus highlighted. As a result of fact, we have tried to reduce data uncertainties, in the thermal energy region, for one part of them through experimental campaigns in the moderated high intensity neutron fluxes of ILL reactor (Grenoble). These measurements were focused onto the incineration and transmutation of the americium-241, the curium-244 and the californium-249 isotopes. Finally, the values of 12 different cross sections and the {sup 241}Am isomeric branching ratio were precisely measured at thermal energy point. (author)

  5. Treatment with Ca-DTPA of internal contaminations by plutonium and americium: Recommendations for writing protocols in Cea and AREVA centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grappin, L.; Legoff, J.P.; Andre, F.; Carbone, L.; Agrinier, A.L.; Courtay, C.; Aninat, M.; Amabile, J.C.; Florin, A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide physicians working in a B.N.F. (Basic Nuclear Facility) with recommendations for the drafting of Ca-DTPA treatment protocols for internal contamination by actinides. These recommendations are based on the results of injections carried out by Cea and AREVA doctors in a working group, with the collaboration of the Army Radiation Protection Service. The study focused on Ca-DTPA IV injection. Other dosage forms, routes of administration as well as adjuvant treatments are also mentioned. For cases of contaminated wounds and inhalation, indicators for treatment with Ca-DTPA, particularly its initialization, the dosage, duration, frequency of administration, the criteria for ending the treatment, then its efficiency and dosimetry gain are covered. A guide for the prescription of the radio toxicological monitoring necessary for the treatment and the dosimetric evaluation is proposed. (authors)

  6. Liquid-liquid extraction of americium(III) by bis (2-ethylhexyl) sulfoxide from aqueous nitrate media (Preprint no. SSC-16)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, J.P.; Kedari, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    Extraction of Am(III) was studied from acidic nitrate media into n-dodecane by bis (2-ethylhexyl) sulfoxide (BESO). Ca(NO 3 ) 2 was used as the salting-out agent. Effect of several water-miscible polar organic solvents was examined for their possible synergistic effects on its extraction. Slope analysis revealed a predominant formation of the trisolvated organic phase complex, Am(NO 3 ) 3 .3BESO. (author). 2 refs., 1 tab

  7. Proceedings of the specialists' meeting on nuclear data of plutonium and americium isotopes for reactor applications. [BNL, Nov. 20-21, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrien, R E [ed.

    1979-05-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 17 of the papers in these Proceedings. The remaining six have already been cited in ERA, and can be located by referring to the entry CONF-781174-- in the Report Number Index. (RWR)

  8. Simulation of loading conditions for a type A package containing Americium-241 involved in an airplane crash at Detroit Metro Airport in January 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxfield, B.W.; Woo, H.H.

    1983-10-01

    On January 11, 1983, a United Airlines DC-8F cargo aircraft crashed shortly after takeoff from Detroit Metro Airport. A lower rear cargo pit had a type A package containing 10,000 241 Am solid-form sources, each of 1.5-μCi strength, used in smoke detectors. Although burned and somewhat battered, the 1-gal metal can holding all these sources was recovered completely intact with no release of radioactive material to the environment or loss of any sources. This report describes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's attempt to reconstruct, as closely as practical, the mechanical and thermal environments experienced by this can during and immediately after the accident. Mechanical loading of the metal can in a shipping carton was simulated by impacts from a 16-lb pendulum mass falling through vertical displacements of up to 6 ft. Internal damage ranged from imperceptible to sufficient to demolish internal plastic jars and to produce major deformation of the metal can. The thermal environment was best reproduced by the simple burning of the outer shipping carton. 6 references, 27 figures

  9. The role of natural organic matter in the migration behaviour of americium in the Boom clay - Part II: analysis of migration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, T.; Bennett, D.; Maes, N.; Wang, L.; Warwick, P.; Hall, T.; Walker, G.; Dierckx, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In demonstrating the suitability of Boom Clay as a potential site for the disposal of radioactive waste in Belgium, the role of the relatively high amount of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) present in the Boom Clay on the mobility of critical radionuclides needs investigation. Trivalent actinides and lanthanides form strong complexes with humic substances. Complexation of these trivalent radionuclides with NOM present in the Boom Clay may have opposing effects. If complexed by the aqueous phase (mobile) NOM, radionuclide transport will be governed by the mobility of these dissolved radionuclide-NOM species. If complexed by the solid phase (immobile) NOM, migration will be retarded. One of the aims of the EC projects TRANCOM-Clay and TRANCOM-II was to investigate the role of mobile NOM as radionuclide carrier with the objective of deriving conceptual models that can be implemented in repository performance assessment (PA) models. A separate paper describes the results of column migration experiments involving the transport of 241 Am- 14 C-NOM complexes through Boom Clay cores. This paper describes the transport model, POPCORN, that was developed to describe and evaluate the influence of NOM on radionuclide transport in clay, taking into account attachment/detachment rates of NOM to clay surfaces and the kinetics of RN complexation to, and destabilization from, NOM. The POPCORN model was used to evaluate diffusion experiments involving injection of 14 C-labelled NOM in Boom Clay cores. Model fits were obtained by varying the rates of filtration of NOM by attachment to the surface of the clay matrix. POPCORN was then used to analyse the 241 Am- 14 C-NOM migration experiments. The stability properties of the 241 Am-NOM were characterised by kinetic constants, and good matches to the migration data were achieved for the experiments. The findings suggest that a small sub-population of the original 241 Am-OM is the most stable, and that this sub-population has specific transport characteristics, including low dispersivity and a potential for filtering. Such characteristics may be representative of larger, more stable, but less mobile 241 Am-OM complexes. In summary, the key processes governing 241 Am migration are the rate of 241 Am-OM destabilization and the rates of attachment and detachment of OM on the clay surfaces. Correlations between different transport parameters have been identified, and these findings offer means of extrapolating parameter values for application of the model to larger-scale problems. (authors)

  10. Sorption and diffusion of cobalt, strontium, cesium and americium in natural fissure surfaces and drill core cups studied by autoradiography, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnioja, S.; Kaemaeraeinen, E.L.; Jaakkola, T.; Siitari, M.; Muuronen, S.; Lindberg, A.

    1985-06-01

    A method based on autoradiography was developed to determine the diffusion of radionuclides into the rock matrix. To investigate the diffusion the samples, which has been in contact with radioactive tracer solution up to 6 months, were splitted by sawing. From the autoradiograms of the cross sections the penetration depths of radionuclides were determined and the apparent diffusion coefficient Dsup(a) calculated. The filled and unfilled natural fissure surfaces chosen to this study were bars of drilling cores and drill core cups of tonalite, mica gneiss and rapakivi granite. After contact time of 3 months the highest penetration depths of cesium were observed for natural fissure surface sample of rapakivi granite up to 2.5 mm and of mica gneiss up to 3.7 mm. For strontium the penetration depths of 6 mm and 11 mm for unfilled and filled natural fissure samples of rapakivi granite were found. Dsup(a)-values for cesium varied between 1.5 x 10 -15 and 3.2 x 10 -14 , for strontium between 3.5 x 10 -14 and 2.1 x 10 -13 m 2 /s. D-value obtained for cobalt (drill core cup sample, tonalite) was 5.4 x 10 -17 m 2 /s. 241 Am was only sorbed on the surface of the sample and thus no apparent diffusion coefficient could be calculated. Filling materials, chlorite and secondary minerals in tonalite and rapakivi granite increased diffusion into the mother rock. Radionuclides were sorbed both into the filling material and through fillers into the rock matrix. Cs and Sr penetrated though calcite filling material in mica gneiss into the mother rock. Calcite didn't influence on diffusion of radionuclides. Penetration depths of Cs and Sr were about the same for filled and unfilled samples

  11. Chemical speciation of strontium, americium, and curium in high level waste: Predictive modeling of phase partitioning during tank processing. Annual progress report, October 1996--September 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, G.; Felmy, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    'The program at Florida State University was funded to collaborate with Dr. A. Felmy (PNNL) on speciation in high level wastes and with Dr. D. Rai (PNNL) on redox of Pu under high level waste conditions. The funding provided support for 3 research associates (postdoctoral researchers) under Professor G. R. Choppin as P.I. Dr. Kath Morris from U. Manchester (Great Britain), Dr. Dean Peterman and Dr. Amy Irwin (both from U. Cincinnati) joined the laboratory in the latter part of 1996. After an initial training period to become familiar with basic actinide chemistry and radiochemical techniques, they began their research. Dr. Peterman was assigned the task of measuring Th-EDTA complexation prior to measuring Pu(IV)-EDTA complexation. These studies are associated with the speciation program with Dr. Felmy. Drs. Morris and Irwin initiated research on redox of plutonium with agents present in the Hanford Tanks as a result of radiolysis or from use in separations. The preliminary results obtained thus far are described in this report. It is expected that the rate of progress will continue to increase significantly as the researchers gain more experience with plutonium chemistry.'

  12. Experimental studies and thermodynamic modelling of volatilities of uranium, plutonium, and americium from their oxides and from their oxides interacted with ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krikorian, O.H.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Adamson, M.G.; Fontes, A.S. Jr.; Fleming, D.L.

    1993-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to identify the types and amounts of volatile gaseous species of U, Pu, and Am that are produced in the combustion chamber offgases of mixed waste oxidation processors. Primary emphasis is on the Rocky Flats Plant Fluidized Bed Incinerator. Transpiration experiments have been carried out on U{sub 3}O{sub 8}(s), U{sub 3}O{sub 8} interacted with various ash materials, PuO{sub 2}(s), PuO{sub 2} interacted with ash materials, and a 3%PuO{sub 2}/0.06%AmO{sub 2}/ash material, all in the presence of steam and oxygen, and at temperatures in the vicinity of 1,300 K. UO{sub 3}(g) and UO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) have been identified as the uranium volatile species and thermodynamic data established for them. Pu and Am are found to have very low volatilities, and carryover of Pu and Am as fine dust particulates is found to dominate over vapor transport. The authors are able to set upper limits on Pu and Am volatilities. Very little lowering of U volatility is found for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} interacted with typical ashes. However, ashes high in Na{sub 2}O (6.4 wt %) or in CaO (25 wt %) showed about an order of magnitude reduction in U volatility. Thermodynamic modeling studies were carried out that show that for aluminosilicate ash materials, it is the presence of group I and group II oxides that reduces the activity of the actinide oxides. K{sub 2}O is the most effective followed by Na{sub 2}O and CaO for common ash constituents. A more major effect in actinide activity lowering could be achieved by adding excess group I or group II oxides to exceed their interaction with the ash and lead to direct formation of alkali or alkaline earth uranates, plutonates, and americates.

  13. Separation of americium and neodymium by selective stripping and subsequent extraction with HDEHP using DTPA-lactic acid solution in a closed loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svantesson, I.; Hangstroem, I.; Persson, G.; Liljenzin, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    A method for the separation of trivalent actinides and lanthanides is proposed. The method is based on selective stripping of the actinides from 1M HDEHP into an aqueous phase containing ammonia, DTPA and lactic acid followed by subsequent extraction into a second organic phase also containing 1M HDEHP. The aqueous phase is recycled in a closed loop, thereby reducing the amounts of secondary waste. Distribution ratios for Am and Nd have been measured at varying DTPA and lactic acid concentrations and at varying pH. The distribution of ammonia was also measured. (author)

  14. An insight into the complexation of trivalent americium vis-a-vis lanthanides with bis(1,2,4-triazinyl)bipyridine derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Arunasis; Mohapatra, Manoj; Mohapatra, Prasanta K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry Div.; Gadly, Trilochan; Ghosh, Sunil K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Bioorganic Div.; Manna, Debashree; Ghanty, Tapan K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Theoretical Chemistry Section; Rawat, Neetika; Tomar, Bhupendra S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Radioanalytical Chemistry Div.

    2017-01-26

    Complexation of Am{sup 3+} and Ln{sup 3+} (La{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, and Er{sup 3+}) with two bis(1,2,4-triazinyl)bipyridine (C{sub 2}BTBP, C{sub 5}BTBP) derivatives has been studied in acetonitrile medium with use of various experimental techniques such as electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS), UV/Vis spectrophotometry, and solution calorimetry. Metal-ligand stoichiometries and conditional stability constants of these complexes were determined. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the complexation of Am{sup 3+} with any of the BTBP derivatives with use of UV/Vis spectrophotometric titration to determine the conditional stability constants. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are carried out on the An{sup 3+} (U{sup 3+} and Am{sup 3+}) and Ln{sup 3+} (La{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}, and Lu{sup 3+}) complexes of BTBP in order to understand the difference between the bonding in actinide and lanthanide complexes. The results indicate a stronger covalent interaction in the An-N bonds as compared to the Ln-N bonds, which leads to an actinide selectivity of this class of ligands. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Americium, Cesium, and Plutonium Colloid-Facilitated Transport in a Groundwater/Bentonite/Fracture Fill Material System: Column Experiments and Model Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, T. M.; Boukhalfa, H.; Reimus, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and quantify the effects of desorption kinetics and colloid transport on radionuclides with different sorption affinities. We focused on quantifying transport mechanisms important for upscaling in time and distance. This will help determine the long-term fate and transport of radionuclides to aid in risk assessments. We selected a fractured/weathered granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland as a model crystalline rock repository system because the system has been thoroughly studied and field experiments involving radionuclides have already been conducted. Working on this system provides a unique opportunity to compare lab experiments with field-scale observations. Weathered fracture fill material (FFM) and bentonite used as backfill at the GTS were characterized (e.g., BET, SEM/EDS, QXRD), and batch and breakthrough column experiments were conducted. Solutions were prepared in synthetic groundwaters that matched the natural water chemistry. FFM samples were crushed, rinsed, sieved (150-355 μm), and equilibrated with synthetic groundwater. Bentonite was crushed, sodium-saturated, equilibrated with synthetic groundwater, and settled to yield a stable suspension. Suspensions were equilibrated with Am, Cs, or Pu. All experiments were conducted with Teflon®materials to limit sorption to system components. After radionuclide/colloid injections reached stability, radionuclide-free solutions were injected to observe the desorption and release behavior. Aliquots of effluent were measured for pH, colloid concentration, and total and dissolved radionuclides. Unanalyzed effluent from the first column was then injected through a second column of fresh material. The process was repeated for a third column and the results of all three breakthrough curves were modeled with a multi-site/multi-rate MATLAB code to elucidate the sorption rate coefficients and binding site densities of the bentonite colloids and fracture fill material. Nearly 50% of the sorbed Am was exchanged from the colloids to the fracture filling material in each of the three columns; whereas, less Cs and Pu was desorbed with each pass through a new column. Using a two-site kinetic model allowed for interrogation of desorption rates and dominant transport parameters.

  16. Methodology for the Inventory and Assessment of Americium Contamination Level in 1987 in an Area of Palomares Contaminated with Plutonium Weapon Grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, A.; Aragon, A.; Cruz de la, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology applied for the assessment of the ''241 Am coming from the decay of ''241 Pu isotope content in a contaminated area of Palomares, where the clean-up work done in 1966, given the negligible agricultural importance of such area at the time and its geographical characteristics, was not of the same magnitude as for the rest of the region. (Author) 4 refs

  17. Investigation of the chemical explosion of an ion exchange resin column and resulting americium contamination of personnel in the 242-Z building, August 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-10-19

    As a result of an explosion in the Waste Treatment Facility, 242-Z Building, 200 West Area of the Hanford Reservation on August 30, 1976, the Manager of the Richland Operations Office (RL), Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), appointed an ERDA Committee to conduct a formal investigation and to prepare a report on their findings of this occurrence. The Committee was instructed to conduct the investigation in accordance with ERDAMC 0502, insofar as circumstances would permit, to cover and explain technical elements of the casual sequence(s) of the occurrence, and to describe management systems which should have or could have prevented the occurrence. This report is the result of the investigation and presents the conclusions of the review.

  18. Design of Alpha Voltaic Power Source Using Americium 241 (241Am) and Diamond with a Power Density of 10 mW/cm3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-19

    detectors) is one of the most widely available and affordable sources of alpha radiation. 241Am has a half-life of 432 years, enabling long- lived ...mobility. The next step will be to fabricate a diamond vertical or quasi-vertical diode and irradiate it. This experiment will give important insights for...distribution is unlimited. NOTICES Disclaimers The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army

  19. Removal of plutonium and americium from the rat using 3,4,3-LIHOPO and DTPA after simulated wound contamination: effect of delayed administration and mass of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, S.A.; Stradling, G.N.; Pearce, M.J.; Wilson, I.; Moody, J.C.; Burgada, R.; Durbin, P.W.; Raymond, K.N.

    1994-01-01

    The comparative efficacies of treatment with 3,4,3-LIHOPO and DTPA have been investigated in the rat after their subcutaneous intramuscular injection. Commencement of treatment was delayed 30 min, 6 h or 1 d and the animals killed at 7 d. Under all conditions, 3,4,3-LIHOPO was considerably more effective than DTPA, although the efficacy of both ligands and their relative effectiveness decreased rapidly with their delay in administration. After early treatment of the intramuscular deposit of Pu and Am with 3,4,3-LIHOPO, the body content of Pu and Am was about 1% of those in untreated animals and about 30 times less than when using the same treatment regimen with DTPA. The value for Pu increased to 5% of controls when the amount deposited increased from 1.5 ng to 0.9 mg.kg -1 body mass. (author)

  20. SU-E-J-244: Development and Validation of a Knowledge Based Planning Model for External Beam Radiation Therapy of Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z; Kennedy, A [Sarah Cannon, Nashville, TN (United States); Larsen, E; Hayes, C; Grow, A [North Florida Cancer Center, Gainesville, FL (United States); Bahamondes, S.; Zheng, Y; Wu, X [JFK Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Lake Worth, FL (United States); Choi, M; Pai, S [Good Samaritan Hospital, Los Gatos, CA (United States); Li, J [Doctors Hospital of Augusta, Augusta, GA (United States); Cranford, K [Trident Medical Center, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The study aims to develop and validate a knowledge based planning (KBP) model for external beam radiation therapy of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). Methods: RapidPlan™ technology was used to develop a lung KBP model. Plans from 65 patients with LA-NSCLC were used to train the model. 25 patients were treated with VMAT, and the other patients were treated with IMRT. Organs-at-risk (OARs) included right lung, left lung, heart, esophagus, and spinal cord. DVH and geometric distribution DVH were extracted from the treated plans. The model was trained using principal component analysis and step-wise multiple regression. Box plot and regression plot tools were used to identify geometric outliers and dosimetry outliers and help fine-tune the model. The validation was performed by (a) comparing predicted DVH boundaries to actual DVHs of 63 patients and (b) using an independent set of treatment planning data. Results: 63 out of 65 plans were included in the final KBP model with PTV volume ranging from 102.5cc to 1450.2cc. Total treatment dose prescription varied from 50Gy to 70Gy based on institutional guidelines. One patient was excluded due to geometric outlier where 2.18cc of spinal cord was included in PTV. The other patient was excluded due to dosimetric outlier where the dose sparing to spinal cord was heavily enforced in the clinical plan. Target volume, OAR volume, OAR overlap volume percentage to target, and OAR out-of-field volume were included in the trained model. Lungs and heart had two principal component scores of GEDVH, whereas spinal cord and esophagus had three in the final model. Predicted DVH band (mean ±1 standard deviation) represented 66.2±3.6% of all DVHs. Conclusion: A KBP model was developed and validated for radiotherapy of LA-NSCLC in a commercial treatment planning system. The clinical implementation may improve the consistency of IMRT/VMAT planning.

  1. Distribution of sup 137 Cs, sup 90 Sr, sup 238 Pu, sup 239 Pu, sup 241 Am and sup 244 Cm in Pond B, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, F.W. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Pinder, J.E. III; Bowling, J.W. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (USA)); Alberts, J.J. (Georgia Univ., Sapelo Island, GA (USA). Marine Inst.); Brisbin, I.L. Jr. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (USA))

    1989-05-01

    The gradual senescence of present-day operating nuclear facilities, and resultant contamination of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, emphasize the importance of understanding the behavior of radionuclides in the environment. Observations and deductions concerning mechanisms of radionuclide transport can contribute significantly to knowledge of fundamental ecological processes. This study emphasized the ecosystem-level distribution of several long-lived radionuclides in an abandoned reactor cooling impoundment after a twenty year period of chemical and biological equilibration. 90 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Ion-beam irradiation and 244Cm-doping investigations of the radiation response of actinide-bearing crystalline waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yudintsev, Sergey V.; Lizin, Andrey A.; Livshits, Tatiana S.; Stefanovsky, Sergey V.; Tomilin, Sergey V.; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2015-02-16

    Abstract

  3. Integrated plant safety assessment systematic evaluation program. R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, Rochester Gas and Electric Corporation, Docket No. 50-244

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    The Systematic Evaluation Program was initiated in February 1978 by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review the designs of older operating nuclear reactor plants to reconfirm and document their safety. The review provides (1) an assessment of how these plants compare with current licensing safety requirements relating to selected issues, (2) a basis for deciding on how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety. This report documents the review of the R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant (located in Wayne County near Rochester, NY), one of ten plants reviewed under Phase II of this program, and indicates how 137 topics selected for review under Phase I of the program were addressed. Equipment and procedural changes have been identified as a result of the review. It is expected that this report will be one of the bases in considering the issuance of a full-term operating license in place of the existing provisional operating license

  4. Alarming increase in the registration of degenerative rotator cuff-related lesions a nationwide epidemiological study investigating 244,519 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Nina; Ganestam, Ann; Kallemose, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    -to-female ratio was 51:49, and median age was 51. Most frequent were rotator cuff syndrome with a mean incidence rate of 313.3 (confidence interval 241.8-384.8) per 10(5) person-years at risk (PYRS). A statistically significant increase in overall incidence rate from 149.4 per 10(5) PYRS in 1996 to 715.3 per 10...

  5. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy associated with sepsis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumoniadoi: 10.12662/2317-3076jhbs.v3i4.169.p242-244.2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio da Silva Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a case report of a 71 year-old female patient admitted at the emergency service due to severe precordial chest pain associated with dyspnea and sweating. The electrocardiogram performed on admission showed ST elevation on V2 and V3 leads and the ventriculography revealed left ventricular apical ballooning, denoting the diagnosis of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy. At the eighth day of hospitalization, although the heart function was recovered, the patient died due the clinical complications of a septic shock.

  6. Poly[bis­(μ2-4,4′-bipyridine)bis­(3-nitro­benzoato)cobalt(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Pei-Hsuan; Hsu, Shih-Chen; Lin, Chia-Her

    2009-01-01

    The hydro­thermal reaction of cobalt nitrate with 4,4′-bipyridine and 3-nitro­benzoic acid lead to the formation of the title complex, [Co(C7H4NO4)2(C10H8N2)2]n. In the crystal structure, the CoII atoms are coordinated by two terminal carboxyl­ate anions and four 4,4′-bipyridine ligands within slightly distorted octa­hedra. The CoII atom and one of the two independent 4,4′-bipyridine ligands are located on a twofold rotation axis, while the second independent 4,4′-bipyridine mol­ecule is located on a centre of inversion. One of the two rings of one 4,4′-bipyridine ligand is disordered over two orientations and was refined using a split model [occupancy ratio 0.68 (2):0.32 (2)]. The CoII atoms are connected by the 4,4′-bipyridine ligands into layers, which are located parallel to the ab plane. PMID:21578067

  7. 49 CFR 173.244 - Bulk packaging for certain pyrophoric liquids (Division 4.2), dangerous when wet (Division 4.3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... made from steel with a minimum tensile strength from 70,000 p.s.i. to 80,000 p.s.i., but the required minimum plate thickness calculation is based on steel with a minimum tensile strength of 81,000 p.s.i... apply: (i) Division 6.1 Hazard Zone A materials must be transported in tank cars having a test pressure...

  8. CCDC 914601: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-(bis(mu~2~-4,4'-Ethyne-1,2-diyldipyridine)-(mu~2~-hexafluorosilicato)-copper(ii) methanol solvate)

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, P.

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  9. CCDC 914600: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-(bis(mu~2~-4,4'-Ethyne-1,2-diyldipyridine)-(mu~2~-hexafluorosilicato)-copper(ii) unknown solvate)

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, P.

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  10. 8 CFR 1240.21 - Suspension of deportation and adjustment of status under section 244(a) of the Act (as in effect...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Cancellation of... admissible to the United States in accordance with section 202(a)(1)(B) of NACARA, and has continuously resided in the United States from December 1, 1995, through the date of appearance before the Service...

  11. Treatment with Ca-DTPA of internal contaminations by plutonium and americium: Recommendations for writing protocols in Cea and AREVA centers; Traitement par le Ca-DTPA des contaminations internes par le plutonium et l'americium: recommandations pour la redaction de protocoles dans les centres CEA et AREVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grappin, L. [CEA Cadarache, DEN, Service de Sante au Travail, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Legoff, J.P.; Andre, F. [CEA Valduc, Service de Sante au Travail, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Carbone, L.; Agrinier, A.L. [CEA Marcoule, DEN, Service de Sante au Travail, 30 (France); Courtay, C.; Aninat, M. [AREVA, Service de Sante au Travail, La Hague, 50 - Beaumont-Hague (France); Amabile, J.C. [SPRA, HIA Percy, 92 - Clamart (France); Florin, A. [CEA Saclay, SDM Service de Sante au Travail, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of this document is to provide physicians working in a B.N.F. (Basic Nuclear Facility) with recommendations for the drafting of Ca-DTPA treatment protocols for internal contamination by actinides. These recommendations are based on the results of injections carried out by Cea and AREVA doctors in a working group, with the collaboration of the Army Radiation Protection Service. The study focused on Ca-DTPA IV injection. Other dosage forms, routes of administration as well as adjuvant treatments are also mentioned. For cases of contaminated wounds and inhalation, indicators for treatment with Ca-DTPA, particularly its initialization, the dosage, duration, frequency of administration, the criteria for ending the treatment, then its efficiency and dosimetry gain are covered. A guide for the prescription of the radio toxicological monitoring necessary for the treatment and the dosimetric evaluation is proposed. (authors)

  12. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, R.J.; Cooper, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building. A total of 85 technical (100 square centimeter (cm 2 )) smears were collected from the Room 147 hoods, the Shielded Materials Facility (SMF), and the Radiochemical Engineering Cells (REC). Exposure rate readings (window open and window closed) were taken at a distance of 2.5 centimeters (cm) and 30 cm from the surface of each smear. Gross beta-gamma and alpha counts of each smear were also performed. The smear samples were analyzed by gamma energy analysis (GEA). Alpha energy analysis (AEA) and strontium-90 analysis were also performed on selected smears. GEA results for one or more samples reported the presence of manganese-54, cobalt-60, silver-108m antimony-125, cesium-134, cesium-137, europium-154, europium-155, and americium-241. AEA results reported the presence of plutonium-239/240, plutonium-238/ 241 Am, curium-243/244, curium-242, and americium-243. Tables 5 through 9 present a summary by location of the estimated maximum removable and total contamination levels in the Room 147 hoods, the SMF, and the REC. The smear sample survey data and laboratory analytical results are presented in tabular form by sample in Appendix A. The Appendix A tables combine survey data documented in radiological survey reports found in Appendix B and laboratory analytical results reported in the 324 Building Physical and Radiological Characterization Study (Berk, Hill, and Landsman 1998), supplemented by the laboratory analytical results found in Appendix C.

  13. Distribution and behaviour of transuranic elements in the physical and biological compartments of the Channel French shore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germain, P.; Miramand, P.; Camus, H.; Grenaut, C.

    1983-09-01

    Biological samples (algae, suspension-feeder mollusks living in contact with sediments, annelids), sediments and sea water were taken at 5 stations along the Channel shore from 1978 to 1981 in order to determine 239 + 240 Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am and 244 Cm levels. In Northern Cotentin, radioactivity levels for 239 + 240 Pu, 238 Pu and 241 Am, were respectively about 1-10, 0.5-7 and 1-19 pCi kg -1 fresh weight in biological samples; 24-90, 11-28 and 24-31 pCi kg -1 dry weight in sediments; 1-7, 5-40 and 2-15 fCi l -1 in sea water. For stations far from the La Hague outlet (Seine river and Mont Saint-Michel bays) levels for 239 + 240 Pu, 238 Pu and 241 Am were respectively about 0.3-5, 0.1-2 and 0.2-3 pCi kg -1 fresh weight in biological samples; 30-80, 5-26 and 14-40 pCi kg -1 dry weight in sediments and 1-3, 3-4 and 3-8 fCi l -1 in sea water. Labelling of industrial wastes was demonstrated by the values of the 238 Pu/ 239 + 240 Pu ratios. The evolution of plutonium isotopes in sea water and in the other environmental compartments and the bioavailability of americium are discussed. Sediment-animal transfers are quantified and their processes specified. An assessment of plutonium and americium hazards from ingestion of mollusks shows that the ingested activity represents 1.1 10 -4 only of the ALI (ingestion) recommended by ICRP for members of the public [fr

  14. Type B accident investigation board report of the July 2, 1997 curium intake by shredder operator at Building 513 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    On July 2, 1997 at approximately 6:00 A.M., two operators (Workers 1 and 2), wearing approved personal protective equipment (PPE), began a shredding operation of HEPA filters for volume reduction in Building 513 (B-513) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The waste requisitions indicated they were shredding filters containing ≤ 1 μCi of americium-241 (Am-241). A third operator (Worker 3) provided support to the shredder operators in the shredding area (hot area) from a room that was adjacent to the shredding area (cold area). At Approximately 8:00 A.M., a fourth operator (Worker 4) relieved Worker 2 in the shredding operation. Sometime between 8:30 A.M. and 9:00 A.M., Worker 3 left the cold area to make a phone call and set off a hand and foot counter in Building 514. Upon discovering the contamination, the shredding operation was stopped and surveys were conducted in the shredder area. Surveys conducted on the workers found significant levels of contamination on their PPE and the exterior of their respirator cartridges. An exit survey of Worker 1 was conducted at approximately 10:05 A.M., and found contamination on his PPE, as well as on the exterior and interior of his respirator. Contamination was also found on his face, chest, back of neck, hair, knees, and mustache. A nose blow indicated significant contamination, which was later determined to be curium-244

  15. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, January-December 1981: ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    Highlights of progress accomplished during the year ending December 1981 are presented. Some of the subjects discussed are: the effects of acid deposition on crop-soil systems; the effects of energy-related pollutants on crops, including field corn, which was found to be quite resistant to both O/sub 3/ and SO/sub 2/; the synergistic effects of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ on soybean productivity; the impact of acid rain on food crops and the dependence of these effects on the chemical composition of rain; the effects of acid rain on soil systems; /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, /sup 241/Am, and /sup 243/ /sup 244/Am in a core from the Saquenay Fjord, Quebec; rate of removal of natural thorium isotopes from Lake Michigan water; influence of colloidal dissolved organic carbon on the sorption of plutonium on natural sediments; the behavior of americium in natural waters; and near-bottom currents and sediment resuspension in Lake Michigan. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 12 reports for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (RJC)

  16. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, January-December 1981: ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    Highlights of progress accomplished during the year ending December 1981 are presented. Some of the subjects discussed are: the effects of acid deposition on crop-soil systems; the effects of energy-related pollutants on crops, including field corn, which was found to be quite resistant to both O 3 and SO 2 ; the synergistic effects of SO 2 and NO/sub x/ on soybean productivity; the impact of acid rain on food crops and the dependence of these effects on the chemical composition of rain; the effects of acid rain on soil systems; 239 240 Pu, 241 Am, and 243 244 Am in a core from the Saquenay Fjord, Quebec; rate of removal of natural thorium isotopes from Lake Michigan water; influence of colloidal dissolved organic carbon on the sorption of plutonium on natural sediments; the behavior of americium in natural waters; and near-bottom currents and sediment resuspension in Lake Michigan. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 12 reports for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  17. The dose from actinides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, Naomi H.; Pasternack, Bernard S.

    1978-01-01

    We attempt to evaluate the health effects on local populations from the nuclear power industry. The nuclides which are thought to be most hazardous are the long-lived, alpha-emitting isotopes of plutonium, americium and curium. These long-lived alpha emitters will almost certainly be dispersed in the environment during fuel reprocessing. Their effect is local, not global and at worst a single community could be affected. The most important pathway for exposure to the actinides is through inhalation following resuspension of contaminated soil particles. The most important alpha dose estimates are to cells in bronchial epithelium and cells on bone surfaces. These alpha dose estimates are calculated for a dispersal which contaminates soil with 1 pCi/g of each of the nuclides Pu 238,239 , Am 241 , Cm 242,244 . These bronchial and bone cell dose estimates are compared with those from the naturally occurring actinide 232 Th (and daughters) which are normally found in soil at a level of about 1 pCi/g. (author)

  18. Needs and status of evaluated neutron data of transactinium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiftah, S.; Gur, Y.; Caner, M.; Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne. Soreq Nuclear Research Center)

    1975-01-01

    To be able to evaluate, predict, compute and judge the effects and uses of the transactinium elements that will be produced in large amounts in the next 25 years, the nuclear community needs fully evaluated nuclear data to be used as nuclear input to all computations and evaluations. Evaluations of transactinium nuclides may be found in the big evaluated nuclear data files in CINDA and since 1972 in WRENDA. The authors reached the following conclusions: Lightes plutonium isotopes Pu-240, 241, 242 together with Pu-239, U-235, 238 should have at all times good, up-to-date and reliable evaluations; the ''half-life'' of a good reliable nuclear data evaluation should not be more than three years; the main evaluation work to be done is in the four elements of Group II, americium, curium, berkelium and californium; the following 14 nuclides are the most important: Am-241, Am-242sup(m), Am-243, Cm-242, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246, Cm-247, Cm-248, Bk-249, Cf-249, Cf-250, Cf-251 and Cf-252; it is advisable that two separate evaluations be done of each nuclide; WRENDA, the world request list for nuclear data measurements should become a world list for evaluated and measured nuclear data. Users should specifically request nuclear data evaluation when needed; all evaluations should contain at least rough estimates of the uncertainties in the recommended data. These estimates should be included in the ''general information'' section of evaluated data files. (B.G.)

  19. Type B accident investigation board report of the July 2, 1997 curium intake by shredder operator at Building 513 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    On July 2, 1997 at approximately 6:00 A.M., two operators (Workers 1 and 2), wearing approved personal protective equipment (PPE), began a shredding operation of HEPA filters for volume reduction in Building 513 (B-513) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The waste requisitions indicated they were shredding filters containing {le} 1 {micro}Ci of americium-241 (Am-241). A third operator (Worker 3) provided support to the shredder operators in the shredding area (hot area) from a room that was adjacent to the shredding area (cold area). At Approximately 8:00 A.M., a fourth operator (Worker 4) relieved Worker 2 in the shredding operation. Sometime between 8:30 A.M. and 9:00 A.M., Worker 3 left the cold area to make a phone call and set off a hand and foot counter in Building 514. Upon discovering the contamination, the shredding operation was stopped and surveys were conducted in the shredder area. Surveys conducted on the workers found significant levels of contamination on their PPE and the exterior of their respirator cartridges. An exit survey of Worker 1 was conducted at approximately 10:05 A.M., and found contamination on his PPE, as well as on the exterior and interior of his respirator. Contamination was also found on his face, chest, back of neck, hair, knees, and mustache. A nose blow indicated significant contamination, which was later determined to be curium-244.

  20. Effect of transplutonium doping on approach to long-life core in uranium-fueled PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peryoga, Yoga; Saito, Masaki; Artisyuk, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    The present paper advertises doping of transplutonium isotopes as an essential measure to improve proliferation-resistance properties and burnup characteristics of UOX fuel for PWR. Among them 241 Am might play the decisive role of burnable absorber to reduce the initial reactivity excess while the short-lived nuclides 242 Cm and 244 Cm decay into even plutonium isotopes, thus increasing the extent of denaturation for primary fissile 239 Pu in the course of reactor operation. The doping composition corresponds to one discharged from a current PWR. For definiteness, the case identity is ascribed to atomic percentage of 241 Am, and then the other transplutonium nuclide contents follow their ratio as in the PWR discharged fuel. The case of 1 at% doping to 20% enriched uranium oxide fuel shows the potential of achieving the burnup value of 100 GWd/tHM with about 20% 238 Pu fraction at the end of irradiation. Since so far, americium and curium do not require special proliferation resistance measures, their doping to UOX would assist in introducing nuclear technology in developing countries with simultaneous reduction of accumulated minor actinides stockpiles. (author)

  1. Interaction and transport of actinides in natural clay rock with consideration of humic substances and clay organics. Characterization and quantification of the influence of clay organics on the interaction and diffusion of uranium and americium in the clay. Joint project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard, Gert [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. (Germany). Inst. of Radiochemistry; Schmeide, Katja; Joseph, Claudia; Sachs, Susanne; Steudtner, Robin; Raditzky, Bianca; Guenther, Alix

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this project was the study of basic interaction processes in the systems actinide - clay organics - aquifer and actinide - natural clay - clay organics - aquifer. Thus, complexation, redox, sorption and diffusion studies were performed. To evaluate the influence of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur containing functional groups of humic acid (HA) on the complexation of actinides in comparison to carboxylic groups, the Am(III) and U(VI) complexation by model ligands was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy and TRLFS. The results show that Am(III) is mainly coordinated via carboxylic groups, however, probably stabilized by nitrogen groups. The U(VI) complexation is dominated by carboxylic groups, whereas nitrogen and sulfur containing groups play a minor role. Phosphorus containing groups may contribute to the U(VI) complexation by HA, however, due to their low concentration in HA they play only a subordinate role compared to carboxylic groups. Applying synthetic HA with varying sulfur contents (0 to 6.9 wt.%), the role of sulfur functionalities of HA for the U(VI) complexation and Np(V) reduction was studied. The results have shown that sulfur functionalities can be involved in U(VI) humate complexation and act as redox-active sites in HA for the Np(V) reduction. However, due to the low content of sulfur in natural HA, its influence is less pronounced. In the presence of carbonate, the U(VI) complexation by HA was studied in the alkaline pH range by means of cryo-TRLFS (-120 C) and ATR FT-IR spectroscopy. The formation of the ternary UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}HA(II){sup 4-} complex was detected. The complex formation constant was determined with log {beta}{sub 0.1} M = 24.57 {+-} 0.17. For aqueous U(VI) citrate and oxalate species, luminescence emission properties were determined by cryo-TRLFS and used to determine stability constants. The existing data base could be validated. The U(VI) complexation by lactate, studied in the temperature range 7 to 65 C, was found to be endothermic and entropy-driven. In contrast, the complex stability constants determined for U(VI) humate complexation at 20 and 40 C are comparable, however, decrease at 60 C. For aqueous U(IV) citrate, succinate, mandelate and glycolate species stability constants were determined. These ligands, especially citrate, increase solubility and mobility of U(IV) in solution due to complexation. The U(VI) sorption onto crushed Opalinus Clay (OPA, Mont Terri, Switzerland) was studied in the absence and presence of HA or low molecular weight organic acids, in dependence on temperature and CO2 presence using OPA pore water as background electrolyte. Distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) were determined for the sorption of U(VI) and HA onto OPA with (0.0222 {+-} 0.0004) m{sup 3}/kg and (0.129 {+-} 0.006) m{sup 3}/kg, respectively. The U(VI) sorption is not influenced by HA ({<=}50 mg/L), however, decreased by low molecular weight organic acids ({>=} 1 x 10{sup -5} M), especially by citrate and tartrate. With increasing temperature, the U(VI) sorption increases both in the absence and in the presence of clay organics. The U(VI) diffusion in compacted OPA is not influenced by HA at 25 and 60 C. Predictions of the U(VI) diffusion show that an increase of the temperature to 60 C does not accelerate the migration of U(VI). With regard to uranium-containing waste, it is concluded that OPA is suitable as host rock for a future nuclear waste repository since OPA has a good retardation potential for U(VI). (orig.)

  2. Interaction and transport of actinides in natural clay rock with consideration of humic substances and clay organics. Characterization and quantification of the influence of clay organics on the interaction and diffusion of uranium and americium in the clay. Joint project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhard, Gert; Schmeide, Katja; Joseph, Claudia; Sachs, Susanne; Steudtner, Robin; Raditzky, Bianca; Guenther, Alix

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project was the study of basic interaction processes in the systems actinide - clay organics - aquifer and actinide - natural clay - clay organics - aquifer. Thus, complexation, redox, sorption and diffusion studies were performed. To evaluate the influence of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur containing functional groups of humic acid (HA) on the complexation of actinides in comparison to carboxylic groups, the Am(III) and U(VI) complexation by model ligands was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy and TRLFS. The results show that Am(III) is mainly coordinated via carboxylic groups, however, probably stabilized by nitrogen groups. The U(VI) complexation is dominated by carboxylic groups, whereas nitrogen and sulfur containing groups play a minor role. Phosphorus containing groups may contribute to the U(VI) complexation by HA, however, due to their low concentration in HA they play only a subordinate role compared to carboxylic groups. Applying synthetic HA with varying sulfur contents (0 to 6.9 wt.%), the role of sulfur functionalities of HA for the U(VI) complexation and Np(V) reduction was studied. The results have shown that sulfur functionalities can be involved in U(VI) humate complexation and act as redox-active sites in HA for the Np(V) reduction. However, due to the low content of sulfur in natural HA, its influence is less pronounced. In the presence of carbonate, the U(VI) complexation by HA was studied in the alkaline pH range by means of cryo-TRLFS (-120 C) and ATR FT-IR spectroscopy. The formation of the ternary UO 2 (CO 3 ) 2 HA(II) 4- complex was detected. The complex formation constant was determined with log β 0.1 M = 24.57 ± 0.17. For aqueous U(VI) citrate and oxalate species, luminescence emission properties were determined by cryo-TRLFS and used to determine stability constants. The existing data base could be validated. The U(VI) complexation by lactate, studied in the temperature range 7 to 65 C, was found to be endothermic and entropy-driven. In contrast, the complex stability constants determined for U(VI) humate complexation at 20 and 40 C are comparable, however, decrease at 60 C. For aqueous U(IV) citrate, succinate, mandelate and glycolate species stability constants were determined. These ligands, especially citrate, increase solubility and mobility of U(IV) in solution due to complexation. The U(VI) sorption onto crushed Opalinus Clay (OPA, Mont Terri, Switzerland) was studied in the absence and presence of HA or low molecular weight organic acids, in dependence on temperature and CO2 presence using OPA pore water as background electrolyte. Distribution coefficients (K d ) were determined for the sorption of U(VI) and HA onto OPA with (0.0222 ± 0.0004) m 3 /kg and (0.129 ± 0.006) m 3 /kg, respectively. The U(VI) sorption is not influenced by HA (≤50 mg/L), however, decreased by low molecular weight organic acids (≥ 1 x 10 -5 M), especially by citrate and tartrate. With increasing temperature, the U(VI) sorption increases both in the absence and in the presence of clay organics. The U(VI) diffusion in compacted OPA is not influenced by HA at 25 and 60 C. Predictions of the U(VI) diffusion show that an increase of the temperature to 60 C does not accelerate the migration of U(VI). With regard to uranium-containing waste, it is concluded that OPA is suitable as host rock for a future nuclear waste repository since OPA has a good retardation potential for U(VI). (orig.)

  3. Monitored Natural Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants in Ground Water Volume 3 Assessment for Radionuclides IncludingTritium, Radon, Strontium, Technetium, Uranium, Iodine, Radium, Thorium, Cesium, and Plutonium-Americium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current document represents the third volume of a set of three volumes that address the technical basis and requirements for assessing the potential applicability of MNA as part of a ground-water remedy for plumes with nonradionuclide and/or radionuclide inorganic contamina...

  4. Americium and plutonium in phosphates of trigonal structure (NZP type) Am1/3[Zr2(PO4)3] and Pu1/4[Zr2(PO4)3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, D.M.; Orlova, A.I.; Tomilin, S.V.; Lizin, A.A.; Lukinykh, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    Am 1/3 [Zr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 ] and Pu 1/4 [Zr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 ] phosphates are synthesized and are investigated by X-ray diffraction method. Compounds have triclinic lattices and lattice parameters are determined. Possibility of actinide inclusion into hollows of framework of NZP type is shown for the first time. It is proposed that inclusion of Pu and Am highly-charged cations into framework hollows decreases crystal structure symmetry up to primitive trigonal one. Rate of Pu leaching from ceramics on Pu 1/4 [Zr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 ] basis are measured [ru

  5. Neutron-induced Fission Cross Sections of Am and Cm isotopes (Final Report of Research Contract 14485). Resonance and Fast Neutron Induced Fission Cross Sections of Americium and Curium Nuclides (Third-year Progress Report of Research Contract 14485)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A.A.; Bergman, A.A.; Berlev, A.I.; Koptelov, E.A.; Egorov, A.S.; Samylin, B.F.; Trufanov, A.M.; Fursov, B.I.; Shorin, V.S.

    2012-01-01

    The neutron induced fission cross sections of Am and Cm isotopes were measured relative to 239 Pu in the neutron energy range from 1 eV to 20 keV at the INR RAS lead slowing down spectrometer LSDS-100. The fission resonance integrals were also estimated using the measured cross section data. The results have been compared with the available experimental and evaluated data. This analysis has shown the present status of the measured fission cross sections and the necessity to revise the evaluated cross sections libraries for the minor actinides. (author)

  6. Supported liquid inorganic membranes for nuclear waste separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhave, Ramesh R; DeBusk, Melanie M; DelCul, Guillermo D; Delmau, Laetitia H; Narula, Chaitanya K

    2015-04-07

    A system and method for the extraction of americium from radioactive waste solutions. The method includes the transfer of highly oxidized americium from an acidic aqueous feed solution through an immobilized liquid membrane to an organic receiving solvent, for example tributyl phosphate. The immobilized liquid membrane includes porous support and separating layers loaded with tributyl phosphate. The extracted solution is subsequently stripped of americium and recycled at the immobilized liquid membrane as neat tributyl phosphate for the continuous extraction of americium. The sequestered americium can be used as a nuclear fuel, a nuclear fuel component or a radiation source, and the remaining constituent elements in the aqueous feed solution can be stored in glassified waste forms substantially free of americium.

  7. BUENO, Zuleika de Paula. Leia o livro, veja o filme, compre o disco: a formação do cinema juvenil brasileiro Maringá (PR: EDUEM, 2016 (244 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REA Editor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este livro aborda a produção cinematográfica direcionada ao público jovem no Brasil num determinado período histórico, no caso, o final da década de 1950 e o início dos anos 1990. O que se entende aqui por cinema juvenil é o resultado de uma determinada configuração de processos produtivos, estruturas narrativas, formas de sociabilidade e práticas de consumo existentes no cinema brasileiro que coloca o jovem no centro do debate cultural.

  8. A change of in vivo characteristics depending on specific activity of radioiodinated (+)-2-[4-(4-iodophenyl)piperidino]cyclohexanol [(+)-pIV] as a ligand for sigma receptor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Nasima; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Kazuma; Tsuji, Shiro; Kinuya, Seigo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Mori, Hirofumi

    2008-01-01

    The radioiodinated (+)-p-iodovesamicol [(+)-pIV], which shows a high binding affinity for sigma-1 (sigma-1) receptors, is prepared by an exchange reaction. The specific activity (SA) is fairly low and therefore is insufficient for clinical use. In this study, we prepared (+)-[(125)I]pIV with a high SA from tributylstannyl precursor and compared the in vivo characteristics between high and low SA by imaging sigma-1 receptors in the central nervous system. In the biodistribution study, a difference in brain accumulation was observed between the two methods. At 30 min postinjection, the brain accumulation (1.58%ID/g) of low SA [0.6-1.1 TBq/mmol (16-30 Ci/mmol)] (+)-[(125)I]pIV was higher than that (1.34%ID/g) of high SA [>88.8 TBq/mmol (>2400 Ci/mmol)] (+)-[(125)I]pIV. In the blocking study, the brain uptake of high SA (+)-[(125)I]pIV was reduced more significantly by the coadministration of sigma ligands such as pentazocine, haloperidol or SA4503 than that of low SA (+)-[(125)I]pIV. These results showed that nonspecific binding of high SA (+)-[(125)I]pIV in the brain was lower than that of low SA (+)-[(125)I]pIV, and high SA (+)-[(125)I]pIV bound more specifically to sigma-1 receptors in the brain than low SA (+)-[(125)I]pIV. In contrast, in the blood-binding study, high SA (+)-[(125)I]pIV (58.4%) bound to blood cells with higher affinity than low SA (+)-[(125)I]pIV (46.0%). In metabolite studies, blood metabolites of high SA (+)-[(125)I]pIV (57.3+/-3.5%) were higher than those of low SA (+)-[(125)I]pIV (45.5+/-4.1%) at 30 min postinjection. Higher SA may be apt to bind to blood cells with higher affinity and to be metabolized faster.

  9. Poly[[aqua(μ2-4,4′-bipyridine-κ2N:N′[μ3-3-bromo-2-(carboxylatomethylbenzoato-κ3O1:O1′:O2]cadmium] monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangmei Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, {[Cd(C9H5BrO4(C10H8N2(H2O]·H2O}n, the CdII atom has a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. Two N atoms from two 4,4′-bipyridine (bipy ligands occupy the axial positions, while the equatorial positions are furnished by three carboxylate O atoms from three 3-bromo-2-(carboxylatomethylbenzoate (bcb ligands and one O atom from a water molecule. The bipy and bcb ligands link the CdII atoms into a three-dimensional network. O—H...O hydrogen bonds and π–π interactions between the pyridine and benzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.736 (4 Å] are present in the crystal.

  10. Responsabilidade socioambiental corporativa e indicador de maturidade mediando desempenho estratégico para as organizações DOI:10.5007/2175-8077.2010v12n26p244

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni de Araujo Gomes

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O ambiente de negócios tem apresentado constantes desafios aos dirigentes de empresas. Nesse contexto, a permanente vigilância, reflexo da competitividade e busca de produtividade, faz com as atenções estejam voltadas aos fatores antecedentes e, consequentemente, para a dimensão Responsabilidade Socioambiental Corporativa (RSAC. O trabalho analisa e estima a intensidade das relações entre os fatores valor da marca, reputação da empresa, satisfação dos interessados (stakeholders e riscos de externalidades, como satélites explicativos da RSAC. E, além dos testes de aderência no modelo relacional, propõe e testa uma equação para dimensionar o grau de Maturidade em Responsabilidade Socioambiental Corporativa Setorial (RSAC, procurando analisar e identificar, em que estágio a RSAC afeta os construtos finais enquanto retorno estratégico para as organizações. Esta pesquisa foi realizada no setor da construção civil de Minas Gerais, representado por seus gestores, e os dados coletados por meio de um survey usando um questionário com questões estruturadas com variação likert. Os dados foram avaliados mediante análise de equações estruturais usando o LVPLS. Para a mensuração das ações em Responsabilidade Socioambiental, utilizaram-se os modelos conhecidos nas organizações e academia, tais como o Índice de Sustentabilidade Empresarial, os Dow Jones Indexes, o indicador do Instituto Ethos e a representação teórica de Hopkins (1997.

  11. A randomised study comparing the effect on ovarian activity of a progestogen-only pill (POP) containing desogestrel and a new POP containing drospirenone in a 24/4 regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijkers, Ingrid J M; Heger-Mahn, Doris; Drouin, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Progestogen-only pills (POPs) are safer with respect to cardiovascular risks than contraceptives containing estrogens. Despite the increased contraceptive efficacy of a desogestrel-only pill compared with a traditional POP, POPs are still not widely used due to an unpredictable bleeding......, to assess the effects on cervical mucus permeability and bleeding. METHODS: Sixty-four healthy volunteers with proven ovulatory cycles were randomised and treated with either the drospirenone-only or the desogestrel-only pill during two 28-day cycles. Follicular diameter, endometrial thickness, and serum...

  12. Report on the behalf of the Economy, Sustainable Development and Land Planning Commission on the bill project related to the follow-up of environmental consequences of French nuclear tests in French Polynesia - Nr 244

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courteau, Roland

    2012-01-01

    In a first part of this report, the author recalls the history of the creation of the Pacific experiment centre and the test campaign which took place without a real consultation of local populations. He comments the end of nuclear tests while giving an overview of site dismantling and of radioactive materials which have been left there. Then, he addresses the environmental consequences of the nuclear tests in French Polynesia: follow-up system, follow-up of radiological consequences, risks related to subsoil steadiness, necessity of better information of local populations and acknowledgement of test effects. He presents the bill project concerning the return of both atolls within the authority of French Polynesia. The discussion of the bill project articles is reported

  13. Poly[aqua(μ2-4,4′-bipyridine-κ2N:N′(ethane-1,2-diol-κO(μ2-sulfato-κ2O:O′nickel(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Long Zhong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Ni(SO4(C10H8N2(C2H6O2(H2O]n, contains two crystallographically unique NiII atoms, each lying on a twofold rotation axis and having a slightly distorted octahedral environment. It is isotypic with the previously reported CuII analog [Zhong et al. (2011. Acta Cryst. C67, m62–m64]. One NiII atom is coordinated by two N atoms from two bridging 4,4′-bipyridine (4,4′-bipy ligands, two O atoms from two sulfate ions and two aqua O atoms. The second NiII atom is surrounded by two N atoms from 4,4′-bipy ligands and four O atoms, two from bridging sulfate ions and from two ethane-1,2-diol ligands. The sulfate anion acts as a bridging ligand, linking adjacent NiII atoms, leading to the formation of linear ...Ni1—Ni2—Ni1—Ni2... chains along the a-axis direction. Adjacent chains are further bridged by 4,4′-bipy ligands, resulting in a two-dimensional layered polymer parallel to (001. In the crystal, the polymeric layers are linked by extensive O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions involving the O atoms of the water molecules and the ethane-1,2-diol molecules, resulting in a three-dimensional supramolecular network.

  14. Efficacy and safety of an oral contraceptive containing ethinylestradiol 20 µg/drospirenone 3 mg (24/4 regimen) in three indications in the People's Republic of China: a comparison with international studies

    OpenAIRE

    Marr J; Huang Z; Wang B; Zhang H; Roth K

    2015-01-01

    Joachim Marr,1 Zirong Huang,2 Baoxi Wang,3 Hongyan Zhang,4 Katrin Roth1 1Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany; 2Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, 3Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 4Peking University Sixth Hospital, Peking University Institute of Mental Health, Ministry of Health (Peking University), Beijing, People's Republic of China Abstract: While combined oral contraceptives are a popular...

  15. Long-term efficacy and safety of a monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing 0.02 mg ethinylestradiol and 2 mg chlormadinone acetate administered in a 24/4-day regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Cosima; Hedon, Bernard; The, Hok Sien; Höschen, Kornelia; Binder, Natascha; Christoph, Annette

    2010-06-01

    This study was conducted to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of a low-dose monophasic combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing 0.02 mg ethinylestradiol (EE) and 2 mg chlormadinone acetate (CMA) in a novel regimen administered daily for 24 days followed by a 4-day placebo interval. In this multicenter, uncontrolled, Phase III trial, 1665 subjects took the COC 0.02 mg EE/2 mg CMA for up to 21 cycles. The overall Pearl Index was the primary end point; cycle control, safety, effect on acne and seborrhea, and changes in body weight and libido were secondary end points. Contraceptive efficacy was analyzed for 1653 subjects completing 21,495 cycles. Six pregnancies occurred during trial duration with one attributable to method failure. The overall Pearl Index for the first year of use was 0.33 (95% confidence interval, 0.09-0.85). The mean number of bleeding/spotting days during six 90-day reference periods (RPs) decreased from 17.0 (RP 1) to 11.7 (RP 6), and the number of bleeding episodes per RP decreased from 3.8 (RP 1) to 2.7 (RP 6). Among subjects who presented with acne at the baseline visit, a decrease of papules/pustules and comedones was observed during the course of the trial. The most common "at least possibly related" adverse events were headache, breast discomfort and nausea. The tolerability and well-being was reported as being excellent or good in the majority of trial subjects (84.6% and 80.2%, respectively). The low-dose COC 0.02 mg EE/2 mg CMA administered daily for 24 days followed by a 4-day placebo interval provides high contraceptive efficacy combined with an adequate cycle control and safety profile, beneficial effects on acne, and is well tolerated.

  16. A change of in vivo characteristics depending on specific activity of radioiodinated (+)-2-[4-(4-iodophenyl)piperidino]cyclohexanol [(+)-pIV] as a ligand for sigma receptor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, Nasima; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Kazuma; Tsuji, Shiro; Kinuya, Seigo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Mori, Hirofumi

    2008-01-01

    The radioiodinated (+)-p-iodovesamicol [(+)-pIV], which shows a high binding affinity for sigma-1 (σ-1) receptors, is prepared by an exchange reaction. The specific activity (SA) is fairly low and therefore is insufficient for clinical use. In this study, we prepared (+)-[ 125 I]pIV with a high SA from tributylstannyl precursor and compared the in vivo characteristics between high and low SA by imaging σ-1 receptors in the central nervous system. In the biodistribution study, a difference in brain accumulation was observed between the two methods. At 30 min postinjection, the brain accumulation (1.58%ID/g) of low SA [0.6-1.1 TBq/mmol (16-30 Ci/mmol)] (+)-[ 125 I]pIV was higher than that (1.34%ID/g) of high SA [>88.8 TBq/mmol (>2400 Ci/mmol)] (+)-[ 125 I]pIV. In the blocking study, the brain uptake of high SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV was reduced more significantly by the coadministration of sigma ligands such as pentazocine, haloperidol or SA4503 than that of low SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV. These results showed that nonspecific binding of high SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV in the brain was lower than that of low SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV, and high SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV bound more specifically to σ-1 receptors in the brain than low SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV. In contrast, in the blood-binding study, high SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV (58.4%) bound to blood cells with higher affinity than low SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV (46.0%). In metabolite studies, blood metabolites of high SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV (57.3±3.5%) were higher than those of low SA (+)-[ 125 I]pIV (45.5±4.1%) at 30 min postinjection. Higher SA may be apt to bind to blood cells with higher affinity and to be metabolized faster

  17. Report on the behalf of the Economy, Sustainable Development and Land Planning Commission on the bill project related to the follow-up of environmental consequences of French nuclear tests in French Polynesia - Nr 244; Rapport fait au nom de la commission de l'economie, du developpement durable et de l'amenagement du territoire sur la proposition de loi relative au suivi des consequences environnementales des essais nucleaires francais en Polynesie francaise - No. 244

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courteau, Roland

    2012-01-11

    In a first part of this report, the author recalls the history of the creation of the Pacific experiment centre and the test campaign which took place without a real consultation of local populations. He comments the end of nuclear tests while giving an overview of site dismantling and of radioactive materials which have been left there. Then, he addresses the environmental consequences of the nuclear tests in French Polynesia: follow-up system, follow-up of radiological consequences, risks related to subsoil steadiness, necessity of better information of local populations and acknowledgement of test effects. He presents the bill project concerning the return of both atolls within the authority of French Polynesia. The discussion of the bill project articles is reported

  18. 241Am (n,gamma) isomer ratio measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Evelyn M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vieira, David J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moody, Walter A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Slemmons, Alice K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-05

    The objective of this project is to improve the accuracy of the {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am radiochemistry ratio. We have performed an activation experiment to measure the {sup 241}Am(n,{gamma}) cross section leading to either the ground state of {sup 242g}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 16 hr) which decays to {sup 242}Cm (t{sub 1/2} = 163 d) or the long-lived isomer {sup 242m}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 141 yr). This experiment will develop a new set of americium cross section evaluations that can be used with a measured {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am radiochemical measurement for nuclear forensic purposes. This measurement is necessary to interpret the {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am ratio because a good measurement of this neutron capture isomer ratio for {sup 241}Am does not exist. The targets were prepared in 2007 from {sup 241}Am purified from LANL stocks. Gold was added to the purified {sup 241}Am as an internal neutron fluence monitor. These targets were placed into a holder, packaged, and shipped to Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, where they were irradiated at their Van de Graff facility in February 2008. One target was irradiated with {approx}25 keV quasimonoenergetic neutrons produced by the {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction for 3 days and a second target was also irradiated for 3 days with {approx}500 keV neutrons. Because it will be necessary to separate the {sup 242}Cm from the {sup 241}Am in order to measure the amount of {sup 242}Cm by alpha spectrometry, research into methods for americium/curium separations were conducted concurrently. We found that anion exchange chromatography in methanol/nitric acid solutions produced good separations that could be completed in one day resulting in a sample with no residue. The samples were returned from Germany in July 2009 and were counted by gamma spectrometry. Chemical separations have commenced on the blank sample. Each sample will be spiked with {sup 244}Cm, dissolved and digested in nitric acid solutions. One third of each sample will be processed at a time

  19. Calculated Atomic Volumes of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, H.; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1979-01-01

    The equilibrium atomic volume is calculated for the actinide metals. It is possible to account for the localization of the 5f electrons taking place in americium.......The equilibrium atomic volume is calculated for the actinide metals. It is possible to account for the localization of the 5f electrons taking place in americium....

  20. On the transmutation of Am in a fast lead-cooled system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For one year of operation, 61 kg of americium is destroyed, and due to increased 238Pu content, americium is mainly converted to fission products. Thus in a ... of about 50%. Application of similar strategy for ADS with a sub-criticality level ≈ 0.96–0.98 can essentially relax safety problems related to positive void effects.