WorldWideScience

Sample records for americium 237

  1. Adsorption-desorption characteristics of plutonium and americium with sediment particles in the estuarine environment: studies using plutonium-237 and americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C.N.; Fukai, R.

    1975-01-01

    The particle formation of plutonium and americium, their adsorption onto fresh water sediments and the desorption from the sediments in sea water were studied in the Laboratory under simulated river-estuary conditions, using γ-emitting plutonium-237 and americium-241. The results of the experiments show that the particle formation of plutonium depends on its valence states, on pH and on the salinity of the medium. For river water at pH4, some 25%, 20% and 30% of the added 237 Pu was in particulate form, larger than 0.45 μm, for Pu (III), Pu (IV) and Pu (VI), respectively, while 65%, 90% and 50% of the respective valence states was associated with particles at pH 8. In sea water the general pattern remains similar, although Pu (VI) is more soluble in sea water owing to higher ligand concentrations for carbonate and bicarbonate complexes. The pH-dependency of particle formation of Am (III) is more steep than that of plutonium and seems to be influenced by colloidal substances occurring in the experimental media. The adsorption-desorption characteristics of plutonium and americium with the sediment in river water as well as sea water reflect the characteristics of their particle formation, being dependent upon such properties as valence states, the pH and salinity of the medium. A sewage effluent added to the media has small but measurable effects on the adsorption-desorption processes of plutonium. (author)

  2. Osteosarcoma induction by plutonium-239, americium-241 and neptunium-237 : the problem of deriving risk estimates for man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Spontaneous bone cancer (osteosarcoma) represents only about 0.3% of all human cancers, but is well known to be inducible in humans by internal contamination with radium-226 and radium-224. plutonium-239, americium-241 and neptunium-237 form, or will form, the principal long-lived alpha particle emitting components of high activity waste and burnt-up nuclear fuel elements. These three nuclides deposit extensively in human bone and although, fortunately, no case of a human osteosarcoma induced by any of these nuclides is known, evidence from animal studies suggests that all three are more effective than radium-226 in inducing osteosarcoma. The assumption that the ratio of the risk factors, the number of osteosarcoma expected per 10000 person/animal Gy, for radium-226 and any other bone-seeking alpha-emitter will be independent of animal species has formed the basis of all the important studies of the radiotoxicity of actinide nuclides in experimental animals. The aim of this communication is to review the risk factors which may be calculated from the various animal studies carried out over the last thirty years with plutonium-237, americium-241 and neptunium-237 and to consider the problems which may arise in extrapolating these risk factors to homo sapiens

  3. Americium recovery from reduction residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, W.V.; Proctor, S.G.

    1973-12-25

    A process for separation and recovery of americium values from container or bomb'' reduction residues comprising dissolving the residues in a suitable acid, adjusting the hydrogen ion concentration to a desired level by adding a base, precipitating the americium as americium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, digesting the solution, separating the precipitate, and thereafter calcining the americium oxalate precipitate to form americium oxide. (Official Gazette)

  4. Accidental exposure to americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heid, K.R.

    1985-04-01

    This report desribes an accident in which a 64-year old Hanford nuclear worker was exposed to high levels of americium while working in an americium recovery facility in 1976. As a result of the accident, he was heavily externally contaminated with americium, sustained with a substantial internal deposition of this isotope, and was burned with concentrated nitric acid and injured by flying debris about the face and neck. The immediate and longer-term treatment given the patient, including the decontamination efforts and clinical laboratory studies, are discussed. Special in-vivo equipment and techniques were used to measure the americium deposited in the patient. These and subsequent in-vivo measurements were used to estimate the dose rates and the accumulated doses to body organs. Urinary and fecal excreta were collected and analyzed for americium content. The interpretation of these data was complicated by the fact that the intake resulted both from inhalation and from solubilization of the americium embedded in facial tissues as a result of the accident. A total of 1100 μCi was excreted in urine and feces during the first 2 years following the accident. The long-term use of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), used principally as the zinc salt, is discussed including the method, route of administration, and effectiveness. To date, the patient has apparently experienced no complications attributable to this extensive course of therapy, even though he was given approximately 560 g of DTPA. 6 refs

  5. Determination of americium in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvydko, N.S.; Mikhajlova, O.A.; Popov, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the determination of americium 241 in urine by a raiochemical purification of the nuclide from uranium (upon co-precipitation of americium 241 with calcium and lanthanum), plutonium, thorum, and polonium 210 (upon co-precipitation of these radionuclides with zirconium iodate). α-Radioactivity was measured either in a thick layer of the americium 241 precipitate with a nonisotope carrier or in thin-layer preparations after electrolytic precipitation of americium 241 on a cathode

  6. Chemistry of americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1976-01-01

    Essential features of the descriptive chemistry of americium are reviewed. Chapter titles are: discovery, atomic and nuclear properties, collateral reading, production and uses, chemistry in aqueous solution, metal, alloys, and compounds, and, recovery, separation, purification. Author and subject indexes are included. (JCB)

  7. 1976 Hanford americium accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heid, K.R.; Breitenstein, B.D.; Palmer, H.E.; McMurray, B.J.; Wald, N.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the 2.5-year medical course of a 64-year-old Hanford nuclear chemical operator who was involved in an accident in an americium recovery facility in August 1976. He was heavily externally contaminated with americium, sustained a substantial internal deposition of this isotope, and was burned with concentrated nitric acid and injured by flying debris about the face and neck. The medical care given the patient, including the decontamination efforts and clinical laboratory studies, are discussed. In-vivo measurements were used to estimate the dose rates and the accumulated doses to body organs. Urinary and fecal excreta were collected and analyzed for americium content. Interpretation of these data was complicated by the fact that the intake resulted both from inhalation and from solubilization of the americium embedded in facial tissues. A total of 1100 μCi was excreted in urine and feces during the first 2 years following the accident. The long-term use of diethylenetriaminepentate (DTPA), used principally as the zinc salt, is discussed including the method, route of administration, and effectiveness. To date, the patient has apparently experienced no complications attributable to this extensive course of therapy, even though he has been given approximately 560 grams of DTPA. 4 figures, 1 table

  8. Rare earth elements during diagenesis of abyssal sediments: analogies with a transuranic element americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boust, D.

    1987-03-01

    One of the possibilities for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes consists in burying them into abyssal sediments, the sediments being supposed to barrier out radionuclides migration. The objective of the work was to estimate the efficiency of sediment barrier with respect to americium. As there is no americium in abyssal sediments, an indirect approach was used: the behaviour of the rare earth elements, the best natural analogs of americium. They were analysed in a 15 m long core, from the Cap Verde abyssal plateau. The terrigenous phase derived from the African continent was modified by short-term processes (1-1000 years); the intermediate rare earth elements were dissolved. Mineral coatings, enriched in rare earth appeared. After burial, the evolution continued at a much slower rate (10 5 - 10 6 years). The rare elements of the mineral coatings derived from the dissolution of the terrigenous phase and from an additional source, deeper in the sediment column. The fluxes of rare earth elements from sediment to water column were estimated. In suboxic sediments, the dissolved particulate equilibrium was related to redox conditions. The short-term reactivity of americium was studied in laboratory experiments. Simple americium migration models showed that the sediments barrier was totally efficient with respect to americium. In the conditions, neptunium 237 a daughter product of americium 241 could induce fluxes of 10 16 atoms per year per ton of stored waste (10 -8 Ci y-1), during millions years, towards the water column [fr

  9. On the americium oxalate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakolupin, S.A.; Korablin, Eh.V.

    1977-01-01

    The americium oxalate solubility at different nitric (0.0-1 M) and oxalic (0.0-0.4 M) acid concentrations was investigated in the temperature range from 14 to 60 deg C. The dependence of americium oxalate solubility on the oxalic acid concentration was determined. Increasing oxalic acid concentration was found to reduce the americium oxalate solubility. The dependence of americium oxalate solubility on the oxalic acid concentration was noted to be a minimum at low acidity (0.1-0.3 M nitric acid). This is most likely due to Am(C 2 O 4 ) + , Am(C 2 O 4 ) 2 - and Am(C 2 O 4 ) 3 3- complex ion formation which have different unstability constants. On the basis of the data obtained, a preliminary estimate was carried out for the product of americium oxalate solubility in nitric acid medium (10 -29 -10 -31 ) and of the one in water (6.4x10 -20 )

  10. Recycling of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagstroem, Ingela

    1999-12-01

    Separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel is a part of the process of recycling fissile material. Extracting agents for partitioning the high level liquid waste (HLLW) from conventional PUREX reprocessing is studied. The CTH-process is based on three consecutive extraction cycles. In the first cycle protactinium, uranium, neptunium and plutonium are removed by extraction with di-2-ethylhexyl-phosphoric acid (HDEHP) from a 6 M nitric acid HLLW solution. Distribution ratios for actinides, fission products and corrosion products between HLLW and 1 M HDEHP in an aliphatic diluent have been investigated. To avoid addition of chemicals the acidity is reduced by a tributylphosphate (TBP) extraction cycle. The distribution ratios of elements present in HLLW have been measured between 50 % TBP in an aliphatic diluent and synthetic HLLW in range 0.1-6 M nitric acid. In the third extraction cycle americium and curium are extracted. To separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides a method based on selective stripping of the actinides from 1 M HDEHP is proposed. The aqueous phase containing ammonia, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and lactic acid is recycled in a closed loop after reextraction of the actinides into a second organic phase also containing 1 M HDEHP. Distribution ratios for americium and neodymium have been measured at varying DTPA and lactic acid concentrations and at varying pH. Nitrogen-donor reagents have been shown to have a potential to separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides. 2,2':6,2''-terpyridine as extractant follows the CHON-principle and can in synergy with 2-bromodecanoic acid separate americium from europium. Distribution ratios for americium and europium, in the range of 0.02-0.12 M nitric acid, between nitric acid and 0.02 M terpyridine with 1 M 2-bromodecanoic acid in tert-butylbenzene (TBB) was investigated. Comparison with other nitrogen-donor reagents show that increasing lipophilicity of the molecule, by substitution of

  11. Americium-241 - ED 4308

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, M.; Frot, P.; Gambini, D.; Gauron, C.; Moureaux, P.; Herbelet, G.; Lahaye, T.; Le Guen, B.; Pihet, P.; Rannou, A.; Vidal, E.

    2012-12-01

    This sheet presents the characteristics of Americium-241, its origin, and its radio-physical and biological properties. It briefly describes its use in nuclear medicine. It indicates its dosimetric parameters for external exposure, cutaneous contamination, and internal exposure due to acute contamination or to chronic contamination. It indicates and comments the various exposure control techniques: ambient dose rate measurement, surface contamination measurement, atmosphere contamination. It addresses the means of protection: premise design, protection against external exposure and against internal exposure. It describes how areas are delimited and controlled within the premises: regulatory areas, controls to be performed. It addresses the personnel classification, training and medical survey. It addresses the issue of wastes and effluents. It briefly recalls the administrative procedures related to the authorization and declaration of possession and use of sealed and unsealed sources. It indicates regulatory aspects related to the road transport of Americium-241, describes what is to be done in case of incident or accident (for the different types of contamination or exposure)

  12. Americium product solidification and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.; Campbell, D.O.; Bell, J.T.; Collins, E.D.

    1987-01-01

    The americium product from the TRUEX processing plant needs to be converted into a form suitable for ultimate disposal. An evaluation of the disposal based on safety, number of process steps, demonstrated operability of the processes, production of low-level alpha waste streams, and simplicity of maintenance with low radiation exposures to personnel during maintenance, has been made. The best process is to load the americium on a cation exchange resin followed by calcination or oxidation of the resin after loading

  13. Americium in the Finnish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehto, J. (Helsinki Univ., Lab. of Radiochemistry (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    This paper reviews studies on environmental americium,241 Am, in Finland. There are two sources of americium in the Finnish environment: fallouts from nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s and from the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the former constituting around 98% of the total environmental load. The weapons test fallout was distributed more or less uniformly over Finland, while the Chernobyl fallout was deposited on a sector from southwestern coast to northeast. The total deposition of 241 Am in Finland is approximately 20 Bq m-2 and the amount is still somewhat increasing due to decay of 241 Pu. In this paper, the distribution and migration of americium in forest and aquatic environments is described. Americium concentrations in natural waters, sediments, soils, vegetation and fishes are given. In addition, the behaviour of americium in the food chain from lichen via reindeer into man is discussed. Radiation doses to humans due to the environmental americium in Finland are of no practical importance (orig.)

  14. Plutonium and americium separation from salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, P.G.; Miner, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Salts or materials containing plutonium and americium are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, heated, and contacted with an alkali metal carbonate solution to precipitate plutonium and americium carbonates which are thereafter readily separable from the solution

  15. Isolation of high purity americium metal via distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Leah N.; King, James A.; Fielding, Randall S.; Lessing, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Pure americium metal is a crucial component for the fabrication of transmutation fuels. Unfortunately, americium in pure metal form is not available; however, a number of mixed metals and mixed oxides that include americium are available. In this manuscript a method is described to obtain high purity americium metal from a mixture of americium and neptunium metals with lead impurity via distillation.

  16. Transmutation of Americium in Fast Neutron Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Youpeng

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, the feasibility to use a medium sized sodium cooled fast reactor fully loaded with MOX fuel for efficient transmutation of americium is investigated by simulating the safety performance of a BN600-type fast reactor loaded with different fractions of americium in the fuel, using the safety parameters obtained with the SERPENT Monte Carlo code. The focus is on americium mainly due to its long-term contribution to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel and its deterioration on c...

  17. Analysis of Americium in Transplutonium Process Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    One of the more difficult analyses in the transplutonium field is the determination of americium at trace levels in a complex matrix such as a process dissolver solution. Because of these conditions a highly selective separation must precede the measurement of americium. The separation technique should be mechanically simple to permit remote operation with master-slave manipulators. For subsequent americium measurement by the mass spectroscopic isotopic-dilution technique, plutonium and curium interferences must also have been removed

  18. Metabolism of americium-241 in dairy animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, W.W.; Patzer, R.G.; Mullen, A.A.; Hahn, P.B.; Potter, G.D.

    1978-10-01

    Groups of lactating cows and goats were used to examine americium-241 metabolism in dairy animals. Following either single oral or intravenous nuclide doses, samples of milk, urine, blood, and feces were taken over a 168-hr collection period and the americium concentrations were determined by gamma counting. Gastrointestinal uptake of americium by both cows and goats was estimated to be 0.014% of the respective oral doses. The cumulative percentage of oral dose transported to milk and urine was 4.4 x 10 -4 and 1.1 x 10 -3 respectively for cows and 4.4 x 10 -3 and 1.2 x 10 -3 respectively for goats. The relatively high americium concentrations noted in caprine milk following the oral doses are discussed. Plasma concentrations of americium decreased rapidly following all intravenous injections. The average percentage of injected americium transferred to milk, urine, and feces was 3, 6, and 2% respectively for cows and 2, 4, and 2% respectively for goats. In both intravenously dosed groups, approximately 30% of all americium released from the body was found in the urine during the first 24 hrs after injection. All animals were sacrificed 8 to 9 days after dosing. Bovine bone retained the greatest fraction of the administered dose followed by the liver. However, liver retained the greatest amount of americium in the goats following both oral and intravenous doses. Comparisons are presented between americium-241 and plutonium-238 transport in dairy cows

  19. Metabolism of americium-241 in dairy animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, W.W.; Patzer, R.G.; Mullen, A.A.; Hahn, P.B.; Potter, G.D.

    1978-01-01

    Groups of lactating cows and goats were used to examine americium-241 metabolism in dairy animals. Following either single oral or intravenous nuclide doses, samples of milk, urine, blood, and feces were taken over a 168-hour collection period, and the americium concentrations were determined by gamma counting. Gastrointestinal uptake of americium by cows and goats was estimated to be 0.014 and 0.016% of the oral dose, respectively. The cumulative percentage of oral dose transported to milk and urine was 4.4 x 10 -4 and 1.1 x 10 -3 , respectively, for cows and 5.6 x 10 -4 and 1.2 x 10 -3 , respectively, for goats. Plasma concentrations of americium decreased rapidly following all intravenous injections. The average percentage of injected americium transferred to milk, urine, and feces was 3, 6, and 2%, respectively, for cows, and 2, 4, and 2%, respectively, for goats. In both intravenously dosed groups, approximately 30% of all americium released from the body was found in the urine during the first 24 hours after injection. All animals were sacrificed 8 to 9 days after dosing. Bovine bone retained the greatest fraction of the administered dose followed by liver and kidney. However, liver retained the greatest amount of americium in the goats following both oral and intravenous doses. Comparisons are presented between americium-241 and plutonium-238 transport in dairy cows

  20. Adsorption-Desorption Characteristics of Plutonium and Americium with Sediment Particles in the Estuarine Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C.N.; Fukai, R.

    1976-01-01

    The particle formation of plutonium and americium, their adsorption onto fresh water sediments and the desorption from the sediments in sea water were studied in the Laboratory under simulated river-estuary conditions, using γ-emitting plutonium-237 and americium-241. The results of the experiments show that the particle formation of plutonium depends on its valence states, on pH and on the salinity of the medium. For river water at pH4, some 25%, 20% and 30% of the added 237 Pu was in particulate form, larger than 0.45pm, for Pu (III), Pu (IV) and Pu (VI), respectively, while 65%, 90% and 50% of the respective valence states was associated with particles at pH 8. In sea water the general pattern remains similar, although Pu (VI) is more soluble in sea water owing to higher ligand concentrations for carbonate and bicarbonate complexes. The pH-dependency of particle formation of Am (III) is more steep than that of plutonium and seems to be influenced by colloidal substances occurring in the experimental media. The adsorption-desorption characteristics of plutonium and americium with the sediment in river water as well as sea water reflect the characteristics of their particle formation, being dependent upon such properties as valence states, the pH and salinity of the medium. A sewage effluent added to the media has small but measurable effects on the adsorption-desorption processes of plutonium. (author)

  1. Plutonium-239 and americium-241 uptake by plants from soil. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.W.

    1979-03-01

    Alfalfa was grown in soil contaminated with plutonium-239 dioxide (239PuO2) at a concentration of 29.7 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g). In addition to alfalfa, radishes, wheat, rye, and tomatoes were grown in soils contaminated with americium-241 nitrate (241Am(NO3)3) at a concentration of 189 nCi/g. The length of exposure varied from 52 days for the radishes to 237 days for the alfalfa. The magnitude of plutonium incorporation by the alfalfa as indicated by the concentration ratio, 0.0000025, was similar to previously reported data using other chemical forms of plutonium. The results did indicate, however, that differences in the biological availability of plutonium isotopes do exist. All of the species exposed to americium-241 assimilated and translocated this radioisotope to the stem, leaf, and fruiting structures. The magnitude of incorporation as signified by the concentration ratios varied from 0.00001 for the wheat grass to 0.0152 for the radishes. An increase in the uptake of americium also occurred as a function of time for four of the five plant species. Evidence indicates that the predominant factor in plutonium and americium uptake by plants may involve the chelation of these elements in soils by the action of compounds such as citric acid and/or other similar chelating agents released from plant roots

  2. Production of americium isotopes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehly, G.; Bourges, J.; Madic, C.; Nguyen, T.H.; Lecomte, M.

    1984-12-01

    The program of productions of americium 241 and 243 isotopes is based respectively on the retreatment of aged plutonium alloys or plutonium dioxide and on the treatment of plutonium targets irradiated either in CELESTIN reactors for Pu-Al alloys or OSIRIS reactor for plutonium 242 dioxide. All the operations, including americium final purifications, are carried out in hot cells equipped with remote manipulators. The chemical processes are based on the use of extraction chromatography with hydrophobic SiO 2 impregnated with extracting agents. Plutonium targets and aged plutonium alloys are dissolved in nitric acid using conventional techniques while plutonium dioxide dissolutions are performed routine at 300 grams scale with electrogenerated silver II in 4M HNO 3 at room temperature. The separation between plutonium and americium is performed by extraction of Pu(IV) either on TBP/SiO 2 or TOAHNO 3 /SiO 2 column. Americium recovery from waste streams rid of plutonium is realized by chromatographic extraction of Am(III) using mainly TBP and episodically DHDECMP as extractant. The final purification of both americium isotopes uses the selective extraction of Am(VI) on HDDiBMP/SiO 2 column at 60 grams scale. Using the overall process a total amount of 1000 grams of americium 241 and 100 grams of americium 243 has been produced nowadays and the AmO 2 final product indicates a purity better than 98.5%

  3. Distribution coefficients for plutonium and americium on particulates in aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, A.L.; Schell, W.R.; Sibley, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution coefficients of two transuranic elements, plutonium and americium, were measured experimentally in laboratory systems of selected freshwater, estuarine, and marine environments. Gamma-ray emitting isotopes of these radionuclides, 237 Pu and 241 Am, were significantly greater than the sorption Ksub(d) values, suggesting some irreversibility in the sorption of these radionuclides onto sediments. The effects of pH and of sediment concentration on the distribution coefficients were also investigated. There were significant changes in the Ksub(d) values as these parameters were varied. Experiments using sterilized and nonsterilized samples for some of the sediment/water systems indicate possible bacterial effects on Ksub(d) values. (author)

  4. Contributions to the preparation of 241americium metal and a few 241americium silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmann, F.D.

    1980-01-01

    In order to take a closer look at the americium-silicon system, three further silicides of americium: Am 5 Si 3 , Am 2 Si 3 and AmSi 2 were prepared in addition to the already known americium monosilicide and starting from the knowledge gained from the latters preparation. Radiographic investigations were carried out into the temperature region of 900 0 C. They showed no change of structure in the three compounds. It was possible to prepare residue-free americium metal by reducing AmF 3 with Si, whereby the SiF 4 formed can be easily separated off as volatile compound, and the Am metal is brought into a very pure form by sublimation suitable for spectrochemical investigations. Attempts to prepare binary germanides and gallides of 241 americium were unsuccessful. (RB) [de

  5. Americium removal from nitric acid waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscatello, A.C.; Navratil, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Separations research at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) has found ways to significantly improve americium removal from nitric acid (7M) waste streams generated by plutonium purification operations. Partial neutralization of the acid waste followed by solid supported liquid membranes (SLM) are useful in transferring and concentrating americium from nitrate solutions. Specifically, DHDECMP (dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate) supported on Accurel polypropylene hollow fibers assembled in modular form transfers >95% of the americium from high nitrate (6.9M), low acid (0.1M) feeds into 0.25M oxalic acid stripping solution. Maximum permeabilities were observed to be 0.001 cm/sec, consistent with typical values for other systems. The feed:strip volume ratio shows an inverse relationship to the fraction of metal ion transferred. Cation exchangers may be used to concentrate americium from the strip solution. Furthermore, O0D (iB)CMPO (or CMPO) (octylphenyl-N-N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide) has been tested in an extraction chromatography mode. Preliminary results show CMPO to be effective in removing americium if the feed is neutralized to 1.0M acidity and iron(III) is complexed with 0.20M oxalic acid. 3 figs

  6. Americium thermodynamic data for the EQ3/6 database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-07-01

    Existing thermodynamic data for aqueous and solid species of americium have been reviewed and collected in a form that can be used with the EQ3/6 database. Data that are important in solubility calculations for americium at a proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository were emphasized. Conflicting data exist for americium complexes with carbonates. Essentially no data are available for americium solids or complexes at temperatures greater than 25 0 C. 17 references, 4 figures

  7. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  8. Formation of americium and europium humate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minai, Y.; Tominaga, T.; Meguro, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Binding constants of americium and europium with a humic acid were determined to study if complex formation of trivalent actinide-humates affects dissolved species of the actinides in hydrosphere. The purified humic acid was characterized by means of UV-vis, IR, and pH titration, indicating high carboxylate capacity and low aromaticity. Binding constants of americium and europium humates were determined at pH 4.6 and 6.0 by solvent extraction using 241 Am or 152 Eu as a tracer. The binding constants for americium-humate obtained preliminarily suggest that complexes with humic acid are not negligible in speciation of trivalent actinides in hydrosphere. The obtained binding constants were nearly identical with those determined previously by the same procedures, but with humic acids of different origin and compositions. (author)

  9. Biosorption of americium by alginate beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borba, Tania Regina de; Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Goes, Marcos Maciel de; Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Sakata, Solange Kazumi

    2009-01-01

    The use of biotechnology to remove heavy metals from wastes plays great potential in treatment of radioactive wastes and therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the biosorption of americium by alginate beads. Biosorption has been defined as the property of certain biomolecules to bind and remove selected ions or other molecules from aqueous solutions. The calcium alginate beads as biosorbent were prepared and analyzed for americium uptaking. The experiments were performed in different solution activity concentrations, pH and exposure time. The results suggest that biosorption process is more efficient at pH 4 and for 75, 150, 300 Bq/mL and 120 minutes were necessary to remove almost 100% of the americium-241 from the solution. (author)

  10. Transmutation of Americium in Fast Neutron Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youpeng

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, the feasibility to use a medium sized sodium cooled fast reactor fully loaded with MOX fuel for efficient transmutation of americium is investigated by simulating the safety performance of a BN600-type fast reactor loaded with different fractions of americium in the fuel, using the safety parameters obtained with the SERPENT Monte Carlo code. The focus is on americium mainly due to its long-term contribution to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel and its deterioration on core's safety parameters. Applying the SAS4A/SASSYS transient analysis code, it is demonstrated that the power rating needs to be reduced by 6% for each percent additional americium introduction into the reference MOX fuel, maintaining 100 K margin to fuel melting, which is the most limiting failure mechanism. Safety analysis of a new Accelerator Driven System design with a smaller pin pitch-to-diameter ratio comparing to the reference EFIT-400 design, aiming at improving neutron source efficiency, was also performed by simulating performance for unprotected loss of flow, unprotected transient overpower, and protected loss-of-heat-sink transients, using neutronic parameters obtained from MCNP calculations. Thanks to the introduction of the austenitic 15/15Ti stainless steel with enhanced creep rupture resistance and acceptable irradiation swelling rate, the suggested ADS design loaded with nitride fuel and cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic could survive the full set of transients, preserving a margin of 130 K to cladding rupture during the most limiting transient. The thesis concludes that efficient transmutation of americium in a medium sized sodium cooled fast reactor loaded with MOX fuel is possible but leads to a severe power penalty. Instead, preserving transmutation rates of minor actinides up to 42 kg/TWh th , the suggested ADS design with enhanced proton source efficiency appears like a better option for americium transmutation

  11. Preparation of americium source for smoke detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaswami, A.; Singh, R.J.; Manohar, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the method developed for the preparation of 241 Am source for smoke detector. Americium was electrodeposited from iso-propyl alcohol medium on silver backing. Thin layer of gold (few hundred micro gram thick) was plated on the americium source to make it safe for handling. The thickness of plated gold was such that the alpha radiations from the 241 Am source could escape out of the gold layer and cause ionisation in the surrounding air. The performance of the prepared sources were checked in a smoke detector and was found to be satisfactory and comparable to the imported sources. (author). 1 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Redox chemistry of americium in nitric acid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picart, S.; Jobelin, I.; Armengol, G.; Adnet, JM

    2004-07-01

    The redox properties of the actinides are very important parameters for speciation studies and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing based on liquid-liquid extraction of actinides at different oxidation states (as in the Purex or Sesame process). They are also very useful for developing analytical tools including coulometry and redox titration. This study addressed the americium(IV)/americium(III) and americium(VI)/americium(V) redox couples, focusing on exhaustive acquisition of the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of americium oxidation at an electrode in a complexing nitric acid medium. (authors)

  13. Redox chemistry of americium in nitric acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picart, S.; Jobelin, I.; Armengol, G.; Adnet, JM.

    2004-01-01

    The redox properties of the actinides are very important parameters for speciation studies and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing based on liquid-liquid extraction of actinides at different oxidation states (as in the Purex or Sesame process). They are also very useful for developing analytical tools including coulometry and redox titration. This study addressed the americium(IV)/americium(III) and americium(VI)/americium(V) redox couples, focusing on exhaustive acquisition of the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of americium oxidation at an electrode in a complexing nitric acid medium. (authors)

  14. Americium separations from high salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, Mary E.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Schulte, Louis D.; Stark, Peter C.; Chamberlin, Rebecca M.; Abney, Kent D.; Ricketts, Thomas E.; Valdez, Yvette E.; Bartsch, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    Americium (III) exhibits an unexpectedly high affinity for anion-exchange material from the high-salt evaporator bottoms solutions--an effect which has not been duplicated using simple salt solutions. Similar behavior is observed for its lanthanide homologue, Nd(III), in complex evaporator bottoms surrogate solutions. There appears to be no single controlling factor--acid concentration, total nitrate concentration or solution ionic strength--which accounts for the approximately 2-fold increase in retention of the trivalent ions from complex solutions relative to simple solutions. Calculation of species activities (i.e., water, proton and nitrate) in such concentrated mixed salt solutions is difficult and of questionable accuracy, but it is likely that the answer to forcing formation of anionic nitrate complexes of americium lies in the relative activities of water and nitrate. From a practical viewpoint, the modest americium removal needs (ca. 50--75%) from nitric acid evaporator bottoms allow sufficient latitude for the use of non-optimized conditions such as running existing columns filled with older, well-used Reillex HPQ. Newer materials, such as HPQ-100 and the experimental bifunctional resins, which exhibit higher distribution coefficients, would allow for either increased Am removal or the use of smaller columns. It is also of interest that one of the experimental neutral-donor solid-support extractants, DHDECMP, exhibits a similarly high level of americium (total alpha) removal from EV bottoms and is much less sensitive to total acid content than commercially-available material

  15. 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident: psychological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Accidents involving exposure to radiation or radioactive materials may involve an unusual degree of emotional trauma. Methods that may be employed in dealing with such trauma are discussed in relation to a specific accident in which a radiation worker was injured and seriously contaminated with americium-241

  16. Transmutation of americium in critical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenius, J.

    2005-01-01

    Already in 1974, a Los Alamos report suggested that the recycling of higher actinides would be detrimental for the safety of critical reactors. Later investigations confirmed this understanding, and stringent limits on the fraction of minor actinides allowed to be present in the fuel of fast neutron reactors were established. In recent years, and in particular in connection with the generation IV initiative, it has been advocated that recycling of americium in critical reactors is not only feasible, but also a recommendable approach. In the present contribution, it is shown, to the contrary, that introduction of americium into reactors with uranium based fuels deteriorates the safety margin of these reactors to a degree that will not allow consumption of the americium sources present in any economically competitive nuclear fuel cycle. Further, it is shown that uranium and thorium free cores with plutonium based fuels may be designed, that features excellent safety characteristics, as long as americium is not present in the feed. Hence, a closed fuel cycle is suggested, that consists of commercial power production in light water reactors, plutonium burning in uranium and thorium free fast neutron critical reactors, and higher actinide consumption in accelerator driven systems with inert matrix fuel. It is argued that such a fuel cycle (being a refinement of the Double Strata fuel cycle proposed by JAERI and further developed by M. Salvatores) provides a minimum cost penalty for implementing P and T under realistic boundary conditions. (author)

  17. Decontaminaion of metals containing plutonium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.; Gerding, T.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1979-06-01

    Melt-slagging (melt-refining) techniques were evaluated as a decontamination and consolidation step for metals contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium. Experiments were performed in which mild steel, stainless steel, and nickel contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium were melted in the presence of silicate slags of various compositions. The metal products were low in contamination, with the plutonium and americium strongly fractionated to the slags. Partition coefficients (plutonium in slag/plutonium in steel) of 7 x 10 6 were measured with boro-silicate slag and of 3 x 10 6 with calcium, magnesium silicate slag. Decontamination of metals containing as much as 14,000 ppM plutonium appears to be as efficient as for metals with plutonium levels of 400 ppM. Staged extraction, that is, a remelting of processed metal with clean slag, results in further decontamination of the metal. The second extraction is effective with either resistance-furnace melting or electric-arc melting. Slag adhering to the metal ingots and in defects within the ingots is in the important contributors to plutonium retained in processed metals. If these sources of plutonium are controlled, the melt-refining process can be used on a large scale to convert highly contaminated metals to homogeneous and compact forms with very low concentrations of plutonium and americium. A conceptual design of a melt-refining process to decontaminate plutonium- and americium-contaminated metals is described. The process includes single-stage refining of contaminated metals to produce a metal product which would have less than 10 nCi/g of TRU-element contamination. Two plant sizes were considered. The smaller conceptual plant processes 77 kg of metal per 8-h period and may be portable.The larger one processes 140 kg of metal per 8-h period, is stationary, and may be near te maximum size that is practical for a metal decontamination process

  18. 49 CFR 237.131 - Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design. 237.131 Section 237.131 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Repair and Modification of Bridges § 237.131 Design. Each repair or... component of a bridge shall be designed by a railroad bridge engineer. The design shall specify the manner...

  19. 49 CFR 238.237 - Automated monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automated monitoring. 238.237 Section 238.237 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.237 Automated monitoring. (a) Except as further specified in this paragraph, on or after...

  20. 47 CFR 24.237 - Interference protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference protection. 24.237 Section 24.237... SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.237 Interference protection. (a) All licensees are required to coordinate their... protection criterion shall be such that the interfering signal will not produce more than 1.0 dB degradation...

  1. Status of Americium-241 recovery at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knighton, J.B.; Hagan, P.G.; Navratil, J.D.; Thompson, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is presented in two parts: Part I, Molten Salt Extraction of Americium from Molten Plutonium Metal, and Part II, Aqueous Recovery of Americium from Extraction Salts. The Rocky Flats recovery process used for waste salts includes (1) dilute hydrochloric acid dissolution of residues; (2) cation exchange to convert from the chloride to the nitrate system and to remove gross amounts of monovalent impurities; (3) anion exchange separation of plutonium; (4) oxalate precipitation of americium; and (5) calcination of the oxalate at 600 0 C to yield americium oxide. The aqueous process portion describes attempts to improve the recovery of americium. The first part deals with modifications to the cation exchange step; the second describes development of a solvent extractions process that will recovery americium from residues containing aluminium as well as other common impurities. Results of laboratory work are described. 3 figures, 6 tables. (DP)

  2. Americium migration in basalt and implications to repository risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickert, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were performed with americium as a minor component in groundwater. Batch adsorption, migration through column, and filtration experiments were performed. It was determined in batch experiments that americium is strongly adsorbed from solution. It was determined with filtration experiments that large percentages of the americium concentrations suspended by the contact solutions in batch experiments and suspended by the infiltrating groundwater in migration experiments were associated with particulate. Filtration was determined to be the primary mode of removal of americium from infiltrating groundwater in a column of granulated basalt (20 to 50 mesh) and an intact core of permeable basalt. Fractionally, 0.46 and 0.22 of the americium component in the infiltrating groundwater was transported through the column and core respectively. In view of these filtration and migration experiment results, the concept of K/sub d/ in the chromatographic sense is meaningless for predicting americium migration in bedrock by groundwater transport at near neutral pH

  3. Procedure for the analysis of americium in complex matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knab, D.

    1978-02-01

    A radioanalytical procedure for the analysis of americium in complex matrices has been developed. Clean separations of americium can be obtained from up to 100 g of sample ash, regardless of the starting material. The ability to analyze large masses of material provides the increased sensitivity necessary to detect americium in many environmental samples. The procedure adequately decontaminates from rare earth elements and natural radioactive nuclides that interfere with the alpha spectrometric measurements

  4. Experimental studies on the biokinetics of plutonium and americium in the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guary, J.C.; Fowler, S.W.

    1982-01-01

    Radiotracer experiments using the photon-emitters 237 Pu and 241 Am were performed to examine uptake, tissue distribution and retention of plutonium and americium in the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris Cuvier. A 2 wk exposure in contaminated sea water resulted in twice as much 237 Pu being taken up by whole octopus as 241 Am. Immediately following uptake approximately 41% and 73% of the 237 Pu and 241 Am respectively were located in the branchial hearts. Depuration rates for both radionuclides were identical; approximately 46% of both radionuclides initially incorporated were associated with a long-lived compartment which turned over very slowly (Tbsub(1/2) = 1.5 yr). Longer exposures to 241 Am resulted in an increase in the size of the slowly exchanging 241 Am pool in the octopus. After 2 mo depuration, the majority of the residual activity of both radionuclides was in the branchial hearts. On average 33% of the 241 Am ingested with food was assimilated into tissues, primarily the hepatopancreas. Different whole-body 241 Am excretion rates were observed at different times following assimilation and were related to transfer processes taking place within internal tissues, most notably between hepatopancreas and the branchial hearts. Relationships between circulatory and excretory functions of these 2 organs are discussed and a physiological mechanism is proposed to explain the observed patterns of 241 Am excretion in O. vulgaris. (orig.)

  5. Experimental studies on the biokinetics of plutonium and americium in the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guary, J.C.; Fowler, S.W.

    1982-03-05

    Radiotracer experiments using the photon-emitters /sup 237/Pu and /sup 241/Am were performed to examine uptake, tissue distribution and retention of plutonium and americium in the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris Cuvier. A 2 wk exposure in contaminated sea water resulted in twice as much /sup 237/Pu being taken up by whole octopus as /sup 241/Am. Immediately following uptake approximately 41% and 73% of the /sup 237/Pu and /sup 241/Am respectively were located in the branchial hearts. Depuration rates for both radionuclides were identical; approximately 46% of both radionuclides initially incorporated were associated with a long-lived compartment which turned over very slowly (Tbsub(1/2) = 1.5 yr). Longer exposures to /sup 241/Am resulted in an increase in the size of the slowly exchanging /sup 241/Am pool in the octopus. After 2 mo depuration, the majority of the residual activity of both radionuclides was in the branchial hearts. On average 33% of the /sup 241/Am ingested with food was assimilated into tissues, primarily the hepatopancreas. Different whole-body /sup 241/Am excretion rates were observed at different times following assimilation and were related to transfer processes taking place within internal tissues, most notably between hepatopancreas and the branchial hearts. Relationships between circulatory and excretory functions of these 2 organs are discussed and a physiological mechanism is proposed to explain the observed patterns of /sup 241/Am excretion in O. vulgaris.

  6. Recovery and purification of americium from molten salt extraction residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Martella, L.L.; Thompson, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Americium recovery and purification development at Rocky Flats involves the testing of a combined anion exchange - bidentate organophosphorus liquid - liquid extraction or extraction chromatography process for separating americium from molten salt extraction residues. Laboratory-scale and preliminary pilot-plant results have shown that americium can be effectively recovered and purified from impurity elements such as aluminum, calcium, magnesium, plutonium, potassium, sodium, and zinc. The purified americium oxide product from the liquid - liquid extraction process contained greater than 95% AmO 2 with less than 1% of any individual impurity element

  7. Investigation of americium-241 metal alloys for target applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.; Rockwell International Corp., Golden, CO

    1982-01-01

    Several 241 Am metal alloys have been investigated for possible use in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Radiochemical Diagnostic Tracer Program. Several properties were desired for an alloy to be useful for tracer program applications. A suitable alloy would have a fairly high density, be ductile, homogeneous and easy to prepare. Alloys investigated have included uranium-americium, aluminium-americium, and cerium-americium. Uranium-americium alloys with the desired properties proved to be difficult to prepare, and work with this alloy was discontinued. Aluminium-americium alloys were much easier to prepare, but the alloy consisted of an aluminium-americium intermetallic compound (AmAl 4 ) in an aluminum matrix. This alloy could be cast and formed into shapes, but the low density of aluminum, and other problems, made the alloy unsuitable for the intended application. Americium metal was found to have a high solid solubility in cerium and alloys prepared from these two elements exhibited all of the properties desired for the tracer program application. Cerium-americium alloys containing up to 34 wt% americium have been prepared using both co-melting and co-reduction techniques. The latter technique involves co-reduction of cerium tetrafluoride and americium tetrafluoride with calcium metal in a sealed reduction vessel. Casting techniques have been developed for preparing up to eight 2.2 cm (0.87 in) diameter disks in a single casting, and cerium-americium metal alloy disks containing from 10 to 25 wt% 241 Am have been prepared using these techniques. (orig.)

  8. Application of extraction chromatography to the recovery of neptunium, plutonium and americium from an industrial waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Kertesz, C.; Sontag, R.; Koehly, G.

    1980-01-01

    A pilot scale investigation was made to evaluate the possible application of the extraction chromatographic method (LLC) to the partitioning of alpha emitters from liquid wastes containing traces of transuranium elements. A secondary purpose was to obtain pure Am0 2 , which is used to produce alpha, gamma, and neutron sources. The process developed for alpha partitioning consists essentially of the extraction of macro amounts of uranium with 30% TBP in dodecane in mixer-settlers, then coextraction of Np-237, Pu-239, and Am-241 by LLC on a macro column filled with di-n-hexyl-octoxy-methyl-phosphine oxide (POX.11) adsorbed on an inert support. In each run about 200 liters of initial waste are decontaminated of alpha emitters. The loading step is followed by selective elution of americium, neptunium, and plutonium. The americium eluate is then subjected to the following operations: (1) separation of Am from Fe and Cd by LLC on a TBP column and (2) separation of Am from lanthanide traces by LLC on an HD(DiBM)P column after oxidation of Am(III) to Am(VI). The Am in the eluate is subsequently reduced to Am(III) and precipitated as oxalate with oxalic acid. The oxalate is then filtered and calcined to yield pure AmO 2

  9. Investigation of factors affecting the quality of americium electroplating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trdin, M; Benedik, L; Samardžija, Z; Pihlar, B

    2012-09-01

    Four different electrolyte solutions were used in the electrodeposition of americium and their influences on the quality of the thin layer of deposited americium isotopes in combination with three different cathode disc materials were investigated. The relations between alpha spectral resolution and disc surface properties were established. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Americium/curium bushing melter drain tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.E.; Hardy, B.J.; Smith, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    Americium and curium were produced in the past at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for research, medical, and radiological applications. They have been stored in a nitric acid solution in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years. Vitrification of the americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution will allow the material to be safely stored or transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. Oak Ridge is responsible for marketing radionuclides for research and medical applications. The bushing melter technology being used in the Am/Cm vitrification research work is also under consideration for the stabilization of other actinides such as neptunium and plutonium. A series of melter drain tests were conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center to determine the relationship between the drain tube assembly operating variables and the resulting pour initiation times, glass flowrates, drain tube temperatures, and stop pour times. Performance criteria such as ability to start and stop pours in a controlled manner were also evaluated. The tests were also intended to provide support of oil modeling of drain tube performance predictions and thermal modeling of the drain tube and drain tube heater assembly. These drain tests were instrumental in the design of subsequent melter drain tube and drain tube heaters for the Am/Cm bushing melter, and therefore in the success of the Am/Cm vitrification and plutonium immobilization programs

  11. Investigation of factors affecting the quality of americium electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trdin, M.; Benedik, L.; Samardžija, Z.; Pihlar, B.

    2012-01-01

    Four different electrolyte solutions were used in the electrodeposition of americium and their influences on the quality of the thin layer of deposited americium isotopes in combination with three different cathode disc materials were investigated. The relations between alpha spectral resolution and disc surface properties were established. - Highlights: ► Compared alpha spectra of americium radioisotopes obtained by electrodeposition. ► Various cathode materials and electrolyte solutions were used. ► Homogeneity and peak area resolution were investigated. ► Electron microscope images show surface structure of electrodeposited material.

  12. Measurement of plutonium and americium in molten salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, F.X.; Lawless, J.L.; Herren, W.E.; Hughes, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    The measurement of plutonium and americium in molten salt residues using a segmented gamma-ray scanning device is described. This system was calibrated using artificially fabricated as well as process generated samples. All samples were calorimetered and the americium to plutonium content of the samples determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. For the nine samples calorimetered thus far, no significant biases are present in the comparison of the segmented gamma-ray assay and the calorimetric assay. Estimated errors are of the order of 10 percent and is dependent on the americium to plutonium ratio determination

  13. 48 CFR 237.7100 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Laundry and Dry Cleaning Services 237.7100 Scope. This subpart— (a) Applies to contracts for laundry and dry cleaning services within the United...

  14. 48 CFR 237.7502 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Acquisition and Management of Industrial Resources 237.7502 Policy. (a) Comply with DoD Directive 4275.5, Acquisition and Management of Industrial...

  15. Criticality of a 237Np sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Rene G.; Loaiza, David J.; Kimpland, Robert H.; Hayes, David K.; Cappiello, Charlene C.; Myers, William L.; Jaegers, Peter J.; Clement, Steven D.; Butterfield, Kenneth B.

    2003-01-01

    A critical mass experiment using a 6-kg 237 Np sphere has been performed. The purpose of the experiment is to get a better estimate of the critical mass of 237 Np. To attain criticality, the 237 Np sphere was surrounded with 93 wt% 235 U shells. A 1/M as a function of uranium mass was performed. An MCNP neutron transport code was used to model the experiment. The MCNP code yielded a k eff of 0.99089 ± 0.0003 compared with a k eff 1.0026 for the experiment. Based on these results, it is estimated that the critical mass of 237 Np ranges from kilogram weights in the high fifties to low sixties. (author)

  16. Behavior of americium in aqueous carbonate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.J.

    1983-11-01

    The solubilities of crystalline Am(OH)/sub 3/ and AmOHCO/sub 3/ were measured at 25/sup 0/C in aqueous solutions of 0.1 M NaClO/sub 4/ by determination of the solution concentrations of Am. Prior to use in the measurements, the solid materials were characterized by their x-ray powder diffraction patterns. The solubility product quotients were calculated from the experimental data. The hydrolysis quotients of Am/sup 3 +/ were also estimated from the hydroxide solubility data. Using the thermodynamic data derived from these experiments and the recently reported formation constants for the Am/sup 3 +/ carbonate complexes, the solid phases and concentrations of solution species of americium in several aqueous carbonate systems were calculated using the computer code MINEQL. 20 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  17. Higher Americium Oxidation State Research Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincher, Bruce J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Law, Jack D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Goff, George S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shehee, Thomas C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hobbs, David T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-18

    The partitioning of hexavalent Am from dissolved nuclear fuel requires the ability to efficiently oxidize Am(III) to Am(VI) and to maintain that oxidation state for a length of time sufficient to perform the separation. Several oxidants have been, or are being developed. Chemical oxidants include Ag-catalyzed ozone, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate, Cu(III) periodate, and sodium bismuthate. Hexavalent americium has also now successfully been prepared by electrolysis, using functionalized electrodes. So-called auto-reduction rates of Am(VI) are sufficiently slow to allow for separations. However, for separations based on solvent extraction or ion exchange using organic resins, the high valence state must be maintained under the reducing conditions of the organic phase contact, and a holding oxidant is probably necessary. Until now, only Cu(III) periodate and sodium bismuthate oxidation have been successfully combined with solvent extraction separations. Bismuthate oxidation provided the higher DAm, since it acts as its own holding oxidant, and a successful hot test using centrifugal contactors was performed. For the other oxidants, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate will not oxidize americium in nitric acid concentrations above 0.3 M, and it is not being further investigated. Peroxydisulfate in the absence of Ag catalysis is being used to prepare Am(V) in ion exchange work, discussed below. Preliminary work with Ag-catalyzed ozone has been unsuccessful for extractions of Am(VI) from 6.5 M HNO3, and only one attempt at extraction, also from 6.5 M HNO3, using the electrolytic oxidation has been attempted. However, this high acid concentration was based on the highest Am extraction efficiency using the bismuthate oxidant; which is only sparingly soluble, and thus the oxidation yield is based on bismuthate solubility. Lower acid concentrations may be sufficient with alternative oxidants and work with Ag-ozone, Cu(III) and electrolysis is on-going. Two non

  18. Uptake of americium-241 by algae and bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisy, J P; Paine, D

    1978-01-01

    Algae and bacteria are important factors in the transport and mobilization of elements in the biosphere. These factors may be involved in trophic biomagnification, resulting in a potential human hazard or environmental degradation. Although americium, one of the most toxic elements known, is not required for plant growth, it may be concentrated by algae and bacteria. Therefore, the availability of americium-241 to algae and bacteria was studied to determine their role in the ultimate fate of this element released into the environment. Both algae and bacteria concentrated americium-241 to a high degree, making them important parts of the biomagnification process. The ability to concentrate americium-241 makes algae and bacteria potentially significant factors in cycling this element in the water column. (4 graphs, numerous references, 3 tables)

  19. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING AMERICIUM AND CURIUM FROM RARE EARTH ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baybarz, R.D.; Lloyd, M.H.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to methods of separating americium and curium values from rare earth values. In accordance with the invention americium, curium, and rare earth values are sorbed on an anion exchange resin. A major portion of the rare earth values are selectively stripped from the resin with a concentrated aqueous solution of lithium chloride, and americium, curium, and a minor portion of rare earth values are then stripped from the resin with a dilute aqueous solution of lithium chloride. The americium and curium values are further purified by increasing the concentration of lithium chloride in the solution to at least 8 molar and selectively extracting rare earth values from the resulting solution with a monoalkylphosphoric acid. (AEC)

  20. Sorption of americium and neptunium by deep-sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.W.; Rees, L.V.C.; Cronan, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    The sorption and desorption of americium and neptunium by a wide range of deep-sea sediments from natural sea water at 4 0 C has been studied using a carefully controlled batch technique. All the sediments studied should form an excellent barrier to the migration of americium since distribution coefficients were uniformly greater than 10 5 and the sorption-desorption reaction may not be reversible. The sorption of neptunium was reversible and, except for one red clay, the distribution coefficients were greater than 10 3 for all the sediments investigated. Nevertheless the migration of neptunium should also be effectively retarded by most deep-sea sediments even under relatively oxidizing conditions. The neptunium in solution remained in the V oxidation state throughout the experiments. Under the experimental conditions used colloidal americium was trapped by the sediment and solubility did not seem to be the controlling factor in the desorption of americium. (Auth.)

  1. Americium/Curium Disposition Life Cycle Planning Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, W.N.; Krupa, J.; Stutts, P.; Nester, S.; Raimesch, R.

    1998-01-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy Savannah River Office (DOE- SR), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) evaluated concepts to complete disposition of Americium and Curium (Am/Cm) bearing materials currently located at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

  2. Comparative behavior of americium and plutonium in wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetaeva, N.E.; Filin, V.M.; Ragimov, T.K.; Rudaya, L.Y.; Shapiro, K.Y.; Shcherbakov, B.Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies the behavior of trace americium and plutoniumin wastewater fed into purification systems. Activities of the elements were determined on a semiconductive alpha-ray spectrometer. the distributio nonuniformity, or heterogeneity, of americium and plutonium per unit volume of wastewater was determined quantitatively before and after passage through filter papers. The two elements were found to be in a colloidal or pseudocolloidal state in the original wastewater sample at pH 6. On acidifying the wastewater from pH 4 to 1 M nitric acid the americium passed quantitatively into the water phase but the most plutonium remained in the colloidal or pseudocolloidal state. the plutonium also passed quantitatively into the water phase in wastewater at a 1 M nitric acid acidity but only after a prolonged (12-day) hold. A knowledge of the heterogeneity of plutonium and americium in wastewaters made it possible to quickly distinguish their state, i.e., colloidal, pseudocolloidal, or in true solution

  3. Plutonium and Americium Geochemistry at Hanford: A Site Wide Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-08-23

    This report was produced to provide a systematic review of the state-of-knowledge of plutonium and americium geochemistry at the Hanford Site. The report integrates existing knowledge of the subsurface migration behavior of plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site with available information in the scientific literature regarding the geochemistry of plutonium and americium in systems that are environmentally relevant to the Hanford Site. As a part of the report, key research needs are identified and prioritized, with the ultimate goal of developing a science-based capability to quantitatively assess risk at sites contaminated with plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site and the impact of remediation technologies and closure strategies.

  4. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  5. Pyrochemical investigations into recovering plutonium from americium extraction salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, K.W.; West, M.H.

    1987-05-01

    Progress into developing a pyrochemical technique for separating and recovering plutonium from spent americium extraction waste salts has concentrated on selective chemical reduction with lanthanum metal and calcium metal and on the solvent extraction of americium with calcium metal. Both techniques are effective for recovering plutonium from the waste salt, although neither appears suitable as a separation technique for recycling a plutonium stream back to mainline purification processes. 17 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  6. 1976 Hanford americium-exposure incident: external decontamination procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jech, J.J.; Berry, J.R.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    An accident resulted in the deposition on an injured workman's skin surfaces, in acid-burned areas and in lacerations, of something in excess of 6 mCi americium-241. The external decontamination procedures used, the change in americium content of the skin during the course of treatment, and some of the unusual problems encountered from the extrusion of foreign material and flaking of skin and scar tissue are described

  7. Preparation of americium metal of high purity and determination of the heat of formation of the hydrated trivalent americium ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirlet, J.C.

    1975-10-01

    In order to redetermine some physical and chemical properties of americium metal, several grams of Am-241 have been prepared by two independent methods: lanthanum reduction of the oxide and thermal dissociation of the intermetallic compound Pt 5 Am. After its separation from excess lanthanum or alloy constituent by evaporation, americium metal was further purified by sublimation at 1100 deg C and 10 -6 Torr. Irrespective of the method of preparation, the americium samples displayed the same d.h.c.p. crystal structure. As determined by vacuum hot extraction, the oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen contents are equal to or smaller than 250, 50 and 20 ppm, respectively. The heats of solution of americium metal (d.c.h.p. structure) in aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions have been measured at 298.15+-0.05K. The standard enthalpy of formation of Am 3+ (aq) is obtained as -616.7+-1.2 kJ mol -1 [fr

  8. Chemical aspects of 237 Np Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karraker, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    The 237 Np Moessbauer effect has been especially useful in studies of neptunium chemistry, by virtue of its excellent resolution and straightforward experimental techniques. Neptunium can have valences from +3 to +7, and a broad range of compounds can be prepared that are analogous to those of other actinide elements. Studies on neptunium compounds, for example, have a ready application to the analogous compounds of uranium and plutonium. The emphasis in this paper will be on the application of the 237 Np Moessbauer effect to problems in neptunium chemistry

  9. The bioavailability of the transuranic elements 237Pu and 241Am for the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis L., and their behaviour in selected natural surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiels, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt was made to characterise the bioavailability of 237 Pu and 241 Am for the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis L. in selected surface waters. The uptake, distribution and retention patterns were studied through the contamination route water-snail. The effects of a number of parameters, such as seasonal variation, water type (pH, conductivity, ionic composition) and presence of food, on the bioavailability of the transuranics were evaluated. Finally, an assessment was made concerning the chemical speciation of plutonium and americium in the selected freshwaters

  10. Citric complexes, neodymium citrate and americium citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhlassa, Saidati.

    1981-06-01

    The behaviour of neodymium and americium has been studied in citric aqueous medium by two methods: solvent extraction of elements at tracer scale as chelates and by potentiometry. So range of pH and concentrations of elements and citric acid never reached before have been explored: 10 -7 -1 M, 10 -10 -3 , Csub(H3 Cit) -1 M, 1 2 O; AmCit, xH 2 O; NdCit 2 Co(NH 3 ) 6 , 8H 2 O; AmCit 2 Co(NH 3 ) 6 , xH 2 O and Nd 3 (OH) 4 (Cit) 4 NH 4 (Co(NH 3 ) 6 ) 2 , 18H 2 O. Their spectroscopic and crystallographic characteristics have been listed and studied. The nephelauxetic effect has been estimated from citric complexes as well as from citrates of these elements. The structure of the complexes in solution has been discussed on the basis of analysis of hypersensitive transition in different complexes [fr

  11. Biosorption of americium-241 by Candida sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shunzhong; Zhang Taiming; Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Jin Jiannan; Liao Jiali

    2003-01-01

    As an important radioisotope in nuclear industry and other fields, americium-241 is one of the most serious contamination concerns duo to its high toxicity and long half-life. In this experiment, the biosorption of 241 Am from solution by Candida sp., and the effects of various experimental conditions on the adsorption were investigated. The preliminary results showed that the adsorption of 241 Am by Candida sp. was efficient. 241 Am could be removed by Candida sp. of 0.82 g/L (dry weight) from 241 Am solutions of 5.6-111 MBq/L (44.3-877.2 μg/L)(C 0 ), with maximum adsorption rate (R) of 98% and maximum adsorption capacities (W) of 63.5 MBq/g biomass (dry weight) (501.8 μg/g). The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 4 hour and the optimum pH was pH = 2. No significant differences on 241 Am adsorption were observed at 10 C-45 C, or in solutions containing Au 3+ or Ag + , even 1500 times or 4500 times above the 241 Am concentration, respectively. The relationship between concentrations and adsorption capacities of 241 Am indicated the biosorption process should be described by a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. (orig.)

  12. Americium-curium vitrification process development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellinger, A.P.; Baich, M.A.; Hardy, B.J

    1999-01-01

    The successful demonstration of sequentially drying, calcining and vitrifying an oxalate slurry in the Drain Tube Test Stand (DTTS) vessel provided the process basis for testing on a larger scale in a cylindrical induction heated melter. A single processing issue, that of batch volume expansion, was encountered during the initial stage of testing. The increase in batch volume centered on a sintered frit cap and high temperature bubble formation. The formation of a sintered frit cap expansion was eliminated with the use of cullet. Volume expansions due to high temperature bubble formation (oxygen liberation from cerium reduction) were mitigated in the DTTS melter vessel through a vessel temperature profile that effectively separated the softening point of the glass cullet and the evolving oxygen from cerium reduction. An increased processing temperature of 1,470 C and a two hour hold time to find any remaining bubbles successfully reduced bubbles in the poured glass to an acceptable level. The success of the preliminary process demonstrations provided a workable process basis that was directly applicable to the newly installed Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM) system, making the batch flowsheet the preferred option for vitrification of the americium-curium surrogate feed stream

  13. New radiochemical methods for determination of 237Np a 241Pu using extraction chromatography (Presentation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strisovska, J.

    2013-01-01

    Thesis was focused on the development of a new methodology for the separation of anthropogenic transuranium radionuclides 237 Np a 241 Pu from different kinds of matrices. The analytical methods used in this study were based on extraction chromatography and were optimized according to the sample type. The proposed radiochemical procedure is a combination of two algorithms, which represent the separation of radionuclides by using extraction chromatographic sorbents TEVA resin and TRU resin supplied by Eichrom Technologies LLC. 239 Np a 237 Np were selectively captured on sorbent TEVA resin in oxidation state 4+. TRU resin was used for purification of plutonium fraction from interfering americium radionuclide. 242 Pu and 239 Np radionuclides as tracers have been used to monitor the radiochemical yields of separation. Before every radiochemical separation tracer radionuclide 239 Np was obtained by separation from the parent radionuclide 2 43 Am, which is in radioactive equilibrium to 239 Np. The average yield of chemical separation was 69,3% for 239 Np at 277 keV energy line and 65,9% at 228 keV energy line. The NPL AH-B08069 (2008) samples which consist of the mixture of alpha-radionuclides were used for the modification and optimization of separation method used for separation of Np and Pu in model samples. This method provided high radiochemical yields of 239,240 Pu (95,0 ± 3,5)% and 237 Np (87,9 ± 3,0)%.. Reliability of the method was verified by applying our modified separation procedures on reference materials IAEA-375 and IAEA-414 supplied by International Atomic Energy Agency. A good agreement between the results is obtained by this procedure and the certified values were found. Samples of contaminated soils from the area of Nuclear power plant A-1 Jaslovske Bohunice which is stored temporarily before disposal were analyzed using developed separation procedure. Specific activity of investigated radionuclides was determined in these samples. (author)

  14. 49 CFR 237.9 - Waivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS General § 237.9 Waivers. (a) Any person subject to a requirement of this... compliance is in the public interest and is consistent with railroad safety, the Administrator may grant the... Administrator publishes a notice in the Federal Register containing the reasons for granting the waiver. ...

  15. 32 CFR 237a.4 - Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...); (c) Industrial programs which are in support of Government policy (example—international exhibits..., authorized by part 237 of this subchapter to apprise defense contractors, trade associations and other... governing research, development and production, and the procurement of goods and services, and serve as a...

  16. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.237 Livestock feed. (a... specific stage of life; (3) Feed plastic pellets for roughage; (4) Feed formulas containing urea or manure...

  17. Supported extractant membranes for americium and plutonium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscatello, A.C.; Navratil, J.D.; Killion, M.E.; Price, M.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Solid supported liquid membranes(SLM) are useful in transferring and concentrating americium and plutonium from nitrate solutions. Specifically, DHDECMP(dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate) supported on Accurel or Celgard polypropylene hollow fibers assembled in modular form transfers >95% of the americium and >70% of the plutonium from high nitrate (6.9 M), low acid (0.1 M) feeds into 0.25 M oxalic acid stripping solution. Membranes supporting TBP (tri-n-butylphosphate) also transfer these metal ions. Maximum permeabilities were observed to be 1 x 10 -3 cm sec -1 , similar to the values for other systems. The feed:strip volume ratio shows an inverse relationship to the fraction of metal ion transferred. Cation exchangers may be used to concentrate americium from the strip solution

  18. Synergistic extraction behaviour of americium from simulated acidic waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, P.N.; Veeraraghavan, R.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    1998-01-01

    The extraction behaviour of americium has been investigated with mixtures of 3-phenyl-4-benzoyl-5-isoxazolone (PBI) and oxodonors viz. tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) and di-n-butyl octanamide (DBOA) using dodecane as the diluent from 1-6 M HNO 3 media. It is observed that D Am remains unaltered with PBI concentration (in the range 0.06-0.1 M) at 1.47 M TBP in the entire range of HNO 3 concentration. PBI and TBP in combination appears more promising compared to other synergistic systems. The possibility of using this mixture for americium removal from high level liquid waste solution has been explored. Extraction studies indicated that prior removal of uranium by 20% TBP in dodecane is helpful in the quantitative recovery of americium in three contacts. Effect of lanthanides on D Am is found to be marginal. (orig.)

  19. Criticality of a 237Np sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Rene; Loaiza, David; Kimpland, Robert; Hayes, David; Cappiello, Charlene; Chadwick, Mark

    2006-01-01

    For the past five years, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have mounted an unprecedented effort to get a better estimate of the critical mass of 237 Np. To accomplish this task, a 6-kg neptunium sphere was recently cast at the Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR) facility, which is part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The neptunium sphere was clad with tungsten and nickel to reduce the dose rates from the 310 keV gamma rays from the first daughter of neptunium, namely, 233 Pa. 237 Np is a byproduct of power production in nuclear reactors. It is primarily produced by successive neutron captures in 235 U or through the (n,2n) reaction in 238 U. These nuclear reactions lead to the production of 237 U, which decays by beta emission into 237 Np, namely, 235 U(n,γ) 236 U, 236 U(n,γ) 237 U→β→ 237 Np, 238 U (n,2n) 237 U→β→ 237 Np. It is estimated that a typical 1000 MW(e) produces on the order of 12 to 13 kg of neptunium in a year. Some of this neptunium in irradiated fuel elements has been separated and is presently stored in containers in a liquid form. This method of storage is quite adequate because the fission cross section for 237 Np at thermal energies is quite low and any moderation of the neutron population by diluting the configurations with water would increase the critical mass to infinity. However, for long term storage, the neptunium liquid solutions must be converted into oxides and metals because these form are less movable and less likely to leak out of containers. Metals and oxides made out of neptunium have finite critical masses but there is a great uncertainty about these values because of the lack of experimental criticality data. Knowing precisely the critical mass of neptunium not only will help to validate mass storage limits or optimize storage configurations for safe disposition of these materials, but will also save thousands of dollars in transportation and disposition costs. The experimental results presented in

  20. Uptake of americium-241 by algae and bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesy, Jr, J P; Paine, D [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, S.C. (USA)

    1978-01-01

    The uptake of americium by three algae, Scenedesmus obliguus, Selenastrum capricomutum and Chlorella pyrenosdosa and a bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila was studied. Live and fixed cells of each algal species and live bacterial cells were used. It is shown that algae and bacteria concentrate americium 241 to a high degree which makes them important links in the biomagnification phenomenon which may ultimately lead to a human hazard and be potentially important in recycling Am /sup 241/ in the water column and mobilization from sediments. Chemical fixation of algal cells caused increased uptake which indicated that uptake is by passive diffusion and probably due to chemical alteration of surface binding sites.

  1. The ingestion of plutonium and americium by range cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blincoe, C.; Bohman, V.R.; Smith, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The intake of plutonium and americium in the diet of cattle grazing on plutonium contaminated desert range was determined. Daily feed intake of the grazing animals was also determined so that the amount of nuclides ingested daily could be ascertained. Soil ingested by range cattle constituted the principal and possibly only source of ingested plutonium and americium and resulted in a daily intake of 3600-6600 pCi 238 Pu, 85,000-400,000 pCi 239 Pu, and 11,000-31,000 pCi 241 Am daily. Determining transuranic intake by direct measurement and from the composition and contamination of the diet gave identical results. (author)

  2. Method of isolation of traces of americium by using the +6 oxidation state properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwinta, Jean; Michel, Jean-Jacques

    1969-05-01

    The authors present a method to separate traces of americium from a solution containing fission products and actinides. This method comprises the following steps: firstly, the oxidation of americium at the +6 state by ammonium persulfate and carrying over of actinides and III and IV lanthanides by lanthanum fluoride; secondly, the reduction by hydrazine of the oxidized americium and carrying over of the reduced americium by lutetium fluoride; and thirdly, the americium-lutetium separation by selective extractions either with di 2 ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, or by fractionated elution on an anionic resin column by a mixture of nitric acid and methanol [fr

  3. Neutron Data Evaluation of 237Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, V.M.; Tetereva, N.A.; Kolesov, A.M.; Pronyaev, V.G.; Zolotarev, K.I.; Granier, T.; Hambsch, F.-J.

    2010-11-01

    The diverse measured data base of n+ 237 Np was evaluated using a statistical theory and generalized least squares codes. Consistent description of the total, fission and partial inelastic scattering data in 1-3 MeV energy range provides an important constraint for the absorption cross section, which is quite important for the robust estimate of the capture cross section in the 0.5-500 keV energy range. Important constraints for the measured capture cross section come from the average radiative S0 and S1 strength functions. The evaluated inelastic cross sections of available evaluations are in severe disagreement with measured data on the inelastic scattering of neutrons with excitation of specific groups of levels. A change of the inelastic data shape at E n ∼1.5 MeV might be explained by the sharp increase of the level density of the residual odd-even nuclide 237 Np due to the onset of three-quasi-particle excitations. The influence of exclusive (n, xnf) pre-fission neutrons on prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) and (n, xn) spectra is modeled. Contributions of emissive/non-emissive fission and exclusive spectra of (n, xnf) reactions are defined by a consistent description of the 237 Np (n, F), 237 Np (n, 2n) 236s Np reactions and the ratio of the yields of short-lived (1 - ) and long-lived (6 - ) 236 Np states measured at 14 MeV. Excited levels of 236 Np are modeled using predicted Gallher-Moshkowski doublets. This work is performed under the project Agreement B-1604 with the International Science and Technology Center (Moscow). The financing party is EU. Partial support of International Atomic Energy Agency under Research Contract 14809 is acknowledged by JINER. (author)

  4. On the role of different biocomponents of bile and excretions in the elimination of plutonium and americium from the body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvydko, N.S.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of the role of biocomponents of bile, urine and feces in the elimination of plutonium and americium from the organism. Plutonium 239 and americium 241 were separated in bile due to higher tropism of plutonium to low molecular weight addends, and of americium, to a protein-containing fraction. The status of plutonium excreted in feces was the same as the physicochemical status of americium. Plutonium 239 and americium 241 eliminated in urine were in a completely ultrafiltered state

  5. Determination of plutonium, americium and curium in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaut, CLaude; Germain, Pierre; Miramand, Pierre.

    1982-01-01

    The method used in the Laboratory for plutonium, americium and curium determination in marine samples (water, sediments, animals, plants) is presented. It is a modification of a procedure based on adsorption on ion exchange resins developed by other authors. The preliminary preparation of the samples, the radiochemical procedures and electrodeposition are described so as to be used as a practical handbook [fr

  6. Recovery of americium-241 from aged plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Burney, G.A.; Reilly, T.A.; Wilson, T.W.; McKibben, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    About 5 kg of ingrown 241 Am was recovered from 850 kg of aged plutonium using a process developed specifically for Savannah River Plant application. The aged plutonium metal was first dissolved in sulfamic acid. Sodium nitrite was added to oxidize the plutonium to Pu(IV) and the residual sulfamate ion was oxidized to nitrogen gas and sulfate. The plutonium and americium were separated by one cycle of solvent extraction. The recovered products were subsequently purified by cation exchange chromatography, precipitated as oxalates, and calcined to the oxides. Plutonium processng was routine. Before cation exchange purification, the aqueous americium solution from solvent extraction was concentrated and stripped of nitric acid. More than 98% of the 241 Am was then recovered from the cation exchange column where it was effectively decontaminated from all major impurities except nickel and chromium. This partially purified product solution was concentrated further by evaporation and then denitrated by reaction with formic acid. Individual batches of americium oxalate were then precipitated, filtered, washed, and calcined. About 98.5% of the americium was recovered. The final product purity averaged 98% 241 AmO 2 ; residual impurities were primarily lead and nickel

  7. 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident: overview and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Salient features of the 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident are discussed. Comparisons are made with previous human and animal exposure data, and conclusions drawn relative to the injured workman, to health physics practices, and to the adequacy of current exposure limits

  8. Thermodynamic systematics of oxides of americium, curium, and neighboring elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morss, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Recently-obtained calorimetric data on the sesquioxides and dioxides of americium and curium are summarized. These data are combined with other properties of the actinide elements to elucidate the stability relationships among these oxides and to predict the behavior of neighboring actinide oxides. 45 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

  9. Np-237 in peat and lichen in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salminen, S.; Paatero, J.; Roos, Per

    2009-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 237Np in peat and lichen samples in Finland were determined and contributions from nuclear weapons testing in 1950–1960s and the Chernobyl accident were estimated. 237Np was determined with ICP-MS using 235Np as a tracer. Activity concentrations of 237Np in peat samples...

  10. 48 CFR 1252.237-70 - Qualifications of contractor employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contractor employees. 1252.237-70 Section 1252.237-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF....237-70 Qualifications of contractor employees. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1237.110(a), insert the following clause: Qualifications of Contractor Employees (APR 2005) a. Definitions. As used in this clause...

  11. 14 CFR 23.237 - Operation on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operation on water. 23.237 Section 23.237... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 23.237 Operation on water. A wave height, demonstrated to be safe for operation, and any...

  12. Reduction Rates for Higher Americium Oxidation States in Nitric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Travis Shane [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mincher, Bruce Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schmitt, Nicholas C [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The stability of hexavalent americium was measured using multiple americium concentrations and nitric acid concentrations after contact with the strong oxidant sodium bismuthate. Contrary to our hypotheses Am(VI) was not reduced faster at higher americium concentrations, and the reduction was only zero-order at short time scales. Attempts to model the reduction kinetics using zero order kinetic models showed Am(VI) reduction in nitric acid is more complex than the autoreduction processes reported by others in perchloric acid. The classical zero-order reduction of Am(VI) was found here only for short times on the order of a few hours. We did show that the rate of Am(V) production was less than the rate of Am(VI) reduction, indicating that some Am(VI) undergoes two electron-reduction to Am(IV). We also monitored the Am(VI) reduction in contact with the organic diluent dodecane. A direct comparison of these results with those in the absence of the organic diluent showed the reduction rates for Am(VI) were not statistically different for both systems. Additional americium oxidations conducted in the presence of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ions showed that Am(VI) is reduced without the typical growth of Am(V) observed in the systems sans Ce ion. This was an interesting result which suggests a potential new reduction/oxidation pathway for Am in the presence of Ce; however, these results were very preliminary, and will require additional experiments to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. Overall, these studies have shown that hexavalent americium is fundamentally stable enough in nitric acid to run a separations process. However, the complicated nature of the reduction pathways based on the system components is far from being rigorously understood.

  13. Contribution to the study of higher valency states of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlet, Jean.

    1976-01-01

    Study of the chemistry of the higher valencies of americium in aqueous solutions and especially the autoreduction phenomenon. First a purification method of americium solutions is studied by precipitation, solvent extraction and ion exchange chromatography. Studies of higher valency states chemical properties are disturbed by the autoreduction phenomenon changing Am VI and Am V in Am III more stable. Stabilization of higher valency states, characterized by a steady concentration of Am VI in solution, can be done by complexation of Am VI and Am V ions or by a protecting effect of foreign ions. The original medium used has a complexing effect by SO 4 2- ions and a protecting effect by the system S 2 O 8 2- -Ag + consuming H 2 O 2 main reducing agent produced by water radiolysis. These effects are shown by the study of Am VI in acid and basic solutions. A mechanism of the stabilization effect is given [fr

  14. Research program on development of advanced treatment technology for americium-containing aqueous waste in NUCEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineo, Hideaki; Matsumura, Tatsuro; Tsubata, Yasuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-10-01

    A research program was prepared on the development of an advanced treatment process for the americium-containing concentrated aqueous waste in NUCEF, than allows americium recovery for the reuse and the reduction of TRU waste generation. A preliminary analysis was conducted on the separation requirements based on the components estimated for the waste. An R and D strategy was proposed from the view to reduce TRU waste generated in the processing that the highest priority is given on the control of TRU leakage such as americium into the effluent stream after americium recovery and the minimization of salt used in the separation over the decontamination of impurities from americium. The extraction chromatographic method was selected as a candidate technology for americium separation under the principle to use reagents that are functional in acidic conditions such as bidentate extractants of DHEDECMP, CMPO or diamides, considering the larger flexibilities in process modification and possible multi-component separation with compact equipment and the past achievements on the recovery of kg quantities of americium. Major R and D items extracted are screening and evaluation of extractants for americium and plutonium, optimization of separation conditions, selection of denitration method, equipment developments and development of solidification methods of discarded americium after reuse and of various kinds of separation residues. In order to cope these items, four steps of R and D program were proposed, i.e., fundamental experiment in beaker-scale on screening and evaluation of extractants, flowsheet study in bench-scale using simulated and small amount of americium aqueous waste solution to evaluate candidate process, americium recovery test in iron-shielded cell to be installed in NUCEF. It is objected to make recovery of 100g orders of americium used for research on fundamental TRU fuel properties. (J.P.N.)

  15. Separation of Americium from plutonium, Annex 3; Prilog 3: Odvajanje amercijuma od plutonijuma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvjeticanin, D; Milic, N; Janicijevic, P; Ratkovic, S [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Laboratorija za visoku aktivnost, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-12-15

    Since there was the possibility of working with plutonium milligram quantities, it was possible to study plutonium with contents of americium, which was expected in the about two years old plutonium solutions. Method for separation of the micro quantities of americium and plutonium was needed as well as a multichannel alpha-pulse analyzer. Method for separation of americium from plutonium by thenol trifluoro-acetone (TTA) and anion exchange was adopted.

  16. Transfer of environmental plutonium and americium across the human gut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.; Leonard, D.R.P.; Lovett, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    Following the ingestion of winkles obtained from a coastal area near Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant, a group of volunteers provided urine for the next 7 days to be analysed for plutonium and americium. From this, estimates of the intake and gut transfer factors for these isotopes were determined. Preliminary estimates of gut transfer factors from a previous study by the same authors were then re-interpreted and combined with the results from the present study. (UK)

  17. 1976 Hanford americium-exposure incident: decontamination and treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.R.; McMurray, B.J.; Jech, J.J.; Breitenstein, B.D.; Quigley, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    An injured worker, contaminated with over 6 mCi of americium-241, required special treatment and housing for 4 months. This paper is a description of the design and management of the facility in which most of the treatment and housing occurred. The problems associated with contamination control, waste handling, supplies, and radiological concerns during the two-stage transfer of the patient from a controlled situation to his normal living environment are discussed in detail

  18. Ingestion Pathway Transfer Factors for Plutonium and Americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-01-01

    Overall transfer factors for major ingestion pathways are derived for plutonium and americium. These transfer factors relate the radionuclide concentration in a given foodstuff to deposition on the soil. Equations describing basic relationships consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.109 are followed. Updated values and coefficients from IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 364 are used when a available. Preference is given to using factors specific to the Savannah River Site

  19. Extraction separation of americium and curium. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrzilova, H.

    1976-11-01

    A survey is given of extraction systems suitable for transplutonium element separation and preparation as well as for the practical application of their nuclear properties. Methods are discussed in detail of separating the actinide and the lanthanide fractions from fission and corrosion products and of separating americium from curium. The description is completed with flowsheets showing the separation of transplutonium elements from irradiated targets and waste solutions after spent fuel reprocessing. (L.K.)

  20. Americium-241: the most useful isotope of the actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Used extensively in nuclear gauges and in many other areas, this man-made element (Atomic Number 95) was first isolated in weighable amounts during World War II. Americium is now a very useful by-product of the nuclear industry and is produced in kilogram amounts by appropriate recovery, separation and purification processes. A review will be presented of its discovery, nuclear and chemical properties, and uses, with emphasis on its production process and separations chemistry

  1. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plutonium and Americium from Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.V.; Mincher, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plutonium and americium from soil was successfully demonstrated using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide solvent augmented with organophosphorus and beta-diketone complexants. Spiked Idaho soils were chemically and radiologically characterized, then extracted with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide at 2,900 psi and 65 C containing varying concentrations of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). A single 45 minute SFE with 2.7 mol% TBP and 3.2 mol% TTA provided as much as 88% ± 6.0 extraction of americium and 69% ± 5.0 extraction of plutonium. Use of 5.3 mol% TBP with 6.8 mol% of the more acidic beta-diketone hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFA) provided 95% ± 3.0 extraction of americium and 83% ± 5.0 extraction of plutonium in a single 45 minute SFE at 3,750 psi and 95 C. Sequential chemical extraction techniques were used to chemically characterize soil partitioning of plutonium and americium in pre-SFE soil samples. Sequential chemical extraction techniques demonstrated that spiked plutonium resides primarily (76.6%) in the sesquioxide fraction with minor amounts being absorbed by the oxidizable fraction (10.6%) and residual fractions (12.8%). Post-SFE soils subjected to sequential chemical extraction characterization demonstrated that 97% of the oxidizable, 78% of the sesquioxide and 80% of the residual plutonium could be removed using SFE. These preliminary results show that SFE may be an effective solvent extraction technique for removal of actinide contaminants from soil

  2. Extraction of americium from acid aqueous solutions by diethyl-2-hexyl-pyro-phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaume, Bernard

    1971-02-01

    After having outlined the interesting properties of americium and the difficulties of its recovery, the author reports the study of the mechanism of extraction of americium from acid aqueous solutions by using the diethyl-2hexyl-pyro-phosphoric acid. Several aspects are thus discussed: influence of concentration of H 2 DEHPP, influence of the acidity of the aqueous phase, saturation of extracting agent, influence of the diluting agent, complexing of americium, influence of other cations. In a second part, the author reports the application to the recovery of americium from effluents, and discusses the obtained results

  3. Americium Separations from High-Salt Solutions Using Anion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, Mary E.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Stark, Peter C.; Chamberlin, Rebecca M.; Bartsch, Richard A.; Zhang, Z.Y.; Zhao, W.

    2001-01-01

    The aging of the US nuclear stockpile presents a number of challenges, including the increasing radioactivity of plutonium residues due to the ingrowth of 241 Am from the β-decay of 241 Pu. We investigated parameters that affect the sorption of Am onto anion-exchange resins from concentrated effluents derived from nitric acid processing of plutonium residues. These postevaporator wastes are nearly saturated solutions of acidic nitrate salts, and americium removal is complicated by physical factors, such as solution viscosity and particulates, as well as by the presence of large quantities of competing metals and acid. Single- and double-contact batch distribution coefficients for americium and neodymium from simple and complex surrogate solutions are presented. Varied parameters include the nitrate salt concentration and composition and the nitric acid concentration. We find that under these extremely concentrated conditions, Am(III) removal efficiencies can surpass 50% per contact. Distribution coefficients for both neodymium and americium are insensitive to solution acidity and appear to be driven primarily by low water activities of the solutions

  4. Gut uptake factors for plutonium, americium and curium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Data on estimates of the absorption of plutonium, americium and curium from the human gut based on measurements of uptake in other mammalian species are reviewed. It is proposed that for all adult members of the public ingesting low concentrations of plutonium in food and water, 0.05% would be an appropriate value of absorption except when the conditions of exposure are known and a lower value can be justified. For dietary intakes of americium and curium, the available data do not warrant a change from the ICRP value of 0.05%. For newborn children ingesting americium, curium and soluble forms of plutonium, a value of 1% absorption is proposed for the first 3 months of life during which the infant is maintained on a milk diet. It is proposed that a value of 0.5% should be used for the first year of life to take account of the gradual maturation of the gut. In considering the ingestion of insoluble oxides of plutonium by infants, it is proposed that absorption is taken as 0.1% for the first 3 months and 0.05% for the first year. (author)

  5. On the structure of thorium and americium adenosine triphosphate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostapha, Sarah; Berton, Laurence; Boubals, Nathalie; Zorz, Nicole; Charbonnel, Marie-Christine; Fontaine-Vive, Fabien; Den Auwer, Christophe; Solari, Pier Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The actinides are chemical poisons and radiological hazards. One challenge to better appraise their toxicity and develop countermeasures in case of exposure of living organisms is to better assess pathways of contamination. Because of the high chemical affinity of those actinide elements for phosphate groups and the ubiquity of such chemical functions in biochemistry, nucleotides and in particular adenosine triphosphate nucleotide (ATP) may be considered critical target building blocks for actinides. Combinations of spectroscopic techniques (Fourier transformed Infra Red [FTIR], Electro-spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry [ESI-MS], and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure [EXAFS]) with quantum chemical calculations have been implemented in order to assess the actinides coordination arrangement with ATP. We describe and compare herein the interaction of ATP with thorium and americium; thorium(IV) as a representative of actinide(IV) like plutonium(IV) and americium(III) as a representative of all heavier actinides. In the case of thorium, an insoluble complex is readily formed. In the case of americium, a behavior identical to that described previously for lutetium has been observed with insoluble and soluble complexes. The comparative study of ATP complexation with Th(IV) and Am(III) shows their ability to form insoluble complexes for which a structural model has been proposed by analogy with previously described Lu(III) complexes. (authors)

  6. On the structure of thorium and americium adenosine triphosphate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostapha, Sarah; Fontaine-Vive, Fabien; Berthon, Laurence; Boubals, Nathalie; Zorz, Nicole; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Charbonnel, Marie Christine; Den Auwer, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    The actinides are chemical poisons and radiological hazards. One challenge to better appraise their toxicity and develop countermeasures in case of exposure of living organisms is to better assess pathways of contamination. Because of the high chemical affinity of those actinide elements for phosphate groups and the ubiquity of such chemical functions in biochemistry, nucleotides and in particular adenosine triphosphate nucleotide (ATP) may be considered critical target building blocks for actinides. Combinations of spectroscopic techniques (Fourier transformed Infra Red [FTIR], Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry [ESI-MS], and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure [EXAFS]) with quantum chemical calculations have been implemented in order to assess the actinides coordination arrangement with ATP. We describe and compare herein the interaction of ATP with thorium and americium; thorium(IV) as a representative of actinide(IV) like plutonium(IV) and americium(III) as a representative of all heavier actinides. In the case of thorium, an insoluble complex is readily formed. In the case of americium, a behavior identical to that described previously for lutetium has been observed with insoluble and soluble complexes. The comparative study of ATP complexation with Th(IV) and Am(III) shows their ability to form insoluble complexes for which a structural model has been proposed by analogy with previously described Lu(III) complexes.

  7. Americium-241 and -243 as an ion-engine propellant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schachter, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Commercially available americium-241 and -243 can be obtained as the mixture of the two isotopes in 100-gram quantities--a product of reprocessing spent nuclear powerplant fuel elements along with plutonium. The half-lives of the isotopes are 450 years for the -241 and 8,000 years for the -243 (the plutonium half-life isotope so obtained is 24,000 years). Americium rolled out in thin foil sheets emits alpha-rays (helium-4 ions) and beta-rays--2 valence electrons for each helium ion. Electrons are also considered as ions. As a foil, the americium radiates only a minimal amount of gamma-rays via the Curie effect. With appropriately designed permanent magnet rings insulated with Wood's alloy, the + and - ions can be accelerated from their already 5.5 million electron-Volts to billion and even trillions of electron-Volts by electronic control grids powered by the magnetohydrodynamic effect of electrons and helium ions streaming at the post-rocket nozzle of the ion engine. Protocol for the estimated thrust of this ion rocket engine is more than ten kilograms continuously sustainable for several thousand years

  8. Americium-241 radioisotope thermoelectric generator development for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, Richard; Williams, Hugo; Samara-Ratna, Piyal

    2013-01-01

    Space nuclear power systems are under development in the UK in collaboration with European partners as part of a European Space Agency (ESA) programme. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) are an important element of this new capability in Europe. RTG systems being developed in Europe are targeting the 10 W electric to 50 W electric power generation range adopting a modular scalable approach to the design. Radiogenic decay heat from radioisotopes can be converted to electrical power by using appropriate semiconductor based thermoelectric materials. The plan for Europe is to develop radioisotope space nuclear power systems based on both thermoelectric and Stirling power conversion systems. Although primarily focused on delivering up to 50 W of electrical power, the European radioisotope thermoelectric system development programme is targeting americium-241 as a fuel source and is maximizing the use of commercially available thermoelectric manufacturing processes in order to accelerate the development of power conversion systems. The use of americium provides an economic solution at high isotopic purity and is product of a separation process from stored plutonium produced during the reprocessing of civil nuclear fuel. A laboratory prototype that uses electrical heating as a substitute for the radioisotope was developed to validate the designs. This prototype has now been tested. This paper outlines the requirements for a European americium-241 fuelled RTG, describes the most recent updates in system design and provides further insight into recent laboratory prototype test campaigns. (author)

  9. Americium-241 radioisotope thermoelectric generator development for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosi, Richard; Williams, Hugo; Samara-Ratna, Piyal, E-mail: rma8@le.ac.uk [University of Leicester, (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-07-01

    Space nuclear power systems are under development in the UK in collaboration with European partners as part of a European Space Agency (ESA) programme. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) are an important element of this new capability in Europe. RTG systems being developed in Europe are targeting the 10 W electric to 50 W electric power generation range adopting a modular scalable approach to the design. Radiogenic decay heat from radioisotopes can be converted to electrical power by using appropriate semiconductor based thermoelectric materials. The plan for Europe is to develop radioisotope space nuclear power systems based on both thermoelectric and Stirling power conversion systems. Although primarily focused on delivering up to 50 W of electrical power, the European radioisotope thermoelectric system development programme is targeting americium-241 as a fuel source and is maximizing the use of commercially available thermoelectric manufacturing processes in order to accelerate the development of power conversion systems. The use of americium provides an economic solution at high isotopic purity and is product of a separation process from stored plutonium produced during the reprocessing of civil nuclear fuel. A laboratory prototype that uses electrical heating as a substitute for the radioisotope was developed to validate the designs. This prototype has now been tested. This paper outlines the requirements for a European americium-241 fuelled RTG, describes the most recent updates in system design and provides further insight into recent laboratory prototype test campaigns. (author)

  10. Analysis list: nhr-237 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nhr-237 Embryo,Larvae + ce10 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target.../nhr-237.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/nhr-237.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/nhr-237.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/nhr-237.E...mbryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/nhr-237.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscie...ncedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Embryo.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Larvae.gml ...

  11. 48 CFR 252.237-7011 - Preparation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation history. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.237-7011 Preparation history. As prescribed in 237.7003(b), use the following clause: Preparation History (DEC 1991) For each body prepared, or for each casket handled in a group...

  12. 48 CFR 252.237-7007 - Termination for default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination for default... of Provisions And Clauses 252.237-7007 Termination for default. As prescribed in 237.7003(b), use the following clause: Termination for Default (DEC 1991) (a) This clause supplements and is in addition to the...

  13. 48 CFR 1452.237-71 - Utilization of Woody Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Biomass. 1452.237-71 Section 1452.237-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Utilization of Woody Biomass. As prescribed in § 1437.7202, insert the following clause: Utilization of Woody Biomass (MAY 2005) (a) The contractor may remove and utilize woody biomass, if: (1) Project work is...

  14. 43 CFR 23.7 - Approval of exploration plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... measures to be taken to prevent or control fire, soil erosion, pollution of surface and ground water... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of exploration plan. 23.7 Section 23.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior SURFACE EXPLORATION, MINING AND...

  15. 48 CFR 252.237-7005 - Performance and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance and delivery... of Provisions And Clauses 252.237-7005 Performance and delivery. As prescribed in 237.7003(b), use the following clause: Performance and Delivery (DEC 1991) (a) The Contractor shall furnish the...

  16. Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations measured from the 125-meter Hanford Meteorological Tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations and fluxes were measured at six heights from 1.9 to 122 m on the Hanford meteorological tower. The data show that plutonium-239 was transported on nonrespirable and small particles at all heights. Airborne americium-241 concentrations on small particles were maximum at the 91 m height

  17. Sorption and Migration Mechanisms of 237 Np through Sandy Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantaraprachoom, Nanthavan; Tanaka, Tadao

    2003-06-01

    In order to evaluate migration behavior of radioactive nuclides in the disposal of low-level radioactive waste into a shallow land burial, the sorption characteristic and migration behavior of 237 Np through sandy soil was studied. Two experimental methods were performed by using batch and column systems. The distribution coefficients (K d ) obtained from the adsorption and desorption process are rather small about 16 and 21 cm 3 /g respectively. Size distribution of 237 Np species in the influent solution was measured by ultra-filtration technique. Migration mechanism of 237 Np was studied by column experiments. The experimental condition was the influence of volume of eluting solution; 100, 300, 500, 1000 and 2000 ml respectively. The result from five column experiments confirm that the sorption characteristics of 237 Np are mainly controlled by a reversible ion-exchange reaction and the migration of 237 Np in the sandy soil can be estimated by using the K d concept

  18. The transmutation of americium: the Ecrix experiments in Phenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, J.C.; Schmidt, N.; Croixmarie, Y.; Ottaviani, J.P.; Varaine, F.; Saint Jean, C. de

    1999-01-01

    The first americium transmutation experiment in a specific target in PHENIX will occur with the ECRIX-B and ECRIX-H experiments. Beside material testing, the objective is also to represent a concept of transmutation whose specificity is to enhance the kinetics of transmutation by using a moderated spectrum. The moderator materials will be 11 B 4 C and CaH 2 for ECRIX-B and ECRIXH respectively, the irradiation conditions have been predicted for both the neutronics and thermal. The targets (MgO-AmO X pellets) are manufactured in the ATALANTE laboratory and the design is performed according to the PHENIX operating conditions. (authors)

  19. Robotic sample preparation for radiochemical plutonium and americium analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalnaker, N.; Beugelsdijk, T.; Thurston, A.; Quintana, J.

    1985-01-01

    A Zymate robotic system has been assembled and programmed to prepare samples for plutonium and americium analyses by radioactivity counting. The system performs two procedures: a simple dilution procedure and a TTA (xylene) extraction of plutonium. To perform the procedures, the robotic system executes 11 unit operations such as weighing, pipetting, mixing, etc. Approximately 150 programs, which require 64 kilobytes of memory, control the system. The system is now being tested with high-purity plutonium metal and plutonium oxide samples. Our studies indicate that the system can give results that agree within 5% at the 95% confidence level with determinations performed manually. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. Effect of 241-americium on bone marrow stroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuvel, R. van den

    1990-01-01

    The regulation of haemopoiesis occurs via complex interactions between the stroma and the haemopoietic cells. An attempt to further clarifying the mechanisms and the exact role of the stroma in the regulation was made in a study. Results revealed that the murine bone marrow stromal cells are highly radiosensitive after injection with 241-americium and can thus be considered as a target population after internal contamination. In addition, observations are made which may be important for risk estimation for the developing animal and during pregnancy. Contamination in utero and by lactation shows persistent damage up to 1 year after contamination at an average annual dose of 5 cGy. (author)

  1. Implications of plutonium and americium recycling on MOX fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, A.; Pilate, S.; Maldague, Th.; La Fuente, A.; Evrard, G.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of the multiple recycling of plutonium in power reactors on the radiation dose rates is analyzed for the most critical stage in a MOX fuel fabrication plant. The limitation of the number of Pu recycling in light water reactors would rather stem from reactor core physics features. The case of recovering americium with plutonium is also considered and the necessary additions of shielding are evaluated. A comparison between the recycling of Pu in fast reactors and in light water reactors is presented. (author)

  2. Recovery of americium-241 from aged plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Burney, G.A.; Reilly, T.A.; Wilson, T.W.; McKibben, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    After separation and purification, both actinides were precipitated as oxalates and calcined. A large-scale process was developed using dissolution, separation, purification, precipitation, and calcination. Efforts were made to control corrosion, to avoid product contamination, to keep the volume of process and waste solutions manageable, and to denitrate solutions with formic acid. The Multipurpose Processing Facility (MPPF), designed for recovery of transplutonium isotopes, was used for the first time for the precipitation and calcination of americium. Also, for the first time,, large-scale formic acid denitration was performed in a canyon vessel at SRP

  3. Analysis of americium, plutonium and technetium solubility in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Seiji

    1999-08-01

    Safety assessments for geologic disposal of radioactive waste generally use solubilities of radioactive elements as the parameter restricting the dissolution of the elements from a waste matrix. This study evaluated americium, plutonium and technetium solubilities under a variety of geochemical conditions using the geochemical model EQ3/6. Thermodynamic data of elements used in the analysis were provided in the JAERI-data base. Chemical properties of both natural groundwater and interstitial water in buffer materials (bentonite and concrete) were investigated to determine the variations in Eh, pH and ligand concentrations (CO 3 2- , F - , PO 4 3- , SO 4 2- , NO 3 - and NH 4 + ). These properties can play an important role in the complexation of radioactive elements. Effect of the groundwater chemical properties on the solubility and formation of chemical species for americium, plutonium and technetium was predicted based on the solubility analyses under a variety of geochemical conditions. The solubility and speciation of the radioactive elements were estimated, taking into account the possible range of chemical compositions determined from the groundwater investigation. (author)

  4. Plutonium and americium extraction studies with bifunctional organophosphorus extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Neutral bifunctional organophosphorus extractants, such as octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (CMP), are under study at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) to remove plutonium and americium from the 7M nitric acid waste. These compounds extract trivalent actinides from strong nitric acid, a property which distinguishes them from monofunctional organiphosphorus reagents. Furthermore, the reagents extract hydroytic plutonium (IV) polymer which is present in the acid waste stream. The compounds extract trivalent actinides with a 3:1 stoichiometry, whereas tetra- and hexavalent actinides extract with a stoichiometry of 2:1. Preliminary studies indicate that the extracted plutonium polymer complex contains one to two molecules of CMP per plutonium ion and the plutonium(IV) maintains a polymeric structure. Recent studies by Horwitz and co-workers conclude that the CMPO and CMP reagents behave as monodentate ligands. At RFP, three techniques are being tested for using CMP and CMPO to remove plutonium and americium from nitric acid waste streams. The different techniques are liquid-liquid extraction, extraction chromatography, and solid-supported liquid membranes. Recent tests of the last two techniques will be briefly described. In all the experiments, CMP was an 84% pure material from Bray Oil Co. and CMPO was 98% pure from M and T Chemicals

  5. Lifetime followup of the 1976 americium accident victim: [Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitenstein, B.D. Jr.; Palmer, H.E.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the 11 year medical course of Harold R. McCluskey, a Hanford nuclear chemical operator, who, at age 64, was involved in an accident in an americium recovery facility in August 1976. As a result of the accident, he was heavily contaminated with americium (Am-241), sustained a substantial internal deposition of this isotope, and was burned with concentrated nitric acid and injured by flying debris about the face and neck. The immediate and long-term medical care is summarized, including decontamination procedures, chelation therapy, and routine and special clinical laboratories studies. The estimates of the operator's Am-241 deposition, post accident and during the remainder of his life and the special techniques and equipment used to make the estimates, are reported. Post-accident, the total amount of Am-241 excreted in his urine and feces was 41 MBq (1.1 mCi). He died of complications of chronic coronary artery disease on August 17, 1987. 20 refs., 2 figs

  6. Plant uptake of americium, curium, and the chemical analog neodymium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.C.; Laul, J.C.; Kutt, J.C.; Bondietti, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    The plant uptake from several bulk soils has been determined for neodymium, a chemical analog to the transuranium elements americium and curium, and several other native rare earth elements as well. These investigations have demonstrated that neodymium, which has very similar chemical properties to amercium and curium and should have a similar environmental behavior, does behave indistinguishably under both laboratory and field conditions. The uptake of the weathered or mobile forms of these elements from soils is expected to be governed primarily by their identical oxidation states and nearly identical ionic radii. This hypothesis is strongly supported by the chondritic (primordial) normalized rare earth element patterns in several plants. In these samples, the entire series of rare earth elements behaves as a smooth function of the REE ionic radii, as is also seen in the contiguous soils. This behavior suggests that the plant uptake of other ions with similar chemical properties (i.e., americium and curium) would also be governed by ionic size and charge

  7. Uptake and recovery of americium and uranium by Anacystis biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.H.; Jiunntzong Wu

    1993-01-01

    The optimum conditions for the uptake of americium and uranium from wastewater solutions by Anacystis nidulans cells, and the recovery of these radionuclides were studied. The optimum pH range for both actinides was in the acidic region between 3.0 and 5.0. In a pH 3.5 solution with an algal biomass of 70 μg/mL, up to 95% of the Am and U were taken up by the cells. However, the uptake levels were lowered considerably when ethylene dinitrilotetraacetic acid (EDTA) or iron or calcium ions were present in the solutions. Most of the radionuclides taken up by the cells could also be desorbed by washing with salt solutions. Of nine salt solutions tested, ammonium carbonate was the most effective. Our experiments using algal biomass to remove radionuclides from wastewater showed that about 92% of americium and 85% of uranium in wastewater could be taken up by algal biomass, from which about 46% of the Am and 82% of the U originally present in the wastewater could be recovered by elution with a salt solution. 17 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Solubility of Plutonium (IV) Oxalate During Americium/Curium Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 15,000 L of solution containing isotopes of americium and curium (Am/Cm) will undergo stabilization by vitrification at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Prior to vitrification, an in-tank pretreatment will be used to remove metal impurities from the solution using an oxalate precipitation process. Material balance calculations for this process, based on solubility data in pure nitric acid, predict approximately 80 percent of the plutonium in the solution will be lost to waste. Due to the uncertainty associated with the plutonium losses during processing, solubility experiments were performed to measure the recovery of plutonium during pretreatment and a subsequent precipitation process to prepare a slurry feed for a batch melter. A good estimate of the plutonium content of the glass is required for planning the shipment of the vitrified Am/Cm product to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The plutonium solubility in the oxalate precipitation supernate during pretreatment was 10 mg/mL at 35 degrees C. In two subsequent washes with a 0.25M oxalic acid/0.5M nitric acid solution, the solubility dropped to less than 5 mg/mL. During the precipitation and washing steps, lanthanide fission products in the solution were mostly insoluble. Uranium, and alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal impurities were soluble as expected. An elemental material balance for plutonium showed that greater than 94 percent of the plutonium was recovered in the dissolved precipitate. The recovery of the lanthanide elements was generally 94 percent or higher except for the more soluble lanthanum. The recovery of soluble metal impurities from the precipitate slurry ranged from 15 to 22 percent. Theoretically, 16 percent of the soluble oxalates should have been present in the dissolved slurry based on the dilution effects and volumes of supernate and wash solutions removed. A trace level material balance showed greater than 97 percent recovery of americium-241 (from the beta dec

  9. Biokinetics of 237Np in mussels and shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guary, J.C.; Fowler, S.W.

    1977-01-01

    Neptunium-237 kinetics were studied in marine shrimp and mussels using a thick source alpha counting technique. Bioaccumulation of 237 Np from water was relatively slow in both species, reaching whole body concentration factors of only 15 to 20 after three months. Surface adsorption was implicated in the initial uptake. Both uptake and loss of the radioisotope were not significantly affected by temperature; this may be a reflection of the physical nature of the uptake. By virtue of the large amounts of accumulated 237 Np associated with the exoskeleton of shrimp, molting will play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of this transuranic in the marine environment. Rapid growth of organisms like mussels acts to reduce the 237 Np concentration in tissues during a period of decontamination

  10. Modelling of curium and americium behaviour during separation with displacing complexing chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuveleva, Eh.A.; Kharitonov, O.V.; Firsova, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    Certain heavy rare earths, curium and americium were separated by the method of displacement complexing chromatography using DTPA solutions and solutions containing DTPA and citric acid as eluents. Separation factors of rare earths and curium (americium) were calculated. Imitators for curium and americium separation were suggested: thulium for curium elution using 0.025 mol/l DTPA, holmium-for curium elution using 0.025 mol/l DTPA in the presence of 0.025 mol/l citric acid; terbium can serve as the imitator in both cases. 5 refs., 5 figs

  11. Influence of organic components on plutonium and americium speciation in soils and soil solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolik, G.A.; Ovsyannikova, S.V.; Kimlenko, I.M.

    2003-01-01

    Group composition of humic substances of organic and mineral soils sampled in the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl accident was analyzed for studying influence of organic components on migration properties of plutonium and americium in soils and soil solutions by the method of gel-chromatography and chemical fractionation. It was ascertained that humus of organic soils binds plutonium and americium stronger than humus of mineral soils. Elevated mobility of americium compared to plutonium one stems from lower ability of the latter to from hard to solve organic and organomineral complexes, as well as from its ability to form anionic complexes in soil solutions [ru

  12. Analytical separation of americium and curium, using high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billon, A.

    1978-01-01

    Americium and curium are separated on a column of cation exchange resin (Aminex) using hydroxyisobutyric acid (α HIBA) as eluent, at a temperature of 80 0 C. Americium and curium were detected in line using their α emission: the separation was performed in a shielded glove box whose setting-up is given. Finally, the time necessary for a separation is comprised between 30 min and 1 hr. The purity of separated fractions was assayed by mass-spectrometry. An application in the determination of isotopic composition of americium and curium in fuels is described

  13. Selective leaching studies of deep-sea sediments loaded with americium, neptunium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, T.G.; Higgo, J.J.W.; Cronan, D.S.; Rees, L.V.C.

    1984-07-01

    A series of selective leaching experiments were undertaken to investigate the solid phase speciation and distribution of americium, neptunium and plutonium which had been experimentally loaded onto different marine sediment types. The chemical leaches employed showed rather poor selectivity but certain trends were evident. Adsorption was not by ion exchange. Americium showed a preferential affinity for carbonate and plutonium for organic matter. Neptunium appeared to have no preferential affinities. Americium was sorbed by acetic acid residues (CaCO 3 removed) and by unleached carbonate-rich sediments with equal efficiency. This indicates that it is able to diversify its solid phase affinity/distribution depending upon which solid phases are available. (author)

  14. Americium/Curium Vitrification Pilot Tests - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, J.E.; Baich, M.A.; Fellinger, A.P.; Hardy, B.J.; Herman, D.T.; Jones, T.M.; Miller, C.B.; Miller, D.H.; Snyder, T. K.; Stone, M.E.

    1998-05-01

    Isotopes of americium (Am) and curium (Cm) were produced in the past at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for research, medical, and radiological applications. These highly radioactive and valuable isotopes have been stored in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years. Vitrification of this solution will allow the material to be more safely stored until it is transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation for use in research and medical applications. A previous paper described operation results from the Am-Cm Melter 2A pilot system, a full-scale non-radioactive pilot facility. This paper presents the results from continued testing in the Pilot Facility and also describes efforts taken to look at alternative vitrification process operations and flowsheets designed to address the problems observed during melter 2A pilot testing

  15. Elimination of americium-241 after a case of accidental inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edvardsson, K.A.; Lindgren, L.

    1976-01-01

    In handling a 241 Am source one person received an internal contamination of about 140 nCi of americium oxide, which was deposited in the lung region. Elimination of the activity was followed for more than 3 months by external gamma counting and excreta analyses. During the first week after the inhalation about 80% of the total intake was eliminated with an effective half-life of less than 2 days. The remaining activity, deposited in the lung region, was eliminated with an effective half-life of about 17 days. About 15% of the activity eliminated from the lung region from the 10th to the 50th day was eliminated in the faeces. (author)

  16. Pretreatment of americium/curium solutions for vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to the heavy isotope programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Prior to vitrification, an in-tank oxalate precipitation and a series of oxalic/nitric acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Pretreatment development experiments were performed to understand the behavior of the lanthanides and the metal impurities during the oxalate precipitation and properties of the precipitate slurry. The results of these experiments will be used to refine the target glass composition allowing optimization of the primary processing parameters and design of the solution transfer equipment

  17. The biokinetics and radiotoxicology of curium: A comparison with americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menetrier, F. [CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Taylor, D.M. [School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: davtay@btinternet.com; Comte, A. [CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2008-05-15

    The human and animal data on the biokinetics of {sup 242}Cm and {sup 244}Cm are reviewed and shown to be very similar to those for {sup 241}Am. Liver and skeleton are the main organs of deposition and the retention of curium in the skeleton is very prolonged in all the species examined. Retention of both curium and americium in the liver appears to be species-dependent, being relatively rapidly removed from the liver of rats, and probably humans, but being tenaciously retained in dogs and some other species. The radiotoxicity of curium is also reviewed and it is shown that, as with {sup 241}Am, lung and bone tumour induction are the major hazards from inhaled and systemically deposited {sup 244}Cm. The use of chelating agents for the treatment of accidental contamination of the human body with {sup 242,244}Cm is also discussed.

  18. Determination of the oxygen-metal-ratio of uranium-americium mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartscher, W.

    1982-01-01

    During the dissolution of uranium-americium mixed oxides in phosphoric acid under nitrogen tetravalent uranium is oxidized by tetravalent americium. The obtained hexavalent uranium is determined by constant potential coulometry. The coulombs measured are equivalent to the oxygen in excess of the minimum composition of UO 2 x AmO 1 . 5 . The total uranium content of the sample is determined in a subsequent coulometric titration. The oxygen-metal ratio of the sample can be calculated for a given uranium-americium ratio. An excess of uranium dioxide is necessary in order to suppress the oxidation of water by tetravalent americium. The standard deviation of the method is 0.0017 O/M units. (orig.) [de

  19. Calibration procedures for in vivo sodium iodide spectrometry of plutonium and americium in the human lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.; Jett, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes the calibration techniques and associated error analysis for the in vivo measurement by NaI spectrometry of heavy elements in the lung, specifically plutonium and americium. A very brief description of the instrumentation system is included

  20. Kinetics of americium(VI) mass transfer through solid supported liquid membrane with HDEHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikheeva, M.N.; Novicoov, P.; Myasoedov, B.F.; Tikhomirov, S.V.

    1994-01-01

    The main regularities of membrane extraction of americium under conditions of different redox potentials in aqueous phases have been studied. The physico-chemical model of the process including steps of americium oxidation in feed solution, extraction by membrane, partial reduction on membrane surface, trans-membrane diffusion and reextraction to strip solution has been developed. The calculation of reduction rate constant on membrane surface has been carried out. (author) 9 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  1. In-line measurement of plutonium and americium in mixed solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.K.

    1981-01-01

    A solution assay instrument (SAI) has been developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and installed in the plutonium purification and americium recovery process area in the Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility. The instrument is designed for accurate, timely, and simultaneous nondestructive analysis of plutonium and americium in process solutions that have a wide range of concentrations and Am/Pu ratios. For a 25-mL sample, the assay precision is 5 g/L within a 2000-s count time

  2. Radiation protection data sheets for the use of Americium 241 in unsealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This radiation protection data sheet is intended for supervisors and staff in the different medical, hospital, pharmaceutical, university and industrial laboratories and departments where Americium 241 is handled, and also for all those involved in risk prevention in this field. It provides essential data on radiation protection measures during the use of Americium 241 in unsealed sources: physical characteristics, risk assessment, administrative procedures, recommendations, regulations and bibliography

  3. The transmutation of americium: the Ecrix experiments in Phenix; Transmutation de l'americium: les experiences ecrix dans Phenix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, J.C.; Schmidt, N. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles (DEC/SESC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Croixmarie, Y.; Ottaviani, J.P. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles (DEC/SPUA), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Varaine, F.; Saint Jean, C. de [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs (DER/SPRC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1999-07-01

    The first americium transmutation experiment in a specific target in PHENIX will occur with the ECRIX-B and ECRIX-H experiments. Beside material testing, the objective is also to represent a concept of transmutation whose specificity is to enhance the kinetics of transmutation by using a moderated spectrum. The moderator materials will be {sup 11}B{sub 4}C and CaH{sub 2} for ECRIX-B and ECRIXH respectively, the irradiation conditions have been predicted for both the neutronics and thermal. The targets (MgO-AmO{sub X} pellets) are manufactured in the ATALANTE laboratory and the design is performed according to the PHENIX operating conditions. (authors)

  4. The transmutation of americium: the Ecrix experiments in Phenix; Transmutation de l'americium: les experiences ecrix dans Phenix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, J C; Schmidt, N [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles (DEC/SESC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Croixmarie, Y; Ottaviani, J P [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles (DEC/SPUA), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Varaine, F; Saint Jean, C de [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs (DER/SPRC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1999-07-01

    The first americium transmutation experiment in a specific target in PHENIX will occur with the ECRIX-B and ECRIX-H experiments. Beside material testing, the objective is also to represent a concept of transmutation whose specificity is to enhance the kinetics of transmutation by using a moderated spectrum. The moderator materials will be {sup 11}B{sub 4}C and CaH{sub 2} for ECRIX-B and ECRIXH respectively, the irradiation conditions have been predicted for both the neutronics and thermal. The targets (MgO-AmO{sub X} pellets) are manufactured in the ATALANTE laboratory and the design is performed according to the PHENIX operating conditions. (authors)

  5. Biochemical fractionation and cellular distribution of americium and plutonium in the biomass of freshwater macrophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotina, T.A.; Kalacheva, G.S.; Bolsunovsky, A.Ya.

    2011-01-01

    Accumulation of americium ( 241 Am) and plutonium ( 238,242 Pu) and their distribution in cell compartments and biochemical components of the biomass of freshwater aquatic plants Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum and Myrioplyllum spicatum and aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica have been investigated in laboratory experiments. Americium and plutonium taken up from water by Elodea canadensis apical shoots were mainly absorbed by structural components of plant cells (90% for 241 Am; 89% for 238 Pu and 82-87% for 242 Pu). About 10-18% of isotope activity was recorded in the cytosol fraction. The major concentration (76-92%) of americium was bound to cell wall cellulose-like polysaccharides of Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum, Ceratophyllum demersum and Fontinalis antipyretica, 8-24% of americium activity was registered in the fraction of proteins and carbohydrates, and just a minor concentration (<1%) in the lipid fraction. The distribution of plutonium in the biomass fractions of Elodea was similar to that of americium. Hence, americium and plutonium had the highest affinity to cellulose-like polysaccharides of cell walls of freshwater submerged macrophytes. (author)

  6. Distribution of uranium, americium and plutonium in the biomass of freshwater macrophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotina, T.A.; Kalacheva, G.S.; Bolsunovsky, A.YA.

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of uranium ( 238 U), americium ( 241 Am) and plutonium ( 242 Pu) and their distribution in cell compartments and biochemical components of the biomass of aquatic plants Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Myrioplyllum spicatum and aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica have been investigated in laboratory batch experiments. Isotopes of uranium, americium and plutonium taken up from the water by Elodea canadensis apical shoots were mainly absorbed by cell walls, plasmalemma and organelles. A small portion of isotopes (about 6-13 %) could be dissolved in cytoplasm. The major portion (76-92 %) of americium was bound to cell wall cellulose-like polysaccharides of Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum, Ceratophyllum demersum and Fontinalis antipyretica, 8-23 % of americium activity was registered in the fraction of proteins and carbohydrates, and just a small portion (< 1%) in lipid fraction. The distribution of plutonium in the biomass fraction of Elodea was similar to that of americium. Hence, americium and plutonium had the highest affinity to cellulose-like polysaccharides in Elodea biomass. Distribution of uranium in the biomass of Elodea differed essentially from that of transuranium elements: a considerable portion of uranium was recorded in the fraction of protein and carbohydrates (51 %). From our data we can assume that uranium has higher affinity to carbohydrates than proteins. (authors)

  7. Distribution of uranium, americium and plutonium in the biomass of freshwater macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotina, T.A.; Kalacheva, G.S.; Bolsunovsky, A.YA. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    Accumulation of uranium ({sup 238}U), americium ({sup 241}Am) and plutonium ({sup 242}Pu) and their distribution in cell compartments and biochemical components of the biomass of aquatic plants Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Myrioplyllum spicatum and aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica have been investigated in laboratory batch experiments. Isotopes of uranium, americium and plutonium taken up from the water by Elodea canadensis apical shoots were mainly absorbed by cell walls, plasmalemma and organelles. A small portion of isotopes (about 6-13 %) could be dissolved in cytoplasm. The major portion (76-92 %) of americium was bound to cell wall cellulose-like polysaccharides of Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum, Ceratophyllum demersum and Fontinalis antipyretica, 8-23 % of americium activity was registered in the fraction of proteins and carbohydrates, and just a small portion (< 1%) in lipid fraction. The distribution of plutonium in the biomass fraction of Elodea was similar to that of americium. Hence, americium and plutonium had the highest affinity to cellulose-like polysaccharides in Elodea biomass. Distribution of uranium in the biomass of Elodea differed essentially from that of transuranium elements: a considerable portion of uranium was recorded in the fraction of protein and carbohydrates (51 %). From our data we can assume that uranium has higher affinity to carbohydrates than proteins. (authors)

  8. 32 CFR 237a.3 - Objective and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS PUBLIC AFFAIRS LIAISON WITH INDUSTRY § 237a.3 Objective and policy. (a) It is important that...D. Such understanding can be achieved by (1) wide dissemination of information to the business community, consistent with national security, and (2) cooperation with industry in public relations...

  9. 49 CFR 237.155 - Documents and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Documentation, Records, and Audits of Bridge Management Programs § 237.155 Documents and records. Each track owner required to implement a bridge management... protected by a security system that incorporates a user identity and password, or a comparable method, to...

  10. 48 CFR 1852.237-71 - Pension portability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Pension portability. 1852... 1852.237-71 Pension portability. As prescribed at 1837.110-70(b), insert the following clause: Pension Portability (JAN 1997) (a) In order for pension costs attributable to employees assigned to this contract to...

  11. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the Pro...

  12. 48 CFR 1552.237-76 - Government-Contractor Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Government-Contractor... 1552.237-76 Government-Contractor Relations. As prescribed in 1537.110(g), insert the following clause: Government-Contractor Relations (JUN 1999) (a) The Government and the Contractor understand and agree that...

  13. 48 CFR 2452.237-75 - Clearance of contractor personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Clearance of contractor... Clauses 2452.237-75 Clearance of contractor personnel. As prescribed in 2437.110(e), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts. Clearance of Contractor Personnel (OCT 1999) (a) General. This...

  14. 48 CFR 852.237-70 - Contractor responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contractor....237-70 Contractor responsibilities. As prescribed in 837.110, insert the following clause: Contractor Responsibilities (APR 1984) The contractor shall obtain all necessary licenses and/or permits required to perform...

  15. 48 CFR 2152.237-70 - Continuity of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-out services for up to 10 months after this contract expires and (2) negotiate in good faith a plan... contract. The Contractor also must, except if prohibited by applicable law, disclose necessary personnel... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2152.237-70 Continuity of services. As...

  16. 48 CFR 237.7101 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contracts for laundry and dry cleaning services to be provided on a count-of-articles basis. (d) Use the clause at 252.237-7015, Loss or Damage (Weight of Articles), in solicitations and contracts for laundry... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provisions...

  17. Effect of americium-241 on luminous bacteria. Role of peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrova, M., E-mail: maka-alexandrova@rambler.r [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Rozhko, T. [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Vydryakova, G. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kudryasheva, N. [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-15

    The effect of americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), an alpha-emitting radionuclide of high specific activity, on luminous bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum was studied. Traces of {sup 241}Am in nutrient media (0.16-6.67 kBq/L) suppressed the growth of bacteria, but enhanced luminescence intensity and quantum yield at room temperature. Lower temperature (4 {sup o}C) increased the time of bacterial luminescence and revealed a stage of bioluminescence inhibition after 150 h of bioluminescence registration start. The role of conditions of exposure the bacterial cells to the {sup 241}Am is discussed. The effect of {sup 241}Am on luminous bacteria was attributed to peroxide compounds generated in water solutions as secondary products of radioactive decay. Increase of peroxide concentration in {sup 241}Am solutions was demonstrated; and the similarity of {sup 241}Am and hydrogen peroxide effects on bacterial luminescence was revealed. The study provides a scientific basis for elaboration of bioluminescence-based assay to monitor radiotoxicity of alpha-emitting radionuclides in aquatic solutions. - Highlights: {yields} Am-241 in water solutions (A = 0.16-6.7 kBq/L) suppresses bacterial growth.{yields} Am-241 (A = 0.16-6.7 kBq/L) stimulate bacterial luminescence. {yields} Peroxides, secondary radiolysis products, cause increase of bacterial luminescence.

  18. Density of simulated americium/curium melter feed solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1997-01-01

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to Oak Ridge National Laboratory and use in heavy isotope production programs. Prior to vitrification, a series of in-tank oxalate precipitation and nitric/oxalic acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Following nitric acid dissolution and oxalate destruction, the solution will be denitrated and evaporated to a dissolved solids concentration of approximately 100 g/l (on an oxide basis). During the Am/Cm vitrification, an airlift will be used to supply the concentrated feed solution to a constant head tank which drains through a filter and an in-line orifice to the melter. Since the delivery system is sensitive to the physical properties of the feed, a simulated solution was prepared and used to measure the density as a function of temperature between 20 to 70 degrees C. The measured density decreased linearly at a rate of 0.0007 g/cm3/degree C from an average value of 1.2326 g/cm 3 at 20 degrees C to an average value of 1.1973g/cm 3 at 70 degrees C

  19. Americium/Curium Melter 2A Pilot Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.E.; Fellinger, A.P.; Jones, T.M.; Miller, C.B.; Miller, D.H.; Snyder, T.K.; Stone, M.E.; Witt, D.C.

    1998-05-01

    Isotopes of americium (Am) and curium (Cm) were produced in the past at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for research, medical, and radiological applications. These highly radioactive and valuable isotopes have been stored in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years. Vitrification of this solution will allow the material to be more safely stored until it is transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation for use in research and medical applications. To this end, the Am/Cm Melter 2A pilot system, a full-scale non- radioactive pilot plant of the system to be installed at the reprocessing facility, was designed, constructed and tested. The full- scale pilot system has a frit and aqueous feed delivery system, a dual zone bushing melter, and an off-gas treatment system. The main items which were tested included the dual zone bushing melter, the drain tube with dual heating and cooling zones, glass compositions, and the off-gas system which used for the first time a film cooler/lower melter plenum. Most of the process and equipment were proven to function properly, but several problems were found which will need further work. A system description and a discussion of test results will be given

  20. Americium adsorption on the surface of macrophytic algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, F.P.; Fowler, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Data are presented on the rates at which americium (Am) deposits upon blade surfaces of three benthic algal species (Ulva rigida, Fucus vesiculosus and Gigartina stellata) following short-term exposures (1-6 h). Am is taken up in direct proportion to the ambient radionuclide concentration in sea water. Uptake by the green alga was 3 to 5 times greater than that for the brown and red species. Experimental evidence indicated that Am accumulation is a passive process and that adsorption takes place mainly on the thin outer organic coating of the seaweed. The Am transport coefficients are quite similar to that previously found for the naturally occurring ..cap alpha..-emitter /sup 210/Po, but are an order of magnitude lower than a plutonium transport coefficient reported in the literature. Release of labelled extracellular products associated with the algal surface coating is considered to be responsible for the rapid loss of Am observed previously in macroalgae and may in fact serve as a mechanism for transferring Am to filter feeding zooplankton. (author).

  1. Americium adsorption on the surface of macrophytic algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.P.; Fowler, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Data are presented on the rates at which americium (Am) deposits upon blade surfaces of three benthic algal species (Ulva rigida, Fucus vesiculosus and Gigartina stellata) following short-term exposures (1-6 h). Am is taken up in direct proportion to the ambient radionuclide concentration in sea water. Uptake by the green alga was 3 to 5 times greater than that for the brown and red species. Experimental evidence indicated that Am accumulation is a passive process and that adsorption takes place mainly on the thin outer organic coating of the seaweed. The Am transport coefficients are quite similar to that previously found for the naturally occurring α-emitter 210 Po, but are an order of magnitude lower than a plutonium transport coefficient reported in the literature. Release of labelled extracellular products associated with the algal surface coating is considered to be responsible for the rapid loss of Am observed previously in macroalgae and may in fact serve as a mechanism for transferring Am to filter feeding zooplankton. (author)

  2. Density of simulated americium/curium melter feed solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1997-09-22

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to Oak Ridge National Laboratory and use in heavy isotope production programs. Prior to vitrification, a series of in-tank oxalate precipitation and nitric/oxalic acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Following nitric acid dissolution and oxalate destruction, the solution will be denitrated and evaporated to a dissolved solids concentration of approximately 100 g/l (on an oxide basis). During the Am/Cm vitrification, an airlift will be used to supply the concentrated feed solution to a constant head tank which drains through a filter and an in-line orifice to the melter. Since the delivery system is sensitive to the physical properties of the feed, a simulated solution was prepared and used to measure the density as a function of temperature between 20 to 70{degrees} C. The measured density decreased linearly at a rate of 0.0007 g/cm3/{degree} C from an average value of 1.2326 g/cm{sup 3} at 20{degrees} C to an average value of 1.1973g/cm{sup 3} at 70{degrees} C.

  3. Molecular localisation of americium, technetium and cesium in edible marine animals. Their metabolic behavior and their consequences; Localisation moleculaire de l'americium, du technetium et du cesium chez des animaux marins comestibles leur comportement metabolique et ses consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieri, J; Goudard, F; Milcent, M C [Laboratoire de Biochimie et Radiochimie, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, Nantes Cedex (France)

    1992-07-01

    We show the molecular behavior of americium, technetium and cesium on the chromatographic pattern of each cytosol in the digestive gland of eel and lobster. The contamination by cadmium seems to compete with americium in the fractions of MW 10,000. Cesium shows an ionic behavior. (author)

  4. Environmental impact of a teratogenic actinide: a case study of americium-241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Yang, J.Y.

    1985-10-16

    Americium-241 is widely used as a radiation source, but it also has some potential risk if taken into the body. Although the radiotoxicity of americium-241 is small compared to other transuranic actinides, its effects on the reproductive system and on development of the placenta are more damaging than the effects of plutonium-239. A previous report based on a worst-case scenario involving a hypothetical fire accident in a contaminated facility indicated that there could have been a significant impact on nearby residents from a unit release of americium-241 via atmospheric dispersion. However, because the facility is located in a rural region where most drinking water supplies are drawn from private wells, it is believed that deposition of americium-241 from the atmosphere might also have impacts via the groundwater pathway by infiltration of rainwater. In this analysis, a three-dimensional analytical mathematical model is used to assess several aspects of americium-241 contamination of groundwater, including radioactive transformation, advection, dispersion, and soil sorption. Simulation results indicate that no significant radiological impacts would occur to the nearby residents via the groundwater pathway. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. The availability of plutonium and americium in Irish Sea sediments for re-dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, P.; Vives i Batlle, J.; Bousher, A.; Whittall, A.; Chambers, N.

    2001-01-01

    The availability of plutonium and americium, for re-dissolution from offshore sediments into Irish Sea water, has been examined. Sediments collected from the mud-patch near the Cumbrian coast were characterized in terms of spatial location, particle size, partitioning of radionuclides with respect to physico-chemical bonds and availability of actinides for release into seawater. Sequential extraction investigations revealed that plutonium was predominantly associated with strongly bound sesquioxide and organic complex fractions. Americium was associated mainly with the organic complex fraction, but a significant fraction was in carbonate form. Sediment/water re-dissolution experiments with and without stirring were compared to simulate the effect of disturbing bed sediment. After 1 week, neither set of re-dissolution data provided significant trends between dissolved activity and time. Stirred systems appeared to release 2.5 times more plutonium and americium into seawater than unstirred systems. Measured 239,240Pu and 241Am distribution coefficients (K d values) were both typically approximately 10 5 l kg -1 . 241Am K d values are an order of magnitude lower than previously reported for the north-eastern Irish Sea, but similar to western Irish Sea values. Overall, the fractions of plutonium and americium available for re-dissolution from bed sediment are very low at <0.1%, with proportionally more plutonium being released than americium. These findings lend further support for the extrapolation of laboratory-derived information to environmental conditions

  6. Environmental impact of a teratogenic actinide: a case study of americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Yang, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Americium-241 is widely used as a radiation source, but it also has some potential risk if taken into the body. Although the radiotoxicity of americium-241 is small compared to other transuranic actinides, its effects on the reproductive system and on development of the placenta are more damaging than the effects of plutonium-239. A previous report based on a worst-case scenario involving a hypothetical fire accident in a contaminated facility indicated that there could have been a significant impact on nearby residents from a unit release of americium-241 via atmospheric dispersion. However, because the facility is located in a rural region where most drinking water supplies are drawn from private wells, it is believed that deposition of americium-241 from the atmosphere might also have impacts via the groundwater pathway by infiltration of rainwater. In this analysis, a three-dimensional analytical mathematical model is used to assess several aspects of americium-241 contamination of groundwater, including radioactive transformation, advection, dispersion, and soil sorption. Simulation results indicate that no significant radiological impacts would occur to the nearby residents via the groundwater pathway. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Mobility of plutonium and americium through a shallow aquifer in a semiarid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, W.R.; Polzer, W.L.; Essington, E.H.; Nelson, D.M.; Orlandini, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    Treated liquid wastes containing traces of plutonium and americium are released into Mortandad Canyon, within the site of Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM. The wastes infiltrate a small aquifer within the canyon. Although laboratory studies have predicted that the movement of actinides in subsurface environments will be limited to less than a few meters, both plutonium and americium are detectable in monitoring wells as far as 3,390 m downgradient from the discharge. Between the first and last monitoring wells (1.8 and 3.4 km from the discharge), plutonium concentrations decreased exponentially from 1,400 to 0.55 mBq/L. Americium concentrations ranged between 94 and 1,240 mBq/L, but did not appear to vary in a systematic way with distance. Investigation of the properties of the mobile actinides indicates that the plutonium and part of the americium are tightly or irreversibly associated with colloidal material between 25 and 450 nm in size. The colloidally bound actinides are removed only gradually from the groundwater. The fraction of the americium not associated with colloids exists in a low molecular weight form (diameter, ≤ 2 nm) and appears to be a stable, anionic complex of unknown composition. The mobile forms of these actinides defeat the forces that normally act to retard their movement through groundwater systems

  8. Molecular localisation of americium, technetium and cesium in edible marine animals. Their metabolic behavior and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieri, J.; Goudard, F.; Milcent, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    We show the molecular behavior of americium, technetium and cesium on the chromatographic pattern of each cytosol in the digestive gland of eel and lobster. The contamination by cadmium seems to compete with americium in the fractions of MW 10,000. Cesium shows an ionic behavior. (author)

  9. Organic components and plutonium and americium state in soils and soil solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolik, G.A.; Ovsyannikova, S.V.; Kimlenko, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    The fraction composition of humus substances of different type soils and soil solutions have been studied. A distribution of Pu 239, 240 and Am 241 between humus substances fractions of different dispersity and mobility in soil-vegetation cover has been established. It was shown that humus of organic soils fixes plutonium and americium in soil medium in greater extent than humus of mineral soils. That leads to lower migration ability of radionuclides in organic soils. The lower ability of americium to form difficultly soluble organic and organic-mineral complexes and predomination of its anion complexes in soil solutions may be a reason of higher mobility and biological availability of americium in comparison to plutonium during soil-plant transfer (authors)

  10. Transmutation of Americium in Light and Heavy Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R.; Edwards, G.W.R. [Chalk River Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (Canada); Ellis, R.J.; Gehin, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Maldonado, G.I. [University of Tennessee (Knoxville)/ORNL, Tennessee (United States)

    2009-06-15

    There is interest worldwide in reducing the burden on geological nuclear fuel disposal sites. In most disposal scenarios the decay heat loading of the surrounding rock limits the capacity of these sites. On the long term, this decay heat is generated primarily by actinides, and a major contributor 100 to 1000 years after discharge from the reactor is {sup 241}Am. One possible approach to reducing the decay-heat burden is to reprocess spent reactor fuel and use thermal spectrum reactors to 'burn' the Am nuclides. The viability of this approach is dependent upon the detailed changes in chemical and isotopic composition of actinide-bearing fuels after irradiation in thermal reactor spectra. The currently available thermal spectrum reactor options include light water-reactors (LWRs) and heavy-water reactors (HWRs) such as the CANDU{sup R} designs. In addition, as a result of the recycle of spent LWR fuel, there would be a considerable amount of potential recycled uranium (RU). One proposed solution for the recycled uranium is to use it as fuel in Candu reactors. This paper investigates the possibilities of transmuting americium in 'spiked' bundles in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and in boiling water reactors (BWRs). Transmutation of Am in Candu reactors is also examined. One scenario studies a full core fuelled with homogeneous bundles of Am mixed with recycled uranium, while a second scenario places Am in an inert matrix in target channels in a Candu reactor, with the rest of the reactor fuelled with RU. A comparison of the transmutation in LWRs and HWRs is made, in terms of the fraction of Am that is transmuted and the impact on the decay heat of the spent nuclear fuel. CANDU{sup R} is a registered trademark of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). (authors)

  11. Updated and revised neutron reaction data for 237Np

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Guochang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear data with high accuracy for minor actinides play an important role in nuclear technology applications, including reactor design and operation, fuel cycle, estimation of the amount of minor actinides in high burn-up reactors and the minor actinides transmutation. Based on the evaluated experimental data, the updated and revised evaluation of a full set of n+237Np nuclear data from 10−5 eV ∼ 20 MeV are carried out and recommended. Mainly revised quantities are neutron multiplicities from fission reaction, inelastic, fission, (n, 2n and (n, γ reaction cross sections as well as angular distribution and so on. The promising results are obtained when the renewal evaluated data of 237Np will be used to instead of the evaluated data in CENDL-3.1 database.

  12. Sorption of 237Pu by the diatom Asterionella formosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, H.L.; Wahlgren, M.A.; Peterson, N.; Nelson, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    Knowledge of the behavior of the man-made radionuclide plutonium within aquatic environments is of fundamental importance in assessing its potential hazards and ecological impact. The sorption of plutonium by phytoplankton and other algae is the dominant factor in the biological transport of plutonium in the aquatic environment, and it has been suggested that sorption by phytoplankton may be responsible for the seasonal loss of plutonium from the epilimnion of Lake Michigan. A unialgal diatom culture was spiked with 237 Pu tracer solution in an attempt to simulate the behavior of fallout plutonium observed in field studies. The results were encouraging in that the 237 Pu in the filtered lake water medium exhibited strongly anionic properties similar to fallout plutonium in Lake Michigan, with limited sorption on container walls. The purpose of the present study was to extend the investigations of the sorption of plutonium by phytoplankton in a controlled environment using continuous culture techniques

  13. The rapid determination of americium curium, and uranium in urine by ultrafiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.N.; Popplewell, D.S.; Ham, G.J.; Griffin, R.

    1975-01-01

    The rapid ultrafiltration method developed for the assay of plutonium has been extended to the determination of americium, curium and uranium in urine. The limits of detection for americium and curium, and uranium are 0.09 and 0.12 dm -1 l -1 respectively, and the analysis time excluding counting less than 2 hours. The method can therefor be effectively used as a rapid screening procedure. When the reference level for plutonium is exceeded, the α activity may require to be characterised. The single ultrafiltration technique must be modified for turbid urine samples. The method is inappropriate, except for uranium, when the urine contains DTPA. (author)

  14. Carbamoyl methylphosphine oxide derivatives of adamantane as americium and europium extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babain, V.A.; Alyapyshev, M.Yu.; Novakov, I.A.; Orlinson, B.S.; Savel'ev, E.N.; Shokova, Eh.A.; Serebrayannikova, A.E.; Kovalev, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    Adamantane di-1,3-carbamoyl methylphosphine oxide (CMPO) derivatives, where CMPO-groups connect with 1,3-positions of rigid adamantane platform by methylene and ethylene bridges, are synthesized, and their efficiency as extractants of americium(III) and europium(III) from nitric acid solutions is demonstrated. Distribution function of Am 3+ and Eu + during extraction from 3M HNO 3 are measured in the investigation of extraction properties. It is noted that first synthesized adamantane CMPO derivatives are more effective for the extraction of americium(III) and europium(III) from 3MHNO 3 [ru

  15. Airborne plutonium and americium concentrations measured from the top of Rattlesnake Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne plutonium-239+240 and americium-241 blowing from offsite was measured in an initial experiment at the top of Rattlesnake Mountain. Average airborne concentration measured was similar to fallout concentrations. Airborne plutonium concentrations were independent of wind speed for seven wind speed increments between 0.5 and 31 m/sec. In contrast the airborne americium concentration was a minimum at a wind speed of approximately 7 m/sec. Similarly, the airborne solids concentration in μg/m 3 was a minimum at an intermediate wind speed increment of 7 to 11 m/sec

  16. Experimental studies to validate model calculations and maximum solubility limits for Plutonium and Americium; Experimentelle Arbeiten zur Absicherung von Modellrechnungen und Maximalkonzentrationen fuer Plutonium und Americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-02-16

    This report focuses on studies of KIT-INE to derive a significantly improved description of the chemical behaviour of Americium and Plutonium in saline NaCl, MgCl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} brine systems. The studies are based on new experimental data and aim at deriving reliable Am and Pu solubility limits for the investigated systems as well as deriving comprehensive thermodynamic model descriptions. Both aspects are of high relevance in the context of potential source term estimations for Americium and Plutonium in aqueous brine systems and related scenarios. Americium and Plutonium are long-lived alpha emitting radionuclides which due to their high radiotoxicity need to be accounted for in a reliable and traceable way. The hydrolysis of trivalent actinides and the effect of highly alkaline pH conditions on the solubility of trivalent actinides in calcium chloride rich brine solutions were investigated and a thermodynamic model derived. The solubility of Plutonium in saline brine systems was studied under reducing and non-reducing conditions and is described within a new thermodynamic model. The influence of dissolved carbonate on Americium and Plutonium solubility in MgCl{sub 2} solutions was investigated and quantitative information on Am and Pu solubility limits in these systems derived. Thermodynamic constants and model parameter derived in this work are implemented in the Thermodynamic Reference Database THEREDA owned by BfS. According to the quality assurance approach in THEREDA, is was necessary to publish parts of this work in peer-reviewed scientific journals. The publications are focused on solubility experiments, spectroscopy of aquatic and solid species and thermodynamic data. (Neck et al., Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 81, (2009), pp. 1555-1568., Altmaier et al., Radiochimica Acta, 97, (2009), pp. 187-192., Altmaier et al., Actinide Research Quarterly, No 2., (2011), pp. 29-32.).

  17. 48 CFR 2452.237-73 - Conduct of Work and Technical Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conditions of the contract. (c) The GTR will issue technical guidance in writing or, if issued orally, he/she... Technical Guidance. 2452.237-73 Section 2452.237-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Provisions and Clauses 2452.237-73 Conduct of Work and Technical Guidance. As prescribed in 2437.110(d...

  18. Characterization of oxalate-based 237NpO2 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, D.T.; Burney, G.A.; Smith, P.K.; Sisson, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    238 Pu, a radioisotope heat source, is produced by irradiating reactor targets containing 237 NpO 2 . The neptunium oxide is obtained by precipitating and calcining 237 Np(IV) oxalate. The effects of oxalate precipitation parameters on particle morphology and size distribution of 237 NpO 2 powder were established to provide process controls for fabricating reactor targets

  19. 48 CFR 1352.237-72 - Security processing requirements-national security contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements-national security contracts. 1352.237-72 Section 1352.237-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Provisions and Clauses 1352.237-72 Security processing requirements—national security contracts. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1337.110-70(d), use the following clause: Security Processing Requirements—National...

  20. 48 CFR 352.237-71 - Crime Control Act-reporting of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-reporting of child abuse. 352.237-71 Section 352.237-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND... Clauses 352.237-71 Crime Control Act—reporting of child abuse. As prescribed in 337.103-70(b), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Crime Control Act of 1990—Reporting of Child Abuse...

  1. Possibility of obtaining enriched americium-242g by the elution of recoil atoms from zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafiev, A I; Vityutnev, V M; Ivanov, V M; Yakovlev, G N

    1974-12-31

    On the example of production the possibility of obtaining enriched actinide isotopes by the elution of recotl atoms with the use of a zeolite- americium-241 target was shown. The enrichment factor and the recoil atoms of / sup 242g/Am yield depend on preliminary target treatment and solution composition used for elution. (auth)

  2. Environmental impacts of the release of a transuranic actinide, americium-241, from a contaminated facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Want, J.; Merry-Libby, P.

    1985-10-29

    Americium-241 is widely used as a radiation source, but it also has some potential risk if taken into the body because of its high dose conversion factor. Although the radiotoxicity of americium-241 is small compared to other transuranic actinides, its effects on the reproductive system and on development of the placenta are more damaging than the effects of plutonium-239. In Ohio, a gemologist's laboratory was contaminated with americium-241. Prior to decontamination of the laboratory, potential radiological impacts to the surrounding environment were assessed. A hypothetical fire accident resulting in a unit release (1 curie) was assumed. Potential radiological impacts were simulated using an atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry model with local meteorological data, population census data, and detailed information regarding the neighborhood. The results indicate that there could have been a significant impact on nearby residents from americium-241 via atmospheric dispersion if a major catastrophic release had occurred prior to contamination and decommissioning of the laboratory. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Explosion of cation exchange column in americium recovery service, Hanford plant, August 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This document is a collection of thirty references related to the explosion of the cation exchange column in the Americium Recovery Service of the Hanford Atomic Products Operation, Richland, Washington, on August 30, 1976. Some of the documents are related to the design and safety studies, while others refer to the accident and resulting decontamination efforts, investigations, and legal consequences

  4. Total and Compound Formation Cross Sections for Americium Nuclei: Recommendations for Coupled-Channels Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    Calculations for total cross sections and compound-nucleus (CN) formation cross sections for americium isotopes are described, for use in the 2017 NA-22 evaluation effort. The code ECIS 2006 was used in conjunction with Frank Dietrich's wrapper `runtemplate'.

  5. Plutonium and americium in arctic waters, the North Sea and Scottish and Irish coastal zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallstadius, L.; Aarkrog, Asker; Dahlgaard, Henning

    1986-01-01

    Plutonium and americium have been measured in surface waters of the Greenland and Barents Seas and in the northern North Sea from 1980 through 1984. Measurements in water and biota, Fucus, Mytilus and Patella, were carried out in North-English and Scottish waters in 1982 and Fucus samples were co...

  6. National low-level waste management program radionuclide report series, Volume 14: Americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, M.R.; Garcia, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    This report, Volume 14 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of americium-241 ( 241 Am). This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which 241 Am can be found and 241 Am behavior in the environment and in the human body

  7. Radiochemical separation and alpha-spectrometric determination of Americium in different matrixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radenkovic, M.; Joksic, J.; Paligoric, D.

    2009-01-01

    A method of separation and alpha-spectrometric determination of americium, developed in VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences is described in the paper. The procedure is convenient to be used for 241 Am determination in environmental matrixes as well as samples of human origin if a very small concentrations are expected, using 243 Am as a tracer for radiochemical yield recovery. (author) [sr

  8. Biokinetic study of plutonium and americium associated to the particulates of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, A.; Aragon, A.; Martinez, J.; Iranzo, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    The object of this study is to determine the biokinetic parameters of different Plutonium isotopes and Americium inhaled in the state in which they are found in the environment as a result of their deposition in the soil, from an aviation accident that generated different plutonium oxides. to achieve this objective, two lines of work planned. One was the determination of the mineralogical composition and associations that plutonium and americium present in that soil 22 years after the nuclear accident. Other studies were directed to determine the biokinetic of the plutonium isotopes and americium (contained in the dust) deposited tracheally and inhaled by laboratory animals (rats) and in vitro experiments by pulmonary leaching simulation. The in vivo tests have been developed in NRPB (U.K.) and the in vitro experiment, geochemical associations studies, assessment of internal doses to humans resulting from intake of plutonium and americium bearing dusts present in the contaminated area and establishment of ALIs for inhalation, were carried out in CIEMAT (Spain). In this work only determinations and experiments carried out by CIEMAT are includes as a part of the EU Project ''INHALATION AND INGESTION OF RADIONUCLIDES'' contract: FI3P-CT920064a. (Author) 10 refs

  9. Speciation and bioavailability of plutonium and americium in the Irish Sea and other marine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives i Batlle, J.

    1993-12-01

    Since the late 1960s, the Irish Sea has become a repository for a variety of radio-elements originating mainly in discharges from the British Nuclear Fuels (BNF) plc. Sellafield reprocessing complex located on the Cumbrian coast. In particular, transuranium nuclides such as plutonium, americium and curium (the main constituents of the α-emitting discharges) have become incorporated into every marine compartment by a variety of mechanisms, many of which are not well understood. Although extensive studies have been carried out in the near-field (eastern Irish Sea, especially in the vicinity of the discharge point and collateral muddy sediments), comparatively little had been done to assess the long-term behaviour and bioavailability of plutonium and americium in the far-field, e.g., the western Irish Sea, prior to the present study. In this dissertation, the results of an extensive research programme, undertaken in order to improve and refine our understanding of the behaviour of plutonium and americium in the marine environment, are presented. Specifically, the thesis details the results of (and conclusions deduced from) a series of experiments in which the physical and chemical speciation, colloidal association, mobility and bioavailability of plutonium and americium were examined in diverse environments including the Irish Sea and the Mediterranean. (author)

  10. Determination of specific activity of americium and plutonium in selected environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebunova, T.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work was development of method for determination of americium and plutonium in environmental samples. Developed method was evaluated on soil samples and after they was applied on selected samples of fishes (smoked mackerel, herring and fillet from Alaska hake). The method for separation of americium is based on liquid separation with Aliquate-336, precipitation with oxalic acid and using of chromatographic material TRU-Spec TM .The intervals of radiochemical yields were from 13.0% to 80.9% for plutonium-236 and from 10.5% to 100% for americium-241. Determined specific activities of plutonium-239,240 were from (2.3 ± 1.4) mBq/kg to (82 ± 29) mBq/kg, the specific activities of plutonium-238 were from (14.2 ± 3.7) mBq/kg to (708 ± 86) mBq/kg. The specific activities of americium-241 were from (1.4 ± 0.9) mBq/kg to (3360 ± 210) mBq/kg. The fishes from Baltic Sea as well as from North Sea show highest specific activities then fresh-water fishes from Slovakia. Therefore the monitoring of alpha radionuclides in foods imported from territories with nuclear testing is recommended

  11. Evaluation of nuclear data of 244Pu and 237Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Konshin, V.A.

    1995-10-01

    The evaluation of nuclear data for 244 Pu and 237 Pu was made in the neutron energy region from 10 -5 eV to 20 MeV. For the both nuclides, the total, elastic and inelastic scattering, fission, capture, (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections were evaluated on the basis of theoretical calculation. The resonance parameters were given for 244 Pu. The angular and energy distributions of secondary neutrons were also estimated for the both nuclides. The results were compiled in the ENDF-5 format and will be adopted in JENDL Actinoid File. (author)

  12. Biokinetics of 237Np in two marine benthic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guary, J.C.; Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    The long-lived alpha-emitting actinide 237 Np (T 1/2 = 2.2 x 10 6 y) enters the aquatic environment directly from nuclear testing and reprocessing plant wastes as well as indirectly by in situ generation from 241 Am. Earlier studies on 239 Np in the Columbia river ecosystem demonstrated that neptunium accumulated in aquatic species such as algae, sponges and insect larvae but was not detectable in higher trophic level organisms. Based on these findings and the fact that neptunium is chemically similar to the rare earth elements, it has been suggested that this actinide would not easily become incorporated into aquatic biota

  13. Interaction and diffusion transport of americium in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Guinart, Oriol; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry department, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    The final disposal of High Level Radioactive Wastes (HLRW) is based on its long-term storage in underground facilities located in geological stable sites with a multi-barrier system, the so called Deep Geological Repositories (DGR), that will keep HLRW confined for >10.000 years. After this period of time, leachates rich in long-live radioisotopes might escape from DGR and start to transport towards the biosphere. There is still a lack of information concerning the interaction and transport in soils of some radionuclides present in HLRW, especially for radionuclides that present a high sorption, such as americium (Am). Having reliable information about the mobility of radionuclides in soils is crucial in order to develop risk assessment models and to take proper decisions in case of soil contamination. The aim of the present work was, by means of laboratory scale experiments, to study the interaction and, for first time, to evaluate the diffusion transport of {sup 241}Am in soils. The {sup 241}Am interaction in soils was assessed by applying sorption batch assays to 20 soil samples with contrasted edaphic properties which allowed us to quantify the solid-liquid distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) and desorption percentage. K{sub d} (Am) values ranged from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 5} L kg{sup -1} and desorption percentages were always less than 2% which denoted a high capacity of the soil to incorporate the Am and a low reversibility of the sorption process. The influence of soil properties in {sup 241}Am interaction was studied by means of multiple linear and multivariate regressions. Although a single correlation between K{sub d} (Am) values and a soil property was not found, the main properties affecting {sup 241}Am interaction in soils were soil pH, carbonate and organic matter contents in the soil. Finally, additional batch assays at different controlled pH were done to study Am sorption as a function of the contact solution pH. A variation of the Am sorption

  14. Local Structure in Americium and Californium Hexa-cyanoferrates - Comparison with Their Lanthanide Analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupouy, G.; Bonhoure, I.; Dumas, Th.; Moisy, Ph.; Petit, S.; Den Auwer, Ch.; Conradson, St.D.; Hennig, Ch.; Scheinost, A.C.; Le Naour, C.; Simoni, E.

    2011-01-01

    Metal hexa-cyanoferrates are well known molecular solids for a large variety of cations, although very little has been described for actinide adducts. Two new members of actinide(III) hexa-cyanoferrates were synthesized with the cations americium and californium. They were structurally characterized by infrared and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Combined EXAFS data at the iron K edge and actinide L 3 edge provide evidence for a three-dimensional model for these two new compounds. Structural data in terms of bond lengths were compared to those reported for the parent lanthanide(III) compounds, neodymium and gadolinium hexa-cyanoferrates, respectively: the americium compound with (KNd(III)Fe(II)-Fe-III(CN) 6 .4H 2 O and the californium compound with (KGd(III)Fe(II)(CN) . 3.5H 2 O and (KGd(III)Fe(II)(CN) 6 .3H 2 O. This comparison between actinide and lanthanide homologues has been carried out on the basis of ionic radii considerations. The americium and neodymium environments appear to be very similar and are arranged in a tri-capped trigonal prism polyhedron of coordination number 9 (CN: 9), in which the americium atom is bonded to six nitrogen atoms and to three water molecules. For the californium adduct, a similar comparison and bond length and angle values derived from EXAFS studies suggest that the californium cation sits in a bi-capped trigonal prism (CN: 8) as in (KGd(III)Fe(II)(CN) 6 . 3H 2 O. This arrangement differs from that in the structure of (KGd(III)Fe(II)(CN) 6 .3.5H 2 O, in which the gadolinium atom is surrounded by 9 atoms. This is one of the rare pieces of information revealed by EXAFS spectroscopy for americium and californium in comparison to lanthanide atoms in molecular solid compounds. A discussion on the decrease in bond length and coordination number from americium to californium is also provided, on the basis of crystallographic results reported in the literature for actinide(III) and lanthanide(III) hydrate series. (authors)

  15. Electric resistivity of 241-americium and 244-curium metals. Creation of defects and isochronous annealing of 241-americium metal after self-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, R.

    1977-03-01

    The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity of thin films of bulk 241 Am metal were measured between 300 and 4.5 K. The room temperature resistivity was found to be 68.90μΩcm. At room temperature the electrical resistivity of americium increases with pressure (3% up to 13 kbar). The application of 13 kbar pressure did not change the low temperature power law in the electrical resistivity. The resistivity vs temperature curve can be explained by assuming s-d scattering of conduction electrons. The localized 5f electrons are considered to be about 5eV below the Fermi level. Americium therefore should be the first lanthanide-like element in the actinide series. The defect production due to self-irradiation damage was studied by measuring the increase of the resistivity at 4.2 K over a period of 738 h. A saturation resistivity of 16.036 μΩcm was found corresponding to a defect concentration of about 0.22 a/o. After isochronal annealing two recovery stages were observed at about 65 and 145 K. The two stages shift with increasing initial defect concentration to lower temperatures. Estimates of the activation energies and the reaction order were made and possible defect reactions suggested. The magnetic contribution to the electrical resistivity of curium, which shows an antiferromagnetic transition at 52.5 k, was obtained by subtracting the resistivity of americium (to be considered as phonon part). Comparison with theoretical models were made. At low temperatures the measurements are strongly affected by self-irradiation damage [drho/dt(t=0)=9.8μΩcm/h

  16. Structural characterisations and mechanistic investigations of the selective dissolution of americium by the ferricyanide ions in alkaline media. Application for the partitioning americium curium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouchard, Sebastien

    2000-01-01

    Americium exhibits a high solubility form in basic media under oxidant conditions, unlike the other Transplutonium elements (TPE). This property can be used in the frame of High Level Liquid Waste (HLLW) treatment in order to extract preferentially the americium element, the main responsible of the long term radiotoxicity of the nuclear waste. This soluble compound can be obtained by addition of a concentrated basic solution of Fe(CN) 6 3- ions on Am(OH) 3 precipitates. This technique enables a rapid extraction of Am by the synthesis of this soluble form in alkaline solutions. Under these conditions, the other TPE remain in the solid state as trivalent hydroxide solids, strongly insoluble. In the case of dissolutions involving large amounts of Am(OH) 3 , the formation of the soluble complex is concomitant with the appearance of a reddish precipitate in the basic solution. Dissolution experiments which were carried out on this solid in NaOH/Fe(CN) 6 3- have demonstrated the dependency of the solubility equilibria with the media. Spectroscopic studies (UV Visible, XAS) on the precipitate have enabled the determination of the chemical structure and the oxidation state of the americium in the solid: Na 2 Am(V)O 2 (OH) 3 ,nH 2 O. Electrochemical studies on the americium solution have confirmed that the oxidation of Am(OH) 3 by the Fe(CN) 6 3- ions in basic media could only lead to the pentavalent form. A stoichiometric study carries out between a AmO 2 + ion and one Fe(CN) 6 3- ion and the spectroscopic characterisation of this reaction have demonstrated that the Fe(CN) 6 3- ion didn't remain as an un-complexed form in solution after the alkaline mixing. These results tend to prove that this dissolution of Am(OH) 3 is much more complex than a simple oxidation by the Fe(CN) 6 3- ions. The existence of molecular interactions between AmO 2 + and Fe(CN) 6 3- has been postulated and a mechanistic scheme has been proposed in order to explain the appearance of the soluble

  17. Influence of biofilms on migration of uranium, americium and europium in the environment; Einfluss von Biofilmen auf das Migrationsverhalten von Uran, Americium und Europium in der Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Nils; Zirnstein, Isabel; Arnold, Thuro

    2015-07-01

    The report on the influence of biofilms on migration of uranium, americium and europium in the environment deals with the contamination problems of uranium mines such as SDAG WISMUT in Saxonia and Thuringia. In mine waters microorganisms form a complex microbiological biocoenosis in spite of low pH values and high heavy metal concentrations including high uranium concentrations. The analyses used microbiological methods like confocal laser scanning microscopy and molecular-biological techniques. The interactions of microorganism with fluorescent radioactive heavy metal ions were performed with TRLFS (time resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy).

  18. Mycoremediation. The study of transfer factor for plutonium and americium uptake from the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusan Galanda; Lubomir Matel; Jana Strisovska; Silvia Dulanska

    2014-01-01

    In our scientific research we have monitored mycoremediation's properties of oyster mushrooms in cultivation on the soil what is contaminated by solutions with radioactive isotopes of 239 Pu and 241 Am with known activity. We monitored specific activities of absorbed radionuclides in fruiting bodies and chemical forms of radionuclides which were compared to calculated specific activities of two background samples of oyster mushrooms intended for consumer purpose. We determined distributive coefficients between the ground and the fruiting body of oyster mushrooms. The average value which was obtained for the transfer factor for plutonium was 0.72 and for americium 3.97. To evaluate a quantity of absorbed radionuclides we used a method of liquid extraction. The emitting alpha radiation of alpha radionuclides was detected by spectrometry. For defining individual fractions of plutonium and americium that are contained in mushroom bodies was used the sequential leaching method. (author)

  19. Standard test method for quantitative determination of americium 241 in plutonium by Gamma-Ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of americium 241 by gamma-ray spectrometry in plutonium nitrate solution samples that do not contain significant amounts of radioactive fission products or other high specific activity gamma-ray emitters. 1.2 This test method can be used to determine the americium 241 in samples of plutonium metal, oxide and other solid forms, when the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Transmutation of americium and curium incorporated in zirconia-based host materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raison, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    Presented are studies involving the incorporation of americium and curium in zirconia-based materials. First explored was the pseudo ternary system AmO 2 -ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 . It was determined that selected Y-CSZ materials can incorporate significant quantities of americium oxide and remain cubic single-phase. The cell parameters of these fluorite-type products were established to be linear with the AmO 2 content. The Cm 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 system was also investigated. It was found that at 25 mol% of CmO 1.5 , the Cm(III) stabilized zirconia in its cubic form (a = 5.21 ±0.01 Angstrom). At higher and lower concentrations, diphasic materials were encountered. At 50 mol% of CmO 1.5 , a pyrochlore oxide - Cm 2 Zr 2 O 7 - is formed (a = 10.63 ±0.02 Angstrom). (author)

  1. Contemporary state of plutonium and americium in the soils of Palesse state radiation-ecological reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papenia, M.V.; Sokolik, G.A.; Ovsiannikova, S.V.; Voinikava, E.V.; Svirschevsky, S.F.; Brown, J.; Skipperud, L.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: At present, the most important alpha-emitting radionuclides of Chernobyl origin are Pu 238, Pu 239, Pu 240 and Am 241. They are classified as the most dangerous group of radionuclides in view of the long half-lives and high radiotoxicity. The main part of alpha-emitted radionuclides is located within the Palesse State Radiation-Ecological Reserve. One of the most important factors determining the radioecological situation in the contaminated ecosystems is the physicochemical forms of radionuclides in a soil medium. Radionuclide species determine the radionuclide entrance into the soil solutions, their redistribution in soil profiles and the 'soil - plant' and the 'soil - surface, ground or underground water' systems as well as spreading beyond the contaminated area. The present work is devoted to investigation of state and migration ability of plutonium and americium in soils of the Palesse state radiation-ecological reserve after more than 20 years from the Chernobyl accident. The objects of investigation were mineral and organic soils sampled in 2008 with the step of 5 cm to the depth of 25-30 cm. The forms of plutonium and americium distinguishing by association with the different components of soil and by potential for migration in the soil medium were studied using the method of sequential selective extraction according to the modified Tessier scheme. Activities of Pu 238, Pu 239, Pu 240 and Am 241 in the samples were determined by the method of radiochemical analysis with alpha-spectrometer radionuclide identification. The dominant part of plutonium and americium in the soils is in immobile forms. Nowadays, radionuclide portions in water soluble and reversibly bound forms do not exceed 9.4 % of radionuclide content in the soil. In mineral soil samples, the radionuclide portions in these fractions exceed the corresponding portions in organic ones. In both mineral and organic soils, the portions of mobile americium are higher than plutonium. The

  2. High-purity germanium detection system for the in vivo measurement of americium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyree, W.H.; Falk, R.B.; Wood, C.B.; Liskey, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    A high-purity germanium (HPGe) array, photon-counting system has been developed for the Rocky Flats Plant Body-Counter Medical Facility. The newly improved system provides exceptional resolutions of low-energy X-ray and gamma-ray spectra associated with the in vivo deposition of plutonium and americium. Described are the operational parameters of the system and some qualitative results illustrating detector performance for the photon emissions produced from the decay of plutonium and americium between energy ranges from 10 to 100 kiloelectron volts. Since large amounts of data are easily generated with the system, data storage, analysis, and computer software developments continue to be an essential ingredient for processing spectral data obtained from the detectors. Absence of quantitative data is intentional. The primary concern of the study was to evaluate the effects of the various physical and electronic operational parameters before adding those related entirely to a human subject

  3. Electrodeposition of americium on a liquid cadmium cathode from a molten salt bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplace, A.; Lacquement, J.; Maillard, C.; Donner, L.

    2004-01-01

    A high-activity experiment involving the electrode position of americium on a liquid cadmium cathode from a LiCl-KCl eutectic with about 3 g of AmO 2 was conducted in a shielded cell in the ATALANTE complex. After describing the electrolyzer and the experimental conditions, the authors discuss the preparation of the LiCl-KCl-AmCl 3 solution and briefly review its electrochemical properties. It was clearly confirmed that Am(III) reduction on an inert solid cathode occurs in two steps forming Am(II) before Am(0), whereas only one reduction step was observed on liquid cadmium. The main results of this study concern americium electrode position on the liquid cadmium cathode (recovery yields, current densities, problems encountered). The solvent properties of cadmium for actinide/lanthanide separation are discussed. (authors)

  4. Quantitative determination of americium and curium in solutions using potassium tungstophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chistyakov, V.M.; Baranov, A.A.; Erin, E.A.; Timoaeev, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Two methods of americium (4) and curium (4) titration-replacement and redox ones - have been considered. According to the replacement method thorium nitrate solution was used as a titrant and the final point of titration was determined spectophotometrically. Using the method developed, on the basis of experimental data, the composition of thorium (4) complex with potassium tungstophosphate was determined. In case of the redox titration sodium nitrite was used, and the final titration point was indicated either spectrophotometrically or potentiometrically

  5. Determination of americium and plutonium in autopsy tissue: methods and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, H.A.; Eutsler, B.C.; McInroy, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The current methods used by the tissue analysis program at LASL for the determination of americium and plutonium in autopsy tissue are described. Problems affecting radiochemical yield are discussed. Included are problems associated with sample preparation, separation of plutonium from large amounts of bone ash, and reagent contamination. The average 242 Pu tracer yield for 1800 Pu determinations is 78 +- 12%. The average 242 Am tracer yield is 85 +- 7% for 40 determinations

  6. Final Radiological Assessment of External Exposure for CLEAR-Line Americium Recovery Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Adam C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Belooussova, Olga N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hetrick, Lucas Duane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently planning to implement an americium recovery program. The americium, ordinarily isotopically pure 241Am, would be extracted from existing Pu materials, converted to an oxide and shipped to support fabrication of americium oxide-beryllium neutron sources. These operations would occur in the currently proposed Chloride Extraction and Actinide Recovery (CLEAR) line of glove boxes. This glove box line would be collocated with the currently-operational Experimental Chloride Extraction Line (EXCEL). The focus of this document is to provide an in-depth assessment of the currently planned radiation protection measures and to determine whether or not further design work is required to satisfy design-goal and ALARA requirements. Further, this document presents a history of americium recovery operations in the Department of Energy and high-level descriptions of the CLEAR line operations to provide a basis of comparison. Under the working assumptions adopted by this study, it was found that the evaluated design appears to mitigate doses to a level that satisfies the ALARA-in-design requirements of 10 CFR 835 as implemented by the Los Alamos National Laboratory procedure P121. The analyses indicate that extremity doses would also meet design requirements. Dose-rate calculations were performed using the radiation transport code MCNP5 and doses were estimated using a time-motion study developed in consort with the subject matter expert. A copy of this report and all supporting documentation are located on the Radiological Engineering server at Y:\\Rad Engineering\\2013 PROJECTS\\TA-55 Clear Line.

  7. Experimental studies to validate model calculations and maximum solubility limits for Plutonium and Americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This report focuses on studies of KIT-INE to derive a significantly improved description of the chemical behaviour of Americium and Plutonium in saline NaCl, MgCl 2 and CaCl 2 brine systems. The studies are based on new experimental data and aim at deriving reliable Am and Pu solubility limits for the investigated systems as well as deriving comprehensive thermodynamic model descriptions. Both aspects are of high relevance in the context of potential source term estimations for Americium and Plutonium in aqueous brine systems and related scenarios. Americium and Plutonium are long-lived alpha emitting radionuclides which due to their high radiotoxicity need to be accounted for in a reliable and traceable way. The hydrolysis of trivalent actinides and the effect of highly alkaline pH conditions on the solubility of trivalent actinides in calcium chloride rich brine solutions were investigated and a thermodynamic model derived. The solubility of Plutonium in saline brine systems was studied under reducing and non-reducing conditions and is described within a new thermodynamic model. The influence of dissolved carbonate on Americium and Plutonium solubility in MgCl 2 solutions was investigated and quantitative information on Am and Pu solubility limits in these systems derived. Thermodynamic constants and model parameter derived in this work are implemented in the Thermodynamic Reference Database THEREDA owned by BfS. According to the quality assurance approach in THEREDA, is was necessary to publish parts of this work in peer-reviewed scientific journals. The publications are focused on solubility experiments, spectroscopy of aquatic and solid species and thermodynamic data. (Neck et al., Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 81, (2009), pp. 1555-1568., Altmaier et al., Radiochimica Acta, 97, (2009), pp. 187-192., Altmaier et al., Actinide Research Quarterly, No 2., (2011), pp. 29-32.).

  8. Uptake and effects of americium-241 on a brackish-water amphipod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppenheit, M.; Murray, C.N.; Woodhead, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of experimental work undertaken using the brackish-water amphipod Gammarus duebeni duebeni and the transuranium nuclide americium-241. Data on the accumulation of this actinide showed that the larger fraction of the total body burden is associated with the exoskeleton. It was found that the body burden remained constant in the range pH 8.0-6.5 even though the water concentration changed markedly. It would thus appear that the concept of a concentration factor should be re-examined and it is proposed that a factor should be defined in terms of environmental and chemical parameters which represent the bioavailable fraction of the actinide. The effect of americium on survival and moulting was studied at two activity concentrations; the dose rates and absorbed doses under the experimental conditions employed have been estimated. The differences in survival rates between the control and irradiated groups were statistically analyzed and the significant difference at the higher concentration is believed to be due to a synergism between physiological stress and radiotoxicity of americium rather than the chemical toxicity of the element.

  9. Uptake and effects of americium-241 on a brackish-water amphipod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppenheit, M.; Murray, C.N.; Woodhead, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of experimental work undertaken using the brackish-water amphipod Gammarus duebeni duebeni and the transuranium nuclide americium-241. Data on the accumulation of this actinide showed that the larger fraction of the total body burden is associated with the exoskeleton. It was found that the body burden remained constant in the range pH 8.0-6.5 even though the water concentration changed markedly. It would thus appear that the concept of a concentration factor should be re-examined and it is proposed that a factor should be defined in terms of environmental and chemical parameters which represent the bioavailable fraction of the actinide. The effect of americium on survival and moulting was studied at two activity concentrations; the dose rates and absorbed doses under the experimental conditions employed have been estimated. The differences in survival rates between the control and irradiated groups were statistically analyzed and the significant difference at the higher concentration is believed to be due to a synergism between physiological stress and radiotoxicity of americium rather than the chemical toxicity of the element. (orig.) [de

  10. Development of analytical methods for the separation of plutonium, americium, curium and neptunium from environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, S.

    2009-07-01

    In this work, separation methods have been developed for the analysis of anthropogenic transuranium elements plutonium, americium, curium and neptunium from environmental samples contaminated by global nuclear weapons testing and the Chernobyl accident. The analytical methods utilized in this study are based on extraction chromatography. Highly varying atmospheric plutonium isotope concentrations and activity ratios were found at both Kurchatov (Kazakhstan), near the former Semipalatinsk test site, and Sodankylae (Finland). The origin of plutonium is almost impossible to identify at Kurchatov, since hundreds of nuclear tests were performed at the Semipalatinsk test site. In Sodankylae, plutonium in the surface air originated from nuclear weapons testing, conducted mostly by USSR and USA before the sampling year 1963. The variation in americium, curium and neptunium concentrations was great as well in peat samples collected in southern and central Finland in 1986 immediately after the Chernobyl accident. The main source of transuranium contamination in peats was from global nuclear test fallout, although there are wide regional differences in the fraction of Chernobyl-originated activity (of the total activity) for americium, curium and neptunium. The separation methods developed in this study yielded good chemical recovery for the elements investigated and adequately pure fractions for radiometric activity determination. The extraction chromatographic methods were faster compared to older methods based on ion exchange chromatography. In addition, extraction chromatography is a more environmentally friendly separation method than ion exchange, because less acidic waste solutions are produced during the analytical procedures. (orig.)

  11. Influence of dissolved organic substances in groundwater on sorption behavior of americium and neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggs, S. Jr.; Seitz, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Groundwaters typically contain dissolved organic carbon consisting largely of high molecular weight compounds of humic and fulvic acids. To evaluate whether these dissolved organic substances can enhance the tranport of radionuclides through the groundwater system, experiments were conducted to examine the sorption of americium and neptunium onto crushed basalt in the presence of dissolved humic- and fulvic-acid organic carbon introduced into synthetic groundwater. The partitioning experiments with synthetic groundwater show that increasing the concentration of either humic or fulvic acid in the water has a significant inhibiting effect on sorption of both americium and neptunium. At 22 0 C, adsorption of these radionuclides, as measured by distribution ratios (the ratio of nuclide sorbed onto the solid to nuclide in solution at the end of the experiment), decreased by 25% to 50% by addition of as little as 1 mg/L dissolved organic carbon and by one to two orders of magnitude by addition of 100 to 200 mg/L dissolved organic carbon. Distribution ratios measured in solutions reacted at 90 0 C similarly decreased with the addition of dissolved organic carbon but generally ranged from one to two orders of magnitude higher than those determined in the 22 0 C experiment. These results suggest that organic carbon dissolved in deep groundwaters may significantly enhance the mobility of radionuclides of americium and neptunium. 23 references, 5 figures, 11 tables

  12. Remobilization of americium in soil columns under experimental rhizo-spheric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrier, T.; Martin-Garin, A.; Morello, M. [CEA Cadarache (DEI/SECRE/LRE), Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2004-07-01

    The biogeochemical behaviour of americium in subsurface soils plays a dominant role on the potential migration of this actinide, but is currently poorly known. The identification and understanding of these processes is of major concern for this highly (radio)toxic element and can allow the determination of its impact on the natural media. This research investigates the relevant processes controlling americium biogeochemical speciation in the rhizosphere of an agricultural soil. Lixiviation tests were performed on columns packed with a 2 mm-sieved calcareous soil contaminated with {sup 241}Am (500 Bq.g{sup -1}), under steady-state unsaturated or saturated hydric flow conditions. The columns were percolated with soil solution of varied compositions, containing citrate and/or glucose simulating root exudates in non-sterile conditions. The physico-chemical parameters of the outlet solution (pH, conductivity, major ions, organic acids) were monitored, as well as the microbial activity. Inorganic and organic speciation of {sup 241}Am is supported by geochemical modeling with JChess, using a thermodynamic database based on NEA database and the latest PSI recommendations. The percolation of a solution in equilibrium with the soil released small amount of americium (<5 mBq/cm{sup 3}), as predicted by the high {sup 241}Am K{sub d} values. 10{sup -4} M concentrations of citrate, glucose or both combined did not enhance remobilization either. Poor remobilization was also observed at high glucose concentrations (10{sup -2} M), despite an effective glucose microbial degradation, the production of ligands such as acetate, and important changes in the chemistry of the solution. On the contrary, high concentrations of citrate (10{sup -2} M) released 1000 times more americium, which is in accordance with previous studies. Even greater releases (10000 times) were observed when 10{sup -2} M glucose was added to 10{sup -2} M citrate. The remobilization of americium resulting from the

  13. 15 CFR 23.7 - Notice to Department of Commerce organizational units of implementation and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... organizational units of implementation and procedures. 23.7 Section 23.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the... Department of Commerce organizational units of implementation and procedures. Following are roles and...) Otherwise determine and control the use of missing children materials and information by the Operating Unit...

  14. Preparation of /sup 237/Np samples by electrodeposition and its determination by alpha spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertzig, W; Matsuda, H T; Araujo, B.F. de; Araujo, J.A. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Quimica

    1980-01-01

    An analytical method followed by alpha spectrometry was developed for the determination of trace amounts of actinides. A technique for quantitative electrodeposition of /sup 237/Np, under optimal conditions, using a carrier, is presented. This method will be applied for the control of trace amounts of /sup 237/Np in the solutions from the reprocessing (Purex process) of irradiated uranium.

  15. Measurements of {sup 237}Np secondary neutron spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornilov, N.V.

    1997-03-01

    The activities carried out during the first year of the project are summarized. The main problems for Np spectra measurements arise from high intrinsic gamma-ray activity of the sample and admixture of the oxygen and iron nuclei. The inelastically scattered neutrons and the fission neutrons spectra for {sup 237}Np were measured by time-of-flight spectrometer of the IPPE at incident neutron energies {approx_equal}1.5 MeV, and {approx_equal}0.5 MeV. A solid tritium target and a Li-metallic target were used as neutron sources. The neutron scattering on C sample (C(n,n) standard reaction) was measured to normalize the Np data. The experimental data should be simulated by Monte Carlo method to correct the experimental data for oxygen and iron admixture as well as for multiple scattering of the neutrons in the sample. Therefore the response function of the spectrometer, and the neutron energy distribution from the source were investigated in detail. (author)

  16. An experimental investigation of accumulation and transmutation behavior of americium in the MOX fuel irradiated in a fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaka, Masahiko; Koyama, Shin-ichi; Maeda, Shigetaka; Mitsugashira, Toshiaki

    2005-01-01

    Americium isotopes generated in the MOX fuel irradiated in the experimental fast reactor JOYO were analyzed by applying a sophisticated radiochemical technique. Americium was isolated from the irradiated MOX fuel by a combined method of anion-exchange chromatography and oxidation of Am. The isotopic ratios of americium and its content were determined by thermal ionization mass spectroscopy and α-spectrometry, respectively. The americium isotopic ratio was similar for all the specimens, but was significantly different from that of PWR-MOX. On the basis of present analytical results, the accumulation and transmutation behavior of americium nuclides in a fast reactor is discussed from the viewpoints of neutron spectrum dependence and the isomeric ratio of the 241 Am capture reaction. The estimated isomeric ratio is about 87%, which is close to the latest evaluated value. A rapid estimation method of Am content by using the 240 Pu to 239 Pu ratio was adopted and proved to be valid for the spent fuel irradiated in the fast reactor

  17. Pigmented villonodular synovitis: a retrospective multicenter study of 237 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-ping Xie

    Full Text Available To review clinical characteristics of pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS in China.Electronic medical records (EMR of four Chinese institutes were queried for patients with histologically proven PVNS between January 2005 and February 2014. Their data were collected including gender, age at diagnosis, clinical presentation, affected site, symptom duration, comorbidities, treatment strategy, recurrence and routine laboratories.A total of 237 patients with biopsy-proven PVNS were investigated. The gender ratio was 1.35 for a female predominance (101 males and 136 females. The average age was 36 years (range, 2 to 83 years. The median delay from initial clinical symptom to diagnosis was 18 months. Main affected areas were the knee (73.84% and the hip (18.14%. Forty patients had a clear history of joint trauma. Six patients were concurrently diagnosed with PVNS and avascular necrosis (AVN. Five patients suffered from PVNS following implantation of orthopaedic devices including artificial prosthesis, plate and wire. One hundred and twenty-nine patients underwent arthroscopic synovectomy and 108 open synovectomy. Altogether 48 patients (26 males and 22 females had recurrence of disease. The relapse rate was 24% (knee and 6.98% (hip, 20.93% (open surgery and 19.44% (arthroscopy, respectively. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and C-reactive protein (CRP rate were elevated in 45.83% and 38.41% of the patients respectively.To our knowledge, this study is the largest sample size of PVNS patients reported as well as the largest sample of PVNS with concurrent AVN reported to date. Our outcomes suggest that PVNS shows a female predominance, occurs mostly between 20-40 years and favors the knee and hip. Recurrence is frequent, particularly in the knee. Serum ESR and CRP may be elevated in some patients. Additionally, the present study supports the theory of an association between PVNS and orthopedic surgery, which is not limited to joint replacement.

  18. Early retention of 237Pu + 239Pu in mature beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; McFarland, S.S.; Atherton, D.R.; Bruenger, F.W.; Taylor, G.N.; Mays, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Five mature beagles, ranging in age from 57 to 84 months, were injected intravenously with about 0.05-0.1 μCi/kg of 239 Pu(IV) citrate to which tracer amounts of the photon-emitter 237 Pu had been added. Plutonium retention in liver and in non-liver tissue (mainly skeleton) was measured periodically in the living dogs for nearly 4 months after injection by a combination of total-body and partial-body counting. All excreta were collected during the first 21 days and analysed for their Pu content. One dog was sacrificed at 14 days and another at 118 days for distribution studies. About 17% (14-20%) of the injected Pu was excreted in the urine and feces in the first 3 weeks, about the same as that excreted in a corresponding time by beagles injected as young adults (14%), but substantially more than beagles injected as juveniles (11%). In contrasts to juvenile beagles injected at 3 months of age, in which early retention was about 12% in liver and 68% in the skeleton, mature beagles retained about 30% in liver and 50% in the skeleton. Retention in young adult beagles injected at 17 months of age was similar to that of mature dogs. Relative distribution of skeletal plutonium among various bones was similar in the mature animals to that seen previously in young adults, but quite different from that of juveniles. A notable exception was the humerus for which there was no significant difference (P>0.2) in the % of retained skeletal Pu represented by the humerus among the juvenile, young adult and mature dogs. (author)

  19. Accumulation of americium-241 in the biomass of aquatic plants of the Yenisei river: experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotina, T.A.; Bolsunovsky, A.Y.A.; Bondareva, L.G. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Due to the operation of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (Krasnoyarsk-26), which has been manufacturing weapons-grade plutonium for several decades, the Yenisei River is contaminated with transuranic elements (including {sup 241}Am). {sup 241}Am was found in the riverside soil, sediment and in the biomass of aquatic plants (Bolsunovsky et al., 1999, 2002). Aquatic plants are an important link in the migration of radionuclides in an aquatic ecosystem. In laboratory experiments, we investigated accumulation of {sup 241}Am by the submerged macrophyte from the Yenisei River: the pond weed (Elodea canadensis) and the aquatic moss (Fontinalis antipyretica), and release of {sup 241}Am from the biomass. The content of {sup 241}Am was measured on a Canberra (USA) gamma-spectrometer. The experiments showed that specific accumulation and concentration factors of {sup 241}Am in the plants were in inverse proportion to their biomass. We obtained new data on release of {sup 241}Am from the biomass of macrophyte. Americium-241 was more firmly fixed in the biomass of the aquatic moss. In 12 months, the biomass of the aquatic moss released about 30% of the initial americium activity into the water. To compare, the biomass of the pond weed released into the water medium up to 64% of the initial {sup 241}Am activity in 1.5 4 months. The release rate was dependent on the decomposition rate of the plant biomass. The experiments showed that submerged macrophyte of the Yenisei River can accumulate considerable activities of {sup 241}Am and retain americium for long periods of time in biomass. (author)

  20. Accumulation of americium-241 in the biomass of aquatic plants of the Yenisei river: experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotina, T.A.; Bolsunovsky, A.Y.A.; Bondareva, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the operation of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (Krasnoyarsk-26), which has been manufacturing weapons-grade plutonium for several decades, the Yenisei River is contaminated with transuranic elements (including 241 Am). 241 Am was found in the riverside soil, sediment and in the biomass of aquatic plants (Bolsunovsky et al., 1999, 2002). Aquatic plants are an important link in the migration of radionuclides in an aquatic ecosystem. In laboratory experiments, we investigated accumulation of 241 Am by the submerged macrophyte from the Yenisei River: the pond weed (Elodea canadensis) and the aquatic moss (Fontinalis antipyretica), and release of 241 Am from the biomass. The content of 241 Am was measured on a Canberra (USA) gamma-spectrometer. The experiments showed that specific accumulation and concentration factors of 241 Am in the plants were in inverse proportion to their biomass. We obtained new data on release of 241 Am from the biomass of macrophyte. Americium-241 was more firmly fixed in the biomass of the aquatic moss. In 12 months, the biomass of the aquatic moss released about 30% of the initial americium activity into the water. To compare, the biomass of the pond weed released into the water medium up to 64% of the initial 241 Am activity in 1.5 4 months. The release rate was dependent on the decomposition rate of the plant biomass. The experiments showed that submerged macrophyte of the Yenisei River can accumulate considerable activities of 241 Am and retain americium for long periods of time in biomass. (author)

  1. Physics of plutonium and americium recycling in PWR using advanced fuel concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcade, E.

    2004-01-01

    PWR waste inventory management is considered in many countries including Frances as one of the main current issues. Pu and Am are the 2 main contents both in term of volume and long term radio-toxicity. Waiting for the Generation IV systems implementation (2035-2050), one of the mid-term solutions for their transmutation involves the use of advanced fuels in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). These have to require as little modification as possible of the core internals, the cooling system and fuel cycle facilities (fabrication and reprocessing). The first part of this paper deals with some neutronic characteristics of Pu and/or Am recycling. In a second part, 2 technical solutions MOX-HMR and APA-DUPLEX-84 are presented and the third part is devoted to the study of a few global strategies. The main neutronic parameters to be considered for Pu and Am recycling in PWR are void coefficient, Doppler coefficient, fraction of delayed neutrons and power distribution (especially for heterogeneous configurations). The modification of the moderation ratio, the opportunity to use inert matrices (targets), the optimisation of Uranium, Plutonium and Americium contents are the key parameters to play with. One of the solutions (APA-DUPLEX-84) presented here is a heterogeneous assembly with regular moderation ratio composed with both target fuel rods (Pu and Am embedded in an inert matrix) and standard UO 2 fuel rods. An EPR (European Pressurised Reactor) type reactor, loaded only with assemblies containing 84 peripheral targets, can reach an Americium consumption rate of (4.4; 23 kg/TWh) depending on the assembly concept. For Pu and Am inventories stabilisation, the theoretical fraction of reactors loaded with Pu + Am or Pu assemblies is about 60%. For Americium inventory stabilisation, the fraction decreases down to 16%, but Pu is produced at a rate of 18.5 Kg/TWh (-25% compared to one through UOX cycle)

  2. Separation of americium and plutonium from nuclear wastes by the TRUEX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.A.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Manry, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    Americium and plutonium can be removed from a transuranic (TRU) waste stream to <10 nCi/g by the TRUEX process. The resulting waste is nontransuranic, greatly reducing disposal costs. An overview is given of the TRUEX process and of centrifugal contactors used to implement this process. Then, a plan for the deployment of TRUEX at the Hanford Site is discussed. Finally, details are given on the proposed use of TRUEX to treat the liquid wastes from the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Site

  3. Comparison of acid leachate and fusion methods to determine plutonium and americium in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.L.; Markun, F.; TenKate, T.

    1992-06-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at Argonne National Laboratory performs radiochemical analyses for a wide variety of sites within the Department of Energy complex. Since the chemical history of the samples may vary drastically from site to site, the effectiveness of any analytical technique may also vary. This study compares a potassium fluoride-pyrosulfate fusion technique with an acid leachate method. Both normal and high-fired soils and vegetation samples were analyzed for both americium and plutonium. Results show both methods work well, except for plutonium in high-fired soils. Here the fusion method provides higher accuracy

  4. Standardization of a method to study the distribution of Americium in purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dapolikar, T.T.; Pant, D.K.; Kapur, H.N.; Kumar, Rajendra; Dubey, K.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work the distribution of Americium in PUREX process is investigated in various process streams. For this purpose a method has been standardized for the determination of Am in process samples. The method involves extraction of Am with associated actinides using 30% TRPO-NPH at 0.3M HNO 3 followed by selective stripping of Am from the organic phase into aqueous phase at 6M HNO 3 . The assay of aqueous phase for Am content is carried out by alpha radiometry. The investigation has revealed that 100% Am follows the HLLW route. (author)

  5. Microstructure and elemental distribution of americium containing MOX fuel under the short term irradiation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Hirosawa, Takashi; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Koyama, Shin Ichi; Yoshimochi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kenya

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of americium addition to MOX fuels on the irradiation behavior, the 'Am-1' program is being conducted in JAEA. The Am-1 program consists of two short term irradiation tests of 10-minute and 24 hour irradiations and a steady-state irradiation test. The short-term irradiation tests were successfully completed and the post irradiation examinations (PIEs) are in progress. The PIEs for Am-containing MOX fuels focused on the microstructural evolution and redistribution behavior of Am at the initial stage of irradiation and the results to date are reported

  6. Recovery of Americium-241 from lightning rod by the method of chemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    About 95% of the lightning rods installed in the Peruvian territory have set in their structures, pose small amounts of radioactive sources such as Americium-241 ( 241 Am), fewer and Radium 226 ( 226 Ra) these are alpha emitters and have a half life of 432 years and 1600 years respectively. In this paper describes the recovery of radioactive sources of 241 Am radioactive lightning rods using the conventional chemical treatment method using agents and acids to break down the slides. The 241 Am recovered was as excitation source and alpha particle generator for analysing samples by X Ray Fluorescence, for fixing the stainless steel 241 Am technique was used electrodeposition. (author)

  7. Recovery of americium from slag and crucible wastes and its purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, K.M.; Dabholkar, G.M.; Vijayan, K.; Ramamoorthy, N.; Narayanan, C.V.; Jambunathan, U.; Kapoor, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    A method of recovery and purification of americium-241 from slag waste streams is described. Extraction of Am from slag solution of 0.16 M HNO 3 was carried out by tri-n-butyl phosphate. After stripping with acetic acid, Am was precipitated at pH 1. This was followed by metathesis to remove Ca. Final separation of Pu from Am solution was achieved by anion exchange method using Dowex 1x4 anion exchange resin. Details of large scale recovery of Am from slag are also described. (author). 12 refs., 11 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Influence of biofilms on migration of uranium, americium and europium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Nils; Zirnstein, Isabel; Arnold, Thuro

    2015-01-01

    The report on the influence of biofilms on migration of uranium, americium and europium in the environment deals with the contamination problems of uranium mines such as SDAG WISMUT in Saxonia and Thuringia. In mine waters microorganisms form a complex microbiological biocoenosis in spite of low pH values and high heavy metal concentrations including high uranium concentrations. The analyses used microbiological methods like confocal laser scanning microscopy and molecular-biological techniques. The interactions of microorganism with fluorescent radioactive heavy metal ions were performed with TRLFS (time resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy).

  9. Study of the extraction and the purification of americium and trivalent actinides contained in effluents with supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillou, P.

    1990-12-01

    The supported liquid membrane technique is studied and developed for americium recovery from uranium or plutonium matrices and decontamination of liquid radioactive wastes. First tests on uranium-nickel solutions with a flat membrane showed the easiness of the operation and the efficiency of the process. Acid-resistant (10 N), interchangeable elements with hollow fibers, are developed and also a computerized automatic device. The different tests on americium solutions demonstrate the feasibility and the reliability of the system. Influence of various parameters on transfer kinetics is investigated

  10. Neptunium-237 in the marine environment determination in animal and plant species in the English Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germian, P.

    1990-01-01

    The uptake of 237 Np was studied in marine plants and animals belonging to several phyla. Samples were collected from the end of January 1986 to March 1986 in a sampling station near the fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague. 237 Np was determined by neutron activation analysis. The transfer modes of 237 Np to the various species as a function of their trophic levels are discussed as well as the distribution among the organs in the species consumed and the radiological impact of human consumption. (author) 27 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  11. Conversion-electron experiment to characterize the decay of the 237Np shape isomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, E.A.; Becker, J.A.; Bauer, R.W.; Gardner, D.G.; Decman, D.J.; Meyer, R.A.; Roy, N.; Sale, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    Conversion electrons from the decay of low-lying levels of 237 Np have been measured to detect the population of these levels by gamma-ray decay of the 237 Np shape isomer. Analysis of the 208-keV transition L conversion-electron peak gives an upper limit of about 17 μb for the population of the 3/2 - 267-keV level in 237 Np from the shape isomer decay. Model calculations are compared with the measured limit. Improvements are suggested for this experiment. 9 refs., 4 figs

  12. Distribution of global fallout 237Np, Pu isotopes, and 241Am in lake and sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Yamauchi, Y.; Chatani, K.; Komura, K.; Ueno, Kaoru; Sakanoue, Masanobu

    1991-01-01

    In order to investigate the sedimentary behaviour of neptunium, 237 Np together with Pu isotopes and 241 Am were measured for the sediment cores collected from Lake Mikata (freshwater), from Lake Kugushi (brakish water) and from Nyu Bay (sea water). In all sediment core samples 237 Np was detected, and its concentrations were far below those of 239,240 Pu and 241 Am measured for the same samples. Inventories of 237 Np in the lakes were estimated to be 0.53, 0.29 and 0.34 MBq/km 2 , respectively. The activity ratios of 237 Np/ 239,240 Pu, except for Lake Mikata, are two or three times lower than the value of 0.3-0.4% observed for surface soils of 0-20 cm depth, suggesting that Np is more soluble compared with Pu. (author) 21 refs.; 6 figs.; 3 tabs

  13. Production of a square geometry Americium standard source for use with photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Priscila; Geraldo, Bianca; Raele, Marcus P.; Marumo, Júlio T.; Vicente, Roberto; Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A., E-mail: priscila3.costa@usp.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In the development of a thermal neutron detector using a square photodiode and a thin boron film, a radioactive calibration source with the same geometry was needed. An americium-243 standard source was produced by electrodeposition aiming at the calibration of a PIN-type silicon photodiode with a detection area of 10 x 10 mm{sup 2}. To produce the samples two tests were performed. In the first test, a square stainless steel plate (10 x 10 mm{sup 2}) was fixed on the surface of the conventional plate, which was removed after deposition. To reduce the loss of activity of the source, in the second test nail polish was applied on the silver plate leaving only an area of 10 x 10 mm{sup 2} without varnish coating. Once the electrodeposition process was completed, the activity concentration measurement was performed by alpha particle spectrometry. The first method presented a lower activity when compared to the total activity of Am-243 added initially. For the second method, the total activity was concentrate in the exposed square region (without nail polish). The results showed that it is possible to obtain a square geometry source; furthermore, the surrounding nail polish was not contaminated by {sup 243}Am. The comparison of these two approaches indicated that the second method was more efficient as it was possible to concentrate all the americium activity in the delimited square area. (author)

  14. Fuel cycle covariance of plutonium and americium separations to repository capacity using information theoretic measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scopatz, Anthony; Schneider, Erich; Li, Jun; Yim, Man-Sung

    2011-01-01

    A light water reactor, fast reactor symbiotic fuel cycle scenario was modeled and parameterized based on thirty independent inputs. Simultaneously and stochastically choosing different values for each of these inputs and performing the associated fuel cycle mass-balance calculation, the fuel cycle itself underwent Monte Carlo simulation. A novel information theoretic metric is postulated as a measure of system-wide covariance. This metric is the coefficient of variation of the set of uncertainty coefficients generated from 2D slices of a 3D contingency table. It is then applied to the fuel cycle, taking fast reactor used fuel plutonium and americium separations as independent variables and the capacity of a fully-loaded tuff repository as the response. This set of parameters is known from prior studies to have a strong covariance. When measured with all 435 other input parameters possible, the fast reactor plutonium and americium separations pair was found to be ranked the second most covariant. This verifies that the coefficient of variation metric captures the desired sensitivity of sensitivity effects in the nuclear fuel cycle. (author)

  15. Contribution to the prediction of americium, plutonium and neptunium behaviour in the geosphere: chemical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robouch, P.

    1989-01-01

    An exhaustive bibliographic review on hydrolysis of americium gives the stability constants, at zero ionic strength. No evidence of Am(OH) 4 - formation was found by solubility studies up to pH 2 (CO 3 ) 3 characterised by its X-ray diffraction pattern is studied at a high ionic strength. All the published results on Am in carbonate media are reinterpreted using these stability constants (Am-OH-CO 3 complexes are not needed). No evidence of Am(CO 3 ) 4 5- formation was found by spectrophotometry up to 3M. Literature results are used to determine the formal redox potentials at pH = 9.4 and to calculate the formation constants, at zero ionic strength. The formation of complexes between americium and humic materials (purified fulvic and humic acids) has been studied by a spectrophotometric technique. The results are interpreted by the formation of a 1:1 complexe. Solubility of the solid PuO 2 (CO 3 ) is measured in bicarbonate media at high ionic strength, to obtain the solubility product and formation constants of the PuO 2 (CO 3 ) i 2-2i complexes [fr

  16. Vitrification of F-area americium/curium: feasibility study and preliminary process recommendation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, W.G.; Miller, D.; Minichan, R.; Coleman, L.; Schumacher, R.; Hardy, B.; Jones, R.

    1994-01-01

    Work was performed to identify a process to vitrify the contents of F- canyon Tank 17.1. Tank 17.1 contains the majority of americium (Am) and curium (Cm) contained in the DOE Complex. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has made a formal request for this material as fuel for production of Cf252 and other transplutonium actinides. The Am and Cm (and associated lanthanide fission products) are currently in nitric acid solution. Transportation of the intensely radioactive Am/Cm in liquid form is not considered possible. As a result, the material will either be solidified and shipped to ORNL or discarded to the Tank Farm. Nuclear Materials Processing Technology (NMPT), therefore, requested Defense Waste Processing Technology (DWPT) to determine if the Tank 17.1 material could be vitrified, and if it was vitrified could the americium and curium be successfully recovered. Research was performed to determine if the Tank 17.1 contents could indeed be mixed with glass formers and vitrified. Additional studies identified critical process parameters such as heat loading, melter requirements, off-gas evolution, etc. Discussions with NMPT personnel were initiated to determine existing facilities where this work could be accomplished safely. A process has been identified which will convert the Am/Cm material into approximately 300kg of glass

  17. A simple approach to determine the diffusivity of americium in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, L.; Feng, X.; Liang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, J.

    2009-01-01

    The diffusivities of the key radionuclides in host rock are important for the performance assessment of repositories. One of the conventional methods for determining the diffusivities of radionuclides is to grind the rock tablet layer by layer and then to measure the radioactivity remaining on the rock tablet before each grinding cycle. Since grinding hard rock samples, especially those with radioactivity, is very difficult, we developed a new approach to determine the diffusivity of americium in granite. The new approach mainly includes two parts: one is to measure the radioactivities from both sides of a rock disk sample by autoradiography with phosphor imaging technique; the other is to study the relationship between the radioactivities and the apparent diffusivity of americium in granite by computer modelling. Because the high contamination risk of grinding radioactive rock samples has been avoided, the new approach is much simpler than the conventional method. It may be a better choice of measuring the diffusivities of radionuclides in rock, especially for those laboratories in which grinding radioactive rock samples is inconvenient. (orig.)

  18. Measurements of α-emitting plutonium and americium in the intertidal sands of west Cumbria, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakins, J.D.; Morgan, A.; Baston, G.M.N.; Pratley, F.W.; Strange, L.P.; Burton, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of surface sand and sand cores were collected from intertidal regions of west Cumbria between Silloth and Walney Island (including the Duddon Estuary) between 1982 and 1984 and analysed for 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am. Generally, more than 95% of the α-emitting transuranic nuclides were associated with the sand and less than 5% with entrained silt. The greatest concentrations of both plutonium and americium were found at Braystones. Concentrations declined with distance from the Sellafield Works. The largest actinide deposits occurred at Drigg (320 and 720 kBq m -2 of 239+240 Pu and 241 Am respectively). The integrated deposits in intertidal sand between Silloth and Walney Island were about 4.2 and 7.0 TBq respectively, which represent about 1% of the total α-emitting activity discharged to sea from Sellafield Works up to 1982. The corresponding value for the Duddon Estuary is about 0.3%. Only on beaches close to Sellafield did levels of man-made α-emitters exceed those of natural α-emitting nuclides. The radiological consequences of the intertidal inventory of plutonium and americium are shown to be very small and much less than from the seafood pathway. (author)

  19. Measurements of. alpha. -emitting plutonium and americium in the intertidal sands of west Cumbria, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eakins, J.D.; Morgan, A.; Baston, G.M.N.; Pratley, F.W.; Strange, L.P.; Burton, P.J. (UKAEA Harwell Lab. (UK). Environmental and Medical Science Div.)

    1990-01-01

    Samples of surface sand and sand cores were collected from intertidal regions of west Cumbria between Silloth and Walney Island (including the Duddon Estuary) between 1982 and 1984 and analysed for {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. Generally, more than 95% of the {alpha}-emitting transuranic nuclides were associated with the sand and less than 5% with entrained silt. The greatest concentrations of both plutonium and americium were found at Braystones. Concentrations declined with distance from the Sellafield Works. The largest actinide deposits occurred at Drigg (320 and 720 kBq m{sup -2} of {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am respectively). The integrated deposits in intertidal sand between Silloth and Walney Island were about 4.2 and 7.0 TBq respectively, which represent about 1% of the total {alpha}-emitting activity discharged to sea from Sellafield Works up to 1982. The corresponding value for the Duddon Estuary is about 0.3%. Only on beaches close to Sellafield did levels of man-made {alpha}-emitters exceed those of natural {alpha}-emitting nuclides. The radiological consequences of the intertidal inventory of plutonium and americium are shown to be very small and much less than from the seafood pathway. (author).

  20. Transmutation of americium and curium incorporated in zirconia-based host materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raison, P.E. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles; Haire, R.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Presented are studies involving the incorporation of americium and curium in zirconia-based materials. First explored was the pseudo ternary system AmO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. It was determined that selected Y-CSZ materials can incorporate significant quantities of americium oxide and remain cubic single-phase. The cell parameters of these fluorite-type products were established to be linear with the AmO{sub 2} content. The Cm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} system was also investigated. It was found that at 25 mol% of CmO{sub 1.5}, the Cm(III) stabilized zirconia in its cubic form (a = 5.21 {+-}0.01 Angstrom). At higher and lower concentrations, diphasic materials were encountered. At 50 mol% of CmO{sub 1.5}, a pyrochlore oxide - Cm{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} - is formed (a = 10.63 {+-}0.02 Angstrom). (author)

  1. Comparison of Americium-Beryllium neutron spectrum obtained using activation foil detectors and NE-213 spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunny, Sunil; Subbaiah, K.V.; Selvakumaran, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron spectrum of Americium - Beryllium (α,n) source is measured with two different spectrometers vis-a-vis activation foils (foil detectors) and NE-213 organic scintillator. Activity induced in the foils is measured with 4π-β-γ sodium iodide detector by integrating counts under photo peak and the saturation activity is found by correcting to elapsed time before counting. The data on calculated activity is fed into the unfolding code, SAND-II to obtain neutron spectrum. In the case of organic scintillator, the pulse height spectrum is obtained using MCA and this is processed with unfolding code DUST in order to get neutron spectrum. The Americium - Beryllium (α,n) neutron spectrum thus obtained by two different methods is compared. It is inferred that the NE-213 scintillator spectrum is in excellent agreement with the values beyond 1MeV. Neutron spectrum obtained by activation foils depends on initial guess spectrum and is found to be in reasonable agreement with NE-213 spectrum. (author)

  2. 238U and 237Np nuclear fission by 90-270 MeV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.L.; Nedorezov, V.G.; Nikitina, N.V.; Noga, V.I.; Ranyuk, Yu.N.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Smirnov, A.N.; Ehjsmont, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for measuring cross sections of 238 U and 237 Np nuclei fission caused by 90-270 MeV electrons is described. Measurement results are given. The results obtained are discussed on the basis of the virtual photon method. It is shown that the difference in cross sections of 238 U and 237 Np electrofission is due to the different contribution of the giant resonance [ru

  3. 237 Np analytical method using 239 Np tracers and application to a contaminated nuclear disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Clark, Sue B.; Olson, John E.; Watrous, Matthew G.

    2017-06-01

    Environmental 237Np analyses are challenged by low 237Np concentrations and lack of an available yield tracer; we report a rapid, inexpensive 237Np analytical approach employing the short lived 239Np (t1/2 = 2.3 days) as a chemical yield tracer followed by 237Np quantification using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. 239Np tracer is obtained via separation from a 243Am stock solution and standardized using gamma spectrometry immediately prior to sample processing. Rapid digestions using a commercial, 900 watt “Walmart” microwave and Parr microwave vessels result in 99.8 ± 0.1% digestion yields, while chromatographic separations enable Np/U separation factors on the order of 106 and total Np yields of 95 ± 4% (2σ). Application of this method to legacy soil samples surrounding a radioactive disposal facility (the Subsurface Disposal Area at Idaho National Laboratory) reveal the presence of low level 237Np contamination within 600 meters of this site, with maximum 237Np concentrations on the order of 103 times greater than nuclear weapons testing fallout levels.

  4. 237Np analytical method using 239Np tracers and application to a contaminated nuclear disposal facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Mathew S; Morrison, Samuel S; Clark, Sue B; Olson, John E; Watrous, Matthew G

    2017-06-01

    Environmental 237 Np analyses are challenged by low 237 Np concentrations and lack of an available yield tracer; we report a rapid, inexpensive 237 Np analytical approach employing the short lived 239 Np (t 1/2  = 2.3 days) as a chemical yield tracer followed by 237 Np quantification using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. 239 Np tracer is obtained via separation from a 243 Am stock solution and standardized using gamma spectrometry immediately prior to sample processing. Rapid digestions using a commercial, 900 W "Walmart" microwave and Parr microwave vessels result in 99.8 ± 0.1% digestion yields, while chromatographic separations enable Np/U separation factors on the order of 10 6 and total Np yields of 95 ± 4% (2σ). Application of this method to legacy soil samples surrounding a radioactive disposal facility (the Subsurface Disposal Area at Idaho National Laboratory) reveal the presence of low level 237 Np contamination within 600 m of this site, with maximum 237 Np concentrations on the order of 10 3 times greater than nuclear weapons testing fallout levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. EURADOS intercomparison on measurements and Monte Carlo modelling for the assessment of Americium in a USTUR leg phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M. A.; Broggio, D.; Capello, K.; Cardenas-Mendez, E.; El-Faramawy, N.; Franck, D.; James, A. C.; Kramer, G. H.; Lacerenza, G.; Lynch, T. P.; Navarro, J. F.; Navarro, T.; Perez, B.; Ruehm, W.; Tolmachev, S. Y.; Weitzenegger, E.

    2011-01-01

    A collaboration of the EURADOS working group on 'Internal Dosimetry' and the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) has taken place to carry out an intercomparison on measurements and Monte Carlo modelling determining americium deposited in the bone of a USTUR leg phantom. Preliminary results and conclusions of this intercomparison exercise are presented here. (authors)

  6. The distribution of plutonium-239 and americium-241 in the Syrian hamster following its intravenous administration as citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodwell, P.; Stather, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    Actinide distribution in various tissues and the skeleton of hamsters by liquid scintillation counting or isotope dilution. For plutonium 57% of activity was concentrated in the skeleton and more than 90% in the liver and skeleton after seven days. For americium the liver retained more than 50% of total activity and 25% was excreted in urine within seven days. (U.K.)

  7. The weak acid resin process: a dustless conversion route for the synthesis of americium bearing-blanket precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picart, S.; Gauthe, A.; Parant, P.; Remy, E.; Jobelin, I.; Pomared, J.M.; Grangaud, P.; Dauby, J.; Delahaye, T.; Caisso, M.; Bataille, M.; Bayle, J.P.; Frost, C.; Delage, C.; Martin, C.L.; Ayral, E.

    2016-01-01

    Mixed uranium-americium oxides are one of the materials envisaged for Americium Bearing Blankets dedicated to transmutation in fast neutron reactors. Conversion and fabrication processes are currently developed to make those materials in the form of dense and homogeneous oxide ceramic pellets or dense granulates incorporating uranium and americium. Their development points out the need of a simplified and optimized process which could lower hazards linked to dust generation of highly contaminating and irradiating compounds and facilitate material transfer in remote handling operations. This reason motivated the development of innovative 'dustless' route such as the Weak Acid Resin route (WAR) which provides the oxide precursors in the form of sub-millimeter-sized microspheres with optimal flowability and limits dust generation during conversion and fabrication steps. This study is thus devoted to the synthesis of mixed uranium-americium oxide microspheres by the WAR process and to the characterization of such precursors. This work also deals with their application to the fabrication of dense or porous pellets and with their potential use as dense spherules to make Sphere-Pac fuel. (authors)

  8. On the influence of the americium isotopic vector on the cooling time of minor actinides bearing blankets in fast reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooyman Timothée

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the heterogeneous minor actinides transmutation approach, the nuclei to be transmuted are loaded in dedicated targets often located at the core periphery, so that long-lived heavy nuclides are turned into shorter-lived fission products by fission. To compensate for low flux level at the core periphery, the minor actinides content in the targets is set relatively high (around 20 at.%, which has a negative impact on the reprocessing of the targets due to their important decay heat level. After a complete analysis of the main contributors to the heat load of the irradiated targets, it is shown here that the choice of the reprocessing order of the various feeds of americium from the fuel cycle depends on the actual limit for fuel reprocessing. If reprocessing of hot targets is possible, it is more interesting to reprocess first the americium feed with a high 243Am content in order to limit the total cooling time of the targets, while if reprocessing of targets is limited by their decay heat, it is more interesting to wait for an increase in the 241Am content before loading the americium in the core. An optimization of the reprocessing order appears to lead to a decrease of the total cooling time by 15 years compared to a situation where all the americium feeds are mixed together when two feeds from SFR are considered with a high reprocessing limit.

  9. The weak acid resin process: a dustless conversion route for the synthesis of americium bearing-blanket precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picart, S.; Gauthe, A.; Parant, P.; Remy, E.; Jobelin, I.; Pomared, J.M.; Grangaud, P.; Dauby, J.; Delahaye, T. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, DEN/MAR/DRCP, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Caisso, M.; Bataille, M.; Bayle, J.P. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, DEN/MAR/DTEC, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Frost, C. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, DEN/MAR/DRCP, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Institut Europeen des Membranes, CNRS-ENSCM-UM, CC47, University of Montpellier, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Delage, C. [CEA, Centre de Cadarache, DEN/CAD/DEC, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Martin, C.L. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Ayral, E. [Institut Europeen des Membranes, CNRS-ENSCM-UM, CC47, University of Montpellier, F-34095 Montpellier (France)

    2016-07-01

    Mixed uranium-americium oxides are one of the materials envisaged for Americium Bearing Blankets dedicated to transmutation in fast neutron reactors. Conversion and fabrication processes are currently developed to make those materials in the form of dense and homogeneous oxide ceramic pellets or dense granulates incorporating uranium and americium. Their development points out the need of a simplified and optimized process which could lower hazards linked to dust generation of highly contaminating and irradiating compounds and facilitate material transfer in remote handling operations. This reason motivated the development of innovative 'dustless' route such as the Weak Acid Resin route (WAR) which provides the oxide precursors in the form of sub-millimeter-sized microspheres with optimal flowability and limits dust generation during conversion and fabrication steps. This study is thus devoted to the synthesis of mixed uranium-americium oxide microspheres by the WAR process and to the characterization of such precursors. This work also deals with their application to the fabrication of dense or porous pellets and with their potential use as dense spherules to make Sphere-Pac fuel. (authors)

  10. Worldwide bioassay data resources for plutonium/americium internal dosimetry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.; Bertelli, L.; Little, T.; Guilmette, R.; Riddell, T.; Filipy, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Biokinetic models are the scientific underpinning of internal dosimetry. These models describe how materials of interest taken into the body by various routes (for example inhalation) are transported through the body, allowing the modelling of bioassay measurements and the estimation of radiation dose. The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) publishes biokinetic models for use in internal dosimetry. These models represent the consensus judgement of a committee of experts, based on human and animal data. Nonetheless, it is important to validate biokinetic models using directly applicable data, in a scientifically transparent manner, especially for internal dosimetry research purposes (as opposed to radiation protection), as in epidemiology studies. Two major goals would be to determine individual variations of model parameters for the purpose of assessing this source of uncertainty in internal dose calculations, and to determine values of workplace specific parameters (such as particle solubility in lung fluids) for different representative workplaces. Furthermore, data on the observed frequency of intakes under various conditions can be used in the interpretation of bioassay data. All of the above may be couched in the terminology of Bayesian statistical analysis and amount to the determination of the Bayesian prior probability distributions needed in a Bayesian interpretation of bioassay data. The authors have direct knowledge of several significant databases of plutonium/americium bioassay data (including autopsy data). The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the worldwide community with these resources and to invite others who may know of other such databases to participate with us in a publication that would document the content, form, and the procedures for seeking access to these databases. These databases represent a tremendous scientific resource in this field. Examples of databases known to the authors include: the

  11. XRD monitoring of α self-irradiation in uranium-americium mixed oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlait, Denis; Lebreton, Florent; Roussel, Pascal; Delahaye, Thibaud

    2013-12-16

    The structural evolution under (241)Am self-irradiation of U(1-x)Am(x)O(2±δ) transmutation fuels (with x ≤ 0.5) was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Samples first underwent a preliminary heat treatment performed under a reducing atmosphere (Ar/H2(4%)) aiming to recover the previously accumulated structural defects. Over all measurements (carried out over up to a full year and for integrated doses up to 1.5 × 10(18) α-decay events·g(-1)), only fluorite U(1-x)Am(x)O(2±δ) solid solutions were observed. Within a few days after the end of the heat treatment, each of the five studied samples was slowly oxidized as a consequence of their move to air atmosphere, which is evidenced by XRD by an initial sharp decrease of the unit cell parameter. For the compounds with x ≤ 0.15, this oxidation occurred without any phase transitions, but for U0.6Am0.4O(2±δ) and U0.5Am0.5O(2±δ), this process is accompanied by a transition from a first fluorite solid solution to a second oxidized one, as the latter is thermodynamically stable in ambient conditions. In the meantime and after the oxidation process, (241)Am α self-irradiation caused a structural swelling up to ∼0.8 vol %, independently of the sample composition. The kinetic constants of swelling were also determined by regression of experimental data and are, as expected, dependent on x and thus on the dose rate. The normalization of these kinetic constants by sample α-activity, however, leads to very close swelling rates among the samples. Finally, evolutions of microstrain and crystallite size were also monitored, but for the considered dose rates and cumulated doses, α self-irradiation was found, within the limits of the diffractometer used, to have almost no impact on these characteristics. Microstrain was found to be influenced instead by the americium content in the materials (i.e., by the impurities associated with americium starting material and the increase of cationic charge heterogeneity with

  12. The uptake of plutonium-239, 240, americium-241, strontium-90 into plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popplewell, D.S.; Ham, G.J.; Johnson, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the results of measurements on the uptake of plutonium, americium, strontium-90 and caesium-137 into peas, beet, oats, sweet corn, tomatoes and vegetable marrow grown in tubs containing radioactively-contaminated silts. The silts had been taken from an area of West Cumbria commonly referred to as the Ravenglass estuary. The experiments are categorised as being carried out under non-standard conditions because of the manner in which the radioactivity came to be incorporated into the growth medium. The growth medium was representative of conditions which could arise when the estuarine silt moves inland under the influence of wind and tide and mixes with the adjacent farm land. The silt had been contaminated by radioactive effluents from the nuclear fuels reprocessing plant at Sellafield and this contamination had been brought about by natural means. (Auth.)

  13. Comparative study of plutonium and americium bioaccumulation from two marine sediments contaminated in the natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T.F.; Smith, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Plutonium and americium sediment-animal transfer was studied under controlled laboratory conditions by exposure of the benthic polychaete Nereis diversicolor (O. F. Mueller) to marine sediments contaminated by a nuclear bomb accident (near Thule, Greenland) and nuclear weapons testing (Enewetak Atoll). In both sediment regimes, the bioavailability of plutonium and 241 Am was low, with specific activity in the tissues 241 Am occurred and 241 Am uptake from the Thule sediment was enhanced compared to that from lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll. Autoradiography studies indicated the presence of hot particles of plutonium in the sediments. The results highlight the importance of purging animals of their gut contents in order to obtain accurate estimates of transuranic transfer from ingested sediments into tissue. It is further suggested that enhanced transuranic uptake by some benthic species could arise from ingestion of highly activity particles and organic-rich detritus present in the sediments. (author)

  14. Transportability Class of Americium in K Basin Sludge under Ambient and Hydrothermal Processing Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmitt, Bruce E.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2006-08-01

    This report establishes the technical bases for using a ''slow uptake'' instead of a ''moderate uptake'' transportability class for americium-241 (241Am) for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP) dose consequence analysis. Slow uptake classes are used for most uranium and plutonium oxides. A moderate uptake class has been used in prior STP analyses for 241Am based on the properties of separated 241Am and its associated oxide. However, when 241Am exists as an ingrown progeny (and as a small mass fraction) within plutonium mixtures, it is appropriate to assign transportability factors of the predominant plutonium mixtures (typically slow) to the Am241. It is argued that the transportability factor for 241Am in sludge likewise should be slow because it exists as a small mass fraction as the ingrown progeny within the uranium oxide in sludge. In this report, the transportability class assignment for 241Am is underpinned with radiochemical characterization data on K Basin sludge and with studies conducted with other irradiated fuel exposed to elevated temperatures and conditions similar to the STP. Key findings and conclusions from evaluation of the characterization data and published literature are summarized here. Plutonium and 241Am make up very small fractions of the uranium within the K Basin sludge matrix. Plutonium is present at about 1 atom per 500 atoms of uranium and 241Am at about 1 atom per 19000 of uranium. Plutonium and americium are found to remain with uranium in the solid phase in all of the {approx}60 samples taken and analyzed from various sources of K Basin sludge. The uranium-specific concentrations of plutonium and americium also remain approximately constant over a uranium concentration range (in the dry sludge solids) from 0.2 to 94 wt%, a factor of {approx}460. This invariability demonstrates that 241Am does not partition from the uranium or plutonium fraction for any characterized sludge matrix. Most

  15. Plutonium and americium concentrations and vertical profiles in some Italian mosses used as bioindicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Meli, M.A.; Guerra, F.; Degetto, S.; Jia, G.; Gerdol, R.

    1998-01-01

    We have examined the uptake of actinide elements Am and Pu by different species of lichen and moss collected in two locations (Urbino, Central Italy; Alps region, North-east Italy). Plutonium and americium were separated and determined by extraction chromatography, electrodeposition and alpha-spectrometry. This paper summarizes our results with a special emphasis on the vertical profiles of these actinides in two different species of mosses. Several 1-2 cm depth sections were obtained and dated by 210 Pb method. A typical peak for 239,240 Pu and 241 Am was found in the very old moss species ('Sphagnum Compactum') at a depth corresponding to the period 1960-1970 which was the period characterized by the maximum nuclear weapon tests. In a younger moss species ('Neckeria Crispa') no peak was observed and the regression curves showed that Am is more mobile than 239,240 Pu and 238 Pu. (author)

  16. EURADOS action for determination of americium in skull measures in vivo and Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Ponte, M. A.; Navarro Amaro, J. F.; Perez Lopez, B.; Navarro Bravo, T.; Nogueira, P.; Vrba, T.

    2013-01-01

    From the Group of WG7 internal dosimetry of the EURADOS Organization (European Radiation Dosimetry group, e.V.) which It coordinates CIEMAT, international action for the vivo measurement of americium has been conducted in three mannequins type skull with detectors of Germanium by gamma spectrometry and simulation by Monte Carlo methods. Such action has been raised as two separate exercises, with the participation of institutions in Europe, America and Asia. Other actions similar precede this vivo intercomparison of measurement and modeling Monte Carlo1. The preliminary results and associated findings are presented in this work. The laboratory of the body radioactivity (CRC) of service counter of dosimetry staff internal (DPI) of the CIEMAT, it has been one of the participants in vivo measures exercise. On the other hand part, the Group of numerical dosimetry of CIEMAT is participant of the Monte Carlo2 simulation exercise. (Author)

  17. Complex formation of trivalent americium with salicylic acid at very low concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanie Mueller; Margret Acker; Steffen Taut; Gert Bernhard; Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden

    2010-01-01

    For the first time, the complexation of americium(III) with salicylic acid was studied at trace metal concentrations using a 2.0 m Long Path Flow Cell for UV-vis spectroscopy. The detection limit of Am(III) in aqueous solution at pH 3.0 was found to be 5 x 10 -9 M. Two Am(III)-salicylate complexes were formed at pH 5.0 in 0.1 M NaClO 4 , indicated by a clear red shift of the absorption maximum. The absorption spectra obtained from spectrophotometric titration were analyzed by means of factor analysis and complex stabilities were calculated to be log β 110 = 2.56 ± 0.08 and log β 120 = 3.93 ± 0.19. (author)

  18. Recovery of plutonium and americium from chloride salt wastes by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichley-Yinger, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    Plutonium and americium can be recovered from aqueous waste solutions containing a mixture of HCl and chloride salt wastes by the coupling of two solvent extraction systems: tributyl phosphate (TBP) in tetrachloroethylene (TCE) and octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) in TCE. In the flowsheet developed, the salt wastes are dissolved in HCl, the Pu(III) is oxidized to the IV state with NaClO 2 and recovered in the TBP-TCE cycle, and the Am is then removed from the resultant raffinate by the CMPO-TCE cycle. The consequences of the feed solution composition and extraction behavior of these species on the process flowsheet design, the Pu-product purity, and the decontamination of the aqueous raffinate from transuranic elements are discussed. 16 refs., 6 figs

  19. Americium-241 in surface soil associated with the Hanford site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.R.; Gilbert, R.O.; Gano, K.A.

    1981-05-01

    Various kinds of surface soil samples were collected and analyzed for Americium-241 ( 241 Am) to examine the feasibility of improving soil sample data for the Hanford Surface Environmental Surveillance Program. Results do not indicate that a major improvement would occur if procedures were changed from the current practices. Conclusions from this study are somewhat tempered by the very low levels of 241 Am ( 241 Am in soil crust (0 to 1.0 cm deep) was greater than the corresponding subsurface layer (1.0 to 2.5 cm deep), and the average concentration of 241 Am in some onsite samples collected near the PUREX facility was greater than comparable samples collected 60 km upwind at an offsite location

  20. Separation and measurement of thorium, plutonium, americium, uranium and strontium in environmental matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Jennifer J.; Zawadzki, Atun; Chisari, Robert; Wong, Henri K.Y.

    2011-01-01

    A technique for the isolation of thorium (Th), plutonium (Pu), americium (Am), uranium (U) and strontium (Sr) isotopes from various environmental matrices has been adapted from a previously published method specific to water samples (). Separation and isolation of the various elemental fractions from a single sub-sample is possible, thereby eliminating the need for multiple analyses. The technique involves sample dissolution, concentration via calcium phosphate co-precipitation, rapid column extraction using TEVA TM , TRU TM and Sr-Spec TM resin cartridges, alpha spectrometry for Th, Pu, U and Am and Cerenkov counting for Sr. Various standard reference materials were analysed and chemical yields are in the range of 70-80% for Th, Am, U and Sr and 50-60% for Pu. Sample sizes of up to 10 L for water, 5 g for dry soil and sediment and 10 g for dry vegetation and seaweed can be processed using this technique.

  1. Separation and measurement of thorium, plutonium, americium, uranium and strontium in environmental matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Jennifer J., E-mail: jennifer.harrison@ansto.gov.au [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai NSW 2234 (Australia); Zawadzki, Atun; Chisari, Robert; Wong, Henri K.Y. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    A technique for the isolation of thorium (Th), plutonium (Pu), americium (Am), uranium (U) and strontium (Sr) isotopes from various environmental matrices has been adapted from a previously published method specific to water samples (). Separation and isolation of the various elemental fractions from a single sub-sample is possible, thereby eliminating the need for multiple analyses. The technique involves sample dissolution, concentration via calcium phosphate co-precipitation, rapid column extraction using TEVA{sup TM}, TRU{sup TM} and Sr-Spec{sup TM} resin cartridges, alpha spectrometry for Th, Pu, U and Am and Cerenkov counting for Sr. Various standard reference materials were analysed and chemical yields are in the range of 70-80% for Th, Am, U and Sr and 50-60% for Pu. Sample sizes of up to 10 L for water, 5 g for dry soil and sediment and 10 g for dry vegetation and seaweed can be processed using this technique.

  2. Liquid-liquid extraction of plutonium and americium by cekanoic acid from alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal Chetty, K.; Sagar, V.; Swarup, R.

    2001-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction studies of plutonium and americium from aqueous carbonate medium using a high molecular weight carboxylic acid namely cekanoic acid in different diluents has been carried out. The distribution ratio (D) values for Pu(IV) and Am(III) under various parameters such as concentration of extractant, Na 2 CO 3 and initial pH were obtained. Results indicated that Pu(IV) and Am(III) could be satisfactorily extracted together or individually from aqueous carbonate medium using cekanoic acid in different diluents like carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane, toluene, n-dodecane or solvesso-100. The D values for Pu(IV) and Am(III) also indicated the possibility of their mutual separation. The back extraction of Pu and Am with different reagents was also studied. (orig.)

  3. Magnesium ionophore II as an extraction agent for trivalent europium and americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makrlik, Emanuel [Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Environmental Sciences; Vanura, Petr [Univ. of Chemistry and Technology, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    2016-11-01

    Solvent extraction of microamounts of trivalent europium and americium into nitrobenzene by using a mixture of hydrogen dicarbollylcobaltate (H{sup +}B{sup -}) and magnesium ionophore II (L) was studied. The equilibrium data were explained assuming that the species HL{sup +}, HL{sup +}{sub 2}, ML{sup 3+}{sub 2}, and ML{sup 3+}{sub 3} (M{sup 3+} = Eu{sup 3+}, Am{sup 3+}; L=magnesium, ionophore II) are extracted into the nitrobenzene phase. Extraction and stability constants of the cationic complex species in nitrobenzene saturated with water were determined and discussed. From the experimental results it is evident that this effective magnesium ionophore II receptor for the Eu{sup 3+} and Am{sup 3+} cations could be considered as a potential extraction agent for nuclear waste treatment.

  4. Integral test for Np237 and Am241 cross sections in JENDL, ENDF and JEF libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Tomohiko; Unesaki, Hironobu; Kitada, Takanori

    2002-01-01

    Experiments using Kyoto University critical assembly (KUCA) were performed for measuring the capture and fission reaction rates of 237 Np and 241 Am. A back-to-back fission chamber was employed for the measurement of the fission rate of 237 Np and 241 Am relative to 235 U. The capture rate of 237 Np relative to 197 Au was measured by using activation method. Eleven cores, of which the spectra were changed systematically, were mocked up for the present measurements. Five cores among the eleven were utilized for the fission reaction rate measurement. The experiment was analyzed using the Monte Carlo code MVP, the transport code TWOTRAN and the diffusion code CITATION using the libraries based on JENDL3.2, ENDF/B-VI and JEF2.2. As the results, for 237 Np, JENDL3.2 showed good agreement for both capture and fission. However, for the fission rate of 241 Am, JENDL3.2 underestimates 15-20%. On the other hand, ENDF/B-VI and JEF2.2 show different C/Es for 237 Np and 241 Am. (author)

  5. Neutron induced fission of 237Np – status, challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruskov Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is an increased interest in a complete study of the neutron-induced fission of 237Np. This is due to the need of accurate and reliable nuclear data for nuclear science and technology. 237Np is generated (and accumulated in the nuclear reactor core during reactor operation. As one of the most abundant long-lived isotopes in spent fuel (“waste”, the incineration of 237Np becomes an important issue. One scenario for burning of 237Np and other radio-toxic minor actinides suggests they are to be mixed into the fuel of future fast-neutron reactors, employing the so-called transmutation and partitioning technology. For testing present fission models, which are at the basis of new generation nuclear reactor developments, highly accurate and detailed neutron-induced nuclear reaction data is needed. However, the EXFOR nuclear database for 237Np on neutron-induced capture cross-section, σγ, and fission cross-section, σf, as well as on the characteristics of capture and fission resonance parameters (Γγ, Γf, σoΓf, fragments mass-energy yield distributions, multiplicities of neutrons vn and γ-rays vγ, has not been updated for decades.

  6. Separation by sequential chromatography of americium, plutonium and neptunium elements: application to the study of trans-uranian elements migration in a European lacustrine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, H.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear tests carried out in the atmosphere in the Sixties, the accidents and in particular that to the power station of Chernobyl in 1986, were at the origin of the dispersion of a significant quantity of transuranic elements and fission products. The study of a lake system, such that of the Blelham Tarn in Great Britain, presented in this memory, can bring interesting answers to the problems of management of the environment. The determination of the radionuclides in sediment cores made it possible not only to establish the history of the depositions and consequently the origin of the radionuclides, but also to evaluate the various transfers which took place according to the parameters of the site and the properties of the elements. The studied transuranic elements are plutonium 238, 239-240, americium 241 and neptunium 237. Alpha emitting radionuclides, their determination requires complex radiochemical separations. A method was worked out to successively separate the three radioelements by using a same chromatographic column. Cesium 137 is the studied fission product, its determination is done by direct Gamma spectrometry. Lead 210, natural radionuclide, whose atmospheric flow can be supposed constant. makes it possible to obtain a chronology of the various events. The detailed vertical study of sediment cores showed that the accumulation mode of the studied elements is the same one and that the methods of dating converge. The cesium, more mobile than transuranic elements in the atmosphere, was detected in the 1963 and 1986 fallout whereas an activity out of transuranic elements appears only for the 1963 fallout. The activity of the 1963 cesium fallout is of the same order of magnitude as that of 1986. The calculation of the diffusion coefficients of the elements in the sediments shows an increased migration of cesium compared to transuranic elements. An inventory on the whole of the lake made it possible to note that the atmospheric fallout constitute the

  7. Analysis of Np-237 ENDF for the theortical interpretation of critical assembly experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihaila, B. (Bogdan); Chadwick, M. B. (Mark B.); MacFarlane, R. E. (Robert E.); Kawano, T. (Toshihiko)

    2004-01-01

    We report on the present status of our effort toward an improved Np-237 evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF). The aim here is to bridge the gap between calculated and observed k-eff values, as measured at the Np-U critical assembly at LANL, TA-18. As such, we perform a critical analysis of the existing body of experimental data and recommended evaluations. We are targeting in principal the fission nu-bar and cross section in Np-237, as well as the inelastic scattering which is particularly important since Np-237 is a threshold fissioner. This analysis will be employed in a future sensitivity study of the calculated k-eff with respect to variations of the afore mentioned nuclear data.

  8. Role of transitional levels in 237Np (γ,f): Perspectives for studying highly deformed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda-Neto, J. D. T.; Mesa, J.; Garcia, F.; Rodriguez, O.; Geraldo, L. P.; Garcia, C.; Guzman, F.; Rodrigues, T. E.; Shtejer, K.; Semmler, R.

    2006-01-01

    The transition levels at the top of the two 237 Np fission barriers were obtained for the first time by means of the so-called semimicroscopic combined method, which we have developed and implemented. To overcome the difficulties in dealing with large nuclear deformations, we used our developed BARRIER code, which calculates single-particle spectra in a deformed Woods-Saxon potential using a coordinate system based on Cassini ovaloids as nuclear shape parametrization. The results enabled us to describe the experimentally observed near-barrier photofission cross-section structures for 237 Np, as well as a subbarrier shelf, the latter being consistently interpreted in terms of the accumulation of levels at the top of the inner and outer double fission barrier of 237 Np

  9. Role of ser-237 in the substrate specificity of the carbapenem-hydrolyzing class A beta-lactamase Sme-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sougakoff, W; Naas, T; Nordmann, P; Collatz, E; Jarlier, V

    1999-08-17

    The role of the serine residue found at position 237 in the carbapenemase Sme-1 has been investigated by constructing a mutant in which Ser-237 was replaced by an alanine. The S237A mutant showed a catalytic behavior against penicillins and aztreonam very similar to that of Sme-1. By contrast, S237A was characterized by a reduced catalytic efficiency against cephems, such as cephalothin and cephaloridine. In addition, the weak activity of Sme-1 against the cephamycin cefoxitin was hardly detectable with the mutant enzyme. Finally, the Ser-237-->Ala mutation resulted in a marked decrease in catalytic activity against imipenem, showing that Ser-237 contributes to the carbapenemase activity of the class A beta-lactamase Sme-1.

  10. Experimental and in situ investigations on americium, curium and plutonium behaviour in marine benthic species: transfer from water or sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miramand, P.

    1984-06-01

    The tranfer of transuranic elements -americium, curium and plutonium- from the sediments containing them to some marine benthic species (endofauna and epifauna) was studied with a twofold approach - laboratory and in-situ investigation. The experimental investigations, divided into three parts, made it possible to specify concentration factors (F.C.), transfer factors (F.T.) and to understand the process involved for 5 benthic species. The result were refined by an in-situ study that brought new data on the marine distribution of the transuranic elements released by the La Hague plant. Finally, the localization of americium and plutonium in the tissues and cells of these species was determined by autoradiography [fr

  11. Annual report for FY 1976 on project AN0115A: the migration of plutonium and americium in the lithosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fried, S.; Friedman, A.M.; Hines, J.J.; Atcher, R.W.; Quarterman, L.A.; Volesky, A.

    1976-12-01

    Studies have been carried out on the migration of plutonium and americium in solutions flowing through porous and crushed rock and through fissures. The migration process can be described in terms of the surface absorption of these elements. In addition, chemical effects on the absorption have been observed. One of these effects is possibly due to the presence of a plutonium polymer that migrates at a more rapid rate than normal plutonium

  12. Upper limits to americium concentration in large sized sodium-cooled fast reactors loaded with metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youpeng; Wallenius, Janne

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The americium transmutation capability of Integral Fast Reactor was investigated. • The impact from americium introduction was parameterized by applying SERPENT Monte Carlo calculations. • Higher americium content in metallic fuel leads to a power penalty, preserving consistent safety margins. - Abstract: Transient analysis of a large sized sodium-cooled reactor loaded with metallic fuel modified by different fractions of americium have been performed. Unprotected loss-of-offsite power, unprotected loss-of-flow and unprotected transient-over-power accidents were simulated with the SAS4A/SASSYS code based on the geometrical model of an IFR with power rating of 2500 MW th , using safety parameters obtained with the SERPENT Monte Carlo code. The Ti-modified austenitic D9 steel, having higher creep rupture strength, was considered as the cladding and structural material apart from the ferritic/martensitic HT9 steel. For the reference case of U–12Pu–1Am–10Zr fuel at EOEC, the margin to fuel melt during a design basis condition UTOP is about 50 K for a maximum linear rating of 30 kW/m. In order to maintain a margin of 50 K to fuel failure, the linear power rating has to be reduced by ∼3% and 6% for 2 wt.% and 3 wt.% Am introduction into the fuel respectively. Hence, an Am concentration of 2–3 wt.% in the fuel would lead to a power penalty of 3–6%, permitting a consumption rate of 3.0–5.1 kg Am/TW h th . This consumption rate is significantly higher than the one previously obtained for oxide fuelled SFRs

  13. The behaviour under irradiation of molybdenum matrix for inert matrix fuel containing americium oxide (CerMet concept)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Agata, E., E-mail: elio.dagata@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Knol, S.; Fedorov, A.V. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Fernandez, A.; Somers, J. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Klaassen, F. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2015-10-15

    Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors or Accelerator Driven System (ADS, subcritical reactors dedicated to transmutation) of long-lived nuclides like {sup 241}Am is therefore an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity of waste packages to be stored in a repository. In order to safely burn americium in a fast reactor or ADS, it must be incorporated in a matrix that could be metallic (CerMet target) or ceramic (CerCer target). One of the most promising matrix to incorporate Am is molybdenum. In order to address the issues (swelling, stability under irradiation, gas retention and release) of using Mo as matrix to transmute Am, two irradiation experiments have been conducted recently at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten (The Netherland) namely HELIOS and BODEX. The BODEX experiment is a separate effect test, where the molybdenum behaviour is studied without the presence of fission products using {sup 10}B to “produce” helium, the HELIOS experiment included a more representative fuel target with the presence of Am and fission product. This paper covers the results of Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) of the two irradiation experiments mentioned above where molybdenum behaviour has been deeply investigated as possible matrix to transmute americium (CerMet fuel target). The behaviour of molybdenum looks satisfying at operating temperature but at high temperature (above 1000 °C) more investigation should be performed.

  14. Consideration of the effect of lymph-node deposition upon the measurement of plutonium and americium in the lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, R.B.; Lagerquist, C.R.

    1975-01-01

    Measurement of an inhaled radionuclide by external photon counting includes quantities which may be contained in lymph nodes, as well as quantities in the lungs. An overestimate of the lung burden can result, if a portion of the radionuclide were present in the lymph nodes. This problem is analyzed with respect to the measurement of inhaled plutonium containing plutonium-241 and americium-241, when americium-241 has been used as a tracer for the plutonium. Equations are derived which yield the amounts of americium and of plutonium in the lungs and in the lymph nodes as a function of time after exposure and for various translocation and retention parameters. Count histories (count profiles) of actual exposure cases are compared with calculated count profiles in order to gain insight into possible values of the translocation and retention parameters. Comparison is also made with calculated count profiles using values of translocation and retention parameters recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for use with the Task Group Lung Model. The magnitude of the possible overestimate (error factor) was calculated for combinations o []parameters which yielded matches to the observed count histories. (auth)

  15. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.237 Spirits added to juice or... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any wine inventory and will be properly identified. Juice or concentrated juice to which wine spirits are added will...

  16. Transmutation of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu, and 241Am using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results of transmutation studies of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu and 241Am are presented. Keywords. ... J Adam et al. Table 1. Samples properties for 0.7 and 1 GeV experiments. ..... If we suppose that this conclusion is true also for ratios in ...

  17. A study of the multipolar composition of the electrofission cross section of 237Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoal, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    The electrofission cross section for 237 Np was measured over the energy range from 0,6 to 60,0 MeV. The multipolar composition of this cross section was investigated using the virtual photons formalism with three different techniques of analysis: unfolding and two versions of multiple parameter regression. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  18. LOFT CIS analysis 4''-WH-237-E inside containment penetration S-17B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitzel, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    The stress analysis performed on the 4''-WH-237-E piping system inside containment penetration S-17B is presented. Deadweight, thermal expansion, and seismic loads were considered. Results of this analysis show that the subject piping system will meet ASME Code, Section III, Class 2 requirements

  19. 50 CFR 23.7 - What office do I contact for CITES information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What office do I contact for CITES... FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Introduction § 23.7 What office do I contact for CITES information? Contact the following offices to receive information about CITES: Type of information Office to contact (a) CITES...

  20. 40 CFR 81.237 - Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.237 Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  1. Multimode approach to Am-241 and Np-237 fission induced by 660-MeV protons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karapetyan, G. S.; Balabekyan, A. R.; Demekhina, N. A.; Adam, Jindřich

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 6 (2009), s. 911-916 ISSN 1063-7788 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LA08002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : FISSION * Am-241 * Np-237 Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.539, year: 2009

  2. Uptake of americium-241 by plants from contaminated Chernobyl exclusive zone test site soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashydov, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    Americium-241 was found to accumulate in soils and biological objects of the environment. Its concentration has increased many times after the Chernobyl disaster and can be expected to increase about 40 times in the future. This research concentrated on the contaminated exclusive Chernobyl zone polluted by trace radionuclides, their behavior and accumulation by various plant species. Special attention is devoted to the bioavailability of 241 Am to the plants Galium rivale, G. tinctorium, G. aparine, G. intermedium, Berteroa incana, Artemisia absinthium, A. vulgaris, Centaurea borysthenica, C. arenaria, Cirsium arvense, Succissa pratensis, Solidago virgaurea, Linaria vulgaris, Lepidium ruderale, Stenactis annua, Veronica maxima, Verbascum lychnitis, Euphorbia cyparissias, Genista tinctoria, Erigeron canadensis, Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur, which were collected from the Chernobyl, Kopachi, and Yanov districts. The plant samples of Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur were collected from the Yanov district, where the soil contamination by 241 Am and 137 Cs was at the level of 660 and 27 MBq/m 2 , respectively. Gamma spectroscopy and radiochemical methods were used to estimate the activity concentration of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am. The radionuclides were measured in the dry green mass of the plant samples and in the dry soils. The contamination of the Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur samples by 137 Cs was (5.8±1,5)x10 6 , (7.4±1.1)x10 5 , and (2.6±0.2)x10 6 Bq/kg dry mass, respectively, and contamination by 241 Am was 47±5, 45±3 and 3.2±0.2 Bq/kg, respectively. The soil-to-plant transfer ratio for 137 Cs ranged lay within the interval of 0.2 to 0.03 Bq/kg : Bq/m 2 , the the transfer ratio for 241 Am did not exceed 7x10 -5 Bq/kg : Bq/m 2 . The coefficient of the relative contents of the 241 Am/ 239+240 Pu radionuclides in the various plant samples varied from 3.2 to 8.3, while for soil from

  3. Role of once-daily glycopyrronium bromide (NVA237 in the management of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Urzo A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthony D'UrzoDepartment of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: Progressive airflow limitation is a hallmark feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD that ultimately leads to breathlessness, impaired quality of life, and reduced exercise capacity. Pharmacotherapy is used in patients with COPD to prevent and control symptoms, reduce both the frequency and severity of exacerbations, improve health status, and increase exercise tolerance. These strategies are intended to address management issues which promote both current disease control and a reduction in the risk of disease deterioration in the future. At the present time, long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs are available for maintenance therapy in patients with persistent symptoms. Tiotropium was the first LAMA to be approved for management of COPD, and many studies have described its beneficial effects on multiple clinically relevant outcomes. Glycopyrronium bromide (NVA237, a new LAMA, has been developed and received regulatory approval for management of COPD in a number of countries around the world. Results from pivotal Phase III trials suggest that NVA237 is safe and well tolerated in patients with moderate to severe COPD, and provides rapid and sustained improvements in lung function. Further, these changes are associated with statistically and clinically meaningful improvements in dyspnea, health-related quality of life, and exercise tolerance. Treatment with NVA237 also results in a significant reduction in risk of exacerbations and the need for rescue medication, and has been comparable with tiotropium with respect to safety and efficacy outcomes. Finally, emerging data indicate that NVA237 is efficacious both as monotherapy and in combination with indacaterol.Keywords: glycopyrronium bromide, NVA237, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inhaled long-acting bronchodilators

  4. 29 CFR 779.237 - Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. 779.237 Section 779.237 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... commerce or in the production of goods for commerce. Under section 3(s) the “enterprise” to be covered must...

  5. Solution speciation of plutonium and Americium at an Australian legacy radioactive waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi; Harrison, Jennifer J; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry; Wong, Henri K Y; Johansen, Mathew P; Waite, T David; Payne, Timothy E

    2014-09-02

    During the 1960s, radioactive waste containing small amounts of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) was disposed in shallow trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), located near the southern suburbs of Sydney, Australia. Because of periodic saturation and overflowing of the former disposal trenches, Pu and Am have been transferred from the buried wastes into the surrounding surface soils. The presence of readily detected amounts of Pu and Am in the trench waters provides a unique opportunity to study their aqueous speciation under environmentally relevant conditions. This study aims to comprehensively investigate the chemical speciation of Pu and Am in the trench water by combining fluoride coprecipitation, solvent extraction, particle size fractionation, and thermochemical modeling. The predominant oxidation states of dissolved Pu and Am species were found to be Pu(IV) and Am(III), and large proportions of both actinides (Pu, 97.7%; Am, 86.8%) were associated with mobile colloids in the submicron size range. On the basis of this information, possible management options are assessed.

  6. Cleanex process: a versatile solvent extraction process for recovery and purification of lanthanides, americium, and curium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, J.E.; Collins, E.D.; King, L.J.

    1979-01-01

    At a concentration of 1 M in straight-chain hydrocarbon diluent, HDEHP will extract americium, curium, and other trivalent actinide and lanthanide elements from dilute acid or salt solutions. The solute is back-extracted with more concentrated acid, either nitric or hydrochloric. The process has been used in the continuous, countercurrent mode, but its greatest advantage arises in batch extractions where the excess acid can be titrated with NaOH to produce a final acidity of about 0.03 M. Under these conditions, 99% recovery can be achieved, usually in one stage. Cleanex was used on the 50-liter scale at the Transuranium Processing Plant at Oak Ridge for 12 years to provide a broad spectrum cleanup to transuranium elements before applying more sophisticated techniques for separating individual products. The process is also used routinely to recover excessive losses of curium and/or californium from plant waste streams. The solvent system is relatively resistant to radiation damage, being usable up to 200 W-h/liter

  7. Study of biosorbents application on the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes with americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borba, Tania Regina de

    2010-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy for many different purposes has been intensified and highlighted by the benefits that it provides. Medical diagnosis and therapy, agriculture, industry and electricity generation are examples of its application. However, nuclear energy generates radioactive wastes that require suitable treatment ensuring life and environmental safety. Biosorption and bioaccumulation represent an emergent alternative for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes, providing volume reduction and physical state change. This work aimed to study biosorbents for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes contaminated with americium-241 in order to reduce the volume and change the physical state from liquid to solid. The biosorbents evaluated were Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in calcium alginate beads, inactivated and free cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, calcium alginate beads, Bacillus subtilis, Cupriavidus metallidurans and Ochrobactrum anthropi. The results were quite satisfactory, achieving 100% in some cases. The technique presented in this work may be useful and viable for implementing at the Waste Management Laboratory of IPEN - CNEN/SP in short term, since it is an easy and low cost method. (author)

  8. Contrasts between the marine and freshwater biological interactions of plutonium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, H.D.; Bowen, V.T.

    1975-01-01

    Whether in lakes or the oceans the transuranic elements plutonium and americium are taken up by marine organisms, with concentration factors that would class them as nice, typical heavy metals. There is no evidence for strong, widespread discrimination against the transuranics by either plant or animal absorptive surfaces. In both freshwater and marine situations the major reservoir of Pu and Am soon becomes the sediments, and organisms are more exposed to uptake of these nuclides the closer is their ecological involvement with the sediments. Although there is little evidence that this can be an ionic strength effect, it does appear that Pu may be somewhat more available, biologically, in marine environments, and Am, conversely, in fresh water. We incline to the belief that details of these behaviors are usually controlled by local availability of organic complexers. No compelling evidence exists of increase in Pu concentration at higher levels of food chains; in marine situations this appears true of Am as well, but a few data suggest that in fresh water fish there is a progressive increase, in higher trophic levels, in the ratio Am to Pu. Although marine and fresh water biogeochemistries of transuranics are much more similar than we had expected, it will generally be dangerous to extrapolate from one to the other. In both systems there appears to us no question that we are observing real element biogeochemistry, not the redistribution of inert, labelled, fallout fragments

  9. Americium-241 use of measurement lead equivalent thickness for medical x-ray room: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khalid Matori; Husaini Saleh; Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa; Mohd Firdaus Abd Rahman; Zainal Jamaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Lead equivalent thickness measurement of a shielding material in diagnostic radiology is very important to ensure that requirements for the purpose of radiation protection of patients, employees and the public are met. The Malaysian Ministry of Health (MOH) has established that the irradiation room must have sufficient shielding thickness, for example for general radiography it must be at least equal to 2.0 mm of Pb, for panoramic dental radiography at least equal to 1.5 mm of Pb and for mammography should be a minimum of 1.0 mm of Pb. This paper presents a technique using americium-241 source to test and verify the integrity of the shielding thickness in term of lead equivalent for X-ray room at health centres. Results of measurement of 30 irradiation rooms conducted from 2009 to mid 2010 were analyzed for this presentation. Technical comparison of the attenuation of gamma rays from Am-241 source through the walls of the irradiation room and pieces of lead were used to assess the lead equivalent thickness of the walls. Results showed that 96.7 % of the irradiation rooms tested meet the requirements of the Ministry of Health and is suitable for the installation of the intended diagnostic X-ray apparatus. Some specific positions such as door knobs and locks, electrical plug sockets were identified with potential to not met the required lead equivalent thickness hence may contribute to higher radiation exposure to workers and the public. (author)

  10. Speciation and bioavailability of Americium-241 in the fresh water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierkens, J.

    1986-01-01

    Due to its anthropogenic origin, the transuranic americium 241 confronts physiologists with the intriguing question, which mechanisms are involved in the incorporation or elimination of such artificial elements in biological cycles. The investigations on the speciation and bioavailability of 241 Am in the freshwater environment aim to establish a relation between the behavior of 241 Am in freshwater ecosystems and its availability for biota. In the limnic environment, most often characterized by a high organic load and a low conductivity, the effect of complexation of 241 Am with humic acids and competition with trivalent cations such as A1 and Fe, were proven to be significant on the speciation of 241 Am. Based on the registration of the 241 Am uptake by a large number of freshwater organisms, the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz was chosen to study the whole-body uptake of 241 Am, its corresponding organ distribution and its retention in the animal. The share of external fixation and ingestion in the global uptake, and the effect of speciation on it, were studied more carefully. Other aspects in this physiological part were: the kinetics of 241 Am in the hemolymph and the hepatopancreas, and its subcellular distribution in the digestive gland. Finally, by comparing the physiology of 241 Am with some other metals ( 240 Pu, 64 Cu, 198 Au) with analogous or contradictional properties, we tried to find out whether the behavior of 241 Am in organisms can be explained from its chemical characteristics

  11. Plutonium and americium recovery from spent molten-salt-extraction salts with aluminum-magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusick, M.J.; Sherwood, W.G.; Fitzpatrick, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Development work was performed to determine the feasibility of removing plutonium and americium from spent molten-salt-extraction (MSE) salts using Al-Mg alloys. If the product buttons from this process are compatible with subsequent aqueous processing, the complex chloride-to-nitrate aqueous conversion step which is presently required for these salts may be eliminated. The optimum alloy composition used to treat spent 8 wt % MSE salts in the past yielded poor phase-disengagement characteristics when applied to 30 mol % salts. After a limited investigation of other alloy compositions in the Al-Mg-Pu-Am system, it was determined that the Al-Pu-Am system could yield a compatible alloy. In this system, experiments were performed to investigate the effects of plutonium loading in the alloy, excess magnesium, age of the spent salt on actinide recovery, phase disengagement, and button homogeneity. Experimental results indicate that 95 percent plutonium recoveries can be attained for fresh salts. Further development is required for backlog salts generated prior to 1981. A homogeneous product alloy, as required for aqueous processing, could not be produced

  12. Development and Testing of an Americium/Lanthanide Separation Flowsheet Using Sodium Bismuthate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Law; Bruce Mincher; Troy Garn; Mitchell Greenhalgh; Nicholas Schmitt; Veronica Rutledge

    2014-04-01

    The separation of Am from the lanthanides and curium is a key step in proposed advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The partitioning and transmutation of Am is desirable to minimize the long-term heat load of material interred in a future high-level waste repository. A separation process amenable to process scale-up remains elusive. Given only subtle chemistry differences within and between the ions of the trivalent actinide and lanthanide series this separation is challenging ; however, higher oxidation states of americium can be prepared using sodium bismuthate and separated via solvent extraction using diamylamylphosphonate (DAAP) extraction. Among the other trivalent metals only Ce is also oxidized and extracted. Due to the long-term instability of Am(VI) , the loaded organic phase is readily selectively stripped to partition the actinide to a new acidic aqueous phase. Batch extraction distribution ratio measurements were used to design a flowsheet to accomplish this separation. Additionally, crossflow filtration was investigated as a method to filter the bismuthate solids from the feed solution prior to extraction. Results of the filtration studies, flowsheet development work and flowsheet performance testing using a centrifugal contactor are detailed.

  13. Preparation of curium-americium oxide microspheres by resin-bead loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattin, F.R.; Benker, D.E.; Lloyd, M.H.; Orr, P.B.; Ross, R.G.; Wiggins, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Resin-bead loading and calcination techniques have been used to produce all curium and americium oxide feed material (about 2.2 kg) for HFIR targets since 1971. The process based on Dowex 50W resin has progressed from a series of test runs, through special production runs, into routine production in permanent equipment beginning in 1975. Key attributes of this process are its reliability, high yields, and ease of operation. The process is suited for remote operation in hot cells. Yields approaching 95% are routinely obtained and only one unacceptable product has been generated during routine production operations. There have been no problems in fabricating targets from this oxide or in the subsequent irradiation of these targets. The present scale of production of 150 to 250 g/y supplies the present need and is comparable with the level of other chemical process operations at TRU. Since the annual production is accomplished in two 8 to 12 day periods, there has been no reason to consider further scale-up. However, the rate of production could easily be doubled by simply adding a second set of calcination equipment

  14. Comparative study of plutonium and americium bioaccumulation from two marine sediments contaminated in the natural environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T.F.; Smith, J.D. (Melbourne Univ., Parkville (Australia). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry); Fowler, S.W.; LaRosa, J.; Holm, E. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Monaco-Ville (Monaco). Lab. of Marine Radioactivity); Aarkrog, A.; Dahlgaard, H. (Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark))

    1991-01-01

    Plutonium and americium sediment-animal transfer was studied under controlled laboratory conditions by exposure of the benthic polychaete Nereis diversicolor (O. F. Mueller) to marine sediments contaminated by a nuclear bomb accident (near Thule, Greenland) and nuclear weapons testing (Enewetak Atoll). In both sediment regimes, the bioavailability of plutonium and {sup 241}Am was low, with specific activity in the tissues <1% (dry wt) than in the sediments. Over the first three months, a slight preference in transfer of plutonium over {sup 241}Am occurred and {sup 241}Am uptake from the Thule sediment was enhanced compared to that from lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll. Autoradiography studies indicated the presence of hot particles of plutonium in the sediments. The results highlight the importance of purging animals of their gut contents in order to obtain accurate estimates of transuranic transfer from ingested sediments into tissue. It is further suggested that enhanced transuranic uptake by some benthic species could arise from ingestion of highly activity particles and organic-rich detritus present in the sediments. (author).

  15. Multicompartment kinetic models for the metabolism of americium, plutonium and uranium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sontag, W.

    1986-01-01

    To examine the kinetic behaviour of americium, plutonium and uranium in male and female rats, an extended mammillary model has been developed, composed of 10 compartments connected with 17 linear transfer coefficients. The 10 compartments describe the behaviour of the three nuclides in the blood, skeleton, liver and kidney; the remaining activity is assigned to one residual organ. Each organ is divided into two compartments, short- and long-term. In the skeleton the short-term compartment has been assumed to be the bone surface and marrow, and the long-term compartment the deep bone; in the liver, evidence suggests that the short-term compartment is physiologically associated with lysosomes and the long-term compartment identical with telolysosomes. Influence of age, sex and different nuclides on the transfer coefficients and the absorbed radiation dose are discussed. By using the transfer coefficients calculated for intravenous injection, the behaviour of the nuclides in skeleton and liver during continuous intake has been calculated. The behaviour of the three nuclides in skeleton and liver after intravenous injection has also been calculated with the additional assumption that from the fifth day the animals were treated continuously with a chelating agent. (UK)

  16. Incorporation of plutonium, americium and curium into the Irish Sea seabed by biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kershaw, P J; Swift, D J; Pentreath, R J; Lovett, M B

    1984-12-01

    Bioturbation was considered as a potentially significant mechanism for the incorporation of long-lived radionuclides into the seabed and in particular the activities of a large echiuran Maximulleria lankesteri. Radionuclides of the transuranium elements plutonium, americium and cirium are discharged into the Irish Sea under authorization as part of the low-level liquid effluent from the British Nuclear Fuels plc reprocessing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria, England. The distribution of Pu-239, 240, Pu-238, Am-241, Cm-244 and Cm-242 concentrations and the Pu-239, 240/Pu-238 quotient in samples taken in April and May 1983 from the sediment surface, burrow linings, sediments adjacent to burrows, and the gut contents and body of a large M. lankesteri clearly indicate that bioturbation is responsible, at least in part, for the incorporation of these radionuclides to depths of up to 140 cm. This area of sediments represents a significant present-day sink, but the permanence of this sink and the likelihood that radioactivity will be remobilized and be returned to man, depends on a large number of factors. 15 references, 18 figures.

  17. Americium and plutonium in water, biota, and sediment from the central Oregon coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, R.D.

    1982-06-01

    Plutonium-239, 240 and americium-241 were measured in the mussel Mytilus californianus from the region of Coos Bay, OR. The flesh of this species has a plutonium concentration of about 90 fCi/kg, and an Am-241/Pu-239, 240 ratio that is high relative to mixed fallout, ranging between two and three. Transuranic concentrations in sediment, unfiltered water, and filterable particulates were also measured; none of these materials has an Am/Pu ratio as greatly elevated as the mussels, and there is no apparent difference in the Am/Pu ratio of terrestrial runoff and coastal water. Sediment core profiles do not allow accumulation rates or depositional histories to be identified, but it does not appear that material characterized by a high Am/Pu ratio has ever been introduced to this estuary. Other bivalves (Tresus capax and Macoma nasuta) and a polychaete (Abarenicola sp.) do not have an elevated Am/Pu ratio, although the absolute activity of plutonium in the infaunal bivalves is roughly four times that in the mussels

  18. Assessment of radiation doses from residential smoke detectors that contain americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, F.R.; Etnier, E.L.; Holton, G.A.; Travis, C.C.

    1981-10-01

    External dose equivalents and internal dose commitments were estimated for individuals and populations from annual distribution, use, and disposal of 10 million ionization chamber smoke detectors that contain 110 kBq (3 μCi) americium-241 each. Under exposure scenarios developed for normal distribution, use, and disposal using the best available information, annual external dose equivalents to average individuals were estimated to range from 4 fSv (0.4 prem) to 20 nSv (2 μrem) for total body and from 7 fSv to 40 nSv for bone. Internal dose commitments to individuals under post disposal scenarios were estimated to range from 0.006 to 80 μSv (0.0006 to 8 mrem) to total body and from 0.06 to 800 μSv to bone. The total collective dose (the sum of external dose equivalents and 50-year internal dose commitments) for all individuals involved with distribution, use, or disposal of 10 million smoke detectors was estimated

  19. Comparative uptake and distribution of plutonium, americium, curium and neptunium in four plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckhise, R E; Cline, J F [Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (USA)

    1980-05-01

    Uptake of the nitrate forms of /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am, /sup 244/Cm and /sup 237/Np from soil into selected parts of four different plant species grown under field conditions was compared Alfalfa, barley, peas and cheatgrass were grown outdoors in small weighing lysimeters filled with soil containing these radionuclides. The plants were harvested at maturity, divided into selected components and radiochemically analyzed by alpha-energy analysis. Soil concentration did not appear to affect the plant uptake of /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am or /sup 244/Cm for the two levels utilized. The relative plant uptake of the five different transuranics was /sup 237/Np>/sup 244/Cm approximately equal /sup 241/Am>/sup 239/Pu approximately equal/sup 238/Pu. Relative uptake values of Np for various plant parts ranged from 2200 to 45,000 times as great as for Pu, while Am and Cm values were 10-20 times as great. The values for seeds were significantly lower than those for the other aboveground plant parts for all four transuranic elements. The legumes accumulated approx. 10 times more than the grasses. A comparison of the postulated radionuclide content of plants grown in soil contaminated with material from spent liquid metal fast breeder reactor fuels indicated that concentrations of isotopes of Am, Cm and Np would exceed /sup 239/Pu values.

  20. Np-237 incineration study in various beams in ADS setup QUINTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilim Stanisław

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Neptunium-237 samples were irradiated in a spallation neutron field produced in accelerator-driven system (ADS setup QUINTA. Five experiments were carried out on the accelerators at the JINR in Dubna - one in carbon (C6+, three in deuteron, and one in a proton beam. The energy in carbon was 24 GeV, in deuteron 2, 4 and 8 GeV, respectively, and 660 MeV in the proton beam. The incineration study method was based on gamma-ray spectrometry. During the analysis of the spectra several fission products and one actinide were identified. Fission product activities yielded the number of fissions. The actinide (Np-238, a result of neutron capture by Np-237, yielded the number of captures. The main goal of this work was to find out if and how the incineration rate depended on parameters of the accelerator beam.

  1. Transmutation of actinide 237Np with a fusion reactor and a hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, K.M.; Huang, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    The use of fusion reactors to transmute fission reactor wastes to stable species is an attractive concept. In this paper, the feasibility of transmutation of the long-lived actinide radioactive waste Np-237 with a fusion reactor and a hybrid reactor has been investigated. A new waste management concept of burning HLW (High Level Waste), utilizing released energy and converting Np-237 into fissile fuel Pu-239 through transmutation has been adopted. The detailed neutronics and depletion calculation of waste inventories was carried out with a modified version of one-dimensional neutron transport and burnup calculation code system BISON1.5 in this study. The transmutation rate of Np with relationship to neutron wall loading, Pu and Np with relationship to neutron wall load, Pu and Np concentration in the transmutation zone have been explored as well as relevant results are also given

  2. The 'overlooked trio' of hypothetical terrorist nuclear weapons - reactor grade plutonium, neptunium-237 and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholly, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Considerations revolving around physical protection of nuclear material are quite commonly and naturally focused on protecting weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) and highly enriched uranium (HEU) from theft and diversion. These two materials are the center of attention because of their well-known (and demonstrated) potential for use in first-generation nuclear explosive devices of which potential terrorists are widely thought to be capable. They are also the center of attention because of retirements of these materials from military use as the Russian Federation and the United States reduce the number of nuclear weapons in their arsenals. Three other materials - an 'overlooked trio' - must also be borne in mind within this context: (1) reactor-grade plutonium (RGPu); (2) neptunium-237 (Np-237); and (3) tritium (H-3). Although there are still some authorities who either contend that RGPu cannot be used in a nuclear explosive or that there are (for a terrorist) insurmountable difficulties in doing so, the knowledgeable scientific and technical community, recognizes the potential utility of RGPu for hypothetical terrorist nuclear devices. A much smaller community of experts recognizes the usefulness of Np-237 for nuclear devices, but Np-237 is as straight-forwardly and easily usable as HEU and similarly abundant (but not often in separated form). Tritium can be used (with a modest increase in design sophistication) in a conventional first-generation nuclear device with any of the weapons-usable materials (WGPu, HEU, RGPu or Np-237) to increase the yield and/or increase the reliability of a non-fizzle yield. Given the presence of RGPu and Np-237 in abundant quantities in spent commercial reactor fuel, widely available knowledge of how to separate these materials, and a world-wide total of more than 400 nuclear power plants, spent reactor fuel also requires stringent controls. This is especially true of old spent fuel which has far less radiation dose

  3. Quality control for measurement of soil samples containing 237Np and 241Am as radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha Lianmao; Zhang Caihong; Song Hailong; Ren Xiaona; Han Yuhu; Zhang Aiming; Chu Taiwei

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports quality control (QC) for the measurement of soil samples containing 237 Np and 241 Am as radiotracers in migration test of transuranic nuclides. All of the QC were done independently by the QA members of analytical work. It mainly included checking 5%-10% of the total analyzed samples; preparing blank samples, blind replicate sample and spiked samples used as quality control samples to check the quality of analytical work

  4. (237)Np(n,f) Cross Section: New Data and Present Status

    CERN Document Server

    Paradela, C; Carrapico, C; Eleftheriadis, C; Leeb, H; Calvino, F; Herrera-Martinez, A; Savvidis, I; Vlachoudis, V; Haas, B; Vannini, G; Le Naour, C; Gramegna, F; Wiescher, M; Pigni, M T; Audouin, L; Mengoni, A; Quesada, J; Becvar, F; Plag, R; Cennini, P; Mosconi, M; Duran, I; Rauscher, T; Couture, A; Capote, R; Sarchiapone, L; Vlastou, R; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dillmann, I; Pavlopoulos, P; Karamanis, D; Krticka, M; Jericha, E; Ferrari, A; Martinez, T; Trubert, D; Oberhummer, H; Karadimos, D; Plompen, A; Isaev, S; Terlizzi, R; Kaeppeler, F; Cortes, G; Cox, J; Voss, F; Pretel, C; Colonna, N; Berthoumieux, E; Vaz, P; Heil, M; Lopes, I; Lampoudis, C; Walter, S; Calviani, M; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Embid-Segura, M; Stephan, C; Igashira, M; Papachristodoulou, C; Aerts, G; Tavora, L; Berthier, B; Rudolf, G; Andrzejewski, J; Villamarin, D; Ferreira-Marques, R; Tain, J L; O'Brien, S; Gunsing, F; Reifarth, R; Perrot, L; Lindote, A; Neves, F; Poch, A; Kerveno, M; Rubbia, C; Koehler, P; Dahlfors, M; Wisshak, K; Salgado, J; Dridi, W; Ventura, A; Andriamonje, S; Assimakopoulos, P; Santos, C; Ferrant, L; Lozano, M; Patronis, N; Chiaveri, E; Guerrero, C; Kadi, Y; Vicente, M C; Praena, J; Baumann, P; Oshima, M; Rullhusen, P; Furman, W; David, S; Marrone, S; Tassan-Got, L; Cano-Ott, D; Pavlix, A; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P; Pancin, J; Papadopoulos, C; Tagliente, G; Haight, R; Chepel, V; Kossionides, E; Badurek, G; Marganiec, J; Lukic, S; Tarrio, D; Alvarez, H

    2011-01-01

    In this document, we present the final result obtained at the n_TOF experiment; for the neutron-induced fission cross section of the (237)Np, from the fission threshold up to 1 GeV. The method applied to get tins result is briefly discussed. n_TOF data are compared to the last experimental measurements using other TOF facilities or the surrogate method, reported experiments performed with monoenergetic sources and the FISCAL systematic, including a discussion about the existing discrepancies.

  5. 'n Nota oor die vertaling van Jeremia 2:37 ("Met jou hande op jou hoof"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.F. Stander

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A note on the translation of Jeremiah 2:37 ("With your hands on your head" In Jeremiah 2:37 God says to Israel: "You will leave that place (= Egypt with your hands upon your head". In this article various Bible translations and commentaries are scrutinized to determine how modem exegetes interpret this phrase. Thereafter the author discusses Egyptian depictions of mourners in funeral processions with their hands on their heads. He shows how an exploration of Egyptian Art can contribute to a better understanding of Jeremiah 2:37. This study also shows that the two dynamic Afrikaans translations of the Bible ("Die Lewende Bybel" and "Die Nuwe Afrikaanse Vertaling" are wide off the mark in their interpretation of the phrase "with your hands on your head". The author also argues that exegetes should not only rely on written texts when they study the ancient world in which the Scriptures originated, but that they should also explore works of art.

  6. The extraction of lanthanides and americium by benzyldiakylamines and benzyltrialkylammonium nitrates from the nitrate solutions; structure and aggregation of their salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedinakova, V.; Zilkova, J.; Dvorak, Z.; Vojtiskova, M.

    1982-01-01

    Benzyldialkylamine and benzyltrialkylammonium nitrates were used for the extraction of lanthanides and americium from aqueous nitrate solutions. The dependence of the extraction performance for Ln(III) and Am(III) on the concentration of nitric acid, the kind and concentration of salting-out agents in the aqueous phase, and the kind of solvent were investigated. The extraction of Am(III) is compared with the extraction of lanthanides. The difference in distribution coefficients for lanthanides and americium can be utilized for the separation of lanthanides and americium. Using vapor phase osmometry and cryoscopy the association of these compounds was measured at 5.5deg, 25deg and 37deg C, allowing rough estimates of ΔH and ΔS for the formation of the aggregates, monomers in the case of benzyldiethylamine, benzyldibutylamine, benzyldihexylamine and benzyldioctylamine, tetramers for the benzyldibutylamine nitrate and tetramers for benzyldimethyldodecylammonium nitrate. (author)

  7. Sorption of plutonium and americium on repository, backfill and geological materials relevant to the JNFL low-level radioactive waste repository at Rokkasho-Mura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, G.M.N.; Berry, J.A.; Brownsword, M.; Heath, T.G.; Tweed, C.J.; Williams, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    An integrated program of batch sorption experiments and mathematical modeling has been carried out to study the sorption of plutonium and americium on a series of repository, backfill and geological materials relevant to the JNFL low-level radioactive waste repository at Rokkasho-Mura. The sorption of plutonium and americium on samples of concrete, mortar, sand/bentonite, tuff, sandstone and cover soil has been investigated. In addition, specimens of bitumen, cation and anion exchange resins, and polyester were chemically degraded. The resulting degradation product solutions, alongside solutions of humic and isosaccharinic acids were used to study the effects on plutonium sorption onto concrete, sand/bentonite and sandstone. The sorption behavior of plutonium and americium has been modeled using the geochemical speciation program HARPHRQ in conjunction with the HATCHES database

  8. SPHERE: Irradiation of sphere-pac fuel of UPuO2−x containing 3% Americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Agata, E.; Hania, P.R.; McGinley, J.; Somers, J.; Sciolla, C.; Baas, P.J.; Kamer, S.; Okel, R.A.F.; Bobeldijk, I.; Delage, F.; Bejaoui, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SPHERE is designed to check the behaviour of MADF sphere-pac concept. • MADF sphere-pac are compared with MADF pellet. • Swelling, helium release and restructuring behaviour will be the main output of the experiment. • An experiment to check sphere-pac MABB fuel behaviour is now under design. - Abstract: Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors of long-lived nuclides like 241 Am is therefore an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity of waste packages to be stored in a repository. The SPHERE irradiation experiment is the latest of a series of European experiments on americium transmutation (e.g. EFTTRA-T4, EFTTRA-T4bis, HELIOS, MARIOS) performed in the HFR (High Flux Reactor). The SPHERE experiment is carried out in the framework of the 4-year project FAIRFUELS of the EURATOM 7th Framework Programme (FP7). During the past years of experimental works in the field of transmutation and tests of innovative nuclear fuels, the release or trapping of helium as well as helium induced fuel swelling have been shown to be the key issues for the design of Am-bearing targets. The main objective of the SPHERE experiment is to study the in-pile behaviour of fuel containing 3% of americium and to compare the behaviour of sphere-pac fuel to pellet fuel, in particular the role of microstructure and temperature on fission gas release (mainly He) and on fuel swelling. The SPHERE experiment is being irradiated since September 2013 in the HFR in Petten (The Netherlands) and is expected to be terminated in spring 2015. The experiment has been designed to last up to 18 reactor cycles (corresponding to 18 months) but may reach its target earlier. This paper discusses the rationale and objective of the SPHERE experiment and provides a general description of its design

  9. Transport of plutonium, americium, and curium from soils into plants by roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimpl, M.; Schuettelkopf, H.

    1979-12-01

    For assessing the dose from radionuclides in agricultural products by ingestion it is necessary to know the soil to plant transfer factors. The literature was entirely investigated, in order to judge the size of the soil to plant transfer factors. In total, 92 publications - from 1948 to 1978 -have been evaluated. As result, transfer factors from 10 -9 to 10 -3 have been found for Plutonium, and from 10 -6 to 1 for Americium. For Curium only few data are available in literature. The considerable variation of the measured transfer factors is based on the dependence of these transfer factors from the ion exchange capacity of soils, from the amount of organic materials, from the pH-value, and from the mode of contamination. There are, in any case, contradictory data, although there has been detected a dependence of the transfer factors from these parameters. Chelating agenst increase the transfer factors to approximately 1300. As well, fertilizers have an influence on the size of the transfer factors - however, the relationships have been scarcely investigated. The distribution of actinides within the individual parts of plants has been investigated. The highest concentrations are in the roots; in the plant parts above ground the concentration of actinides decreases considerably. The most inferior transfer factors were measured for the respective seed or fruits. The soil to plant transfer factors of actinides are more dependend on the age of the plants within one growing period. At the beginning of the period, the transfer factor is considerably higher than at the end of this period. With respect to plants with a growing period of several years, correlations are unknown. (orig.) [de

  10. Experiments comparing the uptake of americium from chloride media using extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzPatrick, J.R.; Schake, B.S.; Schulte, L.D.; Martinez, B.T.; Salazar, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    Clean-up of actinide effluent waste steams is of increasing importance at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility, TA-55, and removing the actinide elements to very low levels allows less radioactivity to go the Los Alamos National Laboratory Water Treatment Facility, TA-50, thus reducing the number of drums of TRU waste. Americium (Am) is a difficult element to remove from chloride media because the +3 state is difficult to oxidize and chelating resins work better with elements such as plutonium which are more readily oxidized to the +4 and/or +6 state. Currently in hydrochloric acid (HC1) media, the acidic liquid waste is neutralized with potassium hydroxide to precipitate the metal hydroxides, before disposal to TA-50. This process is not very efficient. The removal of Am from chloride media was compared using a series of resins, some commercial and some made in our laboratory, using different percentages by weight of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diiso- butylcarbamoyl-methylphosphine oxide (CMPO ) along with diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP) or tributyl phosphate (TBP) as diluents. Resins were also made with no added diluent. Early comparisons using small-scale contact studies with 0.5 grams of resin in 0.1M-12M HC1, and subsequent small-scale flow experiments show a trend in which Am uptake is proportional to the amount of CMPO on the resins and the diluent plays a minor role in the uptake of Am from these solutions. Redox chemistry effects were also investigated. From these studies, it is possible to determine the best conditions for the removal of Am from HC1 media thus reducing the gross alpha content of the waste stream by a factor of 10-100 which reduces the number of barrels of waste produced at the Water Treatment Facility

  11. Concentrations of plutonium and americium in plankton from the western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Merino, Juan; Masqué, Pere; Mitchell, Peter I; Vintró, L León; Schell, William R; Cross, Lluïsa; Calbet, Albert

    2003-07-20

    Understanding the transfer of radionuclides through the food chain leading to man and in particular, the uptake of transuranic nuclides by plankton, is basic to assess the potential radiological risk of the consumption of marine products by man. The main sources of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean Sea in the past were global fallout and the Palomares accident, although at present smaller amounts are released from nuclear establishments in the northwestern region. Plankton from the western Mediterranean Sea was collected and analyzed for plutonium and americium in order to study their biological uptake. The microplankton fractions accounted for approximately 50% of the total plutonium contents in particulate form. At Garrucha (Palomares area), microplankton showed much higher 239,240 Pu activity, indicating the contamination with plutonium from the bottom sediments. Concentration factors were within the range of the values recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Continental shelf mesoplankton was observed to efficiently concentrate transuranics. In open seawaters, concentrations were much lower. We speculate that sediments might play a role in the transfer of transuranics to mesoplankton in coastal waters, although we cannot discard that the difference in species composition may also play a role. In Palomares, both 239,240 Pu and 241Am showed activities five times higher than the mean values observed in continental shelf mesoplankton. As the plutonium isotopic ratios in the contaminated sample were similar to those found in material related to the accident, the contamination was attributed to bomb debris from the Palomares accident. Concentration factors in mesoplankton were also in relatively good agreement with the ranges recommended by IAEA. In the Palomares station the highest concentration factor was observed in the sample that showed predominance of the dynoflagellate Ceratium spp. Mean values of the enrichment factors showed, on

  12. Concentration and vertical distribution of plutonium and americium in Italian mosses and lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, G.; Desideri, D.; Guerra, F.; Meli, M.A.; Testa, C.

    1997-01-01

    The plutonium and americium concentration and vertical distribution in some Italian mosses and lichens have been determined. The 239,240 Pu, 238 Pu and 241 Am concentration ranges in tree trunk lichens 0.83-1.87, 0.052-0.154 and 0.180-0.770 Bq/kg, respectively. The corresponding values in tree mosses are higher and more scattered ranging from 0.321 to 4.96, from 0.029 to 0.171 and from 0.200 to 1.93 Bq/kg. The mean 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu and 241 Am/ 239,240 Pu ratios are 0.088±0.037 and 0.38 ± 0.13 in lichens and 0.091±0.072 and 0.54±0.16 in tree mosses. The Pu and Am concentrations are relatively low in terrestrial mosses. The 239,240 Pu, 238 Pu and 241 Am vertical distributions in a terrestrial moss core (Neckera Crispa) collected near Urbino (central Italy) show an exponential decrease with the height. On the contrary the 241 Am vertical distribution in another terrestrial moss core (Sphagnum Compactum) collected in the Alps (northern Italy) shows an interesting peak at 16 cm which corresponds to the deposition of fallout from the nuclear weapon tests in 1960's. The 241 Am movement upward and downward in the moss core is also studied. The results show once again that both mosses and lichens are very effective accumulators of Pu and Am and that they can be used as good biological indicators of the radionuclide airborne pollution from nuclear facilities and nuclear weapon tests. They can play a very important role in cycling naturally or artificially enhanced radionuclides in the atmosphere over long time scales. (author)

  13. A review on the mass spectrometric studies of americium: Present status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Suresh Kumar

    2018-01-01

    The manuscript reviews the various mass spectrometric techniques for analysis and chemical studies of Americium. These methods include thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), and inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for the determination of Am isotope ratios and concentration in nuclear fuel samples of interest in nuclear technology, and in complex biological and environmental samples. Ultra-sensitive mass spectrometric techniques of resonance-ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS), and accelerator-based mass spectrometry (AMS) are also discussed. The novel applications of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS) to understand the solution chemistry of Am and other actinides are presented. These studies are important in view of the world-wide efforts to develop novel complexing agents to separate lanthanides and minor actinides (Am, Np, and Cm) for partitioning and transmutation of minor actinides from the point of view of nuclear waste management. These mass spectrometry experiments are also of great interest to examine the covalent character of actinides with increasing atomic number. Studies on gas-phase chemistry of Am and its oxides with Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS), Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS), and laser-based experiments with reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (R-ToF) are highlighted. These studies are important to understand the fundamental chemistry of 5f electrons in actinides. Requirement of certified isotopic reference materials of Am to improve the accuracy of experimental nuclear data (e.g., the half-life of 243 Am) is emphasized. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A study of plutonium and americium concentrations in seaspray on the southern Scottish coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, W.A.; Strange, L.; Walker, M.I.; Halliwell, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Seaspray and seawater have been collected from the southern Scottish coast and, for comparison, Cumbria in northwest England during 1989 and 1991. The occurrence of sea-to-land transfer of the actinides plutonium and americium in seaspray was observed on these coasts using muslin screens (a semi-quantitative technique most efficient for collecting large spray droplets) and high volume conventional air samplers. The actinides and fine particulate in the spray were present in relatively higher concentrations than measured in the adjacent seawater, i.e. the spray was enriched in particulate actinides. The net efficiency of the muslim screens in collecting airborne plutonium isotopes and 241 Am generally appeared to be about 20%. A review of earlier published concentrations of 239+240 Pu and 241 Am measured in aerosol and deposition for over a year several tens of metres inland was carried out. This suggested that airborne activities are up to a factor of 5 times higher in Cumbria than southern Scotland. However, neither the new data collected in 1989 and 1991 nor this older data suggests any enhancement of seaspray actinide enrichment in southern Scotland compared to Cumbria. This finding contrasts with earlier, more limited, comparisons that have been carried out which suggested such a difference. There is clear evidence of considerable localised spatial and temporal variability in aerosol actinide enrichment over the beaches in both areas. Enrichments varies between 20 and 500 relative to the adjacent surf zone waters. However, the average enrichment in spray based on the continuous measurements made further inland is likely to be at the lower end of this range. (author)

  15. Behavior of americium, curium, and certain fission products in fluoride melts in the presence of s olid extraction agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, V.A.; Klokman, V.R.; Morozova, Z.E.; Ziv, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    The authors consider the behavior of americium, curium, and certain fission products (europium, cerium, yttrium, and strontium) in fluoride and chlode-fluoride melts in the presence of nonisomorphous solid phases: calcium fluoride and lanthanum and zirconium oxides. It is shown that the trace components enter the solid calcium fluoride in a regular fashion only in the presence of an adequate amount of oxygen in the melt. The effect of oxygen on the coprecipitation with calcium fluoride occurs because oxygen compounds of the elements must be formed in the melt, and these are then coprecipitated with the calcium fluoride

  16. Theoretical investigation of pressure-induced structural transitions in americium using GGA+U and hybrid density functional theory methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verma, Ashok K.; Modak, P.; Sharma, Surinder M.

    2013-01-01

    First-principles calculations have been performed for americium (Am) metal using the generalized gradient approximation + orbital-dependent onsite Coulomb repulsion via Hubbard interaction (GGA+U) and hybrid density functional theory (HYB-DFT) methods to investigate various ground state properties......-I to Am-II transition. Good agreement was found between calculated and experimental equations of states for all phases, but the first three phases need larger U (α) parameters (where α represents the fraction of Hartree-Fock exchange energy replacing the DFT exchange energy) than the fourth phase in order...

  17. Determination of americium and curium using ion-exchange in the nitric-acid-methanol medium for environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Fukai, R.

    1976-01-01

    While transplutonic elements are only slightly sorbed to anion exchangers from hydrochloric or nitric acid media, the presence of alcohol enhances the anionic exchange of these elements, especially in nitric and sulfuric solutions. In the present work a method has been developed for determining americium and curium in environmental samples, on the basis of the difference between the sorption characteristics to anion exchangers in the acid-methanol system of these transplutonic elements and those of plutonium, polonium and thorium. The method also permits us to perform sequential determination of plutonium, when necessary

  18. Co-precipitation of plutonium(IV) and americium(III) from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions with bismuth oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pius, I.C.; Noronha, D.M.; Chaudhury, Satyajeet

    2017-01-01

    Co-precipitation of plutonium and americium from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions with bismuth oxalate has been investigated for the removal of these long lived α-active nuclides from waste solutions. Effect of concentration of bismuth and oxalic acid on the co-precipitation of Pu(IV) from 3 M HNO_3 has been investigated. Similar experiments were also carried out from 3.75 M HNO_3 on co-precipitation of Am(III) to optimize the conditions of precipitation. Strong co-precipitation of Pu(IV) and Am(III) with bismuth oxalate indicate feasibility of treatment of plutonium and americium bearing waste solutions. (author)

  19. Distribution of global fallout sup 237 Np, Pu isotopes, and sup 241 Am in lake and sea sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Yamauchi, Y; Chatani, K; Komura, K; Ueno, Kaoru; Sakanoue, Masanobu [Kanazawa Univ., Ishikawa (Japan). Low Level Radioactivity Lab.; Igarashi, Syuiti [Fukui Prefectural Inst. of Public Health (Japan)

    1991-01-01

    In order to investigate the sedimentary behaviour of neptunium, {sup 237}Np together with Pu isotopes and {sup 241}Am were measured for the sediment cores collected from Lake Mikata (freshwater), from Lake Kugushi (brakish water) and from Nyu Bay (sea water). In all sediment core samples {sup 237}Np was detected, and its concentrations were far below those of {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am measured for the same samples. Inventories of {sup 237}Np in the lakes were estimated to be 0.53, 0.29 and 0.34 MBq/km{sup 2}, respectively. The activity ratios of {sup 237}Np/{sup 239,240}Pu, except for Lake Mikata, are two or three times lower than the value of 0.3-0.4% observed for surface soils of 0-20 cm depth, suggesting that Np is more soluble compared with Pu. (author) 21 refs.; 6 figs.; 3 tabs.

  20. Temperature and concentration dependences of the electrical resistivity for alloys of plutonium with americium under normal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiovkin, Yu. Yu.; Povzner, A. A.; Tsiovkina, L. Yu.; Dremov, V. V.; Kabirova, L. R.; Dyachenko, A. A.; Bystrushkin, V. B.; Ryabukhina, M. V.; Lukoyanov, A. V.; Shorikov, A. O.

    2010-01-01

    The temperature and concentration dependences of the electrical resistivity for alloys of americium with plutonium are analyzed in terms of the multiband conductivity model for binary disordered substitution-type alloys. For the case of high temperatures ( T > ΘD, ΘD is the Debye temperature), a system of self-consistent equations of the coherent potential approximation has been derived for the scattering of conduction electrons by impurities and phonons without any constraints on the interaction intensity. The definitions of the shift and broadening operator for a single-electron level are used to show qualitatively and quantitatively that the pattern of the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity for alloys is determined by the balance between the coherent and incoherent contributions to the electron-phonon scattering and that the interference conduction electron scattering mechanism can be the main cause of the negative temperature coefficient of resistivity observed in some alloys involving actinides. It is shown that the great values of the observed resistivity may be attributable to interband transitions of charge carriers and renormalization of their effective mass through strong s-d band hybridization. The concentration and temperature dependences of the resistivity for alloys of plutonium and americium calculated in terms of the derived conductivity model are compared with the available experimental data.

  1. Transuranium element chalcogenides. Crystallochemistry and Moessbauer spectrometry of neptunium 237 chalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thevenin, T.; Pages, M.; Damien, D.

    1981-09-01

    To study actinide compounds , neptunium 237 has been studied by Moessbauer resonance. The different oxidation degrees of neptunium (7, 6, 5, 4 and 3) have a very important effect on isomeric displacements. In the study of chalcogenides, the isomeric displacement value of NpS 3 confirms the valency 4+ of neptunium in this compound. Results obtained with Np 3 S 5 show two valency state +3 and +4 in this compound. There is a good agreement with the two crystalline sites determined by crystallography [fr

  2. Rapid separation method for {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in large soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L., E-mail: sherrod.maxwell@srs.go [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Building 735-B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Culligan, Brian K.; Noyes, Gary W. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Building 735-B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for large soil samples. The new soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using these two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time.

  3. α-decay chain and associated cluster emission from neutron deficient 237Cf nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Deepika; Sharma, Manoj K.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the α-decay chain of 237 Cf nucleus, which has been observed in the 3n evaporation channel when the semi-magic projectile 36 S strikes on 204 Pbv nucleus. The calculations are carried out by using preformed cluster model (PCM), with choices of spherical and quadruple deformation with in cold optimum orientation approach. The calculated half-lives of α-decay chain find relatively in nice agreement with experimental data for the deformed fragmentation approach. Along with α emission, the possibility of heavier clusters is also worked out and corresponding half-lives are predicted. (author)

  4. Evaluation of nuclear data of {sup 244}Pu and {sup 237}Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Konshin, V.A. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1995-10-01

    The evaluation of nuclear data for {sup 244}Pu and {sup 237}Pu was made in the neutron energy region from 10{sup -5} eV to 20 MeV. For the both nuclides, the total, elastic and inelastic scattering, fission, capture, (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections were evaluated on the basis of theoretical calculation. The resonance parameters were given for {sup 244}Pu. The angular and energy distributions of secondary neutrons were also estimated for the both nuclides. The results were compiled in the ENDF-5 format and will be adopted in JENDL Actinoid File. (author).

  5. Evaluation of methods for retention of radioiodine during processing of irradiated 237Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.H.; Kelley, J.A.

    1975-06-01

    Methods of removing radioiodine from 237 Np-- 238 Pu dissolver solution and process off-gas were investigated. This program is part of a continuing effort to reduce releases of radionuclides from plant operations. Experimental data show: Greater than 99.9 percent of the radioiodine in dissolver solution can be removed by precipitation, in situ, of manganese dioxide. Silver zeolite will sorb greater than 99.9 percent of radioiodine in process off-gas. Other solid sorbents and nitric acid-mercuric nitrate scrubber solutions do not remove appreciable amounts of radioiodine from process off-gas, because radioiodine is present principally as relatively unreactive organic iodine compounds. (U.S.)

  6. Numerical simulation of CALIBAN reactivity perturbation experiments using neptunium-237 samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humbert, Philippe; Mechitoua, Boukhmes

    2003-01-01

    In order to contribute to the validation of nuclear data used in critical mass computation, reactivity perturbation experiments using 237 Np samples have been performed at CEA-Valduc using the fast pulsed reactor CALIBAN operated in continuous mode. In this paper we report these experiments together with the numerical calculations. The calculations were carried out using PANDA, a S N code developed at CEA-Bruyeres-le-Chatel for classic criticality and stochastic neutronics applications and with MCNP4C which is a commonly used Monte Carlo code. A good agreement was found between experimental and deterministic results. (author)

  7. Plutonium, americium, and uranium in blow-sand mounds of safety-shot sites at the Nevada Test Site and the Tonopah Test Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essington, E.H.; Gilbert, R.O.; Wireman, D.L.; Brady, D.N.; Fowler, E.B.

    1977-01-01

    Blow-sand mounds or miniature sand dunes and mounds created by burrowing activities of animals were investigated by the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) to determine the influence of mounds on plutonium, americium, and uranium distributions and inventories in areas of the Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range. Those radioactive elements were added to the environment as a result of safety experiments of nuclear devices. Two studies were conducted. The first was to estimate the vertical distribution of americium in the blow-sand mounds and in the desert pavement surrounding the mounds. The second was to estimate the amount or concentration of the radioactive materials accumulated in the mound relative to the desert pavement. Five mound types were identified in which plutonium, americium, and uranium concentrations were measured: grass, shrub, complex, animal, and diffuse. The mount top (that portion above the surrounding land surface datum), the mound bottom (that portion below the mound to a depth of 5 cm below the surrounding land surface datum), and soil from the immediate area surrounding the mound were compared separately to determine if the radioactive elements had concentrated in the mounds. Results of the studies indicate that the mounds exhibit higher concentrations of plutonium, americium, and uranium than the immediate surrounding soil. The type of mound does not appear to have influenced the amount of the radioactive material found in the mound except for the animal mounds where the burrowing activities appear to have obliterated distribution patterns

  8. In situ characterization of uranium and americium oxide solid solution formation for CRMP process: first combination of in situ XRD and XANES measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caisso, Marie; Picart, Sébastien; Belin, Renaud C; Lebreton, Florent; Martin, Philippe M; Dardenne, Kathy; Rothe, Jörg; Neuville, Daniel R; Delahaye, Thibaud; Ayral, André

    2015-04-14

    Transmutation of americium in heterogeneous mode through the use of U1-xAmxO2±δ ceramic pellets, also known as Americium Bearing Blankets (AmBB), has become a major research axis. Nevertheless, in order to consider future large-scale deployment, the processes involved in AmBB fabrication have to minimize fine particle dissemination, due to the presence of americium, which considerably increases the risk of contamination. New synthesis routes avoiding the use of pulverulent precursors are thus currently under development, such as the Calcined Resin Microsphere Pelletization (CRMP) process. It is based on the use of weak-acid resin (WAR) microspheres as precursors, loaded with actinide cations. After two specific calcinations under controlled atmospheres, resin microspheres are converted into oxide microspheres composed of a monophasic U1-xAmxO2±δ phase. Understanding the different mechanisms during thermal conversion, that lead to the release of organic matter and the formation of a solid solution, appear essential. By combining in situ techniques such as XRD and XAS, it has become possible to identify the key temperatures for oxide formation, and the corresponding oxidation states taken by uranium and americium during mineralization. This paper thus presents the first results on the mineralization of (U,Am) loaded resin microspheres into a solid solution, through in situ XAS analysis correlated with HT-XRD.

  9. Helicobacter pylori and primary gastric lymphoma. A histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 237 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, S; Yao, T; Aoyagi, K; Iida, M; Fujishima, M; Tsuneyoshi, M

    1997-01-01

    Few previous articles have analyzed the relation between infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and primary gastric lymphoma in a large number of patients. Resected and biopsied specimens from 237 patients with primary gastric lymphoma were investigated for H. pylori using hematoxylin and eosin stain, modified Giemsa stain, and immunohistochemistry. These specimens were compared with specimens from 29 patients with chronic active gastritis, 33 with peptic ulcers, and 41 with gastric carcinoma. H. pylori was detected in 145 of 237 patients (61%) with gastric lymphoma. The frequency of H. pylori positivity was higher in patients with lymphoma restricted to the mucosa and submucosa (76%) than in those with lymphoma invading beyond the submucosa (48%) (P gastritis (100%) (P gastritis and peptic ulcer. The H. pylori grading score for patients with lymphoma (0.9 +/- 1.0) was lower than for those with chronic active gastritis (1.9 +/- 0.8) (P < 0.001), peptic ulcers (2.2 +/- 1.0) (P < 0.001), or gastric carcinoma (1.2 +/- 1.1) (P < 0.05). These results suggest that H. pylori is more likely to be associated with early states of primary gastric lymphoma than with advanced states. Thus, H. pylori may disappear during the progression of primary gastric lymphoma.

  10. Chemical behaviour of trivalent and pentavalent americium in saline NaCl-solutions. Studies of transferability of laboratory data to natural conditions. Interim report. Reported period: 1.2.1993-31.12.1993; Chemisches Verhalten von drei- und fuenfwertigem Americium in Salinen NaCl-Loesungen. Untersuchung der Uebertragbarkeit von Labordaten auf natuerliche Verhaeltnisse. Zwischenbericht. Berichtszeitraum 1.2.1993-31.12.1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runde, W; Kim, J I

    1994-09-15

    In order to clarify the chemical behaviour of Americium in saline aqueous systems relevant for final storage this study deals with the chemical reactions of trivalent and pentavalent Americium in NaCl-solutions under the influence of radiolysis from its own alpha radiation. The focus of the study was on investigating the geologically relevant reactions, such as hydrolysis or carbonate- and chloride complexing in solid-liquid equilibriums. Comprehensive measurements on solubility and spectroscopic studies in NaCl-solutions were carried out in a CO{sub 2}-free atmosphere and 10{sup -2} atm CO{sub 2} partial pressure. Identification and characterisation of the AM (III) and AM(V) solid phases were supplemented by structural research with the chemically analogue EU (III) and Np(V) compounds. The alpha-radiation induced radiolysis in saline NaCl solutions and the redox behaviour of Americium which was influenced thereby were spectroscopically quantified. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Klaerung des chemischen Verhaltens von Americium in endlagerrelevanten salinen aquatischen Systemen befasst sich die vorliegende Arbeit mit den chemischen Reaktionen des drei- und fuenfwertigen Americiums in NaCl-Loesungen unter dem Einfluss der Radiolyse durch die eigene {alpha}-Strahlung. Der Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit lag auf der Untersuchung der geologisch relevanten Reaktionen, wie Hydrolyse sowie Carbonat- und Chloridkomplexierung in fest-fluessig Gleichgewichtssystemen. Hierzu wurden umfassende Loeslichkeitsmessungen und spektroskopische Untersuchungen in NaCl-Loesungen, sowohl unter CO{sub 2}-freier Atmosphaere als auch unter 10{sup -2} atm CO{sub 2}-Partialdruck, durchgefuehrt. Die Identifizierung und Charakterisierung der Am(III)- und Am(V)-Festphasen wurde ergaenzt durch strukturelle Untersuchungen mit den chemisch analogen Eu(III)- und Np(V)-Verbindungen. Die von der {alpha}-Strahlung induzierte Radiolyse in salinen NaCl-Loesungen und das dadurch beeinflusste Redoxverhalten von Americium

  11. Field study of the migration of 237Np, 238Pu and 241Am in a weak loess aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Li, S.S.; Yang, Y.E.; Li, B.; Jiang, H.; Jiang, L.; Wang, L.; Li, D.

    2004-01-01

    The migration of 237 Np, 238 Pu and 241 Am in a weak loess aquifer was investigated in-situ in an Underground Research Facility. Quartz containing 237 Np, 238 Pu, 241 Am and 3 H was introduced into the aquifer with a stainless steel tube. The local water flow in the aquifer was monitored using a 3-dimensional sampling system. The contaminated area of the aquifer was obtained wholly with the help of a pre-installed stainless steel frame and cut into small pieces (samples) 3-dimensionally and analyzed. 3 H in the water samples was determined with a liquid scintillation analyzer (Tri-Camb 2250). Radioactivity of 237 Np and 241 Am in the soil samples were determined with a low energy photon detector (HPGe), 238 Pu was analyzed with a low background αandβ detector after chemical separation. The result of the 3-year experiment indicated that 237 Np, 238 Pu and 241 Am were strongly absorbed by the loess aquifer. The retardation factor of 237 Np in the loess aquifer was 1.54 x 10 4 . (author)

  12. A Single Recessive Mutated Gene (Sd237-1) Controlling Semi-Dwarf Plant Stature of Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrizal

    2009-01-01

    Dwarfism is a valuable trait in crop breeding, because it increases lodging resistance and decreases damages due to wind and rain. During the course of this study, a semi-dwarf mutant was successfully induced through 200 Gy gamma ray irradiated KI 237 seeds. KI 237 is a pure line with high yield potency, developed through an Indica-Japonica cross of IR36 / Koshihikari. The selected semi-dwarf plant reached 60 - 62 % of plant height of original plant KI 237 at the mature stage. The length of inter nodes, panicle, and seed were also compared between these two plants. The retardation of the 1 st (uppermost) inter nodes was 24 %, moreover, the retardation of panicle and seed length were only 10 % and 2 %, respectively. The elongation pattern of the inter nodes in this mutant was almost the same as sd1 (Dee-geo-woo-gen), the original parent of the first release modern rice variety, but their performances were different. Based on the segregation analysis in M 2 and M 3 generation it was concluded that this mutant was controlled by a single recessive mutated gene. This gene was designated as sd 237-1 . This mutant should be useful as a genetic resource for the improvement of KI 237 line through back-cross breeding as well as be developed further in breeding program directly to be a new high yielding mutant variety. (author)

  13. Novel Americium Treatment Process for Surface Water and Dust Suppression Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiepel, E.W.; Pigeon, P.; Nesta, S.; Anderson, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), a former nuclear weapons production plant, has been remediated under CERCLA and decommissioned to become a National Wildlife Refuge. The site conducted this cleanup effort under the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) that established limits for the discharge of surface and process waters from the site. At the end of 2004, while a number of process buildings were undergoing decommissioning, routine monitoring of a discharge pond (Pond A-4) containing approximately 28 million gallons of water was discovered to have been contaminated with a trace amount of Americium-241 (Am-241). While the amount of Am-241 in the pond waters was very low (0.5 - 0.7 pCi/l), it was above the established Colorado stream standard of 0.15 pCi/l for release to off site drainage waters. The rapid successful treatment of these waters to the regulatory limit was important to the site for two reasons. The first was that the pond was approaching its hold-up limit. Without rapid treatment and release of the Pond A-4 water, typical spring run-off would require water management actions to other drainages onsite or a mass shuttling of water for disposal. The second reason was that this type of contaminated water had not been treated to the stringent stream standard at Rocky Flats before. Technical challenges in treatment could translate to impacts on water and secondary waste management, and ultimately, cost impacts. All of the technical challenges and specific site criteria led to the conclusion that a different approach to the treatment of this problem was necessary and a crash treatability program to identify applicable treatment techniques was undertaken. The goal of this program was to develop treatment options that could be implemented very quickly and would result in the generation of no high volume secondary waste that would be costly to dispose. A novel chemical treatment system was developed and implemented at the RFETS to treat Am

  14. Plutonium, americium, 90Sr and 137Cs in bones of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Eastern Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J.W.; Tomankiewicz, E.; Gaca, P.; Blazej, S.; Kitowski, I.

    2008-01-01

    90 Sr, 238,239+240 Pu, 241 Am and 137 Cs activity concentrations are presented in the jaw bones of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from eastern Poland. The short description of the applied radiochemical method is presented. Activity concentrations for 90 Sr ranged between 2.2±0.7 and 41.4±4.7 Bq/kg (aw = ash weight). Average results for plutonium and americium are on the level of 10 mBq/kg (aw). No clear relationship was observed among the radionuclide concentrations. The samples analyzed do not show elevated contamination levels when compared with results of bones of small animals (rodent or insectivorous mammals) determined previously, so no accumulation of bone seeking isotopes on higher step of food-chain is concluded. (author)

  15. Ecological distribution and fate of plutonium and americium in a processing waste pond on the Hanford Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emergy, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; McShane, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    U Pond, located on the Hanford Reservation, has received low-level quantities of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) longer than any other aquatic environment in the world. Its ecological complexity and content of transuranics make it an ideal resource for information concerning the movement of these actinides within and out of an aquatic ecosystem. U Pond has been intensively inventoried for Pu concentrations in the ecological compartments and characterized limnologically in terms of its physicochemial parameters, biological productivity, and community structure. This work provides a basis for evaluating the pond's performance in retaining waste transuranics. The quantitative estimation of export routes developed by this study is important in determining how effectively such ponds act as retainers for transuranic wastes

  16. Comparative study of G2 delay and survival after /sup 241/Americium-. cap alpha. and /sup 60/Cobalt-. gamma. irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luecke-Huhle, C.; Comper, W.; Hieber, L.; Pech, M.

    1982-06-01

    Survival and G2 delay following exposure to either /sup 60/Cobalt-..gamma..-rays or /sup 241/Americium-..cap alpha..-particles were studied in eight mammalian cell lines of human and animal origin including human fibroblasts from normal individuals and from patients with Ataxia telangiectasia or Fanconi's anemia. For both endpoints the effectiveness of alpha particle was greater as compared to ..gamma..-rays. RBE values for G2 delay (4.6-9.2) were in general comparable to RBE values derived from initial slopes of survival curves but higher compared to the ratio of mean inactivation doses. Ataxia cells were particularly sensitive to cell killing by ..gamma..-irradiation, however, showed average sensitivity to ..cap alpha..-particles of high LET. With the exception of Ataxia cells, cell killing and G2 delay seem to be related processes if individual cell cycle parameters are taken into account.

  17. Crystallographic and Spectroscopic Characterization of Americium Complexes Containing the Bis[(phosphino)methyl]pyridine-1-oxide (NOPOPO) Ligand Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbey, Jordan F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Rapko, Brian M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Wang, Zheming [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; McNamara, Bruce K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Surbella, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Pellegrini, Kristi L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Schwantes, Jon M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States

    2018-02-06

    Abstract The crystal structures of americium species containing a common multi-functional phosphine oxide ligand, reported for its ability to extract f elements from acidic solutions, namely 2,6-[Ph2P(O)CH2]2C5H3-NO, L, have finally been determined after over three decades of separations studies involving these species and their surrogates. The molecular compounds Am(L)(NO3)3, Am 1:1, and [Am(L)2(NO3)][NO3]2, Am 2:1, along with their neodymium and europium analogs were synthesized and characterized using single-crystal X-ray crystallography, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR) spectroscopy and luminescence spectroscopy to provide a comprehensive comparison with new and known analogous complexes.

  18. Separation of americium by liquid-liquid extraction using diglycol-amides water-soluble complexing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapron, S.; Marie, C.; Pacary, V.; Duchesne, M.T.; Miguirditchian, M. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Processses Departement, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Arrachart, G.; Pellet-Rostaing, S. [Institut de Chimie Separative de Marcoule, LTSM, Bat 426, F-30207 Bagnols-sur- Ceze (France)

    2016-07-01

    Recycling americium (Am) alone from spent nuclear fuels is an important option studied for the future nuclear cycle (Generation IV systems) since Am belongs to the main contributors of the long-term radiotoxicity and heat power of final waste. Since 2008, a liquid-liquid extraction process called EXAm has been developed by the CEA to allow the recovery of Am alone from a PUREX raffinate (a dissolution solution already cleared from U, Np and Pu). A mixture of DMDOHEMA (N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-dioctyl-2-(2-(hexyloxy)ethyl)-malonamide) and HDEHP (di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid) in TPH is used as the solvent and the Am/Cm selectivity is improved using TEDGA (N,N,N',N'-tetraethyl-diglycolamide) as a selective complexing agent to maintain Cm and heavier lanthanides in the acidic aqueous phase (5 M HNO{sub 3}). Americium is then stripped selectively from light lanthanides at low acidity (pH=3) with a poly-aminocarboxylic acid. The feasibility of sole Am recovery was already demonstrated during hot tests in ATALANTE facility and the EXAm process was adapted to a concentrated raffinate to optimize the process compactness. The speciation of TEDGA complexes formed in the aqueous phase with Am, Cm and lanthanides was studied to better understand and model the behavior of TEDGA in the process. Some Ln-TEDGA species are extracted into the organic phase and this specific chemistry might play a role in the Am/Cm selectivity improvement. Hence the hydrophilicity-lipophilicity balance of the complexing agent is an important parameter. In this comprehensive study, new analogues of TEDGA were synthesized and tested in the EXAm process conditions to understand the relationship between their structure and selectivity. New derivatives of TEDGA with different N-alkyl chain lengths and ramifications were synthesized. The impact of lipophilicity on ligand partitioning and Am/Cm selectivity was investigated. (authors)

  19. Use of the electrodeposition technique in the preparation of samples of 237Np and its determination by alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertzig, W.; Matsuda, H.T.; Araujo, B.F. de; Araujo, J.A. de.

    1981-05-01

    The electroplating technique to prepare 237 Np source and its determination by alpha spectrometry is presented. The samples were prepared using a lucite-eletrolitic cell manufactured at IPEN, specially to trace amounts of actinides. A polished brass disk coated with Ni film has been used as cathodo and a fixed Pt wire as anode. The electroplated samples were alpha counted using a surface barrier detector. The optimum conditions to obtain the quantitative deposition of 237 Np have been achieved by studying the effects of some parameters as current density, pH and concentration of eletrolitic solution and time of eletrodeposition, using a carrier technique. After preliminary purification, the method is applied to control trace amounts of 237 Np in the Purex process solutions. (Author) [pt

  20. Savannah River Plant 200 Area technical manual. Part SP. Processing of Np/sup 237/ and Pu/sup 238/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, A.J. (comp.)

    1963-01-03

    This manual covers the technology involved in the 200 Area process for the recovery of Np/sup 237/ from certain aqueous waste streams in the separations plants, for the recovery of NP/sup 237/ and Pu/sup 238/ from irradiated NpO/sub 2/-Al slugs and for the fabrication of NpO/sub 2/-Al slugs. The manual contains sections on the fundamental chemistry, the primary recovery of Np by ion exchange, the decontamination of Np by ion exchange, the processing of NpO/sub 2/-Al targets, the separation and purification of Np/sup 237/ and Pu/sup 238/, the finishing of Np, the preparation of NpO/sub 2/, the disposal of spent resin, and the safety aspects of the handling of hydrazine. The section on the fabrication of NpO/sub 2/-Al slugs will be added later. 76 refs., 22 figs.

  1. 239Np application as tracer of 237Np in liquid effluents and nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diodati, Jorge M; Sartori, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a technique to separate and measure 237 Np using 239 Np as a tracer, is presented. After the radiochemical separation, a liquid scintillation measurement with pulse decay discrimination and a γ measurement on the same vial is performed. The method also allows an electrodeposition for an α and γ measurement. The chemical recoveries obtained by LSC and γ spectrometry in vial are similar to those obtained by α and γ spectrometry on electroplated disc. The MDA is 0.08 Bq/l by α spectrometry and 0.22 Bq/l by LSC, with 2 σconfidence interval, and 93.7 % measurement efficiency and 98.0% chemical recovery. (author)

  2. Measurement and analysis of reactivity worth of 237Np sample in cores of TCA and FCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Takeshi; Mori, Takamasa; Okajima, Shigeaki; Tani, Kazuhiro; Suzaki, Takenori; Saito, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    The reactivity worth of 22.87 grams of 237 Np oxide sample was measured and analyzed in seven uranium cores in the Tank-Type Critical Assembly (TCA) and two uranium cores in the Fast Critical Assembly (FCA) at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The TCA cores provided a systematic variation in the neutron spectrum between the thermal and resonance energy regions. The FCA cores, XXI and XXV, provided a hard neutron spectrum of the fast reactor and a soft one of the resonance energy region, respectively. Analyses were carried out using the JENDL-3.3 nuclear data library with a Monte Carlo method for the TCA cores and a deterministic method for the FCA cores. The ratios of calculated to experimental (C/E) reactivity worth were between 0.97 and 0.91, and showed no apparent dependence on the neutron spectrum. (author)

  3. Identification of Nilsson orbitals in the superdeformed minimum of {sup 237}Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Thomas James

    2008-03-31

    In this thesis, a spectroscopy experiment in the second minimum of the double humped fission barrier of {sup 237}Pu is presented, in which, for the first time, single - particle states for a neutron - rich shape isomer with odd neutron number were identified and characterised by their Nilsson quantum numbers. While rotational ({sup 236f}U and {sup 240f}Pu) and vibrational excitations ({sup 240f}Pu) had already been identified earlier in the even-even neighbouring nuclei, now the fission isomers in {sup 237}Pu (t{sub 1/2}=115 ns/1.12 {mu}s) were investigated in a {gamma}-spectroscopy experiment at the Cologne Tandem accelerator. Using the {sup 235}U({alpha},2n) reaction with a pulsed R beam, states in the second minimum were populated. Following the prompt decay of excited states into the ground states of the two shape isomers, the nucleus decays with its halflife, the resulting fission fragments were detected in a specially built 4{pi} parallel plate detector. The extremely rare isomeric {gamma} decays were measured in coincidence with the fission fragments using the highly efficient MINIBALL spectrometer. The background-subtracted {gamma}-ray spectrum was disentangled into contributions from the two shape isomers and 9 excited rotational bands were identified built on the ground states of the two isomers. The ground state spins of the two shape isomers were determined to be I=5/2 (115 ns isomer) and I=9/2 (1120 ns isomer). From the 149 identified {gamma} transitions, independent level schemes were constructed for the two fission isomers in {sup 237}Pu. The consistency of these level schemes was supported by the connecting {gamma} transitions between rotational bands. Furthermore, both level schemes could be combined to a common level scheme, in which the ground state of the long-lived 9/2 isomer was placed 54.0(3) keV above the ground state of the short-lived 5/2 isomer. The resulting level scheme was compared to Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov single

  4. Identification of Nilsson orbitals in the superdeformed minimum of 237Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, Thomas James

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, a spectroscopy experiment in the second minimum of the double humped fission barrier of 237 Pu is presented, in which, for the first time, single - particle states for a neutron - rich shape isomer with odd neutron number were identified and characterised by their Nilsson quantum numbers. While rotational ( 236f U and 240f Pu) and vibrational excitations ( 240f Pu) had already been identified earlier in the even-even neighbouring nuclei, now the fission isomers in 237 Pu (t 1/2 =115 ns/1.12 μs) were investigated in a γ-spectroscopy experiment at the Cologne Tandem accelerator. Using the 235 U(α,2n) reaction with a pulsed R beam, states in the second minimum were populated. Following the prompt decay of excited states into the ground states of the two shape isomers, the nucleus decays with its halflife, the resulting fission fragments were detected in a specially built 4π parallel plate detector. The extremely rare isomeric γ decays were measured in coincidence with the fission fragments using the highly efficient MINIBALL spectrometer. The background-subtracted γ-ray spectrum was disentangled into contributions from the two shape isomers and 9 excited rotational bands were identified built on the ground states of the two isomers. The ground state spins of the two shape isomers were determined to be I=5/2 (115 ns isomer) and I=9/2 (1120 ns isomer). From the 149 identified γ transitions, independent level schemes were constructed for the two fission isomers in 237 Pu. The consistency of these level schemes was supported by the connecting γ transitions between rotational bands. Furthermore, both level schemes could be combined to a common level scheme, in which the ground state of the long-lived 9/2 isomer was placed 54.0(3) keV above the ground state of the short-lived 5/2 isomer. The resulting level scheme was compared to Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov single-particle calculations, Nilsson model and Woods-Saxon potential calculations. This

  5. Measurements of fast neutron-induced fission data of Np-237

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Win, Than; Saito, Keiichiro; Baba, Mamoru; Iwasaki, Tomohiko; Ibaraki, Masanobu; Miura, Takako; Sanami, Toshiya; Nauchi, Yasushi; Hirakawa, Naohiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-03-01

    We have performed the following measurements for {sup 237}Np using the 4.5 MV Dynamitron accelerator of Tohoku University as the pulsed neutron source: (1) Prompt fission neutron spectrum for 0.62 MeV incident neutrons, and (2) Neutron-Induced fission cross-section between 10 and 100 keV. The prompt fission neutron spectrum was measured using TOF method with a heavily shielded NE213 scintillation detector. The Maxwellian temperature T{sub m} derived is 1.28 MeV, which is lower than that of 1.38 MeV in JENDL-3.2. The fission cross sections were measured between 10 - 100 keV. The results are between JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI. (author)

  6. Study of the excited levels of 233Pa by the 237Np alpha decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.; Gaeta, R.; Vano, E.; Los Arcos, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The excited levels in 233 P a following the 237 N p alpha decay have been studied, by performing different experiences to complete available data and supply new information. Thus, two direct alpha spectrum measurement, one alpha-gamma bidimensional coincidence experiment, three gamma-gamma and gamma-X ray coincidences and some other measurements of the gamma spectrum, direct and coincident with alpha-particles have been made. These last experiences have allowed to obviate usual radiochemical separation methods, the 233 P a radioactive descendent interferences being eliminated by means of the coincidence technic. As a result, a primary decay scheme has been elaborated, including 15 new gamma transitions and two new levels, not observed in the most recent works. (Author) 60 refs

  7. Improvement of evaluated neutron nuclear data for {sup 237}Np and {sup 241}Am

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Iwamoto, Osamu; Hasegawa, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear data of {sup 237}Np and {sup 241}Am that are particularly important among the minor actinides were investigated by comparing JENDL-3.2 with the recent evaluated data and available experimental data. As a result of the study, several defects of JENDL-3.2 data were revealed. They were improved on the basis of experimental data or recent evaluated data. For the both nuclides, main quantities revised in the present work were the resonance parameters, cross sections, angular and energy distributions of secondary neutrons, number of neutrons per fission. The data were given in the neutron energy range from 10{sup -5} eV to 20 MeV, and compiled in the ENDF-6 format. (author)

  8. A comparative study of the carcinogenetic effects of 241Am, 239Pu and 237Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yumin; Wei Zhikang; Chen Xueyi; Yao Yongheng; Liu Peibin; Xu Lin; Lun Mingyao

    1984-01-01

    In this experiment, 420 wistar rats were used to study the comparative carcinogenetic effects of 241 Am, 239 Pu and 237 Np. These nuclides were injected to animals intravenously, subcutaneously or directly into the lung (Stansen's lung puncture method) in doses of 1.0, 5.0 and 8.5 μCi/kg, respectively. As soluble nitrate, the nuclides were rapidly transfered from the site of injection into the bone and the liver. Osteosarcomas were found in some animals 8 months to one year after intoxication. Diagnosis of osteosarcoma is based on the histopatological examination and X-ray photography. In the Am-poisoned rats the incidence of osteosarcoma is about 31-74%, varied with different doses and different routes of intoxication; in Pu-poisoned rats, the incidence of osteosarcoma is about 55-66%. while in Np-poisoned rats, it is about 36-53%. Primary lung cancers were also found in those animals poisoned by means of Stansen's lung puncture method with the above three nuclides. The incidence of primary lung cancers is about 6% in Am-and Pu-poisoned rats and 13% in Np-poisoned rats. The incidence of metastasis of osteosarcoma in lung is about 25-65% for Am-poisoned rats, 45-55% for Pu-poisoned rats and 41-80% for Np-poisoned rats. The life-span of above poisoned rats was significantly shorter than that of the normal control animals. The chemical weight for 241 Am, 239 Pu and 237 Np in same unit of radioactivity (1.0 μCi) equals to 0.308 μg, 15.9 μg and 1418.7 μg, respectively. For this reason, we have to pay more attention to the chemical mass effect in carcinogenesis of the above three nuclides

  9. Transfer of 241Am and 237Pu from euphausiid moults to a carbonate-rich marine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargrave, B.T.

    1986-01-01

    Concentrations of 241 Am and 237 Pu adsorbed onto moulted exoskeletons from the euphausiid Meganyctiphanes norvegica decreased exponentially with 50% retention times of 3-7 d when moults were incubated in filtered seawater with small amounts of carbonate-rich sediment. Over 95% of sediment weight was present as -2 ) was greatest in the medium-fine sand fraction which had the highest carbonate content. These particles constituted -2 surface: atoms μm -3 in solution) was 10 3 -10 4 times higher than similar quotients for 241 Am and 237 Pu sorbed to surfaces of organic particles are transferred to sediments. (author)

  10. The inhalation of insoluble iron oxide particles in the sub-micron ranges. Part II - Plutonium-237 labelled aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, D.A.; Ramsden, D.

    1971-10-01

    The results of a series of inhalation studies using iron oxide particles in the size range 0.1 to 0.3 um (count median diameter) are described. In this series the aerosols were labelled with plutonium 237. In vivo detection, excretion analysis and crude location studies were obtainable and the results compared to the earlier studies using chromium 51 labelled aerosols. Plutonium 237 can be considered as a simulator for plutonium 239 and attempts are made to extrapolate the results to the problem of the estimation of plutonium 239 in the human lung. (author)

  11. Inspection report of unauthorized possession and use of unsealed americium-241 and subsequent confiscation, J.C. Haynes Company, Newark, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This US Nuclear Regulatory Commission report documents the circumstances surrounding the March 26, 1985, confiscation and subsequent decontamination activities related to the use of unauthorized quantities of americium-241 at the John C. Haynes Company (licensee) of Newark, Ohio. It focuses on the period from early February to July 26, 1985. The incident started when NRC Region III recieved information that John C. Haynes possessed unauthorized quantities of americium-241 and was conducting unauthorized activities (diamond irradiation). By July 26, 1985, the decontamination activities at the licensee's laboratory were concluded. The licensee's actions with diamond irradiation resulted in contamination in restricted and unrestricted areas of the facility. The confiscation and decontamination activities required the combined efforts of NRC, Federal Bureau of Investigation, US Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, the State of Ohio, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. The report describes the factual information and significant findings associated with the confiscation and decontamination activities

  12. Sorption of carbon, cobalt, nickel, strontium, iodine, cesium, americium and neptumium in rocks and minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnoja, S.; Jaakkola, T.; Kaemaeraeinen, E.L.; Koskinen, A.; Lindberg, A.

    1984-09-01

    Sorption of the radionuclides C-14, Co-58, Ni-63, I-125, Sr-85, Cs-134, Am-241 and Np-237, which are important in nuclear waste, were studied in rock by autoradiographic method. Samples were selected to represent common rocks and minerals in Finnish bedrock: rapakivi granite, tonalite, mica gneiss, granodiorite, biotite, quartz, plagioclase, K feldspar and hornblende. Polished thin sections were used to determine the contributions of different minerals to the sorption of the radionuclides. Sawn rock pieces (1.2 x 1.2 x 1.6 cm) were used to determine the Ksub(a)-values for rough rock surfaces where penetration into the rock matrix was found. The sorption order of the elements determined with the rock pieces was Ksub(a)sup(Cs)>Ksub(a)sup(Ni)>Ksub(a)sup(Co)>Ksub(a)sup(Sr)>Ksub(a)sup(C)>Ksub(a)sup(I). The same order of sorption was determined with thin sections for all nuclides except carbon, which was not sorbed on thin sections. Wide differences in the Ksub(a)-values for different minerals were found for Cs and Sr. The sorption mechanism for these elements is presumed to be ion exchange. The Ksub(a)-values of Cs varied between 0.1 x 10 -4 and 600 x 10 -4 m 3 /m 2 and those for Sr between 0.01 x 10 -4 and 10 x 10 -4 m 3 /m 2 . The lowest values were determined for quartz and the highest for biotite. Radionuclides having a tendency to form pseudocolloids and hydroxide precipitates (Am, Np, Ni) were sorbed on thin sections with only small variation in Ksub(a)-values: all values were between 1 x 10 -4 and 10 x 10 -4 and 100 x 10 -4 m 3 /m 2 . A very good agreement was found between experimental and calculated Ksub(a)-values for rock thin sections. Ksub(a)-values were calculated by multiplying the percentages of individual minerals in the rock by the Ksub(a)-values of the corresponding pure minerals and summing the results. Calculated Ksub(a)-values were occasionally up to 50% smaller than the experimental ones, owing to the low contents of some high adsorbing minerals

  13. Experimental study of Americium-241 biokinetics in Homarus Gammarus lobster. Analysis of the accumulation and detoxication mechanisms at the sub-cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquet, F.

    1991-12-01

    The Americium 241 radioelement accumulation and elimination rate and mechanisms in the lobster organism have been experimentally studied; incorporation and detoxification capacities of each organ are evaluated. The existence of various biological compartments is shown; the major role of the digestive gland in accumulation of the radioelement, its distribution towards the various organs, and its resorption is comprehensively described, with an analysis at the subcellular and molecular levels. 401 p., 65 fig., 43 tab., 428 ref

  14. Measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross sections of 232Th, 238U, 237Np and 243Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Kazutaka; Sato, Osamu; Yoshida, Kazuo; Imaruoka, Hiromitsu; Terayama, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Masashi; Hirakawa, Naohiro

    1984-01-01

    Neutron induced fission cross sections of 232 Th, 238 U, 237 Np and 243 Am relative to 235 U were measured in the energy range from 1.5 to 6.6 MeV. The present results are compared with experimental results of others and evaluated data in JENDL-2 and ENDF/B-IV. (author)

  15. 49 CFR 237.73 - Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of bridges from over-weight and over... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Capacity of Bridges § 237.73 Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads. (a) Each track owner...

  16. Determination of traces of 237Np in environmental samples by ICP-MS after separation using TOA extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Y.Q.; Li, J.Y.; Luo, S.G.; Wu, T.; Liu, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    A simple, rapid, cost-efficient, and robust method for separation of 237 Np with an extraction chromatographic column (TOA: tri-n-octylamine on Teflon powder) is outlined in detail and further improved for direct ICP-MS analysis. The column efficiently retained 237 Np in 2 mol L -1 HNO 3 medium and all of the 237 Np was easily eluted with 0.02 mol L -1 oxalic acid in 0.16 mol L -1 HNO 3 at 95 C. The separated solutions were free from most matrix elements and were aspirated into the ICP-MS directly. The decontamination factor for 238 U is more than 10 4 . The instrumental detection limit for 237 Np was 0.46 pg mL -1 , which corresponds to 1.2 x 10 -5 Bq mL -1 . The method is more rapid than traditional radiometric techniques. It is also considered to be more suitable for environmental monitoring than existing methods based on TOA. (orig.)

  17. Determination of traces of 237Np in environmental samples by ICP-MS after separation using TOA extraction chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Y Q; Li, J Y; Luo, S G; Wu, T; Liu, J L

    2001-09-01

    A simple, rapid, cost-efficient, and robust method for separation of 237Np with an extraction chromatographic column (TOA: tri-n-octylamine on Teflon powder) is outlined in detail and further improved for direct ICP-MS analysis. The column efficiently retained 237Np in 2 mol L(-1) HNO3 medium and all of the 237Np was easily eluted with 0.02 mol L(-1) oxalic acid in 0.16 mol L(-1) HNO3 at 95 degrees C. The separated solutions were free from most matrix elements and were aspirated into the ICP-MS directly. The decontamination factor for 238U is more than 10(4). The instrumental detection limit for 237Np was 0.46 pg mL(-1), which corresponds to 1.2 x 10(-5) Bq mL(-1). The method is more rapid than traditional radiometric techniques. It is also considered to be more suitable for environmental monitoring than existing methods based on TOA.

  18. Development of ionization technique for measurement of fast neutron induced fission products yields of {sup 237}Np

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goverdovski, A.A.; Khryachkov, V.A.; Ketlerov, V.V.; Mitrofanov, V.F.; Ostapenko, Yu.B.; Semenova, N.N.; Fomichev, A.N.; Rodina, L.F. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    Twin gridded ionization chamber and corresponding software was designed for measurements of masses, kinetic energies and nuclear charges of fission fragments from fast neutron induced fission of {sup 237}Np. The ionization detector design, electronics, data acquisition and processing system and the test results are presented in this paper. (J.P.N.)

  19. Measurement of the fission cross-section ratio for 237Np/235U around 14 MeV neutron energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desdin, L.; Szegedy, S.; Csikai, J.

    1989-01-01

    Fission cross-section ratio was determined for 237 Np/ 235 U around 14 MeV neutron energies with a back-to-back ionization chamber. Neutrons were produced by a 180 KV accelerator using T(d,n) 4 He reaction. No significant energy dependence was found in the cross section ratio

  20. An experimental study of americium-241 biokinetics in the Lobster Homarus Gammarus. Analysis of the accumulation/storage and detoxification processes at the subcellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquet, F.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental study of americium-241 kinetics has been conducted in the lobster Homarus gammmarus. The investigations were conducted at all the levels from the whole body to the subcellular and molecular levels. The animals were contaminated by a single or chronic ingestion of 241 Am labelled mussels. Assessments of accumulation, elimination and distribution of the radionuclide were established on organisms kept in the laboratory; they made it possible to demonstrate the importance of the digestive gland in the radionuclide transfer pathways. The preliminary results led to structural then ultrastructural investigations of the digestive gland in association with radioautographic studies and cellular extractions methods. Four cellular types were demonstrated, only two of them being implied in the radionuclide retention, the former being responsible for americium intake and the latter for its long-term retention. By means of biochemical techniques, subcellular accumulation was studied and the organelles implied in the nuclide retention were specified. Finally, a method of cellular nuclei dissociation was developed; it made it possible to analyse the molecular nature of americium ligands and to demonstrate the function of the protein nuclear matrix in the nuclide retention

  1. A new method for the determination of plutonium and americium using high pressure microwave digestion and alpha-spectrometry or ICP-SMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luisier, F.; Corcho Alvarado, J.A.; Froidevaux, P.; Steinmann, P.; Krachler, M.

    2009-01-01

    Plutonium and americium are radionuclides particularly difficult to measure in environmental samples because they are a-emitters and therefore necessitate a careful separation before any measurement, either using radiometric methods or ICP-SMS. Recent developments in extraction chromatography resins such as Eichrom R TRU and TEVA have resolved many of the analytical problems but drawbacks such as low recovery and spectral interferences still occasionally occur. Here, we report on the use of the new Eichrom R DGA resin in association with TEVA resin and high pressure microwave acid leaching for the sequential determination of plutonium and americium in environmental samples. The method results in average recoveries of 83 ± 15% for plutonium and 73 ± 22% for americium (n = 60), and a less than 10% deviation from reference values of four IAEA reference materials and three samples from intercomparisons exercises. The method is also suitable for measuring 239 Pu in water samples at the μBq/l level, if ICP-SMS is used for the measurement. (author)

  2. Post-Irradiation Examination of 237Np Targets for 238Pu Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Robert Noel [ORNL; Baldwin, Charles A [ORNL; Hobbs, Randy W [ORNL; Schmidlin, Joshua E [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is recovering the US 238Pu production capability and the first step in the process has been to evaluate the performance of a 237Np target cermet pellet encased in an aluminum clad. The process proceeded in 3 steps; the first step was to irradiate capsules of single pellets composed of NpO2 and aluminum power to examine their shrinkage and gas release. These pellets were formed by compressing sintered NpO2 and aluminum powder in a die at high pressure followed by sintering in a vacuum furnace. Three temperatures were chosen for sintering the solution precipitated NpO2 power used for pellet fabrication. The second step was to irradiate partial targets composed of 8 pellets in a semi-prototypical arrangement at the two best performing sintering temperatures to determine which temperature gave a pellet that performed the best under the actual planned irradiation conditions. The third step was to irradiate ~50 pellets in an actual target configuration at design irradiation conditions to assess pellet shrinkage and gas release, target heat transfer, and dimensional stability. The higher sintering temperature appeared to offer the best performance after one cycle of irradiation by having the least shrinkage, thus keeping the heat transfer gap between the pellets and clad small minimizing the pellet operating temperature. The final result of the testing was a target that can meet the initial production goals, satisfy the reactor safety requirements, and can be fabricated in production quantities. The current focus of the program is to verify that the target can be remotely dissembled, the pellets dissolved, and the 238Pu recovered. Tests are being conducted to examine these concerns and to compare results to code predictions. Once the performance of the full length targets has been quantified, the pellet 237Np loading will be revisited to determine if it can be

  3. Preliminary results from uranium/americium affinity studies under experimental conditions for cesium removal from NPP ''Kozloduy'' simulated wastes solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforova, A.; Kinova, L.; Peneva, C.; Taskaeva, I.; Petrova, P.

    2005-01-01

    We use the approach described by Westinghouse Savannah River Company using ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) to remove elevated concentrations of radioactive cesium to facilitate handling waste samples from NPP K ozloduy . Preliminary series of tests were carried out to determine the exact conditions for sufficient cesium removal from five simulated waste solutions with concentrations of compounds, whose complexing power complicates any subsequent processing. Simulated wastes solutions contain high concentrations of nitrates, borates, H 2 C 2 O 4 , ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and Citric acid, according to the composition of the real waste from the NPP. On this basis a laboratory treatment protocol was created. This experiment is a preparation for the analysis of real waste samples. In this sense the results are preliminary. Unwanted removal of non-cesium radioactive species from simulated waste solutions was studied with gamma spectrometry with the aim to find a compromise between on the one hand the AMP effectiveness and on the other hand unwanted affinity to AMP of Uranium and Americium. Success for the treatment protocol is defined by proving minimal uptake of U and Am, while at the same time demonstrating good removal effectiveness through the use of AMP. Uptake of U and Am were determined as influenced by oxidizing agents at nitric acid concentrations, proposed by Savannah River National laboratory. It was found that AMP does not significantly remove U and Am when concentration of oxidizing agents is more than 0.1M for simulated waste solutions and for contact times inherent in laboratory treatment protocol. Uranium and Americium affinity under experimental conditions for cesium removal were evaluated from gamma spectrometric data. Results are given for the model experiment and an approach for the real waste analysis is chosen. Under our experimental conditions simulated wastes solutions showed minimal affinity to AMP when U and Am are most probably in

  4. Transfer of plutonium and americium to grass vegetation as a function of radionuclide solid - solution portioning in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolik, G.; Ovsiannikova, S.; Ivanova, T.; Leinova, S.; Kimlenka, I.; Zakharenkov, V.; Zakharenkova, N.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of investigation is to determine the main parameters influencing the plutonium and americium migration in the soil plant system including concentration factor Cf and distribution coefficient K d . The C f factor characterising the ratio of radionuclide activity concentration in the plant specie (A p , Bq/kg) and root-inhabited layer of soil (A s , Bq/kg) has been used as a measure of biological availability of TUE. The K d coefficient estimating the ratio between radionuclide activity concentration in the equilibrium solid phase (A s.ph. ) and pore solution (A sol. , Bq/l) is considered as a measure of sorption ability of soil in respect to the radionuclide. The biological availability of 239,240 Pu and 241 Am for different grass species in various mineral and organic soils of natural and agrarian systems has been studied. The soils and grass vegetation were sampled in 1994 - 2001 in Bragin, Narovla, Khoiniki districts of Belarus (12 - 53 km from ChNPP). Since plant uptake depends primarily on radionuclide portion in the pore soil solution the proper solutions were separated from the soil samples of root-inhabited layer with the method of high-speed centrifugation. 239,240 Pu and 241 Am in the samples were determined radiochemically using alpha-spectrometer ALPHA-KING 676 A. Influence of composition of soil solution on the radionuclide soil plant transfer has been analysed. The interrelationships between the concentration factor (C f ), portion of radionuclide in the soil solution and coefficient K d have been considered. The results of investigations clearly demonstrated the dependence of TUE concentration factors for meadow sedge-herbaceous association of soil sorbing complex. As a rule, C f of americium is higher than that of plutonium. Differentiating of soils according to the C f value and the forecast of grass vegetation contamination by TUE in the different periods after catastrophe has been done. The levels of various soils contamination to receive

  5. Standard Test Method for Measuring Reaction Rates by Radioactivation of Neptunium-237

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for measuring reaction rates by assaying a fission product (F.P.) from the fission reaction 237Np(n,f)F.P. 1.2 The reaction is useful for measuring neutrons with energies from approximately 0.7 to 6 MeV and for irradiation times up to 30 to 40 years. 1.3 Equivalent fission neutron fluence rates as defined in Practice E 261 can be determined. 1.4 Detailed procedures for other fast-neutron detectors are referenced in Practice E 261. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. The z = 1.6748 C I Absorber Toward the QSO PKS 1756+237

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Katherine C.; Bauer, James M.; Jim, Kevin T. C.

    We have detected C I ground-state absorption at zabs = 1.6748 toward the QSO PKS 1756+237 (zem = 1.725), making this only the fourth known C I QSO absorber. The absence of excited-state fine-structure C I lines is compatible with the redshifted Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation at an expected temperature of TCMBR (1+z) = 7.291 K (Mather et al. 1994, ApJ, 354, L37). We find a 2 σ upper-limit on the C I excitation temperature of Tex <= 7.73(+0.53, -0.46) K (Roth & Bauer 1999, ApJ, submitted). Our Keck HIRES spectra (8.3 km s-1 FWHM) obtained in May 1997 also reveal the existence of Ni II and Fe II lines with a sub-solar Ni/Fe abundance ratio, presumably indicative of dust. We have obtained deep, high resolution (0.3'' FWHM) images in H+K' with the UH 2.2m Tip-Tilt system of the QSO field in order to identify the system responsible for the zabs = 1.6748 absorption. We detect two faint candidate systems within 1.5'' and 3'' (≅ 15 and 30 kpc, Hcirc = 65) of the QSO.

  7. Fission mode analysis of the reaction 237Np(n,f) - possibilities and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegler, P.

    1996-01-01

    Fission fragment properties for the reaction 237 Np(n,f) have been measured at the Van de Graaff Laboratory of the IRMM. Using a double gridded ionization chamber the mass, kinetic energy and the angular distribution for both fission fragments could be determined simultaneously for an incident neutron energy range from E n =0.3 MeV upto E n =5.5 MeV. Complete datasets have been acquired for 13 different neutron energies covering sub barrier fission as well as fission in the plateau region. A detailed analysis of the fragment distributions and the respective momenta has been carried out, checking the coherence against the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. The consideration of multi-modal fission offers an improved possibility for the description of the fragment distributions backed up by theoretical calculations on the basis of the multi-model random-neck rupture model of Brosa, Grossmann and Mueller. The changes of the fission fragment properties under investigation are completely described and an interpretation of the findings is presented. (author)

  8. Evaluation of synthetic water-soluble metal-binding polymers with ultrafiltration for selective concentration of americium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.F.; Gibson, R.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Jones, M.M.; Lu, M.T.; Robison, T.W.; Schroeder, N.C.; Stalnaker, N.

    1997-01-01

    Routine counting methods and ICP-MS are unable to directly measure the new US Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory level for discharge waters containing alpha-emitting radionuclides of 30 pCi/L total alpha or the 0.05 pCi/L regulatory level for Pu or Am activity required for surface waters at the Rocky Flats site by the State of Colorado. This inability indicates the need to develop rapid, reliable, and robust analytical techniques for measuring actinide metal ions, particularly americium and plutonium. Selective separation or preconcentration techniques would aid in this effort. Water-soluble metal-binding polymers in combination with ultrafiltration are shown to be an effective method for selectively removing dilute actinide ions from acidic solutions of high ionic strength. The actinide-binding properties of commercially available water-soluble polymers and several polymers which have been reported in the literature were evaluated. The functional groups incorporated in the polymers were pyrrolidone, amine, oxime, and carboxylic, phosphonic, or sulfonic acid. The polymer containing phosphonic acid groups gave the best results with high distribution coefficients and concentration factors for 241 Am(III) and 238 Pu(III)/(IV) at pH 4 to 6 and ionic strengths of 0.1 to 4

  9. The distribution and remobilisation of plutonium and americium in estuaries of the eastern Irish Sea: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toole, J.

    1993-01-01

    The plutonium and americium components in the authorised discharges from BNFL Sellafield are rapidly removed from Irish Sea seawater onto the particulate phase. These actinides tend to be concentrated in fine sediment deposits on the Irish Sea bed and in estuaries where fine sediment accumulates. This paper focuses on these estuarine areas and brings together the available data on the levels and distributions of Pu and Am within the estuarine sediments. The results from field and laboratory experiments which have been undertaken in order to determine the degree of Pu and Am remobilisation, and the mechanism responsible, are also reviewed. These sediment-associated actinides may undergo both chemical and physical remobilisation, leading to increased dissolved concentrations in low-salinity waters and to apparent losses from the estuary on the sediment phase under certain conditions. Saltmarsh sediments are demonstrated to be the most important reservoirs for Pu and Am. The radiological significance of the levels of Pu and Am found in these and in other sediments is summarised, by comparison with GDLs. The appropriateness of GDLs for assessing the radiological significance of Pu and Am in these saltmarsh sediments is discussed. A more site-specific assessment methodology is recommended. (author)

  10. Characteristics of plutonium and americium contamination at the former U.K. atomic weapons test ranges at Maralinga and Emu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.A.; Cooper, M.B.; Lokan, K.H.; Wilks, M.J.; Williams, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    Physico-chemical studies on environmental plutonium are described, which provide data integral to an assessment of dose for the inhalation of artificial actinides by Australian Aborigines living a semi-traditional lifestyle at Maralinga and Emu, sites of U.K. atomic weapons tests between 1953 and 1963. The most significant area, from a radiological perspective, is the area contaminated by plutonium in a series of ''one point'' safety trials in which large quantities of plutonium were dispersed explosively at a location known as Taranaki. The activity distribution of plutonium and americium with particle size is quite different from the mass distribution, as a considerably higher proportion of the activity is contained in the finer (inhalable) fraction than of the mass. Except in areas which were disturbed through ploughing during a cleanup in 1967, most the activity remains in the top 1 cm of the surface. Much of the activity is in particulate form, even at distances > 20 km from the firing sites, and discrete particles have been located even at distances beyond 100 km. Data are presented which permit the assessment of annual committed doses through the inhalation pathway, for Aborigines living a semi-traditional lifestyle in the areas affected by the Taranaki firings in particular. (author)

  11. Characterization of a sealed Americium-Beryllium (AmBe) source by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommers, J.; Jimenez, M.; Adamic, M.; Giglio, J.; Carney, K.

    2009-01-01

    Two Americium-Beryllium neutron sources were dismantled, sampled (sub-sampled) and analyzed via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Characteristics such as 'age' since purification, actinide content, trace metal content and inter and intra source composition were determined. The 'age' since purification of the two sources was determined to be 25.0 and 25.4 years, respectively. The systematic uncertainties in the 'age' determination were ±4% 2σ. The amount and isotopic composition of U and Pu varied substantially between the sub-samples of Source 2 (n = 8). This may be due to the physical means of sub-sampling or the way the source was manufactured. Source 1 was much more consistent in terms of content and isotopic composition (n = 3 sub-samples). The Be-Am ratio varied greatly between the two sources. Source 1 had an Am-Be ratio of 6.3 ± 52% (1σ). Source 2 had an Am-Be ratio of 9.81 ± 3.5% (1σ). In addition, the trace element content between the samples varied greatly. Significant differences were determined between Sources 1 and 2 for Sc, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Ba and W. (author)

  12. Use of radioanalytical methods for determination of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldo, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    Activated charcoal is a common type of radioactive waste that contains high concentrations of fission and activation products. The management of this waste includes its characterization aiming the determination and quantification of the specific radionuclides including those known as Difficult-to-Measure Radionuclides (RDM). The analysis of the RDM's generally involves complex radiochemical analysis for purification and separation of the radionuclides, which are expensive and time-consuming. The objective of this work was to define a methodology for sequential analysis of the isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium present in a type of radioactive waste, evaluating chemical yield, analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost. Three methodologies were compared and validated that employ ion exchange (TI + EC), extraction chromatography (EC) and extraction with polymers (ECP). The waste chosen was the activated charcoal from the purification system of primary circuit water cooling the reactor IEA-R1. The charcoal samples were dissolved by acid digestion followed by purification and separation of isotopes with ion exchange resins, extraction and chromatographic extraction polymers. Isotopes were analyzed on an alpha spectrometer, equipped with surface barrier detectors. The chemical yields were satisfactory for the methods TI + EC and EC. ECP method was comparable with those methods only for uranium. Statistical analysis as well the analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost revealed that EC method is the most effective for identifying and quantifying U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm present in charcoal. (author)

  13. Vertical transport of particulate-associated plutonium and americium in the upper water column of the Northeast Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Ballestra, S.; La Rosa, J.; Fukai, R.

    1983-01-01

    Concentrations of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) were determined in seawater, suspended particulate matter, sediment trap samples, and biogenic material collected at the VERTEX I site in the North Pacific off central California. From a vertical profile taken over the upper 1500 m, the presence of sub-surface maxima of sup(239+240)Pu and 241 Am were identified between 100 to 750 m and 250 to 750 m, respectively. A large fraction (32%) of the filterable sup(239+240)Pu in surface waters was associated with cells during a phytoplankton bloom; Pu:Am activity ratios in surface water and the suspended particles indicated that Pu was concentrated by the cells to a greater degree than Am. However, similar measurements beneath the surface layer showed an overall enrichment of Am over Pu on fine suspended particles with depth. Freshly produced zooplankton fecal pellets and large, fast sinking particles collected in PITS contained relatively high concentrations of Pu and Am. Both transuranic concentrations in trapped particles and transuranic flux tended to increase with depth down to 750 m, suggesting that their scavenging is in the upper water column. Am appeared to be scavenged by sinking biogenic particles to a greater extent than Pu. The results are discussed. (author)

  14. New experimental determination of the neutronic resonance parameters of {sup 237}Np below 500 eV; Nouvelle determination experimentale des parametres de resonances neutroniques de {sup 237}Np en dessous de 500 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gressier, V

    1999-10-01

    For studies of future nuclear reactors dedicated to nuclear waste transmutation, an improvement of the accuracy of the neutron radiative capture cross section of {sup 237}Np appears necessary. In the framework of a collaboration between the Commissariat a l'Energie atomique (CEA) and Institute for Reference Materials and Measurement (IRMM, Geel, Bergium), a new determination of the resonance parameters of {sup 237}Np has been performed. Two types of experiments are carried out at GELINA, the IRMM pulsed neutron source, using the time of flight method: a transmission experiment which is related to the neutron total cross section and a capture experiment which gives the neutron radiative capture cross section. The resonance parameters presented in this work are extracted from the transmission data between 0 and 500 eV with the least square code REFIT, using the Reich-Moore formalism. In parallel, the Doppler effect is investigated. The commonly used free gas model appears inadequate below 20 eV for neptunium dioxide at room temperature. By the use of the program DOPUSH, which calculates the Doppler broadening with a harmonic crystal model according to Lamb's theory, we are able to produce abetter fit of the experimental data for the resonances of {sup 237}Np in NpO{sub 2} at low energy or temperatures. In addition to the resonance parameters, a study of their mean value and distribution is included in this work. (authors)

  15. Independent Yields of Kr and Xe Fragments at Photofission of Odd Nuclei ^{237}Np and ^{243}Am

    CERN Document Server

    Gangrsky, Yu P; Myshinskii, G V; Penionzhkevich, Yu E

    2004-01-01

    he independent yields of fragments Kr (A=89-93) and Xe (A=135-142) at photofission of odd nuclei 237Np and 243Am are presented. The experiments were performed using the bremsstrahlung of 25 MeV electrons on the microtron of FLNR, JINR. A technique was used that included the transportation of fragments which escaped from the target with the gas flow through a capillary and the condensation of inert gases in a cryostat at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. Kr and Xe isotopes were identified by the spectra of their daughter products. The mass number distributions of the independent yields of Kr and Xe isotopes and of the complementary fragments (Y and La at the photofission of ^{237}Np and Nb and Pr at the photofission of ^{243}Am) were obtained.

  16. 242Pu as tracer for simultaneous determination of 237Np and 239,240Pu in environmental samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Q.J.; Dahlgaard, H.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    A procedure has been developed using Pu-242 as tracer for simultaneous determination of Np-237 and Pu-239,Pu-240 in environmental samples. The validity of the method has been demonstrated by ICPMS and alpha-spectroscopy for up to 10 gram soil and sediment, seawater up to 200 litres. The paper...... from Np and Pu) R-before/R-after = 1.004 +/- 3.3% (S.D n = 20) and 1 litre seawater R-before/R-after = 1.019+/-1.9% (S.D., n = 12). Results from the intercomparison samples LAEA-135, LAEA-381 and from environmental samples are presented....... describes a suitable chemical procedure for Np and Pu including a quantitative pre-concentration of neptunium and plutonium, preparation of Np4+ and Pu4+, NP(NO3)(6)(2-) and Pu(NO3)(6)(2-), The ratio of Np-237/Pu-242 (or Np-237/Pu-239) before and after the procedure has been determined using 10 g soil (free...

  17. Experimental study of Americium-241 biokinetics in Homarus Gammarus lobster. Analysis of the accumulation and detoxication mechanisms at the sub-cellular level; Etude experimentale des biocinetiques de l`americium-241 chez le homard homarus gammarus. Analyse des mecanismes d`accumulation et de detoxication au niveau subcellulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquet, F

    1991-12-01

    The Americium 241 radioelement accumulation and elimination rate and mechanisms in the lobster organism have been experimentally studied; incorporation and detoxification capacities of each organ are evaluated. The existence of various biological compartments is shown; the major role of the digestive gland in accumulation of the radioelement, its distribution towards the various organs, and its resorption is comprehensively described, with an analysis at the subcellular and molecular levels. 401 p., 65 fig., 43 tab., 428 ref.

  18. Chemical behaviour of trivalent and pentavalent americium in saline NaCl-solutions. Studies of transferability of laboratory data to natural conditions. Interim report. Reported period: 1.2.1993-31.12.1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runde, W.; Kim, J.I.

    1994-09-01

    In order to clarify the chemical behaviour of Americium in saline aqueous systems relevant for final storage this study deals with the chemical reactions of trivalent and pentavalent Americium in NaCl-solutions under the influence of radiolysis from its own alpha radiation. The focus of the study was on investigating the geologically relevant reactions, such as hydrolysis or carbonate- and chloride complexing in solid-liquid equilibriums. Comprehensive measurements on solubility and spectroscopic studies in NaCl-solutions were carried out in a CO 2 -free atmosphere and 10 -2 atm CO 2 partial pressure. Identification and characterisation of the AM (III) and AM(V) solid phases were supplemented by structural research with the chemically analogue EU (III) and Np(V) compounds. The alpha-radiation induced radiolysis in saline NaCl solutions and the redox behaviour of Americium which was influenced thereby were spectroscopically quantified. (orig.) [de

  19. Transfer across the human gut of environmental plutonium, americium, cobalt, caesium and technetium: studies with cockles (Cerastoderma edule) from the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Our previous studies have indicated lower values of the gut transfer factor ('f L values') for plutonium and americium in winkles (Littorina littorea) than adopted by ICRP. The present study was undertaken primarily to investigate whether this observation extends to other species. Samples of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) from Ravenglass, Cumbria were eaten by volunteers who provided 24 samples of urine and faeces. Urine samples indicated f L values for cockles which were higher than for winkles; for plutonium these ranged overall up to 7x10 -4 with an arithmetic mean in the range (2-3)x10 -4 , and for americium up to 2.6x10 -4 with an arithmetic mean of 1.2x10 -4 . Limited data based on volunteers eating cockles from the Solway suggest that f L values for americium may be greater at distance from Sellafield. The measured values compare with 5x10 -4 used by the ICRP for environmental forms of both elements, which would appear to provide adequate protection when calculating doses from Cumbrian cockles. Data for other nuclides were obtained by analysing faecal samples from the volunteers who ate the Ravenglass cockles. Cobalt-60 showed an f L value in the region of 0.2, twice the value currently used by ICRP. For 137 Cs, variabilities were indicated in the range 0.08 to 0.43, within the ICRP value of f L =1.0. Technetium-99 gave f L values up to about 0.6, in reasonable conformity with the ICRP value of 0.5. (author)

  20. An experimental study of americium-241 biokinetics in the Lobster Homarus Gammarus. Analysis of the accumulation/storage and detoxification processes at the subcellular level; Etude experimentale des biocinetiques de l`americium-241 chez le homard homarus gammarus. Analyse des mecanismes d`accumulation et de detoxication au niveau subcellulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquet, F

    1993-01-01

    An experimental study of americium-241 kinetics has been conducted in the lobster Homarus gammmarus. The investigations were conducted at all the levels from the whole body to the subcellular and molecular levels. The animals were contaminated by a single or chronic ingestion of {sup 241} Am labelled mussels. Assessments of accumulation, elimination and distribution of the radionuclide were established on organisms kept in the laboratory; they made it possible to demonstrate the importance of the digestive gland in the radionuclide transfer pathways. The preliminary results led to structural then ultrastructural investigations of the digestive gland in association with radioautographic studies and cellular extractions methods. Four cellular types were demonstrated, only two of them being implied in the radionuclide retention, the former being responsible for americium intake and the latter for its long-term retention. By means of biochemical techniques, subcellular accumulation was studied and the organelles implied in the nuclide retention were specified. Finally, a method of cellular nuclei dissociation was developed; it made it possible to analyse the molecular nature of americium ligands and to demonstrate the function of the protein nuclear matrix in the nuclide retention.

  1. Determination by gamma-ray spectrometry of the plutonium and americium content of the Pu/Am separation scraps. Application to molten salts; Determination par spectrometrie gamma de la teneur en plutonium et en americium de produits issus de separation Pu/Am. Application aux bains de sels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godot, A. [CEA Valduc, Dept. de Traitement des Materiaux Nucleaires, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Perot, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Technologie Nucleaire, Service de Modelisation des Transferts et Mesures Nucleaires, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Within the framework of plutonium recycling operations in CEA Valduc (France), americium is extracted from molten plutonium metal into a molten salt during an electrolysis process. The scraps (spent salt, cathode, and crucible) contain extracted americium and a part of plutonium. Nuclear material management requires a very accurate determination of the plutonium content. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is performed on Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) scraps located inside the glove box, in order to assess the plutonium and americium contents. The measurement accuracy is influenced by the device geometry, nuclear instrumentation, screens located between the sample and the detector, counting statistics and matrix attenuation, self-absorption within the spent salt being very important. The purpose of this study is to validate the 'infinite energy extrapolation' method employed to correct for self-attenuation, and to detect any potential bias. We present a numerical study performed with the MCNP computer code to identify the most influential parameters and some suggestions to improve the measurement accuracy. A final uncertainty of approximately 40% is achieved on the plutonium mass. (authors)

  2. Picomolar traces of americium(III) introduce drastic changes in the structural chemistry of terbium(III). A break in the ''gadolinium break''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, Jan M. [TU Wien, Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria); Mueller, Danny; Knoll, Christian; Wilkovitsch, Martin; Weinberger, Peter [TU Wien, Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna (Austria); Giester, Gerald [University of Vienna, Institute of Mineralogy and Crystallography, Vienna (Austria); Ofner, Johannes; Lendl, Bernhard [TU Wien, Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna (Austria); Steinhauser, Georg [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institute of Radioecology and Radiation Protection (Germany)

    2017-10-16

    The crystallization of terbium 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] (ZT) in the presence of trace amounts (ca. 50 Bq, ca. 1.6 pmol) of americium results in 1) the accumulation of the americium tracer in the crystalline solid and 2) a material that adopts a different crystal structure to that formed in the absence of americium. Americium-doped [Tb(Am)(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}ZT]{sub 2} ZT.10 H{sub 2}O is isostructural to light lanthanide (Ce-Gd) 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] compounds, rather than to the heavy lanthanide (Tb-Lu) 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] (e.g., [Tb(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}]{sub 2}ZT{sub 3}.6 H{sub 2}O) derivatives. Traces of Am seem to force the Tb compound into a structure normally preferred by the lighter lanthanides, despite a 10{sup 8}-fold Tb excess. The americium-doped material was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy, radiochemical neutron activation analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the inclusion properties of terbium 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] towards americium were quantified, and a model for the crystallization process is proposed. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Observations on the redistribution of plutonium and americium in the Irish Sea sediments, 1978 to 1996: concentrations and inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, P.J.; Denoon, D.C.; Woodhead, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of plutonium and americium in the sub-tidal sediments of the Irish Sea is described following major surveys in 1978, 1983, 1988 and 1995. Concentrations in surface sediments have declined near the source at Sellafield since 1988. Time-series of inter-tidal surface sediment concentrations are presented from 1977 onwards, revealing the importance of sediment reworking and transport in controlling the evolution of the environmental signal. The surface and near-surface sediments, in the eastern Irish Sea 'mud-patch', are generally well mixed with respect to Pu (α) and 241 Am distributions but show increasing variability with depth - up to 4 orders of magnitude in concentration. The inventories of 239,240 Pu and 241 Am in the sub-tidal sediments have been estimated and compared with the reported decay-corrected discharges. These amounted to 360 and 545 TBq respectively, in 1995, about 60% of the total decay-corrected discharge. Part of the unaccounted fraction may be due to unrepresentative sampling of the seabed. It is speculated that some tens of TBq of plutonium and 241 Am reside undetected in the large volumes of coarse-grained, sub-tidal and inter-tidal sediment which characterise much of the Irish Sea. This has been due to the inability of the available corers to penetrate to the base of contamination in these mobile sediments. Further observations are needed to verify and quantify the missing amount. A budget of plutonium-α and 241 Am has been estimated based on published observations in the three main compartments: water column, sub-tidal and inter-tidal sediments. This amounts to 460-540 TBq and 575-586 TBq respectively, or 64-75% and 60-61%, of the decay-corrected reported discharge. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Measurement of total alpha activity of neptunium, plutonium, and americium in highly radioactive Hanford waste by iron hydroxide precipitation and 2-heptanone solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, T.C.; Kaye, J.H.

    1992-06-01

    An improved method has been developed to concentrate the major alpha-emitting actinide elements neptunium, plutonium, and americium from samples with high salt content such as those resulting from efforts to characterize Hanford storage tank waste. Actinide elements are concentrated by coprecipitation of their hydroxides using iron carrier. The iron is removed by extraction from 8M HCI with 2-heptanone. The actinide elements remain in the aqueous phase free from salts, iron, and long-lived fission products. Recoveries averaged 98 percent

  5. A novel Meloidogyne graminicola effector, MgMO237, interacts with multiple host defence-related proteins to manipulate plant basal immunity and promote parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiansong; Hu, Lili; Sun, Longhua; Lin, Borong; Huang, Kun; Zhuo, Kan; Liao, Jinling

    2018-02-27

    Plant-parasitic nematodes can secrete effector proteins into the host tissue to facilitate their parasitism. In this study, we report a novel effector protein, MgMO237, from Meloidogyne graminicola, which is exclusively expressed within the dorsal oesophageal gland cell and markedly up-regulated in parasitic third-/fourth-stage juveniles of M. graminicola. Transient expression of MgMO237 in protoplasts from rice roots showed that MgMO237 was localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of the host cells. Rice plants overexpressing MgMO237 showed an increased susceptibility to M. graminicola. In contrast, rice plants expressing RNA interference vectors targeting MgMO237 showed an increased resistance to M. graminicola. In addition, yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that MgMO237 interacted specifically with three rice endogenous proteins, i.e. 1,3-β-glucan synthase component (OsGSC), cysteine-rich repeat secretory protein 55 (OsCRRSP55) and pathogenesis-related BetvI family protein (OsBetvI), which are all related to host defences. Moreover, MgMO237 can suppress host defence responses, including the expression of host defence-related genes, cell wall callose deposition and the burst of reactive oxygen species. These results demonstrate that the effector MgMO237 probably promotes the parasitism of M. graminicola by interacting with multiple host defence-related proteins and suppressing plant basal immunity in the later parasitic stages of nematodes. © 2018 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  6. Salicylic acid failed to increase the efficacy of Ca-DTPA in the decorporation of plutonium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Mays, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Male and female C57BL/Do mice were each given a single i.p. injection of 237+239 Pu + 241 Am as the citrate complex at 45 days of age. Twice weekly i.p. injecctions of either 500 μmol/kg Ca-DTPA or 500 μmol/kg Ca-DTPA, mixed just before injection with 2000 μmol/kg salicylic acid (SA), were begun 3 days after nuclide administration and continued for 5 weeks. Control mice were injected each time with isotonic saline. Nuclide retention was determined by in vivo counting using NaI(T1) spectrometry. At the end of treatment, total-body retention of Pu or Am in the mice given Ca-DTPA was significantly lower (P < 0.001) than in the control animals. Mice treated with Ca-DTPA + SA were statistically indistinguishable from mice treated with Ca-DTPA

  7. Differences in the behavior of 233Pa, 237Np and 239 Pu in bentonite contaminated by sulfate-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, A.; Fujikawa, Y.; Takigami, H.; Zheng, J.; Asano, H.; Arai, K.; Yoshikawa, H.; Ito, M.

    1998-01-01

    The behaviors of 233 Pa, 237 Np and 239 Pu in high level radioactive wastes from nuclear fuel reprocessing were investigated by a laboratory experiment. Radioactive wastes are glassified and disposed of in geological repositories encased in bentonite as an additional artificial barrier to protect the environment. There is, however, the possibility that some anaerobic bacteria, especially sulfate-reducing bacteria, may flourish within the bentonite during the long disposal period (more than a century). The effects of sulfate-reducing bacteria on the behavior of the radionuclides within bentonite were investigated using the distribution coefficient (Kd) of 233 Pa, 237 Np and 239 Pu. The Kd was obtained with a 0.22 m membrane filter separating radionuclide contents in solid and liquid phases. The anaerobic bacteria, including sulfate-reducing bacteria, used for this investigation originated from the anaerobic treatment of pulp and paper waste and operated for more than one year at Eh around -85 mV. The bentonite used for this study was produced in Japan. The active anaerobic bacteria clearly accumulates considerable amounts of 233 Pa and 239 Pu by producing high Kd values of nearly 100,000, while Kds of 233 Pa and 239 Pu for the sterilized anaerobic bacteria were less than 10,000. In other words, live anaerobic bacteria can hold considerably higher amounts of the radionuclides compared to dead bacteria. Furthermore, high Kd values were obtained for anaerobic bacteria at pH 5-9. In contrast, Kd values for the radionuclide 237 Np were not influenced by the anaerobic bacteria but were controlled by chemical environmental conditions such as like pH. Another comparison was conducted for the radionuclides for mixtures of non-sterilized bacteria with bentonite. (author)

  8. Sequential Injection Method for Rapid and Simultaneous Determination of 236U, 237Np, and Pu Isotopes in Seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Steier, Peter

    2013-01-01

    An automated analytical method implemented in a novel dual-column tandem sequential injection (SI) system was developed for simultaneous determination of 236U, 237Np, 239Pu, and 240Pu in seawater samples. A combination of TEVA and UTEVA extraction chromatography was exploited to separate and purify...... target analytes, whereupon plutonium and neptunium were simultaneously isolated and purified on TEVA, while uranium was collected on UTEVA. The separation behavior of U, Np, and Pu on TEVA–UTEVA columns was investigated in detail in order to achieve high chemical yields and complete purification...

  9. Synthesis of zirconia sol stabilized by trivalent cations (yttrium and neodymium or americium): a precursor for Am-bearing cubic stabilized zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemonnier, Stephane; Grandjean, Stephane; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Jolivet, Jean-Pierre

    2010-03-07

    Recent concepts for nuclear fuel and targets for transmuting long-lived radionuclides (minor actinides) and for the development of innovative Gen-IV nuclear fuel cycles imply fabricating host phases for actinide or mixed actinide compounds. Cubic stabilized zirconia (Zr, Y, Am)O(2-x) is one of the mixed phases tested in transmutation experiments. Wet chemical routes as an alternative to the powder metallurgy are being investigated to obtain the required phases while minimizing the handling of contaminating radioactive powder. Hydrolysis of zirconium, neodymium (a typical surrogate for americium) and yttrium in aqueous media in the presence of acetylacetone was firstly investigated. Progressive hydrolysis of zirconium acetylacetonate and sorption of trivalent cations and acacH on the zirconia particles led to a stable dispersion of nanoparticles (5-7 nm) in the 6-7 pH range. This sol gels with time or with temperature. The application to americium-containing solutions was then successfully tested: a stable sol was synthesized, characterized and used to prepare cubic stabilized zirconia (Zr, Y, Am)O(2-x).

  10. Investigation of the separation of americium(III) and europium(III) by high-speed countercurrent chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.F.; Jin, Y.R.; Xu, Q.C.; Wang, S.L.; Zhang, L.X.

    2005-01-01

    The long-lived actinides are the important elements in the radioactive waste ;disposal. Because the ions semi diameter and chemical properties of trivalent actinides(III) and trivalent lanthanides(III) are very similar, the separation between them is very difficult. Yang Yu-Sheng put forward the actinides(III) are softer acid than the lanthanides(III), so the actinides(III) are more easily extracted by the soft extractant contain sulfur or nitrogen than the lanthanides(III). Some research have been done on the separation between actinides(III) and lanthanides(III) using the extractants contain sulfur or nitrogen. The results show that satisfactory separation efficiency was gained. Countercurrent Chromatography (CCC) have many specific advantages, such as free from solid support, permit large sample volume and high flow rate, which is useful in the preconcentration of inorganic solute and inorganic preparation. Some studies were done on the separation of lanthanides or-other inorganic elements by HSCCC, the high-purity reagents prepared by HSCCC or CPC turned out to be successful. In present paper, the investigation of separation between Americium (III) and Euricium (III) by High-Speed Countercurrent Chromatography (HSCCC) were made. The extractant used in the work was prepared by ourselves, which is of the soft extractant contrain sulfur. The effects of separation condition on the separation efficiency of Am and Eu by HSCCC were investigated using dichlorophenyl dithiophosphinic acid in xylene as the stationary phase and 0.1 mol/L NaClO4 as mobile phase, respectively. The results show that mutual separation between Am and Eu can be accomplished. The separation factor increases with the increasing of the concentration of extractant and the pH value of the mobile phase, further more, minishing the flow rate of the mobile phase can also improves the separation efficiency between Am and Eu. The nearly base separation was gained when the flow rate is 0.35 ml/min, the

  11. Depth profiling of residual activity of ^{237}U fragments as a range verification technique for ^{238}U primary ion beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Strašík

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and simulation data concerning fragmentation of ^{238}U ion beam in aluminum, copper, and stainless-steel targets with the initial energy 500 and 950  MeV/u are collected in the paper. A range-verification technique based on depth profiling of residual activity is presented. The irradiated targets were constructed in the stacked-foil geometry and analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. One of the purposes of these experiments was depth profiling of residual activity of induced nuclides and projectile fragments. Among the projectile fragments, special attention is paid to the ^{237}U isotope that has a range very close to the range of the primary ^{238}U ions. Therefore, the depth profiling of the ^{237}U isotope can be utilized for experimental verification of the ^{238}U primary-beam range, which is demonstrated and discussed in the paper. The experimental data are compared with computer simulations by FLUKA, SRIM, and ATIMA, as well as with complementary experiments.

  12. Neutron induced fission cross sections for 232Th, 235,238U, 237Np, and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisowski, P.W.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J.; Hill, N.W.; Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A.

    1989-01-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross section ratios for samples of 232 Th, 235,238 U, 237 Np and 239 Pu have been measured from 1 to 400 MeV. The fission reaction rate was determined for all samples simultaneously using a fast parallel plate ionization chamber at a 20-m flight path. A well characterized annular proton recoil telescope was used to measure the neutron fluence from 3 to 30 MeV. Those data provided the shape of the 235 U(n,f) cross section relative to the hydrogen scattering cross section. That shape was then normalized to the very accurately known value for 235 U(n,f) at 14.178 MeV. From 30 to 400 MeV cross section values were determined using the neutron fluence measured with a plastic scintillator. Cross section values of 232 Th, 235,238 U, 237 Np and 239 Pu were computed from the ratio data using the authors' values for 235 U(n,f). In addition to providing new results at high neutron energies, these data highlight several areas of deficiency in the evaluated nuclear data files and provide new information for the 235 U(n,f) standard

  13. NKS-Norcmass reference material for analysis of Pu-isotopes and 237Np by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, P.; Nygren, U.; Appelblad, P.; Skipperud, L.; Sjoegren, A.

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the reference material in the Norcmass-project was to produce a low-level ( 239 Pu) sample of sufficient amount to allow individual laboratories to perform several tests without risk of using up the material. Although there are several reference materials available (eg IAEA) few have 239 Pu/ 240 Pu data and almost none have 237 Np/ 239 Pu-data. Those who have (eg IAEA-384) have very high concentrations and are not useful for testing analytical methods designed for low-level measurements where a large sample mass may be required. The reference material consist of the top 10cm of 2mm sieved soil pooled together from 12 different Danish locations collected during 2003. The Soil was blended and sieved through 0.6 and finally through a 0.4 mm sieve. A total amount of 17 kg soil was produced. Several aliquots of the material was subject to analysis by alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS. The material contain 239 + 240 Pu at a concentration of 0.24 ± 0.01 mBq/g and a 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio of 0.19 ± 0.006. The ratio 237 Np/ 239 Pu was determined to 0.32 ± 0.01. (au)

  14. Efficacy and safety of once-daily NVA237 in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD: the GLOW1 trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Urzo Anthony

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NVA237 is a once-daily dry-powder formulation of the long-acting muscarinic antagonist glycopyrronium bromide in development for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The glycopyrronium bromide in COPD airways clinical study 1 (GLOW1 evaluated the efficacy, safety and tolerability of NVA237 in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Methods Patients with COPD with a smoking history of ≥ 10 pack-years, post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 1/forced vital capacity 1 antagonists permitted in patients stabilized on them prior to study entry. The primary outcome measure was trough FEV1 at Week 12. Results A total of 822 patients were randomized to NVA237 (n = 552 or placebo (n = 270. Least squares mean (± standard error trough FEV1 at Week 12 was significantly higher in patients receiving NVA237 (1.408 ± 0.0105 L, versus placebo (1.301 ± 0.0137 L; treatment difference 108 ± 14.8 mL, p 1 were apparent at the end of Day 1 and sustained through Week 26. FEV1 was significantly improved in the NVA237 group versus placebo throughout the 24-hour periods on Day 1 and at Weeks 12 and 26, and at all other visits and timepoints. Transition dyspnoea index focal scores and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire scores were significantly improved with NVA237 versus placebo at Week 26, with treatment differences of 1.04 (p Conclusions Once-daily NVA237 was safe and well tolerated and provided rapid, sustained improvements in lung function, improvements in dyspnoea, and health-related quality of life, and reduced the risk of exacerbations and the use of rescue medication. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01005901

  15. The MARINE experiment: Irradiation of sphere-pac fuel and pellets of UO{sub 2−x} for americium breeding blanket concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Agata, E., E-mail: elio.dagata@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Hania, P.R. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Freis, D.; Somers, J. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bejaoui, S. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, DEN/DEC, F-13108 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Charpin, F.F.; Baas, P.J.; Okel, R.A.F.; Til, S. van [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Lapetite, J.-M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Delage, F. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, DEN/DEC, F-13108 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • MARINE is designed to check the behaviour of MABB sphere-pac concept. • MABB sphere-pac are compared with MABB pellet. • Swelling and helium release behaviour will be the main output of the experiment. • An experiment to check sphere-pac MADF fuel behaviour has been already performed. - Abstract: Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors of long-lived nuclides like {sup 241}Am is therefore an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity and heat production of waste packages to be stored in a repository. The MARINE irradiation experiment is the latest of a series of European experiments on americium transmutation (e.g. EFTTRA-T4, EFTTRA-T4bis, HELIOS, MARIOS, SPHERE) performed in the High Flux Reactor (HFR). The MARINE experiment is developed and carried out in the framework of the collaborative research project PELGRIMM of the EURATOM 7th Framework Programme (FP7). During the past years of experimental works in the field of transmutation and tests of innovative nuclear fuels, the release or trapping of helium as well as swelling have been shown to be the key issues for the design of such kind of fuel both as drivers and even more for Am-bearing blanket targets (due to the higher Am contents). The main objective of the MARINE experiment is to study the in-pile behaviour of uranium oxide fuel containing 13% of americium and to compare the behaviour of sphere-pac versus pellet fuel, in particular the role of microstructure and temperature on fission gas release and He on fuel swelling. The MARINE experiment will be irradiated in 2016 in the HFR in Petten (The Netherlands) and is expected to be completed in spring 2017. This paper discusses the rationale and objective of the MARINE experiment and provides a general description of its design for which some innovative features have been adopted.

  16. Inhaled americium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    This project includes experiments to determine the effects of Zn-DTPA therapy on the retention, translocation and biological effects of inhaled 241 AmO 2 . Beagle dogs that received inhalation exposure to 241 AmO 2 developed leukopenia, clincial chemistry changes associated with hepatocellular damage, and were euthanized due to respiratory insufficiency caused by radiation pneumonitis 120 to 131 days after pulmonary deposition of 22 to 65 μCi 241 Am. Another group of dogs that received inhalation exposure to 241 AmO 2 and were treated daily with Zn-DTPA had initial pulmonary deposition of 19 to 26 μCi 241 Am. These dogs did not develop respiratory insufficiency, and hematologic and clinical chemistry changes were less severe than in the non-DTPA-treated dogs

  17. Americium-241 Decorporation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    non- pyrogenic ampoules suitable for intravenous administration (FDA 2004, Hameln 2004). This is a standard formulation, which is a fixed parameter...4.4.6. Toxicity/Side Effects Treatment with DTPA can deplete endogenous metals, which is why the Zn salt is preferred for long-term treatment...However, other endogenous metals may be depleted if treatment spans several months. During prolonged treatments serum levels of essential metals should be

  18. Photofission Cross Sections for 237Np in the Energy Interval from 5.27 to 10.83 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldo, L.P.; Semmler, R.; Goncalez, O. L.; Mesa, J.; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Garcia, F.; Rodriguez, O.

    2000-01-01

    Photofission cross sections for 237 Np have been measured as a function of energy, in the interval from 5.27 to 10.83 MeV. The gamma-ray spectra were those produced by thermal neutron capture, in 30 different target materials, at a tangential beam hole of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IEA-R1 2-MW research reactor. The set of experimental data has been unfolded employing least-squares methods and the covariance matrix methodology. The determined photofission cross sections for 237 Np, together with the complete correlation matrix for the involved errors, are presented and are compared with previous measurements reported in the literature. A statistical calculation for the 237 Np photofission cross sections was performed, and the results are compared with the experimental data

  19. First experiments on transmutation studies of iodine-129 and neptunium-237 using relativistic protons of 3.7 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivopustov, M.I.; Adam, J.; Bradnova, V.

    1997-01-01

    First experiments on the transmutation of long-lived 129 I and 237 Np using relativistic protons of 3.7 GeV are described. Relativistic protons generate in extended Pb-targets substantial neutron fluences. These neutrons get moderated in paraffin and are used for transmutation as follows: 129 (n, γ) 130 I(β - ) → 130 Xe(stable) and 237 Np(n, γ) 238 Np(β - ) →. The isotopes 130 I (T 1/2 =12.36 h) and 238 Np (T 1/2 =2.117 days) were identified radiochemically. One can estimate the transmutation cross section (n, γ) in the given neutron field as σ( 129 I(n, γ))=(10±2)b and σ( 237 Np(n, γ))=(140±30)b. The experiments were carried out in November 1996 at the Synchrophasotron, Laboratory of High Energies (LHE), Dubna, Russia

  20. Montecarlo calculation of the isomeric cross sections ratio for the reaction 237Np(n,2n)236Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleri, F.

    1988-01-01

    A Montecarlo calculation of the isomeric cross section ratio for the (n,2n) reaction on 237 Np has been carried out based on the Hauser-Feshbach formulation. A standard energy-dependent optical model potential was used, with zero deformation parameters and no spin-orbit coupling. Investigation was made about the role of the energy cut-off value, of the higher multipole (E2) transition, of the gamma-ray versus second neutron emission, of the value of the spin cutt-off parameter. The results give the correct qualitative energy dependence of the branching ratio, with the assumption that the 1 - level is the ground state. The spin cut-off value obtained indicates a less pronounced deviation of the nuclear moment of inertia from the rigid-body value, with respect to older evaluations for high-mass nuclei. (author)

  1. Ultra-trace determination of neptunium-237 and plutonium isotopes in urine samples by compact accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, X.; Christl, M.; Kramer-Tremblay, S., E-mail: sheila.kramer-tremblay@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Synal, H-A. [ETH Zurich, Lab. of Ion Beam Physics, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    Ultra-trace analysis of actinides, such as Pu isotopes and {sup 237}Np, in bioassay samples is often needed for radiation protection programs at nuclear facilities. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), particularly the compact ETH Zurich system “Tandy”, has evolved over the years as one of the most sensitive, selective, and robust techniques for actinide analysis. Employment of the AMS technique can reduce the demands on sample preparation chemistry and increase sample analysis throughput, due to very low instrumental detection limit, high rejection of interferences, and low susceptibility to adverse sample matrices. Initial research and development tests were performed to explore and demonstrate the analytical capability of AMS for Pu and Np urine bioassay. In this study, urine samples spiked with femtogram levels of Np and Pu isotopes were prepared and measured using compact ETH AMS system and the results showed excellent analytical capability for measuring Np and Pu isotopes at femtogram/litre levels in urine. (author)

  2. Theoretical and experimental study of the bio-geochemical behaviour of americium 241 in simplified rhizosphere conditions. Application to a calcareous agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrier, T.

    2004-06-01

    Americium 241, is one of the most radio-toxic contaminant produced during the nuclear fuel cycle. It can be found in all environmental compartments, in particular the soils. The main goals of this study are to identify, quantify and model the effect of the main factors controlling the mobility of 241 Am in the rhizosphere and the agricultural soils. The physico-chemical parameters of the soil and of the soil solution, the potential role of microorganisms on the sorption-desorption processes, and the speciation of americium in solution have been more particularly studied. 241 Am remobilization has been studied at the laboratory using leaching experiments performed in controlled conditions on reworked calcareous soils artificially contaminated with 241 Am. The soil samples have been washed out in different hydrodynamic conditions by solutions with various compositions. The eluted solution has been analyzed (pH, conductivity, ionic composition, Fe tot , organic acids, 241 Am) and its bacterial biomass content too. The overall results indicate that 241 Am remobilization is contrasted and strongly linked with the condition under study (pH, ionic strength, glucose and/or citrate concentration). Therefore, a solution in equilibrium with the soil or containing small exudate concentrations (10 -4 M) re-mobilizes only a very small part of the americium fixed on the solid phase. The desorption of 241 Am corresponds to a solid/liquid coefficient of partition (K d ) of about 10 5 L.kg -1 . A significant addition of glucose induces an important dissolution of soil carbonates by the indirect action of microorganisms, but does not significantly favor the 241 Am remobilization. On the other hand, the presence of strong citrate concentrations (≥ 10 -2 M) allows 300 to 10000 time greater re-mobilizations by the complexing of 241 Am released after the dissolution of the carrying phases. Finally, the colloidal transport of 241 Am has been systematically observed in a limited but

  3. Artificial radionuclides in the Northern European Marine Environment. Distribution of radiocaesium, plutonium and americium in sea water and sediments in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groettheim, Siri

    2000-01-01

    This study considers the distribution of radiocaesium, plutonium and americium in the northern marine environment. The highest radiocaesium activity in sea water was observed in Skagerrak, 26 Bq/m 3 , and in surface sediments in the Norwegian Sea, 60 Bq/kg. These enhanced levels were related to Chernobyl. The highest 239,240Pu activity in surface water was measured in the western North Sea, 66 mBq/m 3 . In sea water, sub-surface maxima were observed at several locations with an 239,240Pu activity up to 160 mBq/m 3 , and were related to Sellafield. With the exception to the North Sea, surface sediments reflected Pu from global fallout from weapons tests only. (author)

  4. Safe handling of kilogram amounts of fuel-grade plutonium and of gram amounts of plutonium-238, americium-241 and curium-244

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louwrier, K.P.; Richter, K.

    1976-01-01

    During the past 10 years about 600 glove-boxes have been installed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements at Karlsruhe. About 80% of these glove-boxes have been designed and equipped for handling 100-g to 1-kg amounts of 239 Pu containing 8-12% 240 Pu (low-exposure plutonium). A small proportion of the glove-boxes is equipped with additional shielding in the form of lead sheet or lead glass for work with recycled plutonium. In these glove-boxes gram-amounts of 241 Am have also been handled for preparation of Al-Am targets using tongs and additional shielding inside the glove-boxes themselves. Water- and lead-shielded glove-boxes equipped with telemanipulators have been installed for routine work with gram-amounts of 241 Am, 243 Am and 244 Cm. A prediction of the expected radiation dose for the personnel is difficult and only valid for a preparation procedure with well-defined preparation steps, owing to the fact that gamma dose-rates depend strongly upon proximity and source seize. Gamma radiation dose measurements during non-routine work for 241 Am target preparation showed that handling of gram amounts leads to a rather high irradiation dose for the personnel, despite lead or steel glove-box shielding and shielding within the glove-boxes. A direct glove-hand to americium contact must be avoided. For all glove-handling of materials with gamma radiation an irradiation control of the forearms of the personnel by, for example, thermoluminescence dosimeters is necessary. Routine handling of americium and curium should be executed with master-slave equipment behind neutron and gamma shielding. (author)

  5. Review of fission product yields and delayed neutron data for the actinides NP-237, PU-242, AM-242M, AM-243, CM-243 and CM-245

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, R.W.

    1990-07-01

    A review of fission product yields and delayed neutron data for Np-237, Pu-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-243 and Cm-245 has been undertaken. Gaps in understanding and inconsistencies in existing data were identified and priority areas for further experimental, theoretical and evaluation investigation detailed

  6. High resolution measurement of the 237Np(n,f) cross section from 100keV to 2MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plattard, S.; Pranal, Y.; Blons, J.

    1975-01-01

    237 Np fission is one of the reactions utilized in the threshold detector method of neutron spectrometry for the determination of fast neutron spectra in nuclear reactors. Therefore, an accurate knowledge of the energy-dependent fission cross section is essential for a precise generation of the spectral indices of this method. A high resolution measurement of the fission cross section is presented [fr

  7. Localization of the X-linked ocular albinism gene (OA1) between DXS278/DXS237 and DXS143/DXS16 by linkage analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, A. A.; Samanns, C.; van Dorp, D. B.; Ferguson-Smith, M. A.; Gal, A.; Bleeker-Wagemakers, E. M.

    1990-01-01

    Linkage analysis was performed in six families segregating for X-linked ocular albinism of the Nettleship-Falls type using four polymorphic DNA markers from the distal Xp. Linkage was found between the disease locus (OA1) and the loci DXS237 (theta max = 0.06, Zmax = 2.82), DXS278 (theta max = 0.03,

  8. Measurement of 237Np fission rate ratio relative to 235U fission rate in cores with various thermal neutron spectrum at the Kyoto University Critical Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unesaki, Hironobu; Shiroya, Seiji; Iwasaki, Tomohiko; Fujiwara, Daisuke; Kitada, Takanori; Kuroda, Mitsuo; Kohashi, Akio; Kato, Takeshi; Ikeuchi, Yoshitaka

    2000-01-01

    Integral measurements of 237 Np fission rate ratio relative to 235 U fission rate have been performed at Kyoto University Citrical Assembly. The fission rates have been measured using the back-to back type double fission chamber at five thermal cores with different H/ 235 U ratio so that the neutron spectra of the cores were systematically varied. The measured fission rate ratio per atom was 0.00439 to 0.0298, with a typical uncertainty of 2 to 3%. The measured data were compared with the calculated results using SRAC/TWOTRAN and MVP based on JENDL-3.2, which gave the averaged C/E values of 0.93 and 0.95, respectively. Obtained results of C/E using 237 Np cross sections from JENDL-3/2, ENDF/B-VI.5 and JEF2.2 show that the latter two gave smaller results than JENDL-3.2 by about 4%, which clearly reflects the discrepancy in the evaluated cross section among the libraries. This difference arises from both fast fission and resonance region. Although further improvement is recommended, 237 Np fission cross section in JENDL-3.2 is considered to be superior to those in the other libraries and can be adopted for use in design calculations for minor actinide transmutation system using thermal reactors with prediction precision of 237 Np fission rate with in 10%. (author)

  9. Measurement of the neutron-induced fission cross section of 237Np relative to 235U from 0.02 to 30 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, J.W.; Magana, J.W.; Browne, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The 237 Np/ 235 U fission cross section ratio has been measured from 0.02 to 30 MeV. Using the threshold method, a value of 1.294 +- 0.019 is obtained for the average cross section ratio in the interval from 1.75 to 4.00 MeV

  10. Actinide Oxidation State and O/M Ratio in Hypostoichiometric Uranium-Plutonium-Americium U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x Mixed Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Lebreton, Florent; Aufore, Laurence; Scheinost, Andreas C; Martin, Philippe M

    2016-03-07

    Innovative americium-bearing uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x are envisioned as nuclear fuel for sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors (SFRs). The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio, directly related to the oxidation state of cations, affects many of the fuel properties. Thus, a thorough knowledge of its variation with the sintering conditions is essential. The aim of this work is to follow the oxidation state of uranium, plutonium, and americium, and so the O/M ratio, in U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x samples sintered for 4 h at 2023 K in various Ar + 5% H2 + z vpm H2O (z = ∼ 15, ∼ 90, and ∼ 200) gas mixtures. The O/M ratios were determined by gravimetry, XAS, and XRD and evidenced a partial oxidation of the samples at room temperature. Finally, by comparing XANES and EXAFS results to that of a previous study, we demonstrate that the presence of uranium does not influence the interactions between americium and plutonium and that the differences in the O/M ratio between the investigated conditions is controlled by the reduction of plutonium. We also discuss the role of the homogeneity of cation distribution, as determined by EPMA, on the mechanisms involved in the reduction process.

  11. The Synergistic Effect of Valsartan and LAF237 [(S)-1-[(3-Hydroxy-1-Adamantyl)Ammo]acetyl-2-Cyanopyrrolidine] on Vascular Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Min; Sun, Dongdong; Li, Weijie; Liu, Bing; Wang, Shenxu; Zhang, Zheng; Cao, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the combination effects and mechanisms of valsartan (angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker) and LAF237 (DPP-IV inhibitor) on prevention against oxidative stress and inflammation injury in db/db mice aorta. Methods. Db/db mice (n = 40) were randomized to receive valsartan, LAF237, valsartan plus LAF237, or saline. Oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction in diabetic mice aorta were examined. Results. Valsartan or LAF237 pretreatment significantly increased plasma GLP-1 expression, reduced apoptosis of endothelial cells isolated from diabetic mice aorta. The expression of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits also significantly decreased resulting in decreased superoxide production and ICAM-1 (fold change: valsartan : 7.5 ± 0.7, P valsartan : 5.2 ± 1.2, P valsartan: 3.2 ± 0.6, LAF237: 4.7 ± 0.8; P valsartan and LAF237 resulted in a more significant increase of GLP-1 expression. The decrease of the vascular oxidative stress and inflammation reaction was also higher than monotherapy with valsartan or LAF237. Conclusion. These data indicated that combination treatment with LAF237 and valsartan acts in a synergistic manner on vascular oxidative stress and inflammation in type 2 diabetic mice. PMID:22474415

  12. Numerical methods to analyze alpha spectra and application to the study of neptunium 237 and neptunium 236

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Torano, E.

    1990-01-01

    A set of numerical methods to analize alpha spectra measured with semiconductor detectors are presented. The methods can be divided in two groups, the first being based in the X 2 minimization ands the second in the use of the Fourier Transform. The methods based in the minimization of X 2 can, in turn, be divided according to the model used to fit the spectra. Some of them use a monoenergetic line for the intercomparison with the other peaks in the same spectrum. The others take into account the analytical function developed to represent an alpha line. Both allow the determination of positions and areas of the components, as well as the uncertainties of the results. The Fast Fourier Transform is applied to the second group of methods, which include the smoothing of experimental data, and the deconvolution of spectra. Examples are given of the application of these methods to real spectra. The alpha spectra of 237 Np and 236 Np are studied by using some of the methods described in this work. (Author)

  13. The quadrupole moment and strong interaction parameters from muonic and pionic X-ray studies of 237Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laat, C.T.A.M. de; Taal, A.; Duinker, W.; Konijn, J.; Petitjean, C.; Reist, H.W.; Mueller, W.; Commission of the European Communities, Geel

    1987-01-01

    The X-ray spectrum of muonic and pionic 237 Np has been investigated with muons and pions stopped in a NpO 2 target. The nuclear spectroscopic quadrupole moment was determined to be Q=3.886±0.006 b from the splittings of the muonic 5g→4f hyperfine complexes. The B(E2)↓-values for the first and second excited states were evaluated as 3.17±0.08 and 2.77±0.10 e 2 b 2 , respectively. A comparison between the muonic and pionic 5g→4f hyperfine complexes yields the strong interaction parameter for the pionic 4f state. For the first time a change of sign as function of Z for the strong interaction quadrupole shift ε 2 (4f) has been observed. The standard optical model predictions agree reasonably well with the measured strong interaction monopole shift, ε 0 (4f), and width, Γ 0 (4f), while they disagree with the experimental value for ε 2 . A stronger s-wave repulsion in the optical potential could explain this effect. (orig.)

  14. Precise 238U(n,2n)237U reaction cross-section measurements using the activation facility at TUNL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishichayan, Fnu; Bhike, M.; Tornow, W.

    2014-09-01

    Accurate neutron-induced 238U(n,2n)237U reaction data are required for many practical applications, especially in the field of nuclear energy, including advanced heavy water reactors, where 238U is used as the breeding material to regenerate the fissile material 239Pu. Precise (n,2n) cross-section measurements of 238U are underway at TUNL with mono-energetic neutrons in the 8.0 to 14.0 MeV energy range in steps of 0.25 MeV using the activation technique. After activation of the 0.5 inch diameter and 442 mg 238U foil, the activity of the 208 keV characteristic γ-line is tracked for 6 weeks with a high efficient HPGe clover detector to determine the initial activity needed for the cross-section determination. Results of the cross-section measurements, determined relative to 27Al and 197Au neutron activation monitor foils, and the comparison with theoretical models will be presented during the meeting.

  15. Fragment properties in the fission of 237Np with fast neutrons - an experimental investigation of fission dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, A.A.

    1980-03-01

    Fission fragment properties such as mass distribution, kinetic energy distribution or number of prompt emitted neutrons as a function of fragment mass can be used to characterize the scission point configuration. The present experiment allows for the first time to investigate these quantities for neutron induced fission in the MeV range. In this way the influence of excitation energy of the saddle point deformation of the fissioning system ( 237 Np + n) can be studied. Neutrons with energies of 0.8 and 5.5 MeV were produced by the Karlsruhe pulsed 3MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Kinetic energies and velocities of correlated fragments were determined by solid state detectors using the time-of-flight technique. The experimentally determined distributions of fragment properties were compared to a recent model suggested by Wilkins et al. which assumes only relatively weak coupling between internal and collective degrees of freedom. At least qualitative agreement is found for most of the results. (orig.) [de

  16. First simultaneous measurement of fission and gamma probabilities of 237U and 239Np via surrogate reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marini P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fission and gamma decay probabilities of 237U and 239Np have been measured, for the first time simultaneously in dedicated experiments, via the surrogate reactions 238U(3He, 4He and 238U(3He,d, respectively. While a good agreement between our data and neutron-induced data is found for fission probabilities, gamma decay probabilities are several times higher than the corresponding neutron-induced data for each studied nucleus. We study the role of the different spin distributions populated in the surrogate and neutron-induced reactions. The compound nucleus spin distribution populated in the surrogate reaction is extracted from the measured gamma-decay probabilities, and used as input parameter in the statistical model to predict fission probabilities to be compared to our data. A strong disagreement between our data and the prediction is obtained. Preliminary results from an additional dedicated experiment confirm the observed discrepancies, indicating the need of a better understanding of the formation and decay processes of the compound nucleus.

  17. Americium, plutonium and uranium contamination and speciation in well waters, streams and atomic lakes in the Sarzhal region of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Vintró, L; Mitchell, P I; Omarova, A; Burkitbayev, M; Jiménez Nápoles, H; Priest, N D

    2009-04-01

    New data are reported on the concentrations, isotopic composition and speciation of americium, plutonium and uranium in surface and ground waters in the Sarzhal region of the Semipalatinsk Test Site, and an adjacent area including the settlement of Sarzhal. The data relate to filtered water and suspended particulate from (a) streams originating in the Degelen Mountains, (b) the Tel'kem 1 and Tel'kem 2 atomic craters, and (c) wells on farms located within the study area and at Sarzhal. The measurements show that (241)Am, (239,240)Pu and (238)U concentrations in well waters within the study area are in the range 0.04-87mBq dm(-3), 0.7-99mBq dm(-3), and 74-213mBq dm(-3), respectively, and for (241)Am and (239,240)Pu are elevated above the levels expected solely on the basis of global fallout. Concentrations in streams sourced in the Degelen Mountains are similar, while concentrations in the two water-filled atomic craters are somewhat higher. Suspended particulate concentrations in well waters vary considerably, though median values are very low, at 0.01mBq dm(-3), 0.08mBq dm(-3) and 0.32mBq dm(-3) for (241)Am, (239,240)Pu and (238)U, respectively. The (235)U/(238)U isotopic ratio in almost all well and stream waters is slightly elevated above the 'best estimate' value for natural uranium worldwide, suggesting that some of the uranium in these waters is of test-site provenance. Redox analysis shows that on average most of the plutonium present in the microfiltered fraction of these waters is in a chemically reduced form (mean 69%; 95% confidence interval 53-85%). In the case of the atomic craters, the proportion is even higher. As expected, all of the americium present appears to be in a reduced form. Calculations suggest that annual committed effective doses to individual adults arising from the daily ingestion of these well waters are in the range 11-42microSv (mean 21microSv). Presently, the ground water feeding these wells would not appear to be contaminated with

  18. Americium, plutonium and uranium contamination and speciation in well waters, streams and atomic lakes in the Sarzhal region of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon Vintro, L. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)], E-mail: luis.leon@ucd.ie; Mitchell, P.I.; Omarova, A. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Burkitbayev, M. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Al-Faraby Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Jimenez Napoles, H. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Priest, N.D. [School of Health and Social Sciences, Middlesex University, Enfield, EN3 4SA (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    New data are reported on the concentrations, isotopic composition and speciation of americium, plutonium and uranium in surface and ground waters in the Sarzhal region of the Semipalatinsk Test Site, and an adjacent area including the settlement of Sarzhal. The data relate to filtered water and suspended particulate from (a) streams originating in the Degelen Mountains, (b) the Tel'kem 1 and Tel'kem 2 atomic craters, and (c) wells on farms located within the study area and at Sarzhal. The measurements show that {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 238}U concentrations in well waters within the study area are in the range 0.04-87 mBq dm{sup -3}, 0.7-99 mBq dm{sup -3}, and 74-213 mBq dm{sup -3}, respectively, and for {sup 241}Am and {sup 239,240}Pu are elevated above the levels expected solely on the basis of global fallout. Concentrations in streams sourced in the Degelen Mountains are similar, while concentrations in the two water-filled atomic craters are somewhat higher. Suspended particulate concentrations in well waters vary considerably, though median values are very low, at 0.01 mBq dm{sup -3}, 0.08 mBq dm{sup -3} and 0.32 mBq dm{sup -3} for {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 238}U, respectively. The {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U isotopic ratio in almost all well and stream waters is slightly elevated above the 'best estimate' value for natural uranium worldwide, suggesting that some of the uranium in these waters is of test-site provenance. Redox analysis shows that on average most of the plutonium present in the microfiltered fraction of these waters is in a chemically reduced form (mean 69%; 95% confidence interval 53-85%). In the case of the atomic craters, the proportion is even higher. As expected, all of the americium present appears to be in a reduced form. Calculations suggest that annual committed effective doses to individual adults arising from the daily ingestion of these well waters are in the range 11-42 {mu}Sv (mean 21 {mu

  19. The Synergistic Effect of Valsartan and LAF237 [(S-1-[(3-Hydroxy-1-AdamantylAmmo]acetyl-2-Cyanopyrrolidine] on Vascular Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Shen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the combination effects and mechanisms of valsartan (angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker and LAF237 (DPP-IV inhibitor on prevention against oxidative stress and inflammation injury in db/db mice aorta. Methods. Db/db mice (n=40 were randomized to receive valsartan, LAF237, valsartan plus LAF237, or saline. Oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction in diabetic mice aorta were examined. Results. Valsartan or LAF237 pretreatment significantly increased plasma GLP-1 expression, reduced apoptosis of endothelial cells isolated from diabetic mice aorta. The expression of NAD(PH oxidase subunits also significantly decreased resulting in decreased superoxide production and ICAM-1 (fold change: valsartan : 7.5 ± 0.7, P<0.05; LAF237: 10.2 ± 1.7, P<0.05, VCAM-1 (fold change: valsartan : 5.2 ± 1.2, P<0.05; LAF237: 4.8 ± 0.6, P<0.05, and MCP-1 (fold change: valsartan: 3.2 ± 0.6, LAF237: 4.7 ± 0.8; P<0.05 expression. Moreover, the combination treatment with valsartan and LAF237 resulted in a more significant increase of GLP-1 expression. The decrease of the vascular oxidative stress and inflammation reaction was also higher than monotherapy with valsartan or LAF237. Conclusion. These data indicated that combination treatment with LAF237 and valsartan acts in a synergistic manner on vascular oxidative stress and inflammation in type 2 diabetic mice.

  20. Comment: 237 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan 絵や写真の投稿もできます。右は、没になったティラノザウルス(目がかわいい)です。 ttamura 2008/11/11 12:11:40 2011/09/14 21:10:36 ...

  1. Solvent extraction of uranium(VI), plutonium(VI) and americium(III) with HTTA/HPMBP using mono- and bi-functional neutral donors. Synergism and thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, S.A.; Lohithakshan, K.V.; Mithapara, P.D.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    Synergistic extraction of hexavalent uranium and plutonium as well as trivalent americium was studied in HNO 3 with thenoyl, trifluoro-acetone (HTTA)/1-phenyl, 3-methyl, 4-benzoyl pyrazolone-5 (HPMBP) in combination with neutral donors viz. DPSO, TBP, TOPO (mono-functional) and DBDECMP, DHDECMP, CMPO (bi-functional) with wide basicity range using benzene as diluent. A linear correlation was observed when the equilibrium constant log Ks for the organic phase synergistic reaction of both U(VI) and Pu(VI) with either of the chelating agents HTTA or HPMBP was plotted vs. the basicity (log Kh) of the donor (both mono- and bi-functional) indicating bi-functional donors also behave as mono-functional. This was supported by the thermodynamic data (ΔG 0 , ΔH 0 , ΔS 0 ) obtained for these systems. The organic phase adduct formation reactions were identified for the above systems from the thermodynamic data. In the Am(III) HTTA system log K s values of bi-functional donors were found to be very high and deviate from the linear plot (log K s vs. log K h ) obtained for mono-functional donors, indicating that they function as bi-functional for the Am(III)/HTTA) system studied. This was supported by high +ve ΔS 0 values obtained for this system. (author)

  2. Diluent and extractant effects on the enthalpy of extraction of uranium(VI) and americium(III) nitrates by trialkyl phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Sood, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of various diluents such as n-hexane, n-heptane n-octane, isooctane, n-decane, n-undecane, n-dodecane, n-tetradecane, n-hexadecane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, p-xylene, mesitylene and o-dichlorobenzene on the enthalpy of extraction of uranyl nitrate by tri-n-amyl phosphate (TAP) over the temperature range 283 K--333 K has been studied. The results indicate that the enthalpy of extraction does not vary significantly with the diluents studied. Also enthalpies of extraction of uranyl nitrate and americium(III) nitrate by neutral organo phosphorous extractants such as tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), tri-n-amyl phosphate (TAP), tri-sec-butyl phosphate (TsBP), tri-isoamyl phosphate (TiAP) and tri-n-hexyl phosphate (THP) have been studied. An attempt has been made to explain the trends, on the basis of the nature of the solvate formed and the different terms which contribute to the overall enthalpy change

  3. The design of a multisource americium-beryllium (Am-Be) neutron irradiation facility using MCNP for the neutronic performance calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogbadji, R B M; Abrefah, R G; Nyarko, B J B; Akaho, E H K; Odoi, H C; Attakorah-Birinkorang, S

    2014-08-01

    The americium-beryllium neutron irradiation facility at the National Nuclear Research Institute (NNRI), Ghana, was re-designed with four 20 Ci sources using Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code to investigate the maximum amount of flux that is produced by the combined sources. The results were compared with a single source Am-Be irradiation facility. The main objective was to enable us to harness the maximum amount of flux for the optimization of neutron activation analysis and to enable smaller sample sized samples to be irradiated. Using MCNP for the design construction and neutronic performance calculation, it was realized that the single-source Am-Be design produced a thermal neutron flux of (1.8±0.0007)×10(6) n/cm(2)s and the four-source Am-Be design produced a thermal neutron flux of (5.4±0.0007)×10(6) n/cm(2)s which is a factor of 3.5 fold increase compared to the single-source Am-Be design. The criticality effective, k(eff), of the single-source and the four-source Am-Be designs were found to be 0.00115±0.0008 and 0.00143±0.0008, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The recycling of the actinides neptunium, americium and curium in a fast power reactor to reduce the long term activity in a final store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beims, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    The starting point for the considerations and calculations given in this dissertation is the inevitable production of radioactive materials in the use of nuclear energy, which creates a considerable potential danger in a final store for a very long period. As one possibility of alleviating this problem, a concept for recycling the waste actinides neptunium, americium and curium was proposed. The waste actinides are separated in the reprocessing of burnt-up fuel elements and reach a further irradiation circuit. There they pass through the stages 'manufacture of irradiation elements', 'use in a fast power reactor' and reprocessing of irradiation elements' several times. In each irradiation and subsequent storage, about 17% of the waste actinides are removed by fission or by conversion into nuclides which can be reused as fuel, so that during the life of 40 years of the fast recycling reacor, the waste actinides can be reduced in mass by one half. In order to determine this mass reduction effect, a model calculation was developed, which includes the representation of the neutron physics and thermal properties of the reactor core and the storage and reprocessing of the irradiation elements. (orig./RB) [de

  5. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr body-burden in general public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.pl [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Edward B. [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Department of Physical Therapy Basics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Administration College, Bielsko-Biala (Poland); Tomankiewicz, Ewa [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Joanna [Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Nowak, Sebastian [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Szczygiel, Elzbieta [Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Brudecki, Kamil [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of {sup 238}Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. - Highlights: > Surgery for joint replacement as novel sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination. > Proposed way of sampling is not causing ethic doubts. > It is a convenient way of collecting human bone samples from global population. > The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. > The opposite patient age correlations trends were found for 90Sr (negative) and Pu, Am (positive).

  6. Study and modeling of lanthanide(3)-L and americium(3)-L (With L = NTA, EDTA and DTPA) in high ionic strength aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocchiccioli, F.

    2000-01-01

    The dissociation constants of NTA, EDTA, DTPA in NaCl, NaClO 4 , LiCl and LiClO 4 aqueous solutions of various ionic strengths have been gathered from the literature and from the Critical Surveys of Stability Constants. These values have been completed by a series of pKa values obtained in the same salted solution at higher ionic strengths by potentiometry involving a combined glass electrode at 25 deg C. The dependencies of the pKas versus the ionic strength have been investigated by using the Specific Interaction Theory (SIT), the parabolic model and the Pitzer model. The stability constants of complexes involving lanthanides (III), such as Nd 3+ , Eu 3+ and Lu 3+ , and americium (III), with the ligands previously mentioned in NaCl, NaClO 4 , LiCl and LiClO 4 aqueous solutions of high ionic strengths have been determined. The methods used for the determination of the stability constants for the lanthanide complexes are various: direct measurements by potentiometry when possible, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy involving Arsenazo (III) as a competitor ligand. For the actinide complexes, solvent extraction experiments have been performed. The different systems, along with the dissociation constants of several complexes in the same aqueous media, have been successfully modeled by the SIT, the parabolic method and the Pitzer method. (author)

  7. The field migration tests of 237Np, 238Pu, 241Am and 90Sr in aerated loess, aquifer and engineering barrier materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shushen; Wang Zhiming; Zhao Yingjie; Fan Zhiwen; Liu Chunli; An Yongfeng; Yang Yue'e; Wu Qinghua

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the field migration tests of 237 Np, 238 Pu, 241 Am and 90 Sr in aerated loess, aquifer and engineering barrier materials. The tests in the aerated loess and engineering barrier materials were carried out under both natural and artificial sprinkling (15 mm/d) conditions. The tests in aquifer were carried out in both assemblies packed with undisturbed aquifer media and a definite undisturbed area. The results indicate that after 3 years tests no significant migrations were seen for all nuclides in engineering barrier materials under two kinds of conditions and in aerated loess under natural conditions. For the aerated loess under artificial sprinkling conditions, 2.7 cm (center of mass) migration in the area directly below the sand tracer layer (named as area 1) and 13 cm (peak) migration in the area outside the area 1 for 90 Sr were observed; There was no migration for 237 Np, 238 Pu and 241 Am. It was discovered that the sand layer used as carrier of nuclide tracer has barrier effect on unsaturated water and an influence on nuclide migration. This has been demonstrated by the inter comparison experiment with both sand and loess as tracer carrier. In the tracer tests of undisturbed aquifer area there was no significant migration of 237 Np, 238 Pu, 241 Am and 90 Sr after 1023 days. In the assembly 8 there was no significant migration for 238 Pu and 241 Am and a small backward migration 0.95 cm for 237 Np and 4.7 cm migration (center of mass) for 90 Sr were observed. The tests also indicate that there is no significant difference of nuclide migration in ordinary and degraded cement

  8. Coulex fission of 234U, 235U, 237Np, and 238Np studied within the SOFIA experimental program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Julie-Fiona

    2014-01-01

    SOFIA (Studies On FIssion with Aladin) is an experimental project which aims at systematically measuring the fission fragments' isotopic yields as well as their total kinetic energy, for a wide variety of fissioning nuclei. The PhD work presented in this dissertation takes part in the SOFIA project, and covers the fission of nuclei in the region of the actinides: 234 U, 235 U, 237 Np and 238 Np. The experiment is led at the heavy-ion accelerator GSI in Darmstadt, Germany. This facility provides intense relativistic primary beam of 238 U. A fragmentation reaction of the primary beam permits to create a secondary beam of radioactive ions, some of which the fission is studied. The ions of the secondary beam are sorted and identified through the FR-S (Fragment Separator), a high resolution recoil spectrometer which is tuned to select the ions of interest.The selected - fissile - ions then fly further to Cave-C, an experimental area where the fission experiment itself takes place. At the entrance of the cave, the secondary beam is excited by Coulomb interaction when flying through an target; the de-excitation process involves low-energy fission. Both fission fragments fly forward in the laboratory frame, due to the relativistic boost inferred from the fissioning nucleus.A complete recoil spectrometer has been designed and built by the SOFIA collaboration in the path of the fission fragments, around the existing ALADIN magnet. The identification of the fragments is performed by means of energy loss, time of flight and deviation in the magnet measurements. Both fission fragments are fully (in mass and charge) and simultaneously identified.This document reports on the analysis performed for (1) the identification of the fissioning system, (2) the identification of both fission fragments, on an event-by-event basis, and (3) the extraction of fission observables: yields, TKE, total prompt neutron multiplicity. These results, concerning the actinides, are discussed, and

  9. Solubility of plutonium and americium-241 from rumen contents of cattle grazing on plutonium-contaminated desert vegetation in in vitro bovine gastrointestinal fluids - August 1975 to January 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, J.; Giles, K.R.; Brown, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    The alimentary solubility of plutonium and americium-241 ingested by cattle grazing at Area 13 of the Nevada Test Site and the Clean Slate II site on the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada was studied in a series of experiments. For each experiment, or trial, rumen contents collected from a fistulated steer or a normal animals at the time of sacrifice were incubated in simulated bovine gastrointestinal fluids, and the solubility of plutonium and americium was analyzed following the abomasal, duodenal, jejunal, and lower intestinal digestive states. For Area 13, the peak plutonium-238 solubilities ranged from 1.09 to 9.60 percent for animals grazing in the inner enclosure that surrounds ground zero (GZ); for animals grazing in the outer enclosure, the peaks ranged from 1.86 to 18.46%. The peak plutonium-239 solubilities ranged from 0.71 to 4.81% for animals from the inner enclosure and from 0.71 to 3.61% for animals from the outer enclosure. Plutonium-238 was generally more soluble than plutonium-239. Plutonium ingested by cattle grazing in the outer enclosure was usually more soluble than plutonium ingested by cattle grazing in the inner enclosure. The highest concentrations of plutonium in the rumen contents of cattle grazing in the inner enclosure were found in trials conducted during August and November 1975 and January 1976. These concentrations decreased during the February, May, and July 1976 trials. The decrease was followed by an increase in plutonium concentration during the November 1976 trial. The concentration of americium-241 followed the same trend. 13 references, 13 tables

  10. Structural study of U1-xAmxO2±δ oxide microspheres dedicated to the production of americium bearing blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caisso, Marie

    2016-01-01

    One of the studied routes to reduce nuclear waste amount, is, after plutonium recycling, americium (Am) heterogeneous transmutation in fast neutron reactors, through the generation of short-lives and inert elements. Am irradiation requires the fabrication of U 1-x Am x O 2±δ pellets and the CRMP (Calcined Resin Microsphere Pelletization) process is currently considered as one the most promising candidate among other fabrication routes. It is based, before pellet sintering, on the compaction of U 1-x Am x O 2±δ oxide microspheres, synthesized through the thermal conversion of ion exchange resin microspheres, loaded with UO 2 2+ and Am 3+ cations. Compared to standard methods using powder metallurgy, CRMP process favours pressing step (easy microsphere flow) while limiting generation of highly radioactive Am-based fine particles. In this context, this PhD work was focused on the exhaustive characterization of CRMP process different steps, from a mechanistic and structural point of view. The cation molecular complex used in the resin was thus determined, highlighting carboxylic bidentate ligand binding around U and Am elements. Thermal conversion was also in-situ followed, and the structures of the different synthesized compounds evidenced and accurately characterized, i.e. (U 1-x Am x ) 3 O 8 et U 1-x Am x O 2±δ . Am substitution in each of them was explained, revealing related distortions around U and Am cations. Finally, sintering of U 1-x Am x O 2±δ microspheres shaped into pellets was studied, showing a two-step densification. This unusual behavior corresponds to multi-scale reorganization into the material during sintering thermal treatment, associated to the presence of nanoparticles in the green pellet that sinter at low temperature. (author) [fr

  11. The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelaer, Jens

    2010-06-14

    The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium: Nuclear masses are an important quantity to study nuclear structure since they reflect the sum of all nucleonic interactions. Many experimental possibilities exist to precisely measure masses, out of which the Penning trap is the tool to reach the highest precision. Moreover, absolute mass measurements can be performed using carbon, the atomic-mass standard, as a reference. The new double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has been installed and commissioned within this thesis work, which is the very first experimental setup of this kind located at a nuclear reactor. New technical developments have been carried out such as a reliable non-resonant laser ablation ion source for the production of carbon cluster ions and are still continued, like a non-destructive ion detection technique for single-ion measurements. Neutron-rich fission products will be available by the reactor that are important for nuclear astrophysics, especially the r-process. Prior to the on-line coupling to the reactor, TRIGA-TRAP already performed off-line mass measurements on stable and long-lived isotopes and will continue this program. The main focus within this thesis was on certain rare-earth nuclides in the well-established region of deformation around N {proportional_to} 90. Another field of interest are mass measurements on actinoids to test mass models and to provide direct links to the mass standard. Within this thesis, the mass of {sup 241}Am could be measured directly for the first time. (orig.)

  12. The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelaer, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium: Nuclear masses are an important quantity to study nuclear structure since they reflect the sum of all nucleonic interactions. Many experimental possibilities exist to precisely measure masses, out of which the Penning trap is the tool to reach the highest precision. Moreover, absolute mass measurements can be performed using carbon, the atomic-mass standard, as a reference. The new double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has been installed and commissioned within this thesis work, which is the very first experimental setup of this kind located at a nuclear reactor. New technical developments have been carried out such as a reliable non-resonant laser ablation ion source for the production of carbon cluster ions and are still continued, like a non-destructive ion detection technique for single-ion measurements. Neutron-rich fission products will be available by the reactor that are important for nuclear astrophysics, especially the r-process. Prior to the on-line coupling to the reactor, TRIGA-TRAP already performed off-line mass measurements on stable and long-lived isotopes and will continue this program. The main focus within this thesis was on certain rare-earth nuclides in the well-established region of deformation around N ∝ 90. Another field of interest are mass measurements on actinoids to test mass models and to provide direct links to the mass standard. Within this thesis, the mass of 241 Am could be measured directly for the first time. (orig.)

  13. Probing the dynamic interface between trimethylamine dehydrogenase (TMADH) and electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF) in the TMADH-2ETF complex: role of the Arg-alpha237 (ETF) and Tyr-442 (TMADH) residue pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Selena G; Messiha, Hanan Latif; Katona, Gergely; Rigby, Stephen E J; Leys, David; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2008-05-06

    We have used multiple solution state techniques and crystallographic analysis to investigate the importance of a putative transient interaction formed between Arg-alpha237 in electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF) and Tyr-442 in trimethylamine dehydrogenase (TMADH) in complex assembly, electron transfer, and structural imprinting of ETF by TMADH. We have isolated four mutant forms of ETF altered in the identity of the residue at position 237 (alphaR237A, alphaR237K, alphaR237C, and alphaR237E) and with each form studied electron transfer from TMADH to ETF, investigated the reduction potentials of the bound ETF cofactor, and analyzed complex formation. We show that mutation of Arg-alpha237 substantially destabilizes the semiquinone couple of the bound FAD and impedes electron transfer from TMADH to ETF. Crystallographic structures of the mutant ETF proteins indicate that mutation does not perturb the overall structure of ETF, but leads to disruption of an electrostatic network at an ETF domain boundary that likely affects the dynamic properties of ETF in the crystal and in solution. We show that Arg-alpha237 is required for TMADH to structurally imprint the as-purified semiquinone form of wild-type ETF and that the ability of TMADH to facilitate this structural reorganization is lost following (i) redox cycling of ETF, or simple conversion to the oxidized form, and (ii) mutagenesis of Arg-alpha237. We discuss this result in light of recent apparent conflict in the literature relating to the structural imprinting of wild-type ETF. Our studies support a mechanism of electron transfer by conformational sampling as advanced from our previous analysis of the crystal structure of the TMADH-2ETF complex [Leys, D. , Basran, J. , Sutcliffe, M. J., and Scrutton, N. S. (2003) Nature Struct. Biol. 10, 219-225] and point to a key role for the Tyr-442 (TMADH) and Arg-alpha237 (ETF) residue pair in transiently stabilizing productive electron transfer configurations. Our work

  14. Fast radiochemical procedure to measure neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium in environmental samples for application in environmental monitoring and in radioecology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimpel, M.; Schuettelkopf, H.

    1984-01-01

    A radiochemical method is described by which Np, Pu, Am and Cm in environmental samples can be determined. The transuranium elements are dissolved with acids out of the ashed material. Np/Pu is separated from Am/Cm by sequential extraction using TOPO/cyclohexane. The two fractions are radiochemically purified. Np-237, Pu-239+240, Pu-238 and Pu-236 as well as Am-243, Am-241, Cm-244 and Cm-242 are measured by alpha spectrometery. Pu-236, Am-243 and Np-239 are used to determine the respective yields. A fast method of Np-239 preparation is described. The chemical yields range from 60 to 90%. The detection limit attained per nuclide is 10 fCi/sample. 20 reference, 1 table

  15. Determination of Neptunium, Americium and Curium in Spent Nuclear Fuel Samples by Alpha Spectrometry Using 239Np and 243Am as a Spike and a Tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeo, Kih-Soo; Song, Byung-Chul; Kim, Young-Bok; Han, Sun-Ho; Jeon, Young-Shin; Jung, Euo-Chang; Jee, Kwang-Yong

    2007-01-01

    Determination of actinide elements and fission products in spent nuclear fuels is of importance for a burnup determination and source term evaluation. Especially, the amounts of uranium and plutonium isotopes are used for the evaluation of a burnup credit in spent nuclear fuels. Additionally, other actinides such as Np, Am and Cm in spent nuclear fuel samples is also required for the purposes mentioned above. In this study, 237 Np, 241 Am and 244 Cm were determined by an alpha spectrometry for the source term data for high burnup spent nuclear fuels ranging from 37 to 62.9 GWD/MtU as a burnup. Generally, mass spectrometry has been known as the most powerful method for isotope determinations such as high concentrations of uranium and plutonium. However, in the case of minor actinides such as Np, Am and Cm, alpha spectrometry would be recommended instead. Determination of the transuranic elements in spent nuclear fuel samples is different from that for environmental samples because the amount of each nuclide in the spent fuel samples is higher and the relative ratios between each nuclide are also different from those for environmental samples. So, it is important to select an appropriate tracer and an optimum sample size depending on the nuclides and analytical method. In this study 237 Np was determined by an isotope dilution alpha(gamma) spectrometry using 239 Np as a spike, and 241 Am and curium isotopes were determined by alpha spectrometry using 243 Am as a tracer. The content of each nuclide was compared with that by the Origen-2 code

  16. Data Evaluation of Actinide Cross Sections: 238Pu, 237Pu, and 236Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guaglioni, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jurgenson, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Descalle, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thompson, I. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ormand, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Escher, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Younes, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mattoon, C. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Beck, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Burke, J. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bailey, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-04

    This report documents the recent evaluation of the 236Pu, 237Pu, and 238Pu cross section sets. Nuclear data evaluation is the fundamental interface that takes measured nuclear cross section data and turns them into a continuous curve that 1) is consistent with other measurements and nuclear reaction theory/models, and 2) is required by down-stream users. All experiments that generate nuclear data need to include an evaluation step for their data to be broadly useful to the end users.

  17. The evaluation of the 237Np fission cross section in the 20 KeV - 20 MeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dushin, V.N.; Kalinin, V.A.; Shpakov, V.I.

    1997-01-01

    The results of the development of nuclear data evaluation based on the generalized least squares method is presented. The method to interpolate experimental data measured at arbitrary energy points, and their transfer to a fixed energy grid is described. The results of the 237 Np fission cross section measurements performed until 1988 were critically analyzed. A 781 x 781 covariant matrix was derived from the correlation analysis of the experimental results. The results of the evaluation, and the associated correlation matrix was obtained using the generalized least square method. (author). 34 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Neutron induced fission cross sections for /sup 232/Th, /sup 235,238/U, /sup 237/Np and /sup 239/Pu from 1 to 400 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisowski, P.W.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J.; Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A.; Hill, N.W.

    1988-01-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross section ratios for samples of /sup 232/Th, /sup 235,238/U, /sup 237/Np and /sup 239/Pu have been measured from 1 to 400 MeV. The fission reaction rate was determined for all samples simultaneously using a fast parallel plate ionization chamber at a 20-m flight path. A well characterized annular proton recoil telescope was used to measure the neutron fluence up to 30 MeV. These data provided the shape of the /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section relative to the hydrogen scattering cross section. That shape was then normalized to the very accurately known values were determined using the neutron fluence measured with a second proton recoil telescope. Cross section values for /sup 232/Th, /sup 238/U, /sup 237/Np, and /sup 239/Pu were computed from the ratio data using our values for /sup 235/U(n,f). In addition to providing new results at high neutron energies, these data resolve long standing discrepancies among different data sets. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  19. Fabrication of targets for transmutation of americium : synthesis of inertial matrix by sol-gel method. Procedure study on the infiltration of a radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Carretero, A.

    2002-01-01

    addition a new and unexpected phase formed by the reaction of americium with spinel during the high temperature synthesis process has been identified. This new phase could provide a unique menas to stabilise Am in one particular oxidation state. (Author)

  20. Standard practice for the determination of 237Np, 232Th, 235U and 238U in urine by inductively coupled plasma-Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gamma ray spectrometry.

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the separation and preconcentration of neptunium-237 (237Np), thorium-232 (232Th), uranium-235 (235U) and uranium-238 (238U) from urine followed by quantitation using ICP-MS. 1.2 This practice can be used to support routine bioassay programs. The minimum detectable concentrations (MDC) for this method, taking the preconcentration factor into account, are approximately 1E-2Bq for 237Np (0.38ng), 2E-6Bq for 232Th (0.50ng), 4E-5Bq for 235U (0.50ng) and 6E-6Bq for 238U (0.48ng). 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. Transmutation of 129I and 237Np using spallation neutrons produced by 1.5, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochs, M.; Schmidt, Th.; Wan, J.-S.

    1999-01-01

    Small samples of approximately 1 g of 129 I and 237 Np, two long-lived radioactive waste nuclides, were exposed to spallation neutron fluences from relatively small metal targets of lead or uranium, surrounded with a paraffin moderator 6 cm thick irradiated with 1.5, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV protons. The (n, γ) transmutation rates have been determined for the two radioactive waste nuclides. Conventional radiochemical La and U sensors and a variety of solid-state nuclear track detectors were irradiated simultaneously with secondary neutrons. The observed secondary neutron fluences appear to be systematically larger, as compared to the calculations with the well-known cascade codes (LAHET from Los Alamos and DCM-CEM from Dubna)

  2. Transmutation of 129I and 237Np using spallation neutrons produced by 1.5, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, J.-S.; Schmidt, T.Th.; Langrock, E.-J.; Vater, P.; Brandt, R.; Adam, J.; Bradnova, V.; Bamblevski, V.P.; Gelovani, L.; Gridnev, T.D.; Kalinnikov, V.G.; Krivopustov, M.I.; Kulakov, B.A.; Sosnin, A.N.; Perelygin, V.P.; Pronskikh, V.S.; Stegailov, V.I.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V.M.; Modolo, G.; Odoj, R.; Phlippen, P.-W.; Zamani-Valassiadou, M.; Adloff, J.C.; Debeauvais, M.; Hashemi-Nezhad, S.R.; Guo, S.-L.; Li, L.; Wang, Y.-L.; Dwivedi, K.K.; Zhuk, I.V.; Boulyga, S.F.; Lomonossova, E.M.; Kievitskaja, A.F.; Rakhno, I.L.; Chigrinov, S.E.; Wilson, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    Small samples of 129 I and 237 Np, two long-lived radwaste nuclides, were exposed to spallation neutron fluences from relatively small metal targets of lead and uranium, that were surrounded with a 6 cm thick paraffin moderator, and irradiated with 1.5, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV protons. The (n,γ) transmutation rates were determined for these nuclides. Conventional radiochemical La- and U-sensors and a variety of solid-state nuclear track detectors were irradiated simultaneously with secondary neutrons. Compared with results from calculations with well-known cascade codes (LAHET from Los Alamos and DCM/CEM from Dubna), the observed secondary neutron fluences are larger

  3. Transmutation of {sup 129}I and {sup 237}Np using spallation neutrons produced by 1.5, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, J.-S.; Schmidt, T.Th.; Langrock, E.-J.; Vater, P.; Brandt, R. E-mail: brandtr@mailer.uni-marburg.de; Adam, J.; Bradnova, V.; Bamblevski, V.P.; Gelovani, L.; Gridnev, T.D.; Kalinnikov, V.G.; Krivopustov, M.I.; Kulakov, B.A.; Sosnin, A.N.; Perelygin, V.P.; Pronskikh, V.S.; Stegailov, V.I.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V.M.; Modolo, G.; Odoj, R.; Phlippen, P.-W.; Zamani-Valassiadou, M.; Adloff, J.C.; Debeauvais, M.; Hashemi-Nezhad, S.R.; Guo, S.-L.; Li, L.; Wang, Y.-L.; Dwivedi, K.K.; Zhuk, I.V.; Boulyga, S.F.; Lomonossova, E.M.; Kievitskaja, A.F.; Rakhno, I.L.; Chigrinov, S.E.; Wilson, W.B

    2001-05-11

    Small samples of {sup 129}I and {sup 237}Np, two long-lived radwaste nuclides, were exposed to spallation neutron fluences from relatively small metal targets of lead and uranium, that were surrounded with a 6 cm thick paraffin moderator, and irradiated with 1.5, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV protons. The (n,{gamma}) transmutation rates were determined for these nuclides. Conventional radiochemical La- and U-sensors and a variety of solid-state nuclear track detectors were irradiated simultaneously with secondary neutrons. Compared with results from calculations with well-known cascade codes (LAHET from Los Alamos and DCM/CEM from Dubna), the observed secondary neutron fluences are larger.

  4. Transmutation of 129I and 237Np using spallation neutrons produced by 1.5, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, J.-S.; Schmidt, Th.; Langrock, E.-J.; Vater, P.; Brandt, R.; Adam, J.; Bradnova, V.; Bamblevski, V. P.; Gelovani, L.; Gridnev, T. D.; Kalinnikov, V. G.; Krivopustov, M. I.; Kulakov, B. A.; Sosnin, A. N.; Perelygin, V. P.; Pronskikh, V. S.; Stegailov, V. I.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. M.; Modolo, G.; Odoj, R.; Phlippen, P.-W.; Zamani-Valassiadou, M.; Adloff, J. C.; Debeauvais, M.; Hashemi-Nezhad, S. R.; Guo, S.-L.; Li, L.; Wang, Y.-L.; Dwivedi, K. K.; Zhuk, I. V.; Boulyga, S. F.; Lomonossova, E. M.; Kievitskaja, A. F.; Rakhno, I. L.; Chigrinov, S. E.; Wilson, W. B.

    2001-05-01

    Small samples of 129I and 237Np, two long-lived radwaste nuclides, were exposed to spallation neutron fluences from relatively small metal targets of lead and uranium, that were surrounded with a 6 cm thick paraffin moderator, and irradiated with 1.5, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV protons. The (n,γ) transmutation rates were determined for these nuclides. Conventional radiochemical La- and U-sensors and a variety of solid-state nuclear track detectors were irradiated simultaneously with secondary neutrons. Compared with results from calculations with well-known cascade codes (LAHET from Los Alamos and DCM/CEM from Dubna), the observed secondary neutron fluences are larger.

  5. Neutron induced fission cross section ratios for 232Th, 235,238U, 237Np and 239Pu from 1 to 400 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisowski, P.W.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J.; Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A.; Hill, N.W.

    1988-01-01

    Time-of-flight measurements of neutron induced fission cross section ratios for 232 Th, 235,238 U, 237 Np, and 239 Pu, were performed using the WNR high intensity spallation neutron source located at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A multiple-plate gas ionization chamber located at a 20-m flight path was used to simultaneously measure the fission rate for all samples over the energy range from 1 to 400 MeV. Because the measurements were made with nearly identical neutron fluxes, we were able to cancel many systematic uncertainties present in previous measurements. This allows us to resolve discrepancies among different data sets. In addition, these are the first neutron-induced fission cross section values for most of the nuclei at energies above 30 MeV. (author)

  6. Neutron induced fission cross section ratios for 232Th, /sup 235,238/U, 237Np, and 239Pu from 1 to 400 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisowski, P.W.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J.; Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A.; Hill, N.W.

    1988-01-01

    Time-of-flight measurements of neutron induced fission cross section ratios for 232 Th, /sup 235,238/U, 237 Np, and 239 Pu, were performed using the WNR high intensity spallation neutron source located at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A multiple-plate gas ionization chamber located at a 20-m flight path was used to simultaneously measure the fission rate for all samples over the energy range from 1 to 400 MeV. Because the measurements were made with nearly identical neutron fluxes, we were able to cancel many systematic uncertainties present in previous measurements. This allows us to resolve discrepancies among different data sets. In addition, these are the first neutron-induced fission cross section values for most of the nuclei at energies above 30 MeV. 8 refs., 3 figs

  7. A correlation between isomer shifts of 237Np Moessbauer spectra and coordination numbers of Np atoms in neptunyl(V) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, M.; Nakada, M.; Nakamoto, T.; Yamashita, T.; Masaki, N.M.; Krot, N.N.

    1999-01-01

    Five neptunyl(V) compounds were synthesized and studied by 237 Np Moessbauer spectroscopy. The isomer shifts (δ) of the Moessbauer spectra ranged from -18.6 to -19.1 mm/s for the compounds with Np atoms surrounded by 7 oxygen atoms (coordination number (CN) 7). On the other hand, the larger value of δ was obtained for the compound with CN 8. From the comparison of the present results with those reported on neptunyl(V) and (VI) compounds, it is concluded that there is a correlation between the δ and the CN for neptunyl(V) compounds, and the distribution of δ is narrower for neptunyl(V) compounds than that of neptunyl(VI) compounds. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the 237Np neutron cross sections in the energy range from 10-5 eV to 5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrien, H.; Fort, E.

    1979-01-01

    The 237 Np neutron cross-sections have been evaluated in the energy range from thermal to 5 MeV. A set of resonance parameters including a negative level, is recommanded after examination of the available experimental data. This set is used 1) to calculate the cross-sections from the thermal region to 150 ev, and 2) to provide the statistical parameters suitable to the calculations in the unresolved region. At higher energies, the transmission coefficients Te are calculated by the coupled channel optical model code ECIS. They are then used as input in the statistical model code FISINGA. The optical model parameters, including the deformation parameters, are those used by Lagrange for the Pu isotopes, slightly modified to reproduce at 40 KeV the total cross-sections obtained from the pure statistical parameters. The recommendations of Lynn concerning the level density parameters have been used. In this paper we describe the various steps of the evaluation

  9. Absolute and relative cross section measurements of 237Np(n,f and 238U(n,f at the National Physical Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador-Castiñeira Paula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross section measurements in the fast energy region are being demanded as one of the key ingredients for modelling Generation-IV nuclear power plants. However, in facilities where there are no time-of-flight possibilities or it is not convenient to use them, using the 235U(n,f cross section as a benchmark would require a careful knowledge of the room scatter in the experimental area. In this paper we present measurements of two threshold reactions, 238U(n,f and 237Np(n,f, that could become a standard between their fission threshold and 2.5 MeV, if the discrepancies shown in the evaluations and in some experimental data can be solved. The preliminary results are in agreement with the present ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation.

  10. Poor adherence to medication as assessed by the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 and low satisfaction with treatment in 237 psoriasis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Hidehisa; Imafuku, Shinichi; Abe, Masatoshi; Shintani, Yoichi; Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito; Katoh, Norito; Murota, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Sugaya, Makoto; Tanioka, Miki; Kaneko, Sakae; Masuda, Koji; Hiragun, Takaaki; Inomata, Naoko; Kitami, Yuki; Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Abe, Shinya; Kobayashi, Miwa; Morisky, Donald E; Furue, Masutaka

    2015-04-01

    Previously we assessed the medication adherence for oral and topical remedies by a translated Japanese version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 (MMAS-8) together with socioeconomic backgrounds in 3096 Japanese dermatological patients, and found the medication adherence, especially to topical drugs, was poor in these patients. In order to elucidate the disease-specific sociomedical factors, we further sub-analyzed the medication adherence in 237 psoriasis patients and compared it with that in other dermatological diseases such as atopic dermatitis, urticaria or tinea. This study was conducted among patients registered in monitoring system and 3096 eligible patients were enrolled. Our web-based questionnaire included the following items such as age, sex, annual income, main health-care institution, experience of effectiveness by oral or topical medication, overall satisfaction with treatment, and MMAS-8 for oral or topical medication. Mean adherence score by MMAS-8 was 5.2 for oral and 4.3 for topical medication. More patients with psoriasis used a university hospital and fewer used a private clinic compared with those with the other skin disease patients. Experience of drug effectiveness by oral medication and overall satisfaction with treatment was lower in psoriasis patients than in other patients. In oral medication, significantly better adherence was observed in those of higher age and with higher annual income. The adherence to medication, especially to topical drugs, was poor in 237 psoriasis patients. We speculated that some severe psoriasis patients were not sufficiently treated systemically and were resistant to topical therapy, leading to poor adherence. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  11. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.; Abelairas, A.

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of 241 Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of 241 Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of 241 Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  12. Phonon properties of americium phosphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arya, B. S., E-mail: bsarya13@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Govt. Narmada P G College, Hoshangabad -461001 (India); Aynyas, Mahendra [Department of Physics, C. S. A. Govt. P. G. College Sehore-46601 (India); Sanyal, S. P. [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal-462026 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Phonon properties of AmP have been studied by using breathing shell models (BSM) which includes breathing motion of electrons of the Am atoms due to f-d hybridization. The phonon dispersion curves, specific heat calculated from present model. The calculated phonon dispersion curves of AmP are presented follow the same trend as observed in uranium phosphide. We discuss the significance of this approach in predicting the phonon dispersion curves of these compounds and examine the role of electron-phonon interaction.

  13. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  14. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legarda, F; Herranz, M; Idoeta, R; Abelairas, A

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of (241)Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of (241)Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of (241)Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. EURADOS action for determination of americium in skull measures in vivo and Monte Carlo simulation; Accion EURADOS para la determinacion de americio en craneo mediante medidas in-vivo y simulacion Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Ponte, M. A.; Navarro Amaro, J. F.; Perez Lopez, B.; Navarro Bravo, T.; Nogueira, P.; Vrba, T.

    2013-07-01

    From the Group of WG7 internal dosimetry of the EURADOS Organization (European Radiation Dosimetry group, e.V.) which It coordinates CIEMAT, international action for the vivo measurement of americium has been conducted in three mannequins type skull with detectors of Germanium by gamma spectrometry and simulation by Monte Carlo methods. Such action has been raised as two separate exercises, with the participation of institutions in Europe, America and Asia. Other actions similar precede this vivo intercomparison of measurement and modeling Monte Carlo1. The preliminary results and associated findings are presented in this work. The laboratory of the body radioactivity (CRC) of service counter of dosimetry staff internal (DPI) of the CIEMAT, it has been one of the participants in vivo measures exercise. On the other hand part, the Group of numerical dosimetry of CIEMAT is participant of the Monte Carlo2 simulation exercise. (Author)

  16. Critical and shielding parametric studies with the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI to identify the key points to take into account during the transportation of blanket assemblies with high ratio of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosmain, Cecile-Aline

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of French research program on Generation IV sodium cooled fast reactor, one possible option consists in burning minor actinides in this kind of Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor. Two types of transmutation mode are studied in the world : the homogeneous mode of transmutation where actinides are scattered with very low enrichment ratio in fissile assemblies and the heterogeneous mode where fissile core is surrounded by blanket assemblies filled with minor actinides with ratio of incorporated actinides up to 20%. Depending on which element is considered to be burnt and on its content, these minor actinides contents imply constraints on assemblies' transportation between Nuclear Power Plants and fuel cycle facilities. In this study, we present some academic studies in order to identify some key constraints linked to the residual power and neutron/gamma load of such kind of blanket assemblies. To simplify the approach, we considered a modeling of a 'model cask' dedicated to the transportation of a unique irradiated blanket assembly loaded with 20% of Americium and basically inspired from an existent cask designed initially for the damaged fissile Superphenix assembly transport. Thermal calculations performed with EDF-SYRTHES code have shown that due to thermal limitations on cladding temperature, the decay time to be considered before transportation is 20 years. This study is based on explicit 3D representations of the cask and the contained blanket assembly with the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI/JEFF3.1.1 library and concludes that after such a decay time, the transportation of a unique Americium radial blanket is feasible only if the design of our model cask is modified in order to comply with the dose limitation criterion. (author)

  17. Capture and Fission rate of 232-Th, 238-U, 237-Np and 239-Pu from spallation neutrons in a huge block of lead.

    CERN Document Server

    Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    2000-01-01

    The study is centered on the research of the incineration possibility of nuclear waste, by the association of a particle accelerator with a multiplying medium of neutrons, in the project "Energy Amplifier" of C. Rubbia. It consists of the experimental determination of the rates of capture and fission of certain elements (232-Th, 238-U, 237-Np and 239-Pu) subjected to a fluence of fast spallation neutrons. These neutrons are produced by the interaction of high kinetic energy protons (several GeV) provided by the CERN-PS accelerator, on a large lead solid volume. The measurement techniques used in this work, are based on the activation of elements in the lead volume and the subsequent gamma spectroscopy of the activated elements, and also by the detection of fission fragment traces. The development, of a Monte Carlo code makes it possible, on one hand, to better understand the relevant processes, and on the other hand, to validate the code, by comparison with measurements, for the design and the construction of...

  18. Criticality Data for Spherical 235U, 239Pu, and 237Np Systems Reflector-Moderated by Low Capturing-Moderator Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaiza, David J.; Stratton, William

    2004-01-01

    The critical dimensions of spherical systems moderated and reflected by low-capturing materials such as D 2 O, BeO, Be, and C were investigated. A parametric study of the critical mass of enriched uranium, plutonium, and neptunium is examined and tabulated. The results obtained expand on the understanding of reflector-moderated critical systems, and they show regions of unstable criticality for 235 U and 239 Pu reflected cores at intermediate densities. This instability is illustrated by calculations of the positive reactivity coefficient of volume expansion. The coefficient is positive, not negative, in the intermediate density region for 235 U and 239 Pu systems. For 237 Np cores reflected by the same moderator, the effect is negligible. The critical dimensions were calculated with the DANTSYS codes using the Hansen-Roach cross-section libraries. This study is both a summary of mostly unpublished calculations and new calculations. Experimental data for these configurations are extremely limited. These are examined in the text when applicable

  19. Accurate 238U(n , 2 n )237U reaction cross-section measurements from 6.5 to 14.8 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishichayan, Bhike, M.; Tornow, W.; Tonchev, A. P.; Kawano, T.

    2017-10-01

    The cross section for the 238U(n ,2 n )237U reaction has been measured in the incident neutron energy range from 6.5 to 14.8 MeV in small energy steps using an activation technique. Monoenergetic neutron beams were produced via the 2H(d ,n )3He and 3H(d ,n )4He reactions. 238U targets were activated along with Au and Al monitor foils to determine the incident neutron flux. The activity of the reaction products was measured in TUNL's low-background counting facility using high-resolution γ -ray spectroscopy. The results are compared with previous measurements and latest data evaluations. Statistical-model calculations, based on the Hauser-Feshbach formalism, have been carried out using the CoH3 code and are compared with the experimental results. The present self-consistent and high-quality data are important for stockpile stewardship and nuclear forensic purposes as well as for the design and operation of fast reactors.

  20. Elastic and Raman scattering of 8.5-11.4 MeV photons from 159Tb, 165Ho, and 237Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar-Noy, T.; Moreh, R.

    1977-01-01

    Differential cross sections for elastic and inelastic Raman scattering from the deformed heavy nuclei 159 Tb, 165 Ho and 237 Np were measured at five energies between 8.5 and 11.4 MeV. Angular distributions at four angles between 90 0 and 140 0 for both elastic and inelastic scattering at 9.0 and 11.4 MeV were also measured. The monoenergetic photons were obtained from thermal neutron capture in Ni and Cr. All the angular distributions and the elastic and Raman scattering at the higher energies are in good overall agreement with theoretical predictions. The theory is based on a modified simple rotator model of the giant resonance in which the effect of Delbrueck scattering was included. A trend of both the elastic and Raman scattering at lower energies to be stronger than expected are suggested by the data. However, the ratio between the Raman and elastic scattering seem to be in good agreement with theory throughout the whole energy range. This shows that there is no need to introduce a direct nonresonant component to the imaginary part of the elastic scattering amplitude to explain the experimental data. (Auth.)

  1. Determination of neutron resonance parameters of Neptunium 237 between 0 and 500 eV. The covariance matrices of statistical and of systematic origin, relating the resonance parameters, are also given; Determination des parametres des resonances neutroniques du neptunium 237, en dessous de 500eV, et obtention des matrices de covariances statistiques et systematiques entre les parametres de ces resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepretre, A.; Herault, N. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique de Physique des Particules, de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee, 91- Gif sur Yvette (France); Brusegan, A.; Noguere, G.; Siegler, P. [Institut des Materiaux et des Metrologies - IRMM, Joint Research Centre, Gell (Belgium)

    2002-12-01

    This report is a follow up of the report CEA DAPNIA/SPHN-99-04T of Vincent Gressier. In the frame of a collaboration between the 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA)' and the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurement (IRMM, Geel, Belgique), the resonance parameters of neptunium 237 have been determined in the energy interval between 0 and 500 eV. These parameters have been obtained by using the Refit code in analysing simultaneously three transmission experiments. The covariance matrix of statistical origin is provided. A new method, based on various sensitivity studies is proposed for determining also the covariance matrix of systematic origin, relating the resonance parameters. From an experimental viewpoint, the study indicated that, with a large probability, the background spectrum has structure. A two dimensional profiler for the neutron density has been proved feasible. Such a profiler could, among others, demonstrate the existence of the structured background. (authors)

  2. Study of the excited levels of 233{sup P}a by the 237{sup N}p alpha decay; Estudio de los niveles excitados en el 233{sup P}a por la desintegracion alfa del 237{sup N}p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J; Gaeta, R; Vano, E; Los Arcos, J M

    1978-07-01

    The excited levels in 233{sup P}a following the 237{sup N}p alpha decay have been studied, by performing different experiences to complete available data and supply new information. Thus, two direct alpha spectrum measurement, one alpha-gamma bidimensional coincidence experiment, three gamma-gamma and gamma-X ray coincidences and some other measurements of the gamma spectrum, direct and coincident with alpha-particles have been made. These last experiences have allowed to obviate usual radiochemical separation methods, the 233{sup P}a radioactive descendent interferences being eliminated by means of the coincidence technic. As a result, a primary decay scheme has been elaborated, including 15 new gamma transitions and two new levels, not observed in the most recent works. (Author) 60 refs.

  3. 234 - 237_Uduma_Elementall

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    risks from exposure to geological materials associa with mining ... alue both to the mining industry and to the health of the commun cal exploitation ... ent production, ceramics petroleum .... controls can minimize exposures to workers and.

  4. The Effect of Radiation Dose and Chemotherapy on Overall Survival in 237 Patients With Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Li; Correa, Candace R.; Zhao Lujun; Hayman, James; Kalemkerian, Gregory P.; Lyons, Susan; Cease, Kemp; Brenner, Dean; Kong Fengming

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To study the effects of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and their interaction in patients with unresectable or medically inoperable Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: A total of 237 consecutive Stage III NSCLC patients were evaluated. Median follow-up was 69.0 months. Patients were treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone (n = 106), sequential chemoradiation (n = 69), or concurrent chemoradiation (n = 62). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Radiation dose ranged from 30 to 102.9 Gy (median 60 Gy), corresponding to a bioequivalent dose (BED) of 39 to 124.5 Gy (median 72 Gy). Results: The median OS of the entire cohort was 12.6 months, and 2- and 5-year survival rates were 22.4% and 10.0%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression model demonstrated that Karnofsky performance status (p = 0.020), weight loss < 5% (p = 0.017), chemotherapy (yes vs. no), sequence of chemoradiation (sequential vs. concurrent; p < 0.001), and BED (p < 0.001) were significant predictors of OS. For patients treated with RT alone, sequential chemoradiation, and concurrent chemoradiation, median survival was 7.4, 14.9, and 15.8 months, and 5-year OS was 3.3%, 7.5%, and 19.4%, respectively (p < 0.001). The effect of higher radiation doses on survival was independent of whether chemotherapy was given. Conclusion: Radiation dose and use of chemotherapy are independent predictors of OS in Stage III NSCLC, and concurrent chemoradiation is associated with the best survival. There is no interaction between RT dose and chemotherapy.

  5. Theoretical analyses of (n,xn) reactions on sup 235 U, sup 238 U, sup 237 Np, and sup 239 Pu for ENDF/B-VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, P.G.; Arthur, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical analyses were performed of neutron-induced reactions on {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 239}Pu between 0.01 and 20 MeV in order to calculate neutron emission cross sections and spectra for ENDF/B-VI evaluations. Coupled-channel optical model potentials were obtained for each target nucleus by fitting total, elastic, and inelastic scattering cross section data, as well as low-energy average resonance data. The resulting deformed optical model potentials were used to calculate direct (n,n{prime}) cross sections and transmission coefficients for use in Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory analyses. A fission model with multiple barrier representation, width fluctuation corrections, and preequilibrium corrections were included in the analyses. Direct cross sections for higher-lying vibrational states were calculated using DWBA theory, normalized using B(E{ell}) values determined from (d,d{prime}) and Coulomb excitation data, where available, and from systematics otherwise. Initial fission barrier parameters and transition state density enhancements appropriate to the compound systems involved were obtained from previous analyses, especially fits to charged-particle fission probability data. The parameters for the fission model were adjusted for each target system to obtain optimum agreement with direct (n,f) cross section measurements, taking account of the various multichance fission channels, that is, the different compound systems involved. The results from these analyses were used to calculate most of the neutron (n,n), (n,n{prime}), and (n,xn) cross section data in the ENDF/B/VI evaluations for the above nuclei, and all of the energy-angle correlated spectra. The deformed optical model and fission model parameterizations are described. Comparisons are given between the results of these analyses and the previous ENDF/B-V evaluations as well as with the available experimental data. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Evaluation and improvement of cross section accuracy for most important dosimetry reactions 27Al(n,p), 56Fe(n,p) and 237Np(n,f) including covariance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotarev, K.I.

    2004-02-01

    New evaluations of cross sections and their uncertainties for dosimetry reactions 27 Al(n,p) , 56 Fe(n,p) and 237 Np(n,f) have been carried out in the frame work of IAEA Research Contract No. 11372/RB. Data files prepared for this reactions in the ENDF-6 format may be consider as candidates for the new International Reactor Dosimetry File: IRDF-2002. (author)

  7. Evaluation and improvement of cross section accuracy for most important dosimetry reactions 27Al(n,p), 56Fe(n,p) and 237Np(n,f) including covariance data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolotarev, K I [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-02-01

    New evaluations of cross sections and their uncertainties for dosimetry reactions {sup 27}Al(n,p) , {sup 56}Fe(n,p) and {sup 237}Np(n,f) have been carried out in the frame work of IAEA Research Contract No. 11372/RB. Data files prepared for this reactions in the ENDF-6 format may be consider as candidates for the new International Reactor Dosimetry File: IRDF-2002. (author)

  8. Use of radioanalytical methods for determination of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in radioactive wastes; Utilizacao de metodos radioanaliticos para a determinacao de isotopos de uranio, plutonio, americio e curio em rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Bianca

    2012-07-01

    Activated charcoal is a common type of radioactive waste that contains high concentrations of fission and activation products. The management of this waste includes its characterization aiming the determination and quantification of the specific radionuclides including those known as Difficult-to-Measure Radionuclides (RDM). The analysis of the RDM's generally involves complex radiochemical analysis for purification and separation of the radionuclides, which are expensive and time-consuming. The objective of this work was to define a methodology for sequential analysis of the isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium present in a type of radioactive waste, evaluating chemical yield, analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost. Three methodologies were compared and validated that employ ion exchange (TI + EC), extraction chromatography (EC) and extraction with polymers (ECP). The waste chosen was the activated charcoal from the purification system of primary circuit water cooling the reactor IEA-R1. The charcoal samples were dissolved by acid digestion followed by purification and separation of isotopes with ion exchange resins, extraction and chromatographic extraction polymers. Isotopes were analyzed on an alpha spectrometer, equipped with surface barrier detectors. The chemical yields were satisfactory for the methods TI + EC and EC. ECP method was comparable with those methods only for uranium. Statistical analysis as well the analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost revealed that EC method is the most effective for identifying and quantifying U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm present in charcoal. (author)

  9. Prevalence, distribution and functional significance of the -237C to T polymorphism in the IL-12Rβ2 promoter in Indian tuberculosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Kumar Verma

    Full Text Available Cytokine/cytokine receptor gene polymorphisms related to structure/expression could impact immune response. Hence, the -237 polymorphic site in the 5' promoter region of the IL-12Rβ2 (SNP ID: rs11810249 gene associated with the AP-4 transcription motif GAGCTG, was examined. Amplicons encompassing the polymorphism were generated from 46 pulmonary tuberculosis patients, 35 family contacts and 28 miscellaneous volunteers and sequenced. The C allele predominated among patients, (93.4%, 43/46, and in all volunteers and contacts screened, but the T allele was exclusively limited to patients, (6.5%, 3/46. The functional impact of this polymorphism on transcriptional activity was assessed by Luciferase-reporter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA. Luciferase-reporter assays showed a significant reduction in transcriptional efficiency with T compared to C allele. The reduction in transcriptional efficiency with the T allele construct (pGIL-12Rb2-T, in U-87MG, THP-1 and Jurkat cell lines, were 53, 37.6, and 49.8% respectively, compared to the C allele construct (pGIL-12Rb2-C. Similarly, densitometric analysis of the EMSA assay showed reduced binding of the AP-4 transcription factor, to T compared to the C nucleotide probe. Reduced mRNA expression in all patients (3/3 harboring the T allele was seen, whereas individuals with the C allele exhibited high mRNA expression (17/25; 68%, p = 0.05. These observations were in agreement with the in vitro assessment of the promoter activity by Luciferase-reporter and EMSA assays. The reduced expression of IL-12Rβ2 transcripts in 8 patients despite having the C allele was attributed to the predominant over expression of the suppressors (IL-4 and GATA-3 and reduced expression of enhancers (IFN-α of IL-12Rβ2 transcripts. The 17 high IL-12Rβ2 mRNA expressers had significantly elevated IFN-α mRNA levels compared to low expressers and volunteers. Notwithstanding the presence of high levels of IL-12R

  10. Measurement of neutron-induced fission cross-sections of Th232, U238, U233 and Np237 relative to U235 from 1 MeV to 200 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcherbakov, O.A.; Laptev, A.B.; Petrov, G.A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Gatchina, Leningrad district (Russian Federation); Fomichev, A.V.; Donets, A.Y.; Osetrov, O.I.

    1998-11-01

    The measurements of neutron-induced cross-section ratios for Th232, U238, U233 and Np237 relative to U235 have been carried out in the energy range from 1 MeV up to 200 MeV using the neutron time-of-flight spectrometer GNEIS based on 1 GeV proton synchrocyclotron. Below 20 MeV, the results of present measurements are roughly in agreement with evaluated data though there are some discrepances to be resolved. (author)

  11. 16 CFR 23.7 - Misuse of the words “platinum,” “iridium,” “palladium,” “ruthenium,” “rhodium,” and “osmium.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of the words âplatinum,â âiridium,â... § 23.7 Misuse of the words “platinum,” “iridium,” “palladium,” “ruthenium,” “rhodium,” and “osmium.” (a) It is unfair or deceptive to use the words “platinum,” “iridium,” “palladium,” “ruthenium,” “rhodium...

  12. Measurement of the Neutron Capture Cross Sections of $^{233}$U, $^{237}$Np, $^{240,242}$Pu, $^{241,243}$Am and $^{245}$Cm with a Total Absorption Calorimeter at n_TOF

    CERN Multimedia

    Beer, H; Wiescher, M; Cox, J; Rapp, W; Embid, M; Dababneh, S

    2002-01-01

    Accurate and reliable neutron capture cross section data for actinides are necessary for the poper design, safety regulation and precise performance assessment of transmutation devices such as Fast Critical Reactors or Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). The goal of this proposal is the measurement of the neutron capture cross sections of $^{233}$U, $^{237}$Np, $^{240,242}$Pu, $^{241,243}$Am and $^{245}$Cm at n_TOF with an accuracy of 5~\\%. $^{233}$U plays an essential role in the Th fuel cycle, which has been proposed as a safer and cleaner alternative to the U fuel cycle. The capture cross sections of $^{237}$Np,$^{240,242}$Pu, $^{241,243}$Am and $^{245}$Cm play a key role in the design and optimization of a strategy for the Nuclear Waste Transmutation. A high accuracy can be achieved at n_TOF in such measurements due to a combination of features unique in the world: high instantaneous neutron fluence and excellent energy resolution of the facility, innovative Data Acquisition System based on flash ADCs and t...

  13. The fission cross sections of 230Th, 232Th, 233U, 234U, 236U, 238U, 237Np, 239Pu and 242Pu relative 235U at 14.74 MeV neutron energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, J.W.

    1986-12-01

    The measurement of the fission cross section ratios of nine isotopes relative to 235 U at an average neutron energy of 14.74 MeV is described with particular attention to the determination of corrections and to sources of error. The results are compared to ENDF/B-V and to other measurements of the past decade. The ratio of the neutron induced fission cross section for these isotopes to the fission cross section for 235 U are: 230 Th - 0.290 +- 1.9%; 232 Th - 0.191 +- 1.9%; 233 U - 1.132 +- 0.7%; 234 U - 0.998 +- 1.0%; 236 U - 0.791 +- 1.1%; 238 U - 0.587 +- 1.1%; 237 Np - 1.060 +- 1.4%; 239 Pu - 1.152 +- 1.1%; 242 Pu - 0.967 +- 1.0%. 40 refs., 11 tabs., 9 figs

  14. Determination of neutron resonance parameters of Neptunium 237 between 0 and 500 eV. The covariance matrices of statistical and of systematic origin, relating the resonance parameters, are also given

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepretre, A.; Herault, N.; Brusegan, A.; Noguere, G.; Siegler, P.

    2002-12-01

    This report is a follow up of the report CEA DAPNIA/SPHN-99-04T of Vincent Gressier. In the frame of a collaboration between the 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA)' and the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurement (IRMM, Geel, Belgique), the resonance parameters of neptunium 237 have been determined in the energy interval between 0 and 500 eV. These parameters have been obtained by using the Refit code in analysing simultaneously three transmission experiments. The covariance matrix of statistical origin is provided. A new method, based on various sensitivity studies is proposed for determining also the covariance matrix of systematic origin, relating the resonance parameters. From an experimental viewpoint, the study indicated that, with a large probability, the background spectrum has structure. A two dimensional profiler for the neutron density has been proved feasible. Such a profiler could, among others, demonstrate the existence of the structured background. (authors)

  15. Neutron induced fission cross section ratios for /sup 232/Th, /sup 235,238/U, /sup 237/Np, and /sup 239/Pu from 1 to 400 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisowski, P.W.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J.; Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A.; Hill, N.W.

    1988-01-01

    Time-of-flight measurements of neutron induced fission cross section ratios for /sup 232/Th, /sup 235,238/U, /sup 237/Np, and /sup 239/Pu, were performed using the WNR high intensity spallation neutron source located at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A multiple-plate gas ionization chamber located at a 20-m flight path was used to simultaneously measure the fission rate for all samples over the energy range from 1 to 400 MeV. Because the measurements were made with nearly identical neutron fluxes, we were able to cancel many systematic uncertainties present in previous measurements. This allows us to resolve discrepancies among different data sets. In addition, these are the first neutron-induced fission cross section values for most of the nuclei at energies above 30 MeV. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Wind-tunnel investigation of longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control characteristics of a 0.237-scale model of a remotely piloted research vehicle with a thick, high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrdsong, T. A.; Brooks, C. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A 0.237-scale model of a remotely piloted research vehicle equipped with a thick, high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing was tested in the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel to provide experimental data for a prediction of the static stability and control characteristics of the research vehicle as well as to provide an estimate of vehicle flight characteristics for a computer simulation program used in the planning and execution of specific flight-research mission. Data were obtained at a Reynolds number of 16.5 x 10 to the 6th power per meter for Mach numbers up to 0.92. The results indicate regions of longitudinal instability; however, an adequate margin of longitudinal stability exists at a selected cruise condition. Satisfactory effectiveness of pitch, roll, and yaw control was also demonstrated.

  17. Investigation of Neutron Spectra and Transmutation of ^{129}I, ^{237}Np and Other Nuclides with 1.5 GeV Protons from the Dubna Nuclotron Using the Electronuclear Setup "Energy plus Transmutation"

    CERN Document Server

    Krivopustov, M I; Balabekyan, A R; Batusov, Yu A; Bielewicz, M; Brandt, R; Chaloun, P; Chultem, D; Dwivedi, K K; Elishev, A F; Fragopoulou, M; Henzl, V; Henzlová, D; Kalinnikov, V G; Kievets, M K; Krása, A; Krizek, F; Kugler, A; Manolopoulou, Metaxia; Mariin, I I; Nourreddine, A; Odoj, R; Pavliouk, A V; Pronskikh, V S; Robotham, H; Siemon, K; Szuta, M; Stegailov, V I; Solnyshkin, A A; Sosnin, A N; Stoulos, S; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V M; Tumendelger, T; Wojecehowski, A; Wagner, V; Wan, J S; Westmeier, W; Zamani-Valasiadou, M; Kumawat, H; Kumar, V; Zaverioukha, O S; Zhuk, I V

    2004-01-01

    Experiments which are part of the scientific program "Investigations of physical aspects of electronuclear method of energy production and transmutation for radioactive waste of atomic energetics using relativistic beams from the JINR Synchrophasotron/Nuclotron" (project "Energy plus Transmutation") are described. A large lead target surrounded by a four-section uranium blanket with total weight of 206.4 kg natural uranium was irradiated with 1.5 GeV protons from the new cryogenic accelerator Nuclotron. Radiochemical sensors were exposed to the secondary particle fluences inside and on top of the target assembly. Two long-lived radioactive waste of atomic energetics sensors ^{129}I and ^{237}Np (approximately 1 g weight each) and stable nuclides ^{27}Al, ^{59}Co, ^{127}I, ^{139}La, ^{197}Au and ^{209}Bi as well as natural and enriched uranium were used. In addition, various solid state nuclear track detectors and nuclear emulsions were exposed simultaneously. The experimental results confirm the theoretical e...

  18. Solubility and speciation results from oversaturation experiments on neptunium, plutonium and americium in a neutral electrolyte with a total carbonate similar to water from Yucca Mountain Region Well UE- 25p No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torretto, P.; Becraft, K.; Prussin, T.; Roberts, K.; Carpenter, S.; Hobart, D.; Nitsche, H.

    1995-12-01

    Solubility and speciation are important in understanding aqueous radionuclide transport through the geosphere. They define the source term for transport retardation processes such as sorption and colloid formation. Solubility and speciation data are useful in verifying the validity of geochemical codes that are a part of predictive transport models. Solubility experiments will approach solution equilibrium from both oversaturation and undersaturation. In these experiments, we have approached the solubility equilibrium from oversaturation, Results are given for solubility and speciation experiments from oversaturation of 237 NpO 2 + 239 Pu 4+ , and 241 Am 3+ /Nd 3+ in a neutral electrolyte containing a total carbonate concentration similar to groundwater from the Yucca Mountain region, Nevada, which is being investigated as a potential high-level nuclear waste disposal site, at 25 degrees C and three pH values. In these experiments, the solubilitycontrolling steady-state solids were identified and the speciation and/or oxidation states present in the supernatant solutions were determined

  19. Analysis procedure for americium in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, R.W.; Hayes, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Several methods for the analysis of 241 Am in environmental samples were evaluated and a preferred method was selected. This method was modified and used to determine the 241 Am content in sediments, biota, and water. The advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. The method is also suitable for 244 Cm analysis

  20. Plutonium and americium in Lake Michigan sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgington, D.N.; Alberts, J.J.; Wahlgren, M.A.; Karttunen, J.O.; Reeve, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    The vertical distributions of 239 , 240 Pu, 238 Pu, and 137 Cs have been measured in sediment cores taken from Lake Michigan. Sections from a limited number of cores have been analyzed for 241 Am. In addition, grab samples from ten locations in the southern basin of the lake have been analyzed for phase distribution of 239 , 240 Pu using a sequential extraction technique. The results indicate that the 239 , 240 Pu, 238 Pu, and 137 Cs from weapons testing, and the 241 Am formed in situ are concentrated in the sediments. A comparison of the total deposition of 239 , 240 Pu and 137 Cs indicates that 137 Cs may be valuable as a monitor for 239 , 240 Pu deposition in the sediments. Values of the 238 Pu/ 239 , 240 Pu ratio are in agreement with values reported in Lake Ontario sediments (and Lake Michigan plankton) and show little variation with depth. 241 Am data support the concept of in situ production with little preferential mobility after formation. Studies of sedimentary phase distributions show that 239 , 240 Pu is associated with hydrous oxide phases which are chemically stable under the prevailing conditions in lake sediments. Since Lake Michigan sediments remain aerobic, relatively little 239 , 240 Pu is available for chemical mobilization from the hydrous oxide or organic phases present in the sediments

  1. The proliferation potential of neptunium and americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, J. S.; Shin, J. S.; Kim, J. S.; Kwack, E. H.; Kim, B. K

    2000-05-01

    It is recognized that some trans-uranic elements other than plutonium, in particular Np and Am, if will be available in sufficient quantities, could be used for nuclear explosive devices. The spent fuel has been accumulating in number of nuclear power plant and operation of large scale commercial reprocessing plants. However, these materials are not covered by the definition of special fissionable material in the Agency Statute. At the time when the Statute was adopted, the availability of meaningful quantities of separated Np and Am was remote and they were not included in the definition of special fissionable material. Then, IAEA Board decided a measure for control of Np and Am on September 1999. This report contains the control method and the characteristic of Np and Am for using domestic nuclear industries, and it can be useful for understanding how to report and account of Np and Am. (author)

  2. Evaluation of neutron data for americium-241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov, V.M.; Sukhovitskij, E.Sh.; Porodzinskij, Yu.V.; Klepatskij, A.B.; Morogovskij, G.B. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    The evaluation of neutron data for {sup 241}Am is made in the energy region from 10{sup -5} eV up to 20 MeV. The results of the evaluation are compiled in the ENDF/B-VI format. This work is performed under the Project Agreement CIS-03-95 with the International Science and Technology Center (Moscow). The Financing Party for the Project is Japan. The evaluation was requested by Y. Kikuchi (JAERI). (author). 60 refs.

  3. 1976 Hanford Americium exposure incident: hematologic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1982-05-01

    Hematologic evaluation of an individual with an initial systemic body burden of approx. 200 μCi 241 Am revealed a significant (P < 0.01) reduction of total leukocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes. This effect on total leukocytes and neutrophils was evident approx. 30 days after exposure, appeared to stabilize at about 3 months after exposure, and remained at this lower level thorugh a 52-months observation period. The effect on lymphocytes was apparent by 3 days after exposure, stabilizing at approx. 50% of pre-exposure values for about 7 months, with a return to pre-exposure levels in the following 4 y. There was a progressive and significant (P < 0.001) decline in platelet counts during the 52-months postexposure period. The pattern of response in erythrocyte parameters was complex. Immediately after the accident, these values were less than the pre-exposure mean level; they gradually increased (P < 0.001) for approx. 2 y and then began a progressive decline (P < 0.001)

  4. Americium-241 in bile and feces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LoSasso, T.; Cohen, N.; Wrenn, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between the excretion of Am-241 in bile and in feces, two young adult female baboons underwent cholecystopexy surgery to facilitate gallbladder bile sampling by needle puncture through the abdominal wall. Am-241 was injected intravenously in citrate form at dose levels of 0.090 and 0.098 μCi/kg. It has been observed that concentrations of Am-241 in bile increase gradually at early times post injection, reach a peak at 3 to 5 weeks and then decrease slowly over a period of several months, similar to the pattern of Am-241 excretion in feces. At times greater than one week post Am-241 injection, there is a 1 : 1 correlation between the activity measured in bile and that which appears in the feces a few days later, indicating that Am-241 excreted in feces represents elimination primarily from liver and that significant reabsorption by the intestines does not occur as is true for other bile constituents. At earlier times, less than one week post injection, Am-241 appears in feces via other pathways in addition to the biliary route

  5. Plutonium and americium in the Rhone sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulquier, L.; Jourd'Heuil, L.; Lambrechts, A.; Morello, M.; Miara, P.; Pally, M.

    1996-01-01

    238,239,240 Pu and 241 Am are measured in sediments from river ecosystems. These artificial radioisotopes are related to military and civilian activities. Small concentrations require an original radiochemical process followed by alpha spectrometry. 104 analysis on sediment from the Rhone have been taken since 1989. The transuranic elements present in sediment from the Rhone originate principally from the atmospheric nuclear tests carried out between 1945 and 1975, fallout from which spread some 1.2 x 10 16 Bq of 239 , 240 Pu and 2.9 x 10 13 Bq of 238 Pu into the atmosphere, 80 % of which was in the Northern Hemisphere (1). Various accidents have also released transuranic elements into the environment. Such was the case with the SNAP-9A satellite, which burned up in April 1964 and released 5.1 x 10 14 Bq of 238 Pu, 40 % of that in the Northern Hemisphere. Fallout from the Chernobyl accident containing α emitters was negligible in France. Irradiated-fuel reprocessing plants (La Hague and Marcoule) are authorized to release a emitters in their liquid effluent. The Marcoule plant is authorized to release 150 GBq per year into the Rhone. In 1991 the Marcoule facility renovated its liquid effluent treatment station. The activities released diminished considerably. (author)

  6. Migration study of americium in porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tadao; Ogawa, Hiromichi

    1999-01-01

    Migration experiments of 241 Am 3+ had been performed by a column system, to investigate migration behavior of 241 Am through a column packed porous sedimentary materials: a coastal sandy soil and a reddish soil. Most 241 Am loaded into the column packed the reddish soil sorbed on the influent edge of the column. In the case of the sandy soil, however, considerable amount of 241 Am was passed through the column. This shows that there is colloidal 241 Am species which may move without effective interaction with the sandy soil. Such a migration behavior of colloidal 241 Am in the sandy soil column could be evaluated by a sorption model based on filtration theory. Sorption mechanisms of 241 Am on the sedimentary materials were examined by a chemical extraction method, for 241 Am sorbed on the sandy soil and the reddish soil at any sections in the column. The 241 Am sorbed on the reddish soil was mainly controlled by a reversible ion exchange reaction. On the other hand, the 241 Am sorbed on the sandy soil ws controlled by irreversible reactions, such as the selective chemical sorptions onto Fe and Mn oxyhydroxide/oxide. The experimental results support that the migration of 241 Am in the reddish soil layer can be estimated by using the K d , whereas that in the sandy soil can not be explained by the K d concept. (author)

  7. About the first experiment on investigation of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu and 239Pu transmutation at the nuclotron 2.52 GeV deuteron beam in neutron field generated in U/Pb-assembly 'Energy plus transmutation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivopustov, M.I.; Pavliouk, A.V.; Malakhov, A.I.

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary results of the first experiment with energy 2.52 GeV at the electronuclear setup which consists of Pb-target (diameter 8.4 cm, length 45.6 cm) and nat U-blanket (206.4 kg), transmutation samples of 129 I, 237 Np, 238 Pu and 239 Pu (radioecological aspect) are described. Hermetically sealed samples in notable amounts are gathered in atomic reactors and setups of industries which use nuclear materials and nuclear technologies were irradiated in the field of neutrons produced in the Pb-target and propagated in the nat U-blanket. Estimates of transmutations were obtained as a result of measurements of gamma activities of the samples. The information about the space and energy distribution of neutrons in the volume of the lead target and the uranium blanket was obtained with the help of sets of activation threshold detectors (Al, Co, Y, I, Au, Bi and others), solid-state nuclear track detectors, 3 He neutron detectors and nuclear emulsion. Comparison of the experimental data with the results of simulation with the MCNPX program was performed

  8. 237 MORAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FILICIDE: EXAMINING THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Nigerian campuses of higher learning or the like that engage in sex for .... children and causing various risks to the child safety… ... their babies with them for up to 18months gives room for bonding of mother and child, .... be likely to adversely affect his physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development or employed as.

  9. 33 CFR 117.237 - Christina River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... five short blasts, and an audio voice warning stating, “Attention, Attention. Norfolk Southern Railroad... infrared detectors, until green lights are displayed on the swing span. (c) The draw of the Third Street...

  10. TMFunction data: 237 [TMFunction[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available HC. J Biol Chem. 2000 Jul 14;275(28):21017-24 mutagenesis ... affinity chromatography 1AJJ ... LDLR_HUMAN (P01130) Helix ... ligand binding site; surface exposed; acidic residue; conserved

  11. 237 MORAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FILICIDE: EXAMINING THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    no good hospital, employment opportunity or social infrastructure and where poverty level is over. 300%, how will you expect a family to reject the gains from anti-social ..... Likewise, every child has the right to maintenance by his parents or guardians in accordance with the extent of their means, and the child has the right, ...

  12. Publications | Page 237 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... the agro-pastoral systems of Tanzania : a gendered analysis (open access) ... This paper deals with the ways in which gender and caste identities marginalise particular groups from access to water in a village in periurban Hyderabad, India.

  13. 48 CFR 237.7301 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... means any public or private post-secondary school, junior college, college, university, or other degree... of study at any level beyond high school. (b) Nonprofit organization means any organization described... good standing in a curriculum designed to lead to the granting of a recognized degree, during the term...

  14. Publications | Page 237 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... we aim to widen the impact of our investment and advance development research. ... from place to place; this is mainly due to social and economic influences. ... with reference to specific technologies: the computer and the cell phone.

  15. 50 CFR 648.237 - Framework provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Committee composition and process; description and identification of essential fish habitat; description and identification of habitat areas of particular concern; overfishing definition and related thresholds and targets... measures must come from one or more of the following categories: Minimum fish size; maximum fish size; gear...

  16. Human Leukocyte Antigen-A, B, C, DRB1, and DQB1 Allele and Haplotype Frequencies in a Subset of 237 Donors in the South African Bone Marrow Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mqondisi Tshabalala

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human leukocyte antigen- (HLA- A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, and HLA-DQB1 allele and haplotype frequencies were studied in a subset of 237 volunteer bone marrow donors registered at the South African Bone Marrow Registry (SABMR. Hapl-o-Mat software was used to compute allele and haplotype frequencies from individuals typed at various resolutions, with some alleles in multiple allele code (MAC format. Four hundred and thirty-eight HLA-A, 235 HLA-B, 234 HLA-DRB1, 41 HLA-DQB1, and 29 HLA-C alleles are reported. The most frequent alleles were A∗02:02g (0.096, B∗07:02g (0.082, C∗07:02g (0.180, DQB1∗06:02 (0.157, and DRB1∗15:01 (0.072. The most common haplotype was A∗03:01g~B∗07:02g~C∗07:02g~DQB1∗06:02~DRB1∗15:01 (0.067, which has also been reported in other populations. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed in A, B, and DRB1 loci, with C~DQB1 being the only locus pair in linkage disequilibrium. This study describes allele and haplotype frequencies from a subset of donors registered at SABMR, the only active bone marrow donor registry in Africa. Although the sample size was small, our results form a key resource for future population studies, disease association studies, and donor recruitment strategies.

  17. Modelling of the radioactive daughter elements in soil to assess radiation impact due to contaminated irrigation water by parents of 231Pa, 226Ra, 238U, 237Np and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bela Kanyar; Katalin Eged; Tunde Katona; Gerhard Proehl; Ulla Bergstroem; Bengt Hallberg; Shelly Mobbs; Geert Olyslaegers; Theo Zeevaert; Palome Pinedo; Inmaculade Simon

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive wastes may contain both parent and daughter radionuclides. In some cases the transfer parameters of the daughter radio-elements differ significantly from that of the parent ones and therefore the dose contributions in the different pathways might be important to assess separately. The present work has compared 5 different site specific models by a scenario, using contaminated water for drinking and irrigation. Altogether 5 radionuclides from the investigated 10 ones contained radioactive daughter elements. In general, for long term studies in biosphere the steady-state formulations of processes are adequate to assess the contamination, except the infiltration into the deeper soil and sediment layers. According to the results of the modelling and computer simulations, the following daughters are to be assessed separately from their parents with respect to the radiation impact: for parent 231 Pa the daughter 227 Ac, for parent 226 Ra the daughters 222 Rn, 210 Pb and 210 Po and for parent 237 Np the daughter 233 Pa. The dose contributions of the daughters from parents 238 U and 239 Pu are less significant during the considered 100-10000 years. In case of contamination of irrigation water with 1 Bq x m -3 of the parent radionuclide 231 Pa, more than 90% of the external dose from soil exposure comes from the daughter 227 Ac (annually 15 nSv). By a similar contamination with 226 Ra as a parent radionuclide, 60% of the ingestion dose is due to food contamination with the daughters 210 Pb and 210 Po (approximately 150 nSv x a -1 ). (author)

  18. Alpha self-irradiation effects in ternary oxides of actinides elements: The zircon-like phases AmIIIVO4 and AIINpIV(VO4)2 (A=Sr, Pb)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goubard, F.; Griesmar, P.; Tabuteau, A.

    2005-01-01

    We report the experimental studies of irradiation damage from alpha decay in neptunium and americium vanadates versus cumulative dose. The isotopes used were the transuranium α-emitter 237 Np and the α,γ-emitter 241 Am. Neptunium and americium vanadates self-irradiation was studied by X-ray diffraction method (XRD). The comparison of the powder diffraction patterns reveal that the irradiation has no apparent effect on the neptunium phases while the americium vanadate swells and becomes metamict as a function of cumulative dose

  19. Americium-curium separation by means of selective extraction of hexavalent americium using a centrifugal contactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikas, C.; Germain, M.; Bathellier, A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper deals with Am (VI) - Cm (III) separation in nitrate media. The kinetics of oxidation of Am (III) by sodium persulfate in the presence of Ag + ions were reinvestigated by studying the effect of additions of small amounts of reagents which do not drastically change the distribution coefficients of Am (VI) or Cm (III) ions. Organo phosphorus solvents were selected because they are radiation resistant, possess weak reductant properties and that their affinity for hexavalent ion is high. The operating procedure was selected by consideration of the results of the two previous investigations. This can be done by using a centrifugal contactor enabling in to set organic-aqueous phase contact time in accordance with the kinetics of extraction of Am (VI), oxidation of Am (III) in aqueous phase, and reduction of Am (VI) in organic phase

  20. Study of the electrochemical oxidation of Am with lacunary heteropolyanions and silver nitrate; Etude de l'oxydation electrochimique de l'americium en presence d'heteropolyanions lacunaires et de nitrate d'argent en milieu aqueux acide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartier, D

    1999-07-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of Am(III) with certain lacunary heteropolyanions (LHPA {alpha}{sub 2}-P{sub 2}W{sub 17}O{sub 61}{sup 10-} or {alpha}SiW{sub 11}O{sub 39}{sup 8-}) and silver nitrate is an efficient way to prepare Am(VI). This document presents bibliographic data and an experimental study of the process. Thus, it has been established that Am(IV) is an intermediate species in the reaction and occurs in 1:1 (Amt{sup IV}LHPA) or 1:2 (Am {sup IV}(LHAP){sub 2}) complexes with the relevant LHPA. These 1:1 complexes of Am(IV) have been identified and isolated in this work whereas 1:2 complexes were known from previous studies. The reactivity of these complexes in oxidation shows that 1:1 complexes of Am(IV) are oxidised much more quickly than 1:2 complexes. Apparent stability constants of Am(III) and Am(IV) complexes with the relevant LHPA have been measured for a 1 M nitric acid medium. Thermodynamic data of the reaction are then assessed: redox potentials of Am pairs are computed for a 1 M nitric acid medium containing various amount of LHPA ligands. Those results show that the role of LHPA is to stabilize the intermediate species Am(IV) by lowering the Am(IV)/Am(III) pair potential of about 1 Volt. Nevertheless, if this stabilisation is too strong (i.e. of tungsto-silicate), the oxidation of Am(IV) requires high anodic potential (more than 2 V/ENH). Then, the faradic yield of the oxidation of americium is poor because of water oxidation. This study has also shown that the main role of silver is to catalyze the electrochemical oxidation of Am{sup IV}(LHPA){sub X} complexes. Indeed, these oxidations without silver are extremely slow. An oxygen tracer experiment has been performed during the oxidation of Am(III) in Am(VI). It has been shown that the oxygen atoms of Am(VI) (AMO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) come from water molecules of the solvent and not from the complexing oxygen atoms of the ligands. (author)