WorldWideScience

Sample records for americium 242

  1. Investigation of the chemical explosion of an ion exchange resin column and resulting americium contamination of personnel in the 242-Z building, August 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-10-19

    As a result of an explosion in the Waste Treatment Facility, 242-Z Building, 200 West Area of the Hanford Reservation on August 30, 1976, the Manager of the Richland Operations Office (RL), Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), appointed an ERDA Committee to conduct a formal investigation and to prepare a report on their findings of this occurrence. The Committee was instructed to conduct the investigation in accordance with ERDAMC 0502, insofar as circumstances would permit, to cover and explain technical elements of the casual sequence(s) of the occurrence, and to describe management systems which should have or could have prevented the occurrence. This report is the result of the investigation and presents the conclusions of the review.

  2. Chemistry of americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1976-01-01

    Essential features of the descriptive chemistry of americium are reviewed. Chapter titles are: discovery, atomic and nuclear properties, collateral reading, production and uses, chemistry in aqueous solution, metal, alloys, and compounds, and, recovery, separation, purification. Author and subject indexes are included. (JCB)

  3. The Biokinetic Model of Americium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    To improve in vivo measurements for detecting internal exposure from transuranium radio nuclides, such as neptunium, plutonium, americium, the bioknetic model was studied. According to ICRP report (1993, 1995, 1997) and other research, the

  4. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  5. 5f-Electron Delocalization in Americium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1980-01-01

    The pressure-volume relation for americium has been obtained without adjustable parameters from self-consistent, spin-polarized band calculations. Around 100 kbar we find a first-order transition to a state with low volume and no spin. This is consistent with preliminary high-pressure measurements....

  6. The relative physiological and toxicological properties of americium and plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.E.; Busch, E.; Johnson, O. [and others

    1951-11-15

    The relative physiological and toxicological properties of americium and plutonium have been studied following their intravenous administration to rats. The urinary and fecal excretion of americium was similar to that of plutonium administered as Pu(N0{sub 3}){sub 4}. The deposition of americium the tissues and organs of the rat was also similar to that observed for plutonium. The liver and the skeleton were the major sites of deposition. Zirconium citrate administered 15 minutes after injection of americium increased the urinary excretion of americium and decreased the amount found in the liver and the skeleton at 4 and 16 days. LD{sub 30}{sup 50} studies showed americium was slightly less toxic when given in the acute toxic range than was plutonium. The difference was, however, too slight to be important in establishing a larger tolerance does for americium. Survival studies, hematological observations, bone marrow observations, comparison of tumor incidence and the incidence of skeletal abnormalities indicated that americium and plutonium have essentially the same chronic toxicity when given on an equal {mu}c. basis. These studies support the conclusion that the tolerance values for americium should be essentially the same as those for Plutonium.

  7. Surface complexation modeling of americium sorption onto volcanic tuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, M; Kelkar, S; Meijer, A

    2014-10-01

    Results of a surface complexation model (SCM) for americium sorption on volcanic rocks (devitrified and zeolitic tuff) are presented. The model was developed using PHREEQC and based on laboratory data for americium sorption on quartz. Available data for sorption of americium on quartz as a function of pH in dilute groundwater can be modeled with two surface reactions involving an americium sulfate and an americium carbonate complex. It was assumed in applying the model to volcanic rocks from Yucca Mountain, that the surface properties of volcanic rocks can be represented by a quartz surface. Using groundwaters compositionally representative of Yucca Mountain, americium sorption distribution coefficient (Kd, L/Kg) values were calculated as function of pH. These Kd values are close to the experimentally determined Kd values for americium sorption on volcanic rocks, decreasing with increasing pH in the pH range from 7 to 9. The surface complexation constants, derived in this study, allow prediction of sorption of americium in a natural complex system, taking into account the inherent uncertainty associated with geochemical conditions that occur along transport pathways.

  8. Self-irradiation and oxidation effects on americium sesquioxide and Raman spectroscopy studies of americium oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horlait, Denis [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Caraballo, Richard [CEA, DEN, DTCD/SECM/LMPA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Lebreton, Florent [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Jégou, Christophe [CEA, DEN, DTCD/SECM/LMPA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Roussel, Pascal [Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, UMR 8012 CNRS, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille BP 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Delahaye, Thibaud, E-mail: thibaud.delahaye@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France)

    2014-09-15

    Americium oxides samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, with an emphasis on their structural behavior under oxidation and self-irradiation. Raman spectra of americium dioxide (AmO{sub 2}) and sesquioxide (Am{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were obtained for the first time. With the help of literature data on isostructural oxides, Raman signatures of Ia-3 C-type Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} and P-3m1 A-type Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} are identified. For AmO{sub 2,} a clear band is noted at 390 cm{sup −1}. Its nature is compared to that of the other actinide dioxides. Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} evolution under ambient conditions and against {sup 241}Am α self-irradiation was monitored by powder XRD. The sample, initially composed of A-type Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} as major phase as well as C2/m B-type and C-type structures as minor phases, progressively oxidizes to Fm-3m AmO{sub 2−δ} over a few months. On the basis of diffractogram refinements, evolutions of unit cell volumes caused by self-irradiation are also determined and discussed. - Graphical abstract: The evolution of americium oxide under ambient conditions was monitored using XRD (X-ray diffraction) and Raman spectroscopy. After a thermal treatment under reducing conditions, a polyphasic sample mainly composed of A- and C-type americium sesquioxides is evidenced by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The sample then evolves through two processes: oxidation and self-irradiation. The first one provokes the progressive appearance of F-type americium dioxide while the initial phases disappear, whereas the main effect of the second is a structural swelling with time. - Highlights: • The first Raman spectroscopy measurements on americium oxides were performed. • Observed Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} Raman bands were identified thanks to data on analogue compounds. • AmO{sub 2} assumed T{sub 2g} band presents a shift compared to the actinide dioxide series. • Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} evolution under self-irradiation and oxidation was also

  9. Plutonium and Americium Geochemistry at Hanford: A Site Wide Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-08-23

    This report was produced to provide a systematic review of the state-of-knowledge of plutonium and americium geochemistry at the Hanford Site. The report integrates existing knowledge of the subsurface migration behavior of plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site with available information in the scientific literature regarding the geochemistry of plutonium and americium in systems that are environmentally relevant to the Hanford Site. As a part of the report, key research needs are identified and prioritized, with the ultimate goal of developing a science-based capability to quantitatively assess risk at sites contaminated with plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site and the impact of remediation technologies and closure strategies.

  10. Americium/Curium Disposition Life Cycle Planning Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, W.N. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Krupa, J.; Stutts, P.; Nester, S.; Raimesch, R.

    1998-04-30

    At the request of the Department of Energy Savannah River Office (DOE- SR), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) evaluated concepts to complete disposition of Americium and Curium (Am/Cm) bearing materials currently located at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  11. Higher Americium Oxidation State Research Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincher, Bruce J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Law, Jack D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Goff, George S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shehee, Thomas C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hobbs, David T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-18

    The partitioning of hexavalent Am from dissolved nuclear fuel requires the ability to efficiently oxidize Am(III) to Am(VI) and to maintain that oxidation state for a length of time sufficient to perform the separation. Several oxidants have been, or are being developed. Chemical oxidants include Ag-catalyzed ozone, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate, Cu(III) periodate, and sodium bismuthate. Hexavalent americium has also now successfully been prepared by electrolysis, using functionalized electrodes. So-called auto-reduction rates of Am(VI) are sufficiently slow to allow for separations. However, for separations based on solvent extraction or ion exchange using organic resins, the high valence state must be maintained under the reducing conditions of the organic phase contact, and a holding oxidant is probably necessary. Until now, only Cu(III) periodate and sodium bismuthate oxidation have been successfully combined with solvent extraction separations. Bismuthate oxidation provided the higher DAm, since it acts as its own holding oxidant, and a successful hot test using centrifugal contactors was performed. For the other oxidants, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate will not oxidize americium in nitric acid concentrations above 0.3 M, and it is not being further investigated. Peroxydisulfate in the absence of Ag catalysis is being used to prepare Am(V) in ion exchange work, discussed below. Preliminary work with Ag-catalyzed ozone has been unsuccessful for extractions of Am(VI) from 6.5 M HNO3, and only one attempt at extraction, also from 6.5 M HNO3, using the electrolytic oxidation has been attempted. However, this high acid concentration was based on the highest Am extraction efficiency using the bismuthate oxidant; which is only sparingly soluble, and thus the oxidation yield is based on bismuthate solubility. Lower acid concentrations may be sufficient with alternative oxidants and work with Ag-ozone, Cu(III) and electrolysis is on-going. Two non

  12. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  13. Pyrochemical investigations into recovering plutonium from americium extraction salt residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fife, K.W.; West, M.H.

    1987-05-01

    Progress into developing a pyrochemical technique for separating and recovering plutonium from spent americium extraction waste salts has concentrated on selective chemical reduction with lanthanum metal and calcium metal and on the solvent extraction of americium with calcium metal. Both techniques are effective for recovering plutonium from the waste salt, although neither appears suitable as a separation technique for recycling a plutonium stream back to mainline purification processes. 17 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. 48 CFR 242.7302 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 242.7302 Section 242.7302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT.../Pension Review 242.7302 Requirements. Follow the procedures at PGI 242.7302 to determine if a CIPR...

  15. 48 CFR 242.7303 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities. 242.7303 Section 242.7303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT.../Pension Review 242.7303 Responsibilities. Follow the procedures at PGI 242.7303 when conducting a CIPR....

  16. Electrodeposition of americium and physicochemical behaviour of the solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerril-Vilchis, A. (Inst. Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, CMRI-LPR, Mexico City (Mexico)); Meas, Y. (CIDETEQ, Queretaro (Mexico)); Rojas-Hernandez, A. (Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Area de Electroquimica, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1994-01-01

    A new method based on concepts of generalized species and equilibria, was applied to represent the thermodynamic distribution of americium species (including condensed phases) in an electrochemical system. Diagrams of the predominance-zone, Existence-predominance and Pourbaix-type for the americium/support electrolyte/water system were constructed. On the basis of these diagrams, the initial distribution of the species in the electrolyte and the deposition conditions were predicted when a current density was applied to a rotating disc electrode in steady-state. These results were related with the Hansen model for actinide electrodeposition. (orig.)

  17. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plutonium and Americium from Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R.V.; Mincher, B.J.

    2002-05-23

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plutonium and americium from soil was successfully demonstrated using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide solvent augmented with organophosphorus and beta-diketone complexants. Spiked Idaho soils were chemically and radiologically characterized, then extracted with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide at 2,900 psi and 65 C containing varying concentrations of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). A single 45 minute SFE with 2.7 mol% TBP and 3.2 mol% TTA provided as much as 88% {+-} 6.0 extraction of americium and 69% {+-} 5.0 extraction of plutonium. Use of 5.3 mol% TBP with 6.8 mol% of the more acidic beta-diketone hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFA) provided 95% {+-} 3.0 extraction of americium and 83% {+-} 5.0 extraction of plutonium in a single 45 minute SFE at 3,750 psi and 95 C. Sequential chemical extraction techniques were used to chemically characterize soil partitioning of plutonium and americium in pre-SFE soil samples. Sequential chemical extraction techniques demonstrated that spiked plutonium resides primarily (76.6%) in the sesquioxide fraction with minor amounts being absorbed by the oxidizable fraction (10.6%) and residual fractions (12.8%). Post-SFE soils subjected to sequential chemical extraction characterization demonstrated that 97% of the oxidizable, 78% of the sesquioxide and 80% of the residual plutonium could be removed using SFE. These preliminary results show that SFE may be an effective solvent extraction technique for removal of actinide contaminants from soil.

  18. Thermodynamic systematics of oxides of americium, curium, and neighboring elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morss, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Recently-obtained calorimetric data on the sesquioxides and dioxides of americium and curium are summarized. These data are combined with other properties of the actinide elements to elucidate the stability relationships among these oxides and to predict the behavior of neighboring actinide oxides. 45 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  19. 32 CFR 242.7 - Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 242.7 Section 242.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... SCIENCES § 242.7 Responsibilities. (a) The President of the University shall: (1) Develop and...

  20. 25 CFR 242.7 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 242.7 Section 242.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.7 Suspension. All commercial fishing operations may be suspended by order of the Secretary at...

  1. 12 CFR 19.242 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 19.242 Section 19.242 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Removal, Suspension, and Debarment of Accountants From Performing Audit Services § 19.242 Definitions. As used in...

  2. 32 CFR 242a.3 - Open meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open meetings. 242a.3 Section 242a.3 National... PUBLIC MEETING PROCEDURES OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS, UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES § 242a.3 Open meetings. (a) Members shall not jointly conduct or dispose of business of the Board...

  3. 32 CFR 242a.8 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 242a.8 Section 242a.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... § 242a.8 Effective date. This part shall become effective on March 12, 1977....

  4. Reduction Rates for Higher Americium Oxidation States in Nitric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Travis Shane [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mincher, Bruce Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schmitt, Nicholas C [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The stability of hexavalent americium was measured using multiple americium concentrations and nitric acid concentrations after contact with the strong oxidant sodium bismuthate. Contrary to our hypotheses Am(VI) was not reduced faster at higher americium concentrations, and the reduction was only zero-order at short time scales. Attempts to model the reduction kinetics using zero order kinetic models showed Am(VI) reduction in nitric acid is more complex than the autoreduction processes reported by others in perchloric acid. The classical zero-order reduction of Am(VI) was found here only for short times on the order of a few hours. We did show that the rate of Am(V) production was less than the rate of Am(VI) reduction, indicating that some Am(VI) undergoes two electron-reduction to Am(IV). We also monitored the Am(VI) reduction in contact with the organic diluent dodecane. A direct comparison of these results with those in the absence of the organic diluent showed the reduction rates for Am(VI) were not statistically different for both systems. Additional americium oxidations conducted in the presence of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ions showed that Am(VI) is reduced without the typical growth of Am(V) observed in the systems sans Ce ion. This was an interesting result which suggests a potential new reduction/oxidation pathway for Am in the presence of Ce; however, these results were very preliminary, and will require additional experiments to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. Overall, these studies have shown that hexavalent americium is fundamentally stable enough in nitric acid to run a separations process. However, the complicated nature of the reduction pathways based on the system components is far from being rigorously understood.

  5. Research program on development of advanced treatment technology for americium-containing aqueous waste in NUCEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineo, Hideaki; Matsumura, Tatsuro; Tsubata, Yasuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-10-01

    A research program was prepared on the development of an advanced treatment process for the americium-containing concentrated aqueous waste in NUCEF, than allows americium recovery for the reuse and the reduction of TRU waste generation. A preliminary analysis was conducted on the separation requirements based on the components estimated for the waste. An R and D strategy was proposed from the view to reduce TRU waste generated in the processing that the highest priority is given on the control of TRU leakage such as americium into the effluent stream after americium recovery and the minimization of salt used in the separation over the decontamination of impurities from americium. The extraction chromatographic method was selected as a candidate technology for americium separation under the principle to use reagents that are functional in acidic conditions such as bidentate extractants of DHEDECMP, CMPO or diamides, considering the larger flexibilities in process modification and possible multi-component separation with compact equipment and the past achievements on the recovery of kg quantities of americium. Major R and D items extracted are screening and evaluation of extractants for americium and plutonium, optimization of separation conditions, selection of denitration method, equipment developments and development of solidification methods of discarded americium after reuse and of various kinds of separation residues. In order to cope these items, four steps of R and D program were proposed, i.e., fundamental experiment in beaker-scale on screening and evaluation of extractants, flowsheet study in bench-scale using simulated and small amount of americium aqueous waste solution to evaluate candidate process, americium recovery test in iron-shielded cell to be installed in NUCEF. It is objected to make recovery of 100g orders of americium used for research on fundamental TRU fuel properties. (J.P.N.)

  6. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plutonium and Americium from Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Robert Vincent; Mincher, Bruce Jay

    2002-08-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plutonium and americium from soil was successfully demonstrated using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide solvent augmented with organophosphorus and beta-diketone complexants. Spiked Idaho soils were chemically and radiologically characterized, then extracted with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide at 2,900 psi and 65°C containing varying concentrations of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). A single 45 minute SFE with 2.7 mol% TBP and 3.2 mol% TTA provided as much as 88% ± 6.0 extraction of americium and 69% ± 5.0 extraction of plutonium. Use of 5.3 mol% TBP with 6.8 mol% of the more acidic beta-diketone hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFA) provided 95% ± 3.0 extraction of americium and 83% ± 5.0 extraction of plutonium in a single 45 minute SFE at 3,750 psi and 95°C. Sequential chemical extraction techniques were used to chemically characterize soil partitioning of plutonium and americium in pre-SFE soil samples. Sequential chemical extraction techniques demonstrated that spiked plutonium resides primarily (76.6%) in the sesquioxide fraction with minor amounts being absorbed by the oxidizable fraction (10.6%) and residual fractions (12.8%). Post-SFE soils subjected to sequential chemical extraction characterization demonstrated that 97% of the oxidizable, 78% of the sesquioxide and 80% of the residual plutonium could be removed using SFE. These preliminary results show that SFE may be an effective solvent extraction technique for removal of actinide contaminants from soil.

  7. Isolation of americium (5) oxalate compounds from solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubarev, V.G.; Krot, N.N.

    1982-01-01

    Certain conditions of americium (5) isolation with solutions of ammonia and KOH are studied as well as the attitude of hydroxide obtained to heating. Like neptunium (5) hydroxide americium (5) hydroxide probably has the formula AmO/sub 2/OHxxH/sub 2/O, where x is approximately equal to 2.3. It is established that during heating in the air up to 120 deg C hydroxide transforms into AmO/sub 2/. It is shown that in solutions with a high concentration of oxalate-ion americium stability in oxidation state +5 depends greatly on the pH of solution. Complex salts KAmO/sub 2/C/sub 2/O/sub 4/xxH/sub 2/O and CsAmO/sub 2/C/sub 2/O/sub 4/xxH/sub 2/O are synthesized. The identification is made according to the method of preparation and results of analysis of C/sub 2/O/sub 4//sup 2 -/: AmO/sub 2//sup +/ ratio. It is found that the salts are non-isomorphous to similar salts of pentavalent neptunium. CsAmO/sub 2/C/sub 2/O/sub 4/xxH/sub 2/O is identified in cubic crystal system with the lattice constant a=1.25 nm.

  8. Dicty_cDB: AFG242 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/AF/AFG2-B/AFG242Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID AFG24...2F (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >AFG242 (AFG242Q) /CSM/AF/AFG2-B/AFG242Q.Seq.d/ AATTT

  9. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC....2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine the... may advise the Secretary to make adjustments to the allocation at any time. (c) The majority of...

  10. 24 CFR 242.61 - Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management. 242.61 Section 242.61... Management. The mortgagor shall provide for management of the hospital in a manner satisfactory to HUD. (a) Contract Management of Hospital. The mortgagor shall not execute a management agreement or any...

  11. 48 CFR 242.7301 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General. 242.7301 Section 242.7301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contractor Insurance/Pension...

  12. 24 CFR 242.82 - Energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Energy conservation. 242.82 Section... INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.82 Energy conservation. Construction, mechanical equipment, and energy and metering selections shall provide cost-effective energy conservation in...

  13. Separation of americium and curium from complex chemical and radiochemical mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochkarev, V.A.; Martynov, N.P.; Slivin, V.G.; Trikanov, A.E.; Fedyaeva, N.V.

    1988-11-01

    This work describes a method for separation and radiochemical purification of nanogram levels of americium and curium from complex chemical and radiochemical mixtures containing tens of milligrams of elements such as aluminum, iron, magnesium, calcium, barium, titanium, potassium, and others, microgram levels of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium, and fission products. Extraction coefficients of americium and curium from these elements are measured. The separation from the macrocomponents was carried out by extraction of americium and curium with butyric acid in the presence of sulfosalicylic acid. Uranium, neptunium, and plutonium were separated from hydrochloric acid solutions, while the rare earth elements were separated from lithium chloride solutions using a column of anion exchange resin AV-17. Alpha measurements were carried out on americium and curium deposited electrolytically on tantalum cathodes. The chemical yield of americium and curium was identical of greater than or equal to 94%, separation time approx. 8 h.

  14. Uncertainty analysis of doses from ingestion of plutonium and americium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncher, M; Harrison, J D

    2012-02-01

    Uncertainty analyses have been performed on the biokinetic model for americium currently used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and the model for plutonium recently derived by Leggett, considering acute intakes by ingestion by adult members of the public. The analyses calculated distributions of doses per unit intake. Those parameters having the greatest impact on prospective doses were identified by sensitivity analysis; the most important were the fraction absorbed from the alimentary tract, f(1), and rates of uptake from blood to bone surfaces. Probability distributions were selected based on the observed distribution of plutonium and americium in human subjects where possible; the distributions for f(1) reflected uncertainty on the average value of this parameter for non-specified plutonium and americium compounds ingested by adult members of the public. The calculated distributions of effective doses for ingested (239)Pu and (241)Am were well described by log-normal distributions, with doses varying by around a factor of 3 above and below the central values; the distributions contain the current ICRP Publication 67 dose coefficients for ingestion of (239)Pu and (241)Am by adult members of the public. Uncertainty on f(1) values had the greatest impact on doses, particularly effective dose. It is concluded that: (1) more precise data on f(1) values would have a greater effect in reducing uncertainties on doses from ingested (239)Pu and (241)Am, than reducing uncertainty on other model parameter values and (2) the results support the dose coefficients (Sv Bq(-1) intake) derived by ICRP for ingestion of (239)Pu and (241)Am by adult members of the public.

  15. Kilogram-scale purification of americium by ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelwright, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Sequential anion and cation exchange processes have been used for the final purification of /sup 241/Am recovered during the reprocessing of aged plutonium metallurgical scrap. Plutonium was removed by absorption of Dowex 1, X-3.5 (30 to 50 mesh) anion exchange resin from 6.5 to 7.5 M HNO/sub 3/ feed solution. Following a water dilution to 0.75 to 1.0 M HNO/sub 3/, americium was absorbed on Dowex 50W, X-8 (50 to 100 mesh) cation exchange resion. Final purification was accomplished by elution of the absorbed band down 3 to 4 successive beds of the same resin, preloaded with Zn/sup 2 +/, with an NH/sub 4/OH buffered chelating agent. The recovery of mixed /sup 241/Am-/sup 243/Am from power reactor reprocessing waste has been demonstrated. Solvent extraction was used to recover a HNO/sub 3/ solution of mixed lanthanides and actinides from waste generated by the reprocessng of 13.5 tons of Shippingport Power Reactor blanket fuel. Sequential cation exchange band-displacement processes were then used to separate americium and curium from the lanthanides and then to separate approx. 60 g of /sup 244/Cm from 1000 g of mixed /sup 241/Am-/sup 243/Am.

  16. Dicty_cDB: SLC242 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Dictyostelium discoideum cDNA clone:ddc24n06, 5' ... 706 0.0 1 ( AU060920 ) Dictyostelium discoideum slug cDNA, clone SLC2...SL (Link to library) SLC242 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U12013-1 SLC242E (Link to Original site) SLC2...42F 595 SLC242Z 606 SLC242P 1201 SLC242E 751 Show SLC242 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC2...inal site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC2-B/SLC242Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC2...42E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC242 (SLC242Q) /CSM/SL/SLC2-B/SLC2

  17. 17 CFR 242.406 - Undermargined accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Customer Margin Requirements for Security Futures § 242.406 Undermargined accounts. (a) Failure to satisfy margin call. If...

  18. Hexavalent Americium Recovery Using Copper(III) Periodate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, Kevin; Brigham, Derek M.; Morrison, Samuel; Braley, Jenifer C.

    2016-11-21

    Separation of americium from the lanthanides is considered one of the most difficult separation steps in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. One approach to this separation could involve oxidizing americium to the hexavalent state to form a linear dioxo cation while the lanthanides remain as trivalent ions. This work considers aqueous soluble Cu3+ periodate as an oxidant under molar nitric acid conditions to separate hexavalent Am with diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP) in n-dodecane. Initial studies assessed the kinetics of Cu3+ periodate auto-reduction in acidic media to aid in development of the solvent extraction system. Following characterization of the Cu3+ periodate oxidant, solvent extraction studies optimized the recovery of Am from varied nitric acid media and in the presence of other fission product, or fission product surrogate, species. Short aqueous/organic contact times encouraged successful recovery of Am (distribution values as high as 2) from nitric acid media in the absence of redox active fission products. In the presence of a post-PUREX simulant aqueous feed, precipitation of tetravalent species (Ce, Ru, Zr) occurred and the distribution values of 241Am were suppressed, suggesting some oxidizing capacity of the Cu3+ periodate is significantly consumed by other redox active metals in the simulant. The manuscript demonstrates Cu3+ periodate as a potentially viable oxidant for Am oxidation and recovery and notes the consumption of oxidizing capacity observed in the presence of the post-PUREX simulant feed will need to be addressed for any approach seeking to oxidize Am for separations relevant to the nuclear fuel cycle.

  19. Oxidative Alkaline leaching of Americium from simulated high-level nuclear waste sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Wendy A.; Garnov, Alexander Yu.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Bond, Andrew H.

    2004-01-23

    Oxidative alkaline leaching has been proposed to pre-treat the high-level nuclear waste sludges to remove some of the problematic (e.g., Cr) and/or non-radioactive (e.g., Na, Al) constituents before vitrification. It is critical to understand the behavior of actinides, americium and plutonium in particular, in oxidative alkaline leaching. We have studied the leaching behavior of americium from four different sludge simulants (BiPO{sub 4}, BiPO{sub 4 modified}, Redox, PUREX) using potassium permanganate and potassium persulfate in alkaline solutions. Up to 60% of americium sorbed onto the simulants is leached from the sludges by alkaline persulfate and permanganate. The percentage of americium leached increases with [NaOH] (between 1.0 and 5.0 M). The initial rate of americium leaching by potassium persulfate increases in the order BiPO{sub 4} sludge < Redox sludge < PUREX sludge. The data are most consistent with oxidation of Am{sup 3+} in the sludge to either AmO{sub 2}{sup +} or AmO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in solution. Though neither of these species is expected to exhibit long-term stability in solution, the potential for mobilization of americium from sludge samples would have to be accommodated in the design of any oxidative leaching process for real sludge samples.

  20. The transmutation of americium: the Ecrix experiments in Phenix; Transmutation de l'americium: les experiences ecrix dans Phenix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, J.C.; Schmidt, N. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles (DEC/SESC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Croixmarie, Y.; Ottaviani, J.P. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles (DEC/SPUA), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Varaine, F.; Saint Jean, C. de [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs (DER/SPRC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1999-07-01

    The first americium transmutation experiment in a specific target in PHENIX will occur with the ECRIX-B and ECRIX-H experiments. Beside material testing, the objective is also to represent a concept of transmutation whose specificity is to enhance the kinetics of transmutation by using a moderated spectrum. The moderator materials will be {sup 11}B{sub 4}C and CaH{sub 2} for ECRIX-B and ECRIXH respectively, the irradiation conditions have been predicted for both the neutronics and thermal. The targets (MgO-AmO{sub X} pellets) are manufactured in the ATALANTE laboratory and the design is performed according to the PHENIX operating conditions. (authors)

  1. 32 CFR 242b.3 - Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SCIENCES § 242b.3 Notice. (a) Notice of all meetings of the Board shall be sent by the Secretary to each...-four hours before the meeting, shall be sufficient notice of any meeting. The recital by the Secretary...) Public announcement of meetings shall conform to the Public Meeting Procedures of the Board of...

  2. 17 CFR 242.201 - Price test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Sho... convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 242.201 Circuit breaker. (a) Definitions... security is by a market maker to offset customer odd-lot orders or to liquidate an odd-lot position...

  3. Effect of americium-241 on luminous bacteria. Role of peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrova, M., E-mail: maka-alexandrova@rambler.r [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Rozhko, T. [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Vydryakova, G. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kudryasheva, N. [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-15

    The effect of americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), an alpha-emitting radionuclide of high specific activity, on luminous bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum was studied. Traces of {sup 241}Am in nutrient media (0.16-6.67 kBq/L) suppressed the growth of bacteria, but enhanced luminescence intensity and quantum yield at room temperature. Lower temperature (4 {sup o}C) increased the time of bacterial luminescence and revealed a stage of bioluminescence inhibition after 150 h of bioluminescence registration start. The role of conditions of exposure the bacterial cells to the {sup 241}Am is discussed. The effect of {sup 241}Am on luminous bacteria was attributed to peroxide compounds generated in water solutions as secondary products of radioactive decay. Increase of peroxide concentration in {sup 241}Am solutions was demonstrated; and the similarity of {sup 241}Am and hydrogen peroxide effects on bacterial luminescence was revealed. The study provides a scientific basis for elaboration of bioluminescence-based assay to monitor radiotoxicity of alpha-emitting radionuclides in aquatic solutions. - Highlights: {yields} Am-241 in water solutions (A = 0.16-6.7 kBq/L) suppresses bacterial growth.{yields} Am-241 (A = 0.16-6.7 kBq/L) stimulate bacterial luminescence. {yields} Peroxides, secondary radiolysis products, cause increase of bacterial luminescence.

  4. Particulate distribution of plutonium and americium in surface waters from the Spanish Mediterranean coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molero, J.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Merino, J.; Vidal-Quadras, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Vives Batlle, J.; Mitchell, P.I. [University Coll., Dublin (Ireland)

    1995-12-31

    Measurements of the particulate distribution of plutonium and americium in Spanish Mediterranean coastal waters have been carried out. Plutonium-239,340 and {sup 241}Am concentrations have been measured in suspended particulate matter by filtering (< 0.22 {mu}m) large volume (200-300 litres) sea water samples. Results indicate that particulate plutonium constitutes on average 11 {+-} 4% of the total concentration in sea water. In the case of americium this percentage rises to 45 {+-} 14%. From the {sup 241}Am/{sup 239,240}Pu activity ratios it is clear that suspended particulate matter is enriched in {sup 241}Am relative to {sup 239,240}Pu by a factor 8 {+-} 4. Plutonium and americium in surface Mediterranean coastal waters appear to be fractionated as they present a different transfer rate to the particles. Our measurements allowed us to estimate sediment-water distribution coefficients (K{sub d}), which are a key parameter to interpret differences between the behaviour of plutonium and americium in sea water. Distribution coefficients K{sub d} have been estimated to be (1.4 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 5} litres kg{sup -1} for plutonium and (0.9 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 6} litres kg{sup -1} for americium in surface Mediterranean coastal waters. (author).

  5. 32 CFR 242b.2 - Meetings of the Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meetings of the Board. 242b.2 Section 242b.2... THE HEALTH SCIENCES § 242b.2 Meetings of the Board. (a) Regular meetings. (1) The Board shall hold at... determined by the Board, meetings shall be held at the offices of the University, 4301 Jones Bridge...

  6. 42 CFR 438.242 - Health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health information systems. 438.242 Section 438.242... Measurement and Improvement Standards § 438.242 Health information systems. (a) General rule. The State must ensure, through its contracts, that each MCO and PIHP maintains a health information system that...

  7. 24 CFR 242.63 - Additional indebtedness and leasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional indebtedness and leasing. 242.63 Section 242.63 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Requirements § 242.63 Additional indebtedness and leasing. The mortgagor shall not enter into any...

  8. 25 CFR 242.12 - Authority to lease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority to lease. 242.12 Section 242.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.12 Authority to lease. The Band, with the approval of the Secretary, may execute a lease...

  9. 7 CFR 1220.242 - Books and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Books and records. 1220.242 Section 1220.242... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Reports, Books, and Records § 1220.242 Books and... subpart shall maintain and make available for inspection by the Board or Secretary such books and...

  10. 25 CFR 242.5 - Disposition of unmarketable fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of unmarketable fish. 242.5 Section 242.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.5 Disposition of unmarketable fish. All unmarketable live fish...

  11. 36 CFR 242.12 - Local advisory committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Local advisory committees. 242.12 Section 242.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE..., the particular Regional Council in carrying out its function as set forth in § 242.11. (b)...

  12. 17 CFR 242.301 - Requirements for alternative trading systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trading systems. 242.301 Section 242.301 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... FUTURES Regulation Ats-Alternative Trading Systems § 242.301 Requirements for alternative trading systems. (a) Scope of section. An alternative trading system shall comply with the requirements in...

  13. Dicty_cDB: CFH242 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CF (Link to library) CFH242 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16349-1 CFH242Z (Link... to Original site) - - CFH242Z 650 - - - - Show CFH242 Library CF (Link to library) Clone ID CFH242 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16349-1 Original site URL http://dict...d Amino Acid sequence ---ASGSVVEQCSSVDSISNLPTTMQLFAGIKSICTEMAMDGCEKCSGNSPTTTCDVLPV YSSLCMAMPDMSQCANWTKMCSSSG...*fn*fiflk wflskill*ryn*rmftcyrtnm*lcfnaccndi*cctl Frame C: ---ASGSVVEQCSSVDSISNLPTTMQLFAGIKSICT

  14. Isotopic and elemental composition of plutonium/americium oxides influence pulmonary and extra-pulmonary distribution after inhalation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Meeren, A; Grémy, O

    2010-09-01

    The biodistribution of plutonium and americium has been studied in a rat model after inhalation of two PuO(2) powders in lungs and extra-pulmonary organs from 3 d to 3 mo. The main difference between the two powders was the content of americium (approximately 46% and 4.5% of total alpha activity). The PuO(2) with a higher proportion of americium shows an accelerated transfer of activity from lungs to blood as compared to PuO(2) with the lower americium content, illustrated by increased urinary excretion and higher bone and liver actinide retention. The total alpha activity measured reflects mostly the americium biological behavior. The activity contained in epithelial lining fluid, recovered in the acellular phase of broncho-alveolar lavages, mainly contains americium, whereas plutonium remains trapped in macrophages. Epithelial lining fluid could represent a transitional pulmonary compartment prior to translocation of actinides to the blood and subsequent deposition in extra-pulmonary retention organs. In addition, differential behaviors of plutonium and americium are also observed between the PuO(2) powders with a higher dissolution rate for both plutonium and americium being obtained for the PuO(2) with the highest americium content. Our results indicate that the biological behavior of plutonium and americium after translocation into blood differ two-fold: (1) for the two actinides for the same PuO(2) aerosol, and (2) for the same actinide from the two different aerosols. These results highlight the importance of considering the specific behavior of each contaminant after accidental pulmonary intake when assessing extra-pulmonary deposits from the level of activity excreted in urine or for therapeutic strategy decisions.

  15. Calibration of 242 Pu Tracer by Mass Spectrometry%质谱法标定242 Pu指示剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬梅; 徐江; 杜丽丽

    2014-01-01

    将高纯242 Pu浓度标准溶液与239 Pu混合,质谱法测量R239/242(A)先标定四水硫酸钚中239 Pu的浓度;再将四水硫酸钚与待标定的242 Pu指示剂混合,测量R239/242(A),标定242 Pu 指示剂的浓度。质谱测量还可标定得到242 Pu指示剂中的钚同位素丰度。采用两次同位素稀释质谱法标定242 Pu 指示剂快捷简便,可在2日内完成。测量精度高,242 Pu浓度的相对合成标准不确定度为0.75%,该指示剂可满足高精度分析工作的需求。%242 Pu is commonly employed as tracer for determination of 239 Pu in environmental samples.The 239 Pu concentration in Pu(SO4 )2 ·4H2 O solution was determined by isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (ID-MS)using a high pure 242 Pu spike.Then the 242 Pu tracer in our laboratary was calibrated by ID-MS using the calibrated 239 Pu solution as spike.By meas-uring the atom ratio of 239 Pu to 242 Pu twice by ID-MS,the concentration and abundance of the 242 Pu tracer in laboratary were finally calibrated.This method was proved to be efficient with high precision.The process could be finished within two days with an uncertainty of 0.75%. The calibrated 242 Pu tracer in laboratory could meet the demand of high-precision analysis.

  16. National low-level waste management program radionuclide report series, Volume 14: Americium-241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winberg, M.R.; Garcia, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    This report, Volume 14 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of americium-241 ({sup 241}Am). This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which {sup 241}Am can be found and {sup 241}Am behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  17. Understanding the Chemistry of Uncommon Americium Oxidation States for Application to Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh Martin; Bruce J. Mincher; Nicholas C. Schmitt

    2007-09-01

    A spectroscopic study of the stability of Am(V) and Am(VI) produced by oxidizing Am(III) with sodium bismuthate is presented, varying the initial americium concentration, temperature and length of the oxidation was seen to have profound effects on the resultant solutions.

  18. 242-A evaporator safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL, T.A.

    1999-05-17

    This report provides a revised safety analysis for the upgraded 242-A Evaporator (the Evaporator). This safety analysis report (SAR) supports the operation of the Evaporator following life extension upgrades and other facility and operations upgrades (e.g., Project B-534) that were undertaken to enhance the capabilities of the Evaporator. The Evaporator has been classified as a moderate-hazard facility (Johnson 1990). The information contained in this SAR is based on information provided by 242-A Evaporator Operations, Westinghouse Hanford Company, site maintenance and operations contractor from June 1987 to October 1996, and the existing operating contractor, Waste Management Hanford (WMH) policies. Where appropriate, a discussion address the US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders applicable to a topic is provided. Operation of the facility will be compared to the operating contractor procedures using appropriate audits and appraisals. The following subsections provide introductory and background information, including a general description of the Evaporator facility and process, a description of the scope of this SAR revision,a nd a description of the basic changes made to the original SAR.

  19. SKIN DOSIMETRY IN CONDITIONS OF ITS CONSTANT SURFACE CONTAMINATION WITH SOLUTIONS OF PLUTONIUM-239 AND AMERICIUM-241

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Ershov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers, on the basis of experimental data, the issue of assessing dose burdens to the skin basal layer in conditions of its permanent contamination with solutions of plutonium-239 and americium-241 and subsequent decontamination.

  20. 24 CFR 242.72 - Leasing of hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leasing of hospital. 242.72 Section... INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.72 Leasing of hospital. Leasing of a hospital in its entirety is prohibited. Notwithstanding this prohibition, any proposal in which leasing of...

  1. 40 CFR 61.242-7 - Standards: Valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Valves. 61.242-7 Section 61... (Fugitive Emission Sources) § 61.242-7 Standards: Valves. (a) Each valve shall be monitored monthly to...) If an instrument reading of 10,000 ppm or greater is measured, a leak is detected. (c)(1) Any...

  2. 10 CFR 431.242 - Test Procedures [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test Procedures 431.242 Section 431.242 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... upstream of the draft control device of an individual, automatically operated, fossil fuel-fired...

  3. 40 CFR 61.242-10 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Delay of repair. 61.242-10... Leaks (Fugitive Emission Sources) § 61.242-10 Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of repair of equipment for which leaks have been detected will be allowed if repair within 15 days is...

  4. 40 CFR 61.242-2 - Standards: Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Pumps. 61.242-2 Section 61... (Fugitive Emission Sources) § 61.242-2 Standards: Pumps. (a)(1) Each pump shall be monitored monthly to... (d), (e), (f) and (g) of this section. (2) Each pump shall be checked by visual inspection...

  5. Influence of biofilms on migration of uranium, americium and europium in the environment; Einfluss von Biofilmen auf das Migrationsverhalten von Uran, Americium und Europium in der Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Nils; Zirnstein, Isabel; Arnold, Thuro

    2015-07-01

    The report on the influence of biofilms on migration of uranium, americium and europium in the environment deals with the contamination problems of uranium mines such as SDAG WISMUT in Saxonia and Thuringia. In mine waters microorganisms form a complex microbiological biocoenosis in spite of low pH values and high heavy metal concentrations including high uranium concentrations. The analyses used microbiological methods like confocal laser scanning microscopy and molecular-biological techniques. The interactions of microorganism with fluorescent radioactive heavy metal ions were performed with TRLFS (time resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy).

  6. Standard test method for quantitative determination of americium 241 in plutonium by Gamma-Ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of americium 241 by gamma-ray spectrometry in plutonium nitrate solution samples that do not contain significant amounts of radioactive fission products or other high specific activity gamma-ray emitters. 1.2 This test method can be used to determine the americium 241 in samples of plutonium metal, oxide and other solid forms, when the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  7. Calcium and zinc DTPA administration for internal contamination with plutonium-238 and americium-241.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazzi, Ziad N; Heyl, Alexander; Ruprecht, Johann

    2012-08-01

    The accidental or intentional release of plutonium or americium can cause acute and long term adverse health effects if they enter the human body by ingestion, inhalation, or injection. These effects can be prevented by rapid removal of these radionuclides by chelators such as calcium or zinc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (calcium or zinc DTPA). These compounds have been shown to be efficacious in enhancing the elimination of members of the actinide family particularly plutonium and americium when administered intravenously or by nebulizer. The efficacy and adverse effects profile depend on several factors that include the route of internalization of the actinide, the type, and route time of administration of the chelator, and whether the calcium or zinc salt of DTPA is used. Current and future research efforts should be directed at overcoming limitations associated with the use of these complex drugs by using innovative methods that can enhance their structural and therapeutic properties.

  8. Final Radiological Assessment of External Exposure for CLEAR-Line Americium Recovery Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Adam C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Belooussova, Olga N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hetrick, Lucas Duane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently planning to implement an americium recovery program. The americium, ordinarily isotopically pure 241Am, would be extracted from existing Pu materials, converted to an oxide and shipped to support fabrication of americium oxide-beryllium neutron sources. These operations would occur in the currently proposed Chloride Extraction and Actinide Recovery (CLEAR) line of glove boxes. This glove box line would be collocated with the currently-operational Experimental Chloride Extraction Line (EXCEL). The focus of this document is to provide an in-depth assessment of the currently planned radiation protection measures and to determine whether or not further design work is required to satisfy design-goal and ALARA requirements. Further, this document presents a history of americium recovery operations in the Department of Energy and high-level descriptions of the CLEAR line operations to provide a basis of comparison. Under the working assumptions adopted by this study, it was found that the evaluated design appears to mitigate doses to a level that satisfies the ALARA-in-design requirements of 10 CFR 835 as implemented by the Los Alamos National Laboratory procedure P121. The analyses indicate that extremity doses would also meet design requirements. Dose-rate calculations were performed using the radiation transport code MCNP5 and doses were estimated using a time-motion study developed in consort with the subject matter expert. A copy of this report and all supporting documentation are located on the Radiological Engineering server at Y:\\Rad Engineering\\2013 PROJECTS\\TA-55 Clear Line.

  9. On the Convergence of the Electronic Structure Properties of the FCC Americium (001) Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Da; Ray, Asok K.

    2006-01-01

    Electronic and magnetic properties of the fcc Americium (001) surface have been investigated via full-potential all-electron density-functional electronic structure calculations at both scalar and fully relativistic levels. Effects of various theoretical approximations on the fcc Am (001) surface properties have been thoroughly examined. The ground state of fcc Am (001) surface is found to be anti-ferromagnetic with spin-orbit coupling included (AFM-SO). At the ground state, the magnetic mome...

  10. 17 CFR 242.204 - Close-out requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 600(b)(64) of Regulation NMS (17 CFR 242.600(b)(64)). Regulation ATS—Alternative Trading Systems...) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation...

  11. 17 CFR 242.302 - Recordkeeping requirements for alternative trading systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alternative trading systems. 242.302 Section 242.302 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Ats-Alternative Trading Systems § 242.302 Recordkeeping requirements for alternative trading systems. To comply with the condition set forth in paragraph (b)(8) of § 242.301,...

  12. MARIOS: Irradiation of UO{sub 2} containing 15% americium at well defined temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Agata, E., E-mail: elio.dagata@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy - P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Hania, P.R. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Bejaoui, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEC CEA-Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Sciolla, C.; Wyatt, T.; Hannink, M.H.C. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Herlet, N.; Jankowiak, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique DTEC CEA Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France); Klaassen, F.C. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Bonnerot, J.-M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEC CEA-Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MARIOS is designed to check the behaviour of Minor Actinide Blanket Module concept. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Main requirement of the experiment is an accurate control of the temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The swelling and the helium release will be the main output of the experiment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A complementary experiment (DIAMINO), will be performed in the next future. - Abstract: Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors of long-lived nuclides like {sup 241}Am is, therefore, an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity and residual power packages as well as the repository area. The MARIOS irradiation experiment is the latest of a series of experiments on americium transmutation (e.g. EFTTRA-T4, EFTTRA-T4bis, HELIOS). MARIOS experiment is carried out in the framework of the 4-year project FAIRFUELS of the EURATOM 7th Framework Programme (FP7). During the past years of experimental work in the field of transmutation and tests of innovative nuclear fuel containing americium, the release or trapping of helium as well as swelling has shown to be the key issue for the design of such kinds of target. Therefore, the main objective of the MARIOS experiment is to study the in-pile behaviour of UO{sub 2} containing minor actinides (MAs) in order to gain knowledge on the role of the microstructure and of the temperature on the gas release and on fuel swelling. The MARIOS experiment will be conducted in the HFR (high flux reactor) in Petten (The Netherlands) and will start in the beginning of 2011. It has been planned that the experiment will last 11 cycles, corresponding to 11 months. This paper covers the description of the objective of the experiment, as well as a general description of the design of the experiment.

  13. Speciation of americium in seawater and accumulation in the marine sponge Aplysina cavernicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloubier, Melody; Michel, Hervé; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Moisy, Philippe; Tribalat, Marie-Aude; Oberhaensli, François R; Dechraoui Bottein, Marie Yasmine; Thomas, Olivier P; Monfort, Marguerite; Moulin, Christophe; Den Auwer, Christophe

    2015-12-21

    The fate of radionuclides in the environment is a cause of great concern for modern society, seen especially in 2011 after the Fukushima accident. Among the environmental compartments, seawater covers most of the earth's surface and may be directly or indirectly impacted. The interaction between radionuclides and the marine compartment is therefore essential for better understanding the transfer mechanisms from the hydrosphere to the biosphere. This information allows for the evaluation of the impact on humans via our interaction with the biotope that has been largely undocumented up to now. In this report, we attempt to make a link between the speciation of heavy elements in natural seawater and their uptake by a model marine organism. More specifically, because the interaction of actinides with marine invertebrates has been poorly studied, the accumulation in a representative member of the Mediterranean coralligenous habitat, the sponge Aplysina cavernicola, was investigated and its uptake curve exposed to a radiotracer (241)Am was estimated using a high-purity Ge gamma spectrometer. But in order to go beyond the phenomenological accumulation rate, the speciation of americium(III) in seawater must be assessed. The speciation of (241)Am (and natural europium as its chemically stable surrogate) in seawater was determined using a combination of different techniques: Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF), Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) at the LIII edge, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the resulting data were compared with the speciation modeling. In seawater, the americium(III) complex (as well as the corresponding europium complex, although with conformational differences) was identified as a ternary sodium biscarbonato complex, whose formula can be tentatively written as NaAm(CO3)2·nH2O. It is therefore this chemical form of americium that is

  14. Plutonium and americium in arctic waters, the North Sea and Scottish and Irish coastal zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallstadius, L.; Aarkrog, Asker; Dahlgaard, Henning;

    1986-01-01

    collected from the Irish coast in 1983. Fallout is found to dominate as a source of 239+240Pu north of latitude 65°N, while for 238Pu a substantial fraction originates from European nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. The 238Pu/239+240Pu isotope ratio provides clear evidence of the transport of effluent...... of the Irish Sea) to Spitsbergen. 241Am found in Arctic waters probably originates from the decay of fallout 241Pu and, like Pu, tentatively has a residence time of the order of several years. Americium from Sellafield has an estimated mean residence time of 4–6 months in Scottish waters....

  15. Penetration and decontamination of americium-241 ex vivo using fresh and frozen pig skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazrart, A; Bolzinger, M A; Moureau, A; Molina, T; Coudert, S; Angulo, J F; Briancon, S; Griffiths, N M

    2017-04-01

    Skin contamination is one of the most probable risks following major nuclear or radiological incidents. However, accidents involving skin contamination with radionuclides may occur in the nuclear industry, in research laboratories and in nuclear medicine departments. This work aims to measure the penetration of the radiological contaminant Americium ((241)Am) in fresh and frozen skin and to evaluate the distribution of the contamination in the skin. Decontamination tests were performed using water, Fuller's earth and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), which is the recommended treatment in case of skin contamination with actinides such as plutonium or americium. To assess these parameters, we used the Franz cell diffusion system with full-thickness skin obtained from pigs' ears, representative of human skin. Solutions of (241)Am were deposited on the skin samples. The radioactivity content in each compartment and skin layers was measured after 24 h by liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrophotometry. The Am cutaneous penetration to the receiver compartment is almost negligible in fresh and frozen skin. Multiple washings with water and DTPA recovered about 90% of the initial activity. The rest remains fixed mainly in the stratum corneum. Traces of activity were detected within the epidermis and dermis which is fixed and not accessible to the decontamination.

  16. 17 CFR 242.405 - Withdrawal of margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Customer Margin Requirements for Security Futures § 242.405 Withdrawal of margin. (a) By the customer. Except as otherwise... account after such withdrawal is sufficient to satisfy the required margin for the security futures...

  17. 24 CFR 242.58 - Books, accounts, and financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Books, accounts, and financial... Requirements § 242.58 Books, accounts, and financial statements. (a) Books and accounts. The mortgagor's books... Agreement. (f) Books of management agents. The books and records of management agents, lessees,...

  18. 24 CFR 242.78 - Zoning, deed, and building restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zoning, deed, and building... AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.78 Zoning, deed, and building restrictions. The project when completed shall not violate any material zoning or deed restrictions...

  19. 24 CFR 242.45 - Early commencement of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... would suffer from waiting. (2) A plan detailing how the hospital will finance the limited construction... MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.45 Early commencement of work. (a) Site preparation... to the issuance of a commitment or denial by HUD, the hospital and lender may request for good...

  20. 17 CFR 242.504 - Notification to associated persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Regulation Ac-Analyst Certification § 242.504 Notification to associated persons. A broker or dealer shall notify any person with whom that broker or dealer is associated who publishes, circulates, or provides research reports: (a) Whether the broker or dealer maintains and enforces written policies and...

  1. 17 CFR 242.607 - Customer account statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or dealer's policies regarding receipt of payment for order flow from any broker or dealer, national... Regulation Nms-Regulation of the National Market System § 242.607 Customer account statements. (a) No broker... in section 17B of the Act (15 U.S.C. 78q-2), unless such broker or dealer informs such customer,...

  2. 17 CFR 242.600 - NMS security designation and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transaction reporting plan approved by the Commission pursuant to § 242.601. (23) Electronic communications... orders to be executed against in whole or in part; except that the term electronic communications network..., dealers, or investors on a real-time or other current and continuing basis, whether through an...

  3. 48 CFR 2452.242-71 - Contract management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract management system... 2452.242-71 Contract management system. As prescribed in 2442.1107, insert the following clause: Contract Management System (FEB 2006) (a) The contractor shall use contract management baseline...

  4. 17 CFR 242.606 - Disclosure of order routing information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Nms-Regulation of the National Market System § 242.606 Disclosure of order routing information. (a... calendar quarter a report on its routing of non-directed orders in NMS securities during that quarter....

  5. 17 CFR 242.605 - Disclosure of order execution information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Nms-Regulation of the National Market System § 242.605 Disclosure of order execution information... covered orders in NMS stocks that it received for execution from any person. Such report shall be...

  6. 40 CFR 98.242 - GHGs to report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petrochemical Production § 98.242 GHGs to report. You must report the information in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section: (a) CO2 CH4, and N2O process emissions from each...

  7. Magnesium ionophore II as an extraction agent for trivalent europium and americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makrlik, Emanuel [Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Environmental Sciences; Vanura, Petr [Univ. of Chemistry and Technology, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    2016-11-01

    Solvent extraction of microamounts of trivalent europium and americium into nitrobenzene by using a mixture of hydrogen dicarbollylcobaltate (H{sup +}B{sup -}) and magnesium ionophore II (L) was studied. The equilibrium data were explained assuming that the species HL{sup +}, HL{sup +}{sub 2}, ML{sup 3+}{sub 2}, and ML{sup 3+}{sub 3} (M{sup 3+} = Eu{sup 3+}, Am{sup 3+}; L=magnesium, ionophore II) are extracted into the nitrobenzene phase. Extraction and stability constants of the cationic complex species in nitrobenzene saturated with water were determined and discussed. From the experimental results it is evident that this effective magnesium ionophore II receptor for the Eu{sup 3+} and Am{sup 3+} cations could be considered as a potential extraction agent for nuclear waste treatment.

  8. Imitators of plutonium and americium in a mixed uranium- plutonium nitride fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, S. N.; Shornikov, D. P.; Tarasov, B. A.; Baranov, V. G.; Burlakova, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Uranium nitride and mix uranium nitride (U-Pu)N is most popular nuclear fuel for Russian Fast Breeder Reactor. The works in hot cells associated with the radiation exposure of personnel and methodological difficulties. To know the main physical-chemical properties of uranium-plutonium nitride it necessary research to hot cells. In this paper, based on an assessment of physicochemical and thermodynamic properties of selected simulators Pu and Am. Analogues of Pu is are Ce and Y, and analogues Am - Dy. The technique of obtaining a model nitride fuel based on lanthanides nitrides and UN. Hydrogenation-dehydrogenation- nitration method of derived powders nitrides uranium, cerium, yttrium and dysprosium, held their mixing, pressing and sintering, the samples obtained model nitride fuel with plutonium and americium imitation. According to the results of structural studies have shown that all the samples are solid solution nitrides rare earth (REE) elements in UN.

  9. The Role of Colloids in the Transport of Plutonium and Americium: Implications for

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersting, A B

    2003-09-17

    Colloids are small particulates (ranging in size from 1 to 0.001 micron) composed of inorganic and organic material and found in all natural water. Due to their small size, they have the ability to remain suspended in water and transported. Small amounts of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) can adsorb (attach) to colloids, and/or form colloidal-sized polymers and migrate in water. At Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) sedimentation and resuspension of particulates and colloids in surface waters represent the dominant process for Pu and Am migration. The amount of Pu and Am that can be transported at RFETS has been quantified in the Pathway Analysis Report. The Pathway Analysis Report shows that the two dominant pathways for Pu and Am transport at RFETS are air and surface water. Shallow groundwater and biological pathways are minor.

  10. Standard practice for The separation of americium from plutonium by ion exchange

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes the use of an ion exchange technique to separate plutonium from solutions containing low concentrations of americium prior to measurement of the 241Am by gamma counting. 1.2 This practice covers the removal of plutonium, but not all the other radioactive isotopes that may interfere in the determination of 241Am. 1.3 This practice can be used when 241Am is to be determined in samples in which the plutonium is in the form of metal, oxide, or other solid provided that the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved (See Test Methods C758, C759, and C1168). 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. 48 CFR 1252.242-70 - Dissemination of information-educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... information-educational institutions. 1252.242-70 Section 1252.242-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Provisions and Clauses 1252.242-70 Dissemination of information—educational institutions. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1242.7000(a), insert the following clause: Dissemination of...

  12. 40 CFR 81.242 - Pecos-Permian Basin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.242 Pecos-Permian Basin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Pecos-Permian Basin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New Mexico) consists of the territorial area... Quality Control Region. 81.242 Section 81.242 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  13. 19 CFR 24.2 - Persons authorized to receive Customs collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Persons authorized to receive Customs collections. 24.2 Section 24.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE § 24.2 Persons authorized to...

  14. 48 CFR 242.771 - Independent research and development and bid and proposal costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 242.771 Independent research and development and bid and proposal costs. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent research and development and bid and proposal costs. 242.771 Section 242.771 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  15. 17 CFR 242.602 - Dissemination of quotations in NMS securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... NMS securities. 242.602 Section 242.602 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Nms-Regulation of the National Market System § 242.602 Dissemination of quotations...

  16. 46 CFR 308.306 - Second Seamen's War Risk Policy, Form MA-242.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Second Seamen's War Risk Policy, Form MA-242. 308.306... RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.306 Second Seamen's War Risk Policy, Form MA-242. (a) The standard form of Second Seamen's War Risk Policy Form MA-242, may be obtained from...

  17. 17 CFR 242.102 - Activities by issuers and selling security holders during a distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... selling security holders during a distribution. 242.102 Section 242.102 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation M § 242.102 Activities by issuers and selling security holders... or on behalf of an issuer or selling security holder, it shall be unlawful for such person, or...

  18. 48 CFR 252.242-7004 - Material management and accounting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., inventory, accounting, or other systems. (2) Valid time-phased requirements means material that is— (i... accounting system. 252.242-7004 Section 252.242-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.242-7004 Material management and accounting system....

  19. 17 CFR 242.303 - Record preservation requirements for alternative trading systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements for alternative trading systems. 242.303 Section 242.303 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Ats-Alternative Trading Systems § 242.303 Record preservation requirements for alternative trading systems. (a) To comply with the condition set forth in paragraph (b)(9)...

  20. Separation of oxidized americium from lanthanides by use of pillared metal(IV) phosphate-phosphonate hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, J.D.; Clearfield, A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Borkowski, M.; Reed, D.T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad, NM (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences Div.

    2012-07-01

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle in the US poses many challenges, one of which is found in the waste streams, which contain both trivalent lanthanides and actinides. The separation of americium from the raffinate will dramatically reduce the long-term radiotoxicity of the waste. The sorption of americium in both the tri- and pentavalent oxidation states was observed for four M(IV) phosphate-phosphonate ion exchange materials in nitric acid at pH 2. High selectivity was observed for reduced Am(III) with K{sub d} values ca. 6 x 10{sup 5} mL/g, while the K{sub d} values for Am(V) were much lower. A new method of synthesizing and stabilizing AmO{sub 2}{sup +} to yield a lifetime of at least 24 h in acidic media using a combination of sodium persulfate and calcium hypochlorite will be described.

  1. Theoretical investigation of pressure-induced structural transitions in americium using GGA+U and hybrid density functional theory methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verma, Ashok K.; Modak, P.; Sharma, Surinder M.;

    2013-01-01

    First-principles calculations have been performed for americium (Am) metal using the generalized gradient approximation + orbital-dependent onsite Coulomb repulsion via Hubbard interaction (GGA+U) and hybrid density functional theory (HYB-DFT) methods to investigate various ground state properties...... spectrum at ambient pressure relate, for some parameter choices, well to peak positions in the calculated density of states function of Am-I....

  2. Vertical and horizontal fluxes of plutonium and americium in the western Mediterranean and the Strait of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Vintró, L; Mitchell, P I; Condren, O M; Downes, A B; Papucci, C; Delfanti, R

    1999-09-30

    New data on the vertical distributions of plutonium and americium in the waters of the western Mediterranean and the Strait of Gibraltar are examined in terms of the processes governing their delivery to, transport in and removal from the water column within the basin. Residence times for plutonium and americium in surface waters of approximately 15 and approximately 3 years, respectively, are deduced, and it is shown that by the mid 1990s only approximately 35% of the 239,240Pu and approximately 5% of the 241Am deposited as weapons fallout still resided in the water column. Present 239,240Pu inventories in the water column and the underlying sediments are estimated to be approximately 25 TBq and approximately 40 TBq, respectively, which reconcile well with the time-integrated fallout deposition in this zone, taken to be approximately 69 TBq. The data show that there are significant net outward fluxes of plutonium and americium from the basin through the Strait of Gibraltar at the present time. These appear to be compensated by net inward fluxes of similar magnitude through the Strait of Sicily. Thus, the time-integrated fallout deposition in the western basin can be accounted for satisfactorily in terms of present water column and sediment inventories. Enhanced scavenging on the continental shelves, as evidenced by the appreciably higher transuranic concentrations in shelf sediments, supports this contention.

  3. The behaviour under irradiation of molybdenum matrix for inert matrix fuel containing americium oxide (CerMet concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agata, E.; Knol, S.; Fedorov, A. V.; Fernandez, A.; Somers, J.; Klaassen, F.

    2015-10-01

    Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors or Accelerator Driven System (ADS, subcritical reactors dedicated to transmutation) of long-lived nuclides like 241Am is therefore an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity of waste packages to be stored in a repository. In order to safely burn americium in a fast reactor or ADS, it must be incorporated in a matrix that could be metallic (CerMet target) or ceramic (CerCer target). One of the most promising matrix to incorporate Am is molybdenum. In order to address the issues (swelling, stability under irradiation, gas retention and release) of using Mo as matrix to transmute Am, two irradiation experiments have been conducted recently at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten (The Netherland) namely HELIOS and BODEX. The BODEX experiment is a separate effect test, where the molybdenum behaviour is studied without the presence of fission products using 10B to "produce" helium, the HELIOS experiment included a more representative fuel target with the presence of Am and fission product. This paper covers the results of Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) of the two irradiation experiments mentioned above where molybdenum behaviour has been deeply investigated as possible matrix to transmute americium (CerMet fuel target). The behaviour of molybdenum looks satisfying at operating temperature but at high temperature (above 1000 °C) more investigation should be performed.

  4. Americium-Curium Stabilization - 5'' Cylindrical Induction Melter System Design Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, D.C.

    1999-11-08

    Approximately 11,000 liters (3,600) gallons of solution containing isotopes of Am and Cm are currently stored in F-Canyon Tank 17.1. These isotopes were recovered during plutonium-242 production campaigns in the mid- and late-1970s. Experimental work for the project began in 1995 by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). Details of the process are given in the various sections of this document.

  5. HELIOS: the new design of the irradiation of U-free fuels for americium transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Agata, E. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Klaassen, F.; Sciolla, C. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Dept. Life Cycle and Innovations, P.O. Box 25 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Fernandez-Carretero, A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bonnerot, J.M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEC/SESC/LC2I CEA-Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2009-06-15

    Americium is one of the radioactive elements that mostly contribute to the radiotoxicity of the nuclear spent fuel. Transmutation of long-lived nuclides like Americium is an option for the reduction of the mass, the radiotoxicity and the decay heat of nuclear waste. The HELIOS irradiation experiment is the last evolution in a series of experiments on americium transmutation. The previous experiments, EFTTRA-T4 and T4bis, have shown that the release or trapping of helium is the key issue for the design of such kind of target. In fact, the production of helium, which is characteristic of {sup 241}Am transmutation, is quite significant. The experiment is carried out in the framework of the 4-year project EUROTRANS of the EURATOM 6. Framework Programme (FP6). Therefore, the main objective of the HELIOS experiment is to study the in-pile behaviour of U-free fuels such as CerCer (Pu, Am, Zr)O{sub 2} and Am{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}+MgO or CerMet (Pu, Am)O{sub 2}+Mo in order to gain knowledge on the role of the fuel microstructure and of the temperature on the gas release and on the fuel swelling. The experiment was planned to be conducted in the HFR (High Flux Reactor) in Petten (The Netherlands) starting the first quarter of 2007. Because of the innovative aspects of the fuel, the fabrication has had some delays as well as the final safety analyses of the original design showed some unexpected deviation. Besides, the HFR reactor has been unavailable since August 2008. Due to the reasons described above, the experiment has been postponed. HELIOS should start in the first quarter of 2009 and will last 300 full power days. The paper will cover the description of the new design of the irradiation experiment HELIOS. The experiment has been split in two parts (HELIOS1 and HELIOS2) which will be irradiated together. Moreover, due to the high temperature achieved in cladding and to the high amount of helium produced during transmutation the experiment previously designed for a

  6. CO observations of high-z radio galaxies MRC 2104-242 and MRC 0943-242 : spectral-line performance of the Compact Array Broadband Backend

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emonts, B. H. C.; Norris, R. P.; Feain, I.; Miley, G.; Sadler, E. M.; Villar-Martin, M.; Mao, M. Y.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Ekers, R. D.; Stevens, J. B.; Wieringa, M. H.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Tadhunter, C. N.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first 7-mm observations of two high-redshift, Ly alpha-bright radio galaxies (MRC 2104-242 and MRC 0943-242) performed with the 2 x 2 GHz instantaneous bandwidth of the Compact Array Broadband Backend (CABB) at the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). The aim was to search for (C

  7. Americium and plutonium in water, biota, and sediment from the central Oregon coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, R. D.

    1982-06-01

    Plutonium-239, 240 and americium-241 were measured in the mussel Mytilus californianus from the region of Coos Bay, OR. The flesh of this species has a plutonium concentration of about 90 fCi/kg, and an Am-241/Pu-239, 240 ratio that is high relative to mixed fallout, ranging between two and three. Transuranic concentrations in sediment, unfiltered water, and filterable particulates were also measured; none of these materials has an Am/Pu ratio as greatly elevated as the mussels, and there is no apparent difference in the Am/Pu ratio of terrestrial runoff and coastal water. Sediment core profiles do not allow accumulation rates or depositional histories to be identified, but it does not appear that material characterized by a high Am/Pu ratio has ever been introduced to this estuary. Other bivalves (Tresus capax and Macoma nasuta) and a polychaete (Abarenicola sp.) do not have an elevated Am/Pu ratio, although the absolute activity of plutonium in the infaunal bivalves is roughly four times that in the mussels.

  8. Development and Testing of an Americium/Lanthanide Separation Flowsheet Using Sodium Bismuthate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Law; Bruce Mincher; Troy Garn; Mitchell Greenhalgh; Nicholas Schmitt; Veronica Rutledge

    2014-04-01

    The separation of Am from the lanthanides and curium is a key step in proposed advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The partitioning and transmutation of Am is desirable to minimize the long-term heat load of material interred in a future high-level waste repository. A separation process amenable to process scale-up remains elusive. Given only subtle chemistry differences within and between the ions of the trivalent actinide and lanthanide series this separation is challenging ; however, higher oxidation states of americium can be prepared using sodium bismuthate and separated via solvent extraction using diamylamylphosphonate (DAAP) extraction. Among the other trivalent metals only Ce is also oxidized and extracted. Due to the long-term instability of Am(VI) , the loaded organic phase is readily selectively stripped to partition the actinide to a new acidic aqueous phase. Batch extraction distribution ratio measurements were used to design a flowsheet to accomplish this separation. Additionally, crossflow filtration was investigated as a method to filter the bismuthate solids from the feed solution prior to extraction. Results of the filtration studies, flowsheet development work and flowsheet performance testing using a centrifugal contactor are detailed.

  9. Americium-based oxides: Dense pellet fabrication from co-converted oxalates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horlait, Denis; Lebreton, Florent [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Gauthé, Aurélie [CEA, DEN, DRCP/SERA/LCAR, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Caisso, Marie [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Arab-Chapelet, Bénédicte; Picart, Sébastien [CEA, DEN, DRCP/SERA/LCAR, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Delahaye, Thibaud, E-mail: thibaud.delahaye@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France)

    2014-01-15

    Mixed oxides are used as nuclear fuels and are notably envisaged for future fuel cycles including plutonium and minor actinide recycling. In this context, processes are being developed for the fabrication of uranium–americium mixed-oxide compounds for transmutation. The purpose of these processes is not only the compliance with fuel specifications in terms of density and homogeneity, but also the simplification of the process for its industrialization as well as lowering dust generation. In this paper, the use of a U{sub 0.85}Am{sub 0.15}O{sub 2±δ} powder synthesized by oxalate co-conversion as a precursor for dense fuel fabrications is assessed. This study notably focuses on sintering, which yielded pellets up to 96% of the theoretical density, taking advantage of the high reactivity and homogeneity of the powder. As-obtained pellets were further characterized to be compared to those obtained via processes based on the UMACS (Uranium Minor Actinide Conventional Sintering) process. This comparison highlights several advantages of co-converted powder as a precursor for simplified processes that generate little dust.

  10. Experimental studies on the biokinetics of plutonium and americium in the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guary, J.C.; Fowler, S.W.

    1982-03-05

    Radiotracer experiments using the photon-emitters /sup 237/Pu and /sup 241/Am were performed to examine uptake, tissue distribution and retention of plutonium and americium in the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris Cuvier. A 2 wk exposure in contaminated sea water resulted in twice as much /sup 237/Pu being taken up by whole octopus as /sup 241/Am. Immediately following uptake approximately 41% and 73% of the /sup 237/Pu and /sup 241/Am respectively were located in the branchial hearts. Depuration rates for both radionuclides were identical; approximately 46% of both radionuclides initially incorporated were associated with a long-lived compartment which turned over very slowly (Tbsub(1/2) = 1.5 yr). Longer exposures to /sup 241/Am resulted in an increase in the size of the slowly exchanging /sup 241/Am pool in the octopus. After 2 mo depuration, the majority of the residual activity of both radionuclides was in the branchial hearts. On average 33% of the /sup 241/Am ingested with food was assimilated into tissues, primarily the hepatopancreas. Different whole-body /sup 241/Am excretion rates were observed at different times following assimilation and were related to transfer processes taking place within internal tissues, most notably between hepatopancreas and the branchial hearts. Relationships between circulatory and excretory functions of these 2 organs are discussed and a physiological mechanism is proposed to explain the observed patterns of /sup 241/Am excretion in O. vulgaris.

  11. In Vitro Dissolution Tests of Plutonium and Americium Containing Contamination Originating From ZPPR Fuel Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William F. Bauer; Brian K. Schuetz; Gary M. Huestis; Thomas B. Lints; Brian K. Harris; R. Duane Ball; Gracy Elias

    2012-09-01

    Assessing the extent of internal dose is of concern whenever workers are exposed to airborne radionuclides or other contaminants. Internal dose determinations depend upon a reasonable estimate of the expected biological half-life of the contaminants in the respiratory tract. One issue with refractory elements is determining the dissolution rate of the element. Actinides such as plutonium (Pu) and Americium (Am) tend to be very refractory and can have biological half-lives of tens of years. In the event of an exposure, the dissolution rates of the radionuclides of interest needs to be assessed in order to assign the proper internal dose estimates. During the November 2011 incident at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) involving a ZPPR fuel plate, air filters in a constant air monitor (CAM) and a giraffe filter apparatus captured airborne particulate matter. These filters were used in dissolution rate experiments to determine the apparent dissolution half-life of Pu and Am in simulated biological fluids. This report describes these experiments and the results. The dissolution rates were found to follow a three term exponential decay equation. Differences were noted depending upon the nature of the biological fluid simulant. Overall, greater than 95% of the Pu and 93% of the Am were in a very slow dissolving component with dissolution half-lives of over 10 years.

  12. Plutonium and americium monazite materials: Solid state synthesis and X-ray diffraction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregiroux, D. [DEN/DEC/SPUA, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Laboratoire Science des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de Surface, UMR CNRS-Universite no. 6638, Batiment Chimie, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges (France); E-mail: damien.bregiroux@ccr.jussieu.fr; Belin, R. [DEN/DEC/SPUA, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Valenza, P. [DEN/DEC/SPUA, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Audubert, F. [DEN/DEC/SPUA, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Bernache-Assollant, D. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France)

    2007-06-30

    High-temperature solid state syntheses of monazite powders containing plutonium (III), plutonium (IV) and americium (III) were performed. Resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Pu{sup 3+}PO{sub 4} was readily obtained as a single phase by heating a Pu{sup 4+}O{sub 2}-NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} mixture under argon atmosphere. Traces of tetravalent plutonium phosphate Pu{sup 4+}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} were detected when synthesized under air atmosphere. The incorporation of (Pu{sup 4+},Ca{sup 2+}) in the monazite structure was investigated under air and argon atmosphere. We showed that Pu{sup 4+} is fully reduced in Pu{sup 3+} under argon atmosphere whereas, under air, the compound with the formula Pu{sub 0.4}{sup 3+}Pu{sub 0.3}{sup 4+}Ca{sub 0.3}{sup 2+}PO{sub 4} was obtained. Pure Am{sup 3+}PO{sub 4} was also synthesized under argon atmosphere. X-ray patterns revealed a complete amorphisation of the monazite structure at a relatively low cumulative alpha dose for {sup 241}AmPO{sub 4}.

  13. Mutual separation of americium(III) and europium(III) using glycolamic acid and thioglycolamic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suneesh, A.S.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Syamala, K.V.; Antony, M.P.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.

    2012-07-01

    The extractants, bis(2-ethylhexyl)diglycolamicacid (HDEHDGA) and bis(2-ethylhexy)thiodiglycolamic acid (HDEHSDGA) were synthesized and characterized by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, mass and IR spectroscopy. The extraction behaviour of {sup (152+154})Eu(III) and {sup 241}Am(III) from nitric acid medium by a solution of HDEHDGA (or HDEHSDGA) in n-dodecane (n-DD) was studied for the mutual separation of actinides and lanthanides. The effect of various parameters such as the pH, concentrations of HDEHDGA, HDEHSDGA, sodium nitrate, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) on the separation factor (SF) of americium(III) over europium(III) and vice versa was studied, and the conditions needed for the preferential separation were optimised. The results show that HDEHDGA exhibits higher extraction for {sup (152+154)}Eu(III) and HDEHSDGA shows the superior selectivity for {sup 241}Am(III). (orig.)

  14. Solution speciation of plutonium and Americium at an Australian legacy radioactive waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi; Harrison, Jennifer J; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry; Wong, Henri K Y; Johansen, Mathew P; Waite, T David; Payne, Timothy E

    2014-09-01

    During the 1960s, radioactive waste containing small amounts of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) was disposed in shallow trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), located near the southern suburbs of Sydney, Australia. Because of periodic saturation and overflowing of the former disposal trenches, Pu and Am have been transferred from the buried wastes into the surrounding surface soils. The presence of readily detected amounts of Pu and Am in the trench waters provides a unique opportunity to study their aqueous speciation under environmentally relevant conditions. This study aims to comprehensively investigate the chemical speciation of Pu and Am in the trench water by combining fluoride coprecipitation, solvent extraction, particle size fractionation, and thermochemical modeling. The predominant oxidation states of dissolved Pu and Am species were found to be Pu(IV) and Am(III), and large proportions of both actinides (Pu, 97.7%; Am, 86.8%) were associated with mobile colloids in the submicron size range. On the basis of this information, possible management options are assessed.

  15. 242-A Control System device logic software documentation. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, J.F.

    1995-05-19

    A Distributive Process Control system was purchased by Project B-534. This computer-based control system, called the Monitor and Control System (MCS), was installed in the 242-A Evaporator located in the 200 East Area. The purpose of the MCS is to monitor and control the Evaporator and Monitor a number of alarms and other signals from various Tank Farm facilities. Applications software for the MCS was developed by the Waste Treatment System Engineering Group of Westinghouse. This document describes the Device Logic for this system.

  16. 242A Distributed Control System Year 2000 Acceptance Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEATS, M.C.

    1999-08-31

    This report documents acceptance test results for the 242-A Evaporator distributive control system upgrade to D/3 version 9.0-2 for year 2000 compliance. This report documents the test results obtained by acceptance testing as directed by procedure HNF-2695. This verification procedure will document the initial testing and evaluation of the potential 242-A Distributed Control System (DCS) operating difficulties across the year 2000 boundary and the calendar adjustments needed for the leap year. Baseline system performance data will be recorded using current, as-is operating system software. Data will also be collected for operating system software that has been modified to correct year 2000 problems. This verification procedure is intended to be generic such that it may be performed on any D/3{trademark} (GSE Process Solutions, Inc.) distributed control system that runs with the VMSTM (Digital Equipment Corporation) operating system. This test may be run on simulation or production systems depending upon facility status. On production systems, DCS outages will occur nine times throughout performance of the test. These outages are expected to last about 10 minutes each.

  17. Neutron capture and neutron-induced fission experiments on americium isotopes with DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Fowler, M. M.; Becker, J. A.; Bond, E. M.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Haslett, R. J.; Henderson, R. A.; Keksis, A. L.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron capture cross section data on Am isotopes were measured using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The neutron capture cross section was determined for 241Am for neutron energies between thermal and 320 keV. Preliminary results were also obtained for 243Am for neutron energies between 10 eV and 250 keV. The results on concurrent neutron-induced fission and neutron-capture measurements on 242mAm will be presented where the fission events were actively triggered during the experiments. In these experiments, a Parallel-Plate Avalanche Counter (PPAC) detector that surrounds the target located in the center of the DANCE array was used as a fission-tagging detector to separate (n,γ) events from (n,f) events. The first direct observation of neutron capture on 242mAm in the resonance region in between 2 and 9 eV of the neutron energy was obtained.

  18. Americium/Lanthanide Separations in Alkaline Solutions for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, George S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Long, Kristy Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reilly, Sean D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jarvinen, Gordon D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Runde, Wolfgang H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-11

    Project goals: Can used nuclear fuel be partitioned by dissolution in alkaline aqueous solution to give a solution of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium and a filterable solid containing nearly all of the lanthanide fission products and certain other fission products? What is the chemistry of Am/Cm/Ln in oxidative carbonate solutions? Can higher oxidation states of Am be stabilized and exploited? Conclusions: Am(VI) is kinetically stable in 0.5-2.0 M carbonate solutions for hours. Aliquat 336 in toluene has been successfully shown to extract U(VI) and Pu(VI) from carbonate solutions. (Stepanov et al 2011). Higher carbonate concentration gives lower D, SF{sub U/Eu} for = 4 in 1 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Experiments with Am(VI) were unsuccessful due to reduction by the organics. Multiple sources of reducing organics...more optimization. Reduction experiments of Am(VI) in dodecane/octanol/Aliquat 336 show that after 5 minutes of contact, only 30-40% of the Am(VI) has been reduced. Long enough to perform an extraction. Shorter contact times, lower T, and lower Aliquat 336 concentration still did not result in any significant extraction of Am. Anion exchange experiments using a strong base anion exchanger show uptake of U(VI) with minimal uptake of Nd(III). Experiments with Am(VI) indicate Am sorption with a Kd of 9 (10 minute contact) but sorption mechanism is not yet understood. SF{sub U/Nd} for = 7 and SF{sub U/Eu} for = 19 after 24 hours in 1 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.

  19. Concentrations of plutonium and americium in plankton from the western Mediterranean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Merino, Juan; Masque, Pere [Insitut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambiental-Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Mitchell, Peter I.; Vintro, L. Leon [Department of Experimental Physics, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Schell, William R. [Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Cross, Lluisa; Calbet, Albert [Institut de Ciencies del Mar, Pg. Maritim Barceloneta, 37-49 08003, Barcelona (Spain)

    2003-07-20

    Understanding the transfer of radionuclides through the food chain leading to man and in particular, the uptake of transuranic nuclides by plankton, is basic to assess the potential radiological risk of the consumption of marine products by man. The main sources of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean Sea in the past were global fallout and the Palomares accident, although at present smaller amounts are released from nuclear establishments in the northwestern region. Plankton from the western Mediterranean Sea was collected and analyzed for plutonium and americium in order to study their biological uptake. The microplankton fractions accounted for approximately 50% of the total plutonium contents in particulate form. At Garrucha (Palomares area), microplankton showed much higher {sup 239,240}Pu activity, indicating the contamination with plutonium from the bottom sediments. Concentration factors were within the range of the values recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Continental shelf mesoplankton was observed to efficiently concentrate transuranics. In open seawaters, concentrations were much lower. We speculate that sediments might play a role in the transfer of transuranics to mesoplankton in coastal waters, although we cannot discard that the difference in species composition may also play a role. In Palomares, both {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am showed activities five times higher than the mean values observed in continental shelf mesoplankton. As the plutonium isotopic ratios in the contaminated sample were similar to those found in material related to the accident, the contamination was attributed to bomb debris from the Palomares accident. Concentration factors in mesoplankton were also in relatively good agreement with the ranges recommended by IAEA. In the Palomares station the highest concentration factor was observed in the sample that showed predominance of the dynoflagellate Ceratium spp. Mean values of the enrichment factors

  20. Consistent Data Assimilation of Isotopes: 242Pu and 105Pd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Palmiotti; H. Hiruta; M. Salvatores

    2012-09-01

    In this annual report we illustrate the methodology of the consistent data assimilation that allows to use the information coming from integral experiments for improving the basic nuclear parameters used in cross section evaluation. A series of integral experiments are analyzed using the EMPIRE evaluated files for 242Pu and 105Pd. In particular irradiation experiments (PROFIL-1 and -2, TRAPU-1, -2 and -3) provide information about capture cross sections, and a critical configuration, COSMO, where fission spectral indexes were measured, provides information about fission cross section. The observed discrepancies between calculated and experimental results are used in conjunction with the computed sensitivity coefficients and covariance matrix for nuclear parameters in a consistent data assimilation. The results obtained by the consistent data assimilation indicate that not so large modifications on some key identified nuclear parameters allow to obtain reasonable C/E. However, for some parameters such variations are outside the range of 1 s of their initial standard deviation. This can indicate a possible conflict between differential measurements (used to calculate the initial standard deviations) and the integral measurements used in the statistical data adjustment. Moreover, an inconsistency between the C/E of two sets of irradiation experiments (PROFIL and TRAPU) is observed for 242Pu. This is the end of this project funded by the Nuclear Physics Program of the DOE Office of Science. We can indicate that a proof of principle has been demonstrated for a few isotopes for this innovative methodology. However, we are still far from having explored all the possibilities and made this methodology to be considered proved and robust. In particular many issues are worth further investigation: • Non-linear effects • Flexibility of nuclear parameters in describing cross sections • Multi-isotope consistent assimilation • Consistency between differential and integral

  1. Organic emission calculations for the 242-A evaporator vessel vent system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, M.R.

    1996-06-20

    This document contains historical calculations originally published in the 242-A Evaporator Dangerous Waste Permit Application, DOE/RL-90-42, Rev 0. They are being released as a supporting document, along with brief explanatory information, to be used as a reference in Rev 1 of the permit application and in other supporting documents, such as the 242-A Evaporator Data Quality Objectives.

  2. 242-A MCS Logic Acceptance Test Report for Year 2000 Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEATS, M.C.

    1999-08-31

    242-A Evaporator distributive control system upgrade to D/3 version 9.0-2 for year 2000 compliance. Testing was performed per test procedure HNF-3568. There were no unresolved exceptions. The system responded correctly to all testing and meets the requirements to operate the 242-A This report documents the acceptance test results for the Evaporator facility.

  3. 24 CFR 242.81 - Lead-based paint poisoning prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint poisoning prevention. 242.81 Section 242.81 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... prevention. Requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 35 apply to this program....

  4. 38 CFR 17.242 - Coordination of programs with Department of Health and Human Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... specialized medical resources or medical information services shall be coordinated to a maximum extent... jurisdiction of the Department of Health and Human Services. Grants for Exchange of Information ... with Department of Health and Human Services. 17.242 Section 17.242 Pensions, Bonuses, and...

  5. 48 CFR 53.242-1 - Novation and change-of-name agreements (SF 30).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Novation and change-of-name agreements (SF 30). 53.242-1 Section 53.242-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL...-of-name agreements (SF 30). SF 30, Amendment of Solicitation/Modification of Contract. SF...

  6. 36 CFR 242.6 - Licenses, permits, harvest tickets, tags, and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Licenses, permits, harvest tickets, tags, and reports. 242.6 Section 242.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... permits (Federal Subsistence Registration Permit or Federal Designated Harvester Permit) required...

  7. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of HM-242, a novel antiseptic compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunishi, Junji; Nishihara, Yutaka; Maeda, Shirou; Ikeda, Masahiro

    2009-09-01

    The antimicrobial activities of N(4)-octyl-6,6-dimethyl-N(2)-(4-methylbenzyl)-1,6-dihydro-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (HM-242), a novel synthetic compound, were compared with those of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG). HM-242 was a more potent microbicide than CHG in vitro; however, its minimal inhibitory concentrations were similar. In particular, HM-242 killed various Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, both efficiently and rapidly. HM-242 also showed potent virucidal activity against enveloped viruses such as influenza virus and herpes simplex virus. These characteristics suggest that HM-242 may well be useful as an antiseptic.

  8. In situ characterization of uranium and americium oxide solid solution formation for CRMP process: first combination of in situ XRD and XANES measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caisso, Marie; Picart, Sébastien; Belin, Renaud C; Lebreton, Florent; Martin, Philippe M; Dardenne, Kathy; Rothe, Jörg; Neuville, Daniel R; Delahaye, Thibaud; Ayral, André

    2015-04-14

    Transmutation of americium in heterogeneous mode through the use of U1-xAmxO2±δ ceramic pellets, also known as Americium Bearing Blankets (AmBB), has become a major research axis. Nevertheless, in order to consider future large-scale deployment, the processes involved in AmBB fabrication have to minimize fine particle dissemination, due to the presence of americium, which considerably increases the risk of contamination. New synthesis routes avoiding the use of pulverulent precursors are thus currently under development, such as the Calcined Resin Microsphere Pelletization (CRMP) process. It is based on the use of weak-acid resin (WAR) microspheres as precursors, loaded with actinide cations. After two specific calcinations under controlled atmospheres, resin microspheres are converted into oxide microspheres composed of a monophasic U1-xAmxO2±δ phase. Understanding the different mechanisms during thermal conversion, that lead to the release of organic matter and the formation of a solid solution, appear essential. By combining in situ techniques such as XRD and XAS, it has become possible to identify the key temperatures for oxide formation, and the corresponding oxidation states taken by uranium and americium during mineralization. This paper thus presents the first results on the mineralization of (U,Am) loaded resin microspheres into a solid solution, through in situ XAS analysis correlated with HT-XRD.

  9. 27 CFR 24.242 - Authority to use greater quantities of decolorizing material in juice or wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... quantities of decolorizing material in juice or wine. 24.242 Section 24.242 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.242 Authority to use greater quantities of decolorizing material...

  10. LIBS Spectral Data for a Mixed Actinide Fuel Pellet Containing Uranium, Plutonium, Neptunium and Americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judge, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Le, Loan A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lopez, Leon N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to analyze a mixed actinide fuel pellet containing 75% UO{sub 2}/20% PuO{sub 2}/3% AmO{sub 2}/2% NpO{sub 2}. The preliminary data shown here is the first report of LIBS analysis of a mixed actinide fuel pellet, to the authors knowledge. The LIBS spectral data was acquired in a plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory where the sample was contained within a glove box. The initial installation of the glove box was not intended for complete ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) transmission, therefore the LIBS spectrum is truncated in the UV and NIR regions due to the optical transmission of the window port and filters that were installed. The optical collection of the emission from the LIBS plasma will be optimized in the future. However, the preliminary LIBS data acquired is worth reporting due to the uniqueness of the sample and spectral data. The analysis of several actinides in the presence of each other is an important feature of this analysis since traditional methods must chemically separate uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium prior to analysis. Due to the historic nature of the sample fuel pellet analyzed, the provided sample composition of 75% UO{sub 2}/20% PuO{sub 2}/3% AmO{sub 2}/2% NpO{sub 2} cannot be confirm without further analytical processing. Uranium, plutonium, and americium emission lines were abundant and easily assigned while neptunium was more difficult to identify. There may be several reasons for this observation, other than knowing the exact sample composition of the fuel pellet. First, the atomic emission wavelength resources for neptunium are limited and such techniques as hollow cathode discharge lamp have different dynamics than the plasma used in LIBS which results in different emission spectra. Secondly, due to the complex sample of four actinide elements, which all have very dense electronic energy levels, there may be reactions and

  11. Waste volume reduction factors for potential 242-A evaporator feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1995-05-04

    Double-shell tank (DST) storage space requirements have been shown to be highly dependent on the end point of 242-A operations. Consequences to the DST of various waste volumes, and concentrations, are evaluated. Only waste streams that are currently planned to be stored in the DST system before the year 2004 are discussed. As of January 1, 1995, approximately 27-million L (7.2-million gal) of dilute wastes are stored in the DSTs available for evaporator processing. Waste streams planned to be transferred to the DSTs before December 31, 2004, are identified. The DST volume for storing slurry from these wastes is presented in this document. At a final slurry specific gravity of -1.35, 22.5-million L (5.93-million gal) of DST space would be needed on December 31, 2004, to store the product from evaporator processing of these feedstocks. The expected volume needed if the resultant slurry were concentrated to the traditional double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) phase boundary (a specific gravity of {approximately}1.5) would be 17.7-million L (4.67-million gal). An additional 4.8-million L (1.26-million gal) is therefore needed if these wastes are concentrated to a specific gravity of 1.35 instead of the DSSF limit.

  12. Concordant plutonium-241-americium-241 dating of environmental samples: results from forest fire ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oldham, Warren J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murrell, Michael T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katzman, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-07

    We have measured the Pu, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 151}Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu (t{sub 1/2} = 14.4 y)-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components including global fallout. There are a number of approaches for subtracting the global fallout component for such samples. One approach is to use {sup 242}/{sup 239}Pu as a normalizing isotope ratio in a three-isotope plot, where this ratio for the nonglobal fallout component can be estimated or assumed to be small. This study investigates a new, complementary method of normalization using the long-lived fission product, {sup 151}Sm (t{sub 1/2} = 90 y). We find that forest fire ash concentrates actinides and fission products with {approx}1E10 atoms {sup 239}Pu/g and {approx}1E8 atoms {sup 151}Sm/g, allowing us to measure these nuclides by mass spectrometric (MIC-TIMS) and radiometric (liquid scintillation counting) methods. The forest fire ash samples are characterized by a western U.S. regional isotopic signature representing varying mixtures of global fallout with a local component from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our results also show that {sup 151}Sm is well correlated with the Pu nuclides in the forest fire ash, suggesting that these nuclides have similar geochemical behavior in the environment. Results of this correlation indicate that the {sup 151}Sm/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio for global fallout is {approx}0.164, in agreement with an independent estimate of 0.165 based on {sup 137}Cs fission yields for atmospheric weapons tests at the NTS. {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating of the non-global fallout component in the forest fire ash samples yield ages in the late 1950's-early 1960's, consistent with a peak

  13. 29 CFR 779.242 - Goods that “have been moved in” commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Goods that âhave been moved inâ commerce. 779.242 Section... Commerce by Any Person § 779.242 Goods that “have been moved in” commerce. For the purpose of section 3(s), goods will be considered to “have been moved * * * in commerce” when they have moved across State...

  14. Americium and plutonium separation by extraction chromatography for determination by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Zakir H; Cornett, Jack R; Zhao, Xaiolei; Kieser, Liam

    2014-06-04

    A simple method was developed to separate Pu and Am using single column extraction chromatography employing N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide (DGA) resin. Isotope dilution measurements of Am and Pu were performed using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and alpha spectrometry. For maximum adsorption Pu was stabilized in the tetra valent oxidation state in 8M HNO3 with 0.05 M NaNO2 before loading the sample onto the resin. Am(III) was adsorbed also onto the resin from concentrated HNO3, and desorbed with 0.1 M HCl while keeping the Pu adsorbed. The on-column reduction of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) with 0.02 M TiCl3 facilitated the complete desorption of Pu. Interferences (e.g. Ca(2+), Fe(3+)) were washed off from the resin bed with excess HNO3. Using NdF3, micro-precipitates of the separated isotopes were prepared for analysis by both AMS and alpha spectrometry. The recovery was 97.7±5.3% and 95.5±4.6% for (241)Am and (242)Pu respectively in reagents without a matrix. The recoveries of the same isotopes were 99.1±6.0 and 96.8±5.3% respectively in garden soil. The robustness of the method was validated using certified reference materials (IAEA 384 and IAEA 385). The measurements agree with the certified values over a range of about 1-100 Bq kg(-1). The single column separation of Pu and Am saves reagents, separation time, and cost.

  15. CO observations of high-z radio galaxies MRC 2104-242 and MRC 0943-242: spectral-line performance of the Compact Array Broadband Backend

    CERN Document Server

    Emonts, B H C; Feain, I; Miley, G; Sadler, E M; Villar-Martin, M; Mao, M Y; Oosterloo, T A; Ekers, R D; Stevens, J B; Wieringa, M H; Coppin, K E K; Tadhunter, C N

    2011-01-01

    We present the first 7-millimetre observations of two high-redshift, Lya-bright radio galaxies (MRC 2104-242 and MRC 0943-242) performed with the 2 x 2 GHz instantaneous bandwidth of the Compact Array Broadband Backend (CABB) at the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). The aim was to search for 12CO(1-0) emission in these systems and test the millimetre capabilities of CABB for performing spectral line observations at high redshifts. We show that the stable band and enhanced velocity coverage of CABB, combined with hybrid array configurations, provide the ATCA with excellent 7-mm capabilities that allow reliable searches for the ground transition of CO at high redshifts. In this paper we explicitly discuss the calibration procedures used to reach our results. We set a firm upper limit to the mass of molecular gas in MRC 2104-242 (z = 2.5) of M(H2) < 2 x 10^10 (alpha_x/0.8) M_sun. For MRC 0943-242 (z=2.9) we derive an upper limit of M(H2) < 6 x 10^10 (alpha_x/0.8) M_sun. We also find a tentative 3-s...

  16. Neutronic Study of Burnup, Radiotoxicity, Decay Heat and Basic Safety Parameters of Mono-Recycling of Americium in French Pressurised Water Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bright Mawuko Sogbadji

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The reprocessing of actinides with long half-life has been non-existent except for plutonium (Pu. This work looks at reducing the actinides inventory nuclear fuel waste meant for permanent disposal. The uranium oxide fuel (UOX assembly, as in the open cycle system, was designed to reach a burnup of 46GWd/T and 68GWd/T using the MURE code. The MURE code is based on the coupling of a static Monte Carlo code and the calculation of the evolution of the fuel during irradiation and cooling periods. The MURE code has been used to address two different questions concerning the mono-recycling of americium (Am in present French pressurised water reactors (PWR. These are reduction of americium in the clear fuel cycle and the safe quantity of americium that can be introduced into mixed oxide (MOX as fuel. The spent UOX was reprocessed to fabricate MOX assemblies, by the extraction of plutonium and addition of depleted uranium to reach burnups of 46GWd/T and 68GWd/T, taking into account various cooling times of the spent UOX assembly in the repository. The effect of cooling time on burnup and radiotoxicity was then ascertained. After 30 years of cooling in the repository, the spent UOX fuel required a higher concentration of Pu to be reprocessed into MOX fuel due to the decay of Pu-241. Americium, with a mean half-life of 432 years, has a high radiotoxicity level, high mid-term residual heat and is a precursor for other long-lived isotopes. An innovative strategy would be to reprocess not only the plutonium from the UOX spent fuel but also the americium isotopes, which presently dominate the radiotoxicity of waste. The mono-recycling of Am is not a definitive solution because the once-through MOX cycle transmutation of Am in a PWR is not enough to destroy all americium. The main objective is to propose a ‘waiting strategy’ for both Am and Pu in the spent fuel so that they can be made available for further transmutation strategies. The MOX and

  17. THE FIRST ISOLATION OF AMERICIUM IN THE FORM OF PURE COMPOUNDS - THE SPECIFIC ALPHA-ACTIVITY AND HALF-LIFE OF Am241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, B.B.; Asprey, L.B.

    1950-07-20

    The microgram scale isolation and preparation of pure compounds of americium is described. Data are presented to show that the alpha-half-life of the isotope Am{sup 241} is 490 {+-} 14 years. The absorption spectrum of Am(III) in 1M nitric acid in the range 3500-8000 mu is given. The wave lengths of 10 of the most prominent lines in the copper spark emission spectrum of americium are given to the nearest 0.01 {angstrom}. Evidence is presented to show that the potential for the Am(III)-Am(IV) couple in acid solution is more negative than -2v and that the potential for the Am(II)-Am(III) couple is more positive than +0.9v.

  18. Serum level of TSGF,CA242 and CA19-9 in pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Ting Jiang; Chang-Ping Wu; Hai-Feng Deng; Ming-Yang Lu; Jun Wu; Hong-Yu Zhang; Wen-Hui Sun; Mei Ji

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To establish a method to detect the expression of the tumor specific growth factor TSGF, CA242 and CA19-9 in serum and evaluate their value in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.METHODS: ELISA and Biochemical colorimetric assay were used to detect the serum content of TSGF, CA242 and CA19-9 in 200 normal cases, 52 pancreatitis patients and 96 pancreatic cancer patients.RESULTS: The positive likelihood ratios of TSGF, CA242and CA19-9 were 5.4, 12.6 and 6.3, respectively, and their negative likelihood ratios were 0.10, 0.19 and 0.17,respectively. With single tumor marker diagnosed pancreatic cancer, the highest sensitivity and specificity of TSGF were 91.6% and 93.5%. In combined test with 3 markers, when all of them were positive, the sensitivity changed to 77.0%and the specificity and the positive predictive value were 100%. The levels of TSGF and CA242 were significantly higher in the patients with pancreatic cancer of head than those in the patients with pancreatic cancer of body, tail and whole pancreas, but the expression of CA19-9 had no correlation with the positions of the pancreatic cancer. The sensitivity of TSGF, CA242 and CA19-9 was increased with the progress in stages of pancreatic cancer. In stage I, the sensitivity of TSGF was markedly higher than CA242 and CA19-9.CONCLUSION: The combined use of TSGF, CA242 and CA19-9 expressions can elevate the specificity for pancreatic cancer diagnosis. And it shows that it plays an important role to differentiate positions and tissue typing. It is a forepart diagnosis for the pancreatic cancer by combination checking.There is very important correlation between the three markers and the pancreatic cancer.

  19. Statistical properties of 243Pu, and 242Pu(n ,γ ) cross section calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplace, T. A.; Zeiser, F.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Goldblum, B. L.; Siem, S.; Garotte, F. L. Bello; Brown, J. A.; Campo, L. Crespo; Eriksen, T. K.; Giacoppo, F.; Görgen, A.; Hadyńska-KlÈ©k, K.; Henderson, R. A.; Klintefjord, M.; Lebois, M.; Renstrøm, T.; Rose, S. J.; Sahin, E.; Tornyi, T. G.; Tveten, G. M.; Voinov, A.; Wiedeking, M.; Wilson, J. N.; Younes, W.

    2016-01-01

    The level density and γ -ray strength function (γ SF ) of 243Pu have been measured in the quasicontinuum using the Oslo method. Excited states in 243Pu were populated using the 242Pu(d ,p ) reaction. The level density closely follows the constant-temperature level density formula for excitation energies above the pairing gap. The γ SF displays a double-humped resonance at low energy as also seen in previous investigations of actinide isotopes. The structure is interpreted as the scissors resonance and has a centroid of ωSR=2.42 (5 ) MeV and a total strength of BSR=10.1 (15 ) μN2 , which is in excellent agreement with sum-rule estimates. The measured level density and γ SF were used to calculate the 242Pu(n ,γ ) cross section in a neutron energy range for which there were previously no measured data.

  20. Intramolecular sensitization of americium luminescence in solution: shining light on short-lived forbidden 5f transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturzbecher-Hoehne, M; Yang, P; D'Aléo, A; Abergel, R J

    2016-06-14

    The photophysical properties and solution thermodynamics of water soluble trivalent americium (Am(III)) complexes formed with multidentate chromophore-bearing ligands, 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), Enterobactin, and 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO), were investigated. The three chelators were shown to act as antenna chromophores for Am(III), generating sensitized luminescence emission from the metal upon complexation, with very short lifetimes ranging from 33 to 42 ns and low luminescence quantum yields (10(-3) to 10(-2)%), characteristic of Near Infra-Red emitters in similar systems. The specific emission peak of Am(III) assigned to the (5)D1 → (7)F1 f-f transition was exploited to characterize the high proton-independent stability of the complex formed with the most efficient sensitizer 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), with a log β110 = 20.4 ± 0.2 value. In addition, the optical and solution thermodynamic features of these Am(III) complexes, combined with density functional theory calculations, were used to probe the influence of electronic structure on coordination properties across the f-element series and to gain insight into ligand field effects.

  1. Response of avalanche photo-diodes of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter to neutrons from an Americium-Beryllium source.

    CERN Document Server

    Deiters, Konrad; Renker, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    The response of avalanche photo-diodes (APDs) used in the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter to low energy neutrons from an Americium-Beryllium source is reported. Signals due to recoil protons from neutron interactions with the hydrogen nuclei in the protective epoxy layer, mainly close to the silicon surface of the APD, have been identified. These signals increase in size with the applied bias voltage more slowly than the nominal gain of the APDs, and appear to have a substantially lower effective gain at the operating voltage. The signals originating from interactions in the epoxy are mostly equivalent to signals of a few GeV in CMS, but range up to a few tens of GeV equivalent. There are also signals not attributed to reactions in the epoxy extending up to the end of the range of these measurements, a few hundreds of GeV equivalent. Signals from the x-rays from the source can also be in the GeV equivalent scale in CMS. Simulations used to describe events due to particle interactions in the APDs need to take ...

  2. Nano-cerium vanadate: a novel inorganic ion exchanger for removal of americium and uranium from simulated aqueous nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Chayan; Dudwadkar, Nilesh; Tripathi, Subhash Chandra; Gandhi, Pritam Maniklal; Grover, Vinita; Kaushik, Chetan Prakash; Tyagi, Avesh Kumar

    2014-09-15

    Cerium vanadate nanopowders were synthesized by a facile low temperature co-precipitation method. The product was characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy and found to consist of ∼25 nm spherical nanoparticles. The efficiency of these nanopowders for uptake of alpha-emitting radionuclides (233)U (4.82 MeV α) and (241)Am (5.49 MeV α, 60 keV γ) has been investigated. Thermodynamically and kinetically favorable uptake of these radionuclides resulted in their complete removal within 3h from aqueous acidic feed solutions. The uptake capacity was observed to increase with increase in pH as the zeta potential value decreased with the increase in pH but effect of ionic strength was insignificant. Little influence of the ions like Sr(2+), Ru(3+), Fe(3+), etc., in the uptake process indicated CeVO4 nanopowders to be amenable for practical applications. The isotherms indicated predominant uptake of the radioactive metal ions in the solid phase of the exchanger at lower feed concentrations and linear Kielland plots with positive slopes indicated favorable exchange of the metal ions with the nanopowder. Performance comparison with the other sorbents reported indicated excellent potential of nano-cerium vanadate for removing americium and uranium from large volumes of aqueous acidic solutions.

  3. Neutron Induced Fission Measurements of ^242mAm at DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyzh, A.; Wu, C. Y.; Macri, R. A.; Agvaanlusan, U.; Parker, W. E.; Wilk, P. A.; Becker, J. A.; Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Keksis, A. L.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.

    2010-11-01

    Neutron capture and fission reactions on actinieds often present challenges in measuring each of the reaction. Fission tagging detector used along with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) provides a way to measure (n,f) and (n,γ) reactions simultaneously. DANCE was used to measure ^242mAm(n,f) reaction along with a custom made fission-tagging parallel plate avalanche counter (PPAC). The results on fission related γ-ray multiplicity distribution, the ^242mAm(n,f) cross section, and the average γ-ray energy distribution are presented.

  4. 17 CFR 242.601 - Dissemination of transaction reports and last sale data with respect to transactions in NMS stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reports and last sale data with respect to transactions in NMS stocks. 242.601 Section 242.601 Commodity..., AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Nms-Regulation of the... transactions in NMS stocks. (a) Filing and effectiveness of transaction reporting plans. (1) Every...

  5. 48 CFR 1852.242-73 - NASA contractor financial management reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 1852.242-73 NASA contractor financial management reporting. As prescribed in 1842.7202, insert the following clause: NASA Contractor Financial Management Reporting (NOV 2004) (a) The Contractor shall submit NASA Contractor Financial Management Reports on NASA Forms 533 in accordance with...

  6. 48 CFR 1852.242-78 - Emergency Medical Services and Evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Emergency Medical Services... Provisions and Clauses 1852.242-78 Emergency Medical Services and Evacuation. As prescribed in 1842.7003, insert the following clause: Emergency Medical Services and Evacuation—April 2001 The Contractor...

  7. 24 CFR 242.48 - Insured advances for certain equipment and long lead items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... necessary to meet the requirements of the overall construction schedule cited in the construction contract. ... HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.48 Insured advances... equipment or other construction materials for which a manufacturer, fabricator, or other source requires...

  8. Reliable determination of 237Np in environmental solid samples using 242Pu as a potential tracer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per;

    2011-01-01

    onto various AG 1-type anion exchangers; suitability of 242Pu as a tracer for 237Np determination in environmental solid samples; and long-term chemical stability of tetravalent Np. Experimental results revealed that the degree of resin cross-linking has a significant influence on the separation...

  9. 17 CFR 242.608 - Filing and amendment of national market system plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Nms-Regulation of the National Market System § 242.608 Filing and amendment of... Regulation NMS and part 240, subpart A of this chapter shall, in addition to compliance with this...

  10. 42 CFR 456.242 - UR plan requirements for medical care evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Mental Hospitals Ur Plan: Medical Care Evaluation Studies § 456.242 UR plan requirements for medical care... medical care evaluation studies under paragraph (b)(1) of this section. (b) The UR plan must provide that... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false UR plan requirements for medical care...

  11. 42 CFR 431.242 - Procedural rights of the applicant or recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STATE ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Fair Hearings for Applicants and Recipients Procedures § 431.242 Procedural rights of the... State or local agency or the skilled nursing facility or nursing facility at the hearing; (b)...

  12. 17 CFR 242.404 - Type, form and use of margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... satisfied; and (ii) An account that is transferred from one customer to another as part of a transaction... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Customer Margin Requirements for Security Futures § 242.404 Type, form and use of margin. (a) When...

  13. Determination by gamma-ray spectrometry of the plutonium and americium content of the Pu/Am separation scraps. Application to molten salts; Determination par spectrometrie gamma de la teneur en plutonium et en americium de produits issus de separation Pu/Am. Application aux bains de sels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godot, A. [CEA Valduc, Dept. de Traitement des Materiaux Nucleaires, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Perot, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Technologie Nucleaire, Service de Modelisation des Transferts et Mesures Nucleaires, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Within the framework of plutonium recycling operations in CEA Valduc (France), americium is extracted from molten plutonium metal into a molten salt during an electrolysis process. The scraps (spent salt, cathode, and crucible) contain extracted americium and a part of plutonium. Nuclear material management requires a very accurate determination of the plutonium content. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is performed on Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) scraps located inside the glove box, in order to assess the plutonium and americium contents. The measurement accuracy is influenced by the device geometry, nuclear instrumentation, screens located between the sample and the detector, counting statistics and matrix attenuation, self-absorption within the spent salt being very important. The purpose of this study is to validate the 'infinite energy extrapolation' method employed to correct for self-attenuation, and to detect any potential bias. We present a numerical study performed with the MCNP computer code to identify the most influential parameters and some suggestions to improve the measurement accuracy. A final uncertainty of approximately 40% is achieved on the plutonium mass. (authors)

  14. Transfer across the human gut of environmental plutonium, americium, cobalt, caesium and technetium: studies with cockles (Cerastoderma edule) from the Irish Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G J

    1998-06-01

    Our previous studies have indicated lower values of the gut transfer factor ('f1 values') for plutonium and americium in winkles (Littorina littorea) than adopted by ICRP. The present study was undertaken primarily to investigate whether this observation extends to other species. Samples of cockles (Carastoderma edule) from Ravenglass, Cumbria were eaten by volunteers who provided 24 h samples of urine and faeces. Urine samples indicated f1 values for cockles which were higher than for winkles; for plutonium these ranged overall up to 7 x 10(-4) with an arithmetic mean in the range (2-3) x 10(-4), and for americium up to 2.6 x 10(-4) with an arithmetic mean of 1.2 x 10(-4). Limited data based on volunteers eating cockles from the Solway suggest that f1 values for americium may be greater at distance from Sellafield. The measured values compare with 5 x 10(-4) used by the ICRP for environmental forms of both elements, which would appear to provide adequate protection when calculating doses from Cumbrian cockles. Data for other nuclides were obtained by analysing faecal samples from the volunteers who ate the Ravenglass cockles. Cobalt-60 showed an f1 value in the region of 0.2, twice the value currently used by ICRP. For 137Cs, variabilities were indicated in the range 0.08 to 0.43, within the ICRP value of f1 = 1.0. Technetium-99 gave f1 values up to about 0.6, in reasonable conformity with the ICRP value of 0.5.

  15. Transfer across the human gut of environmental plutonium, americium, cobalt, caesium and technetium: studies with cockles (Cerastoderma edule) from the Irish Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.J. [CEFAS Laboratory, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-01

    Our previous studies have indicated lower values of the gut transfer factor ('f{sub L} values') for plutonium and americium in winkles (Littorina littorea) than adopted by ICRP. The present study was undertaken primarily to investigate whether this observation extends to other species. Samples of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) from Ravenglass, Cumbria were eaten by volunteers who provided 24 samples of urine and faeces. Urine samples indicated f{sub L} values for cockles which were higher than for winkles; for plutonium these ranged overall up to 7x10{sup -4} with an arithmetic mean in the range (2-3)x10{sup -4}, and for americium up to 2.6x10{sup -4} with an arithmetic mean of 1.2x10{sup -4}. Limited data based on volunteers eating cockles from the Solway suggest that f{sub L} values for americium may be greater at distance from Sellafield. The measured values compare with 5x10{sup -4} used by the ICRP for environmental forms of both elements, which would appear to provide adequate protection when calculating doses from Cumbrian cockles. Data for other nuclides were obtained by analysing faecal samples from the volunteers who ate the Ravenglass cockles. Cobalt-60 showed an f{sub L} value in the region of 0.2, twice the value currently used by ICRP. For {sup 137}Cs, variabilities were indicated in the range 0.08 to 0.43, within the ICRP value of f{sub L}=1.0. Technetium-99 gave f{sub L} values up to about 0.6, in reasonable conformity with the ICRP value of 0.5. (author)

  16. Prompt fission γ -ray spectrum characteristics from 240Pu(sf ) and 242Pu(sf )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberstedt, S.; Oberstedt, A.; Gatera, A.; Göök, A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Moens, A.; Sibbens, G.; Vanleeuw, D.; Vidali, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we present first results for prompt fission γ -ray spectra (PFGS) characteristics from the spontaneous fission (sf) of 240Pu and 242Pu. For 242Pu(sf ) we obtained, after proper unfolding of the detector response, an average energy per photon ɛ¯γ=(0.843 ±0.012 ) MeV, an average multiplicity M¯γ=(6.72 ±0.07 ) , and an average total γ -ray energy release per fission E¯γ ,tot = (5.66 ± 0.06) MeV. The 240Pu(sf ) emission spectrum was obtained by applying a so-called detector-response transformation function determined from the 242Pu spectrum measured in exactly the same geometry. The results are an average energy per photon ɛ¯γ=(0.80 ±0.07 ) MeV, the average multiplicity M¯γ = (8.2 ± 0.4), and an average total γ -ray energy release per fission E¯γ ,tot = (6.6 ± 0.5) MeV. The PFGS characteristics for 242Pu(sf ) are in very good agreement with those from thermal-neutron-induced fission on 241Pu and scales well with the corresponding prompt neutron multiplicity. Our results in the case of 240Pu(sf ), although drawn from a limited number of events, show a significantly enhanced average multiplicity and average total energy, but may be understood from a different fragment yield distribution in 240Pu(sf ) compared to that of 242Pu(sf ).

  17. Nano-cerium vanadate: A novel inorganic ion exchanger for removal of americium and uranium from simulated aqueous nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Chayan; Dudwadkar, Nilesh [Fuel Reprocessing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Tripathi, Subhash Chandra, E-mail: sctri001@gmail.com [Fuel Reprocessing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Gandhi, Pritam Maniklal [Fuel Reprocessing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Grover, Vinita [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kaushik, Chetan Prakash [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Tyagi, Avesh Kumar, E-mail: aktyagi@barc.gov.in [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Template free, low temperature synthesis of CeVO{sub 4} nanopowders. • Thermodynamically and kinetically favourable uptake of Am(III) and U(VI) exhibited. • K{sub d} and ΔG° values for Am(III) and U(VI) uptake in pH 1–6 are reported. • Interdiffusion coefficients and zeta potential values in pH 1–6 are reported. • Possible application in low level aqueous nuclear waste remediation. - Abstract: Cerium vanadate nanopowders were synthesized by a facile low temperature co-precipitation method. The product was characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy and found to consist of ∼25 nm spherical nanoparticles. The efficiency of these nanopowders for uptake of alpha-emitting radionuclides {sup 233}U (4.82 MeV α) and {sup 241}Am (5.49 MeV α, 60 keV γ) has been investigated. Thermodynamically and kinetically favorable uptake of these radionuclides resulted in their complete removal within 3 h from aqueous acidic feed solutions. The uptake capacity was observed to increase with increase in pH as the zeta potential value decreased with the increase in pH but effect of ionic strength was insignificant. Little influence of the ions like Sr{sup 2+}, Ru{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, etc., in the uptake process indicated CeVO{sub 4} nanopowders to be amenable for practical applications. The isotherms indicated predominant uptake of the radioactive metal ions in the solid phase of the exchanger at lower feed concentrations and linear Kielland plots with positive slopes indicated favorable exchange of the metal ions with the nanopowder. Performance comparison with the other sorbents reported indicated excellent potential of nano-cerium vanadate for removing americium and uranium from large volumes of aqueous acidic solutions.

  18. Plutonium, americium and radiocaesium in the marine environment close to the Vandellos I nuclear power plant before decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A. E-mail: joanalbert.sanchez@uab.es; Molero, J

    2000-11-01

    The Vandellos nuclear power plant (NPP), releasing low-level radioactive liquid waste to the Mediterranean Sea, is the first to be decommissioned in Spain, after an incident which occurred in 1989. The presence, distribution and uptake of various artificial radionuclides (radiocaesium, plutonium and americium) in the environment close to the plant were studied in seawater, bottom sediments and biota, including Posidonia oceanica, fish, crustaceans and molluscs. Seawater, sediments and Posidonia oceanica showed enhanced levels in the close vicinity of the NPP, although the effect was restricted to its near environment. Maximum concentrations in seawater were 11.6{+-}0.5 Bq m{sup -3} and 16.9{+-}1.2 mBq m{sup -3} for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu, respectively. When sediment concentrations were normalized to excess {sup 210}Pb, they showed both the short-distance transport of artificial radionuclides from the Vandellos plant and the long-distance transport of {sup 137}Cs from the Asco NPP. Posidonia oceanica showed the presence of various gamma-emitters attributed to the impact of the Chernobyl accident, on which the effect of the NPP was superimposed. Seawater, sediment and Posidonia oceanica collected near the plant also showed an enhancement of the plutonium isotopic ratio above the fallout value. The uptake of these radionuclides by marine organisms was detectable but limited. Pelagic fish showed relatively higher {sup 137}Cs concentrations and only in the case of demersal fish was the plutonium isotopic ratio increased. The reported levels constitute a set of baseline values against which the impact of the decommissioning operations of the Vandellos I NPP can be studied.

  19. Association of the CYBA gene C242T polymorphism with schizophrenia in Southern Chinese population%中国南方汉族人群CYBA基因C242T多态性与精神分裂症的关联

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗旭东; 林举达; 梁爱萍; 邹晓波; 陈武标

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential association between the C242T polymorphism of CYBA gene and risk ,severity of schizophrenia.Methods Multiplex SNaPshot was used to determine the genotype and allele frequencies of CYBA gene C242T in 906 schizophrenic patients and 982 controls. Psychotic symptoms were evaluated in accordance with structured interview for the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS).Results (1) There were no significant differences in genotype and allele fre-quencies for C242T polymorphism between the cases and controls (P > 0.05).(2)The C242T polymor-phism C/T and T/T carriers had higher negative symptom scores and total scores than C/C carriers (P 0.05);(2)C242T多态性位点CT+TT基因型患者PANSS量表的阴性量表分及总分高于CC基因型患者(P<0.05).结论 CYBA基因C242T多态性与中国南方汉族精神分裂症的易感性无明显关联,C242T多态性位点T突变可能会加重精神分裂症患者的阴性症状.

  20. Analytical services: 222-S characterization of 242-A Evaporator Slurry, Campaign 94-1. Addendum 1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-13

    During the 242-A Evaporator`s 94-1 campaign, five process samples were collected from the slurry stream for waste characterization. The five samples were collected over a 36 day time span, respectively on May 4, May 9, May 16, May 23, and June 9, 1994. Sample collections were performed per the protocol described in 242-A Evaporator Waste Analysis Plan, WHC-SD-WM-EV-060, Rev. 3 and in 242-A Evaporator Quality Assurance Project Plan, WHC-SD-WM-QAPP-009, Rev. 0. Slurry waste was characterized chemically and radiochemically by the Westinghouse Hanford Company, 222-S Laboratory as directed.

  1. New Superheavy Element Isotopes: 242Pu(48Ca,5n)285114

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, Paul A; Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Berryman, Jill S.; Bleuel, Darren L.; Clark, Roderick M.; Dragojevic, Irena; Dvorak, Jan; Fallon, Paul; Fineman-Sotomayor, Carolina; Gates, Jacklyn M.; Gothe, Oliver R.; Lee, I-Yang; Loveland, Walter D.; McLaughlin, Joseph P.; Paschalis, Stefanos; Petri, Marina-Kalliopi; Qian, Jing; Stavsetra, Liv; Wiedeking, Mathis; Nitsche, Heino

    2010-10-22

    The new, neutron-deficient, superheavy element isotope {sup 285}114 was produced in {sup 48}Ca irradiations of {sup 242}Pu targets at a center-of-target beam energy of 256 MeV (E* = 50 MeV). The {alpha} decay of {sup 285}114 was followed by the sequential {alpha} decay of four daughter nuclides, {sup 281}Cn, {sup 277}Ds, {sup 273}Hs, and {sup 269}Sg. {sup 265}Rf was observed to decay by spontaneous fission. The measured {alpha}-decay Q values were compared with those from a macroscopic-microscopic nuclear mass model to give insight into superheavy element shell effects. The {sup 242}Pu({sup 48}Ca,5n){sup 285}114 cross section was 0.6{sub -0.5}{sup +0.9} pb.

  2. Measurement of the 242Pu(n,f cross section at n_TOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsinganis A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of neutron cross sections of various plutonium isotopes and other minor actinides is crucial for the design of advanced nuclear systems. The 242Pu(n,f cross sections were measured at the CERN n_TOF facility, taking advantage of the wide energy range (from thermal to GeV and the high instantaneous flux of the neutron beam. In this work, preliminary results are presented along with a theoretical cross section calculation performed with the EMPIRE code.

  3. Flurbiprofen benzyl nitrate (NBS-242) inhibits the growth of A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells and targets β-catenin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Niharika; Liu, Xiaoping; Jacobs, Lloydine; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2013-01-01

    Background The Wnt/β-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) signaling pathway is important in the development of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Nitric-oxide-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NO-NSAIDs) are chemopreventive agents consisting of a traditional NSAID attached to an NO-releasing moiety through a chemical spacer. Previously we showed that an aromatic spacer enhanced the potency of a particular NO-NSAID compared to an aliphatic spacer. Methods We synthesized an NO-releasing NSAID with an aromatic spacer (flurbiprofen benzyl nitrate, NBS-242), and using the human skin cancer cell line A-431, we evaluated its effects on cell kinetics, Wnt/β-catenin, cyclin D1, and caspase-3. Results NBS-242 inhibited the growth of A-431 cancer cells, being ~15-fold more potent than flurbiprofen and up to 5-fold more potent than NO-flurbiprofen with an aliphatic spacer, the half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for growth inhibition being 60 ± 4 μM, 320 ± 20 μM, and 880 ± 65 μM for NBS-242, NO-flurbiprofen, and flurbiprofen, respectively. This effect was associated with inhibition of proliferation, accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, and an increase in apoptotic cell population. NBS-242 cleaved β-catenin both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of A-431 cells. NBS-242 activated caspase-3 whose activation was reflected in the cleavage of procaspase-3. To test the functional consequence of β-catenin cleavage, we determined the expression of cyclin D1, a Wnt-response gene. NBS-242 reduced cyclin D1 levels in a concentration dependent manner. Conclusion These findings establish a strong inhibitory effect of NBS-242 in A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. NBS-242 modulates parameters that are important in determining cellular mass. PMID:23690679

  4. Project C-018H, 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility, functional design criteria. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, N.

    1995-05-02

    This document provides the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) for Project C-018H, the 242-A Evaporator and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant Condensate Treatment Facility (Also referred to as the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility [ETF]). The project will provide the facilities to treat and dispose of the 242-A Evaporator process condensate (PC), the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant process condensate (PDD), and the PUREX Plant ammonia scrubber distillate (ASD).

  5. The structures of CyMe4-BTBP complexes of americium(iii) and europium(iii) in solvents used in solvent extraction, explaining their separation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, Christian; Löfström-Engdahl, Elin; Aneheim, Emma; Foreman, Mark R StJ; Geist, Andreas; Lundberg, Daniel; Denecke, Melissa; Persson, Ingmar

    2015-11-14

    Separation of trivalent actinoid (An(iii)) and lanthanoid (Ln(iii)) ions is extremely challenging due to their similar ionic radii and chemical properties. Poly-aromatic nitrogen compounds acting as tetradentate chelating ligands to the metal ions in the extraction, have the ability to sufficiently separate An(iii) from Ln(iii). One of these compounds, 6,6'-bis(5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-benzol[1,2,4]triazin-3-yl)[2,2]bipyridine, CyMe4-BTBP, has proven to be resistant towards acidic environments and strong radiation from radioactive decomposition. EXAFS studies of the dicomplexes of CyMe4-BTBP with americium(iii) and europium(iii) in nitrobenzene, cyclohexanone, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol and malonamide (DMDOHEMA) in 1-octanol have been carried out to get a deeper understanding of the parameters responsible for the separation. The predominating complexes independent of solvent used are [Am(CyMe4-BTBP)2(NO3)](2+) and [Eu(CyMe4-BTBP)2](3+), respectively, which are present as outer-sphere ion-pairs with nitrate ions in the studied solvents with low relative permittivity. The presence of a nitrate ion in the first coordination sphere of the americium(iii) complex compensates the charge density of the complex considerably in comparison when only outer-sphere ion-pairs are formed as for the [Eu(CyMe4-BTBP)2](3+) complex. The stability and solubility of a complex in a solvent with low relative permittivity increase with decreasing charge density. The [Am(CyMe4-BTBP)2(NO3)](2+) complex will therefore be increasingly soluble and stabilized over the [Eu(CyMe4-BTBP)2](3+) complex in solvents with decreasing relative permittivity of the solvent. The separation of americium(iii) from europium(iii) with CyMe4-BTBP as extraction agent will increase with decreasing relative permittivity of the solvent, and thereby also with decreasing solubility of CyMe4-BTBP. The choice of solvent is therefore a balance of a high separation factor and sufficient solubility of the CyMe4-BTBP

  6. Determination of Atto- to Femtogram Levels of Americium and Curium Isotopes in Large-Volume Urine Samples by Compact Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiongxin; Christl, Marcus; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2016-03-01

    Ultralow level analysis of actinides in urine samples may be required for dose assessment in the event of internal exposures to these radionuclides at nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants. A new bioassay method for analysis of sub-femtogram levels of Am and Cm in large-volume urine samples was developed. Americium and curium were co-precipitated with hydrous titanium oxide from the urine matrix and purified by column chromatography separation. After target preparation using mixed titanium/iron oxides, the final sample was measured by compact accelerator mass spectrometry. Urine samples spiked with known quantities of Am and Cm isotopes in the range of attogram to femtogram levels were measured for method evaluation. The results are in good agreement with the expected values, demonstrating the feasibility of compact accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for the determination of minor actinides at the levels of attogram/liter in urine samples to meet stringent sensitivity requirements for internal dosimetry assessment.

  7. Artificial radionuclides in the Northern European Marine Environment. Distribution of radiocaesium, plutonium and americium in sea water and sediments in 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groettheim, Siri

    2000-07-01

    This study considers the distribution of radiocaesium, plutonium and americium in the northern marine environment. The highest radiocaesium activity in sea water was observed in Skagerrak, 26 Bq/m{sub 3}, and in surface sediments in the Norwegian Sea, 60 Bq/kg. These enhanced levels were related to Chernobyl. The highest 239,240Pu activity in surface water was measured in the western North Sea, 66 mBq/m{sub 3}. In sea water, sub-surface maxima were observed at several locations with an 239,240Pu activity up to 160 mBq/m{sub 3}, and were related to Sellafield. With the exception to the North Sea, surface sediments reflected Pu from global fallout from weapons tests only. (author)

  8. Development of an automatic method for americium and plutonium separation and preconcentration using an multisyringe flow injection analysis-multipumping flow system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Yamila; Ferrer, Laura; Gómez, Enrique; Garcias, Francesca; Casas, Monserrat; Cerdà, Víctor

    2008-01-01

    A new procedure for automatic separation and preconcentration of 241Am and 239+240Pu from interfering matrixes using transuranide (TRU)-resin is proposed. Combination of the multisyringe flow injection analysis and multipumping flow system techniques with the TRU-resin allows carrying out the sampling treatment and separation in a short time using large sample volumes. Americium is eluted from the column with 4 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid, and then plutonium is separated via on-column Pu(IV) reduction to Pu(III) with titanium(III) chloride. The corresponding alpha activities are measured off-line, with a relative standard deviation of 3% and a lower limit of detection of 0.004 Bq mL(-1), by using a multiplanchet low-background proportional counter.

  9. Recovery of Americium-241 from lightning rod by the method of chemical treatment; Recuperacion del Americio-241 provenientes de los pararrayos por el metodo de tratamiento quimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, W.H., E-mail: wcruz@ipen.gob.pe [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (GRRA/IPEN), Lima (Peru). Division de Gestion de Residuos Radiactivos

    2013-07-01

    About 95% of the lightning rods installed in the Peruvian territory have set in their structures, pose small amounts of radioactive sources such as Americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), fewer and Radium 226 ({sup 226}Ra) these are alpha emitters and have a half life of 432 years and 1600 years respectively. In this paper describes the recovery of radioactive sources of {sup 241}Am radioactive lightning rods using the conventional chemical treatment method using agents and acids to break down the slides. The {sup 241}Am recovered was as excitation source and alpha particle generator for analysing samples by X Ray Fluorescence, for fixing the stainless steel {sup 241}Am technique was used electrodeposition. (author)

  10. Americium-241 Decorporation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    sources when combined with beryllium. Radioactive sources are used for a number of industrial applications that range from oil well logging devices...is any exposure resulting in a 50-year whole-body committed effective dose greater than 200 mSv (Rojas- Palma 2009). Therefore, the model can also...Tracheobronchial geometry: Human, dog, rat, hamster (Report LF-53). Lovelace Foundation, Albuquerque, NM Rojas- Palma C, et al. 2009. TMT Handbook

  11. 242-A Evaporator/Liquid Effluent Retention Facility data quality objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Bargen, B.H.

    1994-09-29

    The purpose of data quality objectives (DQO) is to determine the most cost effective methods of gathering the essential data necessary to make decisions to support successful operation of the facility. The essential data is defined by such information as sample amount, sample location, required analyses, and how sampling and analyses are performed. Successful operation is defined as meeting the campaign objectives while operating within established requirements. This DQO document addresses that portion of the system from 242-A Evaporator candidate feed tanks through discharge of process condensate to the Liquid Effluent Retention of Facility (LERF). Later revisions will incorporate and integrate the entire system, including the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF).

  12. [Induced labor for gravidae with low Bishop's scores (with report of 242 cases)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, J

    1990-07-01

    In planned/selective delivery, gravidae with Bishop's score 5 or below 5 are deal with lower position water sac, the aim of which is to induce regular uterine contraction and complete physiological latent period of cervical dilation. From Oct 1986 to Dec 1988, 242 cases of primiparae by this method and the latent period in physiological limit. This is a great breakthrough in induced labour for gravidae with low Bishop's scores. We found that this method is simple, effective, safe, and economic. It not only alleviates pain of the gravidae, but also helps to prevent the rise of caesarean section rate.

  13. Directed mutagenesis of the strongly conserved aspartate 242 in the beta-subunit of Escherichia coli proton-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shawi, M K; Parsonage, D; Senior, A E

    1988-12-25

    Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was used to substitute Asn or Val for residue Asp-242 in the beta-subunit of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase. Asp-242 is strongly conserved in beta-subunits of F1-ATPase enzymes, in a region of sequence which shows homology with numerous nucleotide-binding proteins. By analogy with adenylate kinase (Fry, D.C., Kuby, S.A., and Mildvan, A.S. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83, 907-911), beta-Asp-242 of F1-ATPase might participate in catalysis through electrostatic effects on the substrate Mg2+ or through hydrogen bonding to the substrate(s); an acid-base catalytic role is also plausible. The substitutions Asn and Val were chosen to affect the charge, hydrogen-bonding ability, and hydrophobicity of residue beta-Asp-242. Both mutations significantly impaired oxidative phosphorylation rates in vivo and membrane ATPase and ATP-driven proton-pumping activities in vitro. Asn-242 was more detrimental than Val-242. Purified soluble mutant F1-ATPases had normal molecular size and subunit composition, and displayed 7% (beta-Asn-242) and 17% (beta-Val-242) of normal specific Mg-ATPase activity. The relative MgATPase activities of both mutant enzymes showed similar pH dependence to normal. Relative MgATPase and CaATPase activities of normal and mutant enzymes were compared at widely varied pMg and pCa. The mutations had little effect on KM MgATP, but KM CaATP was reduced. The data showed that the carboxyl side-chain of beta-Asp-242 is not involved in catalysis either as a general acid-base catalyst or through direct involvement in any protonation/deprotonation-linked mechanism, nor is it likely to be directly involved in liganding to substrate Mg2+ during the reaction. Specificity constants (kcat/KM) for MgATP and CaATP were reduced in both mutant enzymes, showing that the mutations destabilized interactions between the catalytic nucleotide-binding domain and the transition state.

  14. The diagnostic value of joint detection of serum CA19-9, CA125 and CA242 for cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Da-Peng; Han Lei; Liu Zhen-Xian; Yang He; Zhang Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the diagnostic value of joint detection of serum CA19-9, CA125 and CA242 for cholangiocarcinoma.Methods:A total of 35 patients with cholangiocarcinoma who received surgical resection in our hospital were selected as malignant group, 30 patients with cholelithiasis who received surgical resection in our hospital during the same period were selected as benign group, serum samples were collected before surgery to determine CA19-9, CA125 and CA242 content, and cholangiocarcinoma tissue and normal bile duct tissue were collected after surgery to determine the content of proliferation and invasion molecules. Results:Serum CA19-9, CA125 and CA242 levels of malignant group were significantly higher than those of control group; PROX-1, Ki-67, Bcl-2, Bad, Gab1, LOXL2, TRPM7 and CXCL12 levels in cholangiocarcinoma tissue were higher than those in benign bile duct tissue, and E-cadherin level was lower than that in benign bile duct tissue; serum CA19-9, CA125 and CA242 levels were positively correlated with PROX-1, Ki-67, Bcl-2, Bad, Gab1, LOXL2, TRPM7 and CXCL12 levels, and negatively correlated with E-cadherin level.Conclusion:Joint detection of serum CA19-9, CA125 and CA242 can not only provide reference for the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma, but can also provide basis for the evaluation of proliferation, invasion and other malignant biological behaviors.

  15. Statistical properties of $^{243}$Pu, and $^{242}$Pu(n,$\\gamma$) cross section calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Laplace, T A; Guttormsen, M; Larsen, A C; Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A; Goldblum, B L; Siem, S; Garotte, F L Bello; Brown, J A; Campo, L Crespo; Eriksen, T K; Giacoppo, F; Görgen, A; Hadyńska-Klȩk, K; Henderson, R A; Klintefjord, M; Lebois, M; Renstrøm, T; Rose, S J; Sahin, E; Tornyi, T G; Tveten, G M; Voinov, A; Wiedeking, M; Wilson, J N; Younes, W

    2015-01-01

    The level density and gamma-ray strength function (gammaSF) of 243Pu have been measured in the quasi-continuum using the Oslo method. Excited states in 243Pu were populated using the 242Pu(d,p) reaction. The level density closely follows the constant-temperature level density formula for excitation energies above the pairing gap. The gammaSF displays a double-humped resonance at low energy as also seen in previous investigations of actinide isotopes. The structure is interpreted as the scissors resonance and has a centroid of omega_{SR}=2.42(5)MeV and a total strength of B_{SR}=10.1(15)mu_N^2, which is in excellent agreement with sum-rule estimates. The measured level density and gammaSF were used to calculate the 242Pu(n,gamma) cross section in a neutron energy range for which there were previously no measured data.

  16. 232Th、233U、238Pu、240Pu、242Pu、241Am、242Cm、243Cm和244Cm的裂变释放热能研究%Thermal Energy Released in Fission of 232 Th,233 U,238 Pu, 240 Pu,242 Pu,241 Am,242 Cm,243 Cm and 244 Cm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳飞; 马续波; 陈义学

    2013-01-01

    In the nuclear reactor design ,the precise calculation of thermal fission energy is of great significance .In the pressurized water reactor ,high energy neutron-induced fission rarely occurs ,the isotopes including 233 U ,241 Am and 243 Cm are mostly induced by thermal neutrons ,while the other isotopes such as 232Th ,238Pu ,240Pu ,242Pu ,242Cm and 244 Cm are by fast neutron . In order to carry out this work , the nuclear data extracted from the latest evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF/B-Ⅶ ) were adopted ,and the energy-conservation law for the calculation of total fission energy were used , meanw hile ,with the consideration of capture energy and the correction of βand γ ,the thermal fission energy of nine isotopes was obtained .Compared with the data excerpted from IAEA issued WIMS-D database ,the results are reasonable .The thermal fission energy and its uncertainties of the nine isotopes are :(193.939 ± 0.176) MeV for 232 Th , (200.063 ± 0.084) MeV for 233 U ,(208.786 ± 1.133 ) MeV for 238 Pu ,(211.266 ± 0.220 ) MeV for 240 Pu ,(213.862 ± 0.299 ) MeV for 242 Pu ,(215.077 ± 0.210 ) MeV for 241 Am ,(218.821 ± 0.159) MeV for 242Cm ,(218.525 ± 0.388) MeV for 243Cm ,and (220.067 ± 0.131) MeV for 244 Cm ,respectively .%在核反应堆设计中,对每次裂变释放热能进行精确计算具有重要意义。在压水堆内,高能中子诱发核裂变份额很小,233 U、241 Am、243 Cm主要由热中子诱发裂变,232 T h、238 Pu、240 Pu、242 Pu、242 Cm、244 Cm主要由快中子诱发裂变。本文采用最新的核评价数据库 ENDF/B-Ⅶ,利用质量守恒法计算裂变释放总能,同时研究了中微子带走的能量,中子俘获能及β、γ修正项,最终给出了9种核素裂变释放热能。与IAEA颁布的WIMS-D格式数据库中的裂变释放热能数据的对比表明,本文所用方法计算结果合理。9种核素每次裂变释放热能分别为:232 Th ,(193.939±0.176) MeV ;233 U ,(200.063

  17. Process control plan for 242-A Evaporator Campaign 95-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, E.Q.; Guthrie, M.D.

    1995-05-18

    The wastes from tanks 106-AP, 107-AP, and 106-AW have been selected to be candidate feed wastes for Evaporator Campaign 95-1. The wastes in tank 106-AP and 107-AP are primarily from B-Plant strontium processing and PUREX neutralized cladding removal, respectively. The waste in tank 106-AW originated primarily from the partially concentrated product from 242-A Evaporator Campaign 94-2. Approximately 8.67 million liters of waste from these tanks will be transferred to tank 102-AW during the campaign. Tank 102-AW is the dedicated waste feed tank for the evaporator and currently contains 647,000 liters of processable waste. The purpose of the 242-A Evaporator Campaign 95-1 Process Control Plan (hereafter referred to as PCP) is to certify that the wastes in tanks 106-AP, 107-AP, 102-AW, and 106-AW are acceptable for processing through evaporator and provide a general description of process strategies and activities which will take place during Campaign 95-1. The PCP also summarizes and presents a comprehensive characterization of the wastes in these tanks.

  18. Direct Detection of Pu-242 with a Metallic Magnetic Calorimeter Gamma-Ray Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, C.; Pies, C.; Kempf, S.; Hengstler, D.; Fleischmann, A.; Gastaldo, L.; Enss, C.; Friedrich, S.

    2016-07-01

    Cryogenic high-resolution γ -ray detectors can improve the accuracy of non-destructive assay (NDA) of nuclear materials in cases where conventional high-purity germanium detectors are limited by line overlap or by the Compton background. We have improved the performance of gamma detectors based on metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) by separating the 0.5 × 2 × 0.25 mm3 Au absorber from the Au:Er sensor with sixteen 30-\\upmu m-diameter Au posts. This ensures that the entire γ -ray energy thermalizes in the absorber before heating the Au:Er sensor, and improves the energy resolution at 35 mK to as low as 90 eV FWHM at 60 keV. This energy resolution enables the direct detection of γ -rays from Pu-242, an isotope that cannot be measured by traditional NDA and whose concentration is therefore inferred through correlations with other Pu isotopes. The Pu-242 concentration of 11.11 ± 0.42 % measured by NDA with MMCs agrees with mass spectrometry results and exceeds the accuracy of correlation measurements.

  19. RV SONNE Fahrtbericht / Cruise Report SO242-2 [SO242/2]: JPI OCEANS Ecological Aspects of Deep-Sea Mining, DISCOL Revisited, Guayaquil - Guayaquil (Equador), 28.08.-01.10.2015

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The scientific work during SO242/2 (28. August - 01. October 2015) was part of the JPIO Pilot Action ‘Ecological Aspects of Deep-Sea Mining‘. The main goal was to study the potential long-term ecological impact of anthropogenic disturbances on the deep-sea floor from mining polymetallic Mn-nodules. The expedition SO242 built on studies of the former German TUSCH projects (1989-1996) with four RV SONNE cruises to the DISCOL Experimental Area in the Peru Basin, South Pacific (7°S...

  20. Flurbiprofen benzyl nitrate (NBS-242 inhibits the growth of A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells and targets ß-catenin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath N

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Niharika Nath,1,2 Xiaoping Liu,3 Lloydine Jacobs,1 Khosrow Kashfi1,3 1Department of Physiology, Pharmacology, and Neuroscience, Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, City University of New York Medical School, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Life Sciences, New York Institute of Technology, New York, NY, USA; 3Division of Cancer Prevention, Department of Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA Background: The Wnt/ß-catenin/T cell factor (TCF signaling pathway is important in the development of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs. Nitric-oxide-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NO-NSAIDs are chemopreventive agents consisting of a traditional NSAID attached to an NO-releasing moiety through a chemical spacer. Previously we showed that an aromatic spacer enhanced the potency of a particular NO-NSAID compared to an aliphatic spacer. Methods: We synthesized an NO-releasing NSAID with an aromatic spacer (flurbiprofen benzyl nitrate, NBS-242, and using the human skin cancer cell line A-431, we evaluated its effects on cell kinetics, Wnt/ß-catenin, cyclin D1, and caspase-3. Results: NBS-242 inhibited the growth of A-431 cancer cells, being ~15-fold more potent than flurbiprofen and up to 5-fold more potent than NO-flurbiprofen with an aliphatic spacer, the half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 for growth inhibition being 60 ± 4 µM, 320 ± 20 µM, and 880 ± 65 µM for NBS-242, NO-flurbiprofen, and flurbiprofen, respectively. This effect was associated with inhibition of proliferation, accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, and an increase in apoptotic cell population. NBS-242 cleaved ß-catenin both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of A-431 cells. NBS-242 activated caspase-3 whose activation was reflected in the cleavage of procaspase-3. To test the functional consequence of ß-catenin cleavage, we determined the expression of cyclin D1, a Wnt-response gene. NBS-242 reduced cyclin D1 levels

  1. Measurement of the $^{240,242}$Pu(n,f) cross section at the CERN n_TOF facility

    CERN Document Server

    Tsinganis, A; Guerrero, C; Colonna, N; Calviani, M; Vlastou, R; Andriamonje, S; Vlachoudis, V; Gunsing, F; Massimi, C; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Becvár, F; Belloni, F; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chin, M; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Dzysiuk, N; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Gurusamy, P; Hernández-Prieto, A; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Krtiˇcka, M; Kroll, J; Lampoudis, C; Langer, C; Leal-Cidoncha, E; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Losito, R; Mallick, A; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Meaze, M; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondalaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Robles, M S; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sabaté-Gilarte, M; Sarmento, R; Saxena, A; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarrío, D; Tassan-Got, L; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiss, C; Wright, T; Zugec, P

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of neutron cross sections of various plutonium isotopes and other minor actinides is crucial for the design of advanced nuclear systems. The $^{240 , 242}$Pu(n,f) cross sections were measured at the CERN n_TOF facility, taking advantage of the wide energy range (from thermal to GeV) and the high instantaneous f ux of the neutron beam. In this work, preliminary results for $^{242}$Pu are presented along with a theoretical cross section calculation performed with the EMPIRE code.

  2. Actinide Oxidation State and O/M Ratio in Hypostoichiometric Uranium-Plutonium-Americium U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x Mixed Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Lebreton, Florent; Aufore, Laurence; Scheinost, Andreas C; Martin, Philippe M

    2016-03-07

    Innovative americium-bearing uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x are envisioned as nuclear fuel for sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors (SFRs). The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio, directly related to the oxidation state of cations, affects many of the fuel properties. Thus, a thorough knowledge of its variation with the sintering conditions is essential. The aim of this work is to follow the oxidation state of uranium, plutonium, and americium, and so the O/M ratio, in U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x samples sintered for 4 h at 2023 K in various Ar + 5% H2 + z vpm H2O (z = ∼ 15, ∼ 90, and ∼ 200) gas mixtures. The O/M ratios were determined by gravimetry, XAS, and XRD and evidenced a partial oxidation of the samples at room temperature. Finally, by comparing XANES and EXAFS results to that of a previous study, we demonstrate that the presence of uranium does not influence the interactions between americium and plutonium and that the differences in the O/M ratio between the investigated conditions is controlled by the reduction of plutonium. We also discuss the role of the homogeneity of cation distribution, as determined by EPMA, on the mechanisms involved in the reduction process.

  3. MR imaging of musculoskeletal tumors and tumor mimickers with intravenous gadolinium: experience with 242 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, D.A. [Department of Radiology, Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)]|[WHMC/PSRD, Lackland AFB, TX (United States); Good, R.B. [Department of Radiology, Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center, San Antonio, TX (United States); Smith, D.K. [Department of Radiology, Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center, San Antonio, TX (United States); Parsons, T.W. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Purpose. This pictorial essay reviews our experience with MR scans with gadolinium in patients with musculoskeletal tumors and tumor mimickers. Design. Review of 242 MR scans obtained in the initial evaluation of a possible primary musculoskeletal neoplasm. All scans included a T1-weighted, fat-suppressed sequence following intravenous administration of gadolinium. Results. MR scans with gadolinium did not contribute to differential diagnosis or patient management in 89% of the patients in this series. However, intravenous gadolinium did assist in guiding the biopsy of bulky lesions and evaluating treated tumor beds for possible recurrence. MR scans with gadolinium were sometimes helpful when the differential diagnosis included synovitis, Morton`s neuroma or intramuscular myxoma, and when it was important to differentiate cystic from solid lesions. Conclusions. Routine use of gadolinium in every initial MR examination of a possible musculoskeletal mass is not warranted. However, there are appropriate selected indications for gadolinium administration as outlined above. (orig.). With 19 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Fission cross section measurement of Am-242m using lead slowing-down spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kai, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Katsuhei; Yamamoto, Shuji; Fujita, Yoshiaki [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Kimura, Itsuro; Ohkawachi, Yasushi; Wakabayashi, Toshio

    1998-03-01

    By making use of double fission chamber and lead slowing-down spectrometer coupled to an electron linear accelerator, fission cross section for the {sup 242m}Am(n,f) reaction has been measured relative to that for the {sup 235}U(n,f) reaction in the energy range from 0.1 eV to 10 keV. The measured result was compared with the evaluated nuclear data appeared in ENDF/B-VI and JENDL-3.2, of which evaluated data were broadened by the energy resolution function of the spectrometer. Although the JENDL-3.2 data seem to be a little smaller than the present measurement, good agreement can be seen in the general shape and the absolute values. The ENDF/B-VI data are larger more than 50 % than the present values above 3 eV. (author)

  5. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 3) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Safeguards and Security, Engineering Design, and Maintenance.

  6. 40 CFR 415.242 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.242 Effluent limitations guidelines...): Subpart X—Ammonium Chloride Solvay Process Pollutant or pollutant property BPT limitations Maximum for any... point source subject to this subpart and reacting anhydrous ammonia with hydrogen chloride gas...

  7. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 4) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Radiation Protection and Operations.

  8. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 6) outlines the standards and requirements for the sections on: Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Research and Development and Experimental Activities, and Nuclear Safety.

  9. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 2) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Quality Assurance, Training and Qualification, Emergency Planning and Preparedness, and Construction.

  10. 17 CFR 242.603 - Distribution, consolidation, and display of information with respect to quotations for and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and display of information with respect to quotations for and transactions in NMS stocks. 242.603...) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Nms... with respect to quotations for and transactions in NMS stocks. (a) Distribution of information. (1)...

  11. Combination of cetuximab and PP242 synergistically suppress the progression of wild-type KRAS colorectal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng L

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lei Cheng,1,* Zuguang Xia,2,3,* Xinyu Bian,1 Guangchao Li,4 Jing Hu,1 Ya Cao,5 Qing Wang,1 Xiaoping Qian1 1Comprehensive Cancer Center of Drum-Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Clinical Cancer Institute of Nanjing University, Nanjing, 2Department of Medical Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, 3Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, 4School of Bioscience and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 5Department of Biological Science and Technology and State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR has been shown to be overactive in human colorectal cancer, but the first-generation mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, has failed to show clinical efficacy against colorectal cancer. On the other hand, although the second-generation mTOR inhibitor, PP242, has exerted substantial efficacy, it was revealed that independent inhibition by PP242 was transient, which could lead to positive-feedback loop to EGFR. Using wild-type KRAS colorectal cancer cells as models, we investigate the treatment efficacy of a widely used anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, cetuximab, and PP242, alone or in combination in vitro and in vivo. Results of cell viability assays confirmed the synergistic inhibitory effect of PP242 and cetuximab on the survival of Caco-2 and HT-29 cells. Moreover, the ability of cancer-cell invasion and proliferation was also significantly inhibited by the combination therapy when compared with cetuximab or PP242 alone. Interestingly, the percentage of CD44-positive cancer cells was substantially decreased by the combination therapy in comparison with PP242 alone through fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The growth of cancer stem-like cell spheres in vitro was

  12. Study of biosorbents application on the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes with americium-241; Estudo da aplicacao de biossorventes no tratamento de rejeitos radioativos liquidos contendo americio-241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borba, Tania Regina de

    2010-07-01

    The use of nuclear energy for many different purposes has been intensified and highlighted by the benefits that it provides. Medical diagnosis and therapy, agriculture, industry and electricity generation are examples of its application. However, nuclear energy generates radioactive wastes that require suitable treatment ensuring life and environmental safety. Biosorption and bioaccumulation represent an emergent alternative for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes, providing volume reduction and physical state change. This work aimed to study biosorbents for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes contaminated with americium-241 in order to reduce the volume and change the physical state from liquid to solid. The biosorbents evaluated were Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in calcium alginate beads, inactivated and free cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, calcium alginate beads, Bacillus subtilis, Cupriavidus metallidurans and Ochrobactrum anthropi. The results were quite satisfactory, achieving 100% in some cases. The technique presented in this work may be useful and viable for implementing at the Waste Management Laboratory of IPEN - CNEN/SP in short term, since it is an easy and low cost method. (author)

  13. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr body-burden in general public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.pl [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Edward B. [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Department of Physical Therapy Basics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Administration College, Bielsko-Biala (Poland); Tomankiewicz, Ewa [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Joanna [Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Nowak, Sebastian [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Szczygiel, Elzbieta [Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Brudecki, Kamil [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of {sup 238}Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. - Highlights: > Surgery for joint replacement as novel sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination. > Proposed way of sampling is not causing ethic doubts. > It is a convenient way of collecting human bone samples from global population. > The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. > The opposite patient age correlations trends were found for 90Sr (negative) and Pu, Am (positive).

  14. Neutron diffraction study of δ-alloy Pu{sup 242}–Ga aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somenkov, V.A. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Blanter, M.S., E-mail: mike.blanter@gmail.com [Moscow State University of Instrumental Engineering and Information Science, Moscow (Russian Federation); Glazkov, V.P. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Laushkin, A.V.; Orlov, V.K. [JSC VNIINM n.a. A.A. Bochvar, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, we report on a continuing neutron diffraction study of the mean-square atom displacements occurring during the long-term self-irradiation of a Pu–Ga alloy. The measurements were performed at room temperature using the sample based on the isotope Pu{sup 242} with low neutron absorption cross-section to which the short-lived isotope Pu{sup 238} (1.4 wt.%) was added to accelerate self-irradiation. We obtain the maximum self-irradiation equivalent time of 35.5 years, 12 years longer than in our previous papers. In the entire range of self-irradiation time a single fcc phase is preserved. It was found that after the two stages of change in the mean-square displacements we observed earlier (rapid growth up to ∼5–6 equivalent years and a slow decline in the range of ∼6–25 years), comes a stage of stabilization (after ∼25 years). The stabilization can be explained by the emergence of a balance between the formation of point defects and their absorption by helium bubbles and dislocation loops which accumulated over time.

  15. The Mysterious Morphology of MRC0943-242 as Revealed by ALMA and MUSE

    CERN Document Server

    Gullberg, Bitten; Lehnert, Matthew D; Vernet, Joel; Bacon, Roland; Drouart, Guillaume; Emonts, Bjorn; Galametz, Audrey; Ivison, Rob; Nesvadba, Nicole P H; Richard, Johan; Seymour, Nick; Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    We present a pilot study of the z=2.923 radio galaxy MRC0943-242, where we for the first time combine information from ALMA and MUSE data cubes. Even with modest integration times, we disentangle an AGN and a starburst dominated set of components. These data reveal a highly complex morphology, as the AGN, starburst, and molecular gas components show up as widely separated sources in dust continuum, optical continuum and CO line emission observations. CO(1-0) and CO(8-7) line emission suggest that there is a molecular gas reservoir offset from both the dust and the optical continuum that is located ~90kpc from the AGN. The UV line emission has a complex structure in emission and absorption. The line emission is mostly due to i) a large scale ionisation cone energised by the AGN, ii) a Ly-alpha emitting bridge of gas between the radio galaxy and a heavily star-forming set of components. Strangely, the ionisation cone has no Ly-alpha emission. We find this is due to an optically thick layer of neutral gas with u...

  16. Fast, low-ionization emission regions of the planetary nebula M2-42

    CERN Document Server

    Danehkar, A; Steffen, W

    2016-01-01

    Spatially resolved observations of the planetary nebula M2-42 (PN G008.2-04.8) obtained with the Wide Field Spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3 m telescope have revealed the remarkable features of bipolar collimated jets emerging from its main structure. Velocity-resolved channel maps derived from the [N II] $\\lambda$6584 emission line disentangle different morphological components of the nebula. This information is used to develop a three-dimensional morpho-kinematic model, which consists of an equatorial dense torus and a pair of asymmetric bipolar outflows. The expansion velocity of about 20 km s$^{-1}$ is measured from the spectrum integrated over the main shell. However, the deprojected velocities of the jets are found to be in the range of 80-160 km s$^{-1}$ with respect to the nebular center. It is found that the mean density of the collimated outflows, 595 $\\pm$ 125 cm$^{-3}$, is five times lower than that of the main shell, 3150 cm$^{-3}$, whereas their singly ionized nitrogen and ...

  17. New measurement of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section at n_TOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Guerrero, C.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Quesada, J. M.; Mendoza, E.; Cano-Ott, D.; Eberhardt, K.; Junghans, A.

    2016-03-01

    The use of MOX fuel (mixed-oxide fuel made of UO2 and PuO2) in nuclear reactors allows substituting a large fraction of the enriched Uranium by Plutonium reprocessed from spent fuel. With the use of such new fuel composition rich in Pu, a better knowledge of the capture and fission cross sections of the Pu isotopes becomes very important. In particular, a new series of cross section evaluations have been recently carried out jointly by the European (JEFF) and United States (ENDF) nuclear data agencies. For the case of 242Pu, the two only neutron capture time-of-flight measurements available, from 1973 and 1976, are not consistent with each other, which calls for a new time-of flight capture cross section measurement. In order to contribute to a new evaluation, we have perfomed a neutron capture cross section measurement at the n_TOF-EAR1 facility at CERN using four C6D6 detectors, using a high purity target of 95 mg. The preliminary results assessing the quality and limitations (background, statistics and γ-flash effects) of this new experimental data are presented and discussed, taking into account that the aimed accuracy of the measurement ranges between 7% and 12% depending on the neutron energy region.

  18. New measurement of the 242Pu(n,γ cross section at n_TOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerendegui-Marco J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of MOX fuel (mixed-oxide fuel made of UO2 and PuO2 in nuclear reactors allows substituting a large fraction of the enriched Uranium by Plutonium reprocessed from spent fuel. With the use of such new fuel composition rich in Pu, a better knowledge of the capture and fission cross sections of the Pu isotopes becomes very important. In particular, a new series of cross section evaluations have been recently carried out jointly by the European (JEFF and United States (ENDF nuclear data agencies. For the case of 242Pu, the two only neutron capture time-of-flight measurements available, from 1973 and 1976, are not consistent with each other, which calls for a new time-of flight capture cross section measurement. In order to contribute to a new evaluation, we have perfomed a neutron capture cross section measurement at the n_TOF-EAR1 facility at CERN using four C6D6 detectors, using a high purity target of 95 mg. The preliminary results assessing the quality and limitations (background, statistics and γ-flash effects of this new experimental data are presented and discussed, taking into account that the aimed accuracy of the measurement ranges between 7% and 12% depending on the neutron energy region.

  19. Light charged particle accompanied ternary fission of {sup 242}Cm using the Coulomb and proximity potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh, K.P.; Krishnan, Sreejith; Priyanka, B. [Kannur University, School of Pure and Applied Physics, Kerala (India)

    2014-04-15

    The cold ternary fission of {sup 242}Cm with {sup 4}He, {sup 10}Be and {sup 14}C as light charged particle has been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potential with the fragments in equatorial configuration. The favorable fragment combinations are obtained from the cold valley plot (plot of driving potential vs. mass number of fragments) and by calculating the yield for charge minimized fragments. The maximum yield in the {sup 4}He accompanied ternary fission is obtained for the fragmentation channel {sup 104}Mo + {sup 134}Te + {sup 4}He and for the {sup 10}Be accompanied ternary fission, the maximum yield is found for the fragmentation channel {sup 98}Zr + {sup 134}Te + {sup 10}Be. It is to be noted that, in the case of {sup 14}C accompanied ternary fission, the maximum yield is obtained for the fragmentation channel {sup 94}Sr + {sup 134}Te + {sup 14}C and the next higher yield is found for the fragmentation channel {sup 96}Zr + {sup 132}Sn + {sup 14}C. Thus, the fragment combinations with maximum yields reveal the role of doubly magic and near doubly magic nuclei in cold ternary fission. (orig.)

  20. FAST, LOW-IONIZATION EMISSION REGIONS OF THE PLANETARY NEBULA M2-42

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danehkar, A.; Parker, Q. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Steffen, W., E-mail: ashkbiz.danehkar@cfa.harvard.edu [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, C.P.22860, Ensenada (Mexico)

    2016-02-15

    Spatially resolved observations of the planetary nebula M2-42 (PN G008.2−04.8) obtained with the Wide Field Spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3 m telescope have revealed the remarkable features of bipolar collimated jets emerging from its main structure. Velocity-resolved channel maps derived from the [N ii] λ6584 emission line disentangle different morphological components of the nebula. This information is used to develop a three-dimensional morpho-kinematic model, which consists of an equatorial dense torus and a pair of asymmetric bipolar outflows. The expansion velocity of about 20 km s{sup −1} is measured from the spectrum integrated over the main shell. However, the deprojected velocities of the jets are found to be in the range of 80–160 km s{sup −1} with respect to the nebular center. It is found that the mean density of the collimated outflows, 595 ± 125 cm{sup −3}, is five times lower than that of the main shell, 3150 cm{sup −3}, whereas their singly ionized nitrogen and sulfur abundances are about three times higher than those determined from the dense shell. The results indicate that the features of the collimated jets are typical of fast, low-ionization emission regions.

  1. Common variants on 8p12 and 1q24.2 confer risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Yongyong; Li, Zhiqiang; Xu, Qi;

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder affecting ~1% of the world population, with heritability of up to 80%. To identify new common genetic risk factors, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in the Han Chinese population. The discovery sample set consisted of 3,750 individuals...... with schizophrenia and 6,468 healthy controls (1,578 cases and 1,592 controls from northern Han Chinese, 1,238 cases and 2,856 controls from central Han Chinese, and 934 cases and 2,020 controls from the southern Han Chinese). We further analyzed the strongest association signals in an additional independent cohort...... of 4,383 cases and 4,539 controls from the Han Chinese population. Meta-analysis identified common SNPs that associated with schizophrenia with genome-wide significance on 8p12 (rs16887244, P = 1.27 × 10(-10)) and 1q24.2 (rs10489202, P = 9.50 × 10(-9)). Our findings provide new insights...

  2. Estimated (n,f) cross sections for 236,236m237,238-Np, 237,237m-Pu, and 240,241,242,242m,243,244,244m-Am isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, W; Becker, J; Britt, H

    2004-01-16

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections on targets of {sup 236,236m,237,238}Np, {sup 237,237m}Pu, and {sup 240,241,242,242m,243,244,244m}Am have been estimated for incident neutron energies of up to 6 MeV, using the ''surrogate'' technique and the ({sup 3}He,df) and ({sup 3}He,tf) reactions on stable targets to measure fission probabilities. In isotopes where low-lying isomeric states are known to exist, the (n,f) cross section on the corresponding isomeric targets has been estimated, using the surrogate technique. For targets of {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243}Am, measurements of the (n,f) cross section exist, and comparison with the surrogate-method results suggests that the (n,f) cross sections estimated by the surrogate technique are reliable to within 10% for incident neutron energies E{sub n}{approx}>2 MeV. Tabulated values of the estimated (n,f) cross sections are given in an appendix.

  3. Measurement of the $^{242}$Pu(n,f) reaction cross-section at the CERN n_TOF facility

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080481; Kokkoris, Michael; Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    The accurate knowledge of relevant nuclear data, such as the neutron-induced fission cross sections of various plutonium isotopes and other minor actinides, is crucial for the design of advanced nuclear systems as well as the development of comprehensive theoretical models of the fission process. The $^{242}$Pu(n,f) cross section was measured at the CERN n_TOF facility taking advantage of the wide energy range and the high instantaneous flux of the neutron beam. In this work, results for the $^{242}$Pu(n,f) measurement are presented along with a detailed description of the experimental setup, Monte-Carlo simulations and the analysis procedure, and a theoretical cross section calculation performed with the EMPIRE code.

  4. Use of inductor agents GSE24.2 for producing pharmaceutical compositions for treating illnesses relating to cellular senescence

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This invention relates to the use of an inductor or activator compound GSE24.2 for producing a medicament or a pharmaceutical composition for treating a preferably human illness or pathological situation caused by a senescence process. Said pharmaceutical composition can be useful for a treatment for regenerating tissues, for example of epithelial tissues or haematopoietic cells, and also for the immortalisation of eucaryotic cells in order to use of same in biotechnological investigation or ...

  5. Measurement of the 242Pu(n,f) Cross Section at the CERN n_TOF Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Tsinganis, A; Guerrero, C; Colonna, N; Calviani, M; Vlastou, R; Andriamonje, S; Vlachoudis, V; Gunsing, F; Massimi, C; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chin, M; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Dzysiuk, N; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Gurusamy, P; Hernández-Prieto, A; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Lampoudis, C; Langer, C; Leal-Cidoncha, E; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Losito, R; Mallick, A; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Meaze, M; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondalaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Robles, M S; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sabaté-Gilarte, M; Sarmento, R; Saxena, A; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarrío, D; Tassan-Got, L; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiss, C; Wright, T; Žugec, P

    2014-01-01

    The accurate knowledge of relevant nuclear data is crucial for the design of advanced nuclear systems. These data include neutron cross sections of various plutonium isotopes and other minor actinides. The Pu-242(n,f) cross section was measured at the CERN n\\_TOF facility, taking advantage of the wide energy range (from thermal to GeV) and the high instantaneous flux of the neutron beam. Preliminary results for the measurement are presented.

  6. Sikap Mendua Amerika Serikat Terhadap Resolusi Dewan Keamanan PBB No. 242 Tahun 1967 Dalam Penyelesaian Konflik Palestina-Israel

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Skripsi ini berjudul “Sikap Mendua Amerika Serikat terhadap Resolusi Dewan Keamanan PBB No. 242/1967 dalam Penyelesaian Konflik Palestina-Israel”. Dalam skripsi ini, Penulis membahas tentang beberapa permasalahan yang terjadi. Adapun masalah-masalah yang diangkat dalam skripsi ini adalah : (1) Peran dari resolusi-resolusi yang telah dibuat dan dikeluarkan sebagai jalan tengah dari penyelesaian konflik; (2) Sikap mendua yang ditunjukkan oleh Negeri Paman Sam dalam penyelesaian Konflik Timur Te...

  7. The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelaer, Jens

    2010-06-14

    The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium: Nuclear masses are an important quantity to study nuclear structure since they reflect the sum of all nucleonic interactions. Many experimental possibilities exist to precisely measure masses, out of which the Penning trap is the tool to reach the highest precision. Moreover, absolute mass measurements can be performed using carbon, the atomic-mass standard, as a reference. The new double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has been installed and commissioned within this thesis work, which is the very first experimental setup of this kind located at a nuclear reactor. New technical developments have been carried out such as a reliable non-resonant laser ablation ion source for the production of carbon cluster ions and are still continued, like a non-destructive ion detection technique for single-ion measurements. Neutron-rich fission products will be available by the reactor that are important for nuclear astrophysics, especially the r-process. Prior to the on-line coupling to the reactor, TRIGA-TRAP already performed off-line mass measurements on stable and long-lived isotopes and will continue this program. The main focus within this thesis was on certain rare-earth nuclides in the well-established region of deformation around N {proportional_to} 90. Another field of interest are mass measurements on actinoids to test mass models and to provide direct links to the mass standard. Within this thesis, the mass of {sup 241}Am could be measured directly for the first time. (orig.)

  8. Identification of a genetic locus for ichthyosis vulgaris on chromosome 10q22.3-q24.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Yang, Qingyu; Wang, Xu; Feng, Aiping; Yang, Tao; Yang, Rong; Wang, Pengyun; Yuang, Mingxiong; Liu, Mugen; Liu, Jing Yu; Wang, Qing K

    2008-06-01

    Ichthyosis vulgaris (IV) is one of the most commonly inherited disorders and has an estimated prevalence rate of 2.29% in China. To date, only one gene responsible for IV, the filaggrin gene (FLG), was identified, but genetic heterogeneity exists. In this study, two Chinese families with autosomal-dominant IV were genetically characterized. The FLG gene was first excluded as the disease-causing gene in the two families. The larger family was then characterized by genome-wide linkage analysis to identify a new genetic locus for IV. Significant linkage was identified with markers on chromosome 10q22.3-q24.2 with a maximum LOD score of 3.19. No other markers showed a LOD score of >1.5. Fine mapping defined the new genetic locus within a 20.7 cM region between markers D10S569 and D10S1709. The second family also showed positive linkage to the same 10q22.3-q24.2 region. The combined maximum LOD score in the two families was 3.95. Identification of linkage in two independent families provides strong genetic evidence that a previously unreported gene for IV is located on chromosome 10q22.3-q24.2. Future studies of the candidate genes at the 10q IV locus will identify a specific gene, which will provide insights into the pathogenesis of IV.

  9. The Solubility of 242PuO2 in the Presence of Aqueous Fe(II): The Impact of Precipitate Preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Moore, Dean A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Conradson, Steven D.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Abrecht, David G.; Ilton, Eugene S.

    2014-01-28

    The solubility of different forms of precipitated 242PuO2(am) were examined in solutions containing aqueous Fe(II) over a range of pH values. The first series of 242PuO2(am) suspensions were prepared from a 242Pu(IV) stock that had been treated with thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) to remove the 241Am originating from the decay of 241Pu. These 242PuO2(am) suspensions showed much higher solubilities at the same pH value and Fe(II) concentration than previous studies using 239PuO2(am). X ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy of the precipitates showed a substantially reduced Pu-Pu backscatter over that previously observed in 242PuO2(am) precipitates, indicating that the 242PuO2(am) precipitates purified using TTA lacked the long range order previously found in 239PuO2(am) precipitates. The Pu(IV) stock solution was subsequently repurified using an ion exchange resin and an additional series of 242PuO2(am) precipitates prepared. These suspensions showed higher redox potentials and total aqueous Pu concentrations than the TTA purified stock solution. The higher redox potential and aqueous Pu concentrations were in general agreement with previous studies on 242PuO2(am) precipitates, presumably due to the removal of possible organic compounds originally present in the TTA purified stock. 242PuO2(am) suspensions prepared with both stock solutions showed almost identical solubilities in Fe(II) containing solutions even though the initial aqueous Pu concentrations before the addition of Fe(II) were orders of magnitude different. By examining the solubility of 242PuO2(am) prepared from both stocks in this way we have essentially approached equilibrium from both the undersaturated and oversaturated

  10. 恩平24-2油田水平井钻井液技术研究%Study of Drilling Fluid for Horizontal Well in Oil Field EP24-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡友林; 岳前升; 刘书杰; 朱磊

    2014-01-01

    为满足恩平24-2油田水平井钻井工程和储层保护需要,通过实验研制出一种无固相快速弱凝胶钻井液体系.室内评价试验表明:该钻井液具有较高的动塑比和较高低剪切速率黏度(LSRV),能有效克服水平井段携岩难、易形成岩屑床的问题.具有优异的抑制性和润滑性,且滤失量较小,具有较强的抗温、抗污染能力、井眼净化能力和储层保护能力.针对恩平24-2油田水平井采用裸眼完井工艺,研究了破胶剂JPC对钻井液及其滤饼的破胶性能,破胶剂JPC能有效解除聚合物对储层造成的污染.研究结果表明,该钻井液具有独特的流变性,维护简单,优异的储层保护性能和较好的可降解性,适用于恩平24-2油田水平井水平段的钻进.

  11. The solubility of {sup 242}PuO{sub 2} in the presence of aqueous Fe(II). The impact of precipitate preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Moore, Dean A.; Buck, Edgar; Kukkadapu, Ravi; Sweet, Lucas; Abrecht, David; Ilton, Eugene S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Conrados, Steven D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The solubility of different forms of precipitated {sup 242}PuO{sub 2}(am) were examined in solutions containing aqueous Fe(II) over a range of pH values. The first series of {sup 242}PuO{sub 2}(am) suspensions were prepared from a {sup 242}Pu(IV) stock that had been treated with thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) to remove the {sup 241}Am originating from the decay of {sup 241}Pu. These {sup 242}PuO{sub 2}(am) suspensions showed much higher solubilities at the same pH value and Fe(II) concentration than previous studies using {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}(am). X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy of the precipitates showed a substantially reduced Pu-Pu backscatter over that previously observed in {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}(am) precipitates, indicating that the {sup 242}PuO{sub 2}(am) precipitates purified using TTA lacked the long range order previously found in{sup 239}PuO{sub 2}(am) precipitates. The Pu(IV) stock solution was subsequently re-purified using an ion exchange resin and an additional series of {sup 242}PuO{sub 2}(am) precipitates prepared. These suspensions showed higher redox potentials and total aqueous Pu concentrations than the TTA purified stock solution. The higher redox potential and aqueous Pu concentrations were in general agreement with previous studies on {sup 242}PuO{sub 2}(am) precipitates, presumably due to the removal of possible organic compounds originally present in the TTA purified stock. {sup 242}PuO{sub 2}(am) suspensions prepared with both stock solutions showed almost identical solubilities in Fe(II) containing solutions even though the initial aqueous Pu concentrations before the addition of Fe(II) were orders of magnitude different. By examining the solubility of {sup 242}PuO{sub 2}(am) prepared from both stocks in this way we have essentially approached equilibrium from both the undersaturated and oversaturated conditions. The final aqueous Pu concentrations are predictable using a chemical equilibrium model which includes the

  12. 242例未行准分子激光原位角膜磨镶术患者角膜因素分析%Analysis of 242 cases which unable to carry out LASIK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林; 张庆生; 王忠海

    2014-01-01

    Objective Analyze the cornea factors which result in unable to carry out the LASIK operation .Method Do retrospective analysis research and summarize 242 patients’ medical records who did not undergo LASIK because of factors in the cornea.Results In total 242 cases, 112 patient’s corneal thickness less than normal that account for the to-tal 46.3%, 87 cases of suspected keratoconus that make up 36.0%of the total, 5 cases (2.1%) of keratoconus , 25 ca-ses (10.3%) are wearing orthokeratology lens , 8 cases (3.3%) are fell ill with keratitis, 5 cases (2.0%) are due to some other corneal problems .Conclusion Corneal factors are the main reasons for unable to carry out the LASIK opera-tions , carry out strict check work on patients ’ cornea to know the relevant indications and contraindications before the oper -ation is very critical to improve the safety of the LASIK operations .%探讨因角膜因素未行准分子激光原位角膜磨镶术( LASIK)的原因。方法回顾分析242例因角膜因素未行LASIK的原因。结果在242例因角膜因素未行LASIK中,角膜厚度不足112例(46.3%),可疑圆锥角膜87例(36.0%),圆锥角膜5例(2.1%),佩戴角膜塑形镜25例(10.3%),角膜炎8例(3.3%),其它角膜因素5例(2.0%)。结论角膜因素是未行LASIK的主要原因,严格的手术前角膜筛查,掌握手术的适应证与禁忌证,可以提高LASIK手术的安全性。

  13. Synthesis of novel 2-(4-(2-morpholinoethoxy)phenyl)-N-phenylacetamide analogues and their antimicrobial study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H P Jayadevappa; G Nagendrappa; S Umesh; S Chandrashekar

    2012-09-01

    A new class of potential biologically active 2-(4-(2-morpholinoethoxy)phenyl)-N-phenylacetamides has been synthesized from hydroxyphenylacetic acid. The products were characterized through IR, 1H NMR, mass spectral studies and elemental analysis. The compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity by disc agar diffusion technique. The potency of compounds is tested against variety of fungal and bacterial strains in comparison to clotrimazole and streptomycin, respectively. Some of the synthesized compounds exhibit superior in vitro activity compared to the standard drugs.

  14. Cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer mortality among 602,242 Norwegian males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parajuli R

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ranjan Parajuli,1 Eivind Bjerkaas,1 Aage Tverdal,2 Loïc Le Marchand,3 Elisabete Weiderpass1,4–6 Inger T Gram1,7 1Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences UiT, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 2Division of Epidemiology, Department of Pharmacoepidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; 3Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, HI, USA; 4Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 5Department of Genetic Epidemiology, Samfundet Folkhälsan, Helsinki, Finland; 6Department of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway; 7Norwegian Centre for Integrated Care and Telemedicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the main cancer types, with high incidence and mortality in Norway. We examined the association between different measures of smoking exposure and CRC mortality overall and by subsite in a large Norwegian cohort. Methods: We followed 602,242 participants from four Norwegian health surveys, aged 19–67 years at enrollment between 1972 and 2003 by linkage to the national registries through December 2007. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs by smoking categories for different CRC endpoints. Results: During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 2,333 Norwegian males and females died of CRC (60% men. Male and female ever smokers had a 20% (HR 1.23, CI 1.08–1.40 and HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06–1.40, respectively increased risk of death from CRC compared with sex-specific never smokers. For proximal colon cancer mortality, female ever smokers had a 50% (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.20–1.87 increased risk compared with female never smokers. The increased risk of rectal cancer mortality was about 40% higher for male ever smokers (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.14–1.81 compared with male never smokers. A test for

  15. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Radiation protection of personnel and the public is accomplished by establishing a well defined Radiation Protection Organization to ensure that appropriate controls on radioactive materials and radiation sources are implemented and documented. This Requirements Identification Document (RID) applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in executing the mission of the Tank Farms. The physical boundaries within which the requirements of this RID apply are the Single Shell Tank Farms, Double Shell Tank Farms, 242-A Evaporator-Crystallizer, 242-S, T Evaporators, Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF), Purgewater Storage Facility (PWSF), and all interconnecting piping, valves, instrumentation, and controls. Also included is all piping, valves, instrumentation, and controls up to and including the most remote valve under Tank Farms control at any other Hanford Facility having an interconnection with Tank Farms. The boundary of the structures, systems, components, and programs to which this RID applies, is defined by those that are dedicated to and/or under the control of the Tank Farms Operations Department and are specifically implemented at the Tank Farms.

  16. Comparison of size modulation and conventional standard automated perimetry with the 24-2 test protocol in glaucoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, Kazunori; Shoji, Nobuyuki; Kasahara, Masayuki; Matsumura, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2016-05-01

    This prospective randomized study compared test results of size modulation standard automated perimetry (SM-SAP) performed with the Octopus 600 and conventional SAP (C-SAP) performed with the Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA) in glaucoma patients. Eighty-eight eyes of 88 glaucoma patients underwent SM-SAP and C-SAP tests with the Octopus 600 24-2 Dynamic and HFA 24-2 SITA-Standard, respectively. Fovea threshold, mean defect, and square loss variance of SM-SAP were significantly correlated with the corresponding C-SAP indices (P < 0.001). The false-positive rate was slightly lower, and false-negative rate slightly higher, with SM-SAP than C-SAP (P = 0.002). Point-wise threshold values obtained with SM-SAP were moderately to strongly correlated with those obtained with C-SAP (P < 0.001). The correlation coefficients of the central zone were significantly lower than those of the middle to peripheral zone (P = 0.031). The size and depth of the visual field (VF) defect were smaller (P = 0.039) and greater (P = 0.043), respectively, on SM-SAP than on C-SAP. Although small differences were observed in VF sensitivity in the central zone, the defect size and depth and the reliability indices between SM-SAP and C-SAP, global indices of the two testing modalities were well correlated.

  17. 242Pu as tracer for simultaneous determination of 237Np and 239,240Pu in environmental samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Q.J.; Dahlgaard, H.; Nielsen, S.P.;

    2002-01-01

    A procedure has been developed using Pu-242 as tracer for simultaneous determination of Np-237 and Pu-239,Pu-240 in environmental samples. The validity of the method has been demonstrated by ICPMS and alpha-spectroscopy for up to 10 gram soil and sediment, seawater up to 200 litres. The paper...... describes a suitable chemical procedure for Np and Pu including a quantitative pre-concentration of neptunium and plutonium, preparation of Np4+ and Pu4+, NP(NO3)(6)(2-) and Pu(NO3)(6)(2-), The ratio of Np-237/Pu-242 (or Np-237/Pu-239) before and after the procedure has been determined using 10 g soil (free...... from Np and Pu) R-before/R-after = 1.004 +/- 3.3% (S.D n = 20) and 1 litre seawater R-before/R-after = 1.019+/-1.9% (S.D., n = 12). Results from the intercomparison samples LAEA-135, LAEA-381 and from environmental samples are presented....

  18. Research on the controlling of rare earth permanent magnet brushless DC motor based on TMS320C242%基于TMS320C242的稀土永磁无刷直流电机控制系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董艺

    2012-01-01

    对用TMS320C242控制稀土永磁无刷直流电机(REPMBLDCM)进行了深入的探讨。作为驱动设备,稀土永磁无刷直流电机在很多方面性能优于普通直流电机;作为控制核心,TMS320C242无论是集成度还是控制速度都远超普通的单片机。所以用TMS320C242控制REPMBLDCM可获得极为优秀的控制效果和驱动性能。%A deep discussion has been made on how to control rare earth permanent magnet brushless DC motor with TMS320C242. As a driving device, rare earth permanent magnet brushless DC motor is superior to the common DC motor in many ways. As a core of the control system, TMS320C242 is far more superior to the common single chip microcontroller unit whether on its integration or its controlling speed. Therefore, excellent control effects and driving properties can be obtained by adopting TMS320C242 to control REPMBLDCM.

  19. EURADOS action for determination of americium in skull measures in vivo and Monte Carlo simulation; Accion EURADOS para la determinacion de americio en craneo mediante medidas in-vivo y simulacion Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Ponte, M. A.; Navarro Amaro, J. F.; Perez Lopez, B.; Navarro Bravo, T.; Nogueira, P.; Vrba, T.

    2013-07-01

    From the Group of WG7 internal dosimetry of the EURADOS Organization (European Radiation Dosimetry group, e.V.) which It coordinates CIEMAT, international action for the vivo measurement of americium has been conducted in three mannequins type skull with detectors of Germanium by gamma spectrometry and simulation by Monte Carlo methods. Such action has been raised as two separate exercises, with the participation of institutions in Europe, America and Asia. Other actions similar precede this vivo intercomparison of measurement and modeling Monte Carlo1. The preliminary results and associated findings are presented in this work. The laboratory of the body radioactivity (CRC) of service counter of dosimetry staff internal (DPI) of the CIEMAT, it has been one of the participants in vivo measures exercise. On the other hand part, the Group of numerical dosimetry of CIEMAT is participant of the Monte Carlo2 simulation exercise. (Author)

  20. Relationship between peripheral and mesenteric serum levels of CEA and CA 242 with staging and histopathological variables in colorectal adenocarcinoma Níveis séricos periféricos e mesentéricos de CEA e CA 242, estadiamento e variáveis histopatológicas no adenocarcinoma colorretal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Lamelas Cardoso

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare histopathological variables and staging in colorectal adenocarcinoma cases with CEA and CA 242 in peripheral and mesenteric blood. METHODS: In 169 individuals underwent surgery for colorectal cancer, CEA and CA 242 were analyzed and compared to mesenteric and peripheral blood and correlated with macroscopic tumor's morphology and size, degree of cell differentiation, venous, neural and lymphatic involvement and TNM classification. RESULTS: There was a difference between the mesenteric (M and peripheral (P serum levels of CEA (p=0.020. Higher levels of markers were correlated with venous invasion CEA (P p=0.013, CEA (M p=0.05, CA 242 (M p=0.005 and CA 242 (P p=0.038; with advanced staging CEA (P OBJETIVO: Comparar variáveis histopatológicas e graus de estadiamento do adenocarcinoma colorretal com níveis sanguíneos periféricos e mesentéricos de CEA e CA-242. MÉTODOS: Em 169 doentes submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico por adenocarcinoma colorretal, CEA e CA-242 foram analisados e comparados quanto aos níveis sanguíneos periféricos e mesentéricos e correlacionados com o tamanho e a morfologia macroscópica do tumor, grau de diferenciação celular, invasões venosa, linfática, neural e a classificação TNM. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se diferença significante entre o nível sérico mesentérico e periférico de CEA (p= 0,02. Níveis séricos mais elevados dos marcadores foram observados e correlacionados com invasão venosa, CEA (P p=0,013, CEA(M, p=0,05, CA-242 (M p=0,005 e CA-242 (P p=0,038. Grau de estadiamento TNM avançado foi associado com CEA(P < CEA(M p<0,05, CA-242(P < CA-242(M p<0,05. Nas maiores dimensões tumorais constatou-se CEA(P < CEA(M p=0,001 e CA 242 (P < CA 242 (M (p < 0.001. O CA 242 periférico e mesentérico aumentados associaram-se com a invasão neural, p=0.014 e p=0.003, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: O nível sérico mesentérico de CEA é superior ao nível sérico periférico. Os níveis s

  1. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  2. Measurement of the fission cross-section of $^{240}$Pu and $^{242}$Pu at CERN's n_TOF Facility

    CERN Multimedia

    Pavlik, A F; Gonzalez romero, E M

    The n_TOF Collaboration proposes to continue the fission program, already started in 2002-2004, taking advantage of the newly constructed Work Sector Type A, with the measurement of the two isotopes : $^{240}$ Pu and $^{242}$ Pu. They are both of major importance for reactor physics applications and are included in the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) High Priority List [1], in the NEA WPEC Subgroup 26 Report on the accuracy of nuclear data for advanced reactor designe [2] and in the EU 6$^{th}$ Framework Programme IP-EUROTRANS/NUDATRA reports [3]. Based on those requests, the measurement of the fission cross-section of the two Pu isotopes is one of the objectives of the project ANDES of the FP7 EURATOM program [4].

  3. Clinical analysis of 242 cases of renal transplantations from China donation after citizen death%公民逝世后器官捐献肾移植242例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昌盛; 徐晶; 蒋继贫; 陈知水

    2015-01-01

    目的 分析单中心公民逝世后器官捐献(DCD)供肾移植的短期临床效果.方法 对2010年11月至2014年12月31日实施的242例DCD供肾移植的临床资料进行回顾性研究,统计术后1年受者和移植肾存活率,计算术后各类并发症发生率,并观察婴幼儿或儿童以及老年(年龄>60岁)供者供肾移植的临床特点.结果 共计183例DCD捐献者,供者年龄为2d至68岁,其中中国一类(国际标准化脑死亡器官捐献)供者102例,中国二类(国际标准化心死亡器官捐献)供者22例,中国三类(中国过渡时期脑-心双死亡标准器官捐献)供者59例.最终捐献247个肾脏用于移植,实施肾移植242例,其中单肾移植237例,双肾移植5例.受者年龄为(43.3±21.8)岁(12~64岁).术后1年受者总体存活率为93.8%(227/242),低于既往传统尸体肾移植95.4%的存活率,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).术后1年移植肾总体存活率为90.5%(219/242),低于既往传统尸体肾移植94.3%的存活率(P<0.05).术后DGF的发生率为33.1%(80/242),高于既往传统尸体肾移植23.6%的发生率(P<0.05).而术后1年急性排斥反应发生率、间质性肺炎发生率以及尿瘘、输尿管梗阻、心脑血管意外等并发症发生率与既往传统尸体肾移植相比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).婴幼儿及儿童供肾移植总体结果良好,移植肾体积在术后3个月之内生长至接近成人肾脏大小.老年供肾弃用率高于总弃用率(P<0.05),但总体移植效果良好.结论 对于DCD供肾移植,严格筛选供者、加强供者濒死期器官维护、综合评估器官质量是提高受者长期存活、降低术后并发症发生率的关键.未成年供者供肾移植是解决供肾短缺的一条可行途径,无论是双肾移植还是单肾移植,均可获得优良的远期效果.而年龄>60岁供者供肾尽管弃用率较高,但只要肾脏质量评估得当,并不影响短期疗效.%Objective To

  4. Method for Determination of Neptunium in Large-Sized Urine Samples Using Manganese Dioxide Coprecipitation and 242Pu as Yield Tracer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2013-01-01

    A novel method for bioassay of large volumes of human urine samples using manganese dioxide coprecipitation for preconcentration was developed for rapid determination of 237Np. 242Pu was utilized as a nonisotopic tracer to monitor the chemical yield of 237Np. A sequential injection extraction chr...

  5. C242T Polymorphism in CYBA Gene (p22phox and Risk of Coronary Artery Disease in a Population of Caucasian Italians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Nasti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: specific polymorphisms of genes regulating intracellular redox balance and oxidative stress are related to atherogenesis. Some studies have identified a relationship between progression of atherosclerosis and C242T mutation in CYBA gene coding for p22phox, a subunit of the NADH/NADPH oxidase system.

  6. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 7. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, D.L.

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 7) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Occupational Safety and Health, and Environmental Protection.

  7. TAK-242 Protects Against Apoptosis in Coronary Microembolization-Induced Myocardial Injury in Rats by Suppressing TLR4/NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-tao Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Myocardial apoptosis is heavily implicated in the myocardial injury caused by coronary microembolization (CME, and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 is considered to be involved in this apoptotic cascade. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the role of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway regulated by TAK-242, a selective TLR4 signal transduction inhibitor, in the myocardial apoptosis after CME in rats. Methods: Forty-five rats were randomized (random number into three groups: sham, CME and CME + TAK-242 (n = 15 per group.CME was induced by injecting polyethylene microspheres (42µm into the left ventricular except the sham group. CME + TAK-242 group was treated with TAK-242 (2mg/kg via the tail vein 30 minutes before CME modeling. Cardiac function was evaluated 6 hours after operation. Tissue biopsy was stained with HBFP to measure the size of micro-infarction area. TUNEL staining was used to detect myocardial apoptosis. Western blot and qPCR were used to evaluate the expression of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB p65, p-IκBα and Cleaved caspase-3. Results: Cardiac function in the CME group and CME + TAK-242 group were significantly decreased compared with the sham group (P < 0.05 and the micro-infarction area, the apoptotic index, the expression of TLR4, NF-κB p65, p-IκBα and Cleaved caspase-3 were increased significantly (P < 0.05. Cardiac function in the CME + TAK-242 group was significantly improved compared with the CME group (P < 0.05 and the micro-infarction area, the apoptotic index, the expression of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB p65, p-IκBα and Cleaved caspase-3 were decreased significantly (P < 0.05. Conclusions: TAK-242 can effectively improve CME-induced cardiac dysfunction by regulating TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway and then reducing the myocardial apoptosis.

  8. Selectivity of bis-triazinyl bipyridine ligands for americium(III) in Am/Eu separation by solvent extraction. Part 1. Quantum mechanical study on the structures of BTBP complexes and on the energy of the separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbutt, Jerzy; Oziminski, Wojciech P

    2012-12-21

    Theoretical studies were carried out on two pairs of americium and europium complexes formed by tetra-N-dentate lipophilic BTBP ligands, neutral [ML(NO(3))(3)] and cationic [ML(2)](3+) where M = Am(III) or Eu(III), and L = 6,6'-bis-(5,6-diethyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine (C2-BTBP). Molecular structures of the complexes have been optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level and total energies of the complexes in various media were estimated using single point calculations performed at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) and MP2/6-311G(d,p) levels of theory. In the calculations americium and europium ions were treated using pseudo-relativistic Stuttgart-Dresden effective core potentials and the accompanying basis sets. Selectivity in solvent extraction separation of two metal ions is a co-operative function of contributions from all extractable metal complexes, which depend on physico-chemical properties of each individual complex and on its relative amount in the system. Semi-quantitative analysis of BTBP selectivity in the Am/Eu separation process, based on the contributions from the two pairs of Am(III) and Eu(III) complexes, has been carried out. To calculate the energy of Am/Eu separation, a model of the extraction process was used, consisting of complex formation in water and transfer of the formed complex to the organic phase. Under the assumptions discussed in the paper, this simple two-step model results in reliable values of the calculated differences in the energy changes for each pair of the Am/Eu complexes in both steps of the process. The greater thermodynamic stability (in water) of the Am-BTBP complexes, as compared with the analogous Eu species, caused by greater covalency of the Am-N than Eu-N bonds, is most likely the main reason for BTBP selectivity in the separation of the two metal ions. The other potential reason, i.e. differences in lipophilic properties of the analogous complexes of Am and Eu, is less important with regard to this selectivity.

  9. Formation and evolution of a 0.242 Msun helium white dwarf in presence of element diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Althaus, L G; Benvenuto, O G; Althaus, Leandro; Serenelli, Aldo; Benvenuto, Omar

    2000-01-01

    A 0.242 Msun object that finally becomes a helium white dwarf is evolved from Roche lobe detachment down to very low luminosities. In doing so, we employ our stellar code to which we have added a set of routines that compute the effects due to gravitational settling, and chemical and thermal diffusion. Initial model is constructed by abstracting mass to a 1 Msun red giant branch model up to the moment at which the model begins to evolve bluewards. We find that element diffusion introduces noticeable changes in the internal structure of the star. In particular, models undergo three thermonuclear flashes instead of one flash as we found with the standard treatment. This fact has a large impact on the total mass fraction of hydrogen left in the star at entering the final cooling track. As a result, at late stages of evolution models with diffusion are characterized by a much smaller nuclear energy release, and they evolve significantly faster compared to those found with the standard treatment. We find that mode...

  10. Deep VLT spectroscopy of high redshift radio galaxy MRC 2104-242 Evidence for a metallicity gradient

    CERN Document Server

    Overzier, R; Kurk, J D; De Breuck, C

    2001-01-01

    In this contribution we will present deep VLT spectroscopy observations of the giant emission line halo around the z=2.49 radio galaxy MRC 2104-242. The morphology of the halo is dominated by two spatially resolved regions. Lya is extended by >12" along the radio axis, C IV and He II are extended by ~8". The overall spectrum is typical for that of high redshift radio galaxies. Interestingly, N V is present in the spectrum of the region associated with the center of the galaxy hosting the radio source, the northern region, while absent in the southern region. Using a simple photoionization model, the difference in N V can be explained due to a metallicity gradient within the halo. This is consistent with a scenario in which the halo is formed by a massive cooling flow or originates from the debris of the merging of two or more galaxies. However, also other mechanisms such as jet-cloud interactions or starburst-winds could be important.

  11. Deep vlt spectroscopy of high redshift radio galaxy MRC 2104{242: evidence for a metallicity gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Overzier

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta contribuci on vamos a presentar observaciones espectrosc opicas profundas del VLT (siglas en ingl es: Very Large Telescope del halo gigante de l neas de emisi on alrededor de la radiogalaxia MRC 2104{242 a z = 2:49. La morfolog a del halo viene determinado por dos regiones espaciales resueltas. Ly se extiende por > 1200 a lo largo del radioeje, C IV 1549 y He II 1640 se extienden por 800. El espectro total es t pico para radiogalaxias de alto corrimiento al rojo. Es interesante notar que N V 1240 est a presente en el espectro de la regi on asociada con el centro de la galaxia que contiene la radiofuente, la regi on del norte, mientras que est a ausente en la regi on del sur. Usando un modelo de fotoionizaci on simple, la diferencia en la emisi on N V 1240 se puede explicar por un gradiente de metalicidad en el halo. Esto es consistente con un escenario en el cual el halo se form o por un "cooling ow" masivo o tiene su origen en los residuos de la fusi on de dos o m as galaxias. Sin embargo, tambi en podr an ser importantes otros mecanismos como son las interacciones entre jets y nubes y los vientos debido a un \\starburst".

  12. Evaluation of n + /sup 242/Pu reactions from 10 keV to 20 MeV. [Total cross sections, neutron emission energy dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madland, D.G.; Young, P.G.

    1978-10-01

    An evaluation of the n + /sup 242/Pu cross sections is presented for the neutron energy range of 10 keV to 20 MeV. The total fission and radiative capture cross sections are based upon experimental measurements on /sup 242/Pu. The remaining cross sections, together with the elastic and inelastic angular distributions to low-lying states, were calculated using various reaction models. An expression is presented for the energy dependence of the average number of neutrons produced per fission. The results were placed in ENDF/B-V format and combined with a recent evaluation of data below 10 keV by the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, so that a complete data set covering the energy range of 10/sup -5/ eV to 20 MeV is available. 41 references. (JFP)

  13. Use of radioanalytical methods for determination of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in radioactive wastes; Utilizacao de metodos radioanaliticos para a determinacao de isotopos de uranio, plutonio, americio e curio em rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Bianca

    2012-07-01

    Activated charcoal is a common type of radioactive waste that contains high concentrations of fission and activation products. The management of this waste includes its characterization aiming the determination and quantification of the specific radionuclides including those known as Difficult-to-Measure Radionuclides (RDM). The analysis of the RDM's generally involves complex radiochemical analysis for purification and separation of the radionuclides, which are expensive and time-consuming. The objective of this work was to define a methodology for sequential analysis of the isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium present in a type of radioactive waste, evaluating chemical yield, analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost. Three methodologies were compared and validated that employ ion exchange (TI + EC), extraction chromatography (EC) and extraction with polymers (ECP). The waste chosen was the activated charcoal from the purification system of primary circuit water cooling the reactor IEA-R1. The charcoal samples were dissolved by acid digestion followed by purification and separation of isotopes with ion exchange resins, extraction and chromatographic extraction polymers. Isotopes were analyzed on an alpha spectrometer, equipped with surface barrier detectors. The chemical yields were satisfactory for the methods TI + EC and EC. ECP method was comparable with those methods only for uranium. Statistical analysis as well the analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost revealed that EC method is the most effective for identifying and quantifying U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm present in charcoal. (author)

  14. Empiema paraneumónico: caracterización y factores asociados a morbi-mortalidad en 242 casos tratados quirúrgicamente Parapneuminic empyema: characterization and factors associated with morbility and mortality in 242 surgical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto González L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir las características y evaluar los factores asociados a morbi-mortalidad en el empiema paraneumónico (EPN tratado quirúrgicamente. Método: Revisión retrospectiva entre Enero 2000 y Agosto 2006. Se describen características y factores asociados a morbi-mortalidad, se realizó análisis univariado y multivariado utilizando programa SPSS 15.0. Resultados: 242 pacientes tenían EPN (70,6% de los empiemas tratados, 165 (68,2% fueron hombres, edad promedio 52,1 años, 229 (94,6% fueron neumonías adquiridas en la comunidad (NAC y 13 (5,4% intrahospitalarias. Se aisló gérmenes en líquido pleural en 57 (23,6%. Se realizaron 183 (75,6% decorticaciones, 49 (20,2% pleurotomías, 7 (2,9%, cirugías video-asistidas y 3 (1,2% decorticaciones con resección pulmonar. Presentaron complicaciones 65 (26,9%. Fallecieron 16 pacientes (6,6%. Se identificaron variables asociadas a morbi-mortalidad. Conclusiones: El EPN es la causa más frecuente de empiema, la mayoría está asociado a NAC y en pocos se identifican gérmenes. La decorticación es el procedimiento más frecuente. Se identificaron las variables asociadas a morbi-mortalidad en esta serie clínica.Objectives: To describe and evaluate factors associated with morbidity and mortality in surgically treated parapneumonic empyemas (PNE. Method: Retrospective review between January 2000 and August 2006. We described clinical features and we performed univariate and multivariate analysis to find the factors associated with morbidity and mortality. SPSS 15.0 program was used in the statistical analysis. Results: 242 of343 surgically treated empyemas (70.6% were paraneumonic. Of these 165 (68.2% were men, average age 52.1 years, 229 (94.6% were community-acquired pneumonia (CAP and 13 (5.4% nosocomial. Germs were isolated in pleural fluid in 57 (23.6%. Surgical procedures were: 183 (75.6% decortications, 49 (20.2% pleurotomies, 7 (2.9% video-assisted surgery and 3 (1.2% decortications

  15. 242例不同来源高热惊厥患儿电解质水平比较分析%Electrolyte Levels Comparative Analysis of 242 Cases of Febrile Convulsion Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋生; 徐昀; 陈玉勤

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the correlatlonshlp of seruifi electrolyte levels and convulsion from children of dif ferent sources Methods Selected 242 cases hyperpyrexia children aged 13 years,the an seruifi electrolyte levels are compared in simple Febrile Convulsions children group and Febrile non convulsion children group;The mean serum ion ized calcium levels are compared in urban source children group and migrant workers Source group;The convulsions in cidence were compared of urban source children group and migrant workers Source group Results The mean setuifi I onized calcium levels of simple Febrile Convulsions children group (n=130)lower than Febrile non convulsion children group(112 cases)(P<0.05);The mean setuifi ionized calcium levels in migrant workers Source group(143 cases)lower than urban source children group(P<0.05);The incidence of Febrile Convulsions was no significant difference (P>0.05)between urban source children group and migrant workers Source group.Conclusion Hypocalcaemia is a risk factor for the occurrence of simple Febrile Convulsions It should be actively promoted the development of commu nity medical and scientific upbringing and supervision to ensure the reduction of convulsions incidence both of urban source and migrant workers Source children.%目的 观察不同来源的高热患儿血清钙、钠、钾、氯离子的水平与发生惊厥的关系.方法 选择242例1-3岁高热患儿,采集动脉血,应用干化学式血气电解质分析系统进行血气分析.按照单纯性高热惊厥患儿以及高热无惊厥患儿进行分组,比较平均血清离子水平;按照患儿来源于城市或外来务工人员进行分组,比较患儿平均血清离子钙水平,并比较惊厥发生率.结果 高热惊厥患儿血清钙离子水平显著低于高热无惊厥患儿血清离子钙水平(P0.05).结论 低钙是发生高热惊厥的危险因素,对于来源于城市及外来务工人员的儿童,均应积极倡导合理补钙并发

  16. C242T Polymorphism in CYBA Gene (p22phox) and Risk of Coronary Artery Disease in a Population of Caucasian Italians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasti, Sabina; Spallarossa, Paolo; Altieri, Paola; Garibaldi, Silvano; Fabbi, Patrizia; Polito, Luisa; Bacino, Luca; Brunelli, Michele; Brunelli, Claudio; Barsotti, Antonio; Ghigliotti, Giorgio

    2006-01-01

    Background: specific polymorphisms of genes regulating intracellular redox balance and oxidative stress are related to atherogenesis. Some studies have identified a relationship between progression of atherosclerosis and C242T mutation in CYBA gene coding for p22phox, a subunit of the NADH/NADPH oxidase system. Design: we investigated whether the C242T nucleotide transition is associated with the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in a population of 494 Caucasian Italians undergoing coronary angiography to diagnose the cause of chest pain. Results: the frequency of the T mutant allele that we found in 276 patients with angiographically documented CAD was significantly higher compared to what we observed in 218 subjects with normal coronary arteries (Controls) (respectively: 0.400 and 0.332, p < 0.01). The prevalence of the T allele was even stronger when we compared: 1) early onset (age ≤55) vs late onset (age ≥65) single-vessel CAD patients (respectively: 0.75 and 0.48, p < 0.05), and 2) the subgroup of CAD patients with at least one ≥98% stenosis in a coronary vessel vs those with no ≥98% stenosis in a coronary vessel (respectively: 0.425 and 0.365, p < 0.05). Conclusions: these results support the increased risk of developing early CAD and of having rapid progression of coronary stenosis in subjects carrying the C242T nucleotide transition among the Italian population. PMID:16788250

  17. De Novo 17q24.2-q24.3 microdeletion presenting with generalized hypertrichosis terminalis, gingival fibromatous hyperplasia, and distinctive facial features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Hanan H; Fukai, Ryoko; Miyake, Noriko; Gamal El Din, Amina A; Eid, Maha M; Eid, Ola M; Thomas, Manal M; El-Badry, Tarek H; Tosson, Angie M S; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2015-10-01

    Generalized hypertrichosis is a feature of several genetic disorders, and the nosology of these entities is still provisional. Recent studies have implicated chromosome 17q24.2-q24.3 microdeletion and the reciprocal microduplication in a very rare form of congenital generalized hypertrichosis terminalis (CGHT) with or without gingival hyperplasia. Here, we report on a 5-year-old Egyptian girl born to consanguineous parents. The girl presented with CGHT and gingival hyperplasia for whom we performed detailed clinical, pathological, and molecular studies. The girl had coarse facies characterized by bilateral epicanthic folds, thick and abundant eyelashes, a broad nose, full cheeks, and lips that constituted the distinctive facial features for this syndrome. Biopsy of the gingiva showed epithelial marked acanthosis and hyperkeratosis with hyperplastic thick collagen bundles and dense fibrosis in the underlying tissues. Array analysis indicated a 17q24.2-q24.3 chromosomal microdeletion. We validated this microdeletion by real-time quantitative PCR and confirmed a perfect co-segregation of the disease phenotype within the family. In summary, this study indicates that 17q24.2-q24.3 microdeletion caused CGHT with gingival hyperplasia and distinctive facies, which should be differentiated from the autosomal recessive type that lacks the distinctive facies.

  18. Application value discussion of CEA, CA19-9, CA242, CA72-4 in early diagnosis of rectal cancer%CEA、CA19-9、CA242、CA72-4在直肠癌早期诊断的应用价值探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨联合检测癌胚抗原(CEA)、糖类抗原19-9(Carbohydrate antigen 19-9,CA19-9)、糖类抗原242(carbohydrate antigen 242,CA242)、糖类抗原72-4(Carbohydrate antigen 72-4,CA72-4)对直肠癌早期诊断价值。方法采用化学发光法联合检测直肠癌组、直肠良性病变组和健康对照组血清中 CEA、CA19-9、CA242、CA72-4浓度,并进行统计学分析。结果直肠癌组患者血清中 CEA、CA19-9、CA242、CA72-4的含量均明显高于直肠良性病变组及健康对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),直肠良性病变组和健康对照组比较差异无统计学意义,直肠癌组患者血清四项标志物联合检测的阳性率:72.587%(45/62)高于 CEA 单项检测的阳性率61.29%(38/62)。结论联合检测血清中 CEA、CA19-9、CA242、CA72-4含量可有显著的互补性效提高直肠癌的诊断诊断率,是早期筛查直肠癌一中简单,有效的方法。%Objective To investigate early diagnosis value of CEA, CA19-9, CA242, CA72-4 for rectal cancer. Methods applying chemiluminescence combined with testing serum concentrations of CEA,CA19-9,CA242,CA72-4 of rectal cancer, rectal benign lesion, health control group, and carry on statistical analyis. Result CEA, CA19-9, CA242 and CA72-4 contents in serum of rectal cancer groups were significantly higher than rectal benign lesion and healthy control group, and difference shows statistical significance(P<0.05). Comparison between rectal benign lesion and healthy control group shows no statistical significance. And positive rate of combination test for four markers in serum of rectal cancer group was 72.587% (45/62), which was higher than 61.29% (38/62) of CEA test only. Conclusion combination test for CEA, CA19-9, CA242 and CA72-4 contents can significantly improve diagnostic rate of rectal cancer, which is a simple and effective method for early screening of rectal cancer.

  19. The A930G polymorphism ofP22phox (CYBA gene but not C242T variation is associated with hypertension: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wang Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, it has been reported that the A930G and C242T polymorphisms within p22phox (CYBA gene are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. However, the results remain controversial. Furthermore, no previous meta-analysis has been conducted to evaluate the relationship between the A930G and C242T polymorphisms and hypertension. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to clarify these controversies. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: All of the included articles were retrieved from the PubMed and Embase databases, as well as the CNKI, CBM, Chongqing VIP and Wan Fang databases according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines. Odds ratios (OR with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were used to assess the strength of the association. Accounting for heterogeneity, a fixed or random effects model was respectively adopted. Heterogeneity was checked using the Q test and the I(2 statistic. A cumulative meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the tendency of pooled OR. Funnel plots and Egger's tests were performed to test for possible publication bias. RESULTS: Five articles on A930G with 2003 cases/2434 controls and eight articles on C242T with 2644 cases/1967 controls were identified. A significant association of A930G polymorphisms with the risk of hypertension was found in the dominant model (OR=0.59, 95% CI: 0.38-0.92, p=0.021 and allelic model (OR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.46-0.95, p=0.024. In the stratified analysis, a significant association could be found among the hospital-based and population-based studies. However, no evidence of a significant association of the C242T polymorphism with hypertension was found in the overall analysis and subgroup analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis indicates that the A930G polymorphism, but not the C242T variation, might be a protective factor for hypertension.

  20. The C242T polymorphism of the p22-phox gene (CYBA is associated with higher left ventricular mass in Brazilian hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krieger José E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the physiopathogenesis of hypertensive end-organ damage. This study investigated the impact of the C242T polymorphism of the p22-phox gene (CYBA on left ventricular structure in Brazilian hypertensive subjects. Methods We cross-sectionally evaluated 561 patients from 2 independent centers [Campinas (n = 441 and Vitória (n = 120] by clinical history, physical examination, anthropometry, analysis of metabolic and echocardiography parameters as well as p22-phox C242T polymorphism genotyping. In addition, NADPH-oxidase activity was quantified in peripheral mononuclear cells from a subgroup of Campinas sample. Results Genotype frequencies in both samples were consistent with the Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium. Subjects with the T allele presented higher left ventricular mass/height2.7 than those carrying the CC genotype in Campinas (76.8 ± 1.6 vs 70.9 ± 1.4 g/m2.7; p = 0.009, and in Vitória (45.6 ± 1.9 vs 39.9 ± 1.4 g/m2.7; p = 0.023 samples. These results were confirmed by stepwise regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, blood pressure, metabolic variables and use of anti-hypertensive medications. In addition, increased NADPH-oxidase activity was detected in peripheral mononuclear cells from T allele carriers compared with CC genotype carriers (p = 0.03. Conclusions The T allele of the p22-phox C242T polymorphism is associated with higher left ventricular mass/height2.7 and increased NADPH-oxidase activity in Brazilian hypertensive patients. These data suggest that genetic variation within NADPH-oxidase components may modulate left ventricular remodeling in subjects with systemic hypertension.

  1. Octabutylbis{(E-2-[4-(2-hydroxybenzylideneaminophenyl]acetato}di-μ2-methoxo-di-μ3-oxido-tetratin(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenkuan Li

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Sn4(C4H98(C15H12NO32(CH3O2O2], is a centrosymmetric dimer and displays a ladder type structural motif. There are four SnIV centres which can be divided into two sorts, viz. two endocyclic and two exocyclic. The endo- and exocyclic SnIV centres are linked by bidentate deprotonated methanol and μ3-O atoms. Each exocyclic SnIV centre is also coordinated by a monodentate 2-[4-(2-hydroxybenzylideneaminophenyl]acetate ligand. Parts of the butyl groups were found to be disordered over two sets of sites.

  2. Alpha-decay branching ratios to high-lying excited-states of the 242Cm→238pu→ 234U →230Th→226Rn decay chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-Juan; XU Chang; REN Zhong-Zhou

    2009-01-01

    We present a systematic calculation on the 0c-decay branching ratios to excited-states of an even-even α-decay chain 242Cm→238pu→234U →230Th→226Rn by the improved barrier penetration approach. The changes of the parities between the parent nuclei and the daughter nuclei are properly taken into account. The theoretical values are compared with the available experimental data and the deviation between them is within a factor of 5 in most cases.

  3. Thermal neutron capture cross-section measurements of {sup 243}Am and {sup 242}Pu using the new mini-INCA {alpha}- and {gamma}-spectroscopy station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, F. [DSM/DAPNIA, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Letourneau, A. [DSM/DAPNIA, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)]. E-mail: aletourneau@cea.fr; Fioni, G. [DSM/DAPNIA, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Deruelle, O. [DSM/DAPNIA, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Veyssiere, Ch. [DSM/DAPNIA, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Faust, H. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38000 Grenoble (France); Mutti, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38000 Grenoble (France); AlMahamid, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., ESH Division, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Muhammad, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., ESH Division, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2006-01-15

    In the framework of the Mini-INCA project, dedicated to the study of Minor Actinide transmutation process in high neutron fluxes, an {alpha}- and {gamma}-spectroscopy station has been developed and installed at the High Flux Reactor of the Laue-Langevin Institut. This set-up allows short irradiations as well as long irradiations in a high quasi-thermal neutron flux and post-irradiation spectroscopy analysis. It is well suited to measure precisely, in reference to {sup 59}Co cross-section, neutron capture cross-sections, for all the actinides, in the thermal energy region. The first measurements using this set-up were done on {sup 243}Am and {sup 242}Pu isotopes. Cross-section values, at E{sub n}=0.025eV, were found to be (81.8+/-3.6)b for {sup 243}Am and (22.5+/-1.1)b for {sup 242}Pu. These values differ from evaluated data libraries by a factor of 9% and 17%, respectively, but are compatible with the most recent measurements, validating by the way the experimental apparatus.

  4. Impact on Autophagy and Ultraviolet B Induced Responses of Treatment with the MTOR Inhibitors Rapamycin, Everolimus, Torin 1, and pp242 in Human Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Song; Li, Li; Li, Min; Zhang, Mengli

    2017-01-01

    The mechanistic target of Rapamycin (MTOR) protein is a crucial signaling regulator in mammalian cells that is extensively involved in cellular biology. The function of MTOR signaling in keratinocytes remains unclear. In this study, we detected the MTOR signaling and autophagy response in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT and human epidermal keratinocytes treated with MTOR inhibitors. Moreover, we detected the impact of MTOR inhibitors on keratinocytes exposed to the common carcinogenic stressors ultraviolet B (UVB) and UVA radiation. As a result, keratinocytes were sensitive to the MTOR inhibitors Rapamycin, everolimus, Torin 1, and pp242, but the regulation of MTOR downstream signaling was distinct. Next, autophagy induction only was observed in HaCaT cells treated with Rapamycin. Furthermore, we found that MTOR signaling was insensitive to UVB but sensitive to UVA radiation. UVB treatment also had no impact on the inhibition of MTOR signaling by MTOR inhibitors. Finally, MTOR inhibition by Rapamycin, everolimus, or pp242 did not affect the series of biological events in keratinocytes exposed to UVB, including the downregulation of BiP and PERK, activation of Histone H2A and JNK, and cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP. Our study demonstrated that MTOR inhibition in keratinocytes cannot always induce autophagy, and the MTOR pathway does not play a central role in the UVB triggered cellular response.

  5. C242T polymorphism of the NADPH oxidase p22PHOX gene and its association with endothelial dysfunction in asymptomatic individuals with essential systemic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Adnan; Aslam, Khursheed; Malik, Rouf; Afroze, Dil

    2014-05-01

    Vascular oxidative stress is an important factor in hypertension-associated vascular damage and is mediated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activation. The C242T polymorphism at the p22PHOX gene affects binding of p22PHOX to heme, leading to variants of NADPH oxidase that produce different levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Specific variations in ROS are associated with an altered risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In the present study, 140 permanent Kashmiri-resident individuals were recruited (75 with essential systemic hypertension and 65 normotensive controls). Endothelial function was assessed non-invasively using high-resolution ultrasonography of the brachial artery. Endothelium-dependent vasoreactivity was expressed in terms of flow-mediated dilation. The TT genotype was identified in 2% of hypertensive and 7% of normotensive individuals. Frequency of the T-allele was not observed as significantly different between hypertensive and normotensive individuals (P=0.24; OR=0.4; 95% CI, 0.07-2.2). Blood pressure or the prevalence of hypertension did not vary between C242T p22PHOX genotypes or in the presence or absence of the T-allele.

  6. Diagnostic value of joint detection of serum CA1 9-9,CA125 and CA242 for cholangiocarci-noma%血清 CA 19-9、CA 125、CA242联合检测对胆管癌诊断价值的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔大鹏; 韩磊; 刘振显; 杨贺; 张迎春

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the diagnostic value of joint detection of serum CA1 9-9,CA125 and CA242 for cholan-giocarcinoma.Methods:A total of 35 patients with cholangiocarcinoma who received surgical resection in our hospital were se-lected as malignant group;30 patients with cholelithiasis who received surgical resection in our hospital during the same period were selected as benign group.Serum samples were collected before surgery to determine CA1 9-9,CA125 and CA242 content;and cholangiocarcinoma tissue and normal bile duct tissue were collected after surgery to determine the content of proliferation and invasion molecules.Results:Serum CA1 9-9,CA125 and CA242 levels of malignant group were significantly higher than those of control group (P <0.05);PROX-1,Ki-67,Bcl-2,Bad,Gab1,LOXL2,TRPM7 and CXCL12 levels in cholangiocar-cinoma tissue were significantly higher than those in benign bile duct tissue (P <0.05);and E-cadherin level was significantly lower than that in benign bile duct tissue (P <0.05);serum CA1 9-9,CA125 and CA242 levels were positively correlated with PROX-1,Ki-67,Bcl-2,Bad,Gab1,LOXL2,TRPM7 and CXCL12 levels,and negatively correlated with E-cadherin level. Conclusions:Joint detection of serum CA1 9-9,CA125 and CA242 can not only provide reference for the diagnosis of cholangio-carcinoma,but also can provide basis for the evaluation of proliferation,invasion and other malignant biological behaviors.%目的::研究血清 CA19-9、CA125、CA242联合检测对胆管癌的诊断价值.方法:选择在我院接受手术切除的35例胆管癌患者作为恶性组,同期在我院接受手术切除的30例胆石症患者作为良性组,术前采集血清标本并测定 CA19-9、CA125、CA242含量,术后采集胆管癌组织和正常胆管组织并测定增殖、侵袭分子的含量.结果:恶性组血清中 CA19-9、CA125、CA242的含量显著高于对照组(P <0.05);胆管癌组织中 PROX-1、Ki-67、Bcl-2、Bad、Gab1、LOXL2、TRPM7、CXCL12

  7. Neutron-induced fission cross sections of 242Pu from 0.3 MeV to 3 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Castiñeira, P.; Bryś, T.; Eykens, R.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Göök, A.; Moens, A.; Oberstedt, S.; Sibbens, G.; Vanleeuw, D.; Vidali, M.; Pretel, C.

    2015-10-01

    The majority of the next generation of nuclear power plants (GEN-IV) will work in the fast-neutron-energy region, as opposed to present day thermal reactors. This leads to new and more accurate nuclear-data needs for some minor actinides and structural materials. Following those upcoming demands, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Nuclear Energy Agency performed a sensitivity study. Based on the latter, an improvement in accuracy from the present 20% to 5% is required for the 242Pu(n ,f ) cross section. Within the same project both the 240Pu(n ,f ) cross section and the 242Pu(n ,f ) cross section were measured at the Van de Graaff accelerator of the Joint Research Centre at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, where quasimonoenergetic neutrons were produced in an energy range from 0.3 MeV up to 3 MeV. A twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber has been used in a back-to-back configuration as fission-fragment detector. The 242Pu(n ,f ) cross section has been normalized to three different isotopes: 237Np(n ,f ) , 235U(n ,f ) , and 238U(n ,f ) . A comprehensive study of the corrections applied to the data and the uncertainties associated is given. The results obtained are in agreement with previous experimental data at the threshold region up to 0.8 MeV. The resonance-like structure at 0.8 to 1.1 MeV, visible in the evaluations and in most previous experimental values, was not reproduced with the same intensity in this experiment. For neutron energies higher than 1.1 MeV, the results of this experiment are slightly lower than the Evaluated Nuclear Data File/B-VII.1 evaluation but in agreement with the experiment of Tovesson et al. (2009) as well as Staples and Morley (1998). Finally, for energies above 1.5 MeV, the results show consistency with the present evaluations.

  8. Angular distributions of low-spin states in {sup 240}Pu by means of the {sup 242}Pu(p,t){sup 240}Pu reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spieker, Mark; Endres, Janis; Pascu, Sorin; Zilges, Andreas [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Bucurescu, Dorel; Zamfir, Nicolae-Victor [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Faestermann, Thomas [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Hertenberger, Ralf; Wirth, Hans-Friedrich [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Since recent experimental and theoretical studies revealed the importance of octupole correlations in the actinide region and especially in {sup 240}Pu, a {sup 242}Pu(p,t){sup 240}Pu experiment has been conducted at the Q3D magnetic spectrograph of the Maier-Leibnitz laboratory in Munich. Excited states in {sup 240}Pu were investigated up to an excitation energy of 3 MeV. Angular distributions have been measured at 9 laboratory angles between 5 {sup circle} and 40 {sup circle}. The comparison of the experimental angular distributions with DWBA calculations allowed the assignment of several low-spin states. Most of them were seen for the first time. The experimental data, especially the data on the 21 J{sup π}= 0{sup +} states, are presented and discussed in the framework of the spdf-version of the Interacting Boson Model.

  9. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of 2-(4-[(2-hydroxybenzyl) amino]-phenyl amino-methyl)-phenol in STZ induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirasanagandla, Swapna; Kasetti, Ramesh Babu; Shaik, Abdul Nabi; Natava, Rajesh; Surtineni, Venkata Prasad; Cirradur, Suresh Reddy; Chippada, Apparao

    2013-08-01

    Oral administration of 2-(4-[(2-hydroxybenzyl) amino]-phenyl amino-methyl)-phenol (HBPMP) (30 mg/kg) to Streptozotocin (STZ) rats produced significant antidiabetic activity after 6 h of HBPMP administration. Treatment of the STZ rats with HBPMP (30 mg/kg/day) for 30 days resulted in a significant decrease in their Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), Serum Total Cholesterol (TC), Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C), Very Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) along with an increase in serum High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Activities of Serum Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and levels of blood urea and creatinine were improved to near normal levels in the treated STZ rats indicating the protective role of the HBPMP against liver and kidney damage and its non-toxic property. In conclusion, HBPMP possesses antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities.

  10. Mapeamento Genético do locus 1q 24.2 1q31.3 em famílias segregando periodontite agressiva

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Um estudo sugere que o fenótipo da periodontite agressiva localizada está ligado a região 1q25. O objetivo do presente estudo foi aperfeiçoar o mapeamento genético da periodontite agressiva na região cromossômica supracitada em famílias clinicamente bem caracterizadas segregando a doença. A hipótese deste estudo é que variações genéticas localizadas no cromossomo 1 entre as regiões 1q 24.2 e 1q 31.3 contribuem para o fenótipo da periodontite agressiva. Como objetivos específicos, determinamos...

  11. Delocalization and new phase in Americium: theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soderlind, P

    1999-04-23

    Density-functional electronic structure calculations have been used to investigate the high pressure behavior of Am. At about 80 kbar (8 GPa) calculations reveal a monoclinic phase similar to the ground state structure of plutonium ({alpha}-Pu). The experimentally suggested {alpha}-U structure is found to be substantially higher in energy. The phase transition from fcc to the low symmetry structure is shown to originate from a drastic change in the nature of the electronic structure induced by the elevated pressure. A calculated volume collapse of about 25% is associated with the transition. For the low density phase, an orbital polarization correction to the local spin density (LSD) theory was applied. Gradient terms of the electron density were included in the calculation of the exchange/correlation energy and potential, according to the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The results are consistent with a Mott transition; the 5f electrons are delocalized and bonding on the high density side of the transition and chemically inert and non-bonding (localized) on the other. Theory compares rather well with recent experimental data which implies that electron correlation effects are reasonably modeled in our orbital polarization scheme.

  12. The proliferation potential of neptunium and americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, J. S.; Shin, J. S.; Kim, J. S.; Kwack, E. H.; Kim, B. K

    2000-05-01

    It is recognized that some trans-uranic elements other than plutonium, in particular Np and Am, if will be available in sufficient quantities, could be used for nuclear explosive devices. The spent fuel has been accumulating in number of nuclear power plant and operation of large scale commercial reprocessing plants. However, these materials are not covered by the definition of special fissionable material in the Agency Statute. At the time when the Statute was adopted, the availability of meaningful quantities of separated Np and Am was remote and they were not included in the definition of special fissionable material. Then, IAEA Board decided a measure for control of Np and Am on September 1999. This report contains the control method and the characteristic of Np and Am for using domestic nuclear industries, and it can be useful for understanding how to report and account of Np and Am. (author)

  13. Evaluation of neutron data for americium-241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov, V.M.; Sukhovitskij, E.Sh.; Porodzinskij, Yu.V.; Klepatskij, A.B.; Morogovskij, G.B. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    The evaluation of neutron data for {sup 241}Am is made in the energy region from 10{sup -5} eV up to 20 MeV. The results of the evaluation are compiled in the ENDF/B-VI format. This work is performed under the Project Agreement CIS-03-95 with the International Science and Technology Center (Moscow). The Financing Party for the Project is Japan. The evaluation was requested by Y. Kikuchi (JAERI). (author). 60 refs.

  14. Deep VLT spectroscopy of the z=2.49 Radio Galaxy MRC 2104-242 Evidence for a metallicity gradient in its extended emission line region

    CERN Document Server

    Overzier, R; Kurk, J D; De Breuck, C

    2001-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the rest-frame UV line emission around radio galaxy MRC 2104-242 at z=2.49, obtained with FORS1 on VLT Antu. The morphology of the halo is dominated by two spatially resolved regions. Lya is extended by >12 arcsec along the radio axis, CIV and HeII are extended by ~8 arcsec. The overall spectrum is typical for that of high redshift radio galaxies. The most striking spatial variation is that NV is present in the spectrum of the region associated with the center of the galaxy hosting the radio source, the northern region, while absent in the southern region. Assuming that the gas is photoionized by a hidden quasar, the difference in NV emission can be explained by a metallicity gradient within the halo. This is consistent with a scenario in which the gas is associated with a massive cooling flow or originates from the debris of the merging of two or more galaxies.

  15. Computational Thermodynamic Modeling of Hot Corrosion of Alloys Haynes 242 and HastelloyTM N for Molten Salt Service in Advanced High Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Glazoff, Michael; Charit, Indrajt; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-09-17

    An evaluation of thermodynamic aspects of hot corrosion of the superalloys Haynes 242 and HastelloyTM N in the eutectic mixtures of KF and ZrF4 is carried out for development of Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR). This work models the behavior of several superalloys, potential candidates for the AHTR, using computational thermodynamics tool (ThermoCalc), leading to the development of thermodynamic description of the molten salt eutectic mixtures, and on that basis, mechanistic prediction of hot corrosion. The results from these studies indicated that the principal mechanism of hot corrosion was associated with chromium leaching for all of the superalloys described above. However, HastelloyTM N displayed the best hot corrosion performance. This was not surprising given it was developed originally to withstand the harsh conditions of molten salt environment. However, the results obtained in this study provided confidence in the employed methods of computational thermodynamics and could be further used for future alloy design efforts. Finally, several potential solutions to mitigate hot corrosion were proposed for further exploration, including coating development and controlled scaling of intermediate compounds in the KF-ZrF4 system.

  16. The production of {sup 238-242}Pu(n,γ){sup 239-243}Pu fissionable fluids in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenay, Mehtap [Inoenue Univ., Malatya (Turkey). Physics Dept.

    2014-03-15

    In this study, the effect of spent fuel grade plutonium content on {sup 239-243}Pu was investigated in a designed hybrid reactor system. In this system, the fluids were composed of a molten salt, heavy metal mixture with increased mole fractions 99-95 % Li{sub 20}Sn{sub 80}-1-5 % SFG-Pu, 99-95 % Li{sub 20}Sn{sub 80}-1-5 % SFG-PuF{sub 4}, 99-95 % Li{sub 20}Sn{sub 80}-1-5 % SFG-PuO{sub 2}. Beryllium (Be) is a neutron multiplier by (n,2n) reactions. Thence, a Be zone of 3 cm thickness was used in order to contribute to fissile fuel breeding between the liquid first wall and a 9Cr2WVTa ferritic steel blanket which is used as structural material. The production of {sup 238-242}Pu(n,γ){sup 239-243}Pu was calculated in liquid first wall, blanket and shielding zones. Three-dimensional nucleonic calculations were performed by using the most recent version MCNPX-2.7.0 Monte Carlo code and nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0. (orig.)

  17. 血清CEA、CA-125、CA-153、CA-199、CA242联合检测对消化道肿瘤诊断的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德辉; 周力; 张永宏; 张澜林; 谭玉洁; 王焰; 秦雯

    2006-01-01

    目的:探讨血清CEA、CA-125、CA-153、CA-199、CA242联合检测对消化道肿瘤诊断的临床意义。方法:采用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA法)检测130例恶性消化道肿瘤患者(食管癌32例、胃癌34例、胰腺癌30例、大肠癌34例)血清CEA、CA-125、CA-153、CA-199、CA242水平。结果:表明上述四种消化道肿瘤的血清CEA、CA-125、CA-153、CA-199、CA242与对照组比较结果统计学上均有显著性差异(P〈0.01)。除胰腺癌之外,其余3种消化道肿瘤五项肿瘤标记物联合检测的阳性率均显著高于单一标志物检测(P〈0.05),分别为食管癌62.5%、胃癌85.2%、大肠癌82.3%。结论:血清CEA、CA-125、CA-153、CA-199、CA242联合检测可以显著提高消化道恶性肿瘤诊断的敏感性。

  18. CHLOROPHYLL A, growth rate and graze rate (or grazing rate) site samples data collected in the Gulf of Alaska on the ALPHA HELIX cruises HX242, HX244 and others as part of the NEP project from 2001-04-18 to 2003-08-10 (NODC Accession 0114241)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0114241 includes site samples and biological data collected aboard the ALPHA HELIX during cruises HX242, HX244, HX247, HX271 and HX275 in the Gulf of...

  19. SALINITY, WATER TEMPERATURE, FLUORESCENCE, PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVE RADIATION (PAR) and other profile data collected in the Gulf of Alaska on the ALPHA HELIX cruises HX242, HX244 and others as part of the NEP project from 2001-04-18 to 2003-08-11 (NODC Accession 0115255)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115255 includes profile, biological and physical data collected aboard the ALPHA HELIX during cruises HX242, HX244, HX247, HX271 and HX275 in the...

  20. SILICATE, WATER TEMPERATURE, FLUORESCENCE, PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVE RADIATION (PAR) and other profile and discrete sample data collected in the Gulf of Alaska on the ALPHA HELIX cruises HX242, HX244 and others as part of the NEP project from 2001-04-18 to 2003-08-11 (NODC Accession 0113348)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113348 includes profile, discrete sample, biological, chemical and physical data collected aboard the ALPHA HELIX during cruises HX242, HX244, HX247,...

  1. Oxidative DNA damage induced by HEPES (2-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethanesulfonic acid) buffer in the presence of Au(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Ahsan; Tabata, Masaaki

    2004-11-01

    Oxidative DNA damage was investigated by free radicals generated from HEPES (2-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethanesulfonic acid) buffer, which is widely used in biochemical or biological studies, in the presence of Au(III). The effect of free radicals on the DNA damage was ascertained by gel electrophoresis, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. ESR results indicated the generation of nitrogen-centered cationic free radicals from the HEPES in the presence of Au(III) which cause the DNA damage. No ESR spectra were observed for phosphate, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris-HCl) and acetate buffers in the presence of Au(III) or for HEPES buffer in the presence of other metal ions such as Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Pd(II) or [Au(III)(TMPyP)](5+) and [Pd(II)(TMPyP)](4+), where [H(2)(TMPyP)](4+) denotes tetrakis(1-methylpyridium-4-yl)porphyrin. Consequently, no DNA damage was observed for these buffer agents (e.g., phosphate, Tris-HCl or acetate) in the presence of Au(III) or for HEPES in the presence of other metal ions or the metalloporphyrins mentioned above. No detectable inhibitory effect on the DNA damage was observed by using the typical scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) ()OH, O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2). This non-inhibitory effect indicated that no reactive oxygen species were generated during the incubation of DNA with HEPES and Au(III). The drastic change in CD spectra from positive ellipticity to negative ellipticity approximately at 270 nm with increasing concentration of Au(III) also indicated the significant damage of DNA. Only HEPES or Au(III) itself did not damage DNA. A mechanism for the damaging of DNA is proposed.

  2. Measurements of the neutron-induced fission cross sections of /sup 240/Pu and /sup 242/Pu relative to /sup 235/U. [0. 02 to 30 MeV, tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, J. W.; Browne, J. C.; Carlson, G. W.

    1976-03-01

    A continuation is given of the fission-cross-section ratio measurements in progress at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Preliminary results are provided for the /sup 240/Pu//sup 235/U and /sup 242/Pu//sup 235/U ratios from 0.02 to 30 MeV and 0.1 to 30 MeV, respectively. Using the threshold-cross-section method, the ratios were normalized to the values 1.368 +- 0.030 and 1.116 +- 0.025, respectively, from 1.75 to 4.00 MeV.

  3. Measurement of the Neutron Capture Cross Sections of $^{233}$U, $^{237}$Np, $^{240,242}$Pu, $^{241,243}$Am and $^{245}$Cm with a Total Absorption Calorimeter at n_TOF

    CERN Multimedia

    Beer, H; Wiescher, M; Cox, J; Rapp, W; Embid, M; Dababneh, S

    2002-01-01

    Accurate and reliable neutron capture cross section data for actinides are necessary for the poper design, safety regulation and precise performance assessment of transmutation devices such as Fast Critical Reactors or Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). The goal of this proposal is the measurement of the neutron capture cross sections of $^{233}$U, $^{237}$Np, $^{240,242}$Pu, $^{241,243}$Am and $^{245}$Cm at n_TOF with an accuracy of 5~\\%. $^{233}$U plays an essential role in the Th fuel cycle, which has been proposed as a safer and cleaner alternative to the U fuel cycle. The capture cross sections of $^{237}$Np,$^{240,242}$Pu, $^{241,243}$Am and $^{245}$Cm play a key role in the design and optimization of a strategy for the Nuclear Waste Transmutation. A high accuracy can be achieved at n_TOF in such measurements due to a combination of features unique in the world: high instantaneous neutron fluence and excellent energy resolution of the facility, innovative Data Acquisition System based on flash ADCs and t...

  4. Association study of C936T polymorphism of the VEGF gene and the C242T polymorphism of the p22phox gene with diabetes mellitus type 2 and distal diabetic polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisleni, Melissa Mottin; Biolchi, Vanderlei; Jordon, Bruna Cristina; Rempel, Claudete; Genro, Júlia Pasqualini; Pozzobon, Adriane

    2015-09-01

    Even with long‑term glycemic control, diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) remains the predominant cause of diabetic neuropathy. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) C936T of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene and the SNP C242T of the p22phox (CYBA) gene have been investigated in relation to DM2 and its complications. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between these two SNPs and DM2, and also between the SNPs and the signs and symptoms of diabetic distal polyneuropathy. The DM2 group consisted of 98 individuals and the control group consisted of 104 individuals. The results demonstrated that there was no association between the different genotypes or alleles and increased risk of the disease (P>0.05). With SNP C242T, a significant association with body mass index between the CTxTT genotypes (P=0.043) was identified; and the greatest body mass indexes were among individuals with the TT genotype. An association between the degree of neuropathic symptoms and genotypic/allelic distribution of these polymorphisms was not observed. In conclusion, the investigated polymorphisms are not correlated with the risk of developing DM2.

  5. 242例子宫内膜异位症患者腹腔镜检病灶特点与盆腔疼痛相关性分析%Retrospective analysis of the relation between the pelvic pain and the lesion features in 242 patients with en-dometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈素芬; 彭丽娟; 刘久英

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨子宫内膜异位症患者腹腔镜检病灶特点与盆腔疼痛的相关性。方法:分析2009年2月至2014 年2月于我院诊治的242例子宫内膜异位症的临床资料,记录患者手术前盆腔疼痛的性质和程度及患者术中所见的病变部位、类型、浸润深度及粘连程度,分析盆腔疼痛与腹腔镜检病灶特点的相关性。结果:(1)34例为单纯子宫内膜异位囊肿的患者无盆腔疼痛,208例为子宫内膜异位囊肿合并盆腔粘连、深部浸润及腹膜病灶的患者,均有不同程度的盆腔疼痛。(2)手术所见病变位于子宫直肠凹者81例,位于子宫骶韧带者73例,位于阔韧带者74例,位于输卵管与子宫表面者45例,位于输卵管与反折腹膜者18例。其中,病变位于子宫直肠凹及子宫骶韧带者盆腔疼痛发生率显著高于病变位于其它部位的患者(P <0.05)。(3)轻度盆腔粘连66例,中重度粘连142例,中重度粘连患者的盆腔疼痛发生率明显高于轻度粘连者(P <0.05)。(4)64例为浅表型浸润(深度<5mm),144例为深部型浸润(深度≥5mm),深部型浸润患者盆腔疼痛发生率明显高于浅表型浸润患者(P <0.05)。结论:子宫内膜异位症患者盆腔疼痛与腹腔镜检所见病灶的特点关系密切,盆腔粘连、深部浸润、骶韧带及子宫直肠凹部位病变等为盆腔疼痛的重要相关因素。%Objectives:To investigate the relation between the pelvic pain and the lesion features in pa-tients with endometriosis.Methods:242 patients with endometriosis from February 2009 to May 2014 in our hospi-tal were analyzed retrospectively.The characters of pelvic pain and the lesion features such as location,type,depth and adhesion degree were all recorded.The relation between the pelvic pain and the lesion features was analyzed. Results:① In 242 cases of endometriosis,the pelvic pain was not found in 34

  6. Octa­butyl­bis{(E)-2-[4-(2-hydroxy­benzyl­ideneamino)phen­yl]acetato}di-μ2-methoxo-di-μ3-oxido-tetra­tin(IV)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wenkuan; Yin, Handong; Wen, Liyuan; Wang, Daqi; Fan, Weidong

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, [Sn4(C4H9)8(C15H12NO3)2(CH3O)2O2], is a centrosymmetric dimer and displays a ladder type structural motif. There are four SnIV centres which can be divided into two sorts, viz. two endocyclic and two exocyclic. The endo- and exocyclic SnIV centres are linked by bidentate deprotonated methanol and μ3-O atoms. Each exocyclic SnIV centre is also coordinated by a monodentate 2-[4-(2-hydroxy­benzyl­idene­amino)phen­yl]acetate ligand. Parts of the butyl groups were found to be d...

  7. Microwave-Assisted Solution Phase Synthesis of Novel 2-{4-[2-(N-Methyl-2-pyridylaminoethoxy]phenyl}-5-Substituted 1,3,4-Oxadiazole  Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh L. Gaonkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new series of 2-{4-[2-(N-methyl-2-pyridylaminoethoxy]phenyl}-5-substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazoles were synthesized by the oxidative cyclization of hydrazones derived from 4-[2-(methylpyridin-2-ylaminoethoxy]benzaldehyde and aryl hydrazines using chloramine-T as an efficient catalyst. All steps were assisted by microwave irradiation. Microwave enables all these reactions to be simple, rapid, high yielding, and avoid chromatograph purification and led environmentally benign total synthesis of focused oxadiazole library. All the synthesized compounds were isolated in good yield and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and elemental analyses. The title compounds represent a novel class of biologically active heterocycles.

  8. Effect of (3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl)methyl 2-[4-(2-methylpropyl)phenyl]propanoate (ITE), a newly developed anti-inflammatory drug, on type II collagen-induced arthritis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Cao, Ying-Lin; Xu, Bei-Bei; Zhou, Xiao-Mian

    2004-06-01

    The effect of (3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl)methyl 2-[4-(2-methylpropyl)phenyl]propanoate (ITE) on type II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis in mice was studied. Mice were immunized twice with CII, ITE being given orally once a day for 40 d after the 1st immunization. Clinical assessment showed that ITE had no effect on the day of onset of arthritis but did lowered the incidence rate of arthritis and the arthritis score. And ITE had a marked suppressive effect on the mouse hind paw edema induced by CII. ITE suppressed the delayed-type mouse ear skin reaction to CII but had no effect on the level of serum anti-CII antibodies. These results suggest that ITE inhibits the development of CII-induced arthritis in mice by suppressing delayed-type hypersensitivity to CII.

  9. Historical Review of Californium-252 Discovery and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed. (PLG)

  10. Study of the electrochemical oxidation of Am with lacunary heteropolyanions and silver nitrate; Etude de l'oxydation electrochimique de l'americium en presence d'heteropolyanions lacunaires et de nitrate d'argent en milieu aqueux acide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartier, D

    1999-07-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of Am(III) with certain lacunary heteropolyanions (LHPA {alpha}{sub 2}-P{sub 2}W{sub 17}O{sub 61}{sup 10-} or {alpha}SiW{sub 11}O{sub 39}{sup 8-}) and silver nitrate is an efficient way to prepare Am(VI). This document presents bibliographic data and an experimental study of the process. Thus, it has been established that Am(IV) is an intermediate species in the reaction and occurs in 1:1 (Amt{sup IV}LHPA) or 1:2 (Am {sup IV}(LHAP){sub 2}) complexes with the relevant LHPA. These 1:1 complexes of Am(IV) have been identified and isolated in this work whereas 1:2 complexes were known from previous studies. The reactivity of these complexes in oxidation shows that 1:1 complexes of Am(IV) are oxidised much more quickly than 1:2 complexes. Apparent stability constants of Am(III) and Am(IV) complexes with the relevant LHPA have been measured for a 1 M nitric acid medium. Thermodynamic data of the reaction are then assessed: redox potentials of Am pairs are computed for a 1 M nitric acid medium containing various amount of LHPA ligands. Those results show that the role of LHPA is to stabilize the intermediate species Am(IV) by lowering the Am(IV)/Am(III) pair potential of about 1 Volt. Nevertheless, if this stabilisation is too strong (i.e. of tungsto-silicate), the oxidation of Am(IV) requires high anodic potential (more than 2 V/ENH). Then, the faradic yield of the oxidation of americium is poor because of water oxidation. This study has also shown that the main role of silver is to catalyze the electrochemical oxidation of Am{sup IV}(LHPA){sub X} complexes. Indeed, these oxidations without silver are extremely slow. An oxygen tracer experiment has been performed during the oxidation of Am(III) in Am(VI). It has been shown that the oxygen atoms of Am(VI) (AMO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) come from water molecules of the solvent and not from the complexing oxygen atoms of the ligands. (author)

  11. Fabrication of targets for transmutation of americium : synthesis of inertial matrix by sol-gel method. Procedure study on the infiltration of a radioactive solutions; Fabricacion de blancos para la transmutacion de americio: sintesis de matrices inertes por el metodo sol-gel. Estudio del procedimiento de infiltracion de disoluciones radiactivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Carretero, A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    made. In addition a new and unexpected phase formed by the reaction of americium with spinel during the high temperature synthesis process has been identified. This new phase could provide a unique menas to stabilise Am in one particular oxidation state. (Author)

  12. 241镅跟骨骨密度测定在骨质疏松症中的初步应用 ——与腰椎骨密度测定的对比研究%Preliminary application of 241-Americium calcaneus bone mineral density measurement in osteoporosis ——comparison with double X-ray densitometry of the lumber spine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管梁; 朱承谟; 李培勇; 王辉; 濮鸣芳; 仇季高

    2001-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) of calcaneus in 54 normals, 45 Osteoporosis, 25 suspected osteoporosis and 16 other non-osteoporosis patients, a total of 140 cases were measured by HUAKE (HK-1) 241-Americium BMD absorpmetry, among them 43 were compared with that of lumber spine (L2—L4) measured by Lunar Corporation's Expert-XL absorpmeter. BMD of normal group of calcaneus was (409.8±79.4)mg/cm2. The BMD were decreased slowly with the increased age. The BMD of osteoporosis, suspected osteoporosis and non-osteoporosis group were 230.3±62.3, 395.7±57.4 and 363.3±51.9mg/cm2 respectively. The BMD of osteoporosis group was much lower than that of normal group, and also lower than that of the other two groups, among 26 patients (57.78%) had bone fracture, all was in accordance with the clinical diagnosis of osteoporosis. The BMD of suspected ospteoporosis and non-osteoporosis had no significant difference with normal group. The coefficient variation (CV) of BMD in repeated measurement in calcaneus of 4 pariticipants was less than 1.2%. The correlative coefficient (r) between BMD of calcaneus and lumber spine (L2—L4) group was 0.6824. The correlative coefficient of normal young adult-matched percentage and T value in 2 groups were 0.6863 and 0.6755 respectively, whereas aged-matched percentage, Z value were 0.4614 and 0.5009 respectively. In conclusion 241-Americium calcaneus BMD absorpmetry has the advantage of low price, easy to operate, reliable and valuable in diagnosis osteoporosis. The correlations of calcaneus and lumber spine BMD, normal young adult-matched percentagy and T value were rather good.%为评价跟骨骨密度测定在骨质疏松症中的初步临床应用及与腰椎测定结果的相关性,用国产华科(HK-1型)241镅骨密度仪测定了140例跟骨骨密度(BMD)。其中正常人组54例,骨质疏松确诊组45例,骨质疏松可疑组25例和其他非骨质疏松组16例。其中43例与美国Luner 公司的Expert-XL图像骨密度仪腰

  13. Americium separation from nuclear fuel dissolution using higher oxidation states.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce J. Mincher

    2009-09-01

    Much of the complexity in current AFCI proposals is driven by the need to separate the minor actinides from the lanthanides. Partitioning and recycling Am, but not Cm, would allow for significant simplification because Am has redox chemistry that may be exploited while Cm does not. Here, we have explored methods based on higher oxidation states of Am (AmV and AmVI) to partition Am from the lanthanides. In a separate but related approach we have also initiated an investigation of the utility of TRUEX Am extraction from thiocyanate solution. The stripping of loaded TRUEX by Am oxidation or SCN- has not yet proved successful; however, the partitioning of inextractable AmV by TRUEX shows promise.

  14. Further Studies of Plutonium and Americium at Thule, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Asker; Dahlgaard, Henning; Nilsson, Karen Kristina;

    1984-01-01

    further away from the impact point and at some locations the vertical distribution indicated a downward displacement of Pu in the sediment column since 1974. Seawater and seaplants showed no evidence of the presence of Pu from sources other than fallout; but Pu in benthos varied nearly proportionally......, but in benthos 241Am/239,240Pu were two times higher than in sediments. Seaplants showed the same value of Am/Pu as seawater. There was no indication of any biomagnification of Pu or Am through the marine food chains at Thule....

  15. Property Data for Simulated Americium/Curium Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, B.J.; Smith, D.E.; Peeler, D.K.; Reamer, I.A.; Vienna, J.D.; Schweiger, M.J.

    1999-10-20

    The authors studied the properties of mixed lanthanide-alumino-borosilicate glasses. Fifty-five glasses were designed to augment a previous, Phase I, study by systematically varying the composition of Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} and the concentrations of Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and SrO in glass. These glasses were designed and fabricated at the Savannah River Technology Center and tested at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The properties measured include the high-temperature viscosity ({eta}) as a function of temperature (T) and the liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) of Phase II test glasses.

  16. Plutonium and americium contamination in Rocky Flats soil, 1973

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krey, P.; Hardy, E.; Volchok, H.; Toonkel, L.; Knuth, R.; Coppes, M.; Tamura, T.

    1976-03-01

    The plutonium mass isotopic analysis and the Am-241 analysis of soil samples from Rocky Flats identify the contamination as Pu which was processed in 1958. The Am-241 activity in the soil will reach its maximum in 2033 and represent 18 percent of the Pu-239-240 activity. Nuclide ratios indicate that current operations at Rocky Flats contribute little to the airborne Pu concentrations which are due to resuspension of the contaminated soil. Root uptake of Pu or Am by vegetation is slight or shows no discrimination among the isotopes and nuclides studied. The relationship between Pu deposition contour and the area enclosed by that contour has been verified for contour values extending over 7 orders of magnitude. This gives confidence to our calculations of the quantities of Pu released on and off the Rocky Flats plant site. (auth)

  17. Biosorption of americium-241 by immobilized Rhizopus arrihizus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Jiali E-mail: liaojiali@163.com; Yang Yuanyou; Luo Shunzhong; Liu Ning; Jin Jiannan; Zhang Taiming; Zhao Pengji

    2004-01-01

    Rhizopus arrihizus (R. arrihizus), a fungus, which in previous experiments had shown encouraging ability to remove {sup 241}Am from solutions, was immobilized by calcium alginate and other reagents. The various factors affecting {sup 241}Am biosorption by the immobilized R. arrihizus were investigated. The results showed that not only can immobilized R. arrihizus adsorb {sup 241}Am as efficiently as free R. arrihizus, but that also can be used repeatedly or continuously. The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 2 h, and more than 94% of {sup 241}Am was removed from {sup 241}Am solutions of 1.08 MBq/l by immobilized R. arrihizu in the pH range 1-7. Temperature did not affect the adsorption on immobilized R. arrihizus in the range 15-45 deg. C. After repeated adsorption for 8 times, the immobilized R. arrihizus still adsorbed more than 97% of {sup 241}Am. At this time, the total adsorption of {sup 241}Am was more than 88.6 KBq/g, and had not yet reached saturation. Ninety-five percent of the adsorbed {sup 241}Am was desorbed by saturated EDTA solution and 98% by 2 mol/l HNO{sub 3}.

  18. Prevalência e padrão de distribuição das doenças cerebrovasculares em 242 idosos, procedentes de um hospital geral, necropsiados em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, no período de 1976 a 1997 Prevalence and types of cerebrovascular diseases in 242 hospitalized elderly patients, autopsied in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 1976 to 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eymard H. Pittella

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência e os tipos das doenças cerebrovasculares (DCVs em indivíduos idosos necropsiados. MÉTODO: Foram consultados os laudos neuropatológicos de 242 pacientes com idade igual ou superior a 61 anos, procedentes em sua maioria do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, e necropsiados consecutivamente no período 1976 a 1997. RESULTADO: Os principais grupos de doenças do sistema nervoso central (SNC foram representados por DCVs (71,9%, infecções (12,4%, neoplasias (7,1%, traumatismos crânio-encefálicos (3,7%, doenças nutricionais (2,5% e doenças degenerativas (1,7%. As DCVs mais frequentes foram: aterosclerose (61,2%, doença cerebrovascular hipertensiva (25,6% e infarto cerebral (14,9%. Observou-se aumento da frequência e da gravidade da aterosclerose e da frequência da doença cerebrovascular hipertensiva com o avançar da idade. Houve associação significativa entre doença cerebrovascular hipertensiva e aterosclerose. As DCVs foram clinicamente sintomáticas e as responsáveis diretas pelo óbito em 42,7% e 17,3% dos pacientes, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: As DCVs constituíram o principal grupo de doenças do SNC no idoso. A aterosclerose e a doença cerebrovascular hipertensiva foram as principais doenças deste grupo, notando-se aumento de sua frequência com o avançar da idade e associação significativa entre ambas.OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and the types of cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs in autopsied elderly individuals. METHOD: Consecutive clinical charts and neuropathological reports of 242 patients aged 61 years or older were reviewed. The patients died in Hospital das Clínicas, Federal University of Minas Gerais, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 1976 to 1997. RESULTS: The prevalent diseases of the central nervous system (CNS found in decreasing order were: CVDs (71.9%, infections (12.4%, neoplasms (7.1%, head

  19. 32 CFR 242.5 - Admission procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Attn: Assistant Dean for Academic Support. The School of Medicine shall not process a military person's...) MISCELLANEOUS ADMISSION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR THE SCHOOL OF MEDICINE, UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE... to the School of Medicine shall make direct application following instructions published in...

  20. 48 CFR 242.7203 - Review procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... full advantage of the day-to-day work done by both organizations. (3) Prepare the MMAS report. (d... to be reviewed. In addition, they must— (1) Conduct reviews as a team effort. (i) the ACO— (A) Appoints a team leader; and (B) Ensures that the team includes appropriate functional specialists...

  1. Reference: 242 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available iro et al. 2005 Dec. Planta 222(6):1001-9. For plant salt tolerance, it is important to regulate the uptake ...and accumulation of Na+ ions. The yeast pmp3 mutant which lacks PMP3 gene accumulates excess Na+ ions in the cell and shows incre...ully understood, it is proposed that PMP3 contributes to the restriction of Na+ uptake and consequently salt...) Heynh.) plants; and to thereby indicate the physiological role of RCI2A in higher plants. Two T-DNA insert...ional mutants of RCI2A were identified. Although the growth of rci2a mutants was comparable with that of wil

  2. 36 CFR 242.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., not otherwise prohibited by Federal law or regulation, to support personal and family needs; and does not include trade which constitutes a significant commercial enterprise. Customary and traditional use... 5 U.S.C. Appendix II, 1-15). Family means all persons related by blood, marriage, or adoption or...

  3. 24 CFR 242.54 - Nondiscrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and sex discrimination do not affect the eligibility of hospitals for women and children. ... financed with mortgages insured under this part must be made available without discrimination as to...

  4. 17 CFR 242.500 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... maintains and enforces written policies and procedures reasonably designed to prevent the broker or dealer...) the term: Covered person of a broker or dealer means an associated person of that broker or dealer but... performing similar functions) or employees in common with the broker or dealer who can influence...

  5. 32 CFR 242.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMISSION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR THE SCHOOL OF MEDICINE, UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH... advanced (junior-senior level) nonscholarship ROTC. (4) Individuals in attendance at any of the three.... Means the Medical School program of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. (e)...

  6. 24 CFR 242.16 - Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Critical Access Hospital, or rural referral center; (D) Community-wide use rates (discharges and days/1000... area; (O) Planned construction at other facilities in the region; (P) Historical market share by major... with guidance that shall be provided in written directives by HUD. In any event, HUD shall not issue...

  7. 17 CFR 242.300 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Ats... or more of the capital of the alternative trading system. (g) NMS stock shall have the meaning... NMS stock for purposes of this Regulation ATS. (h) Effective transaction reporting plan shall have...

  8. 24 CFR 242.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., supplies, tools, books, records (whether in written or electronic form), computer equipment (hardware and..., specifications, and contracts for architectural, engineering, and construction services relating to the land...

  9. 27 CFR 25.242 - Markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... type, in the same color of ink, and on the same background. (b) Barrels and kegs. A brewer may remove cereal beverage in barrels and kegs if the sides are durably painted at each end with a white stripe not less than 4 inches in width and the heads are painted in a solid color, with conspicuous lettering in...

  10. 19 CFR 10.242 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fabric(s), means that all of the production processes, starting with polymers, fibers, filaments, textile..., starting with the extrusion of filament, strip, film, or sheet and including drawing to fully orient...

  11. 2-[4-(2-Formylphenoxybutoxy]benzaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbar Dehno Khalaji

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C18H18O4, the full molecule is generated by the application of an inversion centre. The molecule is essentially planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.017 (1 Å for all non-H atoms. The molecules are linked through intermolecular C—H...O interactions to form a molecular sheet parallel to the (overline{1}02 plane.

  12. The clinical analysis about the dilatation for the stoma narrow after operation of carcinoma of esophago cardia%扩张治疗242例食管贲门癌术后吻合口狭窄疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林焕雄; 蔡文

    2010-01-01

    目的 总结扩张治疗食管贲门癌术后吻合口狭窄的临床疗效.方法 采用沙氏扩张器治疗242例吻合口狭窄患者.结果 共行扩张治疗647例次,平均2.67次/人.有效率99.1%,痊愈率达87.6%.结论 采用沙氏扩张器是治疗食管贲门癌术后吻合口狭窄一种安全、简便、有效手段之一.%Objective The author summarizes the clinical curative effect about the dilatation for the stoma narrow after operation of carcinoma of esophago cardia. Methods 242 patients included were expanded with Savary-Gilliard dilator. Results 647 expanding therapies were made, average 2.67 times per patient. The effective rate is 99.1%,the recovery rate is 87.6%. Conclusion The dilatation using Savary-Gilliard dilator is one of the safe, convenient, effective methods in the treatment of stoma narrow after operation of carcinoma of esophago cardia.

  13. Two different zinc(II)-aqua complexes held up by a metal-oxide based support: Synthesis, crystal structure and catalytic activity of [HMTAH]2[{Zn(H2O)5}{Zn(H2O)4}{Mo7O24}].2H2O (HMTAH = protonated hexamethylenetetramine)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Arumuganathan; A Srinivasarao; T Vijay Kumar; Samar K Das

    2008-01-01

    An inorganic−organic hybrid material, [HMTAH]2[{Zn(H2O)5}{Zn(H2O)4}{Mo7O24}].2H2O (1) (where HMTAH = protonated hxamethylenetetramine) has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The compound 1 crystallizes in a monoclinic space group 2/. The crystal data of 1: = 43.12(3), = 12.399(10), = 16.285(13), = 111.131(11), = 8. Its crystal structure shows that two different Zn(II)-aqua complexes, [Zn(H2O)5]2+ and [Zn(H2O)4]2+ are covalently coordinated to a heptamolybdateanion [Mo7O24]6- resulting in an anionic species of polyoxometalate supported zinc-aqua complexes, [{Zn(H2O)}{Zn(H2O)4}{Mo7O24}]2-, that is stabilized with two protonated hexamethylenetetramine cations in the title compound 1. In the crystal structure, both lattice water molecules are found to interact with the heptamolybdate cluster anion and the protonated hexamethylenetetramine cation resulting in an intricate three-dimensional hydrogen bonding network. Interestingly, compound 1 exhibits catalytic activity towards oxidation of some primary alcohols.

  14. Simultaneous measurement of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 242}Pu by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR ICP-MS) in marine sediments; Mesure des isotopes du plutonium des sediments marins par spectrometrie de masse a plasma couple inductivement haute resolution (HR ICP-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneau, F

    1999-07-01

    Transuranics elements are of particular interest in radioecological studies because of their radiotoxicity and their potential use to decipher source fingerprints and transport processes. The simultaneous measurement of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 242}Pu in environmental samples requires a specific chemical procedure. This work deals with an analytical procedure which yields a very high grade of purification of Pu suitable for ultra low level detection by HR ICP-MS, from marine sediments. After the elimination of major elements (Fe, Al, Mg...) by a first chromatographic separation, a new device of purification by solvent extraction and concentration by a second chromatographic separation is used to obtain a concentrated and high purified solution of plutonium. The chemical procedure have been validated on IAEA certified sediment samples and on sediment samples collected in the roads of Cherbourg which had been previously analysed by other techniques (a spectrometry and thermo-ionisation mass spectrometer). (author)

  15. 241Am (n,gamma) isomer ratio measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Evelyn M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vieira, David J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moody, Walter A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Slemmons, Alice K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-05

    The objective of this project is to improve the accuracy of the {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am radiochemistry ratio. We have performed an activation experiment to measure the {sup 241}Am(n,{gamma}) cross section leading to either the ground state of {sup 242g}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 16 hr) which decays to {sup 242}Cm (t{sub 1/2} = 163 d) or the long-lived isomer {sup 242m}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 141 yr). This experiment will develop a new set of americium cross section evaluations that can be used with a measured {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am radiochemical measurement for nuclear forensic purposes. This measurement is necessary to interpret the {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am ratio because a good measurement of this neutron capture isomer ratio for {sup 241}Am does not exist. The targets were prepared in 2007 from {sup 241}Am purified from LANL stocks. Gold was added to the purified {sup 241}Am as an internal neutron fluence monitor. These targets were placed into a holder, packaged, and shipped to Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, where they were irradiated at their Van de Graff facility in February 2008. One target was irradiated with {approx}25 keV quasimonoenergetic neutrons produced by the {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction for 3 days and a second target was also irradiated for 3 days with {approx}500 keV neutrons. Because it will be necessary to separate the {sup 242}Cm from the {sup 241}Am in order to measure the amount of {sup 242}Cm by alpha spectrometry, research into methods for americium/curium separations were conducted concurrently. We found that anion exchange chromatography in methanol/nitric acid solutions produced good separations that could be completed in one day resulting in a sample with no residue. The samples were returned from Germany in July 2009 and were counted by gamma spectrometry. Chemical separations have commenced on the blank sample. Each sample will be spiked with {sup 244}Cm, dissolved and digested in nitric acid solutions. One third of each sample will be processed at a time

  16. 32 CFR 242b.7 - Officers of the University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Medicine. (v) Associate Dean for Academic Affairs of the School of Medicine. (vi) Associate Dean for... Affairs will report directly to the Dean, School of Medicine. (5) Associate Dean for Academic Affairs of the School of Medicine. (i) The Associate Dean for Academic Affairs will be responsible for...

  17. 48 CFR 3452.242-72 - Withholding of contract payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clause in all solicitations and contacts other than purchase orders: Withholding of Contract Payments... shall promptly notify the contractor of its intention to withhold payment of any invoice or...

  18. 48 CFR 242.302 - Contract administration functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... solicitation or award. (S-70) Serve as the single point of contact for all Single Process Initiative (SPI... agreements for SPI processes, when authorized by the affected components. (S-71) DCMA has responsibility...

  19. 36 CFR 242.26 - Subsistence taking of wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... not possess or transport the hide of a bear that does not have the penis sheath or vaginal orifice... side, or antlers with 2 brow tines on both sides, by State registration permit only Sept.-Oct. 15. Unit... spike-fork or 50-inch antlers or 3 or more brow tines on one side, or antlers with 2 brow tines on...

  20. 48 CFR 1852.242-70 - Technical direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Direction (SEP 1993) (a) Performance of the work under this contract is subject to the written technical..., the fixed fee (if any), or the time required for contract performance; (4) Changes any of the expressed terms, conditions, or specifications of the contract; or (5) Interferes with the...

  1. 40 CFR 52.242 - Disapproved rules and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 37730, June 30, 2010. (a) The following Air Pollution... Cellular (Foam) Products,” submitted on March 7, 2008 and adopted on September 7, 2007. (2) Antelope Valley Air Pollution Control District. (i) Rule 118, Emergencies, submitted on March 10, 1998. (3)...

  2. 17 CFR 242.604 - Display of customer limit orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... association-sponsored system, or an electronic communications network that complies with the requirements of... responsible broker or dealer, electronic communications network, national securities exchange, or national... interest, the protection of investors and the removal of impediments to and perfection of the mechanism...

  3. 9 CFR 354.242 - Cleaning of equipment and utensils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Maintenance of... all times. Cleaned equipment and utensils shall be drained on racks and shall not be nested. (i)...

  4. Dicty_cDB: AFH242 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CA sequence update 2001. 6. 2 Translated Amino Acid sequence claywvyntvysytsl*rii...r*snsynirslnykwss*nwc*sleelktslpisnklqs Frame C: claywvyntvysytsl*riikknkkkek*vmfmill*ldqvfqv*cvvin*krmdikf*

  5. Preface: phys. stat. sol. (b) 242/9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Maria

    2005-07-01

    The XVII Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics took place in the conference rooms of the Convent San Francisco de Asis, in the heart of the Old Havana. The sixteen previous editions were organized in eight different countries; the last two were in Colombia (Cartagena, 1999) and Venezuela (Merida, 2002). After eighteen years the meeting came back to Havana in 2004.The program topics included: Surfaces and interfaces analysis; Spintronics; Magnetism; Materials and energy; Ab-initio methods, simulations and modeling in solids; Nanophysics, nanomaterials and nanotechnology; New materials, properties and applications; Preparation of materials, thin films and characterization; High temperature superconductivity; Techniques of structural analysis in solids. The program included 6 plenary talks, 13 invited talks, 58 oral presentations (in eight sessions) and 200 poster contributions (in four poster sessions).The meeting attracted more than 200 participants from 14 countries. The physica status solidi Young Researcher Award sponsored by Wiley-VCH was conferred at the meeting. This prize was divided between two participants: Clara Calderón (Study of electrical transport properties of ZnO thin films used as front contact of solar cells) from Colombia and Aim?? Pelaiz Barranco (AC behavior in lanthanum modified PZT ferroelectric ceramics) from Cuba. Special Mentions went to Val??rie Halté (Femtosec-ond dynamics of transmission of gold arrays of sub-wavelength holes) from France, Erick Larramendi Cancio (Cd desorption induced by Zn exposure during atomic layer epitaxy of CdxZn1-xTe) and Julio Cesar Rimada Herrera (Quantum and conversion efficiency calculation of AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well solar cells) from Cuba.Nanostructures and in general low dimensional physics related to different systems was a very hot topic during the meeting. Some talks and presentations were devoted to optoelectronic materials and devices. Characterization of solids by different structural and optical techniques together with modeling and simulations were also important subjects of the symposium.The XVIII Symposium will be held in Mexico in 2006.The editors wish to thank all the participants who contributed to the success of the meeting and hope that it helped to develop close links between researchers and institutions of Latin America.

  6. Dicty_cDB: SLF242 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 64 6e-09 BC127887_1( BC127887 |pid:none) Homo sapiens thyroglobulin, mRNA (... 64 8e-09 AK299197_1( AK299197..._1( AF080484 |pid:none) Homo sapiens thyroglobulin gene, e... 64 8e-09 protein up

  7. 17 CFR 242.100 - Preliminary note; definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the distribution. (3) In the case of a distribution involving a merger, acquisition, or exchange offer... distribution participant, issuer, or selling security holder in connection with the acquisition or...

  8. Facility effluent monitoring plan for 242-A evaporator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation showed the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, as a minimum, every three years.

  9. 36 CFR 242.27 - Subsistence taking of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the fish, their parts, or their eggs uses them for personal or family consumption. If you are not a... published open seasons or harvest limits if the harvested fish will be used for food in traditional or.... A qualifying program must have instructors, enrolled students, minimum attendance requirements,...

  10. 36 CFR 242.24 - Customary and traditional use determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Bay area. Cook Inlet Area Fish other than salmon, Dolly Varden, trout, char, grayling, and burbot... rivers of the Yakutat Area from the Doame River to Point Manby. Dolly Varden, steelhead trout, and smelt... drainage, and south of and including Knight Island. Remainder of the Yakutat Area. Dolly Varden,...

  11. Refractory Metal Liner Processing for M242 Medium Caliber Barrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    tapping a hole in the top end of the load rod. 6 3. Liner and Barrel Dimensions Several GLEEM experiments had previously been conducted with a...the load rod had been inserted with tapped end next to the elastomer, which extruded into the hole. During the next pass with the 20-in load rod, the...Load release occurred at a rate of 15 kip/min. The gun tube was then inverted and a fifth pass attempted. For this pass, straps were applied to the

  12. 17 CFR 242.610 - Access to quotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Nms... national securities exchange or national securities association to the quotations in an NMS stock displayed... displays quotations in an NMS stock through an SRO display-only facility shall provide a level and cost...

  13. 17 CFR 242.612 - Minimum pricing increment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Nms... display, rank, or accept from any person a bid or offer, an order, or an indication of interest in any NMS... accept from any person a bid or offer, an order, or an indication of interest in any NMS stock priced...

  14. 17 CFR 242.505 - Exclusion for news media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Ac... registered with the Commission as a broker or dealer or investment adviser. Regulation NMS—Regulation of...

  15. 17 CFR 242.611 - Order protection rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Nms... NMS stocks that do not fall within an exception set forth in paragraph (b) of this section and, if... bid was priced higher than a protected offer in the NMS stock. (5) The transaction that...

  16. 48 CFR 952.242-70 - Technical direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that assists in interpreting drawings, specifications, or technical portions of the work description. (3) Reviewing and, where required by the contract, approving, technical reports, drawings... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical direction....

  17. 7 CFR 2.42 - Administrator, Farm Service Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 2201 et seq.). (7) Conduct fiscal, accounting and claims functions relating to CCC programs for which...)), with respect to the acquisition of real property and interests in real property required to conduct a... Agricultural Services: (1) Designating counties and areas for emergency programs under Pub. L. No. 85-58,...

  18. Dicty_cDB: VSF242 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .15 1 BF824319 |BF824319.1 NcEST3a21h12.y1 Nc 1314 Tachyzoite cDNA Neospora caninum cDNA 5' similar to TR:Q9...ZNS3 Q9ZNS3 RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S27. ;, mRNA sequence. 36 0.32 2 BG235080 |BG235080.1 NcEST3a40b01.y1 Nc 1314 Tachyzoite cDNA Neospora...OTEIN S27. ;, mRNA sequence. 36 0.34 2 BF249095 |BF249095.1 NcEST3a07a05.y1 Nc 1314 Tachyzoite cDNA Neospora

  19. 48 CFR 652.242-72 - Shipping Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... dimensions of lumber for struts, frame members, and single diagonal braces Up to 45 kg 19.05 × 57.15mm 46 to... braced inside the shipping container to prevent the articles from shifting. (c) Packing cases...

  20. Radiative capture on $^{242}$Pu for MOX fuel reactors

    CERN Multimedia

    The use of MOX fuel (mixed-oxide fuel made of UO$_{2}$ and PuO$_{2}$) in nuclear reactors allows substituting a large fraction of the enriched Uranium by Plutonium reprocessed from spent fuel. Indeed around 66% of the plutonium from spent fuel is made of $^{239}$Pu and $^{241}$Pu, which are fissile in thermal reactors. A typical reactor of this type uses a fuel with 7% reprocessed Pu and 93% depleted U, thus profiting from both the spent fuel and the remaining $^{238}$U following the $^{235}$U enrichment. With the use of such new fuel compositions rich in Pu the better knowledge of the capture and fission cross sections of the Pu isotopes becomes very important. This is clearly stated in the recent OECD NEA’s “High Priority Request List” and in the WPEC-26 “Uncertainty and target accuracy assessment for innovative systems using recent covariance data evaluations” report. In particular, a new series of cross section evaluations have been recently carried out jointly by the European (JEFF) and United ...

  1. 10 CFR 72.242 - Recordkeeping and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Approval of... fabrication deficiency affects the ability of structures, systems, and components important to safety...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #242 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. Dicty_cDB: VHO242 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available wimonas jakobiformis translati... 189 5e-47 EU812174_1( ... 2008.12. 9 Homology vs Protein Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value DQ295228_1( DQ295228 |pid:none) Mala

  4. 49 CFR 24.2 - Definitions and acronyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... system adequate for lighting and other devices; (iii) Contain a heating system capable of sustaining a...; a mobile home; or any other residential unit. (11) Dwelling site. The term dwelling site means a... received or earned by dependent children and full time students under 18 years of age. (See appendix...

  5. 40 CFR 180.242 - Thiabendazole; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., dry, seed 0.1 None Beet, sugar, dried pulp 3.5 12/25/10 Beet, sugar, roots 0.25 12/25/10 Beet, sugar... Fruit, citrus, group 10, postharvest 10.0 None Fruit, pome, group 11, postharvest 5.0 None Mango 10.0... Strawberry1 5.0 None Sweet potato (postharvest to sweet potato intended only for use as seed) 0.05 None...

  6. Evaluation of the readsorption of plutonium and americium in dynamic fractionations of environmental solid samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Roongrat; Hou, Xiaolin; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2008-01-01

    A dynamic extraction system exploiting sequential injection (SI) for sequential extractions incorporating a specially designed extraction column is developed to fractionate radionuclides in environmental solid samples such as soils and sediments. The extraction column can contain a large amount...... of the two radionuclides. However, the dynamic system is fully automated, eliminates manual separations, significantly reduces the operational time required, and offers detailed kinetic information....

  7. Effect of solvent on in vitro dissolution: Summary of results for uranium, americium, and cobalt aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Hoover, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    The revised 10 CFR Part 20 has adopted the ICRP Publication 30 method for calculating the committed effective dose equivalent from intakes of radionuclides. This dosimetry scheme requires knowledge or assumptions about the chemical form of the radionuclide, its particle size, and its known or assumed solubility. The solubility is classified as being either D (relatively soluble), W, or Y (relatively insoluble), depending on whether the material dissolves over periods of days, weeks, or years. Although Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees may wish to take advantage of material-specific knowledge in order to adjust annual limits on intake and derived air concentrations, relatively few radioactive materials to which workers and the general population may be exposed have been adequately characterized either in terms of physicochemical form or solubility. Experimental measurement of solubility using some type of in vitro dissolution measurement system is therefore needed. However, there is currently no clear consensus regarding the appropriate design of in vitro dissolution systems, particularly when considering the range of different radionuclides to be studied, and the complexity of the biological mechanisms involved in the retention and clearance of inhaled deposited radioactive particles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the several solvents on the dissolution of four test aerosols ({sup 57}Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, {sup 241}AmO{sub 2}, ammonium diuranate [ADU], and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) selected to encompass a variety of chemical and biochemical properties in vivo. The results of this study provide some guidance on the usefulness of in vitro dissolution tests for estimating the solubility of unknown radionuclide particles within the context of a simple model such as the class D, W, and Y formulation of ICRP 30.

  8. Rapid selective separation of americium/curium from simulated nuclear forensic matrices using triazine ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginson, Matthew A.; Livens, Francis R.; Heath, Sarah L. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Radiochemistry Research; Thompson, Paul; Marsden, Olivia J. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading (United Kingdom); Harwood, Laurence M.; Hudson, Michael J. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Lewis, Frank W. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Northumbria Univ., Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical and Forensic Sciences

    2015-07-01

    In analysis of complex nuclear forensic samples containing lanthanides, actinides and matrix elements, rapid selective extraction of Am/Cm for quantification is challenging, in particular due the difficult separation of Am/Cm from lanthanides. Here we present a separation process for Am/Cm(III) which is achieved using a combination of AG1-X8 chromatography followed by Am/Cm extraction with a triazine ligand. The ligands tested in our process were CyMe{sub 4}-BTPhen, CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP, CA-BTP and CA-BTPhen. Our process allows for purification and quantification of Am and Cm (recoveries 80% - 100%) and other major actinides in < 2 d without the use of multiple columns or thiocyanate. The process is unaffected by high level Ca(II)/Fe(III)/Al(III) (10 mg mL{sup -1}) and thus requires little pre-treatment of samples.

  9. Functional sorbents for selective capture of plutonium, americium, uranium, and thorium in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yantasee, Wassana; Sangvanich, Thanapon; Creim, Jeffery A; Pattamakomsan, Kanda; Wiacek, Robert J; Fryxell, Glen E; Addleman, R Shane; Timchalk, Charles

    2010-09-01

    Self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous supports (SAMMS) are hybrid materials created from attachment of organic moieties onto very high surface area mesoporous silica. SAMMS with surface chemistries including three isomers of hydroxypyridinone, diphosphonic acid, acetamide phosphonic acid, glycinyl urea, and diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) analog were evaluated for chelation of actinides ((239)Pu, (241)Am, uranium, thorium) from blood. Direct blood decorporation using sorbents does not have the toxicity or renal challenges associated with traditional chelation therapy and may have potential applications for critical exposure cases, reduction of nonspecific dose during actinide radiotherapy, and for sorbent hemoperfusion in renal insufficient patients, whose kidneys clear radionuclides at a very slow rate. Sorption affinity (K(d)), sorption rate, selectivity, and stability of SAMMS were measured in batch contact experiments. An isomer of hydroxypyridinone (3,4-HOPO) on SAMMS demonstrated the highest affinity for all four actinides from blood and plasma and greatly outperformed the DTPA analog on SAMMS and commercial resins. In batch contact, a fifty percent reduction of actinides in blood was achieved within minutes, and there was no evidence of protein fouling or material leaching in blood after 24 h. The engineered form of SAMMS (bead format) was further evaluated in a 100-fold scaled-down hemoperfusion device and showed no blood clotting after 2 h. A 0.2 g quantity of SAMMS could reduce 50 wt.% of 100 ppb uranium in 50 mL of plasma in 18 min and that of 500 dpm mL(-1) in 24 min. 3,4-HOPO-SAMMS has a long shelf-life in air and at room temperature for at least 8 y, indicating its feasibility for stockpiling in preparedness for an emergency. The excellent efficacy and stability of SAMMS materials in complex biological matrices suggest that SAMMS can also be used as orally administered drugs and for wound decontamination. By changing the organic groups of SAMMS, they can be used not only for actinides but also for other radionuclides. By using the mixture of these SAMMS materials, broad spectrum decorporation of radionuclides is very feasible.

  10. Subsurface Behavior of Plutonium and Americium at Non-Hanford Sites and Relevance to Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Riley, Robert G.

    2008-02-01

    Seven sites where Pu release to the environment has raised significant environmental concerns have been reviewed. A summary of the most significant hydrologic and geochemical features, contaminant release events and transport processes relevant to Pu migration at the seven sites is presented.

  11. New Synthetic Methods and Structure-Property Relationships in Neptunium, Plutonium, and Americium Borates. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas Edward

    2013-09-14

    The past three years of support by the Heavy Elements Chemistry Program have been highly productive in terms of advanced degrees awarded, currently supported graduate students, peer-reviewed publications, and presentations made at universities, national laboratories, and at international conferences. Ph.D. degrees were granted to Shuao Wang and Juan Diwu, who both went on to post-doctoral appointments at the Glenn T. Seaborg Center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with Jeff Long and Ken Raymond, respectively. Pius Adelani completed his Ph.D. with me and is now a post-doc with Peter C. Burns. Andrea Alsobrook finished her Ph.D. and is now a post-doc at Savannah River with Dave Hobbs. Anna Nelson completed her Ph.D. and is now a post-doc with Rod Ewing at the University of Michigan. As can be gleaned from this list, students supported by the Heavy Elements Chemistry grant have remained interested in actinide science after leaving my program. This follows in line with previous graduates in this program such as Richard E. Sykora, who did his post-doctoral work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with R. G. Haire, and Amanda C. Bean, who is a staff scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Philip M. Almond and Thomas C. Shehee, who are both staff scientists at Savannah River National Laboratory, Gengbang Jin who is a staff scientist at Argonne National Lab, and Travis Bray who has been a post-doc at both LBNL and ANL. Clearly this program is serving as a pipe-line for students to enter into careers in the national laboratories. About half of my students depart the DOE complex for academia or industry. My undergraduate researchers also remain active in actinide chemistry after leaving my group. Dan Wells was a productive undergraduate of mine, and went on to pursue a Ph.D. on uranium and neptunium chalcogenides with Jim Ibers at Northwestern. After earning his Ph.D., he went directly into the nuclear industry.

  12. Americium-241 and plutonium-237 turnover in mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) living in field enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guary, J. C.; Fowler, S. W.

    1981-02-01

    Loss of 241Am and 237Pu from contaminated mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) living in situ in the Mediterranean Sea is described as the sum of three exponential functions. In the case of 241Am, two short-lived compartments representing a total of 80% of the incorporated radionuclide turned over rapidly with biological half-lives of 2 and 3 weeks. The remaining fraction of 241Am, associated with a long-lived compartment, was lost at an extremely slow rate ( Tb1/2=1·3 years). Plutonium-237 turnover in the two short-lived compartments (containing 70% of the Pu) was more rapid ( Tb1/2=1-2 days and 2 weeks) than that of 241Am; however, there was some indication that subsequent loss rates of the two radionuclides in long-lived compartments may be similar if determined over comparable periods of time. Loss rates of 241Am differed for the various tissues, with the most rapid rates occurring in gill, viscera and shell. Abrupt changes in loss observed in muscle and mantle suggested a translocation of 241Am to muscle and mantle during depuration. Whole shell contained by far the largest fraction (˜90%) of both 241Am and 237Pu taken up; in addition, these radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to mussel shell but readily leach into the water. These observations suggest that mollusc shell may influence the biogeochemistry of transuranic elements in littoral zones.

  13. Plutonium and americium inventories in atmospheric fallout and sediment cores from Blelham Tarn, Cumbria (UK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, H. E-mail: herve.michel@unice.fr; Barci-Funel, G.; Dalmasso, J.; Ardisson, G.; Appleby, P.G.; Haworth, E.; El-Daoushy, F

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to report on the results of a study of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am inventories onto Blelham Tarn in Cumbria (UK). The atmospheric fallout inventory was obtained by analysing soil cores and the results are in good agreement with the literature: 101 Bq m{sup -2} for {sup 239+240}Pu; 4.5 Bq m{sup -2} for {sup 238}Pu and 37 Bq m{sup -2} for {sup 241}Am. The sediment core inventory for the whole lake is compared to the atmospheric fallout inventory. The sediment activity is 60-80% higher than the estimated fallout activity, showing a catchment area contribution and in particular the stream input.

  14. Plutonium and americium inventories in atmospheric fallout and sediment cores from Blelham Tarn, Cumbria (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, H; Barci-Funel, G; Dalmasso, J; Ardisson, G; Appleby, P G; Haworth, E; El-Daoushy, F

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report on the results of a study of 238Pu, 239 + 240Pu and 241Am inventories onto Blelham Tarn in Cumbria (UK). The atmospheric fallout inventory was obtained by analysing soil cores and the results are in good agreement with the literature: 101 Bq m(-2) for 239 + 240Pu; 4.5 Bq m(-2) for 238Pu and 37 Bq m(-2) for 241Am. The sediment core inventory for the whole lake is compared to the atmospheric fallout inventory. The sediment activity is 60-80% higher than the estimated fallout activity, showing a catchment area contribution and in particular the stream input.

  15. Assessment of Neptunium, Americium, and Curium in the Savannah River Site Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-12-17

    A series of documents has been published in which the impact of various radionuclides released to the environment by Savannah River Site (SRS) operations has been assessed. The quantity released, the disposition of the radionuclides in the environment, and the dose to offsite individuals has been presented for activation products, carbon cesium, iodine, plutonium, selected fission products, strontium, technetium, tritium, uranium, and the noble gases. An assessment of the impact of nonradioactive mercury also has been published.This document assesses the impact of radioactive transuranics released from SRS facilities since the first reactor became operational late in 1953. The isotopes reported here are 239Np, 241Am, and 244Cm.

  16. Fundamental chemistry and materials science of americium in selected immobilization glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haire, R.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stump, N.A. [Winston-Salem State Univ., NC (United States). Dept. of Physical Sciences

    1996-12-01

    We have pursued some of the fundamental chemistry and materials science of Am in 3 glass matrices, two being high-temperature (850 and 1400 C mp) silicate-based glasses and the third a sol-gel glass. Optical spectroscopy was the principal tool. One aspect of this work was to determine the oxidation state exhibited by Am in these matrices, as well as factors that control or may alter this state. A correlation was noted between the oxidation state of the f-elements in the two high-temperature glasses with their high-temperature oxide chemistries. One exception was Am: although AmO{sub 2} is the stable oxide encountered in air, when this dioxide was incorporated into the high-temperature glasses, only trivalent Am was found in the products. When Am(III) was used to prepare the sol-gel glasses at ambient temperature, and after these products were heated in air to 800 C, only Am(III) was observed. Potential explanations for the unexpected Am behavior is offered in the context of its basic chemistry. Experimental spectra, spectroscopic assignments, etc. are discussed.

  17. Americium, curium and neodymium analysis in ECRIX-H irradiated pellet. Sample preparation for TIMS measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esbelin, E.; Buravand, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France). Centre de Marcoule; Bejaoui, S.; Lamontagne, J.; Bonnerot, J.M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France). Centre de Cadarache

    2013-08-01

    This paper concerns quantitative isotopic analysis of Am, Cm and Nd contained in an irradiated AmO{sub 1.62}/MgO pellet. The complete analysis protocol is described, from dissolution of the pellets in a shielded line to the laboratory glove separation processes box for TIMS analysis. Emphasis is placed on the separation processes: by ion exchange resin in a hot cell and by HPLC in the laboratory. Intermediate measurements by X-ray fluorescence, alpha spectrometry, and ICP-AES are described. (orig.)

  18. Optimization of TRPO Process Parameters for Americium Extraction from High Level Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jing; WANG Jianchen; SONG Chongli

    2001-01-01

    The numerical calculations for Am multistage fractional extraction by trialkyl phosphine oxide (TRPO) were verified by a hot test.1750 L/t-U high level waste (HLW) was used as the feed to the TRPO process.The analysis used the simple objective function to minimize the total waste content in the TRPO process streams.Some process parameters were optimized after other parameters were selected.The optimal process parameters for Am extraction by TRPO are:10 stages for extraction and 2 stages for scrubbing;a flow rate ratio of 0.931 for extraction and 4.42 for scrubbing;nitric acid concentration of 1.35 mol/L for the feed and 0.5 mol/L for the scrubbing solution.Finally,the nitric acid and Am concentration profiles in the optimal TRPO extraction process are given.

  19. Vertical distribution of radiocaesium, plutonium and americium in the Catalan Sea (northwestern Mediterranean)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molero, J.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Merino, J.; Pujol, Ll.; Vidal-Quadras, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias; Mitchell, P.I. [University Coll., Dublin (Ireland). Lab. of Radiation Physics

    1995-07-01

    Caesium-137, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am concentration profiles (0-1000 m) have been determined in unfiltered large volume water samples collected from the Catalan Sea (northwestern Mediterranean). Results showed that radiocaesium concentration decreases quickly through the water column while the transuranic concentration increases with depth, showing a faster migration to the bottom layers. Comparing our results with those reported by other authors (1975-1980), radiocaesium input from Chernobyl releases has been identified through the profile. In addition, transuranic concentrations have decreased considerably in the different layers of the profile. (Author).

  20. Americium and plutonium separation by extraction chromatography for determination by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazi, Zakir H. [Department of Earth Science, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur Avenue, Ottawa K1N 6N5 (Canada); Cornett, Jack R., E-mail: jack.cornett@uottawa.ca [Department of Earth Science, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur Avenue, Ottawa K1N 6N5 (Canada); Zhao, Xaiolei; Kieser, Liam [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur Avenue, Ottawa K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Am and Pu were adsorbed and separated using a single extraction chromatography DGA column. • Pu was eluted from the column completely using on-column reduction of Pu(IV) to Pu(III). • ²⁴¹Am and 239,240Pu measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) agree with the certified values in two SRMs. Abstract: A simple method was developed to separate Pu and Am using single column extraction chromatography employing N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide (DGA) resin. Isotope dilution measurements of Am and Pu were performed using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and alpha spectrometry. For maximum adsorption Pu was stabilized in the tetra valent oxidation state in 8 M HNO₃ with 0.05 M NaNO₂ before loading the sample onto the resin. Am(III) was adsorbed also onto the resin from concentrated HNO₃, and desorbed with 0.1 M HCl while keeping the Pu adsorbed. The on-column reduction of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) with 0.02 M TiCl₃ facilitated the complete desorption of Pu. Interferences (e.g. Ca²⁺, Fe³⁺) were washed off from the resin bed with excess HNO₃. Using NdF₃, micro-precipitates of the separated isotopes were prepared for analysis by both AMS and alpha spectrometry. The recovery was 97.7 ± 5.3% and 95.5 ± 4.6% for ²⁴¹Am and ²⁴²Pu respectively in reagents without a matrix. The recoveries of the same isotopes were 99.1 ± 6.0 and 96.8 ± 5.3% respectively in garden soil. The robustness of the method was validated using certified reference materials (IAEA 384 and IAEA 385). The measurements agree with the certified values over a range of about 1–100 Bq kg⁻¹. The single column separation of Pu and Am saves reagents, separation time, and cost.

  1. Criteria Considered in Selecting Feed Items for Americium-241 Oxide Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Louis D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-30

    The analysis in this document serves the purpose of defining a number of attributes in selection of feed items to be utilized in recovery/recycle of Pu and also production operations of 241AmO2 material intended to meet specification requirements. This document was written in response to a specific request on the part of the 2014 annual program review which took place over the dates of October 28-29, 2014. A number of feed attributes are noted including: (1) Non-interference with existing Pu recovery operations; (2) Content of sufficient 241Am to allow process efficiency in recovery operations; (3) Absence of indications that 243Am might be mixed in with the Pu/241Am material; (4) Absence of indications that Cm might be mixed in with the Pu/241Am material; (5) Absence of indications of other chemical elements that would present difficulty in chemical separation from 241Am; (6) Feed material not expected to present difficulty in dissolution; (7) Dose issues; (8) Process efficiency; (9) Size; (10) Hazard associated with items and package configuration in the vault; (11) Within existing NEPA documentation. The analysis in this document provides a baseline of attributes considered for feed materials, but does not presume to replace the need for technical expertise and judgment on the part of individuals responsible for selecting the material feed to be processed. This document is not comprehensive as regards all attributes that could prove to be important. The value of placing a formal QA hold point on accepting feed items versus more informal management of feed items is discussed in the summation of this analysis. The existing planned QA hold points on 241AmO2 products produced and packaged may be adequate as the entire project is based on QA of the product rather than QA of the process. The probability of introduction of items that would inherently cause the241AmO2 products produced to be outside of specification requirements appears to be rather small.

  2. 2F Evaporator CP class instrumentation uncertainties evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, E.

    1994-01-28

    There are two instrumentation systems in the 2F Evaporator facilities (bldg. 242-16F) that are classified as the Critical Protection (CP). They are the Evaporator Pot Temperature instrumentations and Steam Condensate Gamma Monitor. The pot instrumentation consists of two interrelated circuits sharing the same temperature sensor and transducer. They are the high alarm and interlock circuit and the recorder circuit. The gamma monitor instrumentation consists of four interrelated circuits sharing the same scintillation detector. They are the gamma alarm and interlock circuit, failure alarm and interlock circuit, condensate cesium activity recorder circuit, and condensate americium activity recorder circuit. The resulting uncertainties for the instrument circuits are tabulated. (GHH)

  3. A Review of Subsurface Behavior of Plutonium and Americium at the 200-PW-1/3/6 Operable Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Riley, Robert G.

    2008-01-31

    This report begins with a brief summary of the history and current status of 200-PW-1/3/6 OUs in section 2.0. This is followed by a description of our concentual model of Pu/Am migration at the 200-PW-1/3/6 OUs, during both past artificial recharge conditions and current natural recharge condictions (section 3.0). Section 4.0 discusses data gaps and information needs. The final section (section 5.0) provides recommendations for futher work to address the data gaps and information needs identified in section 4.0.

  4. Input contribution and vertical migration of plutonium, americium and cesium in lake sediments (Belham Tarn, Cumbria, UK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, H.; Barci-Funel, G.; Barci, V.; Ardisson, G. [Lab. de Radiochimie et de Radioecologie, Univ. de Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice (France)

    2002-07-01

    The record of the global atmospheric fallout could be found in the lake sediments. A mass balance for fallout radionuclides in Blelham Tarn and its catchment is established. The sediment activity contribution is coming from direct atmospheric fallout and from indirect atmospheric fallout via the catchment. The catchement activity is conveyed to the sediment by the rivers and the direct streaming. A comparison of the fallout and the sediment inventory allows the activity estimation of these different contributions and to understand the mobility of these elements on the catchment and in the sediments. The study of activity profile in sediment core allows to characterise the different radioactive events occurred in the past. For the lake Blelham, the results show two cesium activity peaks and only one peak for transuranic activities. The deepest peaks correspond to the atmospheric nuclear test fallout in the sixties (1963) and the second peak to the Chernobyl accident (1986). The activity ratio {sup 239-240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs allows estimating the ratio between cesium activities in sediments coming from these two events. Plutonium and cesium diffusion coefficients are calculated with a simple analytical model. (orig.)

  5. Analysis of cascade impactor and EPA method 29 data from the americium/curium pilot melter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J.R.

    1997-11-01

    The offgas system of the Am/Cm pilot melter at TNX was characterized by measuring the particulate evolution using a cascade impactor and EPA Method 29. This sampling work was performed by John Harden of the Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory, under SCUREF Task SC0056. Elemental analyses were performed by the SRTC Mobile Laboratory.Operation of the Am/Cm melter with B2000 frit has resulted in deposition of PbO and boron compounds in the offgas system that has contributed to pluggage of the High Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME). Sampling of the offgas system was performed to quantify the amount of particulate in the offgas system under several sets of conditions. Particulate concentration and particle size distribution were measured just downstream of the melter pressure control air addition port and at the HEME inlet. At both locations, the particulate was measured with and without steam to the film cooler while the melter was idled at about 1450 degrees Celsius. Additional determinations were made at the melter location during feeding and during idling at 1150 degrees Celsius rather than 1450 degrees Celsius (both with no steam to the film cooler). Deposition of particulates upstream of the melter sample point may have, and most likely did occur in each run, so the particulate concentrations measured do no necessarily reflect the total particulate emission at the melt surface. However, the data may be used in a relative sense to judge the system performance.

  6. Rapid selective separation of americium/curium\\ud from simulated nuclear forensic matrices using\\ud triazine ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Higginson, Matthew A.; Thompson, Paul; Marsden, Olivia J.; Livens, Francis R.; Harwood, Laurence M.; Lewis, Frank W.; Hudson, Michael J.; Heath, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    In analysis of complex nuclear forensic samples\\ud containing lanthanides, actinides and matrix elements,\\ud rapid selective extraction of Am/Cm for quantification\\ud is challenging, in particular due the difficult separation\\ud of Am/Cm from lanthanides. Here we present\\ud a separation process for Am/Cm(III) which is achieved\\ud using a combination of AG1-X8 chromatography followed\\ud by Am/Cm extraction with a triazine ligand. The ligands\\ud tested in our process were CyMe4-BTPhen, CyMe4-\\u...

  7. LITERATURE REVIEW ON THE SORPTION OF PLUTONIUM, URANIUM, NEPTUNIUM, AMERICIUM AND TECHNETIUM TO CORROSION PRODUCTS ON WASTE TANK LINERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.; Kaplan, D.

    2012-02-29

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has conducted performance assessment (PA) calculations to determine the risk associated with closing liquid waste tanks. The PA estimates the risk associated with a number of scenarios, making various assumptions. Throughout all of these scenarios, it is assumed that the carbon-steel tank liners holding the liquid waste do not sorb the radionuclides. Tank liners have been shown to form corrosion products, such as Fe-oxyhydroxides (Wiersma and Subramanian 2002). Many corrosion products, including Fe-oxyhydroxides, at the high pH values of tank effluent, take on a very strong negative charge. Given that many radionuclides may have net positive charges, either as free ions or complexed species, it is expected that many radionuclides will sorb to corrosion products associated with tank liners. The objective of this report was to conduct a literature review to investigate whether Pu, U, Np, Am and Tc would sorb to corrosion products on tank liners after they were filled with reducing grout (cementitious material containing slag to promote reducing conditions). The approach was to evaluate radionuclides sorption literature with iron oxyhydroxide phases, such as hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) and ferrihydrite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} {center_dot} 0.5H{sub 2}O). The primary interest was the sorption behavior under tank closure conditions where the tanks will be filled with reducing cementitious materials. Because there were no laboratory studies conducted using site specific experimental conditions, (e.g., high pH and HLW tank aqueous and solid phase chemical conditions), it was necessary to extend the literature review to lower pH studies and noncementitious conditions. Consequently, this report relied on existing lower pH trends, existing geochemical modeling, and experimental spectroscopic evidence conducted at lower pH levels. The scope did not include evaluating the appropriateness of K{sub d} values for the Fe-oxyhydroxides, but instead to evaluate whether it is a conservative assumption to exclude this sorption process of radionuclides onto tank liner corrosion products in the PA model. This may identify another source for PA conservatism since the modeling did not consider any sorption by the tank liner.

  8. 小儿脑性瘫痪242例临床分析%Clinical analysis of 242 cases of children cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蒙

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Children cerebral palsy not only affects the quality of the affected children's lives but also burdens the family and the society heavily.Therefore, analysis of the disease and its causes from the viewpoint of clinic might helpful in treatment and prevention of the disease.

  9. 有机磷杀虫药中毒242例临床分析%Clinical study on 242 cases of organophosphorous pesticide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪元平; 李栋

    2001-01-01

    @@ 有机磷杀虫药(organophosphorous insecticides)中毒是基层医院的常见危重症之一,大多采取对症治疗,即根据患者出现的临床症状作出相应的治疗,但由于有机磷杀虫药中毒的患者经常出现一种或多种并发症,这使得治疗的重点不仅要放在对症治疗上,在可能的情况下还要借助各种生化指标早期识别和判断并发症,特别是对于严重并发症的识别尤为重要.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF THE RADIONUCLIDE COMPOSITION OF "HOT PARTICLES" SAMPLED IN THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT FOURTH REACTOR UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Marra, J.

    2011-10-01

    Fuel-containing materials sampled from within the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) 4th Reactor Unit Confinement Shelter were spectroscopically studied for gamma and alpha content. Isotopic ratios for cesium, europium, plutonium, americium, and curium were identified and the fuel burnup in these samples was determined. A systematic deviation in the burnup values based on the cesium isotopes, in comparison with other radionuclides, was observed. The conducted studies were the first ever performed to demonstrate the presence of significant quantities of {sup 242}Cm and {sup 243}Cm. It was determined that there was a systematic underestimation of activities of transuranic radionuclides in fuel samples from inside of the ChNPP Confinement Shelter, starting from {sup 241}Am (and going higher), in comparison with the theoretical calculations.

  11. 242-16H 2H EVAPORATOR POT SAMPLING FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krementz, D; William Cheng, W

    2008-06-11

    Due to the materials that are processed through 2H Evaporator, scale is constantly being deposited on the surfaces of the evaporator pot. In order to meet the requirements of the Nuclear Criticality Safety Analysis/Evaluation (NCSA/NCSE) for 2H Evaporator, inspections of the pot are performed to determine the extent of scaling. Once the volume of scale reaches a certain threshold, the pot must be chemically cleaned to remove the scale. Prior to cleaning the pot, samples of the scale are obtained to determine the concentration of uranium and plutonium and also to provide information to assist with pot cleaning. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) Engineering to obtain these samples from two locations within the evaporator. Past experience has proven the difficulty of successfully obtaining solids samples from the 2H Evaporator pot. To mitigate this risk, a total of four samplers were designed and fabricated to ensure that two samples could be obtained. Samples had previously been obtained from the cone surface directly below the vertical access riser using a custom scraping tool. This tool was fabricated and deployed successfully. A second scraper was designed to obtain sample from the nearby vertical thermowell and a third scraper was designed to obtain sample from the vertical pot wall. The newly developed scrapers both employed a pneumatically actuated elbow. The scrapers were designed to be easily attached/removed from the elbow assembly. These tools were fabricated and deployed successfully. A fourth tool was designed to obtain sample from the opposite side of the pot under the tube bundle. This tool was fabricated and tested, but the additional modifications required to make the tool field-ready could not be complete in time to meet the aggressive deployment schedule. Two samples were obtained near the pot entry location, one from the pot wall and the other from the evaporator feed pipe. Since a third sampler was available and all of the radiological controls were in place, the decision was made to obtain a third sample. The third sampler dropped directly below the riser to obtain a scrape sample from the evaporator cone. Samples were obtained from all of these locations in sufficient quantities to perform the required analysis.

  12. High level waste storage tanks 242-A evaporator standards/requirement identification document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biebesheimer, E.

    1996-01-01

    This document, the Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RIDS) for the subject facility, represents the necessary and sufficient requirements to provide an adequate level of protection of the worker, public health and safety, and the environment. It lists those source documents from which requirements were extracted, and those requirements documents considered, but from which no requirements where taken. Documents considered as source documents included State and Federal Regulations, DOE Orders, and DOE Standards

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Orphan CRISPR2 Locus in 242 Enterococcus faecalis Strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Hullahalli

    Full Text Available Clustered, Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats and their associated Cas proteins (CRISPR-Cas provide prokaryotes with a mechanism for defense against mobile genetic elements (MGEs. A CRISPR locus is a molecular memory of MGE encounters. It contains an array of short sequences, called spacers, that generally have sequence identity to MGEs. Three different CRISPR loci have been identified among strains of the opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. CRISPR1 and CRISPR3 are associated with the cas genes necessary for blocking MGEs, but these loci are present in only a subset of E. faecalis strains. The orphan CRISPR2 lacks cas genes and is ubiquitous in E. faecalis, although its spacer content varies from strain to strain. Because CRISPR2 is a variable locus occurring in all E. faecalis, comparative analysis of CRISPR2 sequences may provide information about the clonality of E. faecalis strains. We examined CRISPR2 sequences from 228 E. faecalis genomes in relationship to subspecies phylogenetic lineages (sequence types; STs determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST, and to a genome phylogeny generated for a representative 71 genomes. We found that specific CRISPR2 sequences are associated with specific STs and with specific branches on the genome tree. To explore possible applications of CRISPR2 analysis, we evaluated 14 E. faecalis bloodstream isolates using CRISPR2 analysis and MLST. CRISPR2 analysis identified two groups of clonal strains among the 14 isolates, an assessment that was confirmed by MLST. CRISPR2 analysis was also used to accurately predict the ST of a subset of isolates. We conclude that CRISPR2 analysis, while not a replacement for MLST, is an inexpensive method to assess clonality among E. faecalis isolates, and can be used in conjunction with MLST to identify recombination events occurring between STs.

  14. 17 CFR 242.200 - Definition of “short sale” and marking requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY...) introductory text and adding paragraph (g)(2), effective May 10, 2010. For the convenience of the user,...

  15. MeteoIO 2.4.2: a preprocessing library for meteorological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bavay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using numerical models which require large meteorological data sets is sometimes difficult and problems can often be traced back to the Input/Output functionality. Complex models are usually developed by the environmental sciences community with a focus on the core modelling issues. As a consequence, the I/O routines that are costly to properly implement are often error-prone, lacking flexibility and robustness. With the increasing use of such models in operational applications, this situation ceases to be simply uncomfortable and becomes a major issue. The MeteoIO library has been designed for the specific needs of numerical models that require meteorological data. The whole task of data preprocessing has been delegated to this library, namely retrieving, filtering and resampling the data if necessary as well as providing spatial interpolations and parameterizations. The focus has been to design an Application Programming Interface (API that (i provides a uniform interface to meteorological data in the models, (ii hides the complexity of the processing taking place, and (iii guarantees a robust behaviour in the case of format errors, erroneous or missing data. Moreover, in an operational context, this error handling should avoid unnecessary interruptions in the simulation process. A strong emphasis has been put on simplicity and modularity in order to make it extremely easy to support new data formats or protocols and to allow contributors with diverse backgrounds to participate. This library is also regularly evaluated for computing performance and further optimized where necessary. Finally, it is released under an Open Source license and is available at http://models.slf.ch/p/meteoio. This paper gives an overview of the MeteoIO library from the point of view of conceptual design, architecture, features and computational performance. A scientific evaluation of the produced results is not given here since the scientific algorithms that are used have already been published elsewhere.

  16. MeteoIO 2.4.2: a preprocessing library for meteorological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bavay

    2014-06-01

    (i provides a uniform interface to meteorological data in the models; (ii hides the complexity of the processing taking place; and (iii guarantees a robust behaviour in case of format errors, erroneous or missing data. Moreover, in an operational context, this error handling should avoid unnecessary interruptions in the simulation process. A strong emphasis has been put on simplicity and modularity in order to make it extremely easy to support new data formats or protocols and to allow contributors with diverse backgrounds to participate. This library can also be used in the context of High Performance Computing in a parallel environment. Finally, it is released under an Open Source license and is available at http://models.slf.ch/p/meteoio. This paper gives an overview of the MeteoIO library from the point of view of conceptual design, architecture, features and computational performance. A scientific evaluation of the produced results is not given here since the scientific algorithms that are used have already been published elsewhere.

  17. Tris{2-[4-(2-pyridylpyrimidin-2-ylsulfanyl]ethyl}amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Quan Wang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The tripodal character of the title compound, C33H30N10S3, arises from the three thioether arms surrounding a central amine N atom. The three arms have approximately the same conformation but distinct geometries in a trans–trans–cis conformation, resulting in a short pyridine–sulfanyl N...S distance of 4.320 (7 Å. The distances of the central N atom to the N atoms of three pyridine rings in the arms are 8.305 (7, 8.032 (7 and 5.076 (9Å. In the crystal, molecules are joined into a three-dimensional supramolecular network via effective π–π stacking between adjacent heterocycles [centroid–centroid distances of 3.700 (3–4.118 (4 Å between adjacent interlayer pyrimidine rings and 3.676 (4 Å between the pyridine rings].

  18. 36 CFR 242.25 - Subsistence taking of fish, wildlife, and shellfish: general regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... not include permanent hotels or roadhouses on the State road system or at State or Federally... processed for human consumption in a manner which saves or prevents the edible meat from waste, and... may not use wildlife as food for a dog or furbearer, or as bait, except as allowed for in §...

  19. Disaster Preparedness Utilization Field/Disaster Preparedness Career Ladder, AFSCs 05XX/242X0

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    STG219, N=12) PERCENT MEMBERS TASKS PERFORMING E285 TYPE CORRESPONDENCE, SUCH AS REPORTS OR RECORDS 100 E252 MAINTAIN DISASTER PREPAREDNESS (DP...TECHNICAL ORDER FILES 67 E252 MAINTAIN DISASTER PREPAREDNESS (DP) OFFICE ADMINISTRATIVE FILES 56 A9 TABLE AlO REPRESENTATIVE TASKS PLRFORMED BY CONTROL

  20. 17 CFR 242.609 - Registration of securities information processors: form of application and amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Nms-Regulation of the National Market System §...

  1. High level waste storage tanks 242-A evaporator S/RID phase II assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biebesheimer, E.

    1996-09-27

    This document, the Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) Phase 2 Assessment Report for the subject facility, represents the results of a Performance Assessment to determine whether procedures containing S/RID requirements are fully implemented by field personnel in the field. It contains a summary report and three attachments; an assessment schedule, performance objectives, and assessments for selected functional areas.

  2. New measurement of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section at n_TOF

    OpenAIRE

    Lerendegui-Marco J.; Guerrero C.; Cortés-Giraldo M. A.; Quesada J.M.; Mendoza E.; Cano-Ott D.; Eberhardt K.; Junghans A.

    2016-01-01

    WONDER-2015 – 4th International Workshop On Nuclear Data Evaluation for Reactor applications The use of MOX fuel (mixed-oxide fuel made of UO2 and PuO2) in nuclear reactors allows substituting a large fraction of the enriched Uranium by Plutonium reprocessed from spent fuel. With the use of such new fuel composition rich in Pu, a better knowledge of the capture and fission cross sections of the Pu isotopes becomes very important. In particular, a new series of cross section evaluations hav...

  3. 2-[4-(2-Chloroacetylphenyl]-2-methyl-1-(pyrrolidin-1-ylpropan-1-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-mei Ren

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C16H20ClNO2, contains two molecules in which the dihedral angles between the benzene ring and the plane of the amide unit are 77.4 (1 and 81.1 (1°. In both molecules, the five-membered ring adopts an envelope conformation with one of the β-C atoms as the flap. In the crystal, molecules are connected via C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along the b-axis direction. These chains are further linked by C—H...π interactions, forming a three-dimensional network.

  4. 36 CFR 242.16 - Customary and traditional use determination process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determinations based on application of the following factors: (1) A long-term consistent pattern of use... characterized by efficiency and economy of effort and cost, conditioned by local characteristics; (4) The... which includes the handing down of knowledge of fishing and hunting skills, values, and lore...

  5. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY - CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES (PHASE I) 2000 ANNUAL REPORT, NUMBER 242

    Science.gov (United States)

    This annual report presents the proceedings of the Third Annual NATO/CCMS pilot study meeting in Copenhagen, Denmark. Guest speakers focused on efforts in the area of research of clean products and processes, life cycle analysis, computer tools and pollution prevention.

  6. 18 CFR 367.2420 - Account 242, Miscellaneous current and accrued liabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Liabilities... Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC...

  7. Aqueous complexation of citrate with neodymium(III) and americium(III): a study by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, microcalorimetry, and XAFS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M Alex; Kropf, A Jeremy; Paulenova, Alena; Gelis, Artem V

    2014-05-07

    The aqueous complexation of Nd(III) and Am(III) with anions of citrate was studied by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, microcalorimetry, and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). Using potentiometric titration data fitting the metal-ligand (L) complexes that were identified for Nd(III) were NdHL, NdL, NdHL2, and NdL2; a review of trivalent metal-citrate complexes is also included. Stability constants for these complexes were calculated from potentiometric and spectrophotometric titrations. Microcalorimetric results concluded that the entropy term of complex formation is much more dominant than the enthalpy. XAFS results showed a dependence in the Debye-Waller factor that indicated Nd(iii)-citrate complexation over the pH range of 1.56-6.12.

  8. Americium(III) oxidation by copper(III) periodate in nitric acid solution as compared with the action of Bi(V) compounds of sodium, lithium, and potassium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Radiochemical Processing Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The oxidative action of a Cu(III) periodate compound toward Am(III) in nitric acid was studied. The extent of oxidation of Am(III) to Am(VI) was investigated using a constant initial Cu(III)-to-Am(III) molar ratio of 10:1 and varying nitric acid concentrations from 0.25 to 3.5 mol/L. From 0.25 to 3 mol/L HNO3, more than 98% of the Am(III) was oxidized to Am(VI); however, at 3.5 mol/L HNO{sub 3}, the conversion to Am(VI) was only 80%. Increasing the Cu(III)-to-Am(III) molar ratio to 20:1 in 3.5 mol/L HNO{sub 3} resulted in 98% conversion to Am(VI). For comparison, oxidation of Am(III) with NaBiO{sub 3} was studied at 3.5 mol/L HNO{sub 3} and the same stoichiometric excess of Bi(V) oxidant over Am(III) (stoichiometric ratio of 3.33:1). With NaBiO{sub 3}, the extent of Am(III) conversion to Am(VI) was only 19%, while with the Cu(III) compound this value was found to be about 4 times higher under otherwise identical conditions. Similar results were obtained with other Bi(V) salts. These results show that the Cu(III) periodate compound is a superior oxidant to NaBiO{sub 3}, yielding rapid conversion to Am(VI) in a homogeneous acidic solution, and is, therefore, an excellent candidate for further development of Am separation systems.

  9. Chemical speciation of strontium, americium, and curium in high level waste: Predictive modeling of phase partitioning during tank processing. Annual progress report, October 1996--September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felmy, A.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (US); Choppin, G. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (US)

    1997-12-31

    'The program at Florida State University was funded to collaborate with Dr. A. Felmy (PNNL) on speciation in high level wastes and with Dr. D. Rai (PNNL) on redox of Pu under high level waste conditions. The funding provided support for 3 research associates (postdoctoral researchers) under Professor G. R. Choppin as P.I. Dr. Kath Morris from U. Manchester (Great Britain), Dr. Dean Peterman and Dr. Amy Irwin (both from U. Cincinnati) joined the laboratory in the latter part of 1996. After an initial training period to become familiar with basic actinide chemistry and radiochemical techniques, they began their research. Dr. Peterman was assigned the task of measuring Th-EDTA complexation prior to measuring Pu(IV)-EDTA complexation. These studies are associated with the speciation program with Dr. Felmy. Drs. Morris and Irwin initiated research on redox of plutonium with agents present in the Hanford Tanks as a result of radiolysis or from use in separations. The preliminary results obtained thus far are described in this report. It is expected that the rate of progress will continue to increase significantly as the researchers gain more experience with plutonium chemistry.'

  10. Studies on the feasibility of using completely incinerable reagents for the single-cycle separation of americium(III) from simulated high-level liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, P.K.; Kumaresan, R.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Subramanian, G.G.S.; Prathibha, T.; Syamala, K.V.; Selvan, B. Robert; Rajeswari, S.; Antony, M.P.; Rao, P.R. Vasudeva [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.; Chaurasia, Shivkumar; Bhanage, B.M. [Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai (India)

    2015-06-01

    The extraction and stripping behavior of various metal ions present in the fast reactor simulated high-level liquid waste (FR-SHLLW) was studied using a solvent phase composed of a neutral extractant, N,N,-didodecyl-N',N'-dioctyl-3-oxapentane-1,5-diamide (D{sup 3}DODGA) and an acidic extractant, di-2-ethylhexyl diglycolamic acid (HDEHDGA) in n-dodecane (n-DD). The third phase formation behavior of the solvent formulation D{sup 3}DODGA + HDEHDGA/n-DD, was studied when it was contacted with FR-SHLLW, and the concentration of neutral and acidic extractant needed to avoid the third phase formation was optimized. The distribution ratio of various metal ions present in FR-SHLLW was measured in a solution of 0.1 M D{sup 3}DODGA + 0.2 M HDEHDGA/n-DD. The extraction of Am(III) was accompanied by the co-extraction of lanthanides and unwanted metal ions such as Zr(IV), Y(III), and Pd(II). A procedure was developed to minimize the extraction of unwanted metal ions by using aqueous soluble complexing agents in FR-SHLLW. Based on those results, the counter-current mixer-settler run was performed in a 20-stage mixer-settler. Quantitative extraction of Am(III), Ln(III), Y(III), and Sr(II) in 0.1 M D{sup 3}DODGA + 0.2 M HDEHDGA/n-DD was observed. The recovery of Am(III) from the loaded organic phase was carried out by the optimized aqueous formulation composed of 0.01 M diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) + 0.5 M citric acid (CA) at pH 1.5. The stripping of Am(III) was accompanied by co-stripping of some early lanthanides. However the later lanthanides (Eu(III) and beyond) were not back extracted to Am(III) product. Therefore, the studies foresee the possibility of intra-lanthanides as well as lanthanide-actinide separation in a single-processing cycle.

  11. Proceedings of the specialists' meeting on nuclear data of plutonium and americium isotopes for reactor applications. [BNL, Nov. 20-21, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrien, R E [ed.

    1979-05-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 17 of the papers in these Proceedings. The remaining six have already been cited in ERA, and can be located by referring to the entry CONF-781174-- in the Report Number Index. (RWR)

  12. Determination of Neptunium, Americium and Curium in Spent Nuclear Fuel Samples by Alpha Spectrometry Using {sup 239}Np and {sup 243}Am as a Spike and a Tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeo, Kih-Soo; Song, Byung-Chul; Kim, Young-Bok; Han, Sun-Ho; Jeon, Young-Shin; Jung, Euo-Chang; Jee, Kwang-Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Determination of actinide elements and fission products in spent nuclear fuels is of importance for a burnup determination and source term evaluation. Especially, the amounts of uranium and plutonium isotopes are used for the evaluation of a burnup credit in spent nuclear fuels. Additionally, other actinides such as Np, Am and Cm in spent nuclear fuel samples is also required for the purposes mentioned above. In this study, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am and {sup 244}Cm were determined by an alpha spectrometry for the source term data for high burnup spent nuclear fuels ranging from 37 to 62.9 GWD/MtU as a burnup. Generally, mass spectrometry has been known as the most powerful method for isotope determinations such as high concentrations of uranium and plutonium. However, in the case of minor actinides such as Np, Am and Cm, alpha spectrometry would be recommended instead. Determination of the transuranic elements in spent nuclear fuel samples is different from that for environmental samples because the amount of each nuclide in the spent fuel samples is higher and the relative ratios between each nuclide are also different from those for environmental samples. So, it is important to select an appropriate tracer and an optimum sample size depending on the nuclides and analytical method. In this study {sup 237}Np was determined by an isotope dilution alpha(gamma) spectrometry using {sup 239}Np as a spike, and {sup 241}Am and curium isotopes were determined by alpha spectrometry using {sup 243}Am as a tracer. The content of each nuclide was compared with that by the Origen-2 code.

  13. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this Requirements Identification Document (RID) section is to identify, in one location, all of the facility specific requirements and good industry practices which are necessary or important to establish an effective Issues Management Program for the Tank Farm Facility. The Management Systems Functional Area includes the site management commitment to environmental safety and health (ES&H) policies and controls, to compliance management, to development and management of policy and procedures, to occurrence reporting and corrective actions, resource and issue management, and to the self-assessment process.

  14. Bradley Fighting Vehicle Gunnery: An Analysis of Engagement Strategies for the M242 25-mm Automatic Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    weapons elevation by means of a servo driven mirror that is electrically linked to the selected weapon’s rotor movement. ... In gun mode, the mirror...follows the gun rotor elevation/depression. 25-mm boresight adjustments in elevation movea the mirror to align with the 25-mm. Azimuth adjustment moves the...to model in that it requires a %ange-in proceso Lco effectively 5ngige most targets. While this is not unique, given a similar requirement for most

  15. Pico BTS 242:西门子室内和热点地区的解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓学军

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1引言 移动网络运营商的网络质量是赢得并保留客户,从而使收益获得稳定增长的基础.在衡量移动网络质量的众多指标中,网络的覆盖及覆盖范围内的信号质量是两个非常重要的方面.目前,国内GSM运营商的网络在历经多年的充分发展后,已基本解决了覆盖问题,从城市、郊区到农村,基本上有话务量需求的地区都已得到了覆盖.

  16. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Safeguards and Security (S&S) Functional Area address the programmatic and technical requirements, controls, and standards which assure compliance with applicable S&S laws and regulations. Numerous S&S responsibilities are performed on behalf of the Tank Farm Facility by site level organizations. Certain other responsibilities are shared, and the remainder are the sole responsibility of the Tank Farm Facility. This Requirements Identification Document describes a complete functional Safeguards and Security Program that is presumed to be the responsibility of the Tank Farm Facility. The following list identifies the programmatic elements in the S&S Functional Area: Program Management, Protection Program Scope and Evaluation, Personnel Security, Physical Security Systems, Protection Program Operations, Material Control and Accountability, Information Security, and Key Program Interfaces.

  17. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This Requirements Identification Document (RID) describes an Occupational Health and Safety Program as defined through the Relevant DOE Orders, regulations, industry codes/standards, industry guidance documents and, as appropriate, good industry practice. The definition of an Occupational Health and Safety Program as specified by this document is intended to address Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendations 90-2 and 91-1, which call for the strengthening of DOE complex activities through the identification and application of relevant standards which supplement or exceed requirements mandated by DOE Orders. This RID applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in maintaining the facility and executing the mission of the High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms.

  18. 32 CFR 242.8 - Academic, intellectual, and personal requirements for admission to the first-year class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... academic requirements that are requisite for admission. These are as follows: (i) College preparation. All... matriculation. (ii) Prerequisite course work. Area of specialization in college is not a limiting factor in... a requirement for all entering students. The minimum undergraduate science prerequisites...

  19. 0.94 - 2.42 micron ground-based transmission spectra of the hot-Jupiter HD-189733b

    CERN Document Server

    Danielski, C; Waldmann, I P; Hollis, M D J; Tinetti, G; Swain, M R

    2012-01-01

    We present here new transmission spectra of the hot Jupiter HD-189733b using the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. We obtained two nights of observations where we recorded the primary transit of the planet in the J-, H- and K-bands simultaneously, covering a total spectral range from 0.94 to 2.4 micron. We used Fourier analysis and other de-trending techniques validated previously on other datasets to clean the data. We tested the statistical significance of our results by calculating the auto-correlation function, and we found that, after the detrending, white noise dominates at most frequencies. Additionally, we repeated our analysis on the out-of-transit data only, showing that the residual telluric contamination is well within the error bars. While these techniques are very efficient when multiple nights of observations are combined together, our results prove that even one good night of observations is enough to provide statistically meaningful data, which might appear counterintui...

  20. Giraut de Borneil, “Ben cove, pus ja bayssa·l ram” (BdT 242.25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro G. Beltrami

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will offer a revision, with a translation and commentary, of the text of “Ben cove, pus ja baissa·l ram” by Giraut de Borneil, with a new examination of the manuscript tradition after the monographic editions by Adolf Kolsen and Ruth Verity Sharman. In particular the paper will offer a new reading of l. 20, transmitted only by Chansonnier a, while the other manuscripts have a lacuna that seems to have been crudely corrected by Sg. The interpretation of “e leis s’embla, que a miralh” as ‘and she, who holds a mirror, is elusive’ restores an image of the lady filled with pride on seeing her own beauty reflected in a mirror that is also in Raimbaut d’Aurenga and Pons de Capduoill. In the Introduction the text is interpreted as an example of two different aspects of Giraut’s poetry, expressed through two different voices in the text, the author’s ‘self’ and the lover’s ‘self’. The former, who speaks in the first stanza, gives importance to his aiming for excellence; the latter, who speaks in the following stanzas, presents contents and forms belonging to a discourse on love. Finally, the point is made that where the two parts meet, at l. 9 “E per ma guerreira cui am” ‘and for my enemy whom I love’, the text is of great poetic intensity.

  1. SU-E-T-242: Design of a Novel Afterloader Clearance QA Device for Biliary HDR Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullins, JP; Deufel, CL [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Bile duct cancer affects 2–3 thousand people annually in the United States. Radiation therapy has been shown to double median survival, with combined external beam and intraluminal high dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy being most effective. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) biliary HDR, a less-invasive alternative to trans-hepatic brachytherapy, is delivered through a catheter that travels a tortuous path from nose to bile duct, requiring wire drive force and dexterity beyond typical afterloader performance specifications. Thus, specific afterloader quality assurance(QA) is recommended for this procedure. Our aim was to create a device and process for Varisource afterloader clearance QA with objectives that it be quantitative and can monitor afterloader performance over time, compare performance between two distinct afterloaders and potentially Result in a predictive nomogram for patient-specific clearance. Methods: Based on retrospective reconstruction of 20 ERCP patient anatomies, we designed a phantom to test afterloader ability to drive the source wire along an intended treatment path. The ability of the afterloader to fully extend the intended treatment path is a function of number and diameters of turns. We have determined experimentally that relative position of the turns does not impact performance. Results: Both patient and QA paths involve three common turns/loops: a large turn representing the stomach(10.8cm±2.0cm), an elliptical loop representing the duodenum(7.3cm±1.5cmx4.8cm±0.7cm), and a final turn at the end of the bile duct that may be tight for some patient-specific anatomies and absent in others(3.7cm±0.7cm, where present). Our phantom design uses anatomical average turn diameters for the stomach and duodenum then terminates in a turn of quantitatively selectable diameter. The smallest final turn diameter that an afterloader can pass is recorded as the QA parameter. Conclusion: With this device and QA process, we have the ability to quantitatively evaluate and track our afterloader performance for a technically challenging ERCP brachytherapy procedure.

  2. Bensaâd Ali (dir., L’eau et ses enjeux au Sahara, Iremam, Karthala, 2011, 242 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Marçot

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Je dirai en premier ma déception. Comme le suggère Ali Bensaâd à l’entrée du livre qu’il a dirigé, l’enjeu de l’eau au Sahara n’est ni plus ni moins que la conservation de la vie dans ce milieu qui lui est particulièrement hostile - la vie sous tous ses aspects. Or cet enjeu « vital » a été négligé au profit d’une approche micro-géographique. C’est pourtant par cette entrée que le travail collectif aurait pu légitimement intéresser un vaste public. Comment l’eau existe-t-elle à l’état naturel...

  3. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document phase 1 assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biebesheimer, E., Westinghouse Hanford Co.

    1996-09-30

    This document, the Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) Phase I Assessment Report for the subject facility, represents the results of an Administrative Assessment to determine whether S/RID requirements are fully addressed by existing policies, plans or procedures. It contains; compliance status, remedial actions, and an implementing manuals report linking S/RID elements to requirement source to implementing manual and section.

  4. 32 CFR 242a.4 - Grounds on which meetings may be closed, or information may be withheld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information would: (1) Interfere with enforcement proceedings; (2) Deprive a person of a right to a fair trial...) Disclose the identity of a confidential source and, in the case of a record compiled by a criminal law enforcement authority in the course of a criminal investigation, or by an agency conducting a lawful...

  5. 47 CFR 15.242 - Operation in the bands 174-216 MHz and 470-668 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... bands 174-216 MHz and 470-668 MHz. (a) The marketing and operation of intentional radiators under the... implementation of the digital television services. The operating frequencies of the part 15 devices may need...

  6. Highly enriched isotope samples of uranium and transuranium elements for scientific investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesnovskii, Stanislav P.; Polynov, Vladimir N.; Danilin, Lev. D.

    1992-02-01

    The paper describes the production of highly enriched isotopes of uranium, plutonium, americium and curium by electromagnetic separation for scientific and applied researches in physics, chemistry, geology, medicine, biology and other fields. Using the equipment described, the isotopes are produced in quantities sufficient to set up nuclear physical experiments, to produce nuclear reference materials and standard sources for calibration of radiometrical and mass spectrometrical equipment, in radionuclide metrology, etc. For the following isotopes the indicated degrees of isotopic enrichment were achieved: 233U - 99.97%; 235U - 99.97%; 236U - 98.0%; 238U - 99.997%; 238Pu - 99.6%; 239Pu - 99.9977%; 240Pu - 99.9-100%; 241Pu - 96.998%; 242Pu - 97.8-99.96%; 244Pu - 96.7%; 241Am - 99.6%; 242Am - 73.6%; 243Am - 99.2-99.94%; 243Cm - 99.99%; 245Cm - 99.998%; 246Cm - 99.8%; 247Cm - 90%; 248Cm - 97%. Methods for preparing layers of highly enriched isotopes on various substances are presented: - electrochemical deposition of transuranic elements from aqueous-organic and organic media and vacuum spraying: - the method of foil and coating formation via compounds in the vapour phase; - the method of fabrication of layers of transuranic elements on superthin (1-2 μm) metal substrates with additional isolating polymer-metal coatings (0.2-0.4 μm), that substantially decrease material transfer from the active layer and increase safety of product handling.

  7. Numerical analysis of irradiated Am samples in experimental fast reactor Joyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagara, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Tetsuro; Shiba, Tomo-oki; Saito, Masaki [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo, 1528550 (Japan); Koyama, Shin-ichi; Maeda, Shigetaka, E-mail: sagara@nr.titech.ac.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Nanta-cho, O-arai machi, Ibaraki, 3111393 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Americium is a key element to design the FBR based nuclear fuel cycle, because of its long-term high radiological toxicity as well as a resource of even-mass-number plutonium by its transmutation in reactors, which contributes the enhancement of proliferation resistance. The present paper deals with the numerical analysis of the Am sample irradiation in Joyo to examine the transmutation performance of pure isotope in fast neutron environment during the irradiation, and deals with the comparison with the experimental result to evaluate the accuracy of current available numerical tool. In {sup 241}Am pure isotope sample, the burn-up calculation of Am transmutation ratio and principal nuclides accumulation are agreed with the measured data within 1-{sigma} uncertainty caused of cross-section covariance. Isomeric ratio of {sup 242}Am in total {sup 241}Am capture reaction were calculated as 0.852{+-}0.016 in the core and 0.85{+-}0.025 in the axial and radial reactors. The current data and recently reported data by Koyama et. al 2008 support the latest version of nuclear data sets in ENDFB-VII and JENDL/AC-2008. From the view point of proliferation resistance, it was confirmed {sup 241}Amp reduces un-attractive Pu to abuse from the beginning to the end of irradiation, and it would have important role to denature Pu in future FBR based nuclear fuel cycle.

  8. Effect of transplutonium doping on approach to long-life core in uranium-fueled PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peryoga, Yoga; Saito, Masaki; Artisyuk, Vladimir [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Research Lab. for Nuclear Reactors; Shmelev, Anatolii [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2002-08-01

    The present paper advertises doping of transplutonium isotopes as an essential measure to improve proliferation-resistance properties and burnup characteristics of UOX fuel for PWR. Among them {sup 241}Am might play the decisive role of burnable absorber to reduce the initial reactivity excess while the short-lived nuclides {sup 242}Cm and {sup 244}Cm decay into even plutonium isotopes, thus increasing the extent of denaturation for primary fissile {sup 239}Pu in the course of reactor operation. The doping composition corresponds to one discharged from a current PWR. For definiteness, the case identity is ascribed to atomic percentage of {sup 241}Am, and then the other transplutonium nuclide contents follow their ratio as in the PWR discharged fuel. The case of 1 at% doping to 20% enriched uranium oxide fuel shows the potential of achieving the burnup value of 100 GWd/tHM with about 20% {sup 238}Pu fraction at the end of irradiation. Since so far, americium and curium do not require special proliferation resistance measures, their doping to UOX would assist in introducing nuclear technology in developing countries with simultaneous reduction of accumulated minor actinides stockpiles. (author)

  9. Interaction and transport of actinides in natural clay rock with consideration of humic substances and clay organics. Characterization and quantification of the influence of clay organics on the interaction and diffusion of uranium and americium in the clay. Joint project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard, Gert [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. (Germany). Inst. of Radiochemistry; Schmeide, Katja; Joseph, Claudia; Sachs, Susanne; Steudtner, Robin; Raditzky, Bianca; Guenther, Alix

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this project was the study of basic interaction processes in the systems actinide - clay organics - aquifer and actinide - natural clay - clay organics - aquifer. Thus, complexation, redox, sorption and diffusion studies were performed. To evaluate the influence of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur containing functional groups of humic acid (HA) on the complexation of actinides in comparison to carboxylic groups, the Am(III) and U(VI) complexation by model ligands was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy and TRLFS. The results show that Am(III) is mainly coordinated via carboxylic groups, however, probably stabilized by nitrogen groups. The U(VI) complexation is dominated by carboxylic groups, whereas nitrogen and sulfur containing groups play a minor role. Phosphorus containing groups may contribute to the U(VI) complexation by HA, however, due to their low concentration in HA they play only a subordinate role compared to carboxylic groups. Applying synthetic HA with varying sulfur contents (0 to 6.9 wt.%), the role of sulfur functionalities of HA for the U(VI) complexation and Np(V) reduction was studied. The results have shown that sulfur functionalities can be involved in U(VI) humate complexation and act as redox-active sites in HA for the Np(V) reduction. However, due to the low content of sulfur in natural HA, its influence is less pronounced. In the presence of carbonate, the U(VI) complexation by HA was studied in the alkaline pH range by means of cryo-TRLFS (-120 C) and ATR FT-IR spectroscopy. The formation of the ternary UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}HA(II){sup 4-} complex was detected. The complex formation constant was determined with log {beta}{sub 0.1} M = 24.57 {+-} 0.17. For aqueous U(VI) citrate and oxalate species, luminescence emission properties were determined by cryo-TRLFS and used to determine stability constants. The existing data base could be validated. The U(VI) complexation by lactate, studied in the temperature range 7 to 65 C, was found to be endothermic and entropy-driven. In contrast, the complex stability constants determined for U(VI) humate complexation at 20 and 40 C are comparable, however, decrease at 60 C. For aqueous U(IV) citrate, succinate, mandelate and glycolate species stability constants were determined. These ligands, especially citrate, increase solubility and mobility of U(IV) in solution due to complexation. The U(VI) sorption onto crushed Opalinus Clay (OPA, Mont Terri, Switzerland) was studied in the absence and presence of HA or low molecular weight organic acids, in dependence on temperature and CO2 presence using OPA pore water as background electrolyte. Distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) were determined for the sorption of U(VI) and HA onto OPA with (0.0222 {+-} 0.0004) m{sup 3}/kg and (0.129 {+-} 0.006) m{sup 3}/kg, respectively. The U(VI) sorption is not influenced by HA ({<=}50 mg/L), however, decreased by low molecular weight organic acids ({>=} 1 x 10{sup -5} M), especially by citrate and tartrate. With increasing temperature, the U(VI) sorption increases both in the absence and in the presence of clay organics. The U(VI) diffusion in compacted OPA is not influenced by HA at 25 and 60 C. Predictions of the U(VI) diffusion show that an increase of the temperature to 60 C does not accelerate the migration of U(VI). With regard to uranium-containing waste, it is concluded that OPA is suitable as host rock for a future nuclear waste repository since OPA has a good retardation potential for U(VI). (orig.)

  10. Monitored Natural Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants in Ground Water Volume 3 Assessment for Radionuclides IncludingTritium, Radon, Strontium, Technetium, Uranium, Iodine, Radium, Thorium, Cesium, and Plutonium-Americium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current document represents the third volume of a set of three volumes that address the technical basis and requirements for assessing the potential applicability of MNA as part of a ground-water remedy for plumes with nonradionuclide and/or radionuclide inorganic contamina...

  11. Study of plutonium and americium contamination in agricultural area, radiological impact caused by consumption of vegetables of this area; Estudio de la contaminacion de plutonio y americio en un area agricola, impacto radiologico ocasionado por consumo de vegetales contaminados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, Assuncion; Aragon, Antonio; Cruz, Berta de la; Gutierrez, Jose [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia

    2001-07-01

    The transuranide concentration has been studied for 30 years in vegetable production, crops in wide extensions and in private-owned farms, all of them situated within the Pu-contaminated area of Palomares due to an air accident in 1966. Based on these studies, a preliminary estimation of the radiological risk caused by the consumption of these products by the inhabitants was possible. The results show that most of the fruits present a surface contamination, which disappears or is significantly reduced when they are washed. The contamination present in edible parts of the vegetables, as well as the contamination of other products included in the diet, has facilitated the estimation of the effective dose for ingestion and the committed effective dose for 50 years for the inhabitants. The main conclusions are: those plants, whose cultivation period is less than a year, present a low level of contamination; the green parts of the plants have a higher contamination than the fruits; the Pu soil to plant transfer factor is very low. In general, those plants that have remained in the contaminated land for several years present a high contamination level; the ingestion of products from Palomares does not represent an important risk for the population, even in the case that the products were totally consumed by a critical group.( author)

  12. Supported liquid inorganic membranes for nuclear waste separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhave, Ramesh R; DeBusk, Melanie M; DelCul, Guillermo D; Delmau, Laetitia H; Narula, Chaitanya K

    2015-04-07

    A system and method for the extraction of americium from radioactive waste solutions. The method includes the transfer of highly oxidized americium from an acidic aqueous feed solution through an immobilized liquid membrane to an organic receiving solvent, for example tributyl phosphate. The immobilized liquid membrane includes porous support and separating layers loaded with tributyl phosphate. The extracted solution is subsequently stripped of americium and recycled at the immobilized liquid membrane as neat tributyl phosphate for the continuous extraction of americium. The sequestered americium can be used as a nuclear fuel, a nuclear fuel component or a radiation source, and the remaining constituent elements in the aqueous feed solution can be stored in glassified waste forms substantially free of americium.

  13. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy associated with sepsis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumoniadoi: 10.12662/2317-3076jhbs.v3i4.169.p242-244.2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio da Silva Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a case report of a 71 year-old female patient admitted at the emergency service due to severe precordial chest pain associated with dyspnea and sweating. The electrocardiogram performed on admission showed ST elevation on V2 and V3 leads and the ventriculography revealed left ventricular apical ballooning, denoting the diagnosis of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy. At the eighth day of hospitalization, although the heart function was recovered, the patient died due the clinical complications of a septic shock.

  14. Final characterization and safety screen report of double shell tank 241-AP-104 for 242-A evaporator, campaign 96-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.L.

    1996-04-19

    This data package satisfies the requirement for a format IV, final report. It is a follow-up to the 45-day safety screen report for tank AP-104. Evaporator candidate feed from tank 241-AP-104 (hereafter referred to as AP-104) was characterized for physical, inorganic, organic and radiochemical parameters by the Westinghouse Hanford Company, 222-S Laboratory, and by the Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) as directed by the Tank Sample and Analysis Plan (TSAP), References 1 through 4. Preliminary data in the form of summary analytical tables were provided to the project in advance of this final report to enable early estimation of evaporator operational parameters, using the Predict modeling program. Laboratory analyses at ACL Laboratory was performed according to the TSAP. Analyses were performed at the 222-S Laboratory as defined and specified in the TSAP and the Laboratory`s Quality Assurance Plan, References 5 and 6. Any deviations from the instructions documented in the TSAP are discussed in this narrative and are supported with additional documentation. SAMPLING The TSAP, section 2, provided sampling information for waste samples collected from tank AP-104. The bottle-on-a-string method was used to collect liquid grab samples from the tank. Each glass sample bottle was amber, precleaned, and contained approximately 100 milliliters. Each bottle was closed with a teflon seal cap (or teflon septum for volatile organic analysis samples). Field blank samples were prepared by placing deionized water into sampling bottles, lowering the unclosed bottles into the riser for a period of time, retrieving them from the riser, and then closing the bottles with the same types of caps used for the tank samples. None of the samples were preserved by acidification. Upon receipt, the sample bottles destined for organic analyses were placed in a refrigerator. No attempt was made during sampling to assure the complete filling of the bottles so as to exclude all headspace. These actions were consistent with safety procedures, which attempt to limit personnel exposure to hazardous ionizing radiation.

  15. Earth system modelling on system-level heterogeneous architectures: EMAC (version 2.42) on the Dynamical Exascale Entry Platform (DEEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Michalis; Christoudias, Theodoros; Morillo, Julián; Alvarez, Damian; Merx, Hendrik

    2016-09-01

    We examine an alternative approach to heterogeneous cluster-computing in the many-core era for Earth system models, using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Hamburg (ECHAM)/Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model as a pilot application on the Dynamical Exascale Entry Platform (DEEP). A set of autonomous coprocessors interconnected together, called Booster, complements a conventional HPC Cluster and increases its computing performance, offering extra flexibility to expose multiple levels of parallelism and achieve better scalability. The EMAC model atmospheric chemistry code (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere (MECCA)) was taskified with an offload mechanism implemented using OmpSs directives. The model was ported to the MareNostrum 3 supercomputer to allow testing with Intel Xeon Phi accelerators on a production-size machine. The changes proposed in this paper are expected to contribute to the eventual adoption of Cluster-Booster division and Many Integrated Core (MIC) accelerated architectures in presently available implementations of Earth system models, towards exploiting the potential of a fully Exascale-capable platform.

  16. Giraut de Borneil, “Quan lo fregz e·l glatz e la neus” (BdT 242.60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro G. Beltrami

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a critical edition, with a new hypothesis concerning two difficult loci, of “Quan lo fregz e·l glatz e la neus”, one of the most significant love songs by Giraut de Borneil. For l. 48 (according to the order of the stanzas in Kolsen’s edition which is confirmed here, I will argue that “gers”, present in nearly all the manuscripts and editions, but never explained satisfactorily and unique from the lexical viewpoint, is a ghost word. Thus I will suggest accepting the lesson of ms. B as a suitable, ancient conjecture: ‘of those who are inside (the beseiged castle and forced to surrender’ que an grans guerriers, ‘who have great enemies’. For l. 58 none of the solutions put forward so far are convincing, thus I will tentatively propose a new conjecture: the lover fears that his life will become plus breus... “que del quint dels quars”, ‘shorter that the fifth of the quarter (of the day’, that is, it will be cut off. This restores a rhetorical figure of repetition that marks the end of each stanza after the second and which has been lost in nearly all the manuscripts and editions. My reading of the text will underline its distinctive aspects: a large number of quite difficult similes, emphasis on the figure of the lover, a lack of the author intervention and of the sententiae and forms of argument that characterise this poet, a fast pace created by the syntactic and rhetorical structure. I will also examine all that may serve to place the text within a particular historical context, although despite the many hypotheses, the only sure element is that it was written for a courtly occasion in the presence of Richard the Lionheart.

  17. SU-E-T-242: Monte Carlo Simulations Used to Test the Perturbation of a Reference Ion Chamber Prototype Used for Small Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Quino, L; Calvo, O; Huerta, C; DeWeese, M [Midsouth Radation Physics, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study the perturbation due to the use of a novel Reference Ion Chamber designed to measure small field dosimetry (KermaX Plus C by IBA). Methods: Using the Phase-space files for TrueBeam photon beams available by Varian in IAEA-compliant format for 6 and 15 MV. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc to investigate the perturbation introduced by a reference chamber into the PDDs and profiles measured in water tank. Field sizes ranging from 1×1, 2×2,3×3, 5×5 cm2 were simulated for both energies with and without a 0.5 mm foil of Aluminum which is equivalent to the attenuation equivalent of the reference chamber specifications in a water phantom of 30×30×30 cm3 and a pixel resolution of 2 mm. The PDDs, profiles, and gamma analysis of the simulations were performed as well as a energy spectrum analysis of the phase-space files generated during the simulation. Results: Examination of the energy spectrum analysis performed shown a very small increment of the energy spectrum at the build-up region but no difference is appreciated after dmax. The PDD, profiles and gamma analysis had shown a very good agreement among the simulations with and without the Al foil, with a gamma analysis with a criterion of 2% and 2mm resulting in 99.9% of the points passing this criterion. Conclusion: This work indicates the potential benefits of using the KermaX Plus C as reference chamber in the measurement of PDD and Profiles for small fields since the perturbation due to in the presence of the chamber the perturbation is minimal and the chamber can be considered transparent to the photon beam.

  18. (001–002) Proposals to amend Art. 32.2, 23.5, and 24.2 to clarify the treatment of transcribed Greek terminations of epithets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants is revised every six years to incorporate decisions of the Nomenclature Section of successive International Botanical Congresses (IBC) on proposals to amend the Code. The proposals in this paper will be considered at the IBC in Shenz...

  19. Guillermo Banzato (Dir. 2013. Tierras Rurales. Políticas, transacciones y mercados en Argentina, 1780-1914. Rosario. Prohistoria Ediciones. 242 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Muñiz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La reseña del presente libro brinda un panorama de lo acontecido con los mercados de tierras en diferentes provincias -Buenos Aires, Entre Ríos, Córdoba, Santa Fe, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero y Mendoza- entre los años 1780 y 1914. La investigación realizada por los autores permite observar variables que condicionaron el desarrollo diferenciado de los mercados en las provincias estudiadas. Entre ellas, las posibilidades y estrategias de expansión y consolidación territorial llevadas adelante por los gobiernos provinciales, el proceso de enajenación de tierras públicas (que perseguía diferentes objetivos, entre los cuales se destaca la urgencia de recursos económicos, y el modo en que este accionar del Estado afectó las transacciones entre privados.

  20. Wide Band Gap Semiconductors Symposium Held in Boston, Massachusetts on 2-6 December 1991. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. Volume 242

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Diego. CA, April 23. 1991. 11. Yukio Saito, Kouji Sato. Hideaki Tanaka, Kazunori Fujita. Shinpei Matuda, J. Mater. Sci. 23. 842 (1988). 12. Yukio Saito...DEAC04-76DP00789. REFERENCES I. Jeffrey T. Cheung and Haluk Sankur, CRC Crit. Rev. in Solid State and Mat. Sci. 15, 6 (1988). 2. 0. Mishima in...Yokoyama, Takeshi lmura and Yukio Osaka, Jap. J. App. Phys. 2.6, L1435 (1987). 5. S. Y. Shapoval, V.T. Petrashov, 0. A. Popov, A. 0. Westner, M. D

  1. Thermodynamic Assessment of Hot Corrosion Mechanisms of Superalloys Hastelloy N and Haynes 242 in Eutectic Mixture of Molten Salts KF and ZrF4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael V. Glazoff

    2012-02-01

    The KF - ZrF4 system was considered for the application as a heat exchange agent in molten salt nuclear reactors (MSRs) beginning with the work carried out at ORNL in early fifties. Based on a combination of excellent properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity in the molten state, and other thermo-physical and rheological properties, it was selected as one of possible candidates for the nuclear reactor secondary heat exchanger loop.

  2. catena-Poly[[[tetraaquacobalt(II]-μ-4,4′-bipyridine-κ2N:N′] 2-[4-(2-carboxylatoethylphenoxy]acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Fang Wang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, {[Co(C10H8N2(H2O4](C11H10O5}n, the unique CoII ion lies on an inversion center and is coordinated by two N atoms from two 4,4′-bipyridine ligands and four O atoms from four water molecules in a slightly distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The 4,4′-bipyridine ligands bridge CoII ions into a one-dimensional chain structure. In the crystal structure, intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds link cations and anions into a three-dimensional network. The dianions are completely disordered about an inversion center.

  3. On extrapolation blowups in the 242X-2006-74960-i1.gif"/> scale

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Yano's extrapolation theorem dated back to 1951 establishes boundedness properties of a subadditive operator acting continuously in for close to and/or taking into as and/or with norms blowing up at speed and/or , . Here we give answers in terms of Zygmund, Lorentz-Zygmund and small Lebesgue spaces to what happens if as . The study has been motivated by current investigations of convolution maximal functions in stochastic analysis, where the problem occurs for . We also touch the ...

  4. SYNTHESIS, COMPUTATIONAL STUDY AND PRELIMINARY PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 2-[4-(2-CHLOROBENZYL/BENZOYL SUBSTITUTED PIPERAZIN-1-YL]-N-PHENYLACETAMIDE: POTENTIAL ANTIPSYCHOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomar Amita

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzyl and benzoyl substituted acetamides have been synthesized and evaluated as potential antipsychotic agents. The target compounds (4a-b were prepared by reaction of substituted anilines with chloroacetylchloride which further treated with 2-chlorobenzyl or 2-chlorobenzoyl piperazine in presence of potassium carbonate and potassium iodide as catalyst in acetonitrile. The structures of the target compounds (4a-b were characterized on the basis of their M.P., TLC, IR and 1H-NMR data. Computational studies of target compounds (4a-b were carried out by using software programs. The target compounds showed good similarity with respect to standard drugs. The target compounds (4a-b showed inhibition of 5-HTP induced head twitches behavior and low induction of catalepsy in mice.

  5. mTORC2 modulates feedback regulation of p38 MAPK activity via DUSP10/MKP5 to confer differential responses to PP242 in glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides-Serrato, Angelica; Anderson, Lauren; Holmes, Brent; Cloninger, Cheri; Artinian, Nicholas; Bashir, Tariq; Gera, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) dephosphorylate MAP kinases (MAPKs) resulting in their inactivation. Activation of MAPK signaling leads to enhanced DUSP expression, thus establishing feedback regulation of the MAPK pathway. The DUSPs are subject to regulation at the post-translational level via phosphorylation resulting in alterations of protein stability. Here we report that mTORC2 function leads to stabilization of the p38 MAPK phosphatase, DUSP10, thereby inhibiting p38 activity. We demonstrate that mTORC2 binds DUSP10 and phosphorylates DUSP10 on serine residues 224 and 230. These phosphorylation events block DUSP10 turnover resulting in inactivation of p38 signaling. We further show that insulin-stimulated PI3K/mTORC2 signaling regulates DUSP10 stability and p38 activity. Importantly, knockdown of DUSP10 or ectopic overexpression of nonphosphorylatable or phosphomimetic DUSP10 mutants was sufficient to confer differential mTOR kinase inhibitor responses to GBM cells in vitro and in murine xenografts. Finally, DUSP10 was shown to be overexpressed in a significant number of GBM patients. These data demonstrate the ability of the mTORC2 pathway to exert regulatory effects on the DUSP10/p38 feedback loop to control the cellular effects of mTOR kinase inhibitors in GBM and support the use of DUSP10 expression as a surrogate biomarker to predict responsiveness. PMID:25568665

  6. Identification of a sudden cardiac death susceptibility locus at 2q24.2 through genome-wide association in European ancestry individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan E Arking

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death (SCD continues to be one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide, with an annual incidence estimated at 250,000-300,000 in the United States and with the vast majority occurring in the setting of coronary disease. We performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis in 1,283 SCD cases and >20,000 control individuals of European ancestry from 5 studies, with follow-up genotyping in up to 3,119 SCD cases and 11,146 controls from 11 European ancestry studies, and identify the BAZ2B locus as associated with SCD (P = 1.8×10(-10. The risk allele, while ancestral, has a frequency of ~1.4%, suggesting strong negative selection and increases risk for SCD by 1.92-fold per allele (95% CI 1.57-2.34. We also tested the role of 49 SNPs previously implicated in modulating electrocardiographic traits (QRS, QT, and RR intervals. Consistent with epidemiological studies showing increased risk of SCD with prolonged QRS/QT intervals, the interval-prolonging alleles are in aggregate associated with increased risk for SCD (P = 0.006.

  7. Application of a gamma spectroscopy system to the measurement of neutron cross sections necessary to the development of nuclear energy; Mise au point d'un systeme de spectroscopie pour mesurer des sections efficaces neutroniques applicables a un possible developpement du nucleaire comme source d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deruelle, O

    2002-09-01

    This work concerns the development of nuclear energy and nuclear waste management in particular. Two parts of this study can be distinguished. In the first part (theoretical), a thorium-plutonium fuel based on MOX and dedicated for PWR was investigated in order to transmute plutonium in a potentially low waste fuel cycle. It was shown that this type of fuel is not regenerative but could be used for a transition to the industrial thorium fuel cycle without building new reactors. Thanks to moderated neutron spectra and high loaded actinide mass in the core, U-233 is quickly created ({approx}300 kg/y) for a loss of about {approx}1200 kg of fissile plutonium. In the second part (experimental), we have developed and built a new reaction chamber to measure neutron cross sections of actinides by alpha-gamma spectroscopy. This experimental device (in principle transportable) was commissioned in the high flux reactor of ILL Grenoble. Neutron flux was measured by gamma spectroscopy of irradiated Al and Co samples and was found to be of the order of 6,0. 10{sup 14} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} (4%). By the irradiation of 11{mu}g of Am-243 and Pu-242, corresponding capture cross sections were measured in the thermal neutron flux at 50 deg C. These are the results: {sup 243}Am(n,{gamma}) {sup 244fond.}Am = 4,72{+-}1,42b; {sup 243}Am(n,{gamma}) {sup 244total}Am = 74,8{+-}3,25b; {sup 242}Pu (n,{gamma}){sup 243}Pu = 22,7{+-}1,09b. Uncertainties of the measurements are mostly due to the determination of the neutron flux, efficiency of the electronics and ambiguities related to the definition of the area under {alpha}-{gamma} spectra. Although our measured cross sections deviate (by 10-30%) from the corresponding values widely used in evaluated data libraries such as ENDF, JEF and JENDL, in this work we have demonstrated the feasibility and principle of our experimental method. Furthermore, the value for the 243-americium capture cross-section is in very good agreement with the last two

  8. MA Doping Analysis on Breeding Capability and Protected Plutonium Production of Large FBR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Kuno, Yusuke

    2010-06-01

    Spent fuel from LWR can be seen as long-live waste if it is not recycled or as a "new fuel" resource if it is recycled into the reactors. Uranium and plutonium have been used for "new fuel" resources from LWR spent fuel as MOX fuel type which is loaded into thermal reactor or fast reactor types. Other actinides from the spent fuel such as neptunium, americium and curium as minor actinide (MA) are considered to be loaded into the reactors for specific purposes, recently. Those purposes such as for increasing protected plutonium production and breeding capability for protected plutonium as well as in the same time those amount of MA can be reduced to a small quantity as a burner or transmutation purpose. Some investigations and scientific approaches are performed in order to increase a material "barrier" in plutonium isotope composition by increasing the even mass number of plutonium isotope such as Pu-238, Pu-240 and Pu-242 as plutonium protected composition. Higher material barrier which related to intrinsic properties of plutonium isotopes with even mass number (Pu-238, Pu-240 and Pu-242), are recognized because of their intense decay heat (DH) and high spontaneous fission neutron (SFN) rates. Those even number mass of plutonium isotope contribute to some criteria of plutonium characterization which will be adopted for present study such as IAEA, Pellaud and Kessler criteria (IAEA, 1972; Pellaud, 2002; and Kessler, 2007). The present paper intends to evaluate the breeding capability as a fuel sustainability index of the reactors and to analyze the composition of protected plutonium production of large power reactor based on the FaCT FBR as reference (Ohki, et al., 2008). Three dimensional FBR core configuration has been adopted which is based on the core optimization calculation of SRAC-CITATION code as reactor core analysis and JENDL-3.3 is adopted for nuclear data library. Some MA doping materials are loaded into the blanket regions which can be considered as

  9. Industrial research for transmutation scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarcat, Noel; Garzenne, Claude; Le Mer, Joël; Leroyer, Hadrien; Desroches, Estelle; Delbecq, Jean-Michel

    2011-04-01

    This article presents the results of research scenarios for americium transmutation in a 22nd century French nuclear fleet, using sodium fast breeder reactors. We benchmark the americium transmutation benefits and drawbacks with a reference case consisting of a hypothetical 60 GWe fleet of pure plutonium breeders. The fluxes in the various parts of the cycle (reactors, fabrication plants, reprocessing plants and underground disposals) are calculated using EDF's suite of codes, comparable in capabilities to those of other research facilities. We study underground thermal heat load reduction due to americium partitioning and repository area minimization. We endeavor to estimate the increased technical complexity of surface facilities to handle the americium fluxes in special fuel fabrication plants, americium fast burners, special reprocessing shops, handling equipments and transport casks between those facilities.

  10. Chemistry research and development progress report, May-October, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miner, F. J.

    1979-08-30

    Work in progress includes: calorimetry and thermodynamics of nuclear materials; americium recovery and purification; optimization of the cation exchange process for recovering americium and plutonium from molten salt extraction residues, photochemical separations of actinides; advanced ion exchange materials and techniques; secondary actinide recovery; removal of plutonium from lathe coolant oil; evaluation of tributyl phosphate-impregnated sorbent for plutonium-uranium separations; plutonium recovery in advance size reduction facility; plutonium peroxide precipitation; decontamination of Rocky Flats soil; soil decontamination at other Department of Energy sites; recovery of actinides from combustible wastes; induction-heated, tilt-pour furnace; vacuum melting; determination of plutonium and americium in salts and alloys by calorimetry; plutonium peroxide precipitation process; silica removal study; a comparative study of annular and Raschig ring-filled tanks; recovery of plutonium and americium from a salt cleanup alloy; and process development for recovery of americium from vacuum melt furnace crucibles.

  11. The behaviour of Eu, Pu, Am radionuclide at burning radioactive graphite in an oxygen atmosphere. Computer experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolbin T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Be means of the method of computer thermodynamic simulation we studied the behaviour of the europium, plutonium and americium from the combustion of radioactive graphite in oxygen. Europe is in the form of condensed EuOCl, Eu2O3 and vapour EuO. Pluto is in the form of condensed vapour PuO2 and PuO2. Americium is a condensed AmO2, Am2O3 and vapour Am. The basic reactions occurring compounds with europium, plutonium and americium. Equilibrium constants of the reactions have been determined.

  12. A multi-ethnic genome-wide association study identifies novel loci for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate on 2p24.2, 17q23 and 19q13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leslie, Elizabeth J; Carlson, Jenna C; Shaffer, John R

    2016-01-01

    Orofacial clefts (OFCs), which include non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P), are among the most common birth defects in humans, affecting approximately 1 in 700 newborns. CL/P is phenotypically heterogeneous and has a complex etiology caused by genetic and environmental...

  13. Rubbia proposes a speedier voyage to Mars and back

    CERN Multimedia

    Abbott, A

    1999-01-01

    Carlo Rubbia has designed a propulsion engine that uses fission fragments of americium to directly heat a propulsion gas. He estimates it would allow a manned trip to Mars and back in around a year (8 paragraphs).

  14. Filgrastim (Neupogen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CRC) Simulation Tools Isotopes Americium-241 (Am-241) Cesium-137 (Cs-137) Radioisotope Brief Toxicology FAQs Cobalt- ... a drug that has been used successfully for cancer patients to stimulate the growth of the white ...

  15. Literatuuronderzoek plutoniumanalyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glastra P; Kwakman PJM; LSO

    1997-01-01

    Dit rapport beschrijft de laatste ontwikkelingen in de radiochemische bepaling van plutonium in monstermatrices zoals luchtstoffilters, regenwater, gras en bodem. De radiochemische scheiding van plutonium van storende alfastralers, zoals americium en curium, is door de recente ontwikkeling van spec

  16. Study of the properties of the Am-O system in view of the transmutation of Am 241 in fast reactors; Etude des proprietes du systeme Am-O en vue de la transmutation de l`americium 241 en reacteur a neutrons rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalta, S.

    1996-04-01

    To reduce the long term toxicity of Am 241 it was considered to transmute this isotope in fast reactor. The first part of this thesis is an introduction at this problem. In the second part we give the experimental techniques used for the realisation of an AmO{sub 2}-MgO target (powder metallurgy under inert, oxidizing or reducing atmosphere). The properties of the Am-O system has been analyzed by X diffraction, thermodynamic and ceramography, in the Am{sub 2}O{sub 3}-AmO{sub 2} field. In the third part we study the external exposure risk created by the manufacturing of this target and in the last part the behavior of this target in a fast reactor. 66 refs., 28 figs., 25 tabs., 1 append.

  17. Methodology for the Inventory and Assessment of Americium Contamination Level in 1987 in an Area of Palomares Contaminated with Plutonium Weapon Grade; Estimacion del Contenido de Americio Existente en el Ano 1987 en una Zona de Palomares Contaminada en 1966 por Material de Plutonio Grado Bomba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, A.; Aragon, A.; Cruz de la, B.

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology applied for the assessment of the ''241 Am coming from the decay of ''241 Pu isotope content in a contaminated area of Palomares, where the clean-up work done in 1966, given the negligible agricultural importance of such area at the time and its geographical characteristics, was not of the same magnitude as for the rest of the region. (Author) 4 refs.

  18. Composição química do capim-Mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça adubado com diferentes fontes de fósforo sob pastejo - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i1.242 Chemical composition of Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça fertilized with different phosphorus on grazing - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i1.242

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulysses Cecato

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a composição química do Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça, adubado com 140 kg ha-1 de P2O5 com diferentes fontes de fósforo, sob pastejo, no período de dezembro de 2002 a abril de 2003, com intervalo de coleta a cada 28 dias. Tratamentos: 1- termofosfato magnesiano Yoorin®; 2-fosfato natural Gafsa®; 3-superfosfato simples + superfosfato triplo (SS + ST; e 4-testemunha. Os teores de proteína bruta na lâmina foliar (PBf e colmo (PBc, nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente ácido (NIDA, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose (CEL, hemicelulose (HCEL, lignina (LIG, extrato etéreo (EE, cálcio (Ca, fósforo (P, cinzas e carboidratos não-estruturais (CNE, não foram influenciados pela adubação fosfatada. As variáveis PBc, FDNf, FDNc, LIGf, LIGc, CELf, CELc, NIDAf, EEf, EEc, Caf, Cac, Pf, Pc, CINZAc, CNEc, apresentaram efeito do período de coleta. Não ocorreu diferença na composição química da forragem do capim-Mombaça em função das fontes de fósforo utilizadas na adubação da pastagem. As variações qualitativas foram de baixa magnitude.This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition of Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça. Grassland was fertilized with 140 kg ha-1 of P2O5 from different phosphorus sources on grazing, in December, 2002, until April, 2003, with a collection interval of every 28 days. Treatments: 1-Yoorin® magnesium thermophosphate; 2-Gafsa® natural phosphate; 3-simple superphosphate + triple superphosphate (SS + TS and 4-control. Leaf (lCP and stem (sCP crude protein, acid detergent fiber nitrogen (ADFN, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, cellulose (CEL, hemicellulose (HEM, lignin (LIG, ether extract (EE, calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, ash (A and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC were not influenced by phosphated fertilization. The variables sCP, lNDF, sNDF, sLIG, lLIG, sCEL, lCEL, lADFN, sEE, lEE, lCa, sCa, lP, sP, sA and sNSC, showed some effects from the collection period. There was no difference in the chemical composition of forage of the grass-Mombaça in function of phosphorus sources used in the pasture. The qualitative variations were of low magnitude.

  19. AM(VI) partitioning studies. FY14 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincher, Bruce J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The use of higher oxidation states of americium in partitioning from the lanthanides is under continued investigation by the sigma team. This is based on the hypothesis that Am(VI) can be produced and remain stable in irradiated first cycle raffinate solution long enough to perform solvent extraction for separations. The stability of Am(VI) to autoreduction was measured using millimolar americium concentrations in a 1-cm cell with a Cary 6000 UV/Vis spectrophotometer for data acquisition. At millimolar americium concentrations, Am(VI) is stable enough against its own autoreduction for separations purposes. A second major accomplishment during FY14 was the hot test. Americium oxidation and extraction was performed using a centrifugal contactor-based test bed consisting of an extraction stage and two stripping stages. Sixty-three percent americium extraction was obtained in one extraction stage, in agreement with batch contacts. Promising electrochemical oxidation results have also been obtained, using terpyridine ligand derivatized electrodes for binding of Am(III). Approximately 50 % of the Am(III) was oxidized to Am(V) over the course of 1 hour. It is believed that this is the first demonstration of the electrolytic oxidation of americium in a non-complexing solution. Finally, an initial investigation of Am(VI) extraction using diethylhexylbutyramide (DEHBA) was performed.

  20. On the transmutation of Am in a fast lead-cooled system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B P Kochurov; V N Konev; A Yu Kwaretzkheli

    2007-02-01

    Characteristics of the equilibrium fuel cycle for the core or a blanket of ADS having the structure of the core of a fast lead-cooled reactor of type BREST (Russian abbreviation for `Bystryy Reaktor so Svintsovym Teplonositelem') in a mode of americium transmutation are calculated. Americium loading was taken 5% of heavy atoms. Keeping the average multiplication factor the same as in a standard equilibrium cycle, reactivity swing over 1 year's microcycle is about 1%, that demands partial fuel reloading with a periodicity of about one month. For one year of operation, 61 kg of americium is destroyed, and due to increased 238Pu content, americium is mainly converted to fission products. Thus in a system of 1 GWt (thermal), 87 kg of americium can be transmuted yearly. The estimate of the reactivity void effect has shown that it increases to 0.6% almost linearly with the void fraction increasing up to 25% and reaches its maximum of 0.7% at a void fraction of about 50%. Application of similar strategy for ADS with a sub-criticality level ≈ 0.96–0.98 can essentially relax safety problems related to positive void effects.

  1. Porous metal oxide microspheres from ion exchange resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picart, S.; Parant, P.; Caisso, M.; Remy, E.; Mokhtari, H.; Jobelin, I.; Bayle, J. P.; Martin, C. L.; Blanchart, P.; Ayral, A.; Delahaye, T.

    2015-07-01

    This study is devoted to the synthesis and the characterization of porous metal oxide microsphere from metal loaded ion exchange resin. Their application concerns the fabrication of uranium-americium oxide pellets using the powder-free process called Calcined Resin Microsphere Pelletization (CRMP). Those mixed oxide ceramics are one of the materials envisaged for americium transmutation in sodium fast neutron reactors. The advantage of such microsphere precursor compared to classical oxide powder is the diminution of the risk of fine dissemination which can be critical for the handling of highly radioactive powders such as americium based oxides and the improvement of flowability for the filling of compaction chamber. Those millimetric oxide microspheres incorporating uranium and americium were synthesized and characterizations showed a very porous microstructure very brittle in nature which occurred to be adapted to shaping by compaction. Studies allowed to determine an optimal heat treatment with calcination temperature comprised between 700-800 °C and temperature rate lower than 2 °C/min. Oxide Precursors were die-pressed into pellets and then sintered under air to form regular ceramic pellets of 95% of theoretical density (TD) and of homogeneous microstructure. This study validated thus the scientific feasibility of the CRMP process to prepare bearing americium target in a powder free manner.

  2. 78 FR 8329 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Hospital Mortgage Insurance Program-Refinancing Hospital Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... understanding how the Section 242 program works. C. Costs and Benefits This rule will not address all financing... balance remaining unused in the fund at final endorsement will be treated in accordance with 24 CFR 242.43.... Comment: Market Need study requirements should be revised. Section 242.16(b)(5) of the proposed...

  3. GETDB: 103550 [GETDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available onal Institute of Genetics. FM7c Link to clone table - 1 242 Link to cluster table 242 1 Request - cns, mg, good driver...er table 242 Num of clusters 1 Stock Request Request - Embryonic Expression cns, mg, good driver Larval GFP

  4. Facilities for preparing actinide or fission product-based targets

    CERN Document Server

    Sors, M

    1999-01-01

    Research and development work is currently in progress in France on the feasibility of transmutation of very long-lived radionuclides such as americium, blended with an inert medium such as magnesium oxide and pelletized for irradiation in a fast neutron reactor. The process is primarily designed to produce ceramics for nuclear reactors, but could also be used to produce targets for accelerators. The Actinide Development Laboratory is part of the ATALANTE complex at Marcoule, where the CEA investigates reprocessing, liquid and solid waste treatment and vitrification processes. The laboratory produces radioactive sources; after use, their constituents are recycled, notably through R and D programs requiring such materials. Recovered americium is purified, characterized and transformed for an experiment known as ECRIX, designed to demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating americium-based ceramics and to determine the reactor transmutation coefficients.

  5. Recovery of trans-plutonium elements; Recuperation des elements transplutoniens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espie, J.Y.; Poncet, B.; Simon, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    The object of this work is to study the recovery of americium and curium from the fission-product solution obtained from the processing of irradiated fuel elements made of natural metallic uranium alloyed with aluminium, iron and silicon; these elements have been subjected to an average irradiation of 4000 MW days/ton in a gas-graphite type reactor having a thermal power of 3.7 MW/ton of uranium. The process used consists of 3 extraction cycles and one americium-curium separation: - 1) extraction cycle in 40 per cent TBP: extraction of actinides and lanthanides; elimination of fission products; - 2) extraction cycle in 8 per cent D2EHPA: decontamination from the fission products, decontamination of actinides from lanthanides; - 3) extraction cycle in 40 per cent TBP: separation of the complexing agent and concentration of the actinides; - 4) americium-curium separation by precipitation. (authors) [French] Cette etude a pour objet, la recuperation de l'americium et du curium de la solution de produits de fission provenant du traitement de combustibles irradies a base d'uranium naturel metallique allie a l'aluminium, le fer, et le silicium, et ayant subi une irradiation moyenne de 4000 MWj/t dans une pile du type graphite-gaz, dont la puissance thermique est de 3.7 MW/t d'uranium. Le procede utilise comprend 3 cycles d'extraction et une separation americium-curium: - 1. cycle d'extraction dans le TBP a 40 pour cent: extraction des actinides et des lanthanides, elimination des produits de fission; - 2. cycle d'extraction dans le D2EHPA a 8 pour cent: decontamination en produits de fission, decontamination des actinides en lanthanides; - 3. cycle d'extraction dans le TBP a 40 pour cent: separation du complexant et concentration des actinides; - 4. separation americium-curium par precipitation. (auteurs)

  6. Colloid formation during waste form reaction: implications for nuclear waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. K.; Bradley, J.; Teetsov, A.; Bradley, C. R.; ten Brink, Marilyn Buchholtz

    1992-01-01

    Insoluble plutonium- and americium-bearing colloidal particles formed during simulated weathering of a high-level nuclear waste glass. Nearly 100 percent of the total plutonium and americium in test ground water was concentrated in these submicrometer particles. These results indicate that models of actinide mobility and repository integrity, which assume complete solubility of actinides in ground water, underestimate the potential for radionuclide release into the environment. A colloid-trapping mechanism may be necessary for a waste repository to meet long-term performance specifications.

  7. The Majority of Library Clients Still Use Person-to-Person Interaction When Asking Reference Questions. A review of: De Groote, Sandra L. “Questions Asked at the Virtual and Physical Health Sciences Reference Desk: How Do They Compare and What Do They Tell Us?” Medical Reference Services Quarterly 24.2 (Summer 2005: 11-23.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Pamela Lewis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - To identify similarities and difference in the questions asked at the virtual and physical refernece desks of a helath scienmces library, in order to better undertand user needs and highlight areas for service improvement. Also to retrospectively analyze reference statistics collected over the previous six years. Design - Use study; retrospective study of reference statistics for the period July 1997 to June 2003; literature review. Setting - Large academic helath sciences library in the United States. Subjects - All questions asked at the reference and information desks, plus questions submitted to the University-wide virtual reference service and answered by a health sciences librarian, over a period of one month. The questions were asked by faculty, staff, students and members of the public. Methods - A literature review was carried out to examine the types of information/reference questions typically asked in health sciences libraries both before and after the mass introduction of remote end-user searching of online resources and the establishment of virtual reference services. Next, the reference statistics collected at the University of Illinois at Chicage (UIC Library of the Health Sciences between July 1997 and June 2003 were examined. For most of this period a digital reference service was offered using a listserv address to which patrons would submit email queries. Beginning in March 2003, a formal virtual reference service (chat and email was provided using commercial software. Finally, data was gathered on questions answered by a health sciences librarians, and clients who asked the question, at either the physical or cirtual reference desk, during the month of November 2003 at the UIC Library of the Health Sciences. Library staff completed an online survey form for each question, and if a client asked more than one question, each question was coded individually. Data included: status of client using the service (faculty/staff. undergarduate student, graduate student, non0UIC, unknown; mode of submission (email, chat, phone, in person; and type of question asked (directional, ready reference, in-depth/mediated, instructional, technical, accounts/status and other. In subsequent analysis, the original seven types of questions were further broken down into 19 categories. Main results - It was not possible to undertake a meta-analysis or systematic review of the studies identified in the literature review because of differences in time frames, settings and the categories used to code reference questions. However the following trends emerged: directional questions accounted for between 30 and 35% of questions asked at both the physical and virtual reference desks; the remainder of questions were generally about known item searched, library policies and services, research, dadabase use and quick reference. The statistics collected at UIC Library of the Health Sciences over the period July 1997 to June 2003 were analyzed. Coded reference questions fell into one of four categories; ready reference, in-depth reference, mediated searched and digital reference. There was a noticeable drop in the number of reference questions received in 1999/2000 which reflects trends reported in some of the studies identified in the literature review. The number of mediated searches decreased from 154 in 1997-98 to 4 in 2002/2003, but the number of digital reference questions increased from 0 to 508 in the same period. Statistics were collected over the month of November 2003 for 939 questions asked at the reference and information desks which included: 38 email; 48 chat; 156 phone; and 697 in person. The major findings were as follows: - appoximately 55% of questions were reference questions (33.5% ready reference, 9.7% in-depth/mediated, 9.7% instructional; 30% were directional; and 10% were technical; it is not stated what the remaining 5% of questions were; - library clients who asked the questions comprised graduate students (26%, faculty (24%, undergraduate students (24% and non-UIC patrons (22%; - all groups were most likely to ask their reference questions in person; - graduate students were the largest group of email reference (34%, undergraduates were the largest group to use chat (35% and faculty/staff were the largest group to use the telephone (39%; - 28% of the questions were answered from the library's staff's general knowledge of the library; 22% using the online catalogue or electronic journals list; 22% by referrning the patron to, or using an online database or resource; 13% by referring the patron to another department in the library (such as circulation; 7% by consulting another individual; and 5% by using print resources. Conclusion - The results of the three parts of this study - literature review, study of 1997-2003 statistics, and in-depth collection of statistics for November 2003 - are difficult to compare with each other. However, the general trend emerging from the results is that some kinds of questions asked by health sciences library clients have remained very much the same regardless of the rise of remote end-user searching and the mode of transmission of the questions. These include questions about library policies and services, journal and book holdings, database searching and instructional support. Questions about citation verification and consumer health appear to be decreasing while technical questions and questions about accessing remote databases and online journals are increasing. The majority of reference questions are still asked in person.

  8. Radiological analysis of materials sampled on the old nuclear test site of In Ekker (Algeria); Analyses radiologiques de materiaux preleves sur l'ancien site d'essais nucleaires d'In Ekker (Algerie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chareyron, Bruno

    2010-02-11

    After having recalled the context of the French nuclear test campaign in Algeria between 1961 and 1966, this document reports and comments radiological measurements performed on the site of In Ekker, and also results of analysis performed in laboratory (contamination by cesium 137, americium 241, plutonium); recommendations are given

  9. Determination of Am-241 in lung and bone by gamma spectrometry with semiconductor detectors LEGe; Determinacion de Am- 241 en pulmon y hueso por espectrometria gamma con detectores de semiconductor LEGe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Lopez, B.

    2014-07-01

    Americium is produced from neutron absorption plutonium atoms within nuclear reactors. The work of dismantling and decontamination of the installations and radioactive waste management makes workers exposed acquire risk of internal exposure and therefore can incorporate Am-241 in his body. (Author)

  10. Experimental findings on actinide recovery utilizing oxidation by peroxydisulfate followed by ion exchange: Fuel cycle research & development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shehee, T. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-31

    Our research seeks to determine if inorganic ion-exchange materials can be exploited to provide effective minor actinide (Am, Cm) separation from lanthanides. Previous work has established that a number of inorganic and UMOF ion-exchange materials exhibit varying affinities for actinides and lanthanides, which may be exploited for effective separations. During FY15, experimental work focused on investigating methods to oxidize americium in dilute nitric and perchloric acid with subsequent ion-exchange performance measurements of ion exchangers with the oxidized americium in dilute nitric acid. Ion-exchange materials tested included a variety of alkali titanates. Americium oxidation testing sought to determine the influence that other redox active components may have on the oxidation of AmIII. Experimental findings indicated that CeIII, NpV, and RuII are oxidized by peroxydisulfate, but there are no indications that the presence of CeIII, NpV, and RuII affected the rate or extent of americium oxidation at the concentrations of peroxydisulfate being used.

  11. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 20 - Nationally Tracked Source Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Category 1(TBq) Category 1(Ci) Category 2(TBq) Category 2(Ci) Actinium-227 20 540 0.2 5.4 Americium-241 60... 2 54 Strontium-90 1,000 27,000 10 270 Thorium-228 20 540 0.2 5.4 Thorium-229 20 540 0.2 5.4...

  12. Literatuuronderzoek plutoniumanalyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glastra P; Kwakman PJM; LSO

    1997-01-01

    This report describes recent developments in the radiochemical determination of plutonium in samples from the environment such as aerosols, rainwater, grass and soil. The radiochemical separation of plutonium from interfering alpha emitters, such as americium and curium, was found to be simplified b

  13. Discovery of Isotopes of the Transuranium Elements with 93 <= Z <= 98

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, C

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and five isotopes of the transuranium elements neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium and californium have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  14. Presence and Character of the 5f Electrons in the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, B.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Mårtensson, N.;

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Image level binding energy to the occupation of the 5f orbital is pointed out and used to demonstrate the presence of 5f electrons in the uranium metal. It is suggested that the valence band spectrum of uranium might contain satellites originating from excitations to locali...... and the critical separation is found to take place between plutonium and americium....

  15. Experimental findings on actinide recovery utilizing oxidation by peroxydisulfate followed by ion exchange: Fuel cycle research & development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shehee, T. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-31

    Our research seeks to determine if inorganic ion-exchange materials can be exploited to provide effective minor actinide (Am, Cm) separation from lanthanides. Previous work has established that a number of inorganic and UMOF ion-exchange materials exhibit varying affinities for actinides and lanthanides, which may be exploited for effective separations. During FY15, experimental work focused on investigating methods to oxidize americium in dilute nitric and perchloric acid with subsequent ion-exchange performance measurements of ion exchangers with the oxidized americium in dilute nitric acid. Ion-exchange materials tested included a variety of alkali titanates. Americium oxidation testing sought to determine the influence that other redox active components may have on the oxidation of AmIII. Experimental findings indicated that CeIII, NpV, and RuII are oxidized by peroxydisulfate, but there are no indications that the presence of CeIII, NpV, and RuII affected the rate or extent of americium oxidation at the concentrations of peroxydisulfate being used.

  16. The prospect of uranium nitride (UN) and mixed nitride fuel (UN-PuN) for pressurized water reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syarifah, Ratna Dewi; Suud, Zaki

    2015-09-01

    Design study of small Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) core loaded with uranium nitride fuel (UN) and mixed nitride fuel (UN-PuN), Pa-231 as burnable poison, and Americium has been performed. Pa-231 known as actinide material, have large capture cross section and can be converted into fissile material that can be utilized to reduce excess reactivity. Americium is one of minor actinides with long half life. The objective of adding americium is to decrease nuclear spent fuel in the world. The neutronic analysis results show that mixed nitride fuel have k-inf greater than uranium nitride fuel. It is caused by the addition of Pu-239 in mixed nitride fuel. In fuel fraction analysis, for uranium nitride fuel, the optimum volume fractions are 45% fuel fraction, 10% cladding and 45% moderator. In case of UN-PuN fuel, the optimum volume fractions are 30% fuel fraction, 10% cladding and 60% coolant/ moderator. The addition of Pa-231 as burnable poison for UN fuel, enrichment U-235 5%, with Pa-231 1.6% has k-inf more than one and excess reactivity of 14.45%. And for mixed nitride fuel, the lowest value of reactivity swing is when enrichment (U-235+Pu) 8% with Pa-231 0.4%, the excess reactivity value 13,76%. The fuel pin analyze for the addition of Americium, the excess reactivity value is lower than before, because Americium absorb the neutron. For UN fuel, enrichment U-235 8%, Pa-231 1.6% and Am 0.5%, the excess reactivity is 4.86%. And for mixed nitride fuel, when enrichment (U-235+Pu) 13%, Pa-231 0.4% and Am 0.1%, the excess reactivity is 11.94%. For core configuration, it is better to use heterogeneous than homogeneous core configuration, because the radial power distribution is better.

  17. Plate Tectonics: A Paradigm under Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, David

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the challenges confronting plate tectonics. Presents evidence that contradicts continental drift, seafloor spreading, and subduction. Reviews problems posed by vertical tectonic movements. (Contains 242 references.) (DDR)

  18. Radiochemical determination of the neutron capture cross sections of {sup 241}Am irradiated in the JMTR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, N.; Hatsukawa, Y.; Hata, K.; Kohno, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The thermal neutron capture cross section {sigma}{sub 0} and Resonance integral I{sub 0} of {sup 241}Am leading to the production of {sup 242m}Am and {sup 242g}Am were measured by radiochemical method. The cross sections obtained in this study are {sigma}{sub 0}=60.9 {+-} 2.6 barn, I{sub 0}=213 {+-} 13 barn for {sup 241}Am(n,{gamma}){sup 242m}Am and {sigma}{sub 0}=736 {+-} 31 barn, I{sub 0}=1684 {+-} 92 barn for {sup 241}Am(n,{gamma}){sup 242g}Am. (author)

  19. Experimental Findings On Minor Actinide And Lanthanide Separations Using Ion Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D. T.; Shehee, T. C.; Clearfield, A.

    2013-09-17

    This project seeks to determine if inorganic or hybrid inorganic ion-exchange materials can be exploited to provide effective americium and curium separations. Specifically, we seek to understand the fundamental structural and chemical factors responsible for the selectivity of the tested ion-exchange materials for actinide and lanthanide ions. During FY13, experimental work focused in the following areas: (1) investigating methods to oxidize americium in dilute nitric acid with subsequent ion-exchange performance measurements of ion exchangers with the oxidized americium and (2) synthesis, characterization and testing of ion-exchange materials. Ion-exchange materials tested included alkali titanates, alkali titanosilicates, carbon nanotubes and group(IV) metal phosphonates. Americium oxidation testing sought to determine the influence that other redox active components may have on the oxidation of Am(III). Experimental findings indicated that Pu(IV) is oxidized to Pu(VI) by peroxydisulfate, but there are no indications that the presence of plutonium affects the rate or extent of americium oxidation at the concentrations of peroxydisulfate being used. Tests also explored the influence of nitrite on the oxidation of Am(III). Given the formation of Am(V) and Am(VI) in the presence of nitrite, it appears that nitrite is not a strong deterrent to the oxidation of Am(III), but may be limiting Am(VI) by quickly reducing Am(VI) to Am(V). Interestingly, additional absorbance peaks were observed in the UV-Vis spectra at 524 and 544 nm in both nitric acid and perchloric acid solutions when the peroxydisulfate was added as a solution. These peaks have not been previously observed and do not correspond to the expected peak locations for oxidized americium in solution. Additional studies are in progress to identify these unknown peaks. Three titanosilicate ion exchangers were synthesized using a microwave-accelerated reaction system (MARS) and determined to have high affinities

  20. 49 CFR 24.101 - Applicability of acquisition requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... such properties are not displaced persons, (see §§ 24.2(a)(9)(ii)(E) or (H)), and as such, are not... paragraphs (b)(1) through (5) of this section. Such tenants are considered displaced persons. (See § 24.2(a... projects undertaken by an Agency or person that receives Federal financial assistance but does not...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix L to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Byproduct Materials Under NRC Export/Import Licensing Authority a

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 137) Chlorine 36 (Cl 36) Chlorine 38 (Cl 38) Chromium 51 (Cr 51) Cobalt 58m (Co 58m) Cobalt 58 (Co 58) Cobalt 60 (Co 60) Copper 64 (Cu 64) Curium 240 (Cm 240) Curium 241 (Cm 241) Curium 242 (Cm 242)...

  2. 75 FR 4963 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Hospital Mortgage Insurance Program-Refinancing Hospital Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Housing and Urban Development 24 CFR Part 242 Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Hospital Mortgage Insurance Program--Refinancing Hospital Loans; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 19... 242 RIN 2502-AI74 Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Hospital Mortgage Insurance...

  3. 17 CFR 270.17a-7 - Exemption of certain purchase or sale transactions between an investment company and certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... such exchange that day; or (3) If the security is not a reported security and is quoted in the NASDAQ...: (1) If the security is an “NMS stock” as that term is defined in 17 CFR 242.600, the last sale price... such security (reported pursuant to 17 CFR 242.602) if there are no reported transactions in...

  4. Military Policy toward Homosexuals: Scientific, Historic, and Legal Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    drugs include chlorimipramine, diazepam , diethylstilbesterol (DES), pargyline, and reserpine. 31. Id. at 242. 32. Id. at 242. 33. Id. at 243. 34. Id...35. Id. at 244-47. The four types are 5 alphareductase deficiency, androgen insensitivity syndrome, faulty testosterone synthesis, and congenital

  5. 75 FR 32555 - Consolidated Audit Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Exchange Commission 17 CFR Part 242 Consolidated Audit Trail; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... CFR Part 242 RIN 3235-AK51 Consolidated Audit Trail AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION... maintain a consolidated order tracking system, or consolidated audit trail, with respect to the trading...

  6. Drug: D04002 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04002 Drug Enofelast (USAN/INN) C16H15FO 242.1107 242.2881 D04002.gif Anti-asthmat...ic CAS: 127035-60-3 PubChem: 17397997 LigandBox: D04002 NIKKAJI: J328.571E ATOM 18 1 C8y C 27.3895 -19.4789

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11690-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available = 190/190 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 182 gatgnagatatcnttcaaagatttaatccnattagnntggtcntttcnatnaaaccna...aa 241 |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 182 gatgnagatatcnttcaaagatttaatccna...ttagnntggtcntttcnatnaaaccnaaa 241 Query: 242 tnggattnntcnattaggccatatnttttnaaan... = 9e-41 Identities = 189/189 (100%) Strand = Plus / Minus Query: 183 atgnagatatcnttcaaagatttaatccna...ttagnntggtcntttcnatnaaaccnaaat 242 ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

  8. TRUEX Radiolysis Testing Using the INL Radiolysis Test Loop: FY-2012 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean R. Peterman; Lonnie G. Olson; Richard D. Tillotson; Rocklan G. McDowell; Jack D. Law

    2012-09-01

    The INL radiolysis test loop has been used to evaluate the affect of radiolytic degradation upon the efficacy of the strip section of the TRUEX flowsheet for the recovery of trivalent actinides and lanthanides from acidic solution. The nominal composition of the TRUEX solvent used in this study is 0.2 M CMPO and 1.4 M TBP dissolved in n-dodecane and the nominal composition of the TRUEX strip solution is 1.5 M lactic acid and 0.050 M diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Gamma irradiation of a mixture of TRUEX process solvent and stripping solution in the test loop does not adversely impact flowsheet performance as measured by stripping americium ratios. The observed increase in americium stripping distribution ratios with increasing absorbed dose indicates the radiolytic production of organic soluble degradation compounds.

  9. 2014 AFCI Glovebox Event Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Joseph Lenard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    One of the primary INL missions is to support development of advanced fuels with the goal of creating reactor fuels that produce less waste and are easier to store. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Glovebox in the Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF) is used for several fuel fabrication steps that involve transuranic elements, including americium. The AFCI glove box contains equipment used for fuel fabrication, including an arc melter – a small, laboratory-scale version of an electric arc furnace used to make new metal alloys for research – and an americium distillation apparatus. This overview summarizes key findings related to the investigation into the releases of airborne radioactivity that occurred in the AFCI glovebox room in late August and early September 2014. The full report (AFCI Glovebox Radiological Release – Evaluation, Corrective Actions and Testing, INL/INL-15-36996) provides details of the identified issues, corrective actions taken as well as lessons learned

  10. Technical Improvements to an Absorbing Supergel for Radiological Decontamination in Tropical Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Michael D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mertz, Carol J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kivenas, Nadia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); demmer, Rick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) developed a superabsorbing gel-based process (SuperGel) for the decontamination of cesium from concrete and other porous building materials. Here, we report on results that tested the gel decontamination technology on specific concrete and ceramic formulations from a coastal city in Southeast Asia, which may differ significantly from some U.S. sources. Results are given for the evaluation of americium and cesium sequestering agents that are commercially available at a reasonable cost; the evaluation of a new SuperGel formulation that combines the decontamination properties of cesium and americium; the variation of the contamination concentration to determine the effects on the decontamination factors with concrete, tile, and brick samples; and pilot-scale testing (0.02–0.09 m2 or 6–12 in. square coupons).

  11. Fabrication and Pre-irradiation Characterization of a Minor Actinide and Rare Earth Containing Fast Reactor Fuel Experiment for Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy A. Hyde

    2012-06-01

    The United States Department of Energy, seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter lived fission products, thereby decreasing the volume of material requiring disposal and reducing the long-term radiotoxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. This transmutation of the long lived actinides plutonium, neptunium, americium and curium can be accomplished by first separating them from spent Light Water Reactor fuel using a pyro-metalurgical process, then reprocessing them into new fuel with fresh uranium additions, and then transmuted to short lived nuclides in a liquid metal cooled fast reactor. An important component of the technology is developing actinide-bearing fuel forms containing plutonium, neptunium, americium and curium isotopes that meet the stringent requirements of reactor fuels and materials.

  12. Determination of the first ionization potential of actinides by resonance ionization mass spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, S. [Institut fuer Kernchemie Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Albus, F. [Institu fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Dibenberger, R.; Erdmann, N.; Funk, H. [Institut fuer Kernchemiess Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Hasse, H. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Herrmann, G. [Institut fuer Kernchemiess Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Huber, G.; Kluge, H.; Nunnemann, M.; Passler, G. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Rao, P.M. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Bombay (India); Riegel, J.; Trautmann, N. [Institut fuer Kernchemie Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Urban, F. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany)

    1995-04-01

    Resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS) is used for the precise determination of the first ionization potential of transuranium elements. The first ionization potentials (IP) of americium and curium have been measured for the first time to IP{sub {ital Am}}=5.9738(2) and IP{sub {ital Cm}}=5.9913(8) eV, respectively, using only 10{sup 12} atoms of {sup 243}Am and {sup 248}Cm. The same technique was applied to thorium, neptunium, and plutonium yielding IP{sub T{sub H}}=6.3067(2), IP{sub N{sub P}}=6.2655(2), and IP{sub {ital Pu}}=6.0257(8) eV. The good agreement of our results with the literature data proves the precision of the method which was additionally confirmed by the analysis of Rydberg seris of americium measured by RIMS. {copyright}American Institute of Physics 1995

  13. Incineration by accelerator; Incineration par accelerateur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cribier, M.; FIoni, G.; Legrain, R.; Lelievre, F.; Leray, S.; Pluquet, A.; Safa, H.; Spiro, M.; Terrien, Y.; Veyssiere, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    The use MOX fuel allows to hope a stabilization of plutonium production around 500 tons for the French park. In return, the flow of minor actinides is increased to several tons. INCA (INCineration by Accelerator), dedicated instrument, would allow to transmute several tons of americium, curium and neptunium. It could be able to reduce nuclear waste in the case of stopping nuclear energy use. This project needs: a protons accelerator of 1 GeV at high intensity ( 50 m A), a window separating the accelerator vacuum from the reactor, a spallation target able to produce 30 neutrons by incident proton, an incineration volume where a part of fast neutrons around the target are recovered, and a thermal part in periphery with flows at 2.10 {sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}.s; a chemical separation of elements burning in thermal (americium) from the elements needing a flow of fast neutrons. (N.C.). 28 refs.

  14. Electrochemical oxidation of 243Am(III) in nitric acid by a terpyridyl-derivatized electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dares, C. J.; Lapides, A. M.; Mincher, B. J.; Meyer, T. J.

    2015-11-05

    A high surface area, tin-doped indium oxide electrode surface-derivatized with a terpyridine ligand has been applied to the oxidation of trivalent americium to Am(V) and Am(VI) in nitric acid. Potentials as low as 1.8 V vs. the saturated calomel electrode are used, 0.7 V lower than the 2.6 V potential for one-electron oxidation of Am(III) to Am(IV) in 1 M acid. This simple electrochemical procedure provides, for the first time, a method for accessing the higher oxidation states of Am in non-complexing media for developing the coordination chemistries of Am(V) and Am(VI) and, more importantly, for separation of americium from nuclear waste streams.

  15. Translations from the Soviet Journal of Atomic Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-02-15

    brain and nervous system tumors is accomplished through the use of radio- active isotopes of radon, xenon, and iodine. External irradiation techniques...production of toxic chemicals. The radioactive technique cf obtaining bexachliorane has a number of advantages over the photochemical techni- 1 13 qu. Nuclear...nuclear fuels and contains results of studies on the chemistry of ruth- enium, thorium , uranium, plutoniuin and americium. Also treated are the problems

  16. Extractant Design by Covalency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olson, Angela Christine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kozimor, Stosh Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cross, Justin Neil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Batista, Enrique Ricardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Macor, Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Peterman, Dean R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grimes, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-21

    This project aims to provide an electronic structure-to-function understanding of extractants for actinide selective separation processes. The research entails a multi-disciplinary approach that integrates chemical syntheses, structural determination, K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. In FY15, the project reached the final stage of testing the extraction performance of a new ligand design and preparing an americium-extractant complex for analysis.

  17. Gas-phase energies of actinide oxides -- an assessment of neutral and cationic monoxides and dioxides from thorium to curium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcalo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K.

    2009-08-10

    An assessment of the gas-phase energetics of neutral and singly and doubly charged cationic actinide monoxides and dioxides of thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium is presented. A consistent set of metal-oxygen bond dissociation enthalpies, ionization energies, and enthalpies of formation, including new or revised values, is proposed, mainly based on recent experimental data and on correlations with the electronic energetics of the atoms or cations and with condensed-phase thermochemistry.

  18. Bibliography of PNL publications in management of radioactive wastes, subject-indexed (alphabetically) and listed chronologically (latest issues first)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, J.A. (ed.)

    1976-07-01

    The citations are arranged under: actinides, alpha particles, americium, beta particles, calcination, cements, ceramics, cesium, containers, decontamination, evaporation, fluidized bed, glass, ground release, high-level wastes, incinerators, liquid wastes, marine disposal, melting, nonradioactive waste disposal, Pu, radiation doses, radiation protection, disposal, processing, radionuclide migration, Ru, safety, separation processes, soils, solidification, solid wastes, stack disposal, temperature, thermal conductivity, transmutation, tritium, underground disposal, U, volatility, and waste disposal/management/processing/storage/transportation. (DLC)

  19. Actinide partitioning and transmutation program. Progress report, July 1--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedder, D.W.; Blomeke, J.O. (comps.)

    1978-02-01

    In Purex process modifications, two cold runs with mixer-settlers were made on the extraction and stripping of ruthenium and zirconium without the presence of uranium. Efforts in actinide recovery from solids were directed toward the determination of dissolution parameters in various reagents for /sup 241/Am and /sup 239/Pu oxide mixtures, /sup 233/U oxide, /sup 237/Np oxide, /sup 244/Cm oxide, /sup 232/Th oxide, and PuO/sub 2/. Studies in americium-curium recovery with OPIX (oxalate precipitation and ion exchange), Talspeak, and cation exchange chromatography focused on the feasibility of forming oxalate precipitates in continuous systems, the effects of zirconium on Talspeak, and methods for removing solvent degradation products of the Talspeak system. In studies of americium-curium recovery using bidentate extractants, additional distribution coefficients for actinides and other key elements between reduced synthetic LWR waste solution and 30 percent dihexyl-N, N-diethyl-carbamylmethylene phosphonate in diisopropylbenzene were measured. Studies in the americium-curium recovery using inorganic ion exchange media to determine the pH dependence of lanthanide ion affinity for niobate, titanate, and zirconate ion exchange materials have been completed. A modified flowsheet for the extraction of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium from high-level liquid waste is presented. Evaluation of methods for measuring actinides from incinerator ash is continuing. A preliminary evaluation of methods for treatment of salt waste and waste waters was completed. In thermal reactor transmutation studies, waste actinides from an LWR lattice containing mixed uranium-plutonium assemblies were recycled in separate target assemblies. (LK)

  20. Research in radiobiology. Annual report of work in progress in the internal irradiation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-31

    The toxicity, retention, biological effects, distribution, decorporation and measuring techniques of radionuclides are discussed. Calculations of trabecular bone formation rates from tetracycline labeling is included. The characteristics of trabecular bone in the Rhesus monkey are discussed. Studies on the early retention and distribution of radium 224 in beagles are included. Studies on the decorporation of plutonium and americium in dogs by DTPA and salicylic acid are presented.

  1. Evaluation of the neutral comet assay for detection of alpha-particle induced DNA-double-strand-breaks; Evaluation des Comet Assays bei neutralem pH zur Detektion von α-Partikel induzierten DNA-Doppelstrangbruechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofbauer, Daniela

    2010-10-20

    Aim of this study was to differentiate DNA-double-strand-breaks from DNA-single-strand-breaks on a single cell level, using the comet assay after α- and γ-irradiation. Americium-241 was used as a alpha-irradiation-source, Caesium-137 was used for γ-irradiation. Because of technical problems with both the neutral and alkaline comet assay after irradiation of gastric cancer cells and human lymphocytes, no definite differentiation of DNA-damage was possible.

  2. Zebrafish model of tuberous sclerosis complex reveals cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous functions of mutant tuberin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Hyung Kim

    2011-03-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in either the TSC1 (encodes hamartin or TSC2 (encodes tuberin genes. Patients with TSC have hamartomas in various organs throughout the whole body, most notably in the brain, skin, eye, heart, kidney and lung. To study the development of hamartomas, we generated a zebrafish model of TSC featuring a nonsense mutation (vu242 in the tsc2 gene. This tsc2vu242 allele encodes a truncated Tuberin protein lacking the GAP domain, which is required for inhibition of Rheb and of the TOR kinase within TORC1. We show that tsc2vu242 is a recessive larval-lethal mutation that causes increased cell size in the brain and liver. Greatly elevated TORC1 signaling is observed in tsc2vu242/vu242 homozygous zebrafish, and is moderately increased in tsc2vu242/+ heterozygotes. Forebrain neurons are poorly organized in tsc2vu242/vu242 homozygous mutants, which have extensive gray and white matter disorganization and ectopically positioned cells. Genetic mosaic analyses demonstrate that tsc2 limits TORC1 signaling in a cell-autonomous manner. However, in chimeric animals, tsc2vu242/vu242 mutant cells also mislocalize wild-type host cells in the forebrain in a non-cell-autonomous manner. These results demonstrate a highly conserved role of tsc2 in zebrafish and establish a new animal model for studies of TSC. The finding of a non-cell-autonomous function of mutant cells might help explain the formation of brain hamartomas and cortical malformations in human TSC.

  3. Theoretical and experimental evaluation of waste transport in selected rocks: 1977 annual report of LBL Contract No. 45901AK. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program: collection and generation of transport data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, J.A.; Benson, L.V.; Lucas, J.; Mathur, A.K.; Tsao, L.

    1977-09-01

    During fiscal year 1977, the following subtasks were performed. (1) Thermodynamic data were tabulated for those aqueous complexes and solid phases of plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium likely to form in the environment. (2) Eh-pH diagrams were computed and drafted for plutonium, neptunium, americium and curium at 25/sup 0/C and one atmosphere. (3) The literature on distribution coefficients of plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium was reviewed. (4) Preliminary considerations were determined for an experimental method of measuring radionuclide transport in water-saturated rocks. (5) The transport mechanisms of radionuclides in water-saturated rocks were reviewed. (6) A computer simulation was attempted of mass transfer involving actinides in water-saturated rocks. Progress in these tasks is reported. Subtasks 1, 2, 3, and 4 are complete. The progress made in subtask 5 is represented by an initial theoretical survey to define the conditions needed to characterize the transport of radionuclides in rocks. Subtask 6 has begun but is not complete.

  4. In situ radiological surveying at the Double Tracks site, Nellis Air Force Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedhauser, S.R.; Tipton, W.J.

    1996-04-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted a series of in situ radiological measurements at the Double Tracks site on the Nellis Air Force Range just east of Goldfield, Nevada, during the periods of April 10-13 and June 5-9, 1995. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This site includes the areas covered by previous surveys conducted from 1962 through 1993. The main purpose of the first expedition was to assess several new techniques for characterizing sites with dispersed plutonium. The two purposes of the second expedition were to characterize the distribution of transuranic contamination (primarily plutonium) at the site by measuring the gamma rays from americium-241 and to assess the performance of the two new detector platforms. Both of the new platforms performed well, and the characterization of the americium-241 activity at the site was completed. Several plots compare these ground-based system measurements and the 1993 aerial data. The agreement is good considering the systems are characterized and calibrated through independent means. During the April expedition, several methods for measuring the depth distribution of americium-241 in the field were conducted as a way of quickly and reliably obtaining depth profiles without the need to wait for laboratory analysis. Two of the methods were not very effective, but the results of the third method appear very promising.

  5. Alkali Treatment of Acidic Solution from Hanford K Basin Sludge Dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AA Bessonov; AB Yusov; AM Fedoseev; AV Gelis; AY Garnov; CH Delegard; GM Plavnik; LN Astafurova; MS Grigoriev; NA Budantseva; NN Krot; SI Nikitenko; TP Puraeva; VP Perminov; VP Shilov

    1998-12-22

    Nitric acid solutions will be created from the dissolution of Hanford K Basin sludge. These acidic dissolver solutions must be made alkaline by treatment with NaOH solution before they are disposed to ~ the Tank Waste Remediation System on the Hanford Site. During the alkali treatments, sodium diuranate, hydroxides of iron and aluminum, and radioelements (uranium, plutonium, and americium) will precipitate from the dissolver solution. Laboratory tests, discussed here, were pefiormed to provide information on these precipitates and their precipitation behavior that is important in designing the engineering flowsheet for the treatment process. Specifically, experiments were conducted to determine the optimum precipitation conditions; the completeness of uranium, plutonium, and americium precipitation; the rate of sedimentation; and the physico-chemical characteristics of the solids formed by alkali treatment of simulated acidic dissolver solutions. These experiments also determined the redistribution of uranium, plutonium, and americium flom the sodium di~ate and iron and al&inurn hydroxide precipitates upon contact with carbonate- and EDTA-bearing simulated waste solutions. Note: EDTA is the tetrasodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetate.

  6. Toward Reanalysis of the Tight-Pitch HCLWR-PROTEUS Phase II Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perret Grégory

    2016-01-01

    Spectral index predictions using the three nuclear data libraries agreed within two standard deviations with the measured values. The only exception is the Pu-242-capture-to-Pu-239-fission ratio, which was overestimated with all libraries by more than four standard deviations, i.e. 13%, in the non-moderated configuration. In this configuration, Pu-242 captures are few since the flux spectrum in the Pu-242 capture resonance region (between 1eV and 1keV is small making this spectral index hard to measure. Sensitivity coefficient predictions with both MCNP6 and SERPENT2 were in good agreement.

  7. Socialization Values and Parenting Practices as Predictors of Parental Involvement in Their Children's Educational Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikas, Eve; Tulviste, Tiia; Peets, Kätlin

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental socialization values (including inconsistency in values), parenting practices, and parental involvement in their children's education. Altogether 242 Estonian mothers and fathers of first-grade children partici

  8. Disease: H01309 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H, Tanizaki H, Heike T, Miyachi Y, Nakahata T Role of the NOD2 genotype in the clinical phenotype of Blau syndrome and early-onset sarcoidosis. Arthritis Rheum 60:242-50 (2009) ...

  9. Fritz-Peter Hager/Daniel Tröhler (Hrsg.): Neue Pestalozzi-Studien. Bd. 1: Anna Pestalozzis Tagebuch - Käte Silber: Anna Pestalozzi und der Frauenkreis um Pestalozzi. Bern/Stuttgart: Haupt 1993 [Rezension

    OpenAIRE

    Liedtke, Max

    1994-01-01

    Rezension von: Fritz-Peter Hager/Daniel Tröhler (Hrsg.): Neue Pestalozzi-Studien. Bd. 1: Anna Pestalozzis Tagebuch - Käte Silber: Anna Pestalozzi und der Frauenkreis um Pestalozzi. Bern/Stuttgart: Haupt 1993, 242 S.

  10. 29 CFR 780.137 - Practices must be performed in connection with farmer's own farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Co., 242 F. 2d 714; Mitchell v. Huntsville Nurseries, 267 F. 2d 286; Bowie v. Gonzalez, 117 F. 2d 11... (Mitchell v. Huntsville Nurseries, supra; Farmers Reservoir Co. v. McComb, supra; Bowie v. Gonzalez, supra)....

  11. Geraldien von Frijtag Drabbe Künzel, Hitlers broedervolk. De Nederlandse bijdrage aan de kolonisatiepolitiek van de nazi’s in Oost-Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Julia Zurné

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Geraldien von Frijtag Drabbe Künzel, Hitlers broedervolk. De Nederlandse bijdrage aan de kolonisatiepolitiek van de nazi’s in Oost-Europa (Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2016, 242 pp., isbn 978 90 351 4396 8.

  12. Band pass filters. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W. E.

    1980-04-01

    A bibliography containing 242 abstracts addressing the design, fabrication, characterization, and application of band pass filters is presented. Radiofrequency, digital, acoustic surface wave, and X-ray filters are included.

  13. GETDB: 112973 [GETDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rsal, ventral) tr, fb tarsal ring, al, eye, tarsas - - comment1:A, comment2:42F2-...l tarsal ring, al, Adult GFP eye, tarsas Lethality - Also known as - Original Comments comment1:A, comment2:

  14. 75 FR 25895 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Horton Inc. 223 WMB Williams Cos Inc./The..... 280 ADBE Adobe Systems Inc. 225 MEE Massey Energy Co 281... Radio Inc. 241 SII Smith International Inc... 291 MMR McMoRan Exploration Co. 242 RTN Raytheon Co...

  15. 75 FR 25890 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    .... Corp. 220 DTV DIRECTV......... 279 DHI DR Horton Inc. 223 WMB Williams Cos Inc/ 280 ADBE Adobe Systems... Sirius XM Radio The. Inc. 241 SII Smith 291 MMR McMoRan International Exploration Co. Inc. 242...

  16. 75 FR 26312 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    .... 220 DTV DIRECTV. 279 DHI DR Horton Inc. 223 WMB Williams Cos Inc/The. 280 ADBE Adobe Systems Inc. 225... XM Radio Inc. 241 SII Smith International 291 MMR McMoRan Exploration Inc. Co. 242 RTN Raytheon...

  17. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(9)-8 - Special rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... before January 1, 1984, in accordance with section 242(b)(2) of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility... by the transferee plan. (c) A merger, spinoff, or consolidation, as defined in § 1.414(l)-1(b),...

  18. 76 FR 69801 - Conductor Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... definition of ``conductor'' is a fundamental element of the conductor certification regulation and FRA does... and 219. G. Vision and Hearing Acuity BLET/UTU commented that proposed Sec. 242.117(k) should...

  19. CPAP Tips

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... navigation Sign in Search Loading... Close Yeah, keep it Undo Close This video is unavailable. Watch Queue ... Why CPAP Sucks and What to Do About It - Duration: 8:46. apapuser 242,319 views 8: ...

  20. Gravity Data for the State of New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (21,242 records) were compiled by the University of Texas at El Paso. This data base was received in October 1984. Principal gravity...

  1. Self-reported early trauma as a predictor of adult personality : A study in a military sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademaker, Arthur R.; Vermetten, Eric; Geuze, Elbert; Muilwilk, Anne; Kleber, Rolf J.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to early trauma has frequently been linked to adult psychopathology, including personality disorders. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between personality and retrospectively rated levels of early trauma in 242 soldiers. Multiple regression analyses showed a significant

  2. State-dependent blocker interactions with the CFTR chloride channel: implications for gating the pore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsdell, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Chloride permeation through the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel is subject to voltage-dependent open-channel block by a diverse range of cytoplasmic anions. However, in most cases the ability of these blocking substances to influence the pore opening and closing process has not been reported. In the present work, patch clamp recording was used to investigate the state-dependent block of CFTR by cytoplasmic Pt(NO2)4(2-) ions. Two major effects of Pt(NO2)4(2-) were identified. First, this anion caused fast, voltage-dependent block of open channels, leading to an apparent decrease in single-channel current amplitude. Secondly, Pt(NO2)4(2-) also decreased channel open probability due to an increase in interburst closed times. Interestingly, mutations in the pore that weakened (K95Q) or strengthened (I344K, V345K) interactions with Pt(NO2)4(2-) altered blocker effects both on Cl(-) permeation and on channel gating, suggesting that both these effects are a consequence of Pt(NO2)4(2-) interaction with a single site within the pore. Experiments at reduced extracellular Cl(-) concentration hinted that Pt(NO2)4(2-) may have a third effect, possibly increasing channel activity by interfering with channel closure. These results suggest that Pt(NO2)4(2-) can enter from the cytoplasm into the pore inner vestibule of both open and closed CFTR channels, and that Pt(NO2)4(2-) bound in the inner vestibule blocks Cl(-) permeation as well as interfering with channel opening and, perhaps, channel closure. Implications for the location of the channel gate in the pore, and the operation of this gate, are discussed.

  3. Tumor markers for diagnosis, monitoring of recurrence and prognosis in patients with upper gastrointestinal tract cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jie-Xian; Wang, Yan; Xu, Xiao-Qin; Sun, Ting; Tian, Bao-Guo; Du, Li-Li; Zhao, Xian-Wen; Han, Cun-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the value of combined detection of serum CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS for the clinical diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) cancer and to analyze the efficacy of these tumor markers (TMs) in evaluating curative effects and prognosis. A total of 573 patients with upper GIT cancer between January 2004 and December 2007 were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS were examined preoperatively and every 3 months postoperatively by ELISA. The sensitivity of CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS were 26.8%, 36.2%, 42.9%, 2.84%, 25.4%, 34.6%, 34.2% and 30.9%, respectively. The combined detection of CEA+CA199+CA242+CA724 had higher sensitivity and specificity in gastric cancer (GC) and cardiac cancer, while CEA+CA199+CA242+SCC was the best combination of diagnosis for esophageal cancer (EC). Elevation of preoperative CEA, CA19-9 and CA24-2, SCC and CA72-4 was significantly associated with pathological types (pdiagnosis of EC; CEA+CA199+CA242+CA724 proved to be a better evaluation indicator for cardiac cancer and GC. CEA and CA19-9, CA24-2, CA72-4 and SCC, examined postoperatively during follow-up, were useful to find early tumor recurrence and metastasis, and evaluate prognosis. AFP, TPA and TPS have no significant value in diagnosis of patients with upper GIT cancer.

  4. Population Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance of Blainville’s Beaked Whales at AUTEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Charlotte Ann Dunn Bahamas Marine Mammal Research Organisation P.O. Box AB-20714 Marsh Harbour Abaco, Bahamas phone: (242) 366-4155 fax: (242...N000141210213 http://www.bahamaswhales.org LONG-TERM GOALS Atypical strandings and behavioral responses of beaked whales have been associated...2011). Yet MFA sonar operations occur repeatedly on Navy ranges that are known beaked whale habitat. The Bahamas Marine Mammal Research Organisation

  5. Beaked Whale Group Deep Dive Behavior from Passive Acoustic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Beaked Whale Group Deep Dive Behavior from Passive...Research Organisation P.O. Box AB-20714 Marsh Harbour Abaco, Bahamas phone: (242) 366-4155 fax: (242) 366-4155 email: dclaridge...N000141512649 LONG-TERM GOALS While a significant body of knowledge regarding individual beaked whale behavior at depth has been established in the

  6. Sticky-Finger Manipulation with a Multi-Touch Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    16 2.4.2 Simple Shape Gesture Recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 vii 2.4.3 Collision...system. Depending on the multi-touch hardware used, the area and shape of each finger that 16 Figure 2.10: Simple Rectangle Gesture Recognition : The...to the capacitive touch-screen of the Ipad, which allows us to achieve consistent and robust results. 2.4.2 Simple Shape Gesture Recognition In

  7. EST Table: FS916464 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS916464 E_FL_fufe_38G11_F_0 10/09/28 54 %/242 aa ref|XP_972061.1| PREDICTED: similar to thymus... 10/09/10 58 %/212 aa gnl|Amel|GB19831-PA 10/09/10 54 %/242 aa gi|91078858|ref|XP_972061.1| PREDICTED: similar to thymus-specific serine protease [Tribolium castaneum] FS916293 fufe ...

  8. Competitive but Not Allosteric mTOR Kinase Inhibition Enhances Tumor Cell Radiosensitivity1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Thomas J; Kramp, Tamalee; Kahn, Jenna; Jamal, Muhammad; Camphausen, Kevin; Tofilon, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a critical kinase in the regulation of gene translation and has been suggested as a potential target for radiosensitization. The goal of this study was to compare the radiosensitizing activities of the allosteric mTOR inhibitor rapamycin with that of the competitive mTOR inhibitor PP242. On the basis of immunoblot analyses, whereas rapamycin only partially inhibited mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity and had no effect on mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), PP242 inhibited the activity of both mTOR-containing complexes. Irradiation alone had no effect on mTORC1 or mTORC2 activity. Clonogenic survival was used to define the effects of the mTOR inhibitors on in vitro radiosensitivity. In the two tumor cell lines evaluated, PP242 treatment 1 hour before irradiation increased radiosensitivity, whereas rapamycin had no effect. Addition of PP242 after irradiation also enhanced the radiosensitivity of both tumor lines. To investigate the mechanism of radiosensitization, the induction and repair of DNA double-strand breaks were evaluated according γH2AX foci. PP242 exposure did not influence the initial level of γH2AX foci after irradiation but did significantly delay the dispersal of radiation-induced γH2AX foci. In contrast to the tumor cell lines, the radiosensitivity of a normal human fibroblast cell line was not influenced by PP242. Finally, PP242 administration to mice bearing U251 xenografts enhanced radiation-induced tumor growth delay. These results indicate that in a preclinical tumor model PP242 enhances tumor cell radiosensitivity both in vitro and in vivo and suggest that this effect involves an inhibition of DNA repair. PMID:23730416

  9. Competitive but Not Allosteric mTOR Kinase Inhibition Enhances Tumor Cell Radiosensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Thomas J; Kramp, Tamalee; Kahn, Jenna; Jamal, Muhammad; Camphausen, Kevin; Tofilon, Philip J

    2013-06-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a critical kinase in the regulation of gene translation and has been suggested as a potential target for radiosensitization. The goal of this study was to compare the radiosensitizing activities of the allosteric mTOR inhibitor rapamycin with that of the competitive mTOR inhibitor PP242. On the basis of immunoblot analyses, whereas rapamycin only partially inhibited mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity and had no effect on mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), PP242 inhibited the activity of both mTOR-containing complexes. Irradiation alone had no effect on mTORC1 or mTORC2 activity. Clonogenic survival was used to define the effects of the mTOR inhibitors on in vitro radiosensitivity. In the two tumor cell lines evaluated, PP242 treatment 1 hour before irradiation increased radiosensitivity, whereas rapamycin had no effect. Addition of PP242 after irradiation also enhanced the radiosensitivity of both tumor lines. To investigate the mechanism of radiosensitization, the induction and repair of DNA double-strand breaks were evaluated according γH2AX foci. PP242 exposure did not influence the initial level of γH2AX foci after irradiation but did significantly delay the dispersal of radiation-induced γH2AX foci. In contrast to the tumor cell lines, the radiosensitivity of a normal human fibroblast cell line was not influenced by PP242. Finally, PP242 administration to mice bearing U251 xenografts enhanced radiation-induced tumor growth delay. These results indicate that in a preclinical tumor model PP242 enhances tumor cell radiosensitivity both in vitro and in vivo and suggest that this effect involves an inhibition of DNA repair.

  10. Scenarios for the transmutation of actinides in CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyland, Bronwyn, E-mail: hylandb@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada); Gihm, Brian, E-mail: gihmb@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, 2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, Ontario, L5K 1B2 (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    With world stockpiles of used nuclear fuel increasing, the need to address the long-term utilization of this resource is being studied. Many of the transuranic (TRU) actinides in nuclear spent fuel produce decay heat for long durations, resulting in significant nuclear waste management challenges. These actinides can be transmuted to shorter-lived isotopes to reduce the decay heat period or consumed as fuel in a CANDU(R) reactor. Many of the design features of the CANDU reactor make it uniquely adaptable to actinide transmutation. The small, simple fuel bundle simplifies the fabrication and handling of active fuels. Online refuelling allows precise management of core reactivity and separate insertion of the actinides and fuel bundles into the core. The high neutron economy of the CANDU reactor results in high TRU destruction to fissile-loading ratio. This paper provides a summary of actinide transmutation schemes that have been studied in CANDU reactors at AECL, including the works performed in the past. The schemes studied include homogeneous scenarios in which actinides are uniformly distributed in all fuel bundles in the reactor, as well as heterogeneous scenarios in which dedicated channels in the reactor are loaded with actinide targets and the rest of the reactor is loaded with fuel. The transmutation schemes that are presented reflect several different partitioning schemes. Separation of americium, often with curium, from the other actinides enables targeted destruction of americium, which is a main contributor to the decay heat 100-1000 years after discharge from the reactor. Another scheme is group-extracted transuranic elements, in which all of the transuranic elements, plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) are extracted together and then transmuted. This paper also addresses ways of utilizing the recycled uranium, another stream from the separation of spent nuclear fuel, in order to drive the transmutation of other actinides.

  11. Cleaning up the Legacy of the Cold War: Plutonium Oxides and the Role of Synchrotron Radiation Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, David Lewis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-21

    The deceptively simple binary formula of AnO2 belies an incredibly complex structural nature, and propensity to form mixed-valent, nonstoichiometric phases of composition AnO2±x. For plutonium, the very formation of PuO2+x has challenged a long-established dogma, and raised fundamental questions for long-term storage and environmental migration. This presentation covers two aspects of Los Alamos synchrotron radiation studies of plutonium oxides: (1) the structural chemistry of laboratory-prepared AnO2+x systems (An = U, Pu; 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25) determined through a combination of x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) and x-ray scattering of laboratory prepared samples; and (2) the application of synchrotron radiation towards the decontamination and decommissioning of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Making the case for particle transport mechanisms as the basis of plutonium and americium mobility, rather than aqueous sorption-desorption processes, established a successful scientific basis for the dominance of physical transport processes by wind and water. The scientific basis was successful because it was in agreement with general theory on insolubility of PuO2 in oxidation state IV, results of ultrafiltration analyses of field water/sediment samples, XAFS analyses of soil, sediment, and concrete samples, and was also in general agreement with on-site monitoring data. This understanding allowed Site contractors to rapidly move to application of soil erosion and sediment transport models as the means of predicting plutonium and americium transport, which led to design and application of site-wide soil erosion control technology to help control downstream concentrations of plutonium and americium in streamflow.

  12. Fabrication of uranium-based ceramics using internal gelation for the conversion of trivalent actinides; Herstellung uranbasierter Keramiken mittel interner Gelierung zur Konversion trivalenter Actinoiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Henrik

    2012-07-01

    Alternative to today's direct final waste disposal strategy of long-lived radionuclides, for example the minor actinides neptunium, americium, curium and californium, is their selective separation from the radioactive wastestream with subsequent transmutation by neutron irradiation. Hereby it is possible to obtain nuclides with a lower risk-potential concerning their radiotoxicity. 1 neutron irradiation can be carried out either with neutron sources or in the next generation of nuclear reactors. Before the treatment, the minor actinides need to be converted in a suitable chemical and physical form. Internal gelation offers a route through which amorphous gel-spheres can be obtained directly from a metal-salt solution. Due to the presence of different types of metal ions as well as changing pH-values in a stock solution, a complex hydrolysis behaviour of these elements before and during gelation occurs. Therefore, investigations with uranium and neodymium as a minor actinide surrogate were carried out. As a result of suitable gelation-parameters, uraniumneodymium gel-spheres were successfully synthesised. The spheres also stayed intact during the subsequent thermal treatment. Based upon these findings, uranium-plutonium and uranium-americium gels were successfully created. For theses systems, the determined parameters for the uraniumneodymium gelation could also be applied. Additionally, investigations to reduce the acidity of uranium-based stock solutions for internal gelation were carried out. The necessary amount of urea and hexamethylenetetramine to induce gelation could hereby be decreased. This lead to a general increase of the gel quality and made it possible to carry out uranium-americium gelation in the first place. To investigate the stability of urea and hexamethylenetetramine, solutions of these chemicals were irradiated with different radiation doses. These chemicals showed a high stability against radiolysis in aqueous solutions.

  13. TRUEX process solvent cleanup with solid sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tse, Pui-Kwan; Reichley-Yinger, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    Solid sorbents, alumina, silica gel, and Amberlyst A-26 have been tested for the cleanup of degraded TRUEX-NPH solvent. A sodium carbonate scrub alone does not completely remove acidic degradation products from highly degraded solvent and cannot restore the stripping performance of the solvent. By following the carbonate scrub with either neutral alumina or Amberlyst A-26 anion exchange resin, the performance of the TRUEX-NPH is substantially restored. The degraded TRUEX-NPH was characterized before and after treatment by supercritical fluid chromatography. Its performance was evaluated by americium distribution ratios, phase-separation times, and lauric acid distribution coefficients. 17 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Radionuclide concentrations in honey bees from Area G at TA-54 during 1997. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarmann, T.K.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1998-07-01

    Honey bees were collected from two colonies located at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Area G, Technical Area 54, and from one control (background) colony located near Jamez Springs, NM. Samples were analyzed for the following: cesium ({sup 137}Cs), americium ({sup 241}Am), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239,240}Pu), tritium ({sup 3}H), total uranium, and gross gamma activity. Area G sample results from both colonies were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for {sup 238}Pu and {sup 3}H.

  15. Measurement of the K X-ray absorption jump ratio of erbium by attenuation of a Compton peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala, A.P.; Mainardi, R.T. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica

    1996-02-01

    The X-ray absorption jump ratio of erbium was measured with a high resolution intrinsic germanium detector by attenuation, with an erbium foi, of a Compton peak produced by the scattering of the 60 keV americium 241 X-rays. Data analysis consists of a deconvolution to find the true Compton peak shape and an integration of a parameterized expression of the attenuation coefficient adjusted by least squares. Our result has an error of 1.5% and compared with calculated data shows a difference of less than 5%. PACS number(s): 32.80 Fb, 32.80 Cy. (author).

  16. The extraction behaviors of transuranic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byeon, Kee Hoh; Lee, Eil Hee; Kwon, Seon Gil; Kim, Kwang Wook; Yang, Han Beom; Chung, Dong Yong; Lim, Jae Kwan; Shin, Hyun Kyoo; Kim, Soo Ho

    1999-10-01

    We have studied the distribution data between organic and aqueous phases and the related reaction data in the state of extraction equilibrium for neptunium, americium and curium of transuranic elements, and also studied the chemical properties for these chemical elements. In the results of study, distribution coefficients of transuranic elements such as Np(IV), Np(V), Np(VI) Am(III), CM(III) and the redox reactions of neptunium were rearranged numerically with the data in the published literatures. (author)

  17. Bidentate organophosphorus extractants: purification, properties and applications to removal of actinides from acidic waste solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.W.; McIsaac, L.D.

    1977-05-01

    At both Hanford and Idaho, DHDECMP (dihexyl-N, N-diethylcarbamylmethylene phosphonate) continuous counter-current solvent extraction processes are being developed for removal of americium, plutonium, and, in some cases, other actinides from acidic wastes generated at these locations. Bench and, eventually, pilot and plant-scale testing and application of these processes have been substantially enhanced by the discovery of suitable chemical and physical methods of removing deleterious impurities from technical-grade DHDECMP. Flowsheet details, as well as various properties of purified DHDECMP extractants, are enumerated.

  18. Features of manufacturing Cd1–xZnxTe ionizing radiation detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomashik Z. F.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a newly-developed method of manufacturing of an operating element of the Cd1–xZnxTe-detector of ionizing radiation with high sensitivity to low-energy gamma radiation of the americium 241Am radioactive isotope. The proposed two-step method of chemical surface treatment with the use of new bromine releasing polishing etchants significantly improves the quality of the detector material and increases its specific sensitivity to ionizing radiation. This allows to use smaller Cd1–xZnxTe plates, which results in lowering of the cost of detectors.

  19. Comparison of destructive and nondestructive assay of heterogeneous salt residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleissner, J.G.; Hume, M.W.

    1986-03-29

    To study problems associated with nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of molten salt residues, a joint study was conducted by the Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, CO and Mound Laboratories, Miamisburg, OH. Extensive NDA measurements were made on nine containers of molten salt residues by both Rocky Flats and Mound followed by dissolution and solution quantification at Rocky Flats. Results of this study verify that plutonium and americium can be measured in such salt residues by a new gamma-ray spectral analysis technique coupled with calorimetry. Biases with respect to the segmented gamma-scan technique were noted.

  20. An in situ survey of Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range, Central Nevada. Date of survey: September--November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    A ground-based in situ radiological survey was conducted downwind of the Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3 nuclear safety test sites at the Tonopah Test Range in central Nevada from September through November 1993. The purpose of the study was to corroborate the americium-241 ({sup 241}Am) soil concentrations that were derived from the aerial radiological survey of the Clean Slate areas, which was conducted from August through October 1993. The presence of {sup 241}Am was detected at 140 of the 190 locations, with unrecoverable or lost data accounting for fifteen (15) of the sampling points. Good agreement was obtained between the aerial and in situ results.