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Sample records for americium 236

  1. Preparation of americium amalgam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a method for the electrochemical preparation of an americium amalgam from americium dioxide and americium 241 and 243 for use in determining the physicochemical properties of the alloy. Moessbauer spectra were made using neptunium dioxide, in the neptunium 237 form, as an absorber. Results show that electrolysis produces a homogeneous amalgam that gives an unoxidized product on vacuum distillation at 200 degrees C

  2. Preparation of americium amalgam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the method of NGR-spectroscopy with the aid of 241Am isotope chemical state of transuranium elements in the volume and on the surface of amalgams is studied. Amalgam preparation was realized in a simplified electrolytic cell. It is shown that in the process of amalgam preparation the first order of reaction as to actinide is observed; americium is distributed gradually over the volume and it is partially sorbed by the surface of glass capillary. NGR spectrum of dry residue after mercury distillation at 200 deg C points to the presence of americium-mercury intermetal compounds

  3. 1976 Hanford americium accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heid, K R; Breitenstein, B D; Palmer, H E; McMurray, B J; Wald, N

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the 2.5-year medical course of a 64-year-old Hanford nuclear chemical operator who was involved in an accident in an americium recovery facility in August 1976. He was heavily externally contaminated with americium, sustained a substantial internal deposition of this isotope, and was burned with concentrated nitric acid and injured by flying debris about the face and neck. The medical care given the patient, including the decontamination efforts and clinical laboratory studies, are discussed. In-vivo measurements were used to estimate the dose rates and the accumulated doses to body organs. Urinary and fecal excreta were collected and analyzed for americium content. Interpretation of these data was complicated by the fact that the intake resulted both from inhalation and from solubilization of the americium embedded in facial tissues. A total of 1100 ..mu..Ci was excreted in urine and feces during the first 2 years following the accident. The long-term use of diethylenetriaminepentate (DTPA), used principally as the zinc salt, is discussed including the method, route of administration, and effectiveness. To date, the patient has apparently experienced no complications attributable to this extensive course of therapy, even though he has been given approximately 560 grams of DTPA. 4 figures, 1 table.

  4. Chemistry of americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1976-01-01

    Essential features of the descriptive chemistry of americium are reviewed. Chapter titles are: discovery, atomic and nuclear properties, collateral reading, production and uses, chemistry in aqueous solution, metal, alloys, and compounds, and, recovery, separation, purification. Author and subject indexes are included. (JCB)

  5. The Biokinetic Model of Americium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    To improve in vivo measurements for detecting internal exposure from transuranium radio nuclides, such as neptunium, plutonium, americium, the bioknetic model was studied. According to ICRP report (1993, 1995, 1997) and other research, the

  6. Americium product solidification and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The americium product from the TRUEX processing plant needs to be converted into a form suitable for ultimate disposal. An evaluation of the disposal based on safety, number of process steps, demonstrated operability of the processes, production of low-level alpha waste streams, and simplicity of maintenance with low radiation exposures to personnel during maintenance, has been made. The best process is to load the americium on a cation exchange resin followed by calcination or oxidation of the resin after loading

  7. Spectrochemical analysis of curium and americium samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectrochemical procedures have been developed to determine impurities in americium and curium samples. The simultaneous separation of many impurity elements from the base material (americium and curium) is carried out with extraction and extraction-chromatographic methods using di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid. It is shown that part of the elements are separated with extraction or sorption of americium and curium; the other part with the Talspeak process. Two fractions in the extraction chromatography and three fractions in the extraction separation of americium and curium, containing impurities, are analyzed separately by a.c. or d.c. arc spectrography. To increase the sensitivity of the spectrographic analysis and accelerate the burn-up of impurities from the crater of the carbon electrode bismuth fluoride and sodium chloride were used as chemically active substances. The extraction of impurities from weighed quantities of americium and curium samples of 5 to 10 mg permits the lower limit of determined impurity concentrations to be extended to 1 x 10-4 to 5 x 10-3% m/m. (author)

  8. Pyrochemical technology of plutonium and americium preparation and purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrochemical tecnology of metallic plutonium and americium preparation and purification is considered. Investigations into plutonium dioxide reduction up to metal; plutonium electrolytic refining in molten salts; plutonium extraction from the molten salts and preparation of americium dioxide and metallic americium from its tetrafluoride are described

  9. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  10. 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident: psychological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidents involving exposure to radiation or radioactive materials may involve an unusual degree of emotional trauma. Methods that may be employed in dealing with such trauma are discussed in relation to a specific accident in which a radiation worker was injured and seriously contaminated with americium-241

  11. 49 CFR 236.558-236.559 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives §§ 236.558-236.559...

  12. Incentives for transmutation of americium in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes possible benefits when americium is irradiated in a thermal reactor. If all plutonium is partitioned from spent fuel, americium is the main contributor to the radiotoxicity of spent fuel upto several thousands of years of storage. It is shown that americium can be transmuted to other nuclides upon irradiation in a thermal reactor, leading to a 50% reduction of the radiotoxicity of neptunium, which can be an important contributor to the dose due to leakage of nuclides after one million years of storage. The radiotoxicity of americium can be reduced considerably after irradiation for 3 to 6 years in a thermal reactor with thermal neutron flux of 1014 cm-2s-1. The strongly α and neutron emitting transmutation products can most probably not be recycled again, so a transmutation process is suggested in which americium is irradiated for 3 to 6 years and then put to final storage. It is shown that the radiotoxicity of the transmuation products after a storage time of about one hundred years can be considerably reduced compared to the radiotoxicity of the initial americium. The same holds for the α activity and heat emission of the transmutation products. Because plutonium in spent fuel contributes for about 80% to the radiotoxicity upto 105 years of storage, recycling and transmutation of plutonium has first priority. Transmutation of americium is only meaningful when the radiotoxicity of plutonium is reduced far below the radiotoxicity of americium. (orig.)

  13. Surface complexation modeling of americium sorption onto volcanic tuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, M; Kelkar, S; Meijer, A

    2014-10-01

    Results of a surface complexation model (SCM) for americium sorption on volcanic rocks (devitrified and zeolitic tuff) are presented. The model was developed using PHREEQC and based on laboratory data for americium sorption on quartz. Available data for sorption of americium on quartz as a function of pH in dilute groundwater can be modeled with two surface reactions involving an americium sulfate and an americium carbonate complex. It was assumed in applying the model to volcanic rocks from Yucca Mountain, that the surface properties of volcanic rocks can be represented by a quartz surface. Using groundwaters compositionally representative of Yucca Mountain, americium sorption distribution coefficient (Kd, L/Kg) values were calculated as function of pH. These Kd values are close to the experimentally determined Kd values for americium sorption on volcanic rocks, decreasing with increasing pH in the pH range from 7 to 9. The surface complexation constants, derived in this study, allow prediction of sorption of americium in a natural complex system, taking into account the inherent uncertainty associated with geochemical conditions that occur along transport pathways.

  14. Development of a methodology for the determination of americium and thorium by ICP-AES and their inter-element effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the scarcity of good quality uranium resources, the growth of nuclear technology in India is dependent on the utilization of the vast thorium resources. Therefore, Advance Heavy Water Reactor is going to acquire significant role in the scenario of Indian nuclear technology, where (Th, Pu)O2 will be utilized as fuel in the outermost ring of the reactor core. This will lead to a complex matrix containing thorium as well as americium, which is formed due to β-decay of plutonium. The amount of americium is dependent on the burn up and the storage time of the Pu based fuels. In the present case, attempt was made to develop a method for the determination of americium as well as thorium by ICP-AES. Two emission lines of americium were identified and calibration curves were established for determination of americium. Though the detection limit of 283.236 nm line (5 ng mL-1) of americium was found to be better than that of 408.930 nm (11 ng mL-1), the former line is significantly interfered by large amount of thorium. Three analytical lines (i.e. 283.242, 283.730 and 401.913 nm) of thorium were identified and calibration curves were established along with their detection limits. It was observed that 283.242 and 401.913 nm line are having similar detection limits (18 and 13 ng mL-1, respectively) which are better than that of 283.730 nm (60 ng mL-1). This can be attributed to the high background of 283.273 nm channel of thorium. The spectral interference study revealed that even small amount of americium has significant contribution on 283.242 nm channel of thorium while the other two channels remain practically unaffected. Considering both these facts, spectral interference and analytical performance (detection limits and sensitivity), it was concluded that 401.913 nm line is the best analytical line out of the three lines for determination of thorium in presence of americium. (author)

  15. Electrochemical oxidation of americium in nitric medium: study of reaction mechanisms; Oxydation de l'americium par voie electrochimique: etude des mecanismes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picart, S.; Chartier, D.; Donnet, L.; Adnet, J.M. [CEA Valrho, (DCC/DRRV/SPHA), 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2000-07-01

    One alternative selected by the CEA for partitioning minor actinides from aqueous solutions containing fission products is the selective extraction of oxidized americium. This is the SESAME process (Selective Extraction and Separation of Americium by Means of Electrolysis) aimed to convert americium to oxidation state (VI) and then extract it with a specific extractant of high valences. This paper presents the study of the electrochemical oxidation of americium in nitric medium which represents an important stage of the process. The reaction can be divided into two main steps: oxidation of americium (III) to americium (IV), and then of americium (IV) to americium (VI). For the first oxidation step, a ligand L is needed to stabilize the intermediate species americium (IV) which disproportionates in its free form into americium (III) and (V). Phospho-tungstate or silico-tungstate are appropriate ligands because they are stable in concentrated nitric acid and show a great affinity for metallic cations at oxidation state (IV) (Table 1 lists the stability constants of americium (IV) complexes). The presence of the lacunary poly-anion lowers the potential of the americium (IV) / americium (Ill) redox pair (see Figure 5 for the diagram of the apparent formal potential of americium versus ligand concentration). This makes it thermodynamically possible to oxidize americium (III) into americium (IV) at the anode of an electrolyzer in nitric acid. For the second oxidation step, a strong oxidant redox mediator, like silver (II), is needed to convert complexed americium at oxidation state (IV) to oxidation state (V). The AmVL complex is then hydrolyzed to yield americyle (V) aqua ion. A spectroscopic Raman study with {sup 18}O labeled species showed that the oxygen atoms of the americyle moiety came from water. This indicates that water hydrolyzes the americium (V) complex to produce americyle (V) aqua ion, AmO{sub 2}{sup +}. This cation reacts with silver (Il) to give

  16. Higher Americium Oxidation State Research Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincher, Bruce J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Law, Jack D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Goff, George S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shehee, Thomas C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hobbs, David T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-18

    The partitioning of hexavalent Am from dissolved nuclear fuel requires the ability to efficiently oxidize Am(III) to Am(VI) and to maintain that oxidation state for a length of time sufficient to perform the separation. Several oxidants have been, or are being developed. Chemical oxidants include Ag-catalyzed ozone, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate, Cu(III) periodate, and sodium bismuthate. Hexavalent americium has also now successfully been prepared by electrolysis, using functionalized electrodes. So-called auto-reduction rates of Am(VI) are sufficiently slow to allow for separations. However, for separations based on solvent extraction or ion exchange using organic resins, the high valence state must be maintained under the reducing conditions of the organic phase contact, and a holding oxidant is probably necessary. Until now, only Cu(III) periodate and sodium bismuthate oxidation have been successfully combined with solvent extraction separations. Bismuthate oxidation provided the higher DAm, since it acts as its own holding oxidant, and a successful hot test using centrifugal contactors was performed. For the other oxidants, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate will not oxidize americium in nitric acid concentrations above 0.3 M, and it is not being further investigated. Peroxydisulfate in the absence of Ag catalysis is being used to prepare Am(V) in ion exchange work, discussed below. Preliminary work with Ag-catalyzed ozone has been unsuccessful for extractions of Am(VI) from 6.5 M HNO3, and only one attempt at extraction, also from 6.5 M HNO3, using the electrolytic oxidation has been attempted. However, this high acid concentration was based on the highest Am extraction efficiency using the bismuthate oxidant; which is only sparingly soluble, and thus the oxidation yield is based on bismuthate solubility. Lower acid concentrations may be sufficient with alternative oxidants and work with Ag-ozone, Cu(III) and electrolysis is on-going. Two non

  17. Plutonium and Americium Geochemistry at Hanford: A Site Wide Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-08-23

    This report was produced to provide a systematic review of the state-of-knowledge of plutonium and americium geochemistry at the Hanford Site. The report integrates existing knowledge of the subsurface migration behavior of plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site with available information in the scientific literature regarding the geochemistry of plutonium and americium in systems that are environmentally relevant to the Hanford Site. As a part of the report, key research needs are identified and prioritized, with the ultimate goal of developing a science-based capability to quantitatively assess risk at sites contaminated with plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site and the impact of remediation technologies and closure strategies.

  18. Mixed chelation therapy for removal of plutonium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron-binding compounds, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA), and 2-(acetyloxy)benzoic acid (ABA), were tested for their ability to remove americium and plutonium from rats following intraperitioneal injection of the radionuclides as citrates (pH 5). Treatments, 2 mmol/kg, were given on days 3, 6, 10, 12 and 14 following the actinide injection. DHBA and HBA caused about a 20% decrease in liver retention of americium compared to the control value, and DHB caused a similar effect for plutonium. The above agents, co-administered with 0.5 mmol polyaminopolycarboxylic acid (PAPCA)-type chelons, did not change tissue retention of americium and plutonium from that due to the PAPCAs alone. Administration of americium and plutonium to the same rats is useful for studying removal agents since the two actinides behave independently in their biological disposition and response to removal

  19. Gamma-sources on the basis of metallic americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A batch of gamma-radiation sources has been manufactured from metallic americium-241 of isotopic purity, its activity varying from 0.08 to 0.93 GBq. The cores of the sources are high-purity americium metal condensate on a tantalum or stainless steel substrate prepared by thermal decomposition of 241Pu-241Am alloy in a high vacuum. 7 refs., 1 tab

  20. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For Americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  1. Pyrochemical investigations into recovering plutonium from americium extraction salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress into developing a pyrochemical technique for separating and recovering plutonium from spent americium extraction waste salts has concentrated on selective chemical reduction with lanthanum metal and calcium metal and on the solvent extraction of americium with calcium metal. Both techniques are effective for recovering plutonium from the waste salt, although neither appears suitable as a separation technique for recycling a plutonium stream back to mainline purification processes. 17 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Electrochemical oxidation of americium in nitric medium: study of reaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One alternative selected by the CEA for partitioning minor actinides from aqueous solutions containing fission products is the selective extraction of oxidized americium. This is the SESAME process (Selective Extraction and Separation of Americium by Means of Electrolysis) aimed to convert americium to oxidation state (VI) and then extract it with a specific extractant of high valences. This paper presents the study of the electrochemical oxidation of americium in nitric medium which represents an important stage of the process. The reaction can be divided into two main steps: oxidation of americium (III) to americium (IV), and then of americium (IV) to americium (VI). For the first oxidation step, a ligand L is needed to stabilize the intermediate species americium (IV) which disproportionates in its free form into americium (III) and (V). Phospho-tungstate or silico-tungstate are appropriate ligands because they are stable in concentrated nitric acid and show a great affinity for metallic cations at oxidation state (IV) (Table 1 lists the stability constants of americium (IV) complexes). The presence of the lacunary poly-anion lowers the potential of the americium (IV) / americium (Ill) redox pair (see Figure 5 for the diagram of the apparent formal potential of americium versus ligand concentration). This makes it thermodynamically possible to oxidize americium (III) into americium (IV) at the anode of an electrolyzer in nitric acid. For the second oxidation step, a strong oxidant redox mediator, like silver (II), is needed to convert complexed americium at oxidation state (IV) to oxidation state (V). The AmVL complex is then hydrolyzed to yield americyle (V) aqua ion. A spectroscopic Raman study with 18O labeled species showed that the oxygen atoms of the americyle moiety came from water. This indicates that water hydrolyzes the americium (V) complex to produce americyle (V) aqua ion, AmO2+. This cation reacts with silver (Il) to give americyle (VI) ion. Figure

  3. Applicability of insoluble tannin to treatment of waste containing americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applicability of insoluble tannin adsorbent to the treatment of aqueous waste contaminated with americium has been investigated. Insoluble tannin is considered highly applicable because it consists of only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and so its volume can be easily reduced by incineration. This report describes measurements of the americium distribution coefficient in low concentration nitric acid. The americium distribution coefficients were found to decrease with increasing concentration of nitric acid and sodium nitrate, and with increasing temperature. At 25 C in 2.0 x 10-3 M HNO3, the distribution coefficient was found to be 2000 ml g-1. The adsorption capacity was determined by column experiments using europium as a simulant of americium, and found to be 7 x 10-3 mmol g-1-dried tannin in 0.01 M HNO3 at 25 C, which corresponds to approximately 1.7 mg-241Am/g-adsorbent(dried). The prospect of applying the adsorbent to the treatment of aqueous waste contaminated with americium appears promising. (orig.)

  4. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....

  5. 49 CFR 236.588 - Periodic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic test. 236.588 Section 236.588..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.588 Periodic test. Except as provided in § 236.586, periodic test of the automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal...

  6. Salvage of plutonium-and americium-contaminated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melt-slagging techniques were evaluated as a decontamination and consolidation step for metals contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium. Experiments were performed in which mild steel, stainless steel, and nickel metals contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium were melted in the presence of silicate slags of various compositions. The metal products were low in contamination, with the plutonium and americium strongly fractionated to the slags. Partition coefficients (plutonium in slag/plutonium in steel) of 7*10/sup 6/ with borosilicate slag and 3*10/sup 6/ for calcium, magnesium silicate slag were measured. Decontamination of metals containing as much as 14,000 p.p.m. plutonium appears to be as efficient as that of metals with plutonium levels of 400 p.p.m. Staged extraction, that is, a remelting of processed metal with clean slag, results in further decontamination of the metal. 10 refs

  7. 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident: overview and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salient features of the 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident are discussed. Comparisons are made with previous human and animal exposure data, and conclusions drawn relative to the injured workman, to health physics practices, and to the adequacy of current exposure limits

  8. Reduction Rates for Higher Americium Oxidation States in Nitric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Travis Shane [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mincher, Bruce Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schmitt, Nicholas C [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The stability of hexavalent americium was measured using multiple americium concentrations and nitric acid concentrations after contact with the strong oxidant sodium bismuthate. Contrary to our hypotheses Am(VI) was not reduced faster at higher americium concentrations, and the reduction was only zero-order at short time scales. Attempts to model the reduction kinetics using zero order kinetic models showed Am(VI) reduction in nitric acid is more complex than the autoreduction processes reported by others in perchloric acid. The classical zero-order reduction of Am(VI) was found here only for short times on the order of a few hours. We did show that the rate of Am(V) production was less than the rate of Am(VI) reduction, indicating that some Am(VI) undergoes two electron-reduction to Am(IV). We also monitored the Am(VI) reduction in contact with the organic diluent dodecane. A direct comparison of these results with those in the absence of the organic diluent showed the reduction rates for Am(VI) were not statistically different for both systems. Additional americium oxidations conducted in the presence of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ions showed that Am(VI) is reduced without the typical growth of Am(V) observed in the systems sans Ce ion. This was an interesting result which suggests a potential new reduction/oxidation pathway for Am in the presence of Ce; however, these results were very preliminary, and will require additional experiments to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. Overall, these studies have shown that hexavalent americium is fundamentally stable enough in nitric acid to run a separations process. However, the complicated nature of the reduction pathways based on the system components is far from being rigorously understood.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of uranium-americium mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Americium isotopes represent a significant part of high-level and long-lived nuclear waste in spent fuels. Among the envisaged reprocessing scenarios, their transmutation in fast neutron reactors using uranium-americium mixed-oxide pellets (U1-xAmxO2±δ) is a promising option which would help decrease the ecological footprint of ultimate waste repository sites. In this context, this thesis is dedicated to the study of such compounds over a wide range of americium contents (7.5 at.% ≤ Am/(U+Am) ≤ 70 at.%), with an emphasis on their fabrication from single-oxide precursors and the assessment of their structural and thermodynamic stabilities, also taking self-irradiation effects into account. Results highlight the main influence of americium reduction to Am(+III), not only on the mechanisms of solid-state formation of the U1-xAmxO2±δ solid solution, but also on the stabilization of oxidized uranium cations and the formation of defects in the oxygen sublattice such as vacancies and cub-octahedral clusters. In addition, the data acquired concerning the stability of U1-xAmxO2±δ compounds (existence of a miscibility gap, vaporization behavior) were compared to calculations based on new thermodynamic modelling of the U-Am-O ternary system. Finally, α-self-irradiation-induced structural effects on U1-xAmxO2±δ compounds were analyzed using XRD, XAS and TEM, allowing the influence of americium content on the structural swelling to be studied as well as the description of the evolution of radiation-induced structural defects. (author)

  10. 49 CFR 236.712 - Brake pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake pipe. 236.712 Section 236.712 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.712 Brake pipe. A...

  11. 49 CFR 236.771 - Machine, control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machine, control. 236.771 Section 236.771..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.771 Machine, control. An assemblage of manually operated devices for controlling the functions of a...

  12. 49 CFR 236.721 - Circuit, control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, control. 236.721 Section 236.721..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.721 Circuit, control. An electrical circuit between a source of electric energy and a device which it operates....

  13. 49 CFR 236.814 - Station, control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station, control. 236.814 Section 236.814..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.814 Station, control. The place where the control machine of a traffic control system is located....

  14. 49 CFR 236.777 - Operator, control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operator, control. 236.777 Section 236.777..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.777 Operator, control. An employee assigned to operate the control machine of a traffic control system....

  15. 36 CFR 2.36 - Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gambling. 2.36 Section 2.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.36 Gambling. (a) Gambling in any form, or the operation of...

  16. 49 CFR 236.564 - Acknowledging time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acknowledging time. 236.564 Section 236.564..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.564 Acknowledging time. Acknowledging time of intermittent automatic train-stop device shall be not more than 30 seconds....

  17. 49 CFR 236.742 - Dog, locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, locking. 236.742 Section 236.742 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.742...

  18. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  19. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  20. 49 CFR 236.376 - Mechanical locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical locking. 236.376 Section 236.376 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.376 Mechanical locking. Mechanical locking in interlocking machine shall be...

  1. 49 CFR 236.587 - Departure test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Departure test. 236.587 Section 236.587..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.587 Departure test. (a) The...: (1) Operation over track elements; (2) Operation over test circuit; (3) Use of portable...

  2. 49 CFR 236.336 - Locking bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking bed. 236.336 Section 236.336 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Instructions § 236.336 Locking bed. The various parts of the locking bed, locking bed supports, and tappet...

  3. 49 CFR 236.770 - Locomotive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.770 Locomotive. A self... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive. 236.770 Section 236.770 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  4. 15 CFR 23.6 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... International Trade Administration Minority Business Development Agency National Bureau of Standards National... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 23.6 Section 23.6... RECOVERY OF MISSING CHILDREN § 23.6 Definitions. (a) Operating units. Bureaus and other...

  5. 49 CFR 236.105 - Electric lock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric lock. 236.105 Section 236.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.105 Electric lock. Electric lock, except...

  6. 46 CFR 153.236 - Prohibited materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited materials. 153.236 Section 153.236 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 153.236 Prohibited materials. When one of the following paragraphs of this section...

  7. 33 CFR 236.3 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 236.3 Section 236.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER... QUALITY § 236.3 References. (a) PL 89-72 (b) ER 1105-2-10 (c) ER 1105-2-200...

  8. 24 CFR 236.901 - Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accordance with HUD audit requirements at 24 CFR part 44. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Audit. 236.901 Section 236.901... AND INTEREST REDUCTION PAYMENT FOR RENTAL PROJECTS Audits § 236.901 Audit. Where a State or...

  9. Neptunium and americium control for international non-proliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was decided in the IAEA Board of Governors Meeting held in Sept. 1999 that Neptunium and Americium could be diverted for manufacturing nuclear weapon or explosives, so that appropriate measures should be taken for the prevention of proliferation of these materials. It is expected to take relatively long time for settling down the aligned system dealing with the above materials because the present regulatory statement was prepared on the basis of voluntary offers from the States concerned. The necessity of preventive measures is being convinced among Member States, but it would not be easy to take voluntary participation in detail because of their respective interests. It is expected that this paper could contribute to the effective response as to the international commitments as well as for protecting the domestic nuclear industry and R and D area through analysis on the IAEA's approach on Neptunium and Americium

  10. Thermophysical properties of americium-containing barium plutonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycrystalline specimens of americium-containing barium plutonate have been prepared by mixing the appropriate amounts of (Pu0.91Am0.09)O2 and BaCO3 powders followed by reacting and sintering at 1600 K under the flowing gas atmosphere of dry-air. The sintered specimens had a single phase of orthorhombic perovskite structure and were crack-free. Elastic moduli were determined from longitudinal and shear sound velocities. Debye temperature was also determined from sound velocities and lattice parameter measurements. Thermal conductivity was calculated from measured density at room temperature, literature values of heat capacity and thermal diffusivity measured by laser flash method in vacuum. Thermal conductivity of americium-containing barium plutonate was roughly independent of temperature and registered almost the same magnitude as that of BaPuO3 and BaUO3. (author)

  11. 1976 Hanford americium-exposure incident: decontamination and treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An injured worker, contaminated with over 6 mCi of americium-241, required special treatment and housing for 4 months. This paper is a description of the design and management of the facility in which most of the treatment and housing occurred. The problems associated with contamination control, waste handling, supplies, and radiological concerns during the two-stage transfer of the patient from a controlled situation to his normal living environment are discussed in detail

  12. Ingestion Pathway Transfer Factors for Plutonium and Americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-07-28

    Overall transfer factors for major ingestion pathways are derived for plutonium and americium. These transfer factors relate the radionuclide concentration in a given foodstuff to deposition on the soil. Equations describing basic relationships consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.109 are followed. Updated values and coefficients from IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 364 are used when a available. Preference is given to using factors specific to the Savannah River Site.

  13. Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzPatrick, John R.; Dunn, Jerry G.; Avens, Larry R.

    1987-01-01

    Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides. AmF.sub.4 is not further oxidized to AmF.sub.6 by the application of O.sub.2 F at room temperature, while plutonium compounds present in the americium sample are fluorinated to volatile PuF.sub.6, which can readily be separated therefrom, leaving the purified americium oxides and/or fluorides as the solid tetrafluoride.

  14. Gut uptake factors for plutonium, americium and curium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on estimates of the absorption of plutonium, americium and curium from the human gut based on measurements of uptake in other mammalian species are reviewed. It is proposed that for all adult members of the public ingesting low concentrations of plutonium in food and water, 0.05% would be an appropriate value of absorption except when the conditions of exposure are known and a lower value can be justified. For dietary intakes of americium and curium, the available data do not warrant a change from the ICRP value of 0.05%. For newborn children ingesting americium, curium and soluble forms of plutonium, a value of 1% absorption is proposed for the first 3 months of life during which the infant is maintained on a milk diet. It is proposed that a value of 0.5% should be used for the first year of life to take account of the gradual maturation of the gut. In considering the ingestion of insoluble oxides of plutonium by infants, it is proposed that absorption is taken as 0.1% for the first 3 months and 0.05% for the first year. (author)

  15. Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations measured from the 125-meter Hanford Meteorological Tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations and fluxes were measured at six heights from 1.9 to 122 m on the Hanford meteorological tower. The data show that plutonium-239 was transported on nonrespirable and small particles at all heights. Airborne americium-241 concentrations on small particles were maximum at the 91 m height

  16. 10 CFR 31.8 - Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL § 31.8 Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources. (a..., americium-241 or radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources: (1) Any person in a...

  17. Uncertainty analysis of doses from ingestion of plutonium and americium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncher, M; Harrison, J D

    2012-02-01

    Uncertainty analyses have been performed on the biokinetic model for americium currently used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and the model for plutonium recently derived by Leggett, considering acute intakes by ingestion by adult members of the public. The analyses calculated distributions of doses per unit intake. Those parameters having the greatest impact on prospective doses were identified by sensitivity analysis; the most important were the fraction absorbed from the alimentary tract, f(1), and rates of uptake from blood to bone surfaces. Probability distributions were selected based on the observed distribution of plutonium and americium in human subjects where possible; the distributions for f(1) reflected uncertainty on the average value of this parameter for non-specified plutonium and americium compounds ingested by adult members of the public. The calculated distributions of effective doses for ingested (239)Pu and (241)Am were well described by log-normal distributions, with doses varying by around a factor of 3 above and below the central values; the distributions contain the current ICRP Publication 67 dose coefficients for ingestion of (239)Pu and (241)Am by adult members of the public. Uncertainty on f(1) values had the greatest impact on doses, particularly effective dose. It is concluded that: (1) more precise data on f(1) values would have a greater effect in reducing uncertainties on doses from ingested (239)Pu and (241)Am, than reducing uncertainty on other model parameter values and (2) the results support the dose coefficients (Sv Bq(-1) intake) derived by ICRP for ingestion of (239)Pu and (241)Am by adult members of the public.

  18. Recovery of americium-241 from aged plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After separation and purification, both actinides were precipitated as oxalates and calcined. A large-scale process was developed using dissolution, separation, purification, precipitation, and calcination. Efforts were made to control corrosion, to avoid product contamination, to keep the volume of process and waste solutions manageable, and to denitrate solutions with formic acid. The Multipurpose Processing Facility (MPPF), designed for recovery of transplutonium isotopes, was used for the first time for the precipitation and calcination of americium. Also, for the first time,, large-scale formic acid denitration was performed in a canyon vessel at SRP

  19. Effect of 241-americium on bone marrow stroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulation of haemopoiesis occurs via complex interactions between the stroma and the haemopoietic cells. An attempt to further clarifying the mechanisms and the exact role of the stroma in the regulation was made in a study. Results revealed that the murine bone marrow stromal cells are highly radiosensitive after injection with 241-americium and can thus be considered as a target population after internal contamination. In addition, observations are made which may be important for risk estimation for the developing animal and during pregnancy. Contamination in utero and by lactation shows persistent damage up to 1 year after contamination at an average annual dose of 5 cGy. (author)

  20. Preferential decorporation of americium by pulmonary administration of DTPA dry powder after inhalation of aged PuO2 containing americium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After inhalation of plutonium oxides containing various percentages of americium in rats, we identified an acellular transient pulmonary compartment, the epithelial lining fluid (ELF), in which a fraction of actinide oxides dissolve prior to absorption and subsequent extrapulmonary deposit. Chelation therapy is usually considered to be poorly efficient after inhalation of actinide oxides. However, in the present study, prompt pulmonary administration of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as a dry powder led to a decrease in actinide content in ELF together with a limitation of bone and liver deposits. Because americium is more soluble than plutonium, higher amounts of americium were found in ELF, extrapulmonary tissues and urine. Our results also demonstrated that the higher efficacy of DTPA on americium compared to plutonium in ELF induced a preferential inhibition of extrapulmonary deposit and a greater urinary excretion of americium compared to plutonium. All together, our data justify the use of an early and local DTPA treatment after inhalation of plutonium oxide aerosols in which americium can be in high proportion such as in aged compounds. (authors)

  1. 236U and Its Measurement With Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>236U natural occurring isotopic abundance, 236U/238U atom number ratio, is about 10-14. Therefore, 236U is potentially useful as a ‘fingerprint’ for the presence in the environment or nuclear waste of

  2. 49 CFR 236.811 - Speed, medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Speed, medium. 236.811 Section 236.811 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Speed, medium. A speed not exceeding 40 miles per hour....

  3. 49 CFR 236.813 - Speed, slow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Speed, slow. 236.813 Section 236.813 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Speed, slow. A speed not exceeding 20 miles per hour....

  4. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program §...

  5. 49 CFR 236.790 - Release, time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Release, time. 236.790 Section 236.790... Release, time. A device used to prevent the operation of an operative unit until after the expiration of a predetermined time interval after the device has been actuated....

  6. 49 CFR 236.768 - Locking, time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, time. 236.768 Section 236.768... Locking, time. A method of locking, either mechanical or electrical, which, after a signal has been caused to display an aspect to proceed, prevents, until after the expiration of a predetermined...

  7. 49 CFR 236.806 - Signal, home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal, home. 236.806 Section 236.806 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Signal, home. A roadway signal at the entrance to a route or block to govern trains in entering and...

  8. 48 CFR 552.236-80 - Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat. 552.236-80 Section... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552.236-80 Heat. As prescribed in 536.570-11, insert the following clause: Heat (APR 1984) Unless otherwise specified or unless...

  9. 49 CFR 236.751 - Interlocking, manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interlocking, manual. 236.751 Section 236.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Interlocking, manual. An arrangement of signals and signal appliances operated from an interlocking machine...

  10. 49 CFR 236.769 - Locking, traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, traffic. 236.769 Section 236.769... Locking, traffic. Electric locking which prevents the manipulation of levers or other devices for changing the direction of traffic on a section of track while that section is occupied or while a...

  11. 49 CFR 236.730 - Coil, receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coil, receiver. 236.730 Section 236.730 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Coil, receiver. Concentric layers of insulated wire wound around the core of a receiver of an...

  12. 49 CFR 236.733 - Current, foreign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Current, foreign. 236.733 Section 236.733 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Current, foreign. A term applied to stray electric currents which may affect a signaling system, but...

  13. 49 CFR 236.761 - Locking, electric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, electric. 236.761 Section 236.761 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Locking, electric. The combination of one or more electric locks and controlling circuits by means...

  14. 49 CFR 236.757 - Lock, electric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lock, electric. 236.757 Section 236.757... Lock, electric. A device to prevent or restrict the movement of a lever, a switch or a movable bridge, unless the locking member is withdrawn by an electrical device, such as an electromagnet, solenoid...

  15. 49 CFR 236.731 - Controller, circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controller, circuit. 236.731 Section 236.731 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Controller, circuit. A device for opening and closing electric circuits....

  16. 49 CFR 236.728 - Circuit, trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, trap. 236.728 Section 236.728... Circuit, trap. A term applied to a circuit used where it is desirable to provide a track circuit but where it is impracticable to maintain a track circuit....

  17. 49 CFR 236.726 - Circuit, track.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, track. 236.726 Section 236.726 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, track. An electrical circuit of which the rails of the track form a part....

  18. 49 CFR 236.765 - Locking, mechanical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, mechanical. 236.765 Section 236.765 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Locking, mechanical. An arrangement of locking bars, dogs, tappets, cross locking and other apparatus...

  19. 48 CFR 53.236-1 - Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction. 53.236-1... AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 53.236-1 Construction. The following forms are prescribed, as stated below, for use in contracting for construction, alteration, or repair, or dismantling,...

  20. Kilogram-scale purification of americium by ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelwright, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Sequential anion and cation exchange processes have been used for the final purification of /sup 241/Am recovered during the reprocessing of aged plutonium metallurgical scrap. Plutonium was removed by absorption of Dowex 1, X-3.5 (30 to 50 mesh) anion exchange resin from 6.5 to 7.5 M HNO/sub 3/ feed solution. Following a water dilution to 0.75 to 1.0 M HNO/sub 3/, americium was absorbed on Dowex 50W, X-8 (50 to 100 mesh) cation exchange resion. Final purification was accomplished by elution of the absorbed band down 3 to 4 successive beds of the same resin, preloaded with Zn/sup 2 +/, with an NH/sub 4/OH buffered chelating agent. The recovery of mixed /sup 241/Am-/sup 243/Am from power reactor reprocessing waste has been demonstrated. Solvent extraction was used to recover a HNO/sub 3/ solution of mixed lanthanides and actinides from waste generated by the reprocessng of 13.5 tons of Shippingport Power Reactor blanket fuel. Sequential cation exchange band-displacement processes were then used to separate americium and curium from the lanthanides and then to separate approx. 60 g of /sup 244/Cm from 1000 g of mixed /sup 241/Am-/sup 243/Am.

  1. Analytical performance of radiochemical method for americium determination in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an analytical method developed and adapted for separation and analysis of Plutonium (Pu) isotopes and Americium (Am) in urine samples. The proposed method will attend the demand of internal exposure monitoring program for workers involved mainly with dismantling rods and radioactive smoke detectors. In this experimental procedure four steps are involved as preparation of samples, sequential radiochemical separation, preparation of the source for electroplating and quantification by alpha spectrometry. In the first stage of radiochemical separation, plutonium is conventionally isolated employing the anion exchange technique. Americium isolation is achieved sequentially by chromatographic extraction (Tru.spec column) from the load and rinse solutions coming from the anion exchange column. The 243Am tracer is added into the sample as chemical yield monitors and to correct the results improving the precision and accuracy. The mean recovery obtained is 60%, and the detection limit for 24h urine sample is 1.0 mBq L-1 in accordance with the literature. Based in the preliminary results, the method is appropriate to be used in monitoring programme of workers with a potential risk of internal contamination. (author)

  2. Development of separation techniques of americium from reprocessing solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Americium(Am) and neptunium(Np) finally transfer to the waste stream in the current PUREX reprocessing process. As an option, some methods have been developed to recover Am and Np from the waste stream to decrease long-term toxicity of the high level waste. The most stable valence state of Am is III, but TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate) which is an extractant used in the PUREX reprocessing does not extract Am(III). Therefore, some special extractants have been developed to recover Am(III). However, they also extract rare-earth elements(REs), which necessitates the separation process for Am from REs. We have been developing a separation process which consists of valence control of Am to the VI state and its extraction with TBP. This process allows Am recovery from reprocessing solution and Am separation from REs simultaneously. Americium(III) is oxidized to Am(VI) by electrochemical oxidation and chemical oxidation using peroxodisulfate ammonium and silver nitrate. The latter was adopted here because the chemical oxidation reaction proceeds faster than the electrochemical method. Reaction mechanisms of oxidation and extraction were investigated. Based on the mechanisms, we found that extraction efficiency could be improved and waste generation could be minimized. (author)

  3. Selective leaching studies of deep-sea sediments loaded with americium, neptunium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of selective leaching experiments were undertaken to investigate the solid phase speciation and distribution of americium, neptunium and plutonium which had been experimentally loaded onto different marine sediment types. The chemical leaches employed showed rather poor selectivity but certain trends were evident. Adsorption was not by ion exchange. Americium showed a preferential affinity for carbonate and plutonium for organic matter. Neptunium appeared to have no preferential affinities. Americium was sorbed by acetic acid residues (CaCO3 removed) and by unleached carbonate-rich sediments with equal efficiency. This indicates that it is able to diversify its solid phase affinity/distribution depending upon which solid phases are available. (author)

  4. Pretreatment of americium/curium solutions for vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to the heavy isotope programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Prior to vitrification, an in-tank oxalate precipitation and a series of oxalic/nitric acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Pretreatment development experiments were performed to understand the behavior of the lanthanides and the metal impurities during the oxalate precipitation and properties of the precipitate slurry. The results of these experiments will be used to refine the target glass composition allowing optimization of the primary processing parameters and design of the solution transfer equipment

  5. Plutonium and americium in sediments of Lithuanian lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of contribution of the global and the Chernobyl NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) accident plutonium and americium to plutonium pollution in sediments of Lithuanian lakes is presented. Theoretical evaluation of activity ratios of 238Pu/239+240Pu and 241Pu/239+240Pu in the reactor of unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP before the accident was performed by means of the ORIGEN-ARP code from the SCALE 4.4A program package. Non-uniform distribution of radionuclides in depositions on the Lithuanian territory after nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl NPP accident is experimentally observed by measuring the lake sediment pollution with actinides. The activity concentration of sediments polluted with plutonium ranges from 2.0 ± 0.5 Bq/kg d.w. (dry weight) in Lake Asavelis to 14 ± 2 Bq/kg d.w. in Lake Juodis. The ratio of activity concentrations of plutonium isotopes 238Pu/239+240Pu measured by α-spectrometry in the 10-cm-thick upper layer of bottom sediment varies from 0.03 in Lake Juodis to 0.3 in Lake Zuvintas. The analysis of the ratio values shows that the deposition of the Chernobyl origin plutonium is prevailing in southern and south-western regions of Lithuania. Plutonium of nuclear weapon tests origin in sediments of lakes is observed on the whole territory of Lithuania, and it is especially distinct in central Lithuania. The americium activity due to 241Pu decay after the Chernobyl NPP accident and global depositions in bottom sediments of Lithuanian lakes has been evaluated to be from 0.9 to 5.7 Bq/kg. (author)

  6. 49 CFR 236.744 - Element, roadway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.744... signal system, such as electric circuit, inductor, or trip arm to which the locomotive apparatus of...

  7. 49 CFR 236.788 - Receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.788 Receiver. A device on a locomotive, so placed that it is in position to be influenced inductively or actuated by...

  8. 49 CFR 236.589 - Relays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.589 Relays. (a) Each relay shall be...

  9. Measurement of 236U in environmental media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-lived uranium isotope 236U (T1/2=23.4 Ma) is produced by 235U neutron capture and builds up to high levels in nuclear fuel. It has been distributed in the environment as a result of nuclear activities including nuclear explosions, accidents at nuclear plants, dumping of nuclear waste and releases from nuclear facilities. 236U is a potentially useful tracer of irradiated uranium for nuclear safeguards or other applications, due to its virtual absence in natural samples (236U:238U ratio ∼10-10 in uranium ore). We have measured 236U in soil and sediment reference materials (IAEA 375, 135 and 300) by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The AMS system on the ANTARES accelerator has been upgraded to make such measurements possible. The system, including sample preparation procedures, is described and the results discussed

  10. Kinetic parameters of transformation of americium and plutonium physicochemical forms in podsol soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetic parameters of transformation of americium and plutonium physicochemical forms have been estimated and the prognosis of fixing and remobilization of these nuclides in podsol soils have been made on that basis in the work. (authors)

  11. Calibration procedures for in vivo sodium iodide spectrometry of plutonium and americium in the human lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the calibration techniques and associated error analysis for the in vivo measurement by NaI spectrometry of heavy elements in the lung, specifically plutonium and americium. A very brief description of the instrumentation system is included

  12. Relativistic density functional theory modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsevskii, Andréi; Mosyagin, Nikolai S.; Titov, Anatoly V.; Kiselev, Yuri M.

    2013-07-01

    The results of electronic structure modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules (actinide oxidation states VI through VIII) by two-component relativistic density functional theory are presented. Ground-state equilibrium molecular structures, main features of charge distributions, and energetics of AnO3, AnO4, An2On (An=Pu, Am), and PuAmOn, n = 6-8, are determined. In all cases, molecular geometries of americium and mixed plutonium-americium oxides are similar to those of the corresponding plutonium compounds, though chemical bonding in americium oxides is markedly weaker. Relatively high stability of the mixed heptoxide PuAmO7 is noticed; the Pu(VIII) and especially Am(VIII) oxides are expected to be unstable.

  13. Distribution of uranium, americium and plutonium in the biomass of freshwater macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotina, T.A.; Kalacheva, G.S.; Bolsunovsky, A.YA. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    Accumulation of uranium ({sup 238}U), americium ({sup 241}Am) and plutonium ({sup 242}Pu) and their distribution in cell compartments and biochemical components of the biomass of aquatic plants Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Myrioplyllum spicatum and aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica have been investigated in laboratory batch experiments. Isotopes of uranium, americium and plutonium taken up from the water by Elodea canadensis apical shoots were mainly absorbed by cell walls, plasmalemma and organelles. A small portion of isotopes (about 6-13 %) could be dissolved in cytoplasm. The major portion (76-92 %) of americium was bound to cell wall cellulose-like polysaccharides of Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum, Ceratophyllum demersum and Fontinalis antipyretica, 8-23 % of americium activity was registered in the fraction of proteins and carbohydrates, and just a small portion (< 1%) in lipid fraction. The distribution of plutonium in the biomass fraction of Elodea was similar to that of americium. Hence, americium and plutonium had the highest affinity to cellulose-like polysaccharides in Elodea biomass. Distribution of uranium in the biomass of Elodea differed essentially from that of transuranium elements: a considerable portion of uranium was recorded in the fraction of protein and carbohydrates (51 %). From our data we can assume that uranium has higher affinity to carbohydrates than proteins. (authors)

  14. Effect of americium-241 on luminous bacteria. Role of peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrova, M., E-mail: maka-alexandrova@rambler.r [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Rozhko, T. [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Vydryakova, G. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kudryasheva, N. [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-15

    The effect of americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), an alpha-emitting radionuclide of high specific activity, on luminous bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum was studied. Traces of {sup 241}Am in nutrient media (0.16-6.67 kBq/L) suppressed the growth of bacteria, but enhanced luminescence intensity and quantum yield at room temperature. Lower temperature (4 {sup o}C) increased the time of bacterial luminescence and revealed a stage of bioluminescence inhibition after 150 h of bioluminescence registration start. The role of conditions of exposure the bacterial cells to the {sup 241}Am is discussed. The effect of {sup 241}Am on luminous bacteria was attributed to peroxide compounds generated in water solutions as secondary products of radioactive decay. Increase of peroxide concentration in {sup 241}Am solutions was demonstrated; and the similarity of {sup 241}Am and hydrogen peroxide effects on bacterial luminescence was revealed. The study provides a scientific basis for elaboration of bioluminescence-based assay to monitor radiotoxicity of alpha-emitting radionuclides in aquatic solutions. - Highlights: {yields} Am-241 in water solutions (A = 0.16-6.7 kBq/L) suppresses bacterial growth.{yields} Am-241 (A = 0.16-6.7 kBq/L) stimulate bacterial luminescence. {yields} Peroxides, secondary radiolysis products, cause increase of bacterial luminescence.

  15. 49 CFR 236.764 - Locking, lever operated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, lever operated. 236.764 Section 236.764... Locking, lever operated. The mechanical locking of an interlocking machine which is actuated by means of the lever....

  16. 10 CFR 32.57 - Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. 32.57 Section 32.57... americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. An application... containing americium-241 or radium-226, for distribution to persons generally licensed under § 31.8 of...

  17. 48 CFR 236.604 - Performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance evaluation... Architect-Engineer Services 236.604 Performance evaluation. (a) Preparation of performance reports. Use DD Form 2631, Performance Evaluation (Architect-Engineer), instead of SF 1421. (2) Prepare a...

  18. 9 CFR 2.36 - Annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... WELFARE REGULATIONS Research Facilities § 2.36 Annual report. (a) The reporting facility shall be that..., and use of animals, including appropriate use of anesthetic, analgesic, and tranquilizing drugs, prior to, during, and following actual research, teaching, testing, surgery, or experimentation...

  19. 49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.590 Pneumatic apparatus... results of such inspection recorded as provided by § 229.29(a). When a locomotive with automatic...

  20. 49 CFR 236.739 - Device, acknowledging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.739... locomotive equipped with an automatic train stop or train control device, an automatic brake application can be forestalled, or by means of which, on a locomotive equipped with an automatic cab signal...

  1. 49 CFR 236.834 - Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.834 Trip. A movement of a locomotive over all or any portion of automatic train stop, train control or cab signal territory between the terminals for that locomotive; a movement in one direction. Cross Reference:...

  2. Resolved resonance parameters for 236Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multilevel Breit-Wigner parameters were obtained for fission cross-section representation in the 0.01-33 eV energy region from evaluation of a 236Np experimental fission cross-section in the resolved resonance region. (author)

  3. Separation and determination of americium in low-level alkaline waste of NPP origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, B.; Djingova, R.; Nikiforova, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a short and cost-saving procedure for the determination of 241Am in sludge sample of the alkaline low-level radioactive waste (LL LRAW) collected from Nuclear Power Plant “Kozloduy”. The determination of americium was a part of a complex analytical approach, where group actinide separation was achieved. An anion exchange was used for separation of americium from uranium, plutonium and iron. For the separation of americium extraction with diethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA) was studied. The final radioactive samples were prepared by micro co-precipitation with NdF3, counted by alpha and gamma spectrometry. The procedure takes 2 hours. The recovery yield of the procedure amounts to (95 ± 1.5)% and the detection limit is 53 mBq/kg 241Am (t=150 000 s). The analytical procedure was applied for actual liquid wastes and results were compared to standard procedure.

  4. 49 CFR 236.723 - Circuit, double wire; line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 236.723 Circuit, double wire; line. An electric circuit not employing a common return wire; a circuit... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, double wire; line. 236.723 Section 236.723 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL...

  5. 48 CFR 852.236-80 - Subcontracts and work coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... coordination. 852.236-80 Section 852.236-80 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS....236-80 Subcontracts and work coordination. As prescribed in 836.574, insert the following clause: Subcontracts and Work Coordination (APR 1984) (a) Nothing contained in this contract shall be construed...

  6. 48 CFR 236.275 - Construction of industrial resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction of industrial resources. 236.275 Section 236.275 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... CONTRACTS Special Aspects of Contracting for Construction 236.275 Construction of industrial resources....

  7. 40 CFR 86.236-94 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine starting and restarting. 86.236-94 Section 86.236-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.236-94 Engine starting...

  8. 7 CFR 23.6 - Plan of Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plan of Work. 23.6 Section 23.6 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture STATE AND REGIONAL ANNUAL PLANS OF WORK State Program § 23.6 Plan of Work. (a) A State Annual Plan of Work for carrying out the programs authorized under title V shall...

  9. 27 CFR 46.236 - Articles in a warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles in a warehouse. 46.236 Section 46.236 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Filing Requirements § 46.236 Articles in a warehouse. (a)...

  10. 49 CFR 236.732 - Controller, circuit; switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controller, circuit; switch. 236.732 Section 236.732 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.732 Controller, circuit; switch. A device for opening and closing electric circuits, operated by...

  11. 49 CFR 236.104 - Shunt fouling circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shunt fouling circuit. 236.104 Section 236.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.104 Shunt fouling circuit. Shunt fouling...

  12. 29 CFR 2.36 - Status of nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Status of nonprofit organizations. 2.36 Section 2.36 Labor... Beneficiaries § 2.36 Status of nonprofit organizations. (a) In general, DOL does not require that an... programs. Many such programs, however, do require an organization to be a “nonprofit organization” in...

  13. 49 CFR 236.809 - Signal, slotted mechanical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal, slotted mechanical. 236.809 Section 236.809 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.809 Signal, slotted mechanical. A mechanically operated signal with an electromagnetic...

  14. Isotopic and elemental composition of plutonium/americium oxides influence pulmonary and extra-pulmonary distribution after inhalation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biodistribution of plutonium and americium has been studied in a rat model after inhalation of two PuO2 powders in lungs and extra-pulmonary organs from 3 d to 3 mo. The main difference between the two powders was the content of americium (approximately 46% and 4.5% of total alpha activity). The PuO2 with a higher proportion of americium shows an accelerated transfer of activity from lungs to blood as compared to PuO2 with the lower americium content, illustrated by increased urinary excretion and higher bone and liver actinide retention. The total alpha activity measured reflects mostly the americium biological behavior. The activity contained in epithelial lining fluid, recovered in the acellular phase of broncho-alveolar lavages, mainly contains americium, whereas plutonium remains trapped in macrophages. Epithelial lining fluid could represent a transitional pulmonary compartment prior to translocation of actinides to the blood and subsequent deposition in extra-pulmonary retention organs. In addition, differential behaviors of plutonium and americium are also observed between the PuO2 powders with a higher dissolution rate for both plutonium and americium being obtained for the PuO2 with the highest americium content. Our results indicate that the biological behavior of plutonium and americium after translocation into blood differ two-fold: (1) for the two actinides for the same PuO2 aerosol, and (2) for the same actinide from the two different aerosols. These results highlight the importance of considering the specific behavior of each contaminant after accidental pulmonary intake when assessing extra-pulmonary deposits from the level of activity excreted in urine or for therapeutic strategy decisions. (authors)

  15. Isotopic and elemental composition of plutonium/americium oxides influence pulmonary and extra-pulmonary distribution after inhalation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Meeren, A; Grémy, O

    2010-09-01

    The biodistribution of plutonium and americium has been studied in a rat model after inhalation of two PuO(2) powders in lungs and extra-pulmonary organs from 3 d to 3 mo. The main difference between the two powders was the content of americium (approximately 46% and 4.5% of total alpha activity). The PuO(2) with a higher proportion of americium shows an accelerated transfer of activity from lungs to blood as compared to PuO(2) with the lower americium content, illustrated by increased urinary excretion and higher bone and liver actinide retention. The total alpha activity measured reflects mostly the americium biological behavior. The activity contained in epithelial lining fluid, recovered in the acellular phase of broncho-alveolar lavages, mainly contains americium, whereas plutonium remains trapped in macrophages. Epithelial lining fluid could represent a transitional pulmonary compartment prior to translocation of actinides to the blood and subsequent deposition in extra-pulmonary retention organs. In addition, differential behaviors of plutonium and americium are also observed between the PuO(2) powders with a higher dissolution rate for both plutonium and americium being obtained for the PuO(2) with the highest americium content. Our results indicate that the biological behavior of plutonium and americium after translocation into blood differ two-fold: (1) for the two actinides for the same PuO(2) aerosol, and (2) for the same actinide from the two different aerosols. These results highlight the importance of considering the specific behavior of each contaminant after accidental pulmonary intake when assessing extra-pulmonary deposits from the level of activity excreted in urine or for therapeutic strategy decisions.

  16. Adsorption-desorption characteristics of plutonium and americium with sediment particles in the estuarine environment: studies using plutonium-237 and americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The particle formation of plutonium and americium, their adsorption onto fresh water sediments and the desorption from the sediments in sea water were studied in the Laboratory under simulated river-estuary conditions, using γ-emitting plutonium-237 and americium-241. The results of the experiments show that the particle formation of plutonium depends on its valence states, on pH and on the salinity of the medium. For river water at pH4, some 25%, 20% and 30% of the added 237Pu was in particulate form, larger than 0.45 μm, for Pu (III), Pu (IV) and Pu (VI), respectively, while 65%, 90% and 50% of the respective valence states was associated with particles at pH 8. In sea water the general pattern remains similar, although Pu (VI) is more soluble in sea water owing to higher ligand concentrations for carbonate and bicarbonate complexes. The pH-dependency of particle formation of Am (III) is more steep than that of plutonium and seems to be influenced by colloidal substances occurring in the experimental media. The adsorption-desorption characteristics of plutonium and americium with the sediment in river water as well as sea water reflect the characteristics of their particle formation, being dependent upon such properties as valence states, the pH and salinity of the medium. A sewage effluent added to the media has small but measurable effects on the adsorption-desorption processes of plutonium. (author)

  17. Cesium-137 and americium-241 distribution by granulometric fractions of soil at Azgir test site grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In measurements of radionuclide specific content in surface soil layer of contaminated territories it is important to determine in what agglomerations of soil particles there is the highest radionuclide concentration. For this purpose granulometric composition of soil at Azgir test site was studied and cesium-137 and americium-241 distribution by soil fractions was researched. (author)

  18. Apparatus for fabrication of americium- beryllium neutron sources prevents capsule contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, W. C.; Van Loom, J. A.

    1967-01-01

    Modified gloved enclosure is used to fill a capsule with a mixture of americium and beryllium radioactive powders to seal weld the opening, and to test it for leaks. It contains a horizontal partition, vortex mixer, mounting press, welder, test vessel, and radiation shielding to prevent surface contamination.

  19. Evaluation of the readsorption of plutonium and americium in dynamic fractionations of environmental solid samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Roongrat; Hou, Xiaolin; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2008-01-01

    extractions. The degree of readsorption in dynamic and conventional batch extraction systems are compared and evaluated by using a double-spiking technique. A high degree of readsorption of plutonium and americium (>75%) was observed in both systems, and they also exhibited similar distribution patterns...

  20. First 236U data from the Arctic Ocean and use of 236U/238U and 129I/236U as a new dual tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casacuberta, N.; Masqué, P.; Henderson, G.; Rutgers van-der-Loeff, M.; Bauch, D.; Vockenhuber, C.; Daraoui, A.; Walther, C.; Synal, H.-A.; Christl, M.

    2016-04-01

    The first dataset of 236U/238U in the water column of the Arctic Ocean (AO) is presented and shows the widest range of ratios reported so far in the open ocean, from (5 ± 5) to (3840 ± 260) ×10-12. Surface samples and depth profiles were collected during two GEOTRACES expeditions in 2011-2012 and analyzed for the concentrations of 236U and 129I, with the aim of investigating whether the combination of 236U/238U and 129I/236U can be used as a new oceanographic tool in the AO. Results show that the distributions of the 236U/238U and 129I/236U atomic ratios are consistent with the different water masses in the AO. High 236U/238U and 129I/236U ratios in the upper water column (> 2000 ×10-12 and >200, respectively) illustrate the penetration of Atlantic waters (AW) into the AO. Lower values were found in Pacific waters (PW) and deep waters of the AO. Rivers seem to represent a temporally and spatially-constrained third anthropogenic source of 236U but more data are needed to confirm this. In a simple mixing model, the combination of 236U/238U and 129I/236U reveals a high contribution (>99%) of natural background waters (pre-nuclear era) in the deep and bottom waters of the Amerasian basin, indicating an apparent water mass renewal time of >1000 years. Despite the relatively high apparent age of the Amerasian Basin deep waters, this work shows the potential of using the dual-tracer approach as a new oceanographic tool in the Arctic Ocean.

  1. Effect of bone-status on retention and distribution of americium-241 in bones of small rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forced physical exercise before and after application of americium-241 resulted in only small changes in bone-structure and behaviour of the radionuclide in bone. Feeding of a low phosphorus or low calcium diet resulted in an increased excretion of americium from bone, whereby Zn-DTPA as chelating agent removed an additional fraction of the radionuclide from bone. Low calcium diet and simultaneous continuous infusion of pharmacological doses of vitamin D-hormones didn't increase the excretion of americium more than the low calcium diet alone. (orig.)

  2. Interaction and diffusion transport of americium in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Guinart, Oriol; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry department, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    The final disposal of High Level Radioactive Wastes (HLRW) is based on its long-term storage in underground facilities located in geological stable sites with a multi-barrier system, the so called Deep Geological Repositories (DGR), that will keep HLRW confined for >10.000 years. After this period of time, leachates rich in long-live radioisotopes might escape from DGR and start to transport towards the biosphere. There is still a lack of information concerning the interaction and transport in soils of some radionuclides present in HLRW, especially for radionuclides that present a high sorption, such as americium (Am). Having reliable information about the mobility of radionuclides in soils is crucial in order to develop risk assessment models and to take proper decisions in case of soil contamination. The aim of the present work was, by means of laboratory scale experiments, to study the interaction and, for first time, to evaluate the diffusion transport of {sup 241}Am in soils. The {sup 241}Am interaction in soils was assessed by applying sorption batch assays to 20 soil samples with contrasted edaphic properties which allowed us to quantify the solid-liquid distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) and desorption percentage. K{sub d} (Am) values ranged from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 5} L kg{sup -1} and desorption percentages were always less than 2% which denoted a high capacity of the soil to incorporate the Am and a low reversibility of the sorption process. The influence of soil properties in {sup 241}Am interaction was studied by means of multiple linear and multivariate regressions. Although a single correlation between K{sub d} (Am) values and a soil property was not found, the main properties affecting {sup 241}Am interaction in soils were soil pH, carbonate and organic matter contents in the soil. Finally, additional batch assays at different controlled pH were done to study Am sorption as a function of the contact solution pH. A variation of the Am sorption

  3. First results on 236U levels in global fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, A; Kawai, K; Steier, P; Quinto, F; Mino, K; Tomita, J; Hoshi, M; Whitehead, N; Yamamoto, M

    2009-07-01

    The global fallout (236)U level in soil was deduced from measurements of (236)U, (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs in surface soils which are solely influenced by global fallout. A total of 12 soil cores from the depths of 0-10, 0-20 and 0-30 cm were collected at a flat forest area in Japan. Concentrations of (239+240)Pu and (238)U were determined by alpha-particle spectrometry, while the (236)U/(238)U ratio was measured with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Consistent (236)U/(239)Pu ratios between 0.212 and 0.253 were found. Using this ratio, the total global fallout of (236)U on the earth is estimated to be as much as ca. 900 kg. This knowledge will contribute to the promotion of research on U isotopes, including (236)U, for the fields of geo-resources, waste management and geochemistry. PMID:19406452

  4. SKIN DOSIMETRY IN CONDITIONS OF ITS CONSTANT SURFACE CONTAMINATION WITH SOLUTIONS OF PLUTONIUM-239 AND AMERICIUM-241

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Ershov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers, on the basis of experimental data, the issue of assessing dose burdens to the skin basal layer in conditions of its permanent contamination with solutions of plutonium-239 and americium-241 and subsequent decontamination.

  5. Influence of biofilms on migration of uranium, americium and europium in the environment; Einfluss von Biofilmen auf das Migrationsverhalten von Uran, Americium und Europium in der Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Nils; Zirnstein, Isabel; Arnold, Thuro

    2015-07-01

    The report on the influence of biofilms on migration of uranium, americium and europium in the environment deals with the contamination problems of uranium mines such as SDAG WISMUT in Saxonia and Thuringia. In mine waters microorganisms form a complex microbiological biocoenosis in spite of low pH values and high heavy metal concentrations including high uranium concentrations. The analyses used microbiological methods like confocal laser scanning microscopy and molecular-biological techniques. The interactions of microorganism with fluorescent radioactive heavy metal ions were performed with TRLFS (time resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy).

  6. Liquid-liquid extraction separation and sequential determination of plutonium and americium in environmental samples by alpha-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure is described by which plutonium and americium can be determined in environmental samples. The sample is leached with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, and the two elements are co-precipitated with ferric hydroxide and calcium oxalate. The calcium oxalate is incinerated at 4500 and the ash is dissolved in nitric acid. Plutonium is extracted with tri-n-octylamine solution in xylene from 4M nitric acid and stripped with ammonium iodide/hydrochloric acid. Americium is extracted with thenoyltrifluoroacetone solution in xylene at pH 4 together with rare-earth elements and stripped with 1M nitric acid. Americium and the rare-earth elements thus separated are sorbed on Dowex 1 x 4 resin from 1M nitric acid in 93% methanol, the rare-earth elements are eluted with 0.1M hydrochloric acid/0.5M ammonium thiocyanate/80% methanol and the americium is finally eluted with 1.5M hydrochloric acid in 86% methanol. Plutonium and americium in each fraction are electro-deposited and determined by alpha-spectrometry. Overall average recoveries are 81% for plutonium and 59% for americium. (author)

  7. Influence of environmental factors on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption of plutonium and americium from the gastrointestinal tract was studied, using adult hamsters and rabbits. Both actinides were administered as inorganic compounds, as organic complexes with naturally occurring chelating agents, and in a biologically incorporated form in liver tissues. The absorption of the tetravalent and hexavalent forms of plutonium were compared and the effect of protracted administration at very low concentrations was investigated. In addition, plutonium uptake from contaminated sediments and grass, collected near a nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant, was measured. The results of these studies suggest that chronic exposure of man to plutonium and americium in food and water will not lead to any substantial increase in their gastrointestinal absorption above the values currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection to define the occupational exposure of workers

  8. Electrodeposition of americium on a liquid cadmium cathode from a molten salt bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-activity experiment involving the electrode position of americium on a liquid cadmium cathode from a LiCl-KCl eutectic with about 3 g of AmO2 was conducted in a shielded cell in the ATALANTE complex. After describing the electrolyzer and the experimental conditions, the authors discuss the preparation of the LiCl-KCl-AmCl3 solution and briefly review its electrochemical properties. It was clearly confirmed that Am(III) reduction on an inert solid cathode occurs in two steps forming Am(II) before Am(0), whereas only one reduction step was observed on liquid cadmium. The main results of this study concern americium electrode position on the liquid cadmium cathode (recovery yields, current densities, problems encountered). The solvent properties of cadmium for actinide/lanthanide separation are discussed. (authors)

  9. Analysis of americium-beryllium neutron source composition using the FRAM code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, P. A. (Philip A.); Bracken, D. S. (David S.); Sampson, Thomas E.; Taylor, W. A. (Wayne A.)

    2002-01-01

    The FRAM code was originally developed to analyze high-resolution gamma spectra from plutonium items. Its capabilities have since been expanded to include analysis of uranium spectra. The flexibility of the software also enables a capable spectroscopist to use FRAM to analyze spectra in which neither plutonium nor uranium is present in significant amounts. This paper documents the use of FRAM to determine the {sup 239}Pu/{sup 241}Am, {sup 243}Am/{sup 241}Am, {sup 237}Np/{sup 241}Am, and {sup 239}Np/{sup 241}Am ratios in americium-beryllium neutron sources. The effective specific power of each neutron source was calculated from the ratios determined by FRAM in order to determine the americium mass of each of these neutron sources using calorimetric assay. We will also discuss the use of FRAM for the general case of isotopic analysis of nonplutonium, nonuranium items.

  10. Experimental Insight into the Radiation Resistance of Zirconia-Based Americium Ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our works shows that the americium pyrochlore 241Am2Zr2O7 undergoes a phase transition to a defect-fluorite structure along with an unusual volume contraction when subjected to internal radiation from α-emitting actinides. Disorder relaxation proceeds through the simultaneous formation of cation anti sites and oxygen Frenkel pairs. X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Am-LII and the Zr-K edges reveals that Am-O polyhedra show an increasing disorder with increasing exposure. In contrast, the Zr-O polyhedral units remain highly ordered, while rotating along edges and corners, thereby reducing the structural strain imposed by the growing disorder around americium. We believe it is this particular property of the compound that provides the remarkable resistance to radiation (≥9.4 * 1018) α-decay events g-1 or 0.80 dpa). (authors)

  11. Standard test method for quantitative determination of americium 241 in plutonium by Gamma-Ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of americium 241 by gamma-ray spectrometry in plutonium nitrate solution samples that do not contain significant amounts of radioactive fission products or other high specific activity gamma-ray emitters. 1.2 This test method can be used to determine the americium 241 in samples of plutonium metal, oxide and other solid forms, when the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Calcium and zinc DTPA administration for internal contamination with plutonium-238 and americium-241.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazzi, Ziad N; Heyl, Alexander; Ruprecht, Johann

    2012-08-01

    The accidental or intentional release of plutonium or americium can cause acute and long term adverse health effects if they enter the human body by ingestion, inhalation, or injection. These effects can be prevented by rapid removal of these radionuclides by chelators such as calcium or zinc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (calcium or zinc DTPA). These compounds have been shown to be efficacious in enhancing the elimination of members of the actinide family particularly plutonium and americium when administered intravenously or by nebulizer. The efficacy and adverse effects profile depend on several factors that include the route of internalization of the actinide, the type, and route time of administration of the chelator, and whether the calcium or zinc salt of DTPA is used. Current and future research efforts should be directed at overcoming limitations associated with the use of these complex drugs by using innovative methods that can enhance their structural and therapeutic properties.

  13. Final Radiological Assessment of External Exposure for CLEAR-Line Americium Recovery Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Adam C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Belooussova, Olga N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hetrick, Lucas Duane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently planning to implement an americium recovery program. The americium, ordinarily isotopically pure 241Am, would be extracted from existing Pu materials, converted to an oxide and shipped to support fabrication of americium oxide-beryllium neutron sources. These operations would occur in the currently proposed Chloride Extraction and Actinide Recovery (CLEAR) line of glove boxes. This glove box line would be collocated with the currently-operational Experimental Chloride Extraction Line (EXCEL). The focus of this document is to provide an in-depth assessment of the currently planned radiation protection measures and to determine whether or not further design work is required to satisfy design-goal and ALARA requirements. Further, this document presents a history of americium recovery operations in the Department of Energy and high-level descriptions of the CLEAR line operations to provide a basis of comparison. Under the working assumptions adopted by this study, it was found that the evaluated design appears to mitigate doses to a level that satisfies the ALARA-in-design requirements of 10 CFR 835 as implemented by the Los Alamos National Laboratory procedure P121. The analyses indicate that extremity doses would also meet design requirements. Dose-rate calculations were performed using the radiation transport code MCNP5 and doses were estimated using a time-motion study developed in consort with the subject matter expert. A copy of this report and all supporting documentation are located on the Radiological Engineering server at Y:\\Rad Engineering\\2013 PROJECTS\\TA-55 Clear Line.

  14. Bidentate organophosphorus extraction of americium and plutonium from Hanford Plutonium Reclamation Facility waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1974-09-01

    Applicability of bidentate organiphosphorus reagents to recovery of americium and plutonium from Hanford's Plutonium Reclamation Facility acid (approx. 2M HNO/sub 3/) waste stream (CAW solution) was studied. A solvent extraction process which employs a 30% DHDECMP (dihexyl-N, N-diethylcarbamylmethylene phosphonate)-CCl/sub 4/ extractant was devised and successfully tested in mixer-settler runs with actual CAW solution. Substitution of DHDECMP for DBBP eliminates the need to perform careful neutralization of unbuffered CAW soluton and increases overall americium recovery from the present 60 to 80% level to greater than or equal to 90%. Disadvantages to such substitution include the high cost (approx. $50/liter) of DHDECMP and the need to purify it (by acid (6M HCl) hydrolysis and alkaline washing) from small amounts of an unidentified impurity which prevents stripping of americium with dilute HNO/sub 3/. Distribution data obtained in this study confirm Siddall's earlier contention that bidentate organophosphorus regents can be used to remove actinides from concentrated high-level Purex process acid waste; a conceptual flowsheet for such an extraction process is given.

  15. 48 CFR 852.236-84 - Schedule of work progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Schedule of work progress. 852.236-84 Section 852.236-84 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS...., “Excavation”, “Floor Tile”, “Finish Carpentry”, etc., should be plotted along the vertical axis and...

  16. 48 CFR 252.236-7005 - Airfield safety precautions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airfield safety precautions. 252.236-7005 Section 252.236-7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... to contract performance might result in vertical projections at or above the...

  17. 49 CFR 236.794 - Rod, up-and-down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rod, up-and-down. 236.794 Section 236.794 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., up-and-down. A rod used for connecting the semaphore arm to the operating mechanism of a signal....

  18. 49 CFR 236.17 - Pipe for operating connections, requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe for operating connections, requirements. 236... Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.17 Pipe for operating connections, requirements. (a) Steel or wrought-iron pipe one inch or larger, or members of equal strength, shall be used for...

  19. 48 CFR 52.236-8 - Other Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other Contracts. 52.236-8... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.236-8 Other Contracts. As prescribed in 36.508, insert the following clause: Other Contracts (APR 1984) The...

  20. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED...

  1. 48 CFR 852.236-78 - Government supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government supervision. 852.236-78 Section 852.236-78 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Government supervision. As prescribed in 836.572, insert the following clause: Government Supervision...

  2. 8 CFR 236.16 - Travel outside the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel outside the United States. 236.16... Program § 236.16 Travel outside the United States. An alien granted Family Unity Program benefits who intends to travel outside the United States temporarily must apply for advance authorization using Form...

  3. 49 CFR 236.775 - Movement, switch-and-lock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement, switch-and-lock. 236.775 Section 236.775 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions §...

  4. 49 CFR 236.919 - Operations and Maintenance Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operations and Maintenance Manual. 236.919 Section... for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.919 Operations and Maintenance Manual. (a... Maintenance Manual, readily available to persons required to perform such tasks and for inspection by FRA...

  5. 49 CFR 236.1039 - Operations and Maintenance Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operations and Maintenance Manual. 236.1039... Train Control Systems § 236.1039 Operations and Maintenance Manual. (a) The railroad shall catalog and..., modification, inspection, and testing of the PTC system and have them in one Operations and Maintenance...

  6. 49 CFR 236.734 - Current of traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Current of traffic. 236.734 Section 236.734 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Current of traffic. The movement of trains on a specified track in a designated direction....

  7. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 236 - Civil Penalties 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Pt. 236, App. A Appendix... device that functions as track relay not in its most restrictive state when train, locomotive, or car...,000 2,000 236.312Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices: (a)...

  8. 49 CFR 236.509 - Two or more locomotives coupled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Two or more locomotives coupled. 236.509 Section..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.509 Two or more locomotives...

  9. 49 CFR 236.18 - Software management control plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Software management control plan. 236.18 Section... Instructions: All Systems General § 236.18 Software management control plan. (a) Within 6 months of June 6, 2005, each railroad shall develop and adopt a software management control plan for its signal and...

  10. 24 CFR 236.750 - Form of lease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form of lease. 236.750 Section 236... lease. (a) Lease form. Eligible tenants shall be required to execute a lease in a form approved by the Commissioner. (b) Prohibited lease provisions. Lease clauses of the nature described below shall not...

  11. 48 CFR 236.203 - Government estimate of construction costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government estimate of...-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Special Aspects of Contracting for Construction 236.203 Government estimate of construction costs. Follow the procedures at PGI 236.203 for handling the Government estimate of...

  12. 49 CFR 236.786 - Principle, closed circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Principle, closed circuit. 236.786 Section 236.786 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Principle, closed circuit. The principle of circuit design where a normally energized electric circuit...

  13. 48 CFR 52.236-12 - Cleaning Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning Up. 52.236-12 Section 52.236-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED... Cleaning Up. As prescribed in 36.512, insert the following clause: Cleaning Up (APR 1984) The...

  14. 8 CFR 236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention and release of juveniles. 236.3... Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 236.3 Detention and release of juveniles. (a) Juveniles. A juvenile is defined as an alien under the age of 18 years. (b) Release. Juveniles for whom bond has been posted,...

  15. Determination of plutonium isotopes in urine samples from radiation workers using 236Pu tracer, anion exchange resin and alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioassay technique is used for the estimation of actinides present in the body based on their excretion rate through body fluids. For occupational radiation workers urine assay is the preferred method for monitoring of chronic internal exposure. Determination of low concentrations of actinides such as plutonium, americium and uranium at low level of mBq in urine by alpha spectrometry requires pre-concentration of large volumes of urine. This paper deals with standardization of analytical method for the determination of Pu-isotopes in urine samples using anion exchange resin and 236Pu tracer for radiochemical recovery. The method involves oxidation of urine followed by co-precipitation of plutonium along with calcium phosphate. Separation of Pu was carried out by Amberlite, IRA-400, anion exchange resin. Pu-fraction was electrodeposited and activity estimated using tracer recovery by alpha spectrometer. Twenty routine urine samples of radiation workers were analyzed and consistent radiochemical tracer recovery was obtained in the range 74-96% with a mean and standard deviation of 85 and 6% respectively. (author)

  16. Excess of (236)U in the northwest Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, E; López-Lora, M; Bressac, M; Levy, I; Pham, M K

    2016-09-15

    In this work, we present first (236)U results in the northwestern Mediterranean. (236)U is studied in a seawater column sampled at DYFAMED (Dynamics of Atmospheric Fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea) station (Ligurian Sea, 43°25'N, 07°52'E). The obtained (236)U/(238)U atom ratios in the dissolved phase, ranging from about 2×10(-9) at 100m depth to about 1.5×10(-9) at 2350m depth, indicate that anthropogenic (236)U dominates the whole seawater column. The corresponding deep-water column inventory (12.6ng/m(2) or 32.1×10(12) atoms/m(2)) exceeds by a factor of 2.5 the expected one for global fallout at similar latitudes (5ng/m(2) or 13×10(12) atoms/m(2)), evidencing the influence of local or regional (236)U sources in the western Mediterranean basin. On the other hand, the input of (236)U associated to Saharan dust outbreaks is evaluated. An additional (236)U annual deposition of about 0.2pg/m(2) based on the study of atmospheric particles collected in Monaco during different Saharan dust intrusions is estimated. The obtained results in the corresponding suspended solids collected at DYFAMED station indicate that about 64% of that (236)U stays in solution in seawater. Overall, this source accounts for about 0.1% of the (236)U inventory excess observed at DYFAMED station. The influence of the so-called Chernobyl fallout and the radioactive effluents produced by the different nuclear installations allocated to the Mediterranean basin, might explain the inventory gap, however, further studies are necessary to come to a conclusion about its origin. PMID:27262827

  17. Americium(3) coordination chemistry: An unexplored diversity of structure and bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedosseev, A.M.; Grigoriev, M.S.; Budantseva, N.A. [A.N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation); Guillaumont, D.; Den Auwer, Ch.; Moisy, Ph. [CEA Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Processes Department, 30 (France); Le Naour, C.; Simoni, E. [CNRS, University Paris-11 Orsay, IPN, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2010-06-15

    The comparison of the physicochemical behavior of the actinides with that of the lanthanides can be justified by the analogy of their electronic structure, as each of the series is made up of elements corresponding to the filling of a given (n)f atomic shell. However relatively few points of comparison are available, given the lack of available structure for trans-plutonium(III) elements and the additional difficulty of stabilizing coordination complexes of uranium(III) to plutonium(III). This contribution is a focal point of trans-plutonium(III) chemistry and, more specifically, of some americium compounds that have been recently synthesized, all related with hard acid oxygen donor ligands that may be involved in the reprocessing chain of nuclear fuel. After a brief review of the solid hydrates and aquo species for the lanthanide and actinide families, we discuss two types of ligands that have in common three carboxylic groups, namely the amino-tri-acetic acid and the citric acid anions. The additional roles of the nitrogen atom for the first one and of the hydroxy function for the second one are discussed. Accordingly, five new complexes with either americium or lanthanides elements are described: [Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}][M(NTA){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)].8H{sub 2}O with M Nd, Yb and Am, and [Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sub 2}K[M{sub 3}(Cit){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}].18H{sub 2}O with Nd and Am cations. In all cases the americium complexes are isostructural with their lanthanide equivalents. (authors)

  18. Americium(3) coordination chemistry: An unexplored diversity of structure and bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparison of the physicochemical behavior of the actinides with that of the lanthanides can be justified by the analogy of their electronic structure, as each of the series is made up of elements corresponding to the filling of a given (n)f atomic shell. However relatively few points of comparison are available, given the lack of available structure for trans-plutonium(III) elements and the additional difficulty of stabilizing coordination complexes of uranium(III) to plutonium(III). This contribution is a focal point of trans-plutonium(III) chemistry and, more specifically, of some americium compounds that have been recently synthesized, all related with hard acid oxygen donor ligands that may be involved in the reprocessing chain of nuclear fuel. After a brief review of the solid hydrates and aquo species for the lanthanide and actinide families, we discuss two types of ligands that have in common three carboxylic groups, namely the amino-tri-acetic acid and the citric acid anions. The additional roles of the nitrogen atom for the first one and of the hydroxy function for the second one are discussed. Accordingly, five new complexes with either americium or lanthanides elements are described: [Co(NH3)6][M(NTA)2(H2O)].8H2O with M Nd, Yb and Am, and [Co(NH3)6]2K[M3(Cit)4(H2O)3].18H2O with Nd and Am cations. In all cases the americium complexes are isostructural with their lanthanide equivalents. (authors)

  19. MARIOS: Irradiation of UO{sub 2} containing 15% americium at well defined temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Agata, E., E-mail: elio.dagata@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy - P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Hania, P.R. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Bejaoui, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEC CEA-Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Sciolla, C.; Wyatt, T.; Hannink, M.H.C. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Herlet, N.; Jankowiak, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique DTEC CEA Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France); Klaassen, F.C. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Bonnerot, J.-M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEC CEA-Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MARIOS is designed to check the behaviour of Minor Actinide Blanket Module concept. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Main requirement of the experiment is an accurate control of the temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The swelling and the helium release will be the main output of the experiment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A complementary experiment (DIAMINO), will be performed in the next future. - Abstract: Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors of long-lived nuclides like {sup 241}Am is, therefore, an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity and residual power packages as well as the repository area. The MARIOS irradiation experiment is the latest of a series of experiments on americium transmutation (e.g. EFTTRA-T4, EFTTRA-T4bis, HELIOS). MARIOS experiment is carried out in the framework of the 4-year project FAIRFUELS of the EURATOM 7th Framework Programme (FP7). During the past years of experimental work in the field of transmutation and tests of innovative nuclear fuel containing americium, the release or trapping of helium as well as swelling has shown to be the key issue for the design of such kinds of target. Therefore, the main objective of the MARIOS experiment is to study the in-pile behaviour of UO{sub 2} containing minor actinides (MAs) in order to gain knowledge on the role of the microstructure and of the temperature on the gas release and on fuel swelling. The MARIOS experiment will be conducted in the HFR (high flux reactor) in Petten (The Netherlands) and will start in the beginning of 2011. It has been planned that the experiment will last 11 cycles, corresponding to 11 months. This paper covers the description of the objective of the experiment, as well as a general description of the design of the experiment.

  20. Speciation of americium in seawater and accumulation in the marine sponge Aplysina cavernicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloubier, Melody; Michel, Hervé; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Moisy, Philippe; Tribalat, Marie-Aude; Oberhaensli, François R; Dechraoui Bottein, Marie Yasmine; Thomas, Olivier P; Monfort, Marguerite; Moulin, Christophe; Den Auwer, Christophe

    2015-12-21

    The fate of radionuclides in the environment is a cause of great concern for modern society, seen especially in 2011 after the Fukushima accident. Among the environmental compartments, seawater covers most of the earth's surface and may be directly or indirectly impacted. The interaction between radionuclides and the marine compartment is therefore essential for better understanding the transfer mechanisms from the hydrosphere to the biosphere. This information allows for the evaluation of the impact on humans via our interaction with the biotope that has been largely undocumented up to now. In this report, we attempt to make a link between the speciation of heavy elements in natural seawater and their uptake by a model marine organism. More specifically, because the interaction of actinides with marine invertebrates has been poorly studied, the accumulation in a representative member of the Mediterranean coralligenous habitat, the sponge Aplysina cavernicola, was investigated and its uptake curve exposed to a radiotracer (241)Am was estimated using a high-purity Ge gamma spectrometer. But in order to go beyond the phenomenological accumulation rate, the speciation of americium(III) in seawater must be assessed. The speciation of (241)Am (and natural europium as its chemically stable surrogate) in seawater was determined using a combination of different techniques: Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF), Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) at the LIII edge, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the resulting data were compared with the speciation modeling. In seawater, the americium(III) complex (as well as the corresponding europium complex, although with conformational differences) was identified as a ternary sodium biscarbonato complex, whose formula can be tentatively written as NaAm(CO3)2·nH2O. It is therefore this chemical form of americium that is

  1. Speciation of americium in seawater and accumulation in the marine sponge Aplysina cavernicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloubier, Melody; Michel, Hervé; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Moisy, Philippe; Tribalat, Marie-Aude; Oberhaensli, François R; Dechraoui Bottein, Marie Yasmine; Thomas, Olivier P; Monfort, Marguerite; Moulin, Christophe; Den Auwer, Christophe

    2015-12-21

    The fate of radionuclides in the environment is a cause of great concern for modern society, seen especially in 2011 after the Fukushima accident. Among the environmental compartments, seawater covers most of the earth's surface and may be directly or indirectly impacted. The interaction between radionuclides and the marine compartment is therefore essential for better understanding the transfer mechanisms from the hydrosphere to the biosphere. This information allows for the evaluation of the impact on humans via our interaction with the biotope that has been largely undocumented up to now. In this report, we attempt to make a link between the speciation of heavy elements in natural seawater and their uptake by a model marine organism. More specifically, because the interaction of actinides with marine invertebrates has been poorly studied, the accumulation in a representative member of the Mediterranean coralligenous habitat, the sponge Aplysina cavernicola, was investigated and its uptake curve exposed to a radiotracer (241)Am was estimated using a high-purity Ge gamma spectrometer. But in order to go beyond the phenomenological accumulation rate, the speciation of americium(III) in seawater must be assessed. The speciation of (241)Am (and natural europium as its chemically stable surrogate) in seawater was determined using a combination of different techniques: Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF), Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) at the LIII edge, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the resulting data were compared with the speciation modeling. In seawater, the americium(III) complex (as well as the corresponding europium complex, although with conformational differences) was identified as a ternary sodium biscarbonato complex, whose formula can be tentatively written as NaAm(CO3)2·nH2O. It is therefore this chemical form of americium that is

  2. Americium characterization by X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy in plutonium uranium mixed oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are currently used in nuclear reactors. The actinides in these fuels need to be analyzed after irradiation for assessing their behaviour with regard to their environment and the coolant. In this work the study of the atomic structure and next-neighbour environment of Am in the (Pu,U)O2 lattice in an irradiated (60 MW d kg−1) MOX sample was performed employing micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (µ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The chemical bonds, valences and stoichiometry of Am (∼0.66 wt%) are determined from the experimental data gained for the irradiated fuel material examined in its peripheral zone (rim) of the fuel. In the irradiated sample Am builds up as Am3+ species within an [AmO8]13− coordination environment (e.g. >90%) and no (III XAFS spectra recorded for the irradiated MOX sub-sample in the rim zone for a 300 μm×300 μm beam size area investigated over six scans of 4 h. The records remain constant during multi-scan. The analysis of the XAFS signal shows that Am is found as trivalent in the UO2 matrix. This analytical work shall open the door of very challenging analysis (speciation of fission product and actinides) in irradiated nuclear fuels. - Highlights: • Americium was characterized by microX-ray absorption spectroscopy in irradiated MOX fuel. • The americium redox state as determined from XAS data of irradiated fuel material was Am(III). • In the sample, the Am3+ face an AmO813− coordination environment in the (Pu,U)O2 matrix. • The americium dioxide is reduced by the uranium dioxide matrix

  3. Fabrication of uranium–americium mixed oxide pellet from microsphere precursors: Application of CRMP process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, E. [Radiochemistry and Processes Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Picart, S., E-mail: sebastien.picart@cea.fr [Radiochemistry and Processes Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Delahaye, T. [Fuel Cycle Technology Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Jobelin, I. [Radiochemistry and Processes Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Lebreton, F.; Horlait, D. [Fuel Cycle Technology Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Bisel, I. [Radiochemistry and Processes Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Blanchart, P. [Heterogeneous Materials Research Group, Centre Européen de la Céramique, F-87068 Limoges (France); Ayral, A. [Institut Européen des Membranes, CNRS-ENSCM-UM2, CC47, University Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier cedex 5 (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Dust free process for (U,Am)O{sub 2} transmutation target fabrication. • Synthesis of U{sub 0.9}Am{sub 0.1}O{sub 2} mixed oxide microspheres from ion exchange resin. • Fabrication of dense U{sub 0.9}Am{sub 0.1}O{sub 2} pellet with 95% TD from mixed oxide microspheres. - Abstract: Mixed uranium–americium oxides are one of the materials envisaged for Americium Bearing Blankets dedicated to transmutation in fast neutron reactors. Recently, several processes have been developed in order to validate fabrication flowchart in terms of material specifications such as density and homogeneity but also to suggest simplifications for lowering industrial costs and hazards linked to dust generation of highly contaminating and irradiating compounds. This study deals with the application of an innovative route using mixed oxide microspheres obtained from metal loaded resin bead calcination, called Calcined Resin Microsphere Pelletization (CRMP). The synthesis of mixed oxide microsphere precursor of U{sub 0.9}Am{sub 0.1}O{sub 2±δ} is described as well as its characterisation. The use of this free-flowing precursor allows the pressing and sintering of one pellet of U{sub 0.9}Am{sub 0.1}O{sub 2±δ}. The ceramic obtained was characterised and results showed that its microstructure is dense and homogeneous and its density attains 95% of the theoretical density. This study validates the scientific feasibility of the CRMP process applied to the fabrication of uranium and americium-containing materials.

  4. Influence of biofilms on migration of uranium, americium and europium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report on the influence of biofilms on migration of uranium, americium and europium in the environment deals with the contamination problems of uranium mines such as SDAG WISMUT in Saxonia and Thuringia. In mine waters microorganisms form a complex microbiological biocoenosis in spite of low pH values and high heavy metal concentrations including high uranium concentrations. The analyses used microbiological methods like confocal laser scanning microscopy and molecular-biological techniques. The interactions of microorganism with fluorescent radioactive heavy metal ions were performed with TRLFS (time resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy).

  5. Plutonium and americium in arctic waters, the North Sea and Scottish and Irish coastal zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallstadius, L.; Aarkrog, Asker; Dahlgaard, Henning;

    1986-01-01

    Plutonium and americium have been measured in surface waters of the Greenland and Barents Seas and in the northern North Sea from 1980 through 1984. Measurements in water and biota, Fucus, Mytilus and Patella, were carried out in North-English and Scottish waters in 1982 and Fucus samples were...... plutonium from the latter to Spitsbergen waters. Fallout plutonium in Arctic waters has a residence time of the order of several years, while for Pu from Sellafield we estimate mean residence times of 11–15 months in Scottish waters and, tentatively, 1·5-3 y during transport from the North Channel (north...

  6. Comparison of acid leachate and fusion methods to determine plutonium and americium in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at Argonne National Laboratory performs radiochemical analyses for a wide variety of sites within the Department of Energy complex. Since the chemical history of the samples may vary drastically from site to site, the effectiveness of any analytical technique may also vary. This study compares a potassium fluoride-pyrosulfate fusion technique with an acid leachate method. Both normal and high-fired soils and vegetation samples were analyzed for both americium and plutonium. Results show both methods work well, except for plutonium in high-fired soils. Here the fusion method provides higher accuracy

  7. Purification of used scintillation liquids containing the alpha emitters americium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Sweden, alpha radioactive waste liquids with an activity over some kBq per waste container cannot be sent for final storage. Therefore, in this work, a method for a purification of alpha active scintillation cocktails was developed. Until today (March, 2013) more than 20 L of scintillation liquids have successfully been purified from americium and plutonium. The products of the process are a solid fraction that can be sent to final storage and a practically non-radioactive liquid fraction that can be sent to municipal incineration. (author)

  8. 7 CFR 205.236 - Origin of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.236 Origin...

  9. 49 CFR 236.720 - Circuit, common return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Circuit, common return. A term applied where one wire is used for the return of more than one electric circuit. ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, common return. 236.720 Section...

  10. 49 CFR 236.551 - Power supply voltage; requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.551...

  11. 49 CFR 236.722 - Circuit, cut-in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.722... territory by means of which locomotive equipment of the continuous inductive type is actuated so as to be...

  12. 49 CFR 236.555 - Repaired or rewound receiver coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.555...

  13. 49 CFR 236.556 - Adjustment of relay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.556 Adjustment of...

  14. 49 CFR 236.553 - Seal, where required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.553 Seal, where...

  15. 49 CFR 236.923 - Task analysis and basic requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.923 Task analysis and basic requirements... structured training designed to impart the knowledge, skills, and abilities identified as necessary...

  16. 3C236 Radio Source, Interrupted?

    CERN Document Server

    O'Dea, C P; Baum, S A; Sparks, W B; Martel, A R; Allen, M G; Macchetto, F D; Miley, G K; Dea, Christopher P. O'; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Baum, Stefi A.; Sparks, William B.; Martel, Andre R.; Allen, Mark G.; Macchetto, Ferdinando D.; Miley, George K.

    2001-01-01

    We present new HST STIS/MAMA near-UV images and archival WFPC2 V and R band images which reveal the presence of four star forming regions in an arc along the edge of the dust lane in the giant (4 Mpc) radio galaxy 3C236. Two of the star forming regions are relatively young with ages of order 1E7 yr, while the other two are older with ages of order 1E8 - 1E9 yr which is comparable to the estimated age of the giant radio source. Based on dynamical and spectral aging arguments, we suggest that the fuel supply to the AGN was interrupted for 1E7 yr and has now been restored, resulting in the formation of the inner 2 kpc scale radio source. This time scale is similar to that of the age of the youngest of the star forming regions. We suggest that the transport of gas in the disk is non-steady and that this produces both the multiple episodes of star formation in the disk as well as the multiple epochs of radio source activity. If the inner radio source and the youngest star forming region are related by the same eve...

  17. Study of the extraction and the purification of americium and trivalent actinides contained in effluents with supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supported liquid membrane technique is studied and developed for americium recovery from uranium or plutonium matrices and decontamination of liquid radioactive wastes. First tests on uranium-nickel solutions with a flat membrane showed the easiness of the operation and the efficiency of the process. Acid-resistant (10 N), interchangeable elements with hollow fibers, are developed and also a computerized automatic device. The different tests on americium solutions demonstrate the feasibility and the reliability of the system. Influence of various parameters on transfer kinetics is investigated

  18. Contribution to the prediction of americium, plutonium and neptunium behaviour in the geosphere: chemical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exhaustive bibliographic review on hydrolysis of americium gives the stability constants, at zero ionic strength. No evidence of Am(OH)4- formation was found by solubility studies up to pH 2 (CO3)3 characterised by its X-ray diffraction pattern is studied at a high ionic strength. All the published results on Am in carbonate media are reinterpreted using these stability constants (Am-OH-CO3 complexes are not needed). No evidence of Am(CO3)45- formation was found by spectrophotometry up to 3M. Literature results are used to determine the formal redox potentials at pH = 9.4 and to calculate the formation constants, at zero ionic strength. The formation of complexes between americium and humic materials (purified fulvic and humic acids) has been studied by a spectrophotometric technique. The results are interpreted by the formation of a 1:1 complexe. Solubility of the solid PuO2(CO3) is measured in bicarbonate media at high ionic strength, to obtain the solubility product and formation constants of the PuO2(CO3)i2-2i complexes

  19. The distribution of plutonium-239 and americium-241 in the Syrian hamster following its intravenous administration as citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actinide distribution in various tissues and the skeleton of hamsters by liquid scintillation counting or isotope dilution. For plutonium 57% of activity was concentrated in the skeleton and more than 90% in the liver and skeleton after seven days. For americium the liver retained more than 50% of total activity and 25% was excreted in urine within seven days. (U.K.)

  20. EURADOS intercomparison on measurements and Monte Carlo modelling for the assessment of Americium in a USTUR leg phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collaboration of the EURADOS working group on 'Internal Dosimetry' and the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) has taken place to carry out an intercomparison on measurements and Monte Carlo modelling determining americium deposited in the bone of a USTUR leg phantom. Preliminary results and conclusions of this intercomparison exercise are presented here. (authors)

  1. Anomalous aryl strengthening of americium and europium complexes during extraction by alkylenediphosphine dioxides from perchloric acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction of americium and europium from perchlorate environments by solutions of three types of methylenediphosphine dioxides, namely (C6H5)P(O)(CH2)sub(n)(O)P(C6H5)2, (C6H5)2P(O)CH2(O)P(C8H17)2 and (C8H17)2P(O)(CH2)sub(n)(O)P(C8H17)2 has been studied (n is 1 or 2 ) The diluents used have been dichlorethane and chloroform. In perchlorate environments the distribuiton coefficients of americium and europium have proved to be by about 3 orders of magnitude higher than in nitric acid environments, i.e. in perchlorate media the complexes are far more stable. Separation coefficients of americium and REE in perchloric acid soutions are much higher than in nitrate environments. The average value of Am/Eu separation coeffecient at 1-5 M acidity was about 6 (with dichlorethane as diluent) or about 7 (with chloroform as diluent). The complexes essentially exist as trisolvated. Americium complexes display anomalous stability increase upon being diluted: by about 2 orders of magnitude with dichlorethane and by up to 3 orders of magnitude with chloroform used as diluent

  2. Investigations of neutron characteristics for salt blanket models; integral fission cross section measurements of neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron characteristics of salt blanket micromodels containing eutectic mixtures of sodium, zirconium, and uranium fluorides were measured on FKBN-2M, BIGR and MAKET facilities. The effective fission cross sections of neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes were measured on the neutron spectra formed by micromodels. (author)

  3. Purification of scintillation cocktails containing the alpha emitters americium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One efficient way of measuring alpha emitters is by the usage of liquid scintillation counting (LSC). A liquid sample is placed in a vial containing a scintillation cocktail. The alpha particles excite electrons in the surrounding liquid, and when they are de-excited photons are emitted. The photons are detected and the activity can be quantified. LSC has a high efficiency for alpha radiation and is therefore a fast and easy way for measuring alpha emitting samples. One drawback is that it does not differentiate very well between alpha energies; measurements of for example curium and plutonium simultaneously are impossible and demand other techniques. Another drawback is the production of a liquid alpha active waste. In Sweden alpha radioactive waste liquids with an activity over some kBq per waste container cannot be sent for final storage. If, however, the activity of the liquids could be reduced by precipitation of the actinides, it would be possible to send away the liquid samples to municipal incineration. In this work a method for a purification of alpha active scintillation cocktails was developed. The method was first tried on a lab scale, and then scaled up. Until today (March, 2013) more than 20 liters of scintillation liquids have successfully been purified from americium and plutonium at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. The four scintillation cocktails used were Emulsifier Safe®, Hionic-Fluor®, Ultima Gold AB® and Ultima Gold XR®. The scintillation cocktails could all be purified from americium with higher yield than 95%. The yield was kept when the liquids were mixed. Also plutonium could be precipitated with a yield over 95% in all cocktails except in Hionic-Fluor® (>55%). However, that liquid in particular could be purified (>95%) by mixing it with the three other cocktails. Up-scaling was performed to a batch size of 6-8 L of scintillation cocktail. In neither the americium nor the plutonium system, adverse effects of increasing the

  4. A thermodynamic study of actinide oxide targets/fuels for americium transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermodynamic study was performed on the systems Am-O, AmOx-MgO, AmOx-MgAl2O4, Pu-Mg-O and U-Mg-O. Both experimental work (X-ray analyses, oxygen potential measurements etc.) and calculations on the phase diagrams involved were made. The reaction between americium oxide and spinel is expected to form the compound AmAlO3. Isothermal sections have been calculated for AmOx-(MgO, Al2O3), Pu-Mg-O and U-Mg-O at 2000 K using the software package ''Thermo-Calc''. Thermodynamic equilibrium data were used to predict the behaviour of actinide oxides in a reactor. The implication of the results for the technological application is discussed, with emphasis on the effects of the high oxygen potential of AmO2 as compared to the conventional fuel, i.e. UO2. (author)

  5. The uptake of plutonium-239, 240, americium-241, strontium-90 into plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the results of measurements on the uptake of plutonium, americium, strontium-90 and caesium-137 into peas, beet, oats, sweet corn, tomatoes and vegetable marrow grown in tubs containing radioactively-contaminated silts. The silts had been taken from an area of West Cumbria commonly referred to as the Ravenglass estuary. The experiments are categorised as being carried out under non-standard conditions because of the manner in which the radioactivity came to be incorporated into the growth medium. The growth medium was representative of conditions which could arise when the estuarine silt moves inland under the influence of wind and tide and mixes with the adjacent farm land. The silt had been contaminated by radioactive effluents from the nuclear fuels reprocessing plant at Sellafield and this contamination had been brought about by natural means. (Auth.)

  6. Complex formation of trivalent americium with salicylic acid at very low concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time, the complexation of americium(III) with salicylic acid was studied at trace metal concentrations using a 2.0 m Long Path Flow Cell for UV-vis spectroscopy. The detection limit of Am(III) in aqueous solution at pH 3.0 was found to be 5 x 10-9 M. Two Am(III)-salicylate complexes were formed at pH 5.0 in 0.1 M NaClO4, indicated by a clear red shift of the absorption maximum. The absorption spectra obtained from spectrophotometric titration were analyzed by means of factor analysis and complex stabilities were calculated to be log β110 = 2.56 ± 0.08 and log β120 = 3.93 ± 0.19. (author)

  7. Standard practice for The separation of americium from plutonium by ion exchange

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes the use of an ion exchange technique to separate plutonium from solutions containing low concentrations of americium prior to measurement of the 241Am by gamma counting. 1.2 This practice covers the removal of plutonium, but not all the other radioactive isotopes that may interfere in the determination of 241Am. 1.3 This practice can be used when 241Am is to be determined in samples in which the plutonium is in the form of metal, oxide, or other solid provided that the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved (See Test Methods C758, C759, and C1168). 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  8. Transportability Class of Americium in K Basin Sludge under Ambient and Hydrothermal Processing Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmitt, Bruce E.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2006-08-01

    This report establishes the technical bases for using a ''slow uptake'' instead of a ''moderate uptake'' transportability class for americium-241 (241Am) for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP) dose consequence analysis. Slow uptake classes are used for most uranium and plutonium oxides. A moderate uptake class has been used in prior STP analyses for 241Am based on the properties of separated 241Am and its associated oxide. However, when 241Am exists as an ingrown progeny (and as a small mass fraction) within plutonium mixtures, it is appropriate to assign transportability factors of the predominant plutonium mixtures (typically slow) to the Am241. It is argued that the transportability factor for 241Am in sludge likewise should be slow because it exists as a small mass fraction as the ingrown progeny within the uranium oxide in sludge. In this report, the transportability class assignment for 241Am is underpinned with radiochemical characterization data on K Basin sludge and with studies conducted with other irradiated fuel exposed to elevated temperatures and conditions similar to the STP. Key findings and conclusions from evaluation of the characterization data and published literature are summarized here. Plutonium and 241Am make up very small fractions of the uranium within the K Basin sludge matrix. Plutonium is present at about 1 atom per 500 atoms of uranium and 241Am at about 1 atom per 19000 of uranium. Plutonium and americium are found to remain with uranium in the solid phase in all of the {approx}60 samples taken and analyzed from various sources of K Basin sludge. The uranium-specific concentrations of plutonium and americium also remain approximately constant over a uranium concentration range (in the dry sludge solids) from 0.2 to 94 wt%, a factor of {approx}460. This invariability demonstrates that 241Am does not partition from the uranium or plutonium fraction for any characterized sludge matrix. Most

  9. 49 CFR 236.338 - Mechanical locking required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... locking sheet and dog chart. 236.338 Section 236.338 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart. Mechanical locking shall be in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart currently in effect....

  10. 49 CFR 236.917 - Retention of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: (i) For the life-cycle of the product, adequate documentation to demonstrate that the PSP meets the...-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.917 Retention of records. (a) What life-cycle and... safety-relevant hazard? After the product is placed in service, the railroad shall maintain a database...

  11. 48 CFR 236.201 - Evaluation of contractor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTS Special Aspects of Contracting for Construction 236.201 Evaluation of contractor performance. (a) Preparation of performance evaluation reports. Use DD Form 2626, Performance Evaluation (Construction... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation of...

  12. 27 CFR 40.236 - Release from customs custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release from customs... on Tobacco Products § 40.236 Release from customs custody. The release of tobacco products from customs custody, in bond, for transfer to the premises of a tobacco products factory, shall be...

  13. 49 CFR 236.562 - Minimum rail current required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.562 Minimum rail current required. The minimum rail current required to restore the locomotive equipment...

  14. 49 CFR 236.586 - Daily or after trip test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.586 Daily or after trip test..., each locomotive equipped with an automatic cab signal or train stop or train control device...

  15. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852... Accident prevention. As prescribed in 836.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (SEP 1993....236-13, Accident Prevention. However, only the Contracting Officer may issue an order to stop all...

  16. 48 CFR 52.236-13 - Accident Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 52....236-13 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 36.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention... the Secretary of Labor at 29 CFR part 1926 and 29 CFR part 1910; and (3) Ensure that any...

  17. 48 CFR 652.236-70 - Accident Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident Prevention. 652... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 652.236-70 Accident Prevention. As prescribed in 636.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (APR 2004) (a) General....

  18. 49 CFR 236.913 - Filing and approval of PSPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.913 Filing and approval of PSPs. (a) Under... architectural concepts; the PSP describes a product that uses design or safety assurance concepts considered... the end of the system design review phase of product development and 180 days prior to...

  19. 49 CFR 236.905 - Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.905 Railroad Safety Program Plan (RSPP). (a...; and (iv) The identification of the safety assessment process. (2) Design for verification and... RSPP must require that references to any non-published standards be included in the PSP. (3) Design...

  20. 48 CFR 52.236-17 - Layout of Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Layout of Work. 52.236-17... Layout of Work. As prescribed in 36.517, insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when... need for accurate work layout and for siting verification during work performance: Layout of Work...

  1. 49 CFR 236.554 - Rate of pressure reduction; equalizing reservoir or brake pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or brake pipe. 236.554 Section 236.554 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...; Locomotives § 236.554 Rate of pressure reduction; equalizing reservoir or brake pipe. The equalizing-reservoir pressure or brake-pipe pressure reduction during an automatic brake application shall be at a rate not...

  2. 48 CFR 52.236-14 - Availability and Use of Utility Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Utility Services. 52.236-14 Section 52.236-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.236-14 Availability and Use of Utility Services. As prescribed in 36.514, insert the following... on Government sites when the contracting officer decides (a) that the existing utility system...

  3. 49 CFR 236.330 - Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement. 236.330 Section 236.330 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Rules and Instructions § 236.330 Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement. Locking dog of...

  4. 48 CFR 452.236-74 - Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Sedimentation, and Pollution. 452.236-74 Section 452.236-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF....236-74 Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution. As prescribed in 436.574, insert the following clause: Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution (NOV 1996) (a) Operations shall...

  5. 49 CFR 236.505 - Proper operative relation between parts along roadway and parts on locomotive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... roadway and parts on locomotive. 236.505 Section 236.505 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.505 Proper operative relation between parts along roadway and parts on locomotive....

  6. 49 CFR 236.337 - Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit. 236.337 Section 236.337 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Rules and Instructions § 236.337 Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit. Locking faces shall...

  7. 48 CFR 1252.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 1252.236-70 Special precautions for work at operating airports. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1236.570, insert the following clause: Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports (OCT... work at operating airports. 1252.236-70 Section 1252.236-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  8. The behaviour under irradiation of molybdenum matrix for inert matrix fuel containing americium oxide (CerMet concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agata, E.; Knol, S.; Fedorov, A. V.; Fernandez, A.; Somers, J.; Klaassen, F.

    2015-10-01

    Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors or Accelerator Driven System (ADS, subcritical reactors dedicated to transmutation) of long-lived nuclides like 241Am is therefore an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity of waste packages to be stored in a repository. In order to safely burn americium in a fast reactor or ADS, it must be incorporated in a matrix that could be metallic (CerMet target) or ceramic (CerCer target). One of the most promising matrix to incorporate Am is molybdenum. In order to address the issues (swelling, stability under irradiation, gas retention and release) of using Mo as matrix to transmute Am, two irradiation experiments have been conducted recently at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten (The Netherland) namely HELIOS and BODEX. The BODEX experiment is a separate effect test, where the molybdenum behaviour is studied without the presence of fission products using 10B to "produce" helium, the HELIOS experiment included a more representative fuel target with the presence of Am and fission product. This paper covers the results of Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) of the two irradiation experiments mentioned above where molybdenum behaviour has been deeply investigated as possible matrix to transmute americium (CerMet fuel target). The behaviour of molybdenum looks satisfying at operating temperature but at high temperature (above 1000 °C) more investigation should be performed.

  9. Consideration of the effect of lymph-node deposition upon the measurement of plutonium and americium in the lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of an inhaled radionuclide by external photon counting includes quantities which may be contained in lymph nodes, as well as quantities in the lungs. An overestimate of the lung burden can result, if a portion of the radionuclide were present in the lymph nodes. This problem is analyzed with respect to the measurement of inhaled plutonium containing plutonium-241 and americium-241, when americium-241 has been used as a tracer for the plutonium. Equations are derived which yield the amounts of americium and of plutonium in the lungs and in the lymph nodes as a function of time after exposure and for various translocation and retention parameters. Count histories (count profiles) of actual exposure cases are compared with calculated count profiles in order to gain insight into possible values of the translocation and retention parameters. Comparison is also made with calculated count profiles using values of translocation and retention parameters recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for use with the Task Group Lung Model. The magnitude of the possible overestimate (error factor) was calculated for combinations o

  10. HELIOS: the new design of the irradiation of U-free fuels for americium transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Agata, E. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Klaassen, F.; Sciolla, C. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Dept. Life Cycle and Innovations, P.O. Box 25 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Fernandez-Carretero, A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bonnerot, J.M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEC/SESC/LC2I CEA-Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2009-06-15

    Americium is one of the radioactive elements that mostly contribute to the radiotoxicity of the nuclear spent fuel. Transmutation of long-lived nuclides like Americium is an option for the reduction of the mass, the radiotoxicity and the decay heat of nuclear waste. The HELIOS irradiation experiment is the last evolution in a series of experiments on americium transmutation. The previous experiments, EFTTRA-T4 and T4bis, have shown that the release or trapping of helium is the key issue for the design of such kind of target. In fact, the production of helium, which is characteristic of {sup 241}Am transmutation, is quite significant. The experiment is carried out in the framework of the 4-year project EUROTRANS of the EURATOM 6. Framework Programme (FP6). Therefore, the main objective of the HELIOS experiment is to study the in-pile behaviour of U-free fuels such as CerCer (Pu, Am, Zr)O{sub 2} and Am{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}+MgO or CerMet (Pu, Am)O{sub 2}+Mo in order to gain knowledge on the role of the fuel microstructure and of the temperature on the gas release and on the fuel swelling. The experiment was planned to be conducted in the HFR (High Flux Reactor) in Petten (The Netherlands) starting the first quarter of 2007. Because of the innovative aspects of the fuel, the fabrication has had some delays as well as the final safety analyses of the original design showed some unexpected deviation. Besides, the HFR reactor has been unavailable since August 2008. Due to the reasons described above, the experiment has been postponed. HELIOS should start in the first quarter of 2009 and will last 300 full power days. The paper will cover the description of the new design of the irradiation experiment HELIOS. The experiment has been split in two parts (HELIOS1 and HELIOS2) which will be irradiated together. Moreover, due to the high temperature achieved in cladding and to the high amount of helium produced during transmutation the experiment previously designed for a

  11. Anomalous aryl strengthening of complexes at americium and europium extraction with alkylenediphospine dioxide from perchloric media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studied was the extraction of americium(3) and europium(3) from perchlorate solutions(0.001 M) with dioxides of alkylenediphosphines of three types: aryl Ph2P(O)CH2(O)PPh2(briefly 4P), and Ph2P(O)(CH2)2(O)PPh2, mixed Ph2P(O)CH2(O)P(C8H17)2 (or 2Ph2Oct) and alkyl (C8H17)2P(O)CH2(O)P(C8H17)2 (or 4 Oct). Trisolvates of MeS3x(ClO4)3 are predominantly formed but americium disolvates are also present upon dilution with dichloroethane. For 4Ph,2Ph2Oct and 4 Oct the concentration is, respectively, 1015, 2x1014, and 1013; for disolvates by 4 orders of magnitude lower which is, nevertheless, by 2 orders of magnitude higher than for nitric acid solutions. The separation coefficient of β Am/Eu for 4Ph attains 6-8. As in the case of nitrate solutions, an anomalous aryl strengthening of the complexes is observed: an increase in the distribution coefficients and extraction constants in the series of 4 Oct - 2Ph 2 Oct - 4Ph, in spite of the introduction of electronegative aryl substituents into the dioxide molecule, which reduce electron density on oxygen atoms and basicity of dioxides. In contrast to nitric acid solutions, observed is a nonlinear effect of a change in basicity on extraction properties upon dilution with dichloroethane (dioxide of 2Ph2 Oct does not occupy an intermediate position but is close to 4Ph). Upon dilution with chloroform the dependence is linear and anomalous effect rises due to a different nature of interactions of dioxides with chloroform. When the bridge increases up to ethylene, an anomalous strengthening of the complexes disappears. However, the distribution coefficients upon extraction with alkyl dioxide are considerably lower, which can be explained by a stronger extraction of perchloric acid

  12. Americium-based oxides: Dense pellet fabrication from co-converted oxalates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horlait, Denis; Lebreton, Florent [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Gauthé, Aurélie [CEA, DEN, DRCP/SERA/LCAR, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Caisso, Marie [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Arab-Chapelet, Bénédicte; Picart, Sébastien [CEA, DEN, DRCP/SERA/LCAR, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Delahaye, Thibaud, E-mail: thibaud.delahaye@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France)

    2014-01-15

    Mixed oxides are used as nuclear fuels and are notably envisaged for future fuel cycles including plutonium and minor actinide recycling. In this context, processes are being developed for the fabrication of uranium–americium mixed-oxide compounds for transmutation. The purpose of these processes is not only the compliance with fuel specifications in terms of density and homogeneity, but also the simplification of the process for its industrialization as well as lowering dust generation. In this paper, the use of a U{sub 0.85}Am{sub 0.15}O{sub 2±δ} powder synthesized by oxalate co-conversion as a precursor for dense fuel fabrications is assessed. This study notably focuses on sintering, which yielded pellets up to 96% of the theoretical density, taking advantage of the high reactivity and homogeneity of the powder. As-obtained pellets were further characterized to be compared to those obtained via processes based on the UMACS (Uranium Minor Actinide Conventional Sintering) process. This comparison highlights several advantages of co-converted powder as a precursor for simplified processes that generate little dust.

  13. Study of biosorbents application on the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes with americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nuclear energy for many different purposes has been intensified and highlighted by the benefits that it provides. Medical diagnosis and therapy, agriculture, industry and electricity generation are examples of its application. However, nuclear energy generates radioactive wastes that require suitable treatment ensuring life and environmental safety. Biosorption and bioaccumulation represent an emergent alternative for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes, providing volume reduction and physical state change. This work aimed to study biosorbents for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes contaminated with americium-241 in order to reduce the volume and change the physical state from liquid to solid. The biosorbents evaluated were Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in calcium alginate beads, inactivated and free cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, calcium alginate beads, Bacillus subtilis, Cupriavidus metallidurans and Ochrobactrum anthropi. The results were quite satisfactory, achieving 100% in some cases. The technique presented in this work may be useful and viable for implementing at the Waste Management Laboratory of IPEN - CNEN/SP in short term, since it is an easy and low cost method. (author)

  14. Mutual separation of americium(III) and europium(III) using glycolamic acid and thioglycolamic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suneesh, A.S.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Syamala, K.V.; Antony, M.P.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.

    2012-07-01

    The extractants, bis(2-ethylhexyl)diglycolamicacid (HDEHDGA) and bis(2-ethylhexy)thiodiglycolamic acid (HDEHSDGA) were synthesized and characterized by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, mass and IR spectroscopy. The extraction behaviour of {sup (152+154})Eu(III) and {sup 241}Am(III) from nitric acid medium by a solution of HDEHDGA (or HDEHSDGA) in n-dodecane (n-DD) was studied for the mutual separation of actinides and lanthanides. The effect of various parameters such as the pH, concentrations of HDEHDGA, HDEHSDGA, sodium nitrate, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) on the separation factor (SF) of americium(III) over europium(III) and vice versa was studied, and the conditions needed for the preferential separation were optimised. The results show that HDEHDGA exhibits higher extraction for {sup (152+154)}Eu(III) and HDEHSDGA shows the superior selectivity for {sup 241}Am(III). (orig.)

  15. Determination of plutonium americium and curium in soil samples by solvent extraction with trioctylphosphine oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of Pu, Am and Cm determination in soil samples, which was developed for analyzing samples from territories subjected to radioactive contamination as a result of the Chernobyl accident is described. After preliminary treatment the samples were leached by solution of 7 mol/l HNO23+0.3 mol/l KBrO3 during heating. Pu was isolated by extraction with 0.05 mol TOPO from 7 mol/l HNO3. 144Ce and partially remaining in water phase isotopes of Zr, U and Th were isolated in an extraction-chromatographic column with TOPO and PbO2. Then Am and Cm were extracted by 0.2 mol/l TOPO from solution 1 mol/l HLact+0.07 mol/l DTPA+1 mol/l Al(NO3)3. Alpha-activity of both extracted products was determined in liquid scintillation counter. Chemical yield of plutonium counted to 85±10%, that of americium and curium -75±10%. 17 refs

  16. Development and Testing of an Americium/Lanthanide Separation Flowsheet Using Sodium Bismuthate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Law; Bruce Mincher; Troy Garn; Mitchell Greenhalgh; Nicholas Schmitt; Veronica Rutledge

    2014-04-01

    The separation of Am from the lanthanides and curium is a key step in proposed advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The partitioning and transmutation of Am is desirable to minimize the long-term heat load of material interred in a future high-level waste repository. A separation process amenable to process scale-up remains elusive. Given only subtle chemistry differences within and between the ions of the trivalent actinide and lanthanide series this separation is challenging ; however, higher oxidation states of americium can be prepared using sodium bismuthate and separated via solvent extraction using diamylamylphosphonate (DAAP) extraction. Among the other trivalent metals only Ce is also oxidized and extracted. Due to the long-term instability of Am(VI) , the loaded organic phase is readily selectively stripped to partition the actinide to a new acidic aqueous phase. Batch extraction distribution ratio measurements were used to design a flowsheet to accomplish this separation. Additionally, crossflow filtration was investigated as a method to filter the bismuthate solids from the feed solution prior to extraction. Results of the filtration studies, flowsheet development work and flowsheet performance testing using a centrifugal contactor are detailed.

  17. Speciation and bioavailability of Americium-241 in the fresh water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to its anthropogenic origin, the transuranic americium 241 confronts physiologists with the intriguing question, which mechanisms are involved in the incorporation or elimination of such artificial elements in biological cycles. The investigations on the speciation and bioavailability of 241Am in the freshwater environment aim to establish a relation between the behavior of 241Am in freshwater ecosystems and its availability for biota. In the limnic environment, most often characterized by a high organic load and a low conductivity, the effect of complexation of 241Am with humic acids and competition with trivalent cations such as A1 and Fe, were proven to be significant on the speciation of 241Am. Based on the registration of the 241Am uptake by a large number of freshwater organisms, the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz was chosen to study the whole-body uptake of 241Am, its corresponding organ distribution and its retention in the animal. The share of external fixation and ingestion in the global uptake, and the effect of speciation on it, were studied more carefully. Other aspects in this physiological part were: the kinetics of 241Am in the hemolymph and the hepatopancreas, and its subcellular distribution in the digestive gland. Finally, by comparing the physiology of 241Am with some other metals (240Pu, 64Cu, 198Au) with analogous or contradictional properties, we tried to find out whether the behavior of 241Am in organisms can be explained from its chemical characteristics

  18. Solution speciation of plutonium and Americium at an Australian legacy radioactive waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi; Harrison, Jennifer J; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry; Wong, Henri K Y; Johansen, Mathew P; Waite, T David; Payne, Timothy E

    2014-09-01

    During the 1960s, radioactive waste containing small amounts of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) was disposed in shallow trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), located near the southern suburbs of Sydney, Australia. Because of periodic saturation and overflowing of the former disposal trenches, Pu and Am have been transferred from the buried wastes into the surrounding surface soils. The presence of readily detected amounts of Pu and Am in the trench waters provides a unique opportunity to study their aqueous speciation under environmentally relevant conditions. This study aims to comprehensively investigate the chemical speciation of Pu and Am in the trench water by combining fluoride coprecipitation, solvent extraction, particle size fractionation, and thermochemical modeling. The predominant oxidation states of dissolved Pu and Am species were found to be Pu(IV) and Am(III), and large proportions of both actinides (Pu, 97.7%; Am, 86.8%) were associated with mobile colloids in the submicron size range. On the basis of this information, possible management options are assessed. PMID:25126837

  19. Solution speciation of plutonium and Americium at an Australian legacy radioactive waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi; Harrison, Jennifer J; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry; Wong, Henri K Y; Johansen, Mathew P; Waite, T David; Payne, Timothy E

    2014-09-01

    During the 1960s, radioactive waste containing small amounts of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) was disposed in shallow trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), located near the southern suburbs of Sydney, Australia. Because of periodic saturation and overflowing of the former disposal trenches, Pu and Am have been transferred from the buried wastes into the surrounding surface soils. The presence of readily detected amounts of Pu and Am in the trench waters provides a unique opportunity to study their aqueous speciation under environmentally relevant conditions. This study aims to comprehensively investigate the chemical speciation of Pu and Am in the trench water by combining fluoride coprecipitation, solvent extraction, particle size fractionation, and thermochemical modeling. The predominant oxidation states of dissolved Pu and Am species were found to be Pu(IV) and Am(III), and large proportions of both actinides (Pu, 97.7%; Am, 86.8%) were associated with mobile colloids in the submicron size range. On the basis of this information, possible management options are assessed.

  20. Value of 236U to actinide-only burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) submitted a topical report to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in May 1995 in order to gain approval of a method for criticality analysis of transport packages that takes account for the change in actinide isotopes with burnup [pressurized water reactors (PWRs) only]. Historically, the NRC has conservatively assumed that the fuel was in its initial conditions (without any burnable absorbers). In order to permit credit for the changes in actinide content, the NRC has required validation of the depletion and criticality codes for spent nuclear fuel, justification of conservative depletion modeling, and finally confirmation measurements before loading. The NRC requested additional information on March 22, 1996. The DOE responded by a revision of the topical report in May 1997. The NRC again responded with another set of requests of additional information in April 1998. In that set of questions, the NRC challenged the use of 236U in burnup credit. Uranium-236 is not found in any significant amount in any available critical experiments. The authors explore the value of 236U to actinide-only burnup credit

  1. A study of plutonium and americium concentrations in seaspray on the southern Scottish coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaspray and seawater have been collected from the southern Scottish coast and, for comparison, Cumbria in northwest England during 1989 and 1991. The occurrence of sea-to-land transfer of the actinides plutonium and americium in seaspray was observed on these coasts using muslin screens (a semi-quantitative technique most efficient for collecting large spray droplets) and high volume conventional air samplers. The actinides and fine particulate in the spray were present in relatively higher concentrations than measured in the adjacent seawater, i.e. the spray was enriched in particulate actinides. The net efficiency of the muslim screens in collecting airborne plutonium isotopes and 241Am generally appeared to be about 20%. A review of earlier published concentrations of 239+240Pu and 241Am measured in aerosol and deposition for over a year several tens of metres inland was carried out. This suggested that airborne activities are up to a factor of 5 times higher in Cumbria than southern Scotland. However, neither the new data collected in 1989 and 1991 nor this older data suggests any enhancement of seaspray actinide enrichment in southern Scotland compared to Cumbria. This finding contrasts with earlier, more limited, comparisons that have been carried out which suggested such a difference. There is clear evidence of considerable localised spatial and temporal variability in aerosol actinide enrichment over the beaches in both areas. Enrichments varies between 20 and 500 relative to the adjacent surf zone waters. However, the average enrichment in spray based on the continuous measurements made further inland is likely to be at the lower end of this range. (author)

  2. Biosorption of Americium-242 by saccharomyces cerevisiae: preliminary evaluation and mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an important radioisotope in nuclear industry and other fields, americium-241 is one of the most serious contamination concerns duo to its high radiation toxicity and long half-life. In this experiment, the biosorption of 241Am from solution by a fungus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae), and the effects of various experimental conditions on the biosorption and the mechanism were explored. The preliminary results showed that S. cerevisiae is a very efficient biosorbent. An average of more than 99% of the total 241Am could be removed by S. cerevisiae of 2.1g/L (dry weight) from 241Am solutions of 2.22MBq/L -555 MBq/L (Co). The adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 1 hour and the optimum pH ranged 1-3. The culture times of more than 16 hours were suitable and the efficient adsorption of 241Am by the S. cerevisiae could be noted. The biosorption of 241Am by the decomposed cell wall, protoplasm or cell membrane of S. cerevisiae was same efficient as by the intact fungus, but the some components of S. cerevisiae, such as protein and acylation group had obvious effect on adsorption. When the concentrations of coexistent Eu3+, Nd3+ were 100 times more than that of 241Am, the adsorption rates would drop to 65%. However, most of the investigated acidic ions have no significant influence on the 241Am adsorption but minute change of pH value, while the saturated EDTA can strong inhibit the biosorption of 241Am.. (authors)

  3. Transport of plutonium, americium, and curium from soils into plants by roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For assessing the dose from radionuclides in agricultural products by ingestion it is necessary to know the soil to plant transfer factors. The literature was entirely investigated, in order to judge the size of the soil to plant transfer factors. In total, 92 publications - from 1948 to 1978 -have been evaluated. As result, transfer factors from 10-9 to 10-3 have been found for Plutonium, and from 10-6 to 1 for Americium. For Curium only few data are available in literature. The considerable variation of the measured transfer factors is based on the dependence of these transfer factors from the ion exchange capacity of soils, from the amount of organic materials, from the pH-value, and from the mode of contamination. There are, in any case, contradictory data, although there has been detected a dependence of the transfer factors from these parameters. Chelating agenst increase the transfer factors to approximately 1300. As well, fertilizers have an influence on the size of the transfer factors - however, the relationships have been scarcely investigated. The distribution of actinides within the individual parts of plants has been investigated. The highest concentrations are in the roots; in the plant parts above ground the concentration of actinides decreases considerably. The most inferior transfer factors were measured for the respective seed or fruits. The soil to plant transfer factors of actinides are more dependend on the age of the plants within one growing period. At the beginning of the period, the transfer factor is considerably higher than at the end of this period. With respect to plants with a growing period of several years, correlations are unknown. (orig.)

  4. The treatment of liquid radioactive waste containing Americium by using a cation exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research in the treatment of a liquid radioactive waste containing americium has been done. The liquid radioactive waste used in this research was standard solution of U dan Ce with the initial activity of 100 ppm. The experimental investigation is aimed at a study of the effects of the waste pH, the column dimension of IR-120 cation exchanger which is expressed as L/D, the flow rate of a liquid waste and the influence of thiocyanate as a complex agent against the efficiency of a decontamination for uranium and cerium element. The experiment was done by passing downward the feed of uranium and cerium solution into an IR-120 type of cation exchanger with the L/D of 11.37. From the experimental parameters done in this research where the influence of waste pH was varied from 3 - 8, the geometric column (L/D) 11.37, the liquid flow rate was from 2.5 - 10 ml/m and the thiocyanate concentration was between 100 ppm-500 ppm can be concluded that the optimum operational condition for the ion exchange achieved were the waste pH for uranium = 4 and the waste pH for cerium = 6, the flow rate = 2.5 ml/men. From the given maximum value of DF for uranium = 24 (DE = 95.83%) and of DF for cerium = 40 (DE = 97.5%), it can also be concluded that this investigation is to be continued in order that the greater value of DF/DE can be achieved

  5. Use of radioisotopes in the study of tetracycline analytical application. Extraction of compounds formed between tetracycline and neptunium and americium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of tetracycline as complexing agent, in solvent extraction studies of neptunium and americium, using benzyl alcohol as the organic phase, is presented. By using radioactive tracers of 239Np and 241Am the extraction percent of these elements were determined as a function of pH in the absence and in the presence of several masking agents. The influence of shaking time and the use of different types of supporting eletrolytes upon the extraction behavior was also studied. The extraction curves obtained using EDTA as masking agent show that tetracycline can be used for neptunium and americium separation. In this condition neptunium is extracted into the organic phase and americium remains in the aqueous phase. (Author)

  6. Effect of a long-term release of plutonium and americium into an estuarine and coastal sea ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the general problem of speciation of plutonium and americium in aquatic ecosystems and the implications relative to their fate in those systems. The following conclusions were reached: several oxidation states of plutonium coexist in the natural environment; the effect of environmental changes such as pH and Esub(h) values and complexes are probably the cause of these various oxidation states; a clearer definition of the 'concentration factor' should be given in view of the important role the sediments play in supplying plutonium for transfer through the food web. (author)

  7. EFFECT OF COMPOSITION OF SELECTED GROUNDWATERS FROM THE BASIN AND RANGE PROVINCE ON PLUTONIUM, NEPTUNIUM, AND AMERICIUM SPECIATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Terry F.; Cleveland, Jess M.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    1984-01-01

    The speciation of plutonium, neptunium, and americium was determined in groundwaters from four sources in the Basin and Range Province: the lower carbonate aquifer, Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Crystal Pool); alluvial fill, Frenchman Flat, NTS (well 5C); Hualapai Valley, Arizona (Red Lake south well); and Tularosa Basin, New Mexico (Rentfrow well). The results were interpreted to indicate that plutonium and, to a lesser extent, neptunium are least soluble in reducing groundwaters containing a large concentration of sulfate ion and a small concentration of strongly complexing anions. The results further emphasize the desirability of including studies such as this among the other site-selection criteria for nuclear waste repositories.

  8. Microstructure and elemental distribution of americium-containing MOX fuel under the short-term irradiation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the effect of americium addition to MOX fuels on the irradiation behavior, the 'Am-1' program is being conducted in JAEA. The Am-1 program consists of two short-term irradiation tests of 10-minute and 24-hour irradiations and a steady-state irradiation test. The short-term irradiation tests were successfully completed and the post irradiation examinations (PIEs) are in progress. The PIEs for Am-containing MOX fuels focused on the microstructural evolution and redistribution behavior of Am at the initial stage of irradiation and the results to date are reported. (author)

  9. Effect of radiolysis on leachability of plutonium and americium from 76-101 glass. [Glass containing 2 mole % plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K.L.; Fried, S.; Friedman, A.M.; Susak, N.; Rickert, P.; Sullivan, J.C.; Karim, D.P.; Lam, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    One aspect of the leachability of actinide-bearing glass which has not been adequately addressed is the effect of radiolysis of the system (glass-water) on the amount of actinides liberated from the glass. In the present study, we have investigated the leaching of plutonium and americium from 76-101 glass samples (containing 2 mole % plutonium) in the presence of a one megaRad/hour gamma-radiation field. The presence of the radiation field was found to increase the leaching rate of both plutonium and americium by a factor of five. Speciation studies of the plutonium in the leachate indicate that the plutonium is present predominantly in the higher oxidation states, Pu(V) and Pu(VI) and that it is significantly associated with colloidal particles. Examination of the glass surfaces with x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, XPS, both before and after leaching was carried out; these studies showed lower surface concentrations of plutonium in the samples of glass leached in the radiation field. 1 figure, 3 tables.

  10. Osteosarcoma induction by plutonium-239, americium-241 and neptunium-237 : the problem of deriving risk estimates for man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spontaneous bone cancer (osteosarcoma) represents only about 0.3% of all human cancers, but is well known to be inducible in humans by internal contamination with radium-226 and radium-224. plutonium-239, americium-241 and neptunium-237 form, or will form, the principal long-lived alpha particle emitting components of high activity waste and burnt-up nuclear fuel elements. These three nuclides deposit extensively in human bone and although, fortunately, no case of a human osteosarcoma induced by any of these nuclides is known, evidence from animal studies suggests that all three are more effective than radium-226 in inducing osteosarcoma. The assumption that the ratio of the risk factors, the number of osteosarcoma expected per 10000 person/animal Gy, for radium-226 and any other bone-seeking alpha-emitter will be independent of animal species has formed the basis of all the important studies of the radiotoxicity of actinide nuclides in experimental animals. The aim of this communication is to review the risk factors which may be calculated from the various animal studies carried out over the last thirty years with plutonium-237, americium-241 and neptunium-237 and to consider the problems which may arise in extrapolating these risk factors to homo sapiens

  11. Experimental Study on Behavior of Americium in Pyrochemical Process of Nitride Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R and D on the transmutation of long-lived minor actinides (MA) by the accelerator-driven system (ADS) using nitride fuels is underway at JAEA. In regard to reprocessing technology, pyrochemical process has several advantages in case of treating spent fuel with large decay heat and fast neutron emission, and recovering highly enriched N-15. In the pyrochemical reprocessing, plutonium and MA are dissolved in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts and selectively recovered into liquid cadmium (Cd) cathode by molten salt electrorefining. The electrochemical behavior in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts and the subsequent nitride formation behavior of plutonium and MA recovered in liquid Cd cathode are investigated. In this paper, recent results on electrochemical study of americium (Am) on electrolyses of AmN in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts and nitride formation of Am recovered in the liquid Cd cathode are presented. Electrochemical behavior of Am on anodic dissolution of AmN and recovery of Am into a liquid Cd cathode by electrolyses in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts was investigated by transient electrochemical techniques. The formal standard potential of Am(III)/Am(0) obtained with the liquid Cd electrode is more positive than that calculated for the solid metal electrode. The potential shift is considered to be attributed to the lowering of the activity of Am by the formation of the intermetallic compound with Cd. Potentiostatic electrolyses of AmN in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts containing AmCl3 at 773 K were carried out. Nitrogen gas generated by the anodic dissolution of AmN was observed, and the current efficiency was obtained from the ratio of the amount of released nitrogen gas and the passed electric charge to be 20 - 28 %. Am was recovered as Am-Cd alloy in the liquid Cd cathode, in which AmCd6 type phase was identified besides Cd phase. The recovered Am was converted to AmN by the nitridation-distillation combined method, in which the Am-Cd alloy was heated in nitrogen gas stream at 973 K. These

  12. MISCIBILITY, SOLUBILITY, VISCOSITY, AND DENSITY MEASUREMENTS FOR R-236EA WITH FOUR DIFFERENT EXXON LUBRICANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses miscibility, solubility, viscosity, and density data for the refrigerant hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236ea (or R-236ea) and four lubricants supplied by Exxon Corporation. Such data are needed to determine the suitability of refrigerant/lubricant combinations for ...

  13. 49 CFR 236.16 - Electric lock, main track releasing circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric lock, main track releasing circuit. 236... Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.16 Electric lock, main track releasing circuit. When an electric lock releasing circuit is provided on the main track to permit a train or an engine...

  14. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The insulation shall not be punctured for test purposes. Splice in underground wire shall have...

  15. Key Issue of Ultra-trace Environmental Samples by ~(236)U/~(238)U-AMS Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The accurate determination of uranium-236 in samples at ultra-low level is critical. Combined with AMS , reducing the background effects throughout the experiment is quite necessary. Therefore, some advances on the determination of 236U by accelerator mass spectrometry

  16. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 236 - Safety Assurance Criteria and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety Assurance Criteria and Processes C Appendix... Pt. 236, App. C Appendix C to Part 236—Safety Assurance Criteria and Processes (a) What is the purpose of this appendix? This appendix provides safety criteria and processes that the designer must...

  17. 48 CFR 53.236-2 - Architect-engineer services (SF's 252 and 330).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... services (SF's 252 and 330). 53.236-2 Section 53.236-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... services (SF's 252 and 330). The following forms are prescribed for use in contracting for architect-engineer and related services: (a) SF 252 (Rev. 10/83), Architect-Engineer Contract. SF 252 is...

  18. 24 CFR 236.260 - Request by Commissioner for assignment of mortgage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... assignment of mortgage. 236.260 Section 236.260 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INTEREST REDUCTION PAYMENT FOR RENTAL...

  19. 49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... between electrical and mechanical levers. 236.340 Section 236.340 Transportation Other Regulations... Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and mechanical levers shall be maintained so that...

  20. MODELING AND DESIGN STUDY USING HFC-236EA AS AN ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANT IN A CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an investigation of the operation of a centrifugal compressor--part of a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-114 chiller installation--with the new refrigerant hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236ea, a proposed alternative to CFC-114. A large set of CFC-236ea operating da...

  1. 48 CFR 236.274 - Restriction on acquisition of steel for use in military construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Division E), do not acquire, or allow a contractor to acquire, steel for any construction project or... of steel for use in military construction projects. 236.274 Section 236.274 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Special Aspects of Contracting for Construction...

  2. Feeding of the {sup 232}Th levels from the decay of {sup 236}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, R.J. E-mail: rjg@inel.gov; Baker, J.D.; Riddle, C.L

    2002-03-01

    Population of the 6{sup +} 332 keV level in {sup 232}Th from the decay of {sup 236}U was observed for the first time. The 49, 112, and 171 keV {gamma}-ray energies and relative intensities from the decay of {sup 236}U were measured.

  3. 49 CFR 236.383 - Valve locks, valves, and valve magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valve locks, valves, and valve magnets. 236.383... Inspection and Tests § 236.383 Valve locks, valves, and valve magnets. Valve locks on valves of the non-cut-off type shall be tested at least once every three months, and valves and valve magnets shall...

  4. 49 CFR 236.53 - Track circuit feed at grade crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Track circuit feed at grade crossing. 236.53... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.53 Track circuit feed at grade crossing. At grade crossing with... current track circuit shall feed away from the crossing....

  5. 49 CFR 236.514 - Interconnection of cab signal system with roadway signal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interconnection of cab signal system with roadway signal system. 236.514 Section 236.514 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Interconnection of cab signal system with roadway signal system. The automatic cab signal system shall...

  6. 49 CFR 236.1029 - PTC system use and en route failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false PTC system use and en route failures. 236.1029..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Positive Train Control Systems § 236.1029 PTC system use and en route failures. (a) When any safety-critical...

  7. 49 CFR 236.13 - Spring switch; selection of signal control circuits through circuit controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... circuits through circuit controller. 236.13 Section 236.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...; selection of signal control circuits through circuit controller. The control circuits of signals governing... circuit controller, or through the contacts of relay repeating the position of such circuit...

  8. 48 CFR 3052.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... work at operating airports. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3036.570, insert the following clause: Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports (DEC 2003) (a) When work is to be performed at an... work at operating airports. 3052.236-70 Section 3052.236-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  9. LIBS Spectral Data for a Mixed Actinide Fuel Pellet Containing Uranium, Plutonium, Neptunium and Americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judge, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Le, Loan A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lopez, Leon N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to analyze a mixed actinide fuel pellet containing 75% UO{sub 2}/20% PuO{sub 2}/3% AmO{sub 2}/2% NpO{sub 2}. The preliminary data shown here is the first report of LIBS analysis of a mixed actinide fuel pellet, to the authors knowledge. The LIBS spectral data was acquired in a plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory where the sample was contained within a glove box. The initial installation of the glove box was not intended for complete ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) transmission, therefore the LIBS spectrum is truncated in the UV and NIR regions due to the optical transmission of the window port and filters that were installed. The optical collection of the emission from the LIBS plasma will be optimized in the future. However, the preliminary LIBS data acquired is worth reporting due to the uniqueness of the sample and spectral data. The analysis of several actinides in the presence of each other is an important feature of this analysis since traditional methods must chemically separate uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium prior to analysis. Due to the historic nature of the sample fuel pellet analyzed, the provided sample composition of 75% UO{sub 2}/20% PuO{sub 2}/3% AmO{sub 2}/2% NpO{sub 2} cannot be confirm without further analytical processing. Uranium, plutonium, and americium emission lines were abundant and easily assigned while neptunium was more difficult to identify. There may be several reasons for this observation, other than knowing the exact sample composition of the fuel pellet. First, the atomic emission wavelength resources for neptunium are limited and such techniques as hollow cathode discharge lamp have different dynamics than the plasma used in LIBS which results in different emission spectra. Secondly, due to the complex sample of four actinide elements, which all have very dense electronic energy levels, there may be reactions and

  10. Preconcentration of low levels of americium and plutonium from waste waters by synthetic water-soluble metal-binding polymers with ultrafiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preconcentration approach to assist in the measurement of low levels of americium and plutonium in waste waters has been developed based on the concept of using water-soluble metal-binding polymers in combination with ultrafiltration. The method has been optimized to give over 90% recovery and accountability from actual waste water. (author)

  11. Theoretical investigation of pressure-induced structural transitions in americium using GGA+U and hybrid density functional theory methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verma, Ashok K.; Modak, P.; Sharma, Surinder M.;

    2013-01-01

    First-principles calculations have been performed for americium (Am) metal using the generalized gradient approximation + orbital-dependent onsite Coulomb repulsion via Hubbard interaction (GGA+U) and hybrid density functional theory (HYB-DFT) methods to investigate various ground state propertie...

  12. Neutron Capture Cross Sections of 236U and 234U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundberg, R. S.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Haight, R. C.; Hunt, L. F.; Kronenberg, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Schwantes, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.

    2006-03-01

    Accurate neutron capture cross sections of the actinide elements at neutron energies up to 1 MeV are needed to better interpret archived nuclear test data, for post-detonation nuclear attribution, and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. The Detector for Advance Neutron Capture Experiments, DANCE, has unique capabilities that allow the differentiation of capture gamma rays from fission gamma rays and background gamma rays from scattered neutrons captured by barium isotopes in the barium fluoride scintillators. The DANCE array has a high granularity, 160 scintillators, high efficiency, and nearly 4-π solid angle. Through the use of cuts in cluster multiplicity and calorimetric energy the capture gamma-rays are differentiated from other sources of gamma rays. The preliminary results for the capture cross sections of 236U are in agreement with the ENDF/B-VI evaluation. The preliminary results for 234U lower are than ENDF/B-VI evaluation and are closer to older evaluations.

  13. 42 CFR 23.6 - What are the criteria for determining the entities to which National Health Service Corps...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to which National Health Service Corps personnel will be assigned? 23.6 Section 23.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE CORPS Assignment of National Health Service Corps Personnel § 23.6 What are the criteria for......

  14. 49 CFR 236.567 - Restrictions imposed when device fails and/or is cut out en route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions imposed when device fails and/or is cut out en route. 236.567 Section 236.567 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...; Locomotives § 236.567 Restrictions imposed when device fails and/or is cut out en route. Where an...

  15. MISCIBILITY, SOLUBILITY, AND VISCOSITY MEASUREMENTS FOR R-236EA WITH POTENTIAL LUBRICANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of miscibility, solubility, and viscosity measurements of refrigerant R-236ea with three potential lubricants. (NOTE: The data were needed to determine the suitability of refrigerant/lubricant combinations for use in refrigeration systems.) The lubricants...

  16. Measurement of the natural 36Cl and 236U uranium mineral with accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of the natural ultra-trace radionuclides 36Cl and 236U in the uranium depended on the neutron flux. In this article, a method for measuring 36Cl and 236U in the same uranium mineral with accelerator mass spectrometry was developed in China Institute of Atomic Energy, providing a protocol of the potential application of 236U in uranium mining, environmental, and geological research. The two samples were from Guangxi and Shanxi province, China, and their ratios 36Cl/Cl and 236U/238U were measured. More experimental data conduced to understand the natural nuclides in the uranium mineral. We plan to conduct more efforts on the research. (authors)

  17. 49 CFR 236.328 - Plunger of facing-point lock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Rules and Instructions § 236.328 Plunger of facing-point lock. Plunger of lever operated facing-point lock shall have at least 8-inch stroke. When lock lever is in unlocked position the end of the...

  18. 17 CFR 230.236 - Exemption of shares offered in connection with certain transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... stock dividend, stock split, reverse stock split, conversion, merger or similar transaction, shall be... Exemptions § 230.236 Exemption of shares offered in connection with certain transactions. Shares of stock...

  19. 49 CFR 236.203 - Hand operated crossover between main tracks; protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.203 Hand operated crossover between main... crossover is occupied by a train, locomotive or car in such a manner as to foul the main track. It shall...

  20. 49 CFR 236.560 - Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.560 Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to...

  1. Fission barriers of 237 to 240 plutonium isotopes with the 236U(α,xn) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excitation functions for the reactions 236U(α,xn)sup(240-x)Pu have been measured for x=2, 3, 4. The production of 236U targets as well as the chemical separation of Pu from the irradied targets are given. Experimental results have been analysed using the preequilibrium mechanism (PREEQ code) and the statistical model description of fission through a double humped barrier (GIVAB code)

  2. Stability of penta- and hexavalent americium in the solutions of sodium peroxydisulfate and sodium bromate at intensive internal α-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectrometric method has been used for studying the dependence of the rates of radiolytic reduction of Am(5) and (6) on the initial concentration of sodium persulfate and bromate, Am(5) and (6), acidity, and the dose rate of inner alpha-irradiation of the solutions. The high dose rates of inner alpha-irradiation of solutions (up to 3.25x1021 eV/lxmin-250Ci/l) have been attained with the aid of curium isotopes. The stability of americium (6) ions towards the action of ionizing radiation in solutions of sodium persulfate and bromate has been shown to be considerable lower than that of americium (5). The chemical difference has been shown in radiolytic behaviour between Am(5) and Am(6) ions in solutions of sodium persulfate and bromate. The equations have been derived showing the dependence of the rates of Am(6) and Am(5) reduction of different variables

  3. Comparative XRPD and XAS study of the impact of the synthesis process on the electronic and structural environments of uranium-americium mixed oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieur, D.; Lebreton, F.; Martin, P. M.; Caisso, M.; Butzbach, R.; Somers, J.; Delahaye, T.

    2015-10-01

    Uranium-americium mixed oxides are potential compounds to reduce americium inventory in nuclear waste via a partitioning and transmutation strategy. A thorough assessment of the oxygen-to-metal ratio is paramount in such materials as it determines the important underlying electronic structure and phase relations, affecting both thermal conductivity of the material and its interaction with the cladding and coolant. In 2011, various XAS experiments on U1-xAmxO2±δ samples prepared by different synthesis methods have reported contradictory results on the charge distribution of U and Am. This work alleviates this discrepancy. The XAS results confirm that, independently of the synthesis process, the reductive sintering of U1-xAmxO2±δ leads to the formation of similar fluorite solid solution indicating the presence of Am+III and U+V in equimolar proportions.

  4. THE FIRST ISOLATION OF AMERICIUM IN THE FORM OF PURE COMPOUNDS - THE SPECIFIC ALPHA-ACTIVITY AND HALF-LIFE OF Am241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, B.B.; Asprey, L.B.

    1950-07-20

    The microgram scale isolation and preparation of pure compounds of americium is described. Data are presented to show that the alpha-half-life of the isotope Am{sup 241} is 490 {+-} 14 years. The absorption spectrum of Am(III) in 1M nitric acid in the range 3500-8000 mu is given. The wave lengths of 10 of the most prominent lines in the copper spark emission spectrum of americium are given to the nearest 0.01 {angstrom}. Evidence is presented to show that the potential for the Am(III)-Am(IV) couple in acid solution is more negative than -2v and that the potential for the Am(II)-Am(III) couple is more positive than +0.9v.

  5. A comparison of fallout (236)U and (239)Pu uptake by Australian vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Dietze, M M A; Tims, S G; Fifield, L K

    2016-01-01

    The isotopes (236)U and (239)Pu, both produced during nuclear weapons tests carried out in the 1950s and 1960s, are present in the environment and may be used as tracers for soil erosion studies. Although these radionuclides occur only at ultra-trace levels in nature, they can be readily measured by accelerator mass spectrometry with the 14UD heavy ion accelerator at the Australian National University. We have analysed a series of vegetation samples for their (236)U and (239)Pu concentration and compared the results with those found in the surrounding soil. (236)U could be measured in all collected samples whereas (239)Pu could not be detected in several vegetation samples due to its very low concentration, although it was readily detectable in the soil. We find that, relative to plutonium, (236)U is preferentially taken up by plants with enrichment factors ((236)U/(239)Pu)veg/((236)U/(239)Pu)soil that range between 7 and 52 in the present study. PMID:26141188

  6. A Density Functional Study of Atomic Hydrogen and Oxygen Chemisorption on the Relaxed (0001) Surface of Double Hexagonal Close Packed Americium

    OpenAIRE

    Dholabhai, P. P.; Atta-Fynn, R.; A.K. Ray

    2009-01-01

    Ab initio total energy calculations within the framework of density functional theory have been performed for atomic hydrogen and oxygen chemisorption on the (0001) surface of double hexagonal packed americium using a full-potential all-electron linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbitals method. Chemisorption energies were optimized with respect to the distance of the adatom from the relaxed surface for three adsorption sites, namely top, bridge, and hollow hcp sites, the adlayer str...

  7. Experimental study of Americium-241 biokinetics in Homarus Gammarus lobster. Analysis of the accumulation and detoxication mechanisms at the sub-cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Americium 241 radioelement accumulation and elimination rate and mechanisms in the lobster organism have been experimentally studied; incorporation and detoxification capacities of each organ are evaluated. The existence of various biological compartments is shown; the major role of the digestive gland in accumulation of the radioelement, its distribution towards the various organs, and its resorption is comprehensively described, with an analysis at the subcellular and molecular levels. 401 p., 65 fig., 43 tab., 428 ref

  8. A new method for the determination of plutonium and americium using high pressure microwave digestion and alpha-spectrometry or ICP-SMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium and americium are radionuclides particularly difficult to measure in environmental samples because they are a-emitters and therefore necessitate a careful separation before any measurement, either using radiometric methods or ICP-SMS. Recent developments in extraction chromatography resins such as EichromR TRU and TEVA have resolved many of the analytical problems but drawbacks such as low recovery and spectral interferences still occasionally occur. Here, we report on the use of the new EichromR DGA resin in association with TEVA resin and high pressure microwave acid leaching for the sequential determination of plutonium and americium in environmental samples. The method results in average recoveries of 83 ± 15% for plutonium and 73 ± 22% for americium (n = 60), and a less than 10% deviation from reference values of four IAEA reference materials and three samples from intercomparisons exercises. The method is also suitable for measuring 239Pu in water samples at the μBq/l level, if ICP-SMS is used for the measurement. (author)

  9. An experimental study of americium-241 biokinetics in the Lobster Homarus Gammarus. Analysis of the accumulation/storage and detoxification processes at the subcellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study of americium-241 kinetics has been conducted in the lobster Homarus gammmarus. The investigations were conducted at all the levels from the whole body to the subcellular and molecular levels. The animals were contaminated by a single or chronic ingestion of 241 Am labelled mussels. Assessments of accumulation, elimination and distribution of the radionuclide were established on organisms kept in the laboratory; they made it possible to demonstrate the importance of the digestive gland in the radionuclide transfer pathways. The preliminary results led to structural then ultrastructural investigations of the digestive gland in association with radioautographic studies and cellular extractions methods. Four cellular types were demonstrated, only two of them being implied in the radionuclide retention, the former being responsible for americium intake and the latter for its long-term retention. By means of biochemical techniques, subcellular accumulation was studied and the organelles implied in the nuclide retention were specified. Finally, a method of cellular nuclei dissociation was developed; it made it possible to analyse the molecular nature of americium ligands and to demonstrate the function of the protein nuclear matrix in the nuclide retention

  10. Comparative XRPD and XAS study of the impact of the synthesis process on the electronic and structural environments of uranium–americium mixed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieur, D., E-mail: dam.prieur@gmail.com [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Lebreton, F. [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Martin, P.M. [CEA, DEN, DEC/SESC/LLCC, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Caisso, M. [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Butzbach, R. [Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Radiochemistry, P.O. Box 10119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Somers, J. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Delahaye, T. [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    Uranium–americium mixed oxides are potential compounds to reduce americium inventory in nuclear waste via a partitioning and transmutation strategy. A thorough assessment of the oxygen-to-metal ratio is paramount in such materials as it determines the important underlying electronic structure and phase relations, affecting both thermal conductivity of the material and its interaction with the cladding and coolant. In 2011, various XAS experiments on U{sub 1−x}Am{sub x}O{sub 2±δ} samples prepared by different synthesis methods have reported contradictory results on the charge distribution of U and Am. This work alleviates this discrepancy. The XAS results confirm that, independently of the synthesis process, the reductive sintering of U{sub 1−x}Am{sub x}O{sub 2±δ} leads to the formation of similar fluorite solid solution indicating the presence of Am{sup +III} and U{sup +V} in equimolar proportions. - Graphical abstract: Formation of (U{sup IV/V},Am{sup III})O{sup 2} solid solution by sol–gel and by powder metallurgy. - Highlights: • Uranium–americium mixed oxides were synthesized by sol–gel and powder metallurgy. • Fluorite solid solutions with similar local environment have been obtained. • U{sup V} and Am{sup III} are formed in equimolar proportions.

  11. First measurements of (236)U concentrations and (236)U/(239)Pu isotopic ratios in a Southern Hemisphere soil far from nuclear test or reactor sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srncik, M; Tims, S G; De Cesare, M; Fifield, L K

    2014-06-01

    The variation of the (236)U and (239)Pu concentrations as a function of depth has been studied in a soil profile at a site in the Southern Hemisphere well removed from nuclear weapon test sites. Total inventories of (236)U and (239)Pu as well as the (236)U/(239)Pu isotopic ratio were derived. For this investigation a soil core from an undisturbed forest area in the Herbert River catchment (17°30' - 19°S) which is located in north-eastern Queensland (Australia) was chosen. The chemical separation of U and Pu was carried out with a double column which has the advantage of the extraction of both elements from a relatively large soil sample (∼20 g) within a day. The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry using the 14UD pelletron accelerator at the Australian National University. The highest atom concentrations of both (236)U and (239)Pu were found at a depth of 2-3 cm. The (236)U/(239)Pu isotopic ratio in fallout at this site, as deduced from the ratio of the (236)U and (239)Pu inventories, is 0.085 ± 0.003 which is clearly lower than the Northern Hemisphere value of ∼0.2. The (236)U inventory of (8.4 ± 0.3) × 10(11) at/m(2) was more than an order of magnitude lower than values reported for the Northern Hemisphere. The (239)Pu activity concentrations are in excellent agreement with a previous study and the (239+240)Pu inventory was (13.85 ± 0.29) Bq/m(2). The weighted mean (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratio of 0.142 ± 0.005 is slightly lower than the value for global fallout, but our results are consistent with the average ratio of 0.173 ± 0.027 for the southern equatorial region (0-30°S).

  12. Chronology of Pu isotopes and 236U in an Arctic ice core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, C C; Oughton, D H; Lind, O C; Skipperud, L; Fifield, L K; Isaksson, E; Tims, S G; Salbu, B

    2013-09-01

    In the present work, state of the art isotopic fingerprinting techniques are applied to an Arctic ice core in order to quantify deposition of U and Pu, and to identify possible tropospheric transport of debris from former Soviet Union test sites Semipalatinsk (Central Asia) and Novaya Zemlya (Arctic Ocean). An ice core chronology of (236)U, (239)Pu, and (240)Pu concentrations, and atom ratios, measured by accelerator mass spectrometry in a 28.6m deep ice core from the Austfonna glacier at Nordaustlandet, Svalbard is presented. The ice core chronology corresponds to the period 1949 to 1999. The main sources of Pu and (236)U contamination in the Arctic were the atmospheric nuclear detonations in the period 1945 to 1980, as global fallout, and tropospheric fallout from the former Soviet Union test sites Novaya Zemlya and Semipalatinsk. Activity concentrations of (239+240)Pu ranged from 0.008 to 0.254 mBq cm(-2) and (236)U from 0.0039 to 0.053 μBq cm(-2). Concentrations varied in concordance with (137)Cs concentrations in the same ice core. In contrast to previous published results, the concentrations of Pu and (236)U were found to be higher at depths corresponding to the pre-moratorium period (1949 to 1959) than to the post-moratorium period (1961 and 1962). The (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratio ranged from 0.15 to 0.19, and (236)U/(239)Pu ranged from 0.18 to 1.4. The Pu atom ratios ranged within the limits of global fallout in the most intensive period of nuclear atmospheric testing (1952 to 1962). To the best knowledge of the authors the present work is the first publication on biogeochemical cycles with respect to (236)U concentrations and (236)U/(239)Pu atom ratios in the Arctic and in ice cores.

  13. Use of radioanalytical methods for determination of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activated charcoal is a common type of radioactive waste that contains high concentrations of fission and activation products. The management of this waste includes its characterization aiming the determination and quantification of the specific radionuclides including those known as Difficult-to-Measure Radionuclides (RDM). The analysis of the RDM's generally involves complex radiochemical analysis for purification and separation of the radionuclides, which are expensive and time-consuming. The objective of this work was to define a methodology for sequential analysis of the isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium present in a type of radioactive waste, evaluating chemical yield, analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost. Three methodologies were compared and validated that employ ion exchange (TI + EC), extraction chromatography (EC) and extraction with polymers (ECP). The waste chosen was the activated charcoal from the purification system of primary circuit water cooling the reactor IEA-R1. The charcoal samples were dissolved by acid digestion followed by purification and separation of isotopes with ion exchange resins, extraction and chromatographic extraction polymers. Isotopes were analyzed on an alpha spectrometer, equipped with surface barrier detectors. The chemical yields were satisfactory for the methods TI + EC and EC. ECP method was comparable with those methods only for uranium. Statistical analysis as well the analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost revealed that EC method is the most effective for identifying and quantifying U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm present in charcoal. (author)

  14. Intramolecular sensitization of americium luminescence in solution: shining light on short-lived forbidden 5f transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturzbecher-Hoehne, M; Yang, P; D'Aléo, A; Abergel, R J

    2016-06-14

    The photophysical properties and solution thermodynamics of water soluble trivalent americium (Am(III)) complexes formed with multidentate chromophore-bearing ligands, 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), Enterobactin, and 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO), were investigated. The three chelators were shown to act as antenna chromophores for Am(III), generating sensitized luminescence emission from the metal upon complexation, with very short lifetimes ranging from 33 to 42 ns and low luminescence quantum yields (10(-3) to 10(-2)%), characteristic of Near Infra-Red emitters in similar systems. The specific emission peak of Am(III) assigned to the (5)D1 → (7)F1 f-f transition was exploited to characterize the high proton-independent stability of the complex formed with the most efficient sensitizer 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), with a log β110 = 20.4 ± 0.2 value. In addition, the optical and solution thermodynamic features of these Am(III) complexes, combined with density functional theory calculations, were used to probe the influence of electronic structure on coordination properties across the f-element series and to gain insight into ligand field effects.

  15. Nano-cerium vanadate: a novel inorganic ion exchanger for removal of americium and uranium from simulated aqueous nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Chayan; Dudwadkar, Nilesh; Tripathi, Subhash Chandra; Gandhi, Pritam Maniklal; Grover, Vinita; Kaushik, Chetan Prakash; Tyagi, Avesh Kumar

    2014-09-15

    Cerium vanadate nanopowders were synthesized by a facile low temperature co-precipitation method. The product was characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy and found to consist of ∼25 nm spherical nanoparticles. The efficiency of these nanopowders for uptake of alpha-emitting radionuclides (233)U (4.82 MeV α) and (241)Am (5.49 MeV α, 60 keV γ) has been investigated. Thermodynamically and kinetically favorable uptake of these radionuclides resulted in their complete removal within 3h from aqueous acidic feed solutions. The uptake capacity was observed to increase with increase in pH as the zeta potential value decreased with the increase in pH but effect of ionic strength was insignificant. Little influence of the ions like Sr(2+), Ru(3+), Fe(3+), etc., in the uptake process indicated CeVO4 nanopowders to be amenable for practical applications. The isotherms indicated predominant uptake of the radioactive metal ions in the solid phase of the exchanger at lower feed concentrations and linear Kielland plots with positive slopes indicated favorable exchange of the metal ions with the nanopowder. Performance comparison with the other sorbents reported indicated excellent potential of nano-cerium vanadate for removing americium and uranium from large volumes of aqueous acidic solutions.

  16. Distribution of plutonium, americium, and several rare earth fission product elements between liquid cadmium and LiCl-KCl eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separation factors were measured that describe the partition between molten cadmium and molten LiCl-KCl eutectic of plutonium, americium, praseodymium, neodymium, cerium, lanthanum, gadolinium, dysprosium, and yttrium. The temperature range was 753-788 K, and the range of concentrations was that allowed by the sensitivity of the chemical analysis methods. Mean separation factors were derived for Am-Pu, Nd-Am, Nd-Pu, Nd-Pr, Gd-La, Dy-La, La-Ce, La-Nd, Y-La, and Y-Nd. Where previously published data were available, agreement was good. For convenience, the following series of separation factors relative to plutonium was derived by combining the measured separation factors: Pu, 1.00 (basis); Am, 1.54; Pr, 22.0; Nd, 23.4; Ce, 26; La, 70; Gd, 77; Dy, 270; Y, 3000. These data are used in calculating the distribution of the actinide and rare earth elements in the prochemical reprocessing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of synthetic water-soluble metal-binding polymers with ultrafiltration for selective concentration of americium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine counting methods and ICP-MS are unable to directly measure the new US Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory level for discharge waters containing alpha-emitting radionuclides of 30 pCi/L total alpha or the 0.05 pCi/L regulatory level for Pu or Am activity required for surface waters at the Rocky Flats site by the State of Colorado. This inability indicates the need to develop rapid, reliable, and robust analytical techniques for measuring actinide metal ions, particularly americium and plutonium. Selective separation or preconcentration techniques would aid in this effort. Water-soluble metal-binding polymers in combination with ultrafiltration are shown to be an effective method for selectively removing dilute actinide ions from acidic solutions of high ionic strength. The actinide-binding properties of commercially available water-soluble polymers and several polymers which have been reported in the literature were evaluated. The functional groups incorporated in the polymers were pyrrolidone, amine, oxime, and carboxylic, phosphonic, or sulfonic acid. The polymer containing phosphonic acid groups gave the best results with high distribution coefficients and concentration factors for 241Am(III) and 238Pu(III)/(IV) at pH 4 to 6 and ionic strengths of 0.1 to 4

  18. Characteristics of plutonium and americium contamination at the former U.K. atomic weapons test ranges at Maralinga and Emu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physico-chemical studies on environmental plutonium are described, which provide data integral to an assessment of dose for the inhalation of artificial actinides by Australian Aborigines living a semi-traditional lifestyle at Maralinga and Emu, sites of U.K. atomic weapons tests between 1953 and 1963. The most significant area, from a radiological perspective, is the area contaminated by plutonium in a series of ''one point'' safety trials in which large quantities of plutonium were dispersed explosively at a location known as Taranaki. The activity distribution of plutonium and americium with particle size is quite different from the mass distribution, as a considerably higher proportion of the activity is contained in the finer (inhalable) fraction than of the mass. Except in areas which were disturbed through ploughing during a cleanup in 1967, most the activity remains in the top 1 cm of the surface. Much of the activity is in particulate form, even at distances > 20 km from the firing sites, and discrete particles have been located even at distances beyond 100 km. Data are presented which permit the assessment of annual committed doses through the inhalation pathway, for Aborigines living a semi-traditional lifestyle in the areas affected by the Taranaki firings in particular. (author)

  19. Deposition of 236U from atmospheric nuclear testing in Washington state (USA) and the Pechora region (Russian Arctic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratospheric fallout-derived 236U has been detected by sector field ICPMS at two field locations for which our laboratory possessed available archived samples: A) four soil cores from Washington state (northwestern USA) and B) sediment cores from three small lakes in the Pechora region (Russian Arctic). Four Washington state soil cores exhibit 236U inventories of 8.1 ± 1.3, 11.1 ± 0.9, 18 ± 2, and 30.2 ± 3.9 Tatoms/m2; the respective 239Pu contents are 52.9 ± 3.5, 67 ± 3, 71 ± 2, and 151 ± 2 Tatoms/m2. A 236U/239Pu atom ratio of 0.19 ± 0.04 (1 SD) has been determined from the Washington state soil cores. The three Pechora region lake cores each exhibit coincident maxima in their 236U and 239Pu atom concentration profiles. The 236U/238U atom ratios are controlled by two independent factors; 236U is from fallout deposition and 238U concentrations are a property of the geochemical distribution of naturally occurring U. A 236U/238U atom ratio as high as 8.9 × 10−6 has been observed for acid-leached soils containing Pu solely derived from bomb-test fallout. Accordingly, a non-zero 236U background from stratospheric fallout must be recognized and taken into account when detectable 236U is used to infer specific local or regional influences of reactor-irradiated U. -- Highlights: ► The isotope 236U, originating from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, has been identified at two locations in the Northern Hemisphere. ► Peak 236U concentrations match peak 239Pu concentrations in sediment cores. ► The 236U/239Pu atom ratio is 0.19 ± 0.04

  20. {sup 236}U and {sup 129}I as tracers of water masses in the Arctic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casacuberta, Nuria; Christl, Marcus; Vockenhuber, Christof; Synal, Hans-Arno [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH-Zurich (Switzerland); Walther, Clemens [Institut fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Loeff, Michiel van der [AWI-Geochemistry, Alfred Wegener Institut Fuer Polar und Meeresforshung, Bremerhaven (Germany); Masque, Pere [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    Recently {sup 236}U attested to be a new transient oceanographic tracer: it is conservative in seawater and far from having reached steady state in the oceans. Its main sources in the North Atlantic are global fallout and European reprocessing plants. In this study, concentrations of {sup 236}U and {sup 129}I of eight deep profiles in the Arctic Ocean collected in 2011-2012 were determined with a compact ETH Zurich AMS system (TANDY). Results on {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U show a steep gradient, from the lowest ever-reported {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U atomic ratio in open ocean water (5±5) x 10{sup -12} up to (3700±80) x 10{sup -12}. Whereas the very low ratios are indicative for deep old waters, high ratios in shallow and surface waters show a clear signature of Atlantic Waters (AW) penetrating to the Arctic Ocean. The combination of {sup 236}U with {sup 129}I, both being released by the nuclear reprocessing plants of Sellafield and La Hague, with a distinct temporal input function, is used to estimate transit time of AW distributions in the Arctic Ocean.

  1. Production of {sup 234,235}Np and {sup 236}Pu in bombardment of {sup 236}U with protons in the energy range from 17 to 40 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, J.; Helariutta, K. [Univ. of Helsinki, Lab. of Radiochemistry, Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Gromova, E.A.; Jakovlev, V.A. [V. G. Khlopin Radium Inst., Lab. of Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Trzaska, W.H.; Huikari, J.; Kolhinen, V.S.; Rinta-Antila, S. [Univ. of Jyvaeskylae, Accelerator Lab., Dept. of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    The production of {sup 235}Np and {sup 236}Pu by the reactions {sup 236}U(p, 2n){sup 235}Np and {sup 236}U(p, n{beta}{sup -}){sup 236}Pu using the K-130 cyclotron of the University of Jyvaeskylaewas investigated. The cross sections for the reactions were determined. Thick-target yield curves were derived based on the cross sections. The results are discussed and compared with previous data on other reactions leading to the formation of the same end products. The thick-target yield of {sup 235}Np in the {sup 236}U(p, 2n) reaction is about 50 percent higher than the yield obtained in the {sup 238}U(p, 4n) reaction leading to this nuclide at comparable particle energies. The purity of {sup 236}Pu produced in the {sup 236}U(p, n{beta}{sup -}) reaction is more than ten times better than for earlier known as the purest reaction {sup 237}Np(p, 2n + pn{beta}{sup -}){sup 236}Pu. (orig.)

  2. Chronology of Pu isotopes and {sup 236}U in an Arctic ice core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendel, C.C., E-mail: cato.wendel@umb.no [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Oughton, D.H., E-mail: deborah.oughton@umb.no [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Lind, O.C., E-mail: ole-christian.lind@umb.no [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Skipperud, L., E-mail: lindis.skipperud@umb.no [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Fifield, L.K., E-mail: keith.fifield@anu.edu.au [Department of Nuclear Physics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Isaksson, E., E-mail: elisabeth.isaksson@npolar.no [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, Hjalmar Johansens Gate 14, N9296 Tromsø (Norway); Tims, S.G., E-mail: steve.tims@anu.edu.au [Department of Nuclear Physics, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Salbu, B., E-mail: brit.salbu@umb.no [Isotope Laboratory, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Aas (Norway)

    2013-09-01

    In the present work, state of the art isotopic fingerprinting techniques are applied to an Arctic ice core in order to quantify deposition of U and Pu, and to identify possible tropospheric transport of debris from former Soviet Union test sites Semipalatinsk (Central Asia) and Novaya Zemlya (Arctic Ocean). An ice core chronology of {sup 236}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 240}Pu concentrations, and atom ratios, measured by accelerator mass spectrometry in a 28.6 m deep ice core from the Austfonna glacier at Nordaustlandet, Svalbard is presented. The ice core chronology corresponds to the period 1949 to 1999. The main sources of Pu and {sup 236}U contamination in the Arctic were the atmospheric nuclear detonations in the period 1945 to 1980, as global fallout, and tropospheric fallout from the former Soviet Union test sites Novaya Zemlya and Semipalatinsk. Activity concentrations of {sup 239+240}Pu ranged from 0.008 to 0.254 mBq cm{sup −2} and {sup 236}U from 0.0039 to 0.053 μBq cm{sup −2}. Concentrations varied in concordance with {sup 137}Cs concentrations in the same ice core. In contrast to previous published results, the concentrations of Pu and {sup 236}U were found to be higher at depths corresponding to the pre-moratorium period (1949 to 1959) than to the post-moratorium period (1961 and 1962). The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratio ranged from 0.15 to 0.19, and {sup 236}U/{sup 239}Pu ranged from 0.18 to 1.4. The Pu atom ratios ranged within the limits of global fallout in the most intensive period of nuclear atmospheric testing (1952 to 1962). To the best knowledge of the authors the present work is the first publication on biogeochemical cycles with respect to {sup 236}U concentrations and {sup 236}U/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in the Arctic and in ice cores. - Highlights: • Concentrations and atom ratios of Pu and {sup 236}U determined in an Arctic ice core. • Concentrations of U and Pu found to be higher pre- than post-moratorium. • U and Pu concentrations

  3. The role of natural organic matter in the migration behaviour of americium in the Boom Clay - Part 1: migration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: In demonstrating the suitability of Boom Clay as reference site for studying the disposal of radioactive waste, the role of the relatively high amount of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) present in the Boom Clay on the mobility of critical radionuclides needs to be investigated thoroughly. It is generally accepted that trivalent actinides and lanthanides form strong complexes with humic substances. Complexation of these trivalent radionuclides with NOM present in the Boom Clay may therefore have two opposite effects. If complexed by the aqueous phase NOM (the mobile NOM), the radionuclide transport will be governed by the mobility of these dissolved radionuclide- NOM species. If complexed by the solid phase NOM (the immobile NOM) the migration will be retarded. One of the aims of the EC projects TRANCOM-Clay and TRANCOM-II was to investigate the role of mobile NOM as radionuclide carrier in order to develop a conceptual model for inclusion in a performance assessment (PA) model. The migration behaviour of Americium (used as an analogue for the critical radionuclide Pu) was investigated by complexing 241Am with radiolabelled (14C-labelled) NOM before passing through undisturbed Boom Clay cores contained in columns. The use of two different radionuclides, allows the migration behaviour of both the NOM and the Am to be followed. The results of the migration experiments showed that the Am-NOM complexes dissociated when they came into contact with Boom Clay and that the bulk of Am became immobilised (either as Am complexed to immobile NOM or sorbed to the mineral phase). Only a small percentage of the complex persisted as 'stabilised' Am-OM complex which exhibited slow dissociation kinetics upon moving through the Boom Clay. When the applied radionuclide source also contains Am in the form of an inorganic solid phase (when Am is applied above the solubility limit), a continuous source of Am exists to form 'temporarily stabilised' Am

  4. Experimental study of Americium-241 biokinetics in Homarus Gammarus lobster. Analysis of the accumulation and detoxication mechanisms at the sub-cellular level; Etude experimentale des biocinetiques de l`americium-241 chez le homard homarus gammarus. Analyse des mecanismes d`accumulation et de detoxication au niveau subcellulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquet, F.

    1991-12-01

    The Americium 241 radioelement accumulation and elimination rate and mechanisms in the lobster organism have been experimentally studied; incorporation and detoxification capacities of each organ are evaluated. The existence of various biological compartments is shown; the major role of the digestive gland in accumulation of the radioelement, its distribution towards the various organs, and its resorption is comprehensively described, with an analysis at the subcellular and molecular levels. 401 p., 65 fig., 43 tab., 428 ref.

  5. Nano-cerium vanadate: A novel inorganic ion exchanger for removal of americium and uranium from simulated aqueous nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Chayan; Dudwadkar, Nilesh [Fuel Reprocessing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Tripathi, Subhash Chandra, E-mail: sctri001@gmail.com [Fuel Reprocessing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Gandhi, Pritam Maniklal [Fuel Reprocessing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Grover, Vinita [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kaushik, Chetan Prakash [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Tyagi, Avesh Kumar, E-mail: aktyagi@barc.gov.in [Waste Management Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Template free, low temperature synthesis of CeVO{sub 4} nanopowders. • Thermodynamically and kinetically favourable uptake of Am(III) and U(VI) exhibited. • K{sub d} and ΔG° values for Am(III) and U(VI) uptake in pH 1–6 are reported. • Interdiffusion coefficients and zeta potential values in pH 1–6 are reported. • Possible application in low level aqueous nuclear waste remediation. - Abstract: Cerium vanadate nanopowders were synthesized by a facile low temperature co-precipitation method. The product was characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy and found to consist of ∼25 nm spherical nanoparticles. The efficiency of these nanopowders for uptake of alpha-emitting radionuclides {sup 233}U (4.82 MeV α) and {sup 241}Am (5.49 MeV α, 60 keV γ) has been investigated. Thermodynamically and kinetically favorable uptake of these radionuclides resulted in their complete removal within 3 h from aqueous acidic feed solutions. The uptake capacity was observed to increase with increase in pH as the zeta potential value decreased with the increase in pH but effect of ionic strength was insignificant. Little influence of the ions like Sr{sup 2+}, Ru{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, etc., in the uptake process indicated CeVO{sub 4} nanopowders to be amenable for practical applications. The isotherms indicated predominant uptake of the radioactive metal ions in the solid phase of the exchanger at lower feed concentrations and linear Kielland plots with positive slopes indicated favorable exchange of the metal ions with the nanopowder. Performance comparison with the other sorbents reported indicated excellent potential of nano-cerium vanadate for removing americium and uranium from large volumes of aqueous acidic solutions.

  6. Plutonium, americium and radiocaesium in the marine environment close to the Vandellos I nuclear power plant before decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vandellos nuclear power plant (NPP), releasing low-level radioactive liquid waste to the Mediterranean Sea, is the first to be decommissioned in Spain, after an incident which occurred in 1989. The presence, distribution and uptake of various artificial radionuclides (radiocaesium, plutonium and americium) in the environment close to the plant were studied in seawater, bottom sediments and biota, including Posidonia oceanica, fish, crustaceans and molluscs. Seawater, sediments and Posidonia oceanica showed enhanced levels in the close vicinity of the NPP, although the effect was restricted to its near environment. Maximum concentrations in seawater were 11.6±0.5 Bq m-3 and 16.9±1.2 mBq m-3 for 137Cs and 239,240Pu, respectively. When sediment concentrations were normalized to excess 210Pb, they showed both the short-distance transport of artificial radionuclides from the Vandellos plant and the long-distance transport of 137Cs from the Asco NPP. Posidonia oceanica showed the presence of various gamma-emitters attributed to the impact of the Chernobyl accident, on which the effect of the NPP was superimposed. Seawater, sediment and Posidonia oceanica collected near the plant also showed an enhancement of the plutonium isotopic ratio above the fallout value. The uptake of these radionuclides by marine organisms was detectable but limited. Pelagic fish showed relatively higher 137Cs concentrations and only in the case of demersal fish was the plutonium isotopic ratio increased. The reported levels constitute a set of baseline values against which the impact of the decommissioning operations of the Vandellos I NPP can be studied

  7. Molten salt extraction (MSE) of americium from plutonium metal in CaCl2-KCl-PuCl3 and CaCl2-PuCl3 salt systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten salt extraction (MSE) of americium-241 from reactor-grade plutonium has been developed using plutonium trichloride salt in stationary furnaces. Batch runs with oxidized and oxide-free metal have been conducted at temperature ranges between 750 and 945C, and plutonium trichloride concentrations from one to one hundred mole percent. Salt-to-metal ratios of 0.10, 0.15, and 0 30 were examined. The solvent salt was either eutectic 74 mole percent CaCl2 endash 26 mole percent KCl or pure CaCl2. Evidence of trivalent product americium, and effects of temperature, salt-to-metal ratio, and oxide contamination on the americium extraction efficiency are given. 24 refs, 20 figs, 13 tabs

  8. Transfer across the human gut of environmental plutonium, americium, cobalt, caesium and technetium: studies with cockles (Cerastoderma edule) from the Irish Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G J

    1998-06-01

    Our previous studies have indicated lower values of the gut transfer factor ('f1 values') for plutonium and americium in winkles (Littorina littorea) than adopted by ICRP. The present study was undertaken primarily to investigate whether this observation extends to other species. Samples of cockles (Carastoderma edule) from Ravenglass, Cumbria were eaten by volunteers who provided 24 h samples of urine and faeces. Urine samples indicated f1 values for cockles which were higher than for winkles; for plutonium these ranged overall up to 7 x 10(-4) with an arithmetic mean in the range (2-3) x 10(-4), and for americium up to 2.6 x 10(-4) with an arithmetic mean of 1.2 x 10(-4). Limited data based on volunteers eating cockles from the Solway suggest that f1 values for americium may be greater at distance from Sellafield. The measured values compare with 5 x 10(-4) used by the ICRP for environmental forms of both elements, which would appear to provide adequate protection when calculating doses from Cumbrian cockles. Data for other nuclides were obtained by analysing faecal samples from the volunteers who ate the Ravenglass cockles. Cobalt-60 showed an f1 value in the region of 0.2, twice the value currently used by ICRP. For 137Cs, variabilities were indicated in the range 0.08 to 0.43, within the ICRP value of f1 = 1.0. Technetium-99 gave f1 values up to about 0.6, in reasonable conformity with the ICRP value of 0.5.

  9. Transfer across the human gut of environmental plutonium, americium, cobalt, caesium and technetium: studies with cockles (Cerastoderma edule) from the Irish Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.J. [CEFAS Laboratory, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-01

    Our previous studies have indicated lower values of the gut transfer factor ('f{sub L} values') for plutonium and americium in winkles (Littorina littorea) than adopted by ICRP. The present study was undertaken primarily to investigate whether this observation extends to other species. Samples of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) from Ravenglass, Cumbria were eaten by volunteers who provided 24 samples of urine and faeces. Urine samples indicated f{sub L} values for cockles which were higher than for winkles; for plutonium these ranged overall up to 7x10{sup -4} with an arithmetic mean in the range (2-3)x10{sup -4}, and for americium up to 2.6x10{sup -4} with an arithmetic mean of 1.2x10{sup -4}. Limited data based on volunteers eating cockles from the Solway suggest that f{sub L} values for americium may be greater at distance from Sellafield. The measured values compare with 5x10{sup -4} used by the ICRP for environmental forms of both elements, which would appear to provide adequate protection when calculating doses from Cumbrian cockles. Data for other nuclides were obtained by analysing faecal samples from the volunteers who ate the Ravenglass cockles. Cobalt-60 showed an f{sub L} value in the region of 0.2, twice the value currently used by ICRP. For {sup 137}Cs, variabilities were indicated in the range 0.08 to 0.43, within the ICRP value of f{sub L}=1.0. Technetium-99 gave f{sub L} values up to about 0.6, in reasonable conformity with the ICRP value of 0.5. (author)

  10. Determination by gamma-ray spectrometry of the plutonium and americium content of the Pu/Am separation scraps. Application to molten salts; Determination par spectrometrie gamma de la teneur en plutonium et en americium de produits issus de separation Pu/Am. Application aux bains de sels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godot, A. [CEA Valduc, Dept. de Traitement des Materiaux Nucleaires, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Perot, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Technologie Nucleaire, Service de Modelisation des Transferts et Mesures Nucleaires, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Within the framework of plutonium recycling operations in CEA Valduc (France), americium is extracted from molten plutonium metal into a molten salt during an electrolysis process. The scraps (spent salt, cathode, and crucible) contain extracted americium and a part of plutonium. Nuclear material management requires a very accurate determination of the plutonium content. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is performed on Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) scraps located inside the glove box, in order to assess the plutonium and americium contents. The measurement accuracy is influenced by the device geometry, nuclear instrumentation, screens located between the sample and the detector, counting statistics and matrix attenuation, self-absorption within the spent salt being very important. The purpose of this study is to validate the 'infinite energy extrapolation' method employed to correct for self-attenuation, and to detect any potential bias. We present a numerical study performed with the MCNP computer code to identify the most influential parameters and some suggestions to improve the measurement accuracy. A final uncertainty of approximately 40% is achieved on the plutonium mass. (authors)

  11. An experimental study of americium-241 biokinetics in the Lobster Homarus Gammarus. Analysis of the accumulation/storage and detoxification processes at the subcellular level; Etude experimentale des biocinetiques de l`americium-241 chez le homard homarus gammarus. Analyse des mecanismes d`accumulation et de detoxication au niveau subcellulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquet, F.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental study of americium-241 kinetics has been conducted in the lobster Homarus gammmarus. The investigations were conducted at all the levels from the whole body to the subcellular and molecular levels. The animals were contaminated by a single or chronic ingestion of {sup 241} Am labelled mussels. Assessments of accumulation, elimination and distribution of the radionuclide were established on organisms kept in the laboratory; they made it possible to demonstrate the importance of the digestive gland in the radionuclide transfer pathways. The preliminary results led to structural then ultrastructural investigations of the digestive gland in association with radioautographic studies and cellular extractions methods. Four cellular types were demonstrated, only two of them being implied in the radionuclide retention, the former being responsible for americium intake and the latter for its long-term retention. By means of biochemical techniques, subcellular accumulation was studied and the organelles implied in the nuclide retention were specified. Finally, a method of cellular nuclei dissociation was developed; it made it possible to analyse the molecular nature of americium ligands and to demonstrate the function of the protein nuclear matrix in the nuclide retention.

  12. Dissertation on the computer-based exploitation of a coincidence multi parametric recording. Application to the study of the disintegration scheme of Americium 241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having presented the meaning of disintegration scheme (alpha and gamma emissions, internal conversion, mean lifetime), the author highlights the benefits of the use of multi-parametric chain for the recording of correlated parameters, and of the use of a computer for the analysis of bi-parametric information based on contour lines. Using the example of Americium 241, the author shows how these information are obtained (alpha and gamma spectrometry, time measurement), how they are chosen, coded, analysed and stored, and then processed by contour lines

  13. MISCIBILITY, SOLUBILITY, VISCOSITY, AND DENSITY MEASUREMENTS FOR R-236FA WITH POTENTIAL LUBRICANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of miscibility, solubility, viscosity, and density measurements for refrigerant R-236fa and two potential lubricants . (The data are needed to determine the suitability of refrigerant/lubricant combinations for use in refrigeration systems.) The tested oi...

  14. 49 CFR 236.308 - Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical or electric locking or electric..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.308 Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites. Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits shall be installed to prevent signals...

  15. 49 CFR 236.327 - Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.327 Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail. Switch, movable-point frog, or split-point derail equipped with lock rod shall be maintained...

  16. 8 CFR 236.18 - Termination of Family Unity Program benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of Family Unity Program... REMOVED Family Unity Program § 236.18 Termination of Family Unity Program benefits. (a) Grounds for termination. The Service may terminate benefits under the Family Unity Program whenever the necessity for...

  17. 49 CFR 236.206 - Battery or power supply with respect to relay; location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery or power supply with respect to relay..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.206 Battery or power supply with respect to relay; location. The battery or power supply for each signal control relay circuit, where an...

  18. Capture Cross Section of 236U: the n_TOF Results

    CERN Document Server

    Barbagallo, M; Vermeulen, M J; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Hernández-Prieto, A; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Lampoudis, C; Langer, C; Leal-Cidoncha, E; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Losito, R; Mallick, A; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondalaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Robles, M S; Rubbia, C; Sabaté-Gilarte, M; Sarmento, R; Saxena, A; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarrío, D; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wright, T; Žugec, P

    2014-01-01

    Neutron induced capture cross section on U-236 has been measured with high accuracy and high resolution at n\\_TOF, in order to improve data libraries needed for the development of advanced nuclear reactors. Preliminary results obtained with two different detection systems are reported.

  19. VLBI, MERLIN and HST observations of the giant radio galaxy 3C 236

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilizzi, RT; Tian, WW; Conway, JE; Nan, R; Miley, GK; Barthel, PD; Normandeau, M; Dallacasa, D; Gurvits, LI

    2001-01-01

    We present VLBI and MERLIN data at 1.66 and 4.99 GHz on the central component coincident with the nucleus of the giant radio galaxy, 3C 236. The nuclear radio structure is composed of two complexes of emission which are resolved on scales from 1 milli-arcsec (mas) to 1 arcsec. Oscillations with an a

  20. HEAT TRANSFER EVALUATION OF HFC-236EA AND CFC-114 IN CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a heat transfer evaluation of the refrigerants hexafluoropropane (HFC-236ea) and 1,1,2,2-dichloro-tetrafluoroethane (CFC-114). (NOTE: With the mandatory phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), as dictated by the Montreal Protocol and Clean Air Act Ame...

  1. HEAT TRANSFER EVALUATION OF HFC-236FA IN CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the shell-side heat transfer performance of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236fa, which is considered to be a potential substitute for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-114 in Navy shipboard chillers, for both conventional finned [1024- and 1575-fpm (...

  2. HEAT TRANSFER EVALUATION OF HFC-236EA WITH HIGH PERFORMANCE ENHANCED TUBES IN CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the heat transfer performance of pure hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236ea for high performance enhanced tubes which had not been previously used in Navy shipboard chillers. Shell-side heat transfer coefficient data are presented for condensa...

  3. CMS Control Room during early morning collisions at 2.36 TeV.

    CERN Multimedia

    Richard Breedon (CMS)

    2009-01-01

    CMS recorded around 15000 collisions at 2.36 TeV with the whole detector operational, including the inner silicon systems (strips and pixels). A relatively quiet control room was still witness to excitement during the first online event displays of the collisions.

  4. 49 CFR 236.557 - Receiver; location with respect to rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.557 Receiver... automatic cab signal, train stop, or train control device of locomotive equipped with onboard test...

  5. 49 CFR 236.512 - Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block where restrictive conditions obtain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block... TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.512 Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block where...

  6. 49 CFR 236.335 - Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.335 Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking. Driving pieces, dogs, stops and trunnions shall be rigidly secured to locking bars. Swing...

  7. 48 CFR 52.236-11 - Use and Possession Prior to Completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use and Possession Prior... Clauses 52.236-11 Use and Possession Prior to Completion. As prescribed in 36.511, insert the following clause: Use and Possession Prior to Completion (APR 1984) (a) The Government shall have the right to...

  8. 49 CFR 236.5 - Design of control circuits on closed circuit principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of control circuits on closed circuit..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.5 Design of control circuits on closed circuit principle. All control circuits the functioning of which affects safety of train...

  9. European roe deer antlers as an environmental archive for fallout (236)U and (239)Pu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Steier, P; Wallner, G; Fifield, L K

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic (236)U and (239)Pu were measured in European roe deer antlers hunted between 1955 and 1977 which covers and extends beyond the period of intensive nuclear weapons testing (1954-1962). The antlers were hunting trophies, and hence the hunting area, the year of shooting and the approximate age of each animal is given. Uranium and plutonium are known to deposit in skeletal tissue. Since antler histology is similar to bone, both elements were expected in antlers. Furthermore, roe deer shed their antlers annually, and hence antlers may provide a time-resolved environmental archive for fallout radionuclides. The radiochemical procedure is based on a Pu separation step by anion exchange (Dowex 1 × 8) and a subsequent U purification by extraction chromatography using UTEVA(®). The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the VERA facility (University of Vienna). In addition to the (236)U and (239)Pu concentrations, the (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratios were determined with a mean value of 0.172 ± 0.023 which is in agreement with the ratio of global fallout (∼0.18). Rather high (236)U/(238)U ratios of the order of 10(-6) were observed. These measured ratios, where the (236)U arises only from global fallout, have implications for the use of the (236)U/(238)U ratio as a fingerprint for nuclear accidents or releases from nuclear facilities. Our investigations have shown the potential to use antlers as a temporally resolved archive for the uptake of actinides from the environment. PMID:26119579

  10. European roe deer antlers as an environmental archive for fallout (236)U and (239)Pu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Steier, P; Wallner, G; Fifield, L K

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic (236)U and (239)Pu were measured in European roe deer antlers hunted between 1955 and 1977 which covers and extends beyond the period of intensive nuclear weapons testing (1954-1962). The antlers were hunting trophies, and hence the hunting area, the year of shooting and the approximate age of each animal is given. Uranium and plutonium are known to deposit in skeletal tissue. Since antler histology is similar to bone, both elements were expected in antlers. Furthermore, roe deer shed their antlers annually, and hence antlers may provide a time-resolved environmental archive for fallout radionuclides. The radiochemical procedure is based on a Pu separation step by anion exchange (Dowex 1 × 8) and a subsequent U purification by extraction chromatography using UTEVA(®). The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the VERA facility (University of Vienna). In addition to the (236)U and (239)Pu concentrations, the (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratios were determined with a mean value of 0.172 ± 0.023 which is in agreement with the ratio of global fallout (∼0.18). Rather high (236)U/(238)U ratios of the order of 10(-6) were observed. These measured ratios, where the (236)U arises only from global fallout, have implications for the use of the (236)U/(238)U ratio as a fingerprint for nuclear accidents or releases from nuclear facilities. Our investigations have shown the potential to use antlers as a temporally resolved archive for the uptake of actinides from the environment.

  11. Uranium-236 as a new oceanic tracer: A first depth profile in the Japan Sea and comparison with caesium-137

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaguchi, Aya; Kadokura, Akinobu; Steier, Peter; Takahashi, Yoshio; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Nakakuki, Tomoeki; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2012-01-01

    We present a feasibility study for using 236U as an oceanic circulation tracer based on depth profiles of 236U and 137Cs in the Japan/East Sea. The concentration of the predominantly anthropogenic 236U, measured with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), decreased from (13±3)×106 atom/kg in surface water to (1.6±0.3)×106 atom/kg close to the sea floor (2800 m). The profile has a smooth trend with depth and concentration values are generally proportional to that of 137Cs for the same water samp...

  12. C-2-Aryl O-substituted HI-236 derivatives as non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse-transcriptase inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Roger; Younis, Yassir; Muhanji, Clare I; Curtin, Tanith-lea; Naidoo, Kevin J.; Petersen, Melissa; Bailey, Christopher M.; Basavapathruni, Aravind; Anderson, Karen S.

    2008-01-01

    Several novel thiourea derivatives of the NNRTI HI-236 substituted at the C-2 oxygen of the phenyl ring have been synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against HIV-1 (IIIB) replication in MT-2 cell cultures. The compounds were synthesized in order to fine-tune the activity of HI-236 as well as to gain insight into spatial characteristics in the pocket pertaining to the positional choice of tether in the design of [NRTI]-tether-[HI-236] bifunctional inhibitors. Two of the thi...

  13. Inhaled americium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project includes experiments to determine the effects of Zn-DTPA therapy on the retention, translocation and biological effects of inhaled 241AmO2. Beagle dogs that received inhalation exposure to 241AmO2 developed leukopenia, clincial chemistry changes associated with hepatocellular damage, and were euthanized due to respiratory insufficiency caused by radiation pneumonitis 120 to 131 days after pulmonary deposition of 22 to 65 μCi 241Am. Another group of dogs that received inhalation exposure to 241AmO2 and were treated daily with Zn-DTPA had initial pulmonary deposition of 19 to 26 μCi 241Am. These dogs did not develop respiratory insufficiency, and hematologic and clinical chemistry changes were less severe than in the non-DTPA-treated dogs

  14. 49 CFR 236.565 - Provision made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.565 Provision made...

  15. Depth profile of 236U/238U in soil samples in La Palma, Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Srncik, M.; P. Steier; Wallner, G.

    2011-01-01

    The vertical distribution of the 236U/238U isotopic ratio was investigated in soil samples from three different locations on La Palma (one of the seven Canary Islands, Spain). Additionally the 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratio, as it is a well establish tool for the source identification, was determined. The radiochemical procedure consisted of a U separation step by extraction chromatography using UTEVA® Resin (Eichrom Technologies, Inc.). Afterwards Pu was separated from Th and Np by anion exchange ...

  16. The SOFIA experiment: Measurement of 236U fission fragment yields in inverse kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grente L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The SOFIA (Studies On FIssion with Aladin experiment aims at measuring fission-fragments isotopic yields with high accuracy using inverse kinematics at relativistic energies. This experimental technique allows to fully identify the fission fragments in nuclear charge and mass number, thus providing very accurate isotopic yields for low energy fission of a large variety of fissioning systems. This report focuses on the latest results obtained with this set-up concerning electromagnetic-induced fission of 236U.

  17. Recovery of Americium-241 from lightning rod by the method of chemical treatment; Recuperacion del Americio-241 provenientes de los pararrayos por el metodo de tratamiento quimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, W.H., E-mail: wcruz@ipen.gob.pe [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (GRRA/IPEN), Lima (Peru). Division de Gestion de Residuos Radiactivos

    2013-07-01

    About 95% of the lightning rods installed in the Peruvian territory have set in their structures, pose small amounts of radioactive sources such as Americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), fewer and Radium 226 ({sup 226}Ra) these are alpha emitters and have a half life of 432 years and 1600 years respectively. In this paper describes the recovery of radioactive sources of {sup 241}Am radioactive lightning rods using the conventional chemical treatment method using agents and acids to break down the slides. The {sup 241}Am recovered was as excitation source and alpha particle generator for analysing samples by X Ray Fluorescence, for fixing the stainless steel {sup 241}Am technique was used electrodeposition. (author)

  18. Partitioning studies in China and the separation of americium and fission product rare earths with dialkyl phosphinic acid and its thio-substituted derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the TRPO extractions process for recovering actinides from highly active waste (HAW) and its application to the pretreatment of Chinese HAW are described. The removal of Sr by di-cyclohexyl 18 crown 6 and the removal of Cs by spherical titanium ferrous hexa-cyanate from acidic waste are also described. Results of the extraction of trivalent americium and fission product rare earths (FPREs) by dialkyl-phosphinic, dialkyl-mono-thio-phosphinic and dialkyl-di-thio-phosphinic acids are reported. Dialkyl-thio-phosphinic acid (commercial product Cyanex 301, alkyl =2, 4, 4-methyl-pentyl) shows very high selectivity towards Am. Using 1M Cyanex 301 -kerosene as extractant, 99.9 % Am can be separated from 0.5M(Pr+Nd)(NO3)3 solution with 3-4 extraction stages and 3-4 scrubbing stages. (authors)

  19. Theoretical and experimental study of the bio-geochemical behaviour of americium 241 in simplified rhizosphere conditions. Application to a calcareous agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Americium 241, is one of the most radio-toxic contaminant produced during the nuclear fuel cycle. It can be found in all environmental compartments, in particular the soils. The main goals of this study are to identify, quantify and model the effect of the main factors controlling the mobility of 241Am in the rhizosphere and the agricultural soils. The physico-chemical parameters of the soil and of the soil solution, the potential role of microorganisms on the sorption-desorption processes, and the speciation of americium in solution have been more particularly studied. 241Am remobilization has been studied at the laboratory using leaching experiments performed in controlled conditions on reworked calcareous soils artificially contaminated with 241Am. The soil samples have been washed out in different hydrodynamic conditions by solutions with various compositions. The eluted solution has been analyzed (pH, conductivity, ionic composition, Fetot, organic acids, 241Am) and its bacterial biomass content too. The overall results indicate that 241Am remobilization is contrasted and strongly linked with the condition under study (pH, ionic strength, glucose and/or citrate concentration). Therefore, a solution in equilibrium with the soil or containing small exudate concentrations (10-4 M) re-mobilizes only a very small part of the americium fixed on the solid phase. The desorption of 241Am corresponds to a solid/liquid coefficient of partition (Kd) of about 105 L.kg-1. A significant addition of glucose induces an important dissolution of soil carbonates by the indirect action of microorganisms, but does not significantly favor the 241Am remobilization. On the other hand, the presence of strong citrate concentrations (≥ 10-2 M) allows 300 to 10000 time greater re-mobilizations by the complexing of 241Am released after the dissolution of the carrying phases. Finally, the colloidal transport of 241Am has been systematically observed in a limited but significant extend and

  20. Safe handling of kilogram amounts of fuel-grade plutonium and of gram amounts of plutonium-238, americium-241 and curium-244

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past 10 years about 600 glove-boxes have been installed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements at Karlsruhe. About 80% of these glove-boxes have been designed and equipped for handling 100-g to 1-kg amounts of 239Pu containing 8-12% 240Pu (low-exposure plutonium). A small proportion of the glove-boxes is equipped with additional shielding in the form of lead sheet or lead glass for work with recycled plutonium. In these glove-boxes gram-amounts of 241Am have also been handled for preparation of Al-Am targets using tongs and additional shielding inside the glove-boxes themselves. Water- and lead-shielded glove-boxes equipped with telemanipulators have been installed for routine work with gram-amounts of 241Am, 243Am and 244Cm. A prediction of the expected radiation dose for the personnel is difficult and only valid for a preparation procedure with well-defined preparation steps, owing to the fact that gamma dose-rates depend strongly upon proximity and source seize. Gamma radiation dose measurements during non-routine work for 241Am target preparation showed that handling of gram amounts leads to a rather high irradiation dose for the personnel, despite lead or steel glove-box shielding and shielding within the glove-boxes. A direct glove-hand to americium contact must be avoided. For all glove-handling of materials with gamma radiation an irradiation control of the forearms of the personnel by, for example, thermoluminescence dosimeters is necessary. Routine handling of americium and curium should be executed with master-slave equipment behind neutron and gamma shielding. (author)

  1. 小儿热性惊厥236例临床分析%Clinical Analysis of 236 Cases With Febrile Convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛慧敏; 卢宪梅; 李文

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨小儿热性惊厥(febrile convulsion,FC)的临床特点,为该病的防治提供依据.方法 回顾性分析2006年1月至2008年2月山东省济南市第三人民医院收治的236例小儿热性惊厥患儿的临床资料.结果 本组236例热性惊厥患儿经治疗后,未再次出现惊厥症状,其中86例惊厥难以完全控制患儿,给予地西泮+苯巴比妥钠联合治疗,疗效满意.患儿平均住院时间为5 d.出院后随访1年,复发为45例,其中复发1次为32例,2次以上为13例,共6例(2.5%)确诊为癫痫.结论 小儿热性惊厥的发作与高热密切相关,感染性疾病为主要基础疾病.对该病进行积极的综合治疗,预后一般较好.对于极少数有发展为癫痫的高危热性惊厥患儿,可采取适当干预措施,但不能随意对其长期预防性使用抗癫痫药物.

  2. Anthropogenic 236U at Rocky Flats, Ashtabula river harbor, and Mersey estuary: three case studies by sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    236U (t1/2=2.3x107 y) is formed as a result of thermal neutron capture by 235U. In naturally occurring U ores, where a high neutron flux is present from spontaneous fission of 238U, 236U/238U atom ratios are ∼10-4 ppm. In the natural Earth's crust, unaffected by nuclear fallout, these ratios are expected to be on the order of 10-8 ppm. Reactor-irradiated U, however, exhibits high 236U/238U atom ratios approaching 104 ppm. As a result, the presence of very small quantities of reactor-irradiated U will significantly enhance the 'background' 236U/238U atom ratio. When sufficiently elevated 236U/238U ratios are present, the determination of 236U/238U by rapid inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICPMS) methods is attractive. We have used sector ICPMS at medium resolving power (R=3440) to measure 236U/238U atom ratios with a determination limit of 0.2 ppm. The limiting factors in the measurement are the 235U1H+ isobar and background signal at m/z 236 arising from the 238U+ peak tail. Based upon the analysis of replicates and considerations of possible systematic errors, uncertainties of ±5% are found for 236U/238U atom ratios of 1-100 ppm. This procedure has been demonstrated in studies of anthropogenic 236U in the environment at three locations: (a) offsite soils from the vicinity of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology site (Golden, Colorado, USA); (b) sediments from the Ashtabula River (Ohio, USA); and (c) sediments from the Mersey estuary (Liverpool, UK). In each of these three locations, definite plumes of elevated 236U/238U are identified and characterized. Maximum 236U/238U atom ratios observed in RFETS-vicinity soils, the Ashtabula River, and the Mersey Estuary are 2.8, 140, and 4.4 ppm, respectively

  3. Detection of UH3+ and ThH3+ molecules and 236U background studies with low-energy AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of the TANDY AMS facility (0.6 MV) at ETH Zurich has been significantly improved for actinides with the installation of an additional 130° magnet on the high-energy side. The background originating from neighboring masses is reduced by three orders of magnitude in the new setup, leading to an abundance sensitivity of 10−10. This now allows 236U/238U measurements down to the 10−12 level. Systematic studies of the possible background for 236U3+ at the compact TANDY system show that actinide–hydride molecules in charge state 3+ do exist. (232Th1H)3+, (235U1H)3+ and (238U1H)3+ can cause a severe background at masses 233, 236, and 239, respectively. The existence of the (232Th1H)3+ molecule was verified unambiguously by analyzing its breakup. The actinide–hydride molecules can be destroyed efficiently using higher stripper pressures. At an ion energy of 1.2 MeV an overall efficiency of more than 10−4 can be achieved using a gas ionization detector. The high efficiency in combination with the low background opens the spectrum of possible applications to both anthropogenic (236U/238U = 10−7 to 10−9) and natural samples (236U/238U −10).

  4. AMS measurements of global fallout U-236 and Pu in an ombrotrophic peat profile: evidence for their post depositional migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U-236, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241 and Pu-242 were analysed in an ombrotrophic peat core representing the last 80 years of atmospheric deposition. The determination of these isotopes at femtogram and attogram levels was possible by using ultra-clean laboratory procedures and accelerator mass spectrometry. Since the Pu isotopic composition characteristic for global fallout, as well as anthropogenic U-236, were identified in peat samples pre-dating the period of atmospheric atom bomb testing, migration of Pu and U within the peat profile is clearly indicated. The vertical profile of the U-236/U-238 isotopic ratio represents the first observation of the U-236 bomb peak in a terrestrial environment. Comparing the abundances of the global fallout derived U-236 and Pu-239 along the peat core, the post depositional migration of plutonium exceeds that of uranium. These results highlight, for the first time, the mobility of Pu and U in a peat bog with implications for their migration in other acidic, organic rich environments.

  5. Measurement of {sup 236}U on the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo, E. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía), Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); Christl, M. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto Stern Weg 5, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Fifield, L.K. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present the first comprehensive analysis of the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA, Seville, Spain) for {sup 236}U studies in environmental samples. In the last years, this radionuclide has become key in the AMS community, due to the very demanding {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U abundance sensitivities required for general applications. As we demonstrate, the AMS system at the CNA is able to achieve sensitivity for the {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U ratio of about 3 × 10{sup −11} despite its compact design. The use of “{sup 239}Pu”/{sup 238}U ratio as a proxy for “{sup 236}U”/{sup 235}U background correction is proposed and tested with natural samples that were also studied on the 600 kV Tandy AMS system at the ETH Zürich. This correction is significant in the CNA case, due to the low mass resolving power of the low-energy spectrometer and to the lack of a third filter on the high-energy side. With the measurement of reference solutions supplied by the Institute for Reference Materials and Methods (IRMM-075), and reference natural matrixes provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA-Soil-6, IAEA-375; 384; 386 and IAEA-RGU), we show that the 1 MV AMS system at the CNA can be routinely used for determinations of anthropogenic {sup 236}U at environmental levels.

  6. Fueling the central engine of radio galaxies. II. The footprints of AGN feedback on the ISM of 3C 236

    CERN Document Server

    Labiano, A; Combes, F; Usero, A; Soria-Ruiz, R; Tremblay, G; Neri, R; Fuente, A; Morganti, R; Oosterloo, T

    2012-01-01

    Aims: We study the emission of molecular gas in 3C236, a FR II radio source at z~0.1, and search for the footprints of AGN feedback. 3C236 shows signs of a reactivation of its AGN triggered by a recent minor merger episode. Observations have also previously identified an extreme HI outflow in this source. Methods: The IRAM PdBI has been used to study the distribution and kinematics of molecular gas in 3C236 by imaging with high spatial resolution the emission of the 12CO(2-1) line in the nucleus of the galaxy. We have searched for outflow signatures in the CO map. We have also derived the SFR in 3C236 using data available from the literature at UV, optical and IR wavelengths, to determine the star-formation efficiency of molecular gas. Results: The CO emission in 3C236 comes from a spatially resolved 2.6 kpc disk with a regular rotating pattern. Within the limits imposed by the sensitivity and velocity coverage of the CO data, we do not detect any outflow signatures in the cold molecular gas. The disk has a c...

  7. AMS measurements of global fallout U-236 and Pu in an ombrotrophic peat profile: evidence for their post depositional migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinto, Francesca; Hrnecek, Erich; Krachler, Michael [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Shotyk, William [Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, 839 General Services Building, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Steier, Peter; Winkler, Stephan; Golser, Robin [VERA Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    U-236, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241 and Pu-242 were analysed in an ombrotrophic peat core representing the last 80 years of atmospheric deposition. The determination of these isotopes at femtogram and attogram levels was possible by using ultra-clean laboratory procedures and accelerator mass spectrometry. Since the Pu isotopic composition characteristic for global fallout, as well as anthropogenic U-236, were identified in peat samples pre-dating the period of atmospheric atom bomb testing, migration of Pu and U within the peat profile is clearly indicated. The vertical profile of the U-236/U-238 isotopic ratio represents the first observation of the U-236 bomb peak in a terrestrial environment. Comparing the abundances of the global fallout derived U-236 and Pu-239 along the peat core, the post depositional migration of plutonium exceeds that of uranium. These results highlight, for the first time, the mobility of Pu and U in a peat bog with implications for their migration in other acidic, organic rich environments.

  8. Actinide Oxidation State and O/M Ratio in Hypostoichiometric Uranium-Plutonium-Americium U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x Mixed Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Lebreton, Florent; Aufore, Laurence; Scheinost, Andreas C; Martin, Philippe M

    2016-03-01

    Innovative americium-bearing uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x are envisioned as nuclear fuel for sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors (SFRs). The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio, directly related to the oxidation state of cations, affects many of the fuel properties. Thus, a thorough knowledge of its variation with the sintering conditions is essential. The aim of this work is to follow the oxidation state of uranium, plutonium, and americium, and so the O/M ratio, in U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x samples sintered for 4 h at 2023 K in various Ar + 5% H2 + z vpm H2O (z = ∼15, ∼90, and ∼200) gas mixtures. The O/M ratios were determined by gravimetry, XAS, and XRD and evidenced a partial oxidation of the samples at room temperature. Finally, by comparing XANES and EXAFS results to that of a previous study, we demonstrate that the presence of uranium does not influence the interactions between americium and plutonium and that the differences in the O/M ratio between the investigated conditions is controlled by the reduction of plutonium. We also discuss the role of the homogeneity of cation distribution, as determined by EPMA, on the mechanisms involved in the reduction process. PMID:26907589

  9. AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE 236U DETECTION LIMIT IN THE SURFACE AIR USING RADIOCHEMICAL SEPARATION AND ALPHA-SPECTROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Gedeonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to nuclear weapon testing, nuclear reactor accidents, uranium mining and nuclear fuel reprocessing, additional uranium has been introduced into the environment. 236U isotope is produced from 235U by capture of a thermal neutron and it can be used as an indicator for artificial uranium in the environment. In this paper the sensitive method for236U determination in the surface air is described. This method includes a total dissolution of the air dust in a mixture of mineral acids, uranium concentration and purification by anion-exchange chromatography. Long time measurements of the separated uranium fraction are made with the use of alpha-spectrometer based on PIPS-detector. The lower limit of detection for 236U in the surface air is determined as 5 • 10-9 Bq/m3 (2 ng/m3.

  10. Sequential Injection Method for Rapid and Simultaneous Determination of 236U, 237Np, and Pu Isotopes in Seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Steier, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    An automated analytical method implemented in a novel dual-column tandem sequential injection (SI) system was developed for simultaneous determination of 236U, 237Np, 239Pu, and 240Pu in seawater samples. A combination of TEVA and UTEVA extraction chromatography was exploited to separate and purify...... target analytes, whereupon plutonium and neptunium were simultaneously isolated and purified on TEVA, while uranium was collected on UTEVA. The separation behavior of U, Np, and Pu on TEVA–UTEVA columns was investigated in detail in order to achieve high chemical yields and complete purification...... for the radionuclides of interest. 242Pu was used as a chemical yield tracer for both plutonium and neptunium. 238U was quantified in the sample before the separation for deducing the 236U concentration from the measured 236U/238U atomic ratio in the separated uranium target using accelerator mass spectrometry...

  11. Evaluation of the US Army DT-236 battlefield personnel dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance characteristics of the US Army DT-236 battlefield personnel dosimetry system were evaluated using the Health Physics Research Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The DT-236 dosimeter is designed to measure total (neutron plus gamma) radiation dose using a radiophotoluminescent (RPL) detector for gamma rays and a silicon diode for fast neutrons. Areas considered in this evaluation included preirradiation dose indication; accuracy and precision of total, gamma, and neutron dose measurements; fading; angular response; temperature dependence; and relative dosimeter response in air and on various body locations. Experimental results for a variety of radiation fields and dose levels indicate that the existing system overestimates total, neutron, and gamma radiation doses in air by about 20 to 60% relative to reference values. Associated measurement precisions were about +-5% of the means for doses above approximately 0.5 Gy. Fading characteristics, angular dependence, and temperature dependence of the RPL and diode systems were consistent with results expected based on detector characteristics and previous performance studies. Recommendations to improve existing reader performance and measurement accuracy are also presented

  12. In-beam spectroscopy of the Kπ = 0- bands in 230-236U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kπ = 0- bands in even uranium nuclei were studied in the compound reactions 231Pa(p,2n)230U, 230,232Th(α,2n)232,234U and 236U(d,pn)236U. In-beam γ-rays were measured in coincidence with conversion-electrons, which were detected with an iron-free orange spectrometer. The negative-parity levels are observed up to intermediate spins (I-). In addition, the 1- and 3- levels in 230U were confirmed by a decay study with an isotope separated 230Pa source. For the heavier isotopes (A > or approx. 232) the properties of the Kπ = 0- bands (energies and γ-branchings) are consistent with a vibrational character of these bands. For 230U the Kπ = 0- band lies at rather low energy (E(1-) = 367 keV), and the level spacings within this band are very similar to those of the isotones 228Th and 226Ra, which might indicate the onset of a stable octupole deformation. (orig.)

  13. Method for 236U Determination in Seawater Using Flow Injection Extraction Chromatography and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Steier, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    an effective iron hydroxide coprecipitation. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was applied for quantifying the 236U/238U ratio,and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) was used to determine the absolute concentration of 238U; thus, the concentration of 236U can be calculated. The key......, on the basis of studying the coprecipitation behavior of uranium with iron hydroxide. The analytical results indicate that the developed method is simple and robust, providing satisfactory chemical yields (80−100%) and high analysis speed (4 h/sample), which could be an appealing alternative to conventional...

  14. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr body-burden in general public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.pl [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Edward B. [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Department of Physical Therapy Basics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Administration College, Bielsko-Biala (Poland); Tomankiewicz, Ewa [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Joanna [Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Nowak, Sebastian [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Szczygiel, Elzbieta [Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Brudecki, Kamil [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of {sup 238}Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. - Highlights: > Surgery for joint replacement as novel sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination. > Proposed way of sampling is not causing ethic doubts. > It is a convenient way of collecting human bone samples from global population. > The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. > The opposite patient age correlations trends were found for 90Sr (negative) and Pu, Am (positive).

  15. The recycling of the actinides neptunium, americium and curium in a fast power reactor to reduce the long term activity in a final store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The starting point for the considerations and calculations given in this dissertation is the inevitable production of radioactive materials in the use of nuclear energy, which creates a considerable potential danger in a final store for a very long period. As one possibility of alleviating this problem, a concept for recycling the waste actinides neptunium, americium and curium was proposed. The waste actinides are separated in the reprocessing of burnt-up fuel elements and reach a further irradiation circuit. There they pass through the stages 'manufacture of irradiation elements', 'use in a fast power reactor' and reprocessing of irradiation elements' several times. In each irradiation and subsequent storage, about 17% of the waste actinides are removed by fission or by conversion into nuclides which can be reused as fuel, so that during the life of 40 years of the fast recycling reacor, the waste actinides can be reduced in mass by one half. In order to determine this mass reduction effect, a model calculation was developed, which includes the representation of the neutron physics and thermal properties of the reactor core and the storage and reprocessing of the irradiation elements. (orig./RB)

  16. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and 90Sr body-burden in general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as 90Sr, 239+240Pu, 238Pu, 241Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of 238Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and 90Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. - Highlights: → Surgery for joint replacement as novel sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination. → Proposed way of sampling is not causing ethic doubts. → It is a convenient way of collecting human bone samples from global population. → The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. → The opposite patient age correlations trends were found for 90Sr (negative) and Pu, Am (positive).

  17. The estimation of reactions of hematopoietic systems of organisms to the effect, caused by americium and plutonium, of nuclear industry workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasteva, G. N.; Ivanova, T. A.; Gordeeva, A. A.; Suvorova, L. A.; Molokanov, A. A.; Badine, I.

    2004-07-01

    Object of research are the workers having in an organism radioactive substance (Am-241 and Pu-239). The purpose of work was the estimation of reaction hemopoietic systems of an organism on influence of americium and plutonium at workers of the nuclear industry. At the surveyed contingent of persons the determined effects caused by total influence Am-241 and Pu-239 are ascertained; chronic radiation disease with development, besides diffusive a pneumoscleoris and a chronic toxic-chemical radiating bronchitis, reactions of system of blood, jet hepatopathy which frequency accrued with increase doses loadings and essentially did not depend on age. In peripheral blood on the foreground jet changes act: hyperglobulia, the tendency to neutrophilus leukocytosis, monocytosis, increase ESR, decrease (reduction ?/G of factor reflecting weight and processing of defeat bronchus and pulmonary of system. Stable downstroke in number thrombocytes and reticulocytes in peripheral blood, their direct dependence on a doze of an irradiation, reflect hypoplastic a background hemogenesis, caused by long influence incorporatedin a bone and a bone brain of radioactive substances. At cytologic research punctate a bone brain jet changes which are expressed in increase of functional activity erythro-and myelopoiesiscome to light and provide compensatory reaction of peripheral blood. At histologic research of a bone brain and a bone fabric attributes of development atrophic process which is expressed in reduction of volume parenchyma a bone brain (a fatty atrophy) and dysplasia to a bone fabric are observed.

  18. 以R236fa为制冷剂的太阳能喷射制冷系统研究%STUDY OF SOLAR EJECTOR COOLING SYSTEM USING R236fa AS REFRIGERANT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张博; 左计学; 钟福春; 吕金升

    2012-01-01

    With analysis on the solar ejector cooling system and comparison with the common refrigerants, a new refrigerant of R236fa to the solar ejector cooling system was suggested. The operation of the ejector cooling system was simulated with a mathematical model. In order to verify the theoretical simulation, an experimental study of the system using refrigerant R236fa, R141b and R123 was carried out with the evaporator temperature (5-10℃) , condenser temperature (30-36℃) and generator temperature (82-94℃). It was found that the optimum COP ( =0.413) of the ejector cooling system, the optimum COPsc ( =0.243) and cooling capacity ( =11.90kW) of the overall solar ejector cooling system could be obtained in the system using refrigerant R236fa.%对太阳能喷射制冷系统进行理论分析,并通过与常用工质的比较,提出以R236fa作为太阳能喷射制冷系统的制冷剂.建立计算模型,模拟以R236fa作为制冷剂太阳能喷射制冷系统的运行性能.结合理论分析,蒸发温度在5 ~ 10℃,冷凝温度在30~36℃,发生温度在82 ~ 94℃之间变化时,分别对以R236fa、R141b和R123为制冷剂的太阳能喷射制冷系统进行实验研究.结果表明,典型空调工况条件下,R236fa作为制冷剂的喷射制冷系统COP为0.413;太阳能喷射制冷系统的性能系数COPsc可达0.243,系统的制冷量为11.90kW.

  19. 49 CFR 236.566 - Locomotive of each train operating in train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive of each train operating in train stop... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.566 Locomotive of each train operating...

  20. The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelaer, Jens

    2010-06-14

    The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium: Nuclear masses are an important quantity to study nuclear structure since they reflect the sum of all nucleonic interactions. Many experimental possibilities exist to precisely measure masses, out of which the Penning trap is the tool to reach the highest precision. Moreover, absolute mass measurements can be performed using carbon, the atomic-mass standard, as a reference. The new double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has been installed and commissioned within this thesis work, which is the very first experimental setup of this kind located at a nuclear reactor. New technical developments have been carried out such as a reliable non-resonant laser ablation ion source for the production of carbon cluster ions and are still continued, like a non-destructive ion detection technique for single-ion measurements. Neutron-rich fission products will be available by the reactor that are important for nuclear astrophysics, especially the r-process. Prior to the on-line coupling to the reactor, TRIGA-TRAP already performed off-line mass measurements on stable and long-lived isotopes and will continue this program. The main focus within this thesis was on certain rare-earth nuclides in the well-established region of deformation around N {proportional_to} 90. Another field of interest are mass measurements on actinoids to test mass models and to provide direct links to the mass standard. Within this thesis, the mass of {sup 241}Am could be measured directly for the first time. (orig.)

  1. 6,6 '-bis (5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetra-hydro-benzo 1,2,4 triazine-3-yl) 2,2 ' bipyridine, an effective extracting agent for the separation of americium(III) and curium(III) from the lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of americium(III), curium(III), and the lanthanides(III) from nitric acid by 6,6'- bis (5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetra-hydro-benzo[1,2,4]triazine-3-yl)-[2,2'] bipyridine (CyMe4-BTBP) has been studied. Since the extraction kinetics were slow, N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-di-octyl-2-(2-hexyl-oxy-ethyl)malonamide (DMDOHEMA) was added as a phase transfer reagent. With a mixture of 0.01 M CyMe4-BTBP + 0.25 M DMDOHEMA in n -octanol, extraction equilibrium was reached within 5 min of mixing. At a nitric acid concentration of 1 M, an americium(III) distribution ratio of approx. 10 was achieved. Americium(III)/lanthanide(III) separation factors between 50 (dysprosium) and 1500 (lanthanum) were obtained. Whereas americium(III) and curium(III) were extracted as di-solvates, the stoichiometries of the lanthanide(III) complexes were not identified unambiguously, owing to the presence of DMDOHEMA. In the absence of DMDOHEMA, both americium(III) and europium(III) were extracted as di-solvates. Back-extraction with 0.1 M nitric acid was thermodynamically possible but rather slow. Using a buffered glycolate solution of pH=4, an americium(III) distribution ratio of 0.01 was obtained within 5 min of mixing. There was no evidence of degradation of the extractant, for example, the extraction performance of CyMe4-BTBP during hydrolysis with 1 M nitric acid did not change over a two month contact. (authors)

  2. Investigation of the {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U isotope abundance ratio in uranium ores and yellow cake samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srncik, M. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany). Institute for Transuranium Elements; Mayer, K.; Hrnecek, E.; Wallenius, M.; Varga, Z. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany). Institute for Transuranium Elements; Steier, P. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). VERA Lab.; Wallner, G. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    Uranium ores and yellow cake samples of known geographic origin were investigated for their n({sup 236}U)/n({sup 238}U) isotope abundance ratio. Samples from four different uranium mines in Australia, Brazil and Canada were selected. Uranium was separated by UTEVA {sup registered} Resin and was measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA). The measurement of the isotope abundance ratio n({sup 236}U)/n({sup 238}U) will be used to investigate possible correlations between the original mineral (uranium ore) and the intermediate product (yellow cake). Such correlations are useful indicators for nuclear forensic or for non-proliferation purposes. (orig.)

  3. Fission Fragment Angular Distributions in the $^{234}$U(n,f) and $^{236}$U(n,f) reactions

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the fission fragment angular distribution (FFAD) of the $^{234}$U(n,f) and $^{236}$U (n,f) reactions with the PPAC detection setup used in previous n_TOF-14 experiment. This experiment would take advantage of the high resolution of the n_TOF facility to investigate the FFAD behaviour in the pronounced vibrational resonances that have been observed between 0.1 and 2 MeV for the thorium cycle isotopes. In addition, the angular distribution of these isotopes will be measured for the first time beyond 14 MeV. Furthermore, the experiment will also provide the fission cross section with reduced statistical uncertainty, extending the $^{236}$U(n,f) data up to 1 GeV

  4. Efficacy and safety of the HAA regimen as induction chemotherapy in 236 de novo acute myeloid leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶佩佩

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the HAA regimen (homoharringtonine,cytarabine and aclarubicin) as induction chemotherapy in de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) .Methods The efficacy and safety of 236 de novo AML patients who received the HAA regimen as induction chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed.The complete remission (CR) rate was assayed.Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall survival (OS) and relapse free survival (RFS) ,and the differ-

  5. He stripping for AMS of 236U and other actinides using a 3 MV tandem accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stephan R.; Steier, Peter; Buchriegler, Josef; Lachner, Johannes; Pitters, Johanna; Priller, Alfred; Golser, Robin

    2015-10-01

    Interest in the long-lived radioisotope 236U (t1/2 = 23.4 million years) has significantly increased recently, due to the emergence of environmental and earth science applications. Presently, only a few (AMS) accelerator mass spectrometry instruments are suited for this measurement. One major limitation is the relatively low total detection efficiency (on the order of 10-4), which is partly caused by a low stripping yield of the positive ion charge state selected after the tandem accelerator. It has been shown that high yield can be achieved using helium as stripper gas for uranium ion energies below 0.35 MeV. Here we investigate the potential of He stripping of U at the 3-MV tandem accelerator VERA. Phenomenological charge state distributions for U and Th are presented for terminal voltages from 1.0 to 1.7 MV. These terminal voltages provide better background rejection than possible below 1 MeV, and are suited to the widely used 1-3 MV workhorses of many accelerator mass spectrometry laboratories. The methods can be applied to other actinides also.

  6. (236)U and (239,)(240)Pu ratios from soils around an Australian nuclear weapons test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, S G; Froehlich, M B; Fifield, L K; Wallner, A; De Cesare, M

    2016-01-01

    The isotopes (236)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu are present in surface soils as a result of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests carried out in the 1950's and 1960's. These isotopes potentially constitute artificial tracers of recent soil erosion and sediment movement. Only Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has the requisite sensitivity to measure all three isotopes at these environmental levels. Coupled with its relatively high throughput capabilities, this makes it feasible to conduct studies of erosion across the geographical extent of the Australian continent. In the Australian context, however, global fallout is not the only source of these isotopes. As part of its weapons development program the United Kingdom carried out a series of atmospheric and surface nuclear weapons tests at Maralinga, South Australia in 1956 and 1957. The tests have made a significant contribution to the Pu isotopic abundances present in the region around Maralinga and out to distances ∼1000 km, and impact on the assessment techniques used in the soil and sediment tracer studies. Quantification of the relative fallout contribution derived from detonations at Maralinga is complicated owing to significant contamination around the test site from numerous nuclear weapons safety trials that were also carried out around the site. We show that (236)U can provide new information on the component of the fallout that is derived from the local nuclear weapons tests, and highlight the potential of (236)U as a new fallout tracer.

  7. (236)U and (239,)(240)Pu ratios from soils around an Australian nuclear weapons test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, S G; Froehlich, M B; Fifield, L K; Wallner, A; De Cesare, M

    2016-01-01

    The isotopes (236)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu are present in surface soils as a result of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests carried out in the 1950's and 1960's. These isotopes potentially constitute artificial tracers of recent soil erosion and sediment movement. Only Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has the requisite sensitivity to measure all three isotopes at these environmental levels. Coupled with its relatively high throughput capabilities, this makes it feasible to conduct studies of erosion across the geographical extent of the Australian continent. In the Australian context, however, global fallout is not the only source of these isotopes. As part of its weapons development program the United Kingdom carried out a series of atmospheric and surface nuclear weapons tests at Maralinga, South Australia in 1956 and 1957. The tests have made a significant contribution to the Pu isotopic abundances present in the region around Maralinga and out to distances ∼1000 km, and impact on the assessment techniques used in the soil and sediment tracer studies. Quantification of the relative fallout contribution derived from detonations at Maralinga is complicated owing to significant contamination around the test site from numerous nuclear weapons safety trials that were also carried out around the site. We show that (236)U can provide new information on the component of the fallout that is derived from the local nuclear weapons tests, and highlight the potential of (236)U as a new fallout tracer. PMID:26141189

  8. Impact of the cation distribution homogeneity on the americium oxidation state in the U0.54Pu0.45Am0.01O2-x mixed oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauchy, Romain; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Martin, Philippe M.; Belin, Renaud C.; Aufore, Laurence; Scheinost, Andreas C.; Hodaj, Fiqiri

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the cation distribution homogeneity of the U0.54Pu0.45Am0.01O2-x mixed oxide on the americium oxidation state was studied by coupling X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe micro analysis (EPMA) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Oxygen-hypostoichiometric Am-bearing uranium-plutonium mixed oxide pellets were fabricated by two different co-milling based processes in order to obtain different cation distribution homogeneities. The americium was generated from β- decay of 241Pu. The XRD analysis of the obtained compounds did not reveal any structural difference between the samples. EPMA, however, revealed a high homogeneity in the cation distribution for one sample, and substantial heterogeneity of the U-Pu (so Am) distribution for the other. The difference in cation distribution was linked to a difference in Am chemistry as investigated by XAS, with Am being present at mixed +III/+IV oxidation state in the heterogeneous compound, whereas only Am(IV) was observed in the homogeneous compound. Previously reported discrepancies on Am oxidation states can hence be explained by cation distribution homogeneity effects.

  9. Fabrication of targets for transmutation of americium : synthesis of inertial matrix by sol-gel method. Procedure study on the infiltration of a radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    addition a new and unexpected phase formed by the reaction of americium with spinel during the high temperature synthesis process has been identified. This new phase could provide a unique menas to stabilise Am in one particular oxidation state. (Author)

  10. Sorption and diffusion of cobalt, nickel, strontium, iodine, cesium and americium in natural fissure surfaces and drill core cups studied by autoradiography, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the studies on sorption and diffusion of Cs, Sr, Co, Ni, Am and I in common rocks in Finnish bedrock carried out in laboratory experiments. Samples used in these studies were sections of drill cores containing filled and unfilled natural fracture surfaces and drill cores with a diamond drilled longitudinal cavity in the middle of the sample (drill core cups). Samples originated from the two nuclear power plant sites in Finland: tonalite and mica gneiss from Olkiluoto in Eurajoki and rapakivi granite from Haestholmen in Loviisa. The water used in the experiments was synthetic groundwater spiked at a time with one of the radionuclides: Cs-134, Sr-90, Co-60, Ni-63, Am-241 and I-125. Contact times from one week to one year were used to evaluate time dependence of diffusion. An autoradiographic method was used for determination of the penetration depths and diffusion pathways of elements. For determination of diffusion coefficients a quantitative computerized autoradiographic method was used to get the concentration profiles of the radionuclides in the drill cores. Sorption on natural fracture surfaces was more effective than on freshly drilled core samples. Filling materials on natural fracture surfaces, except calcite, increased sorption. The distribution coefficients for drill core cups were about the same as those for unfilled natural fracture surfaces after a contact time of one week and the sorption tendency of radionuclides was: Ka(Cs) > Ka(Co) > Ka(Am) > Ka(Ni) > Ka(Sr) > Ka(I). Radionuclides were observed to penetrate into fissures of the rock matrix and high-capacity minerals. Strontium was found as far as 35 mm in a filled natural fracture surface sample of rapakivi granite after a contact time of one year. The corresponding values were 3.0 mm for cesium, 2.1 mm for cobalt and 2.6 mm for nickel. For americium no diffusion could be observed (a-values for strontium was 6.6 x 10-16-1.1 x 10-13 m2/s, for cesium 4.7 x 10-16-7.2 x 10-15 m2/s

  11. Separation by sequential chromatography of americium, plutonium and neptunium elements: application to the study of trans-uranian elements migration in a European lacustrine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear tests carried out in the atmosphere in the Sixties, the accidents and in particular that to the power station of Chernobyl in 1986, were at the origin of the dispersion of a significant quantity of transuranic elements and fission products. The study of a lake system, such that of the Blelham Tarn in Great Britain, presented in this memory, can bring interesting answers to the problems of management of the environment. The determination of the radionuclides in sediment cores made it possible not only to establish the history of the depositions and consequently the origin of the radionuclides, but also to evaluate the various transfers which took place according to the parameters of the site and the properties of the elements. The studied transuranic elements are plutonium 238, 239-240, americium 241 and neptunium 237. Alpha emitting radionuclides, their determination requires complex radiochemical separations. A method was worked out to successively separate the three radioelements by using a same chromatographic column. Cesium 137 is the studied fission product, its determination is done by direct Gamma spectrometry. Lead 210, natural radionuclide, whose atmospheric flow can be supposed constant. makes it possible to obtain a chronology of the various events. The detailed vertical study of sediment cores showed that the accumulation mode of the studied elements is the same one and that the methods of dating converge. The cesium, more mobile than transuranic elements in the atmosphere, was detected in the 1963 and 1986 fallout whereas an activity out of transuranic elements appears only for the 1963 fallout. The activity of the 1963 cesium fallout is of the same order of magnitude as that of 1986. The calculation of the diffusion coefficients of the elements in the sediments shows an increased migration of cesium compared to transuranic elements. An inventory on the whole of the lake made it possible to note that the atmospheric fallout constitute the

  12. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  13. Depth distributions of uranium-236 and cesium-137 in the Japan/East Sea; toward the potential use as a new oceanic circulation tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, A.; Kadokura, A.; Steier, P.; Takahashi, Y.; Shizuma, K.; Yamamoto, M.

    2012-04-01

    137Cs (T1/2=30.2 y) has been spread all over the world as a fission product of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the 1960s. This nuclide has been used as a powerful tool for oceanography due to the well-defined origin and conservative behaviour in water . However, the number of atoms has decayed already to one thirds compared with its initial levels, and it will become more difficult to measure. In this situation, we focus on 236U (T1/2=2.342-107 y) as a candidate for a new isotopic tracer for oceanography. The detection of 236U in the environment has become possible only recently, by the development of measuring techniques with high sensitivity based on AMS. Our group showed that global fallout from bomb tests contains 236U, which might be produced as nuclear reactions of 235U(n,γ) and/or 238U(n,3n). So 236U has been therefore globally distributed in the surface environment. Thus, 236U has a similar potential as a tracer for environmental dynamics as 137Cs, especially for oceanography. In this study, a comprehensive attempt was made to measure the concentration of 236U in marine samples such as water, suspended solid and bottom sediments to clarify the environmental behaviour of this isotope. Furthermore, the discussion of the circulation of deep and bottom water in "Miniature Ocean", the Japan Sea, has been attempted. Bottom sediments (4 sites) and seawater samples (7 sites) were collected from the Japan Sea. The sediment core was cut into 1 cm segments from the surface to 5 cm in depth within a few hours after the sampling. About 20 L of seawater samples were collected from some depths in each site, and immediately after the sampling, the water was filtered with 0.45 μm pore-size membrane-filters. After the appropriate pre-treatment for each sample, uranium isotope and 137Cs were measured with AMS and Ge-detector, respectively. 236U was successfully detected for all seawater samples, and 236U/238U atom ratios in seawater were in the range of (0

  14. Neutron Capture Cross Sections and Gamma Emission Spectra from Neutron Capture on 234,236,238U Measured with DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, J. L.; Mosby, S.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A. J.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Kawano, T.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wu, C.-Y.; Becker, J. A.; Chyzh, A.; Baramsai, B.; Mitchell, G. E.; Krticka, M.

    2014-05-01

    A new measurement of the 238U(n, γ) cross section using a thin 48 mg/cm2 target was made using the DANCE detector at LANSCE over the energy range from 10 eV to 500 keV. The results confirm earlier measurements. Measurements of the gamma-ray emission spectra were also made for 238U(n, γ) as well as 234,236U(n, γ). These measurements help to constrain the radiative strength function used in the cross-section calculations.

  15. Gamma Emission Spectra from Neutron Resonances in 234,236,238U Measured Using the Dance Detector at Lansce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, J. L.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A. J.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Kawano, T.; Keksis, A. L.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wouters, J. M.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.; Chyzh, A.; Baramsai, B.; Mitchell, G. E.; Krticka, M.

    2013-03-01

    An accurate knowledge of the radiative strength function and level density is needed to calculate of neutron-capture cross sections. An additional constraint on these quantities is provided by measurements of γ-ray emission spectra following capture. We present γ-emission spectra from several neutron resonances in 234,236,238U, measured using the DANCE detector at LANSCE. The measurements are compared to preliminary calculations of the cascade. It is observed that the generalized Lorentzian form of the E1 strength function cannot reproduce the shape of the emission spectra, but a better description is made by adding low-lying M1 Lorentzian strength.

  16. The c.-237_236GA>TT THAP1 Sequence Variant Does Not Increase Risk for Primary Dystonia

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Jianfeng; Zhao, Yu; Robert W. Bastian; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Racette, Brad A.; Tabbal, Samer D.; Karimi, Morvarid; Paniello, Randal C.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Uitti, Ryan J; Van Gerpen, Jay A; Simon, David K; Tarsy, Daniel; Hedera, Peter; Truong, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    Sequence variants in coding and non-coding regions of THAP1 have been associated with primary dystonia. In this study, 1446 Caucasian subjects with mainly adult-onset primary dystonia and 1520 controls were genotyped for a variant located in the 5’-untranslated region of THAP1 (c.-237_236GA>TT). Minor allele frequencies were 62/2892 (2.14%) and 55/3040 (1.81%) in subjects with dystonia and controls, respectively (P = 0.202). Subgroup analyses by gender and anatomical distribution also failed ...

  17. EURADOS action for determination of americium in skull measures in vivo and Monte Carlo simulation; Accion EURADOS para la determinacion de americio en craneo mediante medidas in-vivo y simulacion Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Ponte, M. A.; Navarro Amaro, J. F.; Perez Lopez, B.; Navarro Bravo, T.; Nogueira, P.; Vrba, T.

    2013-07-01

    From the Group of WG7 internal dosimetry of the EURADOS Organization (European Radiation Dosimetry group, e.V.) which It coordinates CIEMAT, international action for the vivo measurement of americium has been conducted in three mannequins type skull with detectors of Germanium by gamma spectrometry and simulation by Monte Carlo methods. Such action has been raised as two separate exercises, with the participation of institutions in Europe, America and Asia. Other actions similar precede this vivo intercomparison of measurement and modeling Monte Carlo1. The preliminary results and associated findings are presented in this work. The laboratory of the body radioactivity (CRC) of service counter of dosimetry staff internal (DPI) of the CIEMAT, it has been one of the participants in vivo measures exercise. On the other hand part, the Group of numerical dosimetry of CIEMAT is participant of the Monte Carlo2 simulation exercise. (Author)

  18. Critical and shielding parametric studies with the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI to identify the key points to take into account during the transportation of blanket assemblies with high ratio of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of French research program on Generation IV sodium cooled fast reactor, one possible option consists in burning minor actinides in this kind of Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor. Two types of transmutation mode are studied in the world : the homogeneous mode of transmutation where actinides are scattered with very low enrichment ratio in fissile assemblies and the heterogeneous mode where fissile core is surrounded by blanket assemblies filled with minor actinides with ratio of incorporated actinides up to 20%. Depending on which element is considered to be burnt and on its content, these minor actinides contents imply constraints on assemblies' transportation between Nuclear Power Plants and fuel cycle facilities. In this study, we present some academic studies in order to identify some key constraints linked to the residual power and neutron/gamma load of such kind of blanket assemblies. To simplify the approach, we considered a modeling of a 'model cask' dedicated to the transportation of a unique irradiated blanket assembly loaded with 20% of Americium and basically inspired from an existent cask designed initially for the damaged fissile Superphenix assembly transport. Thermal calculations performed with EDF-SYRTHES code have shown that due to thermal limitations on cladding temperature, the decay time to be considered before transportation is 20 years. This study is based on explicit 3D representations of the cask and the contained blanket assembly with the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI/JEFF3.1.1 library and concludes that after such a decay time, the transportation of a unique Americium radial blanket is feasible only if the design of our model cask is modified in order to comply with the dose limitation criterion. (author)

  19. Deep-UV 236.5 nm laser by fourth-harmonic generation of a single-crystal fiber Nd:YAG oscillator

    OpenAIRE

    Deyra, Loïc; Martial, Igor; Didierjean, Julien; Balembois, François; Georges, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    International audience We demonstrate a deep-UV laser at 236.5 nm based on extracavity fourth-harmonic generation of a Q-switched Nd: YAG single-crystal fiber laser at 946 nm. We first compare two nonlinear crystals available for second-harmonic generation: LBO and BiBO. The best results at 473 nm are obtained with a BiBO crystal, with an average output power of 3.4 W at 20 kHz, corresponding to a second-harmonic generation efficiency of 38%. This blue laser is frequency-converted to 236.5...

  20. Observation of the Therapeutic Effect of Perindopril on 236 Cases of Acute Myocardial Infarction%培哚普利治疗急性心肌梗塞236例的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄震华; 朱雅琴; 朱文敏; 许左隽; 顾燕

    2002-01-01

    目的:观察培哚普利治疗急性心肌梗塞的疗效.方法:治疗组患者入院后给予口服培哚普利4mg,qd,连用4wk.结果:治疗组236例患者中33例死亡,占1398%;未用培哚普利的对照组160例患者中55例死亡,占3438%(X2=22.94,P<0.01);培哚普利尚有改善左室射血分数、小轴缩短率,减少左室内径的作用.结论:培哚普利对治疗急性心肌梗塞有利.

  1. Clinical analysis of gynecopathia among female college students:report of 236 cases%女大学生妇科疾病236例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭虹

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨女大学生这一特殊群体生殖健康状态,为高校构建全面、系统的性与生殖健康服务体系及制定保健干预措施提供理论依据.方法:整理近3年来诊治的236例女大学生妇科疾病的临床资料,并进行统计学分析.结果:女大学生妇科疾病的发病率最高为月经失调(39.8%),其次为痛经(20.3%),妇科炎症为17.79%占第3位,闭经发病率最低.结论:月经失调、痛经、妇科炎症、闭经是困扰女大学生的主要妇科疾病,加强生殖健康知识教育,有助于提高女大学生生理健康.%Objective:To investigate the state of reproductive health in frmale college students, and to provide the theory evidence about building a sexual and reproductive health service system and health care interventions. Methods : Retrospective analysis the clinic data of female college students (n= 236) in recent three years. Results: The incidence rate of menstruation disorder was 39. 8%, dysmenorrheal was 20. 3%,gynecological inflammation was 17. 79% and amenorrhea was rare in the study. Conclusion: The common gynecologic disease in female college students were menstruation disorder, dysmenorrheal, gynecological inflammation and amenorrhea. The education about reproductive knowledge was helpful in promote reproductive health in college students.

  2. First 2.36 TeV Collision Events recorded by the ATLAS experiment, December 8th and 14th, 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    On Tuesday evening, December 8th, 2009, the LHC achieved for the first time 2.36 TeV collisions and ATLAS recorded their first events at this record energy. More events at this energy were taken on December 14th in the early morning.

  3. Effects of flooding stress in 'Micro-Tom' tomato plants transformed with different levels of mitochondrial sHSP23.6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüther, C M; Martinazzo, E G; Rombaldi, C V; Bacarin, M A

    2016-07-11

    Soil flooding is an environmental stressor for crops that can affect physiological performance and reduce crop yields. Abiotic stressors cause changes in protein synthesis, modifying the levels of a series of proteins, especially the heat shock proteins (HSP), and these proteins can help protect the plants against abiotic stress. The objective of this study was to verify if tomato plants cv. Micro-Tom from different genotypes with varying expression levels of MT-sHSP23.6 (mitochondrial small heat shock proteins) have different responses physiological to flooding. Plants from three genotypes (untransformed, MT-sHSP23.6 sense expression levels and MT-sHSP23.6 antisense expression levels) were cultivated under controlled conditions. After 50 days, the plants were flooded for 14 days. After this period half of the plants from each genotype were allowed to recover. Chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange, chlorophyll index, leaf area and dry matter were evaluated. Flood stress affected the photosynthetic electron transport chain, which is related to inactivation of the oxygen-evolving complex, loss of connectivity among units in photosystem II, oxidation-reduction of the plastoquinone pool and activity of photosystem I. The genotype with MT-sHSP23.6 sense expression levels was less sensitive to stress from flooding. PMID:27409224

  4. Detection of UH{sup 3+} and ThH{sup 3+} molecules and {sup 236}U background studies with low-energy AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachner, Johannes, E-mail: lachner@phys.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Christl, Marcus; Vockenhuber, Christof; Synal, Hans-Arno [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-01-15

    The performance of the TANDY AMS facility (0.6 MV) at ETH Zurich has been significantly improved for actinides with the installation of an additional 130 Degree-Sign magnet on the high-energy side. The background originating from neighboring masses is reduced by three orders of magnitude in the new setup, leading to an abundance sensitivity of 10{sup -10}. This now allows {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U measurements down to the 10{sup -12} level. Systematic studies of the possible background for {sup 236}U{sup 3+} at the compact TANDY system show that actinide-hydride molecules in charge state 3+ do exist. ({sup 232}Th{sup 1}H){sup 3+}, ({sup 235}U{sup 1}H){sup 3+} and ({sup 238}U{sup 1}H){sup 3+} can cause a severe background at masses 233, 236, and 239, respectively. The existence of the ({sup 232}Th{sup 1}H){sup 3+} molecule was verified unambiguously by analyzing its breakup. The actinide-hydride molecules can be destroyed efficiently using higher stripper pressures. At an ion energy of 1.2 MeV an overall efficiency of more than 10{sup -4} can be achieved using a gas ionization detector. The high efficiency in combination with the low background opens the spectrum of possible applications to both anthropogenic ({sup 236}U/{sup 238}U = 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -9}) and natural samples ({sup 236}U/{sup 238}U < 10{sup -10}).

  5. 特克斯河流域近236a降水变化及其趋势预测%Variation and Prediction Trend of Precipitation Series for the Tekes River Basin during the Last 236 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峰; 袁玉江; 魏文寿; 喻树龙; 范子昂; 张瑞波; 张同文; 尚华明

    2010-01-01

    根据2006年采自特克斯河流域6个采样点的树轮样本研制的树轮宽度年表与气象资料,通过相关普查发现,特克斯河流域树轮标准化年表与上年7月至当年6月的降水存在显著的正相关,最高单相关系数为0.727.用库尔克尔也灭,小白代的树轮宽度标准化年表序列,可较好地重建该地区最近236 a的降水序列,方差解释量达54%,并通过交叉检验表明重建结果是稳定可靠的.近236 a,特克斯河流域上年7月至当年6月降水经历了8个偏湿阶段和8个偏干阶段,同时重建降水序列具有10.3 a、7.5 a、6.0 a、3.0 a、2.1 a的变化准周期,并在1790年,1911年,1929年,1974年发生过降水突变.采用毛毛虫-奇异谱分析法(Caterpillar-ssa)对该地区未来20 a的降水的自然变化进行预测.结果表明,21世纪的最初几年降水量将延续20世纪90年代以来增加的趋势,之后出现下降,并在2013~2016年前后最低值出现.

  6. Use of radioactive methods for determination of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in waste radioactive; Utilizacao de metodos radioanaliticos para determinacao de isotopos de uranio, netunio, plutonio, americio e curio em rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Bianca

    2012-07-01

    Activated charcoal is a common type of radioactive waste that contains high concentrations of fission and activation products. The management of this waste includes its characterization aiming the determination and quantification of the specific radionuclides including those known as Difficult-to-Measure Radionuclides (RDM). The analysis of the RDM's generally involves complex radiochemical analysis for purification and separation of the radionuclides, which are expensive and time-consuming. The objective of this work was to define a methodology for sequential analysis of the isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium present in a type of radioactive waste, evaluating chemical yield, analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost. Three methodologies were compared and validated that employ ion exchange (TI+EC), extraction chromatography (EC) and extraction with polymers (ECP). The waste chosen was the activated charcoal from the purification system of primary circuit water cooling the reactor IEA-R1. The charcoal samples were dissolved by acid digestion followed by purification and separation of isotopes with ion exchange resins, extraction and chromatographic extraction polymers. Isotopes were analyzed on an alpha spectrometer, equipped with surface barrier detectors. The chemical yields were satisfactory for the methods TI+EC and EC. ECP method was comparable with those methods only for uranium. Statistical analysis as well the analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost revealed that EC method is the most effective for identifying and quantifying U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm present in charcoal. (author)

  7. Determination of 236U and transuranium elements in depleted uranium ammunition by α-spectrometry and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that ammunition containing depleted uranium (DU) was used by NATO during the Balkan conflict. To evaluate the origin of DU (the enrichment of natural uranium or the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel) it is necessary to directly detect the presence of activation products (236U, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Am, and 237Np) in the ammunition. In this work the analysis of actinides by α-spectrometry was compared with that by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after selective separation of ultratraces of transuranium elements from the uranium matrix. 242Pu and 243Am were added to calculate the chemical yield. Plutonium was separated from uranium by extraction chromatography, using tri-n-octylamine (TNOA), with a decontamination factor higher than 106; after elution plutonium was determined by ICP-MS (239Pu and 240Pu) and α-spectrometry (239+240Pu) after electroplating. The concentration of Pu in two DU penetrator samples was 7 x 10-12 g g-1 and 2 x 10-11 g g-1. The 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio in one penetrator sample (0.12±0.04) was significantly lower than the 240Pu/239Pu ratios found in two soil samples from Kosovo (0.35±0.10 and 0.27±0.07). 241Am was separated by extraction chromatography, using di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP), with a decontamination factor as high as 107. The concentration of 241Am in the penetrator samples was 2.7 x 10-14 g g-1 and -15 g g-1. In addition 237Np was detected at ultratrace levels. In general, ICP-MS and α-spectrometry results were in good agreement.The presence of anthropogenic radionuclides (236U, 239Pu,240Pu, 241Am, and 237Np) in the penetrators indicates that at least part of the uranium originated from the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. Because the concentrations of radionuclides are very low, their radiotoxicological effect is negligible. (orig.)

  8. Biological, chemical and other data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN236 in the South Pacific Ocean from 2009-06-12 to 2009-07-08 (NODC Accession 0104353)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0104353 includes biological, chemical, optical, physical and underway data collected aboard the THOMAS G. THOMPSON during cruise TN236 in the South...

  9. Gamma-Ray Emission Spectra as a Constraint on Calculations of 234 , 236 , 238U Neutron-Capture Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, J. L.; Krticka, M.; Kawano, T.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Chyzh, A.

    2015-10-01

    Calculations of the neutron-capture cross section at low neutron energies (10 eV through 100's of keV) are very sensitive to the nuclear level density and radiative strength function. These quantities are often poorly known, especially for radioactive targets, and actual measurements of the capture cross section are usually required. An additional constraint on the calculation of the capture cross section is provided by measurements of the cascade gamma spectrum following neutron capture. Recent measurements of 234 , 236 , 238U(n, γ) emission spectra made using the DANCE 4 π BaF2 array at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will be presented. Calculations of gamma-ray spectra made using the DICEBOX code and of the capture cross section made using the CoH3 code will also be presented. These techniques may be also useful for calculations of more unstable nuclides. This work was performed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396) and Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (Contract DE-AC52-07NA2734).

  10. Deducing the 236Pu(n,f) and 237Pu(n,f) cross sections via the surrogate ratio method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R. O.; Beausang, C. W.; Ross, T. J.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; McCleskey, M.; Cooper, N.; Escher, J. E.; Gell, K. B.; Good, E.; Humby, P.; Saastimoinen, A.; Tarlow, T. D.

    2013-10-01

    The short half-lives associated with certain minor actinide nuclei that are relevant to stockpile stewardship pursuits and the development of next-generation nuclear reactors make direct neutron measurements very challenging. In certain cases, a stable beam and target ``surrogate reaction'' can be used in lieu of the neutron-induced reaction, and the (n,f) cross section can then be deduced indirectly. Agreement between surrogate and direct measurements for (n,f) cross sections in actinide nuclei is usually within 10%. The present work reports on the measurement of the 236Pu(n,f) and 237Pu(n,f) cross sections via 239Pu(p,tf) and 239Pu(p,df) surrogate reactions, respectively. The experiment was performed at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Facility using a 28.5 MeV proton beam to bombard 239Pu and 235U targets. Outgoing light ions were detected in coincidence with fission fragments using the STAR-LiTe detector array. Results of the analysis will be presented. This work was supported by DoE Grant Numbers: DE-FG52-09NA29454 and DE-FG02-05ER41379 (Richmond), DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL) and DE-FG52-09NA29467 (TAMU).

  11. Numerical methods to analyze alpha spectra and application to the study of neptunium 237 and neptunium 236

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of numerical methods to analize alpha spectra measured with semiconductor detectors are presented. The methods can be divided in two groups, the first being based in the X2 minimization ands the second in the use of the Fourier Transform. The methods based in the minimization of X2 can, in turn, be divided according to the model used to fit the spectra. Some of them use a monoenergetic line for the intercomparison with the other peaks in the same spectrum. The others take into account the analytical function developed to represent an alpha line. Both allow the determination of positions and areas of the components, as well as the uncertainties of the results. The Fast Fourier Transform is applied to the second group of methods, which include the smoothing of experimental data, and the deconvolution of spectra. Examples are given of the application of these methods to real spectra. The alpha spectra of 237Np and 236Np are studied by using some of the methods described in this work. (Author)

  12. Molecular Hydrogen in the Damped Lyman-alpha System towards GRB 120815A at z=2.36

    CERN Document Server

    Krühler, T; Fynbo, J P U; Vreeswijk, P M; Schmidl, S; Malesani, D; Christensen, L; De Cia, A; Hjorth, J; Jakobsson, P; Kann, D A; Kaper, L; Vergani, S D; Afonso, P M J; Covino, S; Postigo, A de Ugarte; D'Elia, V; Filgas, R; Goldoni, P; Greiner, J; Hartoog, O E; Milvang-Jensen, B; Nardini, M; Piranomonte, S; Rossi, A; Sánchez-Ramírez, R; Schady, P; Schulze, S; Sudilovsky, V; Tanvir, N R; Tagliaferri, G; Watson, D J; Wiersema, K; Wijers, R A M J; Xu, D

    2013-01-01

    [Abridged] Molecular hydrogen H_2 is a key requirement for star-formation, frequently observed along sightlines in the Galaxy and to the Magellanic Clouds, but notoriously hard to detect directly beyond z ~ 0. In the DLAs associated with long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which are tightly linked to vigorous star-formation, H_2 has remained largely elusive, and has been unequivocally detected only towards GRB 080607 and possibly towards GRB 060206. Here, we present the discovery of H_2-rich gas, including the presence of vibrationally-excited H_2^* in the optical spectrum of the afterglow of GRB 120815A at z=2.36 obtained with X-shooter at the VLT. The galactic environment of GRB 120815A is characterized by a strong DLA with log(N(H)/cm^-2) = 21.95 +/- 0.10, prominent H_2 absorption in the Lyman-Werner bands (log(N(H_2)/cm^-2) = 20.53 +/- 0.04) and thus a molecular gas fraction log f(H_2)=-1.14 +/- 0.10. The distance d between the absorbing neutral gas and GRB 120815A is constrained via photo-excitation modeling o...

  13. Detection of RtN236T Mutation Associated with Adefovir Dipivoxil Resistance in Hepatitis B Infected Patients with YMDD Mutations in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hamid Reza Monavari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Objectives: The risk of adefovir dipivoxil resistance emergence has increased in lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B infected patients. The mutations known as causing adefovir resistance, rtN236T and rtA181V/T, are detected within the D and B functional domain of the HBV polymerase, respectively. In this study, we intended to determine the pre-existing adefovir-resistance mutations in patients infected with LAM resistant mutants prior to starting adefovir therapy.Material and Methods: The study included 30 patients with chronic hepatitis B with lamivudine resistance mutations in the YMDD motif that experienced viral breakthrough.Results: After alignment of protein coding sequences, the rtN236T mutation was observed in two (6.6 % patients, while twenty-eight others had neither rtN236T, nor rtA181V/T mutation. All 30 patients were infected with genotype D of hepatitis B virus.Conclusions: The early detection of LAM-resistance mutations may allow a timely chance of therapy to avoid hepatitis flare-up. This data suggests that monitoring of ADV-resistance mutations in ADV naive patients can be considered in selecting the appropriate anti-viral regimen.

  14. Transverse momentum and pseudorapidity distributions of charged hadrons in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9 and 2.36 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kasieczka, Gregor; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; De Wolf, Eddi A.; Hashemi, Majid; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Adler, Volker; Beauceron, Stephanie; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Joris; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Villella, Ilaria; Chabert, Eric Christian; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Elgammal, Sherif; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Marinov, Andrey; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; Cortina Gil, Eduardo; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Demin, Pavel; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Jingying; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Herquet, Philippe; Alves, Gilvan; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Oguri, Vitor; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Ferreira Dias, Marco Andre; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Novaes, Sergio F.; Padula, Sandra; Damgov, Jordan; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Hu, Zhen; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhu, Bo; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Fereos, Reginos; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Papadakis, Antonakis; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A.; Tsiakkouri, Demetra; Zinonos, Zinonas; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Kannike, Kristjan; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Eerola, Paula; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Klem, Jukka; Kortelainen, Matti J.; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Descamps, Julien; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Rousseau, Delphine; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Paganini, Pascal; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Besson, Auguste; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Ripp-Baudot, Isabelle; Speck, Joaquim; Van Hove, Pierre; Baty, Clement; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Roinishvili, Vladimir; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Actis, Oxana; Bender, Walter; Biallass, Philipp; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Hof, Carsten; Kirsch, Matthias; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sowa, Michael; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Zeidler, Clemens; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrens, Ulf; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Olzem, Jan; Parenti, Andrea; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Stein, Matthias; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Wissing, Christoph; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Autermann, Christian; Draeger, Jula; Eckstein, Doris; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Klanner, Robert; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Sander, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Wolf, Roger; Bauer, Julia; Blüm, Peter; Buege, Volker; Cakir, Altan; Chwalek, Thorsten; Daeuwel, Daniel; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Frey, Martin; Gruschke, Jasmin; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Piparo, Danilo; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Renz, Manuel; Sabellek, Andreas; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Zeise, Manuel; Zhukov, Valery; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Karafasoulis, Konstantinos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Petrakou, Eleni; Zachariadou, Aikaterini; Agapitos, Antonis; Gouskos, Loukas; Katsas, Panagiotis; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saganis, Konstantinos; Xaxiris, Evangelos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Triantis, Frixos A.; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Debreczeni, Gergely; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Krajczar, Krisztian; Laszlo, Andras; Sikler, Ferenc; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Kapusi, Anita; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Sharma, Richa; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jas Bir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chauhan, Sushil; Choudhary, Brajesh C.; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Kumar, Ashok; Ranjan, Kirti; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Suggisetti, Praveenkumar; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Nayak, Aruna; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Fahim, Ali; Jafari, Abideh; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Moshaii, Ahmad; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fedele, Francesca; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Capiluppi, Paolo; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Genta, Chiara; Landi, Gregorio; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Lanaro, Armando; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; De Guio, Federico; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Menasce, Dario; Miccio, Vincenzo; Moroni, Luigi; Negri, Pietro; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pullia, Antonino; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Salerno, Roberto; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Tancini, Valentina; Taroni, Silvia; Cimmino, Anna; De Gruttola, Michele; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Lomidze, David; Noli, Pasquale; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Biasotto, Massimo; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; De Mattia, Marco; Dorigo, Tommaso; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Giubilato, Piero; Gonella, Franco; Gulmini, Michele; Lacaprara, Stefano; Maron, Gaetano; Mattiazzo, Serena; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Passaseo, Marina; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zotto, Pierluigi; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Pagano, Davide; Ratti, Sergio P.; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Nappi, Aniello; Santocchia, Attilio; Servoli, Leonello; Volpe, Roberta; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Bocci, Andrea; Borrello, Laura; Castaldi, Rino; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Dutta, Suchandra; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Gennai, Simone; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Sarkar, Subir; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Organtini, Giovanni; Palma, Alessandro; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Cerminara, Gianluca; Costa, Marco; Dellacasa, Giulio; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Mila, Giorgia; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Trocino, Daniele; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ambroglini, Filippo; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Penzo, Aldo; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Jung, Seung Yong; Hong, Byung-Sik; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Sim, Kwang Souk; Kim, Jangho; Choi, Minkyoo; Park, Inkyu; Choi, Suyong; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Jo, Youngkwon; Kwon, Jeongteak; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla Valdez, Heriberto; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Allfrey, Philip; Krofcheck, David; Aumeyr, Thomas; Butler, Philip H.; Signal, Tony; Williams, Jennifer C.; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R.; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Musella, Pasquale; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Silva, Pedro; Varela, Joao; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Altsybeev, Igor; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr., Michael; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Obrant, Gennady; Shcheglov, Yury; Shchetkovskiy, Alexander; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Ilina, Natalia; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Oulianov, Alexei; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Shreyber, Irina; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Vardanyan, Irina; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Konovalova, Nina; Rusakov, Sergey V.; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Datsko, Kirill; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Sytine, Alexandre; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Maletic, Dimitrije; Puzovic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M.; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Diaz Merino, Irma; Diez Gonzalez, Carlos; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Beaudette, Florian; Beccati, Barbara; Bellan, Riccardo; Benedetti, Daniele; Benelli, Gabriele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bolognesi, Sara; Bona, Marcella; Breuker, Horst; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cano, Eric; Cattai, Ariella; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Covarelli, Roberto; Curé, Benoît; Dahms, Torsten; De Roeck, Albert; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gowdy, Stephen; Guiducci, Luigi; Gutleber, Johannes; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Henderson, Conor; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Holzner, André; Honma, Alan; Huhtinen, Mika; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Lecoq, Paul; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lourenco, Carlos; Macpherson, Alick; Maki, Tuula; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Meridiani, Paolo; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mulders, Martijn; Noy, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ryjov, Vladimir; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schlatter, Wolf-Dieter; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stöckli, Fabian; Traczyk, Piotr; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zanetti, Marco; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Betev, Botjo; Caminada, Lea; Casella, Maria Chiara; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dambach, Sarah; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eggel, Christina; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hervé, Alain; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; 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Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M.; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Smith, Vincent J.; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W.; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M.; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David J.A.; Coughlan, John A.; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Kennedy, Bruce W.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R.; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Foudas, Costas; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; MacEvoy, Barry C.; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R.; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Bose, Tulika; Clough, Andrew; Heister, Arno; St. John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Andrea, Jeremy; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Esen, Selda; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Cebra, Daniel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Wallny, Rainer; Babb, John; Chandra, Avdhesh; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Shen, Benjamin C.; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G.; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Muelmenstaedt, Johannes; Norman, Matthew; Padhi, Sanjay; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Vartak, Adish; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Blume, Michael; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Garberson, Jeffrey; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lamb, James; Lowette, Steven; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Witherell, Michael; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Gataullin, Marat; Litvine, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Newman, Harvey B.; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Terentyev, Nikolay; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T.; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Blekman, Freya; Cassel, David; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Ryd, Anders; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar A.T.; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; Binkley, Morris; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Demarteau, Marcel; Eartly, David P.; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hahn, Alan; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M.; James, Eric; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kwan, Simon; Limon, Peter; Lueking, Lee; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Smith, Richard P.; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J.; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D.; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Kim, Bockjoo; Klimenko, Sergey; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Prescott, Craig; Rapsevicius, Valdas; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael; Scurlock, Bobby; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Chen, Jie; Dharmaratna, Welathantri G.D.; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F.; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatian, Samvel; Mironov, Camelia; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Smoron, Agata; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Cankocak, Kerem; Chung, Kwangzoo; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Grachov, Oleg; Murray, Michael; Radicci, Valeria; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Bandurin, Dmitry; Barfuss, Anne-fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G.; Kirn, Malina; Kunori, Shuichi; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C.; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; D'Enterria, David; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wyslouch, Bolek; Xie, Si; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Cole, Perrie; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Petyt, David; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Sonnek, Peter; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Lundstedt, Carl; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R.; Baur, Ulrich; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Smith, Kenneth; Strang, Michael; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; McCauley, Thomas; Musienko, Yuri; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Taylor, Lucas; Wood, Darien; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Valls, Nil; Warchol, Jadwiga; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Killewald, Phillip; Ling, Ta-Yung; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatzerklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E.; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F.; Gecse, Zoltan; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Laasanen, Alvin T.; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Potamianos, Karolos; Sedov, Alexey; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank J.M.; Liu, Jinghua H.; Matveev, Mikhail; Morales, Jafet; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Korjenevski, Sergey; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Gershtein, Yuri; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Asaadi, Jonathan; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Jeong, Chiyoung; Lee, Sung Won; Popescu, Sorina; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Johns, Willard; Sheldon, Paul; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Buehler, Marc; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Gunthoti, Kranti; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Mattson, Mark; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Flood, Kevin; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Polese, Giovanni; Reeder, Don; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H.; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of inclusive charged-hadron transverse-momentum and pseudorapidity distributions are presented for proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 0.9 and 2.36 TeV. The data were collected with the CMS detector during the LHC commissioning in December 2009. For non-single-diffractive interactions, the average charged-hadron transverse momentum is measured to be 0.46 +/- 0.01 (stat.) +/- 0.01 (syst.) GeV/c at 0.9 TeV and 0.50 +/- 0.01 (stat.) +/- 0.01 (syst.) GeV/c at 2.36 TeV, for pseudorapidities between -2.4 and +2.4. At these energies, the measured pseudorapidity densities in the central region, dN(charged)/d(eta) for |eta| < 0.5, are 3.48 +/- 0.02 (stat.) +/- 0.13 (syst.) and 4.47 +/- 0.04 (stat.) +/- 0.16 (syst.), respectively. The results at 0.9 TeV are in agreement with previous measurements and confirm the expectation of near equal hadron production in p-pbar and pp collisions. The results at 2.36 TeV represent the highest-energy measurements at a particle collider to date.

  15. Deep-UV 236.5  nm laser by fourth-harmonic generation of a single-crystal fiber Nd:YAG oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyra, Loïc; Martial, Igor; Didierjean, Julien; Balembois, François; Georges, Patrick

    2014-04-15

    We demonstrate a deep-UV laser at 236.5 nm based on extracavity fourth-harmonic generation of a Q-switched Nd:YAG single-crystal fiber laser at 946 nm. We first compare two nonlinear crystals available for second-harmonic generation: LBO and BiBO. The best results at 473 nm are obtained with a BiBO crystal, with an average output power of 3.4 W at 20 kHz, corresponding to a second-harmonic generation efficiency of 38%. This blue laser is frequency-converted to 236.5 nm in a BBO crystal with an overall fourth-harmonic generation yield of 6.5%, corresponding to an average output power of 600 mW at 20 kHz. This represents an order of magnitude increase in average power and energy compared to previously reported pulsed lasers at 236.5 nm. This work opens the possibility of LIDAR detection of dangerous compounds for military or civilian applications.

  16. Deep-UV 236.5  nm laser by fourth-harmonic generation of a single-crystal fiber Nd:YAG oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyra, Loïc; Martial, Igor; Didierjean, Julien; Balembois, François; Georges, Patrick

    2014-04-15

    We demonstrate a deep-UV laser at 236.5 nm based on extracavity fourth-harmonic generation of a Q-switched Nd:YAG single-crystal fiber laser at 946 nm. We first compare two nonlinear crystals available for second-harmonic generation: LBO and BiBO. The best results at 473 nm are obtained with a BiBO crystal, with an average output power of 3.4 W at 20 kHz, corresponding to a second-harmonic generation efficiency of 38%. This blue laser is frequency-converted to 236.5 nm in a BBO crystal with an overall fourth-harmonic generation yield of 6.5%, corresponding to an average output power of 600 mW at 20 kHz. This represents an order of magnitude increase in average power and energy compared to previously reported pulsed lasers at 236.5 nm. This work opens the possibility of LIDAR detection of dangerous compounds for military or civilian applications. PMID:24978960

  17. Solubility and speciation studies of waste radionuclides pertinent to geologic disposal at Yucca Mountain: Results on neptunium, plutonium and americium in J-13 groundwater; Letter report (R707): Reporting period, October 1, 1985--September 30, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsche, H.; Standifer, E.M.; Lee, S.C.; Gatti, R.C.; Tucker, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    We have studied the solubilities of neptunium, plutonium, and americium in J-13 groundwater from Yucca Mountain (Nevada) at three temperatures and hydrogen ion concentrations. They are 25{degree}, 60{degree}C, and 90{degree}C and pH 5.9, 7.0, and 8.5. The results for 25{degree}C are from a study which we did during FY 1984. We included these previous results in the tables to give more information on the solubility temperature dependence; they were, however, done at only one pH (7.0). The solubilities were studied from oversaturation. The nuclides were added at the beginning of each experiment as NpO{sub 2}{sup +}, Pu{sup 4+}, and Am{sup 3+}. The neptunium solubility decreased with increasing temperature and with increasing pH. The soluble neptunium did not change oxidation state at steady state. The pentavalent neptunium was increasingly complexed by carbonate with increasing pH. All solids were crystalline and contained carbonate, except the solid formed at 90{degree}C and pH 5.9. We identified this solid as crystalline Np{sub 2}P{sub 5}. The 25{degree}C, pH 7 solid was Na{sub 3}NpO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} nH{sub 2}O. Plutonium concentrations decreased with increasing temperature and showed no trend with pH. Pu(V) and Pu(VI) were the dominant oxidation states in the supernatant solution; as the amount of Pu(V) increased with pH, Pu(VI) decreed. The steady-state solids were mostly amorphous, although some contained a crystalline component. They contained Pu(IV) polymer and unknown carbonates.

  18. Stopping of 236 keV - 3.019 MeV protons in mylar and polypropylene films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damache, S.; Ouichaoui, S.; Belhout, A.; Medouni, A.; Toumert, I.

    2004-10-01

    The stopping powers of polypropylene and mylar polymers for protons have been accurately measured over the energy intervals Ep=(0.352-3.009) MeV and Ep=(0.236-3.019) MeV, respectively. Ab initio calculations using the Sigmund-Schinner binary collision theory for electronic stopping yielded S( E) values fairly consistent with the measured data that show no noticeable deviations from the Bragg-Kleeman additivity rule. The data have also been analyzed in the framework of the modified Bethe-Bloch theory assuming additivity. Values of the mean excitation and ionization potential, I, and of the Barkas parameter, b, have been deduced for the two polymers and for their (C, O) atomic constituents by adopting values of these parameters recommended in the ICRU-49 report for the H element. Thus, the respective I-values {(56.90 ± 0.72) eV, (79.92 ± 1.30) eV} for the two polymers and the same b-value 1.39 for their (C, O) atomic constituents have been determined by adopting for H the value b=1.8, while the I-values {(81.73 ± 1.38) eV, (109.46 ± 6.55) eV} have been deduced for the (C, O) constituents by adopting for H the value I=19.2 eV. Priorily, the shell, Barkas and Bloch corrections to the calculated S( E) values have been evaluated for both polymers over the explored respective energy ranges. The obtained results are discussed in comparison with previous ones when reported in the literature to our knowledge.

  19. Isotopic compositions of (236)U and Pu isotopes in "black substances" collected from roadsides in Fukushima prefecture: fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Aya; Steier, Peter; Takahashi, Yoshio; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2014-04-01

    Black-colored road dusts were collected in high-radiation areas in Fukushima Prefecture. Measurement of (236)U and Pu isotopes and (134,137)Cs in samples was performed to confirm whether refractory elements, such as U and Pu, from the fuel core were discharged and to ascertain the extent of fractionation between volatile and refractory elements. The concentrations of (134,137)Cs in all samples were exceptionally high, ranging from 0.43 to 17.7 MBq/kg, respectively. (239+240)Pu was detected at low levels, ranging from 0.15 to 1.14 Bq/kg, and with high (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu activity ratios of 1.64-2.64. (236)U was successfully determined in the range of (0.28 to 6.74) × 10(-4) Bq/kg. The observed activity ratios for (236)U/(239+240)Pu were in reasonable agreement with those calculated for the fuel core inventories, indicating that trace amounts of U from the fuel cores were released together with Pu isotopes but without large fractionation. The quantities of U and (239+240)Pu emitted to the atmosphere were estimated as 3.9 × 10(6) Bq (150 g) and 2.3 × 10(9) Bq (580 mg), respectively. With regard to U, this is the first report to give a quantitative estimation of the amount discharged. Appreciable fractionation between volatile and refractory radionuclides associated with the dispersal/deposition processes with distance from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant was found.

  20. Accurate measurements of fission-fragment yields in 234,235,236,238U(γ,f with the SOFIA set-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatillon A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SOFIA (Studies On Fission with Aladin is a new experimental set-up dedicated to accurate measurement of fission-fragments isotopic yields. It is located at GSI, the only place to use inverse kinematics at relativistic energies in order to study the (γ,f electromagnetic-induced fission. The SOFIA set-up is a large-acceptance magnetic spectrometer, which allows to fully identify both fission fragments in coincidence on the whole fission-fragment range. This paper will report on fission yields obtained in 234,235,236,238U(γ,f reactions.

  1. X-ray measurement of electron and magnetic-field energy densities in the west lobe of the giant radio galaxy 3C 236

    CERN Document Server

    Isobe, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    X-ray emission associated with the west lobe of the giant radio galaxy, 3C 236, was investigated with the Suzaku observatory, to evaluate the energetics in the lobe. After removing contamination from X-ray sources detected with Chandra and subtracting the X-ray and non-X-ray backgrounds, the Suzaku spectrum from the lobe was reproduced by a power-low model with a photon index of $\\Gamma = 2.23_{-0.38-0.12}^{+0.44+0.14}$ where the first and second errors represent the statistical and systematic ones, respectively. Within the errors, the X-ray index was consistent with the radio synchrotron one, $\\Gamma_{\\rm R} = 1.74 \\pm 0.07$, estimated in the 326 -- 2695 MHz range. This agreement supports that the X-ray emission is attributed to the inverse-Compton (IC) radiation from the synchrotron electrons filling the lobe, where the cosmic microwave background photons are up-scattered. This result made 3C 236 the largest radio galaxy, of which the lobe has ever been probed through the IC X-ray photons. When the photon i...

  2. Charged-particle multiplicity measurement in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9 and 2.36 TeV with ALICE at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aamodt, K; Abeysekara, U; Abrahantes Quintana, A; Abramyan, A; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agocs, A G; Aguilar Salazar, S; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, A; Ahmad, N; Ahn, S U; Akimoto, R; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Almaráz Aviña, E; Alme, J; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Alt, T; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anelli, G; Angelov, V; Anson, C; Anticic, T; Antinori, F; Antinori, S; Antipin, K; Antonczyk, D; Antonioli, P; Anzo, A; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arcelli, S; Arceo, R; Arend, A; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Asryan, A; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Äystö, J; Azmi, M D; Bablok, S; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Baldi, A; Bán, J; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Basmanov, V; Bastid, N; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Becker, B; Belikov, I; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Belogianni, A; 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Di Bari, D; Di Giglio, C; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Dialinas, M; Díaz, L; Díaz, R; Dietel, T; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobretsov, V; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Domínguez, I; Don, D M M; Don 46 O Dordic, D M M; Dönigus, B; Dubey, A K; Dubuisson, J; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Elia, D; Emschermann, D; Enokizono, A; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Evrard, S; Eyyubova, G; Fabjan, C W; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fateev, O; Fearick, R; Fedunov, A; Fehlker, D; Fekete, V; Felea, D; Fenton-Olsen, B; Feofilov, G; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Ferretti, R; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Fini, R; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Fodor, Z; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Formenti, F; Fragiacomo, E; Fragkiadakis, M; Frankenfeld, U; Frolov, A; Fuchs, U; Furano, F; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gadrat, S; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A; Gallio, M; Ganoti, P; Ganti, M S; Garabatos, C; García Trapaga, C; Gebelein, J; Gemme, R; Germain, M; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Giraudo, G; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glasow, R; Glässel, P; Glenn, A; Gomez Jiménez, R; González Santos, H; González-Trueba, L H; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Gorbunov, Y; Gotovac, S; Gottschlag, H; Grabski, V; Grajcarek, R; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gros, P; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Gulbrandsen, K; Gulkanyan, H; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Gustafsson, H A; Gutbrod, H; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hamblen, J; Han, B H; Harris, J W; Hartig, M; Harutyunyan, A; Hasch, D; Hasegan, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayrapetyan, A; Heide, M; Heinz, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Hernández, C; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, N; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hiei, A; Hille, P T; Hippolyte, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hristov, P; Hrivnácová, I; Huber, S; Humanic, T J; Hu, S; Huang, M; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Ichou, R; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Innocenti, P G; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivan, C; Ivanov, A; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Iwasaki, T; Jacholkowski, A; Jacobs, P; Jancurová, L; Jangal, S; Janik, R; Jena, C; Jena, S; Jirden, L; Jones, G T; Jones, P G; Jovanovic, P; Jung, H; Jung, W; Jusko, A; Kaidalov, A B; Kalcher, S; Kalinák, P; Kalisky, M; Kalliokoski, T; Kalweit, A; Kamal, A; Kamermans, R; Kanaki, K; Kang, E; Kang, J H; Kapitan, J; Kaplin, V; Kapusta, S; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kazantsev, A; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Khan, M M; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kikola, D; Kileng, B; Kim, D J; Kim, D S; Kim, D W; Kim, H N; Kim, J H; Kim, J; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S H; Kim, S; Kim, Y; Kirsch, S; Kiselev, S; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein-Bösing, C; Klein, J; Kliemant, M; Klovning, A; Kluge, A; Kniege, S; Koch, K; Kolevatov, R; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskih, A; Kornas, E; Kour, R; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Kozlov, K; Králik, I; Kral, J; Kramer, F; Kraus, I; Kravcáková, A; Krawutschke, T; Krivda, M; Krumbhorn, D; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucheriaev, Y; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kumar, L; Kumar, N; Kupczak, R; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A N; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Kutouski, M; Kvaerno, H; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; La Rocca, P; Lackner, F; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Lafage, V; Lal, C; Lara, C; La Rocca, P; Larsen, D T; Laurenti, G; Lazzeroni, C; Le Bornec, Y; Le Bris, N; Lee, H; Lee, K S; Lee, S C; Lefèvre, F; Lehnert, J; Leistam, L; Lenhardt, M; Lenti, V; León, H; León Monzón, I; León Vargas, H; Lévai, P; Li, X; Li, Y; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Listratenko, O; Liu, L; Li, Y; Loginov, V; Lohn, S; López Noriega, M; López-Ramírez, R; López Torres, E; Lopez, X; Løvhøiden, G; Lozea Feijo Soares, A; Lu, S; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Luquin, L; Lutz, J R; Ma, K; Ma, R; Madagodahettige-Don, D M; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Makhlyueva, I; Mal'Kevich, D; Malaev, M; Malagalage, K J; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malek, M; Malkiewicz, T; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Mangotra, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Mares, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Martashvili, I; Martinengo, P; Martínez Hernandez, M I; Martínez Davalos, A; Martínez García, G; Martínez, M I; Maruyama, Y; Ma, R; Marzari Chiesa, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masetti, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastromarco, M; Mastroserio, A; Matthews, Z L; Matyja, A; Mayani, D; Mazza, G; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Mendez Lorenzo, P; Meoni, M; Mercado Pérez, J; Mereu, P; Miake, Y; Michalon, A; Miftakhov, N; Milosevic, J; Minafra, F; Mischke, A; Miskowiec, D; Mitu, C; Mizoguchi, K; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Mondal, M M; Montaño Zetina, L; Monteno, M; Montes, E; Morando, M; Moretto, S; Morsch, A; Moukhanova, T; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhuri, S; Müller, H; Munhoz, M G; Munoz, J; 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Pestov, Y; Peters, A J; Petrácek, V; Petridis, A; Petris, M; Petrovici, M; Petrov, P; Petta, C; Peyré, J; Piano, S; Piccotti, A; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Pitz, N; Piuz, F; Platt, R; Ploskon, M; Pluta, J; Pocheptsov, T; Pochybova, S; Podesta Lerma, P L M; Poggio, F; Poghosyan, M G; Polák, K; Polichtchouk, B; Polozov, P; Polyakov, V; Pommeresch, B; Pop, A; Posa, F; Pospísil, V; Potukuchi, B; Pouthas, J; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puddu, G; Pujahari, P; Pulvirenti, A; Punin, A; Punin, V; Putis, M; Putschke, J; Quercigh, E; Rachevski, A; Rademakers, A; Radomski, S; Räihä, T S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Ramírez Reyes, A; Rammler, M; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Räsänen, S; Rashevskaya, I; Rath, S; Read, K F; Real, J S; Redlich, K; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J P; Reygers, K; Ricaud, H; Riccati, L; Ricci, R A; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Rivetti, A; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M; Røed, K; Röhrich, D; Román López, S; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosinský, P; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Rousseau, S; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio-Montero, A J; Rui, R; Rusanov, I; Russo, G; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Safarík, K; Sahoo, R; Saini, J; Saiz, P; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Salgueiro Dominques da Silva, R; Salur, S; Samanta, T; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Sano, S; Santo, R; Santoro, R; Sarkamo, J; Saturnini, P; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schindler, H; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schossmaier, K; Schreiner, S; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Segato, G; Semenov, D; Senyukov, S; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serkin, L; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Sgura, I; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharkov, G; Sharma, N; Sharma, S; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siciliano, M; Sicking, E; Siddi, E; Siemiarczuk, T; Silenzi, A; Silvermyr, D; Simili, E; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singhal, V; Singh, R; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Snow, H; Søgaard, C; Soloviev, A; Soltveit, H K; Soltz, R; Sommer, W; Son, C W; Son, H; Song, M; Soos, C; Soramel, F; Soyk, D; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Staley, F; Stan, E; Stefanek, G; Stefanini, G; Steinbeck, T; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stocco, D; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, P; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Subieta Vásquez, M A; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Susa, T; Swoboda, D; Symons, J; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szostak, A; Szuba, M; Tadel, M; Tagridis, C; Takahara, A; Takahashi, J; Tanabe, R; Tapia Takaki, J D; Taureg, H; Tauro, A; Tavlet, M; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terrevoli, C; Thäder, J; Tieulent, R; Tlusty, D; Toia, A; Tolyhy, T; Torcato de Matos, C; Torii, H; Torralba, G; Toscano, L; Tosello, F; Tournaire, A; Traczyk, T; Tribedy, P; Tröger, G; Truesdale, D; Trzaska, W H; Tsiledakis, G; Tsilis, E; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Turvey, A; Tveter, T S; Tydesjö, H; Tywoniuk, K; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Uras, A; Urbán, J; Urciuoli, G M; Usai, G L; Vacchi, A; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; van den Brink, A; van der Kolk, N; Vande Vyvre, P; van Leeuwen, M; Vannucci, L; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A; Vassiliev, I; Vasileiou, M; Vechernin, V; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vetlitskiy, I; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Vikhlyantsev, O; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, Y; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopianov, A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Wagner, B; Wagner, V; Wallet, L; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Wan, R; Watanabe, K; Wen, Q; Wessels, J; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilk, A; Wilk, G; Williams, M C S; Willis, N; Windelband, B; Xu, C; Yang, C; Yang, H; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yermia, F; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yokoyama, H; Yoo, I-K; Yuan, X; Yurevich, V; Yushmanov, I; Zabrodin, E; Zagreev, B; Zalite, A; Zampolli, C; Zanevsky, Yu; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zenin, A; Zepeda, A; Zgura, I; Zhalov, M; Zhang, X; Zhou, D; Zhou, S; Zhu, J; Zichichi, A; Zinchenko, A; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zychácek, V; Zynovyev, M

    2010-01-01

    Charged-particle production was studied in proton-proton collisions collected at the LHC with the ALICE detector at centre-of-mass energies 0.9 TeV and 2.36 TeV in the pseudorapidity range |eta| < 1.4. In the central region (|eta| < 0.5), at 0.9 TeV, we measure charged-particle pseudorapidity density dNch/deta = 3.02 +- 0.01 (stat.) +0.08 -0.05 (syst.) for inelastic interactions, and dNch/deta = 3.58 +- 0.01 (stat.) +0.12 -0.12 (syst.) for non-single-diffractive interactions. At 2.36 TeV, we find dNch/deta = 3.77 +- 0.01 (stat.) +0.25 -0.12 (syst.) for inelastic, and dNch/deta = 4.43 +- 0.01 (stat.) +0.17 -0.12 (syst.) for non-single-diffractive collisions. The relative increase in charged-particle multiplicity from the lower to higher energy is 24.7% +- 0.5% (stat.) +5.7% -2.8% (syst.) for inelastic and 23.7% +- 0.5% (stat.) +4.6% -1.1% (syst.) for non-single-diffractive interactions. This increase is consistent with that reported by the CMS collaboration for non-single-diffractive events and larger th...

  3. Measurement of the (236)U(n,f) cross section from 170 MeV to 2 MeV at the CERN n_TOF Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmento, R. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem, Portugal; Goncalves, I. F. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem, Portugal; Vaz, P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), Lisbon, Portugal; Carrapico, C. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), Lisbon, Portugal; Carrillo de Albornoz, A. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem, Portugal; Marques, L. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem, Portugal; Salgado, J. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem, Portugal; Tavora, L. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem, Portugal; Calviani, M. [CERN, Geneva, Switzerland; Andriamonje, S. [CERN, Geneva, Switzerland; Chiaveri, E. [CERN, Geneva, Switzerland; Guerrero, C. [CERN, Geneva, Switzerland; Vlachoudis, V. [CERN, Geneva, Switzerland; Colonna, N. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari, Italy; Barbagallo, M. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari, Italy; Marrone, S. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari, Italy; Tagliente, G. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari, Italy; Terlizzi, R. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari, Italy; Belloni, F. [Instituto Nazionale de Fisica Nucleare, Trieste, Italy; Fuji, K. [Instituto Nazionale de Fisica Nucleare, Trieste, Italy; Milazzo, P. M. [Instituto Nazionale de Fisica Nucleare, Trieste, Italy; Moreau, C. [Instituto Nazionale de Fisica Nucleare, Trieste, Italy; Alvarez-Velarde, F. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Technol., Madrid, Spain; Cano-Ott, D. [CIEMAT, Madrid; Gonzalez-Romero, E. [CIEMAT, Madrid; Guerrero, C. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Technol., Madrid, Spain; Martinez, T. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Technol., Madrid, Spain; Mendoza, E. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Technol., Madrid, Spain; Villamarin, D. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Technol., Madrid, Spain; Vicente, M. C. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Technol., Madrid, Spain; Andrzejewski, Jozef [ORNL; Karamanis, D. [University of Ioannina, Greece; Marganiec, J. [University of Lodz; Assimakopoulos, P. A. [University of Ioannina, Greece; Karadimos, D. [University of Ioannina, Greece; Papachristodoulou, C. [University of Ioannina, Greece; Patronis, N. [University of Ioannina, Greece; Audouin, L. [Universite Paris XI, Orsay, France; David, S. [CNRS, Orsay, France; Ferrant, L. [Universite Paris XI, Orsay, France; Isaev, S. [CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay, France; Stephan, C. [CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay, France; Tassan-Got, L. [CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay, France; Badurek, G. [Vienna University of Technology, Austria; Jericha, E. [Vienna University of Technology, Austria; Leeb, H. [Vienna University of Technology, Austria; Oberhummer, H. [Vienna University of Technology, Austria; Pigni, M. T. [Vienna University of Technology, Austria; Baumann, P. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Kerveno, M. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Lukic, S. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Rudolf, G. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Becvar, F. [Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; Krticka, M. [Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; Calvino, F. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain; Capote, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Frais-Koelbl, H. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Griesmayer, E. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Mengoni, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Praena, J. [University of Seville; Capote, R. [University of Seville; Lozano, M. [University of Seville; Quesada, J. [University of Seville; Cennini (et al.), P. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy; Chapel, V. [University of Ciombra, Portugal; Ferreira-Marques, R. [University of Ciombra, Portugal; Lindote, A. [University of Ciombra, Portugal; Lopes, I. [University of Ciombra, Portugal; Neves, F. [University of Ciombra, Portugal; et al.

    2011-01-01

    The neutron-induced fission cross section of {sup 236}U was measured at the neutron Time-of-Flight (n-TOF) facility at CERN relative to the standard {sup 235}U(n,f) cross section for neutron energies ranging from above thermal to several MeV. The measurement, covering the full range simultaneously, was performed with a fast ionization chamber, taking advantage of the high resolution of the n-TOF spectrometer. The n-TOF results confirm that the first resonance at 5.45 eV is largely overestimated in some nuclear data libraries. The resonance triplet around 1.2 keV was measured with high resolution and resonance parameters were determined with good accuracy. Resonances at high energy have also been observed and characterized and different values for the cross section are provided for the region between 10 keV and the fission threshold. The present work indicates various shortcomings of the current nuclear data libraries in the subthreshold region and provides the basis for an accurate re-evaluation of the {sup 236}U(n,f) cross section, which is of great relevance for the development of emerging or innovative nuclear reactor technologies.

  4. Thermodynamic performance of an auto-cascade ejector refrigeration cycle with mixed refrigerant R32 + R236fa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an auto-cascade ejector refrigeration cycle (ACERC) is proposed to obtain lower refrigeration temperature based on conventional ejector refrigeration and auto-cascade refrigeration principle. The thermodynamic performance of ACERC is investigated theoretically. The zeotropic refrigerant mixture R32 + R236fa is used as its working fluid. A parametric analysis is conducted to evaluate the effects of some thermodynamic parameters on the cycle performance. The study shows that refrigerant mixture composition, condenser outlet temperature and evaporation pressure have effects on performance of ACERC. The theoretical results also indicate that the ACERC can achieve the lowest refrigeration temperature at the temperature level of −30 °C. The application of zeotropic refrigerant mixture auto-cascade refrigeration in the ejector refrigeration cycle can provide a new way to obtain lower refrigeration temperature utilizing low-grade thermal energy. - Highlights: • An auto-cascade ejector refrigerator with R32 + R236fa mixed refrigerant is proposed. • The cycle can obtain a refrigeration temperature at −30 °C temperature range. • The effects of some thermodynamic parameters on the cycle performance are evaluated

  5. Kommentarer til opdateret risikovurdering og ansøgning. Gossypium hirsutum (281-24-236/3006-210-23), Insect resistance by Bt-toxin (lepidoptera) X Insect resistance by Bt-toxin (coleoptera); herbicide tolerance to glyphosate. Modtaget 03-04-2006, deadline 02-05-2006, svar 07-04-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Strandberg, Morten Tune; Christensen, Christian Dam

    2006-01-01

    "DMUs konklusioner vedr. den økologiske risikovurdering af den genmodificerede, insektresistente bomuldshybrid mellem event 281-24-236 og 3006-210-23. Den genmodificerede bomuldskrydsning 281-24-236/3006-210-23, adskiller sig fra konventionel bomuld ved at have indsat gener der gør planterne tole...

  6. The proliferation potential of neptunium and americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, J. S.; Shin, J. S.; Kim, J. S.; Kwack, E. H.; Kim, B. K

    2000-05-01

    It is recognized that some trans-uranic elements other than plutonium, in particular Np and Am, if will be available in sufficient quantities, could be used for nuclear explosive devices. The spent fuel has been accumulating in number of nuclear power plant and operation of large scale commercial reprocessing plants. However, these materials are not covered by the definition of special fissionable material in the Agency Statute. At the time when the Statute was adopted, the availability of meaningful quantities of separated Np and Am was remote and they were not included in the definition of special fissionable material. Then, IAEA Board decided a measure for control of Np and Am on September 1999. This report contains the control method and the characteristic of Np and Am for using domestic nuclear industries, and it can be useful for understanding how to report and account of Np and Am. (author)

  7. Delocalization and new phase in Americium: theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soderlind, P

    1999-04-23

    Density-functional electronic structure calculations have been used to investigate the high pressure behavior of Am. At about 80 kbar (8 GPa) calculations reveal a monoclinic phase similar to the ground state structure of plutonium ({alpha}-Pu). The experimentally suggested {alpha}-U structure is found to be substantially higher in energy. The phase transition from fcc to the low symmetry structure is shown to originate from a drastic change in the nature of the electronic structure induced by the elevated pressure. A calculated volume collapse of about 25% is associated with the transition. For the low density phase, an orbital polarization correction to the local spin density (LSD) theory was applied. Gradient terms of the electron density were included in the calculation of the exchange/correlation energy and potential, according to the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The results are consistent with a Mott transition; the 5f electrons are delocalized and bonding on the high density side of the transition and chemically inert and non-bonding (localized) on the other. Theory compares rather well with recent experimental data which implies that electron correlation effects are reasonably modeled in our orbital polarization scheme.

  8. Evaluation of neutron data for americium-241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov, V.M.; Sukhovitskij, E.Sh.; Porodzinskij, Yu.V.; Klepatskij, A.B.; Morogovskij, G.B. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    The evaluation of neutron data for {sup 241}Am is made in the energy region from 10{sup -5} eV up to 20 MeV. The results of the evaluation are compiled in the ENDF/B-VI format. This work is performed under the Project Agreement CIS-03-95 with the International Science and Technology Center (Moscow). The Financing Party for the Project is Japan. The evaluation was requested by Y. Kikuchi (JAERI). (author). 60 refs.

  9. Fiscal Year 2009 Phased Construction Completion Report for EU Z2-36 in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2009-02-10

    The purpose of this Phased Construction Completion Report (PCCR) is to present fiscal year (FY) 2009 results of Dynamic Verification Strategy (DVS) characterization activities for exposure unit (EU) Z2-36 in Zone 2 at the East Tennessee technology Park (ETTP). The ETTP is located in the northwest corner of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee and encompasses approximately 5000 acres that have been subdivided into three zones--Zone 1 ({approx} 1400 acres), Zone 2 ({approx} 800 acres), and the Boundary Area ({approx} 2800 acres). Zone 2 comprises the highly industrial portion of ETTP and consists of all formerly secured areas of the facility, including the large processing buildings and direct support facilities; experimental laboratories and chemical and materials handling facilities; materials storage and waste disposal facilities; secure document records libraries; and shipping and receiving warehouses. The Record of Decision for Soil, Buried Waste, and Subsurface Structure Actions in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2005) (Zone 2 ROD) specifies the future end use for Zone 2 acreage as uncontrolled industrial for the upper 10 ft of soils. Characterization activities in these areas were conducted in compliance with the Zone 2 ROD and the DVS and data quality objectives (DQOs) presented in the Main Plant Group DQO Scoping Package (July 2006) and the Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan for Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2007a) (Zone 2 RDR/RAWP). The purpose of this PCCR is to address the following: (1) Document EU Z2-36 DVS characterization results; (2) Describe and document the risk evaluation and determine if the EU meets the Zone 2 ROD requirements for unrestricted industrial use to 10 ft bgs, and (3) Identify additional areas not defined in the Zone 2 ROD that require remediation based on the DVS

  10. Charged particle multiplicities in pp interactions at sqrt(s) = 0.9, 2.36, and 7 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, V. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Aremenia); et al.,

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of primary charged hadron multiplicity distributions are presented for non-single-diffractive events in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of sqrt(s) = 0.9, 2.36, and 7 TeV, in five pseudorapidity ranges from |eta|<0.5 to |eta|<2.4. The data were collected with the minimum-bias trigger of the CMS experiment during the LHC commissioning runs in 2009 and the 7 TeV run in 2010. The multiplicity distribution at sqrt(s) = 0.9 TeV is in agreement with previous measurements. At higher energies the increase of the mean multiplicity with sqrt(s) is underestimated by most event generators. The average transverse momentum as a function of the multiplicity is also presented. The measurement of higher-order moments of the multiplicity distribution confirms the violation of Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling that has been observed at lower energies.

  11. Charged particle multiplicities in pp interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9, 2.36, and 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hartl, Christian; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; Ceard, Ludivine; Cerny, Karel; De Wolf, Eddi A.; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Adler, Volker; Beauceron, Stephanie; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Joris; Maes, Michael; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Marinov, Andrey; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Demin, Pavel; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Ferreira Dias, Marco Andre; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Novaes, Sergio F.; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dyulendarova, Milena; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Marinova, Evelina; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Yang, Min; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Li, Wenbo; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhu, Bo; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Fereos, Reginos; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A.; Rykaczewski, Hans; Assran, Yasser; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Kannike, Kristjan; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Klem, Jukka; Kortelainen, Matti J.; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Porteboeuf, Sarah; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Besson, Auguste; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Falkiewicz, Anna; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Xiao, Hong; Roinishvili, Vladimir; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Ata, Metin; Bender, Walter; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Hof, Carsten; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Magass, Carsten; Masetti, Gianni; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Olzem, Jan; Parenti, Andrea; Raspereza, Alexei; Raval, Amita; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Klanner, Robert; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Schwandt, Joern; Srivastava, Ajay Kumar; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Wolf, Roger; Bauer, Julia; Buege, Volker; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Piparo, Danilo; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Renz, Manuel; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Zeise, Manuel; Zhukov, Valery; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A.; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Debreczeni, Gergely; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Laszlo, Andras; Sikler, Ferenc; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jas Bir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Choudhary, Brajesh C.; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Kumar, Ashok; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Suggisetti, Praveenkumar; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Dimitrov, Anton; Fedele, Francesca; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Trentadue, Raffaello; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Genta, Chiara; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Tancini, Valentina; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cimmino, Anna; De Cosa, Annapaola; De Gruttola, Michele; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Noli, Pasquale; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Biasotto, Massimo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Conti, Enrico; De Mattia, Marco; Dorigo, Tommaso; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Giubilato, Piero; Gresele, Ambra; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Santocchia, Attilio; Servoli, Leonello; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Volpe, Roberta; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Sarkar, Subir; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Organtini, Giovanni; Palma, Alessandro; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Mila, Giorgia; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Trocino, Daniele; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ambroglini, Filippo; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dohhee; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jaeho; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Seo, Eunsung; Shin, Seungsu; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz Burelo, Eduard; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A.; Allfrey, Philip; Krofcheck, David; Tam, Jason; Butler, Philip H.; Doesburg, Robert; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R.; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Sá Martins, Pedro; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Silva, Pedro; Varela, Joao; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr., Michael; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Bondar, Nikolai; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V.; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M.; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bell, Alan James; Benedetti, Daniele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bolognesi, Sara; Breuker, Horst; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cano, Eric; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Covarelli, Roberto; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; Dahms, Torsten; De Roeck, Albert; Duarte Ramos, Fernando; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Gennai, Simone; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Harvey, John; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hegner, Benedikt; Henderson, Conor; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Honma, Alan; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Karavakis, Edward; Lecoq, Paul; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lourenco, Carlos; Macpherson, Alick; Maki, Tuula; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stöckli, Fabian; Stoye, Markus; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Tsyganov, Andrey; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Caminada, Lea; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hervé, Alain; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguiló, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Wilke, Lotte; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Wan-Ting; Dutta, Suchandra; Go, Apollo; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Ming-Hsiung; Liu, Zong-kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gökbulut, Gül; Güler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Nart, Alisah; Önengüt, Gülsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatöz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gülmez, Erhan; Halu, Arda; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Özbek, Melih; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bell, Peter; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Hansen, Maria; Hartley, Dominic; Heath, Greg P.; Heath, Helen F.; Huckvale, Benedickt; Jackson, James; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M.; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J.; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W.; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M.; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David J.A.; Coughlan, John A.; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Kennedy, Bruce W.; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R.; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R.; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Clough, Andrew; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St. John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Esen, Selda; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Cebra, Daniel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Schwarz, Thomas; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Deisher, Amanda; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Pasztor, Gabriella; Satpathy, Asish; Shen, Benjamin C.; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G.; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Muelmenstaedt, Johannes; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Gataullin, Marat; Kcira, Dorian; Litvine, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B.; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Terentyev, Nikolay; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T.; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Fields, Laura Johanna; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Riley, Daniel; Ryd, Anders; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar A.T.; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Demarteau, Marcel; Eartly, David P.; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gunthoti, Kranti; Gutsche, Oliver; Hahn, Alan; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M.; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; James, Eric; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Limon, Peter; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; McCauley, Thomas; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Popescu, Sorina; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Saoulidou, Niki; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J.; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D.; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Goldberg, Sean; Kim, Bockjoo; Klimenko, Sergey; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Prescott, Craig; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bandurin, Dmitry; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F.; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M.; Dorney, Brian; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; O'Brien, Christine; Silvestre, Catherine; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Cankocak, Kerem; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Radicci, Valeria; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G.; Kirn, Malina; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C.; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cole, Perrie; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Lundstedt, Carl; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R.; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Chasco, Matthew; Kaadze, Ketino; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Warchol, Jadwiga; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E.; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F.; Gecse, Zoltan; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Laasanen, Alvin T.; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Potamianos, Karolos; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank J.M.; Liu, Jinghua H.; Morales, Jafet; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Duggan, Daniel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Asaadi, Jonathan; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Buehler, Marc; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Lomidze, David; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Parker, William; Reeder, Don; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H.; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of primary charged hadron multiplicity distributions are presented for non-single-diffractive events in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of sqrt(s) = 0.9, 2.36, and 7 TeV, in five pseudorapidity ranges from |eta|<0.5 to |eta|<2.4. The data were collected with the minimum-bias trigger of the CMS experiment during the LHC commissioning runs in 2009 and the 7 TeV run in 2010. The multiplicity distribution at sqrt(s) = 0.9 TeV is in agreement with previous measurements. At higher energies the increase of the mean multiplicity with sqrt(s) is underestimated by most event generators. The average transverse momentum as a function of the multiplicity is also presented. The measurement of higher-order moments of the multiplicity distribution confirms the violation of Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling that has been observed at lower energies.

  12. Determination of protolytic equilibria for methyl 3-azido-6-iodo-2,3,6-trideoxy-α- D- arabino-hexopyranoside by ab initio and spectrophotometric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, Aleksandra; Makowski, Mariusz; Jacewicz, Dagmara; Chylewska, Agnieszka; Chmurzyński, Lech

    2008-12-01

    UV absorption spectra of methyl 3-azido-6-iodo-2,3,6-trideoxy-α- D- arabino-hexopyranoside were recorded over a wide pH range. On this basis, a relationship between absorbance and pH was plotted, from which deprotonation equilibrium constants of this compound were determined. Further, quantum-mechanical calculations were performed at the ab initio level both in the gas phase by using the Restricted Hartree Fock (RHF), Møller-Plesset (MP2) methods and under consideration of solvation effects within the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM), which enabled location of preferred protonation and deprotonation centers of this compound. The results provided the basis for discussion of the influence of substituents in the sugar ring on protolytic equilibria occurring in aqueous solutions of 3-azido-2,3-dideoxy sugars.

  13. Actinides AMS at CIRCE and 236U and Pu measurements of structural and environmental samples from in and around a mothballed nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is presently the most sensitive technique for the measurement of long-lived actinides, e.g. 236U and 239Pu. A new actinide line is in operation at the Center for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) in Caserta, Italy. Using the actinide line a uranium mass sensitivity of around 4 μg has been reached measuring with a 16-strip silicon detector, and a 239Pu background level of below 0.1 fg has been obtained. In this work we also discuss preliminary results for environmental and structural samples from in and around the Garigliano nuclear power plant (GNPP), presently in the decommissioning phase. Measurements on environmental samples from the vicinity of the plant allow the assessment of contamination, if any, over the years. Measurements of structural samples from the plant are relevant to the optimization of the decommissioning program for the GNPP.

  14. The use of 59Ni, 99Tc, and 236U to monitor the release of radionuclides from objects containing spent nuclear fuel dumped in the Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1965 and 1981, five objects and six naval reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) from four former Soviet Union submarines and a special container from the icebreaker Lenin, all containing damaged spent nuclear fuel (SNF) were dumped in a variety of containments, at four sites in the Kara Sea. The International Atomic Energy Agency initiated the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) to study the possible health and environmental effects from disposal of these objects. One outcome of the IASAP was an estimation of the radionuclide inventory and their release rates from these objects. A follow-on concern is the ability to detect the radionuclides released into the water column. The work reported here is the feasibility of using the long-lived radionuclides 59Ni, 99Tc, and 236U encased within these objects, to monitor the breakdown of the containments due to corrosion

  15. Pu236(n,f), Pu237(n,f), and Pu238(n,f) cross sections deduced from (p,t), (p,d), and (p,p') surrogate reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R. O.; Beausang, C. W.; Ross, T. J.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Cooper, N.; Escher, J. E.; Gell, K.; Good, E.; Humby, P.; McCleskey, M.; Saastimoinen, A.; Tarlow, T. D.; Thompson, I. J.

    2014-07-01

    The Pu236(n,f), Pu237(n,f) and Pu238(n,f) cross sections have been inferred by utilizing the surrogate ratio method. Targets of Pu239 and U235 were bombarded with 28.5-MeV protons, and the light ion recoils, as well as fission fragments, were detected using the STARS detector array at the K150 Cyclotron at the Texas A&M cyclotron facility. The (p, tf) reaction on Pu239 and U235 targets was used to deduce the σ (Pu236(n ,f))/σ(U232(n,f)) ratio, and the Pu236(n,f) cross section was subsequently determined for En=0.5-7.5 MeV. Similarly, the (p,df) reaction on the same two targets was used to deduce the σ(Pu237(n ,f))/σ(U233(n,f)) ratio, and the Pu237(n,f) cross section was extracted in the energy range En=0.5-7 MeV. The Pu238(n,f) cross section was also deduced by utilizing the (p,p') reaction channel on the same targets. There is good agreement with the recent ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluated cross section data for Pu238(n,f) in the range En=0.5-10.5 MeV and for Pu237(n,f) in the range En=0.5-7 MeV; however, the Pu236(n,f) cross section deduced in the present work is higher than the evaluation between 2 and 7 MeV.

  16. Fission coincident neutrons from the reactions p + sup(235,236,238)U with protons between 12,7 and 25.5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the proton beam of the Hamburg isochronous cyclotron (HAIZY) thin uranium targets with the mass numbers 235, 236, and 238 were bombarded. Both fragments from the fission of the Np reaction systems and the neutrons coincident with the fragments were detected in the plane perpendicular to the beam direction. Measured and stored event by event were for all particles the times of flight. The detection of the neutron succeeded in conventional time-of-flight technique with NE213 liquid scintillators. A fission detector system with plastic scintillator foils was developed. It permits high event rates over long measuring times and allows the choice of so long neutron flight paths that a neutron energy resolution between 2% and 4% could be reached. The determination of the fragment masses is in spite of the short flight paths of 15 respectively 21 cm possible to +-2 amu. The isotropic component das discussed under the assumption that it is composed of prefission and scission neutrons which were emitted befor fission respectively during the fragmentation. From the post fission results the distribution of the excitation energy to both fragments was determined in dependence of Esup(*) and the fragment mass. (orig./HSI)

  17. Fission Cross-Section Measurements of the Odd-Odd Isotopes 232Pa, 238Np, and 236Np

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danon, Y. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Moore, M. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Koehler, Paul Edward [ORNL; Littleton, P. E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Miller, G. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ott, M. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Rowton, L. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Taylor, W. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wilhelmy, J. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Yates, M. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Carlson, A. D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Hill, Nathaniel [ORNL; Harper, R. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Los Alamos, NM; Hilko, R. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Los Alamos, NM

    1996-01-01

    Transmutation of actinide waste into fission products could be enhanced by using resonance fission of odd-odd target materials; those of interest are 232Pa, 238Np, and 242Am. Fission cross-section measurements of two of these short-lived materials were performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Samples were produced by the (d,2n) reaction in the Los Alamos Ion Beam Facility followed by fast radiochemistry to separate the odd-odd target of interest. The fission cross section of the nanogram samples was measured in a high intensity pulsed neutron beam produced by 800-MeV proton spallation. Using this procedure, the fission cross sections of the 1.3-day 232Pa and 2.1-day 238Np were successfully measured in the energy range from 0.01 eV to 50 keV. The fission cross section of the relatively long-life isotope 236Np was also measured in the same system while the short half-life isotopes were being prepared. The results and resonance analysis are presented.

  18. Early observing HIE pathogenesis of 236 full -term neonates by S100B test combined with NSE test%236例S100B联合NSE检测用于足月新生儿HIE病程早期观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜伟超

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To explore the value of S100B test combined with neuron - specific enolase ( NSE) test for early diagnosis and monitoring of hypoxic - ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in full - term neonates, and provide more complementary evidences for clinical diagnosis and treatment of HIE. Methods: A total of 236 full - term neonates with HIE who were treated in the hospital from July 2009 lo July 2011 were selected as study objects, and 236 healthy full -term neonates who were born during the same period were selected as control group, electrochemiluminescence was used to monitor the serum levels of S100B and NSE during early course of the disease (at one day, 3-5 days, and 7-10 days after grouping) . Results; The serum levels of S100B and NSE in HIE group were statistically significantly higher than those in control group at different time points ( P 0. 05) , but the serum levels of S100B and NSE in the other groups were still statistically significantly higher than those in control group (P0. 05) .Conclusion; Joint test of S100B and NSE is a reasonable mode for early monitoring and assistant diagnosis of full - term infants with HIE, which is helpful to supply more complementary evidences for clinical diagnosis and treatment.%目的:探讨血清学标志物S100B联合NSE检测在足月新生儿HIE疾病的早期诊断和监测中的价值,为临床诊治提供更多补充性依据.方法:以2009年7月~2011年7月收治的236例足月新生儿HIE患者为研究对象,选择同期出生的236例足月健康新生儿为对照组,应用电化学发光法监测HIE患者病程早期(入组后第1天、第3~5天,第7~ 10天)的血清S100B和NSE水平.结果:HIE组血清S100B和NSE水平显著高于对照组,各观察点P<0.05;第3~5天除轻度组外,S100B和NSE分别在重度组、中度组和重度组有显著性上升,均P<0.05.治疗前后(第7~10天对比第1天)S100B和NSE在各组均有显著性降低,P <0.05;轻度组在初步治疗后S100B

  19. Clinico-pathological correlation of digital rectal examination findings amongst Nigerian men with prostatic diseases: A prospective study of 236 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufus W Ojewola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: This study aims at correlating different digital rectal examination (DRE abnormalities with histopathological results in patients with prostatic diseases. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 236 patients who underwent prostate needle biopsy (PNB. Inclusion criteria were presence of abnormal DRE findings or elevated prostate specific antigen above 4 ng/ml or both. They all had 10-core extended transrectal biopsy and specimens were sent for histopathological examination. Correlations were made between DRE findings and histopathology results. Two separate multivariate logistic regression models were created; the first evaluated the relationship of predictors (DRE findings to the likelihood of detecting cancer and the second explored predictors of high-grade cancer on PNB. Results: Two hundred and thirty-six patients were enrolled with a mean age of 66.9 years and range of 43-90 years. Histopathology results were malignant in 102 (43.2% and benign in 134 (56.8%. Ninety-one (38.6% and 145 (61.4% had normal DRE and abnormal DRE findings with cancer detection rates of 23.1% and 55.8% respectively. Nodular prostate is the most common abnormality in 63.4% patients with abnormal DRE. Each sign of DRE had different predictive value with enhanced positive predictive value when combinations of abnormalities are present. Abnormal DRE is an independent predictor of high-grade tumor. Mean Gleason scores were 4.7 and 7.1 in patients with normal and abnormal DRE respectively. Conclusion: DRE is a useful and important tool in assessing patients with suspected prostate diseases who need prostate biopsy. An abnormal DRE correlated well with prostate cancer and independently predicted high-grade disease in these men.

  20. 2.9, 2.36, and 1.96 Ga zircons in orthogneiss south of the Red River shear zone in Viet Nam: evidence from SHRIMP U-Pb dating and tectonothermal implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Tran Ngoc; Toriumi, Mitsuhiro; Sano, Yuji; Terada, Kentaro; Thang, Ta Trong

    2003-05-01

    Orthogneissic rocks coexisting with migmatites and containing small amphibolite lenses are exposed in the center of the metamorphic belt which runs parallel to the Day Nui Con Voi-Red River shear zone in northern Viet Nam. The orthogneiss complex has given some radiogenic dates of Early Proterozoic and Late Archean, which are the oldest ages ever registered for the Southeast Asian continent. Zircon grains separated from three samples of the orthogneiss complex have been dated to establish the protolith age and the timing of high-grade tectonothermal events in the complex. Sixty-five SHRIMP U-Th-Pb analyses of these zircons define three age groups of 2.84-2.91, 2.36, and 1.96 Ga. The age groups correspond to three periods of zircon generation. The oldest ˜2.9 Ga cores indicate a minimum age for the protolith of the orthogneiss complex. Two younger generations (including ˜2.36 Ga outer-cores and ˜1.96 Ga rims) probably grew during later high-grade tectono-metamorphic events, which were previously suggested by K-Ar and 40Ar/ 39Ar cooling ages of ˜2.0 Ga for synkinematic hornblendes. An early thermal history of the orthogneiss complex has been constrained, including a primary magma-crystallization stage starting at ˜2.9 Ga, followed by two Early Proterozoic (˜2.36 and ˜1.96 Ga) high-grade tectonothermal events. The ca. 2.9 Ga protolith age of the orthogneiss complex documented in this study provides new convincing evidence for the presence of Archean rocks in Indochina, and clearly indicates that the crustal evolution of northern Viet Nam started as early as Late Archean time.

  1. 三氯酚对小椎实螺急性毒性作用和过氧化物酶活性的影响%Effects of 2,3,5-TCP and 2,3,6-TCP on Acute Toxicity and POD Activity of Galba pervia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋志慧; 杨鲁娜

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨2,3,5-三氯酚和2,3,6-三氯酚对小椎实螺的毒性指标.[方法]以小椎实螺为供试生物,采用半静态法对小椎实螺进行驯养和试验,测定2,3,5 -TCP和2,3,6-TCP对小椎实螺的半数致死浓度(LC50)、联合毒性作用类型和POD活性的影响.[结果]2,3,5 -TCP和2,3,6-TCP对小椎实螺的96 hLC30分别为0.525和1.925 mg/L,毒性顺序为:2,3,5-TCP >2,3,6-TCP;2,3,5-TCP和2,3,6-TCP的联合作用类型为协同作用;2,3,5-TCP和2,3,6-TCP暴露1d胁迫小椎实螺POD为诱导-抑制效应,暴露3和5d胁迫小椎实螺POD为抑制效应,且随暴露时间的延长,不同酶活性变化显著.[结论]为进一步探讨氧酚对腹足动物的毒性机理以及对氯酚化合物污染的早期诊所与生态风险评级提供了理论依据.%[Objective] To study the toxic effect of 2,3,5-TCP and 2,3,6-TCP on Galbapervia. [ Method] The G. pervia was cultured by semi-static method,the LC50 and joint action of 2,3,5-TCP and 2,3,6-TCP to G. pervia as well as the POD activity were discussed. [Result] The 96 h-LC50, of 2,3,5-TCP and 2,3,6-TCP were 0.525 mg/L and 1.925 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity order of them was 2,3,5-TCP > 2,3,6-TCP,the joint effect of 2,3,5-TCP and 2,3,6-TCP was synergistie; The POD in C.perma exposed to 2,3,5-TCP and 2,3,6-TCP stress was both induced and inhibited,while it was inhibited when the G. pervia was exposed to 2,3,5-TCP and 2,3,6-TCP stress for 3 d and 5 d,the enzyme activities were changed significantly with the extending days of exposure. [ Conclusion ] The study provides theoretical support for further discussing the toxic effect of TCP to G. penna as well as the early diagnosis and risk evaluation of TCP compounds.

  2. First Measurement of Bose-Einstein Correlations in proton-proton Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ =0.9 and 2.36 TeV at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

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Treille, Daniel; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Schmidt, Alexander; Tsirigkas, Dimitrios; Wilke, Lotte; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Wan-Ting; Go, Apollo; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Ming-Hsiung; Lu, Yun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lin, Sheng-Wen; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Ueno, Koji; Wang, Chin-chi; Wang, Minzu; Wei, Jui-Te; Adiguzel, Aytul; Ayhan, Aydin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Demir, Zahide; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gökbulut, Gül; Güler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Nart, Alisah; Önengüt, Gülsen; 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Brown, Robert M.; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David J.A.; Coughlan, John A.; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Kennedy, Bruce W.; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R.; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Foudas, Costas; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R.; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Bose, Tulika; Clough, Andrew; Heister, Arno; St. John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Andrea, Jeremy; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Esen, Selda; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Cebra, Daniel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Schwarz, Thomas; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Deisher, Amanda; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Felcini, Marta; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Wallny, Rainer; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Pasztor, Gabriella; Satpathy, Asish; Shen, Benjamin C.; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G.; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Muelmenstaedt, Johannes; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Blume, Michael; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Garberson, Jeffrey; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lamb, James; Lowette, Steven; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Witherell, Michael; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Gataullin, Marat; Kcira, Dorian; Litvine, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Newman, Harvey B.; Rogan, Christopher; Shin, Kyoungha; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Terentyev, Nikolay; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T.; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Blekman, Freya; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Fields, Laura Johanna; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Riley, Daniel; Ryd, Anders; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar A.T.; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Demarteau, Marcel; Eartly, David P.; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hahn, Alan; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M.; James, Eric; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Limon, Peter; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; McCauley, Thomas; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Popescu, Sorina; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Saoulidou, Niki; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Smith, Richard P.; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J.; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D.; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Kim, Bockjoo; Klimenko, Sergey; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Prescott, Craig; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Mesa, Dalgis; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F.; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M.; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatian, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Cankocak, Kerem; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Murray, Michael; Radicci, Valeria; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Bandurin, Dmitry; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G.; Kirn, Malina; Mignerey, Alice; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C.; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; D'Enterria, David; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wyslouch, Bolek; Xie, Si; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cole, Perrie; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Sonnek, Peter; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Lundstedt, Carl; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R.; Baur, Ulrich; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Smith, Kenneth; Strang, Michael; Zennamo, Joseph; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Warchol, Jadwiga; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Killewald, Phillip; Ling, Ta-Yung; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatzerklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E.; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F.; Gecse, Zoltan; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Laasanen, Alvin T.; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Potamianos, Karolos; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank J.M.; Liu, Jinghua H.; Morales, Jafet; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Asaadi, Jonathan; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Buehler, Marc; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Gunthoti, Kranti; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Dutta, Suchandra; Efron, Jonathan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Lomidze, David; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Polese, Giovanni; Reeder, Don; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H.; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Bose-Einstein correlations have been measured using samples of proton-proton collisions at 0.9 and 2.36 TeV center-of-mass energies, recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The signal is observed in the form of an enhancement of pairs of same-sign charged particles with small relative four-momentum. The size of the correlated particle emission region is seen to increase significantly with the particle multiplicity of the event.

  3. First Measurement of Bose-Einstein Correlations in Proton-Proton Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=0.9$ and 2.36 TeV at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Sirunyan, Albert M.; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Er, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; /Yerevan Phys. Inst. /Vienna, OAW /CERN /Minsk, High Energy Phys. Ctr. /Antwerp U., WISINF /Vrije U., Brussels /Brussels U. /Gent U. /Louvain U. /UMH, Mons /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /CERN /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Piemonte Orientale U., Novara /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /CHEP, Taegu /Chonnam Natl. U. /Korea U. /UCLA /CERN /UC, Riverside /Budapest, RMKI /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /Caltech /Carnegie Mellon U. /Colorado U. /Cornell U. /Fairfield U.

    2010-05-01

    Bose-Einstein correlations have been measured using samples of proton-proton collisions at 0.9 and 2.36 TeV center-of-mass energies, recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The signal is observed in the form of an enhancement of pairs of same-sign charged particles with small relative four-momentum. The size of the correlated particle emission region is seen to increase significantly with the particle multiplicity of the event.

  4. Integral Fission Cross Section Ratios of Th232, U236 and U238 Relative to U235 in the Neutron Spectrum Produced by 23.2 MeV Deuterons Incident on a Thick Be Metal Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integral neutron fission cross section ratios have been measured for Th232 /U238 , U23S/U235 and U236/U235 in the neutron field produced by bombardment of a thick Be metal target with 23.2 MeV deuterons. Validation of Th232, U236, U23S fission cross sections in a high energy neutron continuum spectrum is the object of this work. The neutron spectrum in the irradiation site has been obtained by unfolding of the neutron induced activity of eleven selected reactions. The average standard deviation between calculated activities with SAND-II unfolding code and the experimental input activities was 2.5%. Calculated values of the fission cross section ratios were obtained from, the ENDF/B-y evaluated library of cross sections and the measured spectrum. These ratios were not sensitive (<0.7%) to quite different SAND-II input spectra assumed in the low energy spectrum range (0.5 to 2. MeV). Analysis of error sources, errors propagation and their correlations was made and the correlation matrix of the experimental results was calculated. The experimental and calculated values obtained are consistent within the errors. Examination of the fissile ratios measured in other continuum neutron spectra shows a similar consistency in the spectrum produced by 7 MeV deuterons on Be. However in Cf252 and thermal U235 fission neutron spectra, a large discrepancy is found for Th232. (author)

  5. Study of the electrochemical oxidation of Am with lacunary heteropolyanions and silver nitrate; Etude de l'oxydation electrochimique de l'americium en presence d'heteropolyanions lacunaires et de nitrate d'argent en milieu aqueux acide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartier, D

    1999-07-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of Am(III) with certain lacunary heteropolyanions (LHPA {alpha}{sub 2}-P{sub 2}W{sub 17}O{sub 61}{sup 10-} or {alpha}SiW{sub 11}O{sub 39}{sup 8-}) and silver nitrate is an efficient way to prepare Am(VI). This document presents bibliographic data and an experimental study of the process. Thus, it has been established that Am(IV) is an intermediate species in the reaction and occurs in 1:1 (Amt{sup IV}LHPA) or 1:2 (Am {sup IV}(LHAP){sub 2}) complexes with the relevant LHPA. These 1:1 complexes of Am(IV) have been identified and isolated in this work whereas 1:2 complexes were known from previous studies. The reactivity of these complexes in oxidation shows that 1:1 complexes of Am(IV) are oxidised much more quickly than 1:2 complexes. Apparent stability constants of Am(III) and Am(IV) complexes with the relevant LHPA have been measured for a 1 M nitric acid medium. Thermodynamic data of the reaction are then assessed: redox potentials of Am pairs are computed for a 1 M nitric acid medium containing various amount of LHPA ligands. Those results show that the role of LHPA is to stabilize the intermediate species Am(IV) by lowering the Am(IV)/Am(III) pair potential of about 1 Volt. Nevertheless, if this stabilisation is too strong (i.e. of tungsto-silicate), the oxidation of Am(IV) requires high anodic potential (more than 2 V/ENH). Then, the faradic yield of the oxidation of americium is poor because of water oxidation. This study has also shown that the main role of silver is to catalyze the electrochemical oxidation of Am{sup IV}(LHPA){sub X} complexes. Indeed, these oxidations without silver are extremely slow. An oxygen tracer experiment has been performed during the oxidation of Am(III) in Am(VI). It has been shown that the oxygen atoms of Am(VI) (AMO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) come from water molecules of the solvent and not from the complexing oxygen atoms of the ligands. (author)

  6. Fabrication of targets for transmutation of americium : synthesis of inertial matrix by sol-gel method. Procedure study on the infiltration of a radioactive solutions; Fabricacion de blancos para la transmutacion de americio: sintesis de matrices inertes por el metodo sol-gel. Estudio del procedimiento de infiltracion de disoluciones radiactivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Carretero, A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    made. In addition a new and unexpected phase formed by the reaction of americium with spinel during the high temperature synthesis process has been identified. This new phase could provide a unique menas to stabilise Am in one particular oxidation state. (Author)

  7. SNS vil høre om det supplerende materiale giver anledning til ændringer i de tidligere fremsendte risikovurderinger. Gossypium hirsutum (281-24-236/3006-210-23). Supplerende materiale til sagen (Four questions: Molecular characterisation / Food-feed assessment). Modtaget 12-12-2005, deadline 16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Damgaard, Christian; Strandberg, Morten Tune

    2004-01-01

    "DMU finder at det nye materiale om den molekulære karakterisering af 281-24-236x3006-210-23 bomulden, ikke giver anledning til at ændre den tidligere riskovurdering. Vedr. spørgsmål 1 er det i svaret fra anmelderen blevet tilfredsstillende redegjort for hvilket materiale der blev anvendt. Vedr s...

  8. Phylogenetic-Derived Insights into the Evolution of Sialylation in Eukaryotes: Comprehensive Analysis of Vertebrate β-Galactoside α2,3/6-Sialyltransferases (ST3Gal and ST6Gal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teppa, Roxana E.; Petit, Daniel; Plechakova, Olga; Cogez, Virginie; Harduin-Lepers, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Cell surface of eukaryotic cells is covered with a wide variety of sialylated molecules involved in diverse biological processes and taking part in cell–cell interactions. Although the physiological relevance of these sialylated glycoconjugates in vertebrates begins to be deciphered, the origin and evolution of the genetic machinery implicated in their biosynthetic pathway are poorly understood. Among the variety of actors involved in the sialylation machinery, sialyltransferases are key enzymes for the biosynthesis of sialylated molecules. This review focus on β-galactoside α2,3/6-sialyltransferases belonging to the ST3Gal and ST6Gal families. We propose here an outline of the evolutionary history of these two major ST families. Comparative genomics, molecular phylogeny and structural bioinformatics provided insights into the functional innovations in sialic acid metabolism and enabled to explore how ST-gene function evolved in vertebrates. PMID:27517905

  9. Co-evolution of monsoonal precipitation in East Asia and the tropical Pacific ENSO system since 2.36 Ma: New insights from high-resolution clay mineral records in the West Philippine Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhaojie; Wan, Shiming; Colin, Christophe; Yan, Hong; Bonneau, Lucile; Liu, Zhifei; Song, Lina; Sun, Hanjie; Xu, Zhaokai; Jiang, Xuejun; Li, Anchun; Li, Tiegang

    2016-07-01

    Clay mineralogical analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis were performed on deep-sea sediments cored on the Benham Rise (core MD06-3050) in order to reconstruct long-term evolution of East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) rainfall in the period since 2.36 Ma. Clay mineralogical variations are due to changes in the ratios of smectite, which derive from weathering of volcanic rocks in Luzon Island during intervals of intensive monsoon rainfall, and illite- and chlorite-rich dusts, which are transported from East Asia by winds associated with the East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM). Since Luzon is the main source of smectite to the Benham Rise, long-term consistent variations in the smectite/(illite + chlorite) ratio in core MD06-3050 as well as ODP site 1146 in the Northern South China Sea suggest that minor contributions of eolian dust played a role in the variability of this mineralogical ratio and indicate strengthening EASM precipitation in SE Asia during time intervals from 2360 to 1900 kyr, 1200 to 600 kyr, and after 200 kyr. The EASM rainfall record displays a 30 kyr periodicity suggesting the influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). These intervals of rainfall intensification on Luzon Island are coeval with a reduction in precipitation over central China and an increase in zonal SST gradient in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, implying a reinforcement of La Niña-like conditions. In contrast, periods of reduced rainfall on Luzon Island are associated with higher precipitation in central China and a weakening zonal SST gradient in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, thereby suggesting the development of dominant El Niño-like conditions. Our study, therefore, highlights for the first time a long-term temporal and spatial co-evolution of monsoonal precipitation in East Asia and of the tropical Pacific ENSO system over the past 2.36 Ma.

  10. Preparation of americium targets for nuclear chemistry experiments at DANCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using 1 gram of 241Am from LANL stocks, the purification steps required to obtain a solution of 241Am from the original material are described. Part of the purified solution was submitted for purity analysis by mass spectrometry, radiochemistry and trace metals analysis. The impurities were expected to be 239Pu and 237Np. A second fraction of this material was used for electroplating three samples onto titanium disks that were suitable for insertion into an instrument package to be placed into the DANCE detector. The purification methods used, the electroplating setup and the solutions to various problems that were encountered in making these targets are discussed. The analytical results are discussed as well as the yields from the electrodeposition process. Comparison of these yields with those from similar experiments utilizing 235U and 243Am are also discussed. (author)

  11. Americium separation from nuclear fuel dissolution using higher oxidation states.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce J. Mincher

    2009-09-01

    Much of the complexity in current AFCI proposals is driven by the need to separate the minor actinides from the lanthanides. Partitioning and recycling Am, but not Cm, would allow for significant simplification because Am has redox chemistry that may be exploited while Cm does not. Here, we have explored methods based on higher oxidation states of Am (AmV and AmVI) to partition Am from the lanthanides. In a separate but related approach we have also initiated an investigation of the utility of TRUEX Am extraction from thiocyanate solution. The stripping of loaded TRUEX by Am oxidation or SCN- has not yet proved successful; however, the partitioning of inextractable AmV by TRUEX shows promise.

  12. Recovery of neptunium, plutonium, and americium from highly active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trialkylphosphine oxides (TRPO) (alkyl is 6c-C8) were chosen as the extractant for the recovery of Np, Pu, and Am from highly active waste (HAW) because of its extraction ability, excellent solvent behavior, high radiolytic stability, and low cost. Process chemistry based on 30 vol % TRPO-kerosene as solvent is presented. Extraction of Am in the presence of macro amounts of neodymium, adjustment of Np valence by electrolytic reduction, selective stripping of actinides from loaded organic phase, and loading capacity of the solvent are included. Process parameters of multistage countercurrent extraction and stripping and the results of experimental verification are given. From HAW with ∼1 M nitric acid concentration, recovery of actinides is higher than 99.9%. The actinides extracted can be stripped out separately into Am, Np-Pu, and U fractions. The behavior of nonactinide HAW constituents, including Tc, is discussed

  13. Property Data for Simulated Americium/Curium Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors studied the properties of mixed lanthanide-alumino-borosilicate glasses. Fifty-five glasses were designed to augment a previous, Phase I, study by systematically varying the composition of Ln2O3 and the concentrations of Ln2O3, SiO2, B2O3, Al2O3, and SrO in glass. These glasses were designed and fabricated at the Savannah River Technology Center and tested at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The properties measured include the high-temperature viscosity (η) as a function of temperature (T) and the liquidus temperature (TL) of Phase II test glasses

  14. The vapour pressure of americium(III) chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the method described by Fischer, an ultramicro-size appratus was developed for static determination of the saturation vapour pressure of highly radioactive materials. The apparatus was tested with MgCl2, MnCl2, HoCl3 and ScF3. The vapour pressure curves of MgCl2 and MnCl2 were in good agreement with other publications and thus proved the efficiency of the apparatus in spite of its difficulties of handling. The values measured for HoCl3 and ScF3 differed from those of earlier publications. However, these deviations have been observed before and may be the result of the different measuring principles of static and dynamic methods. For AmCl3, the following vapour pressure equation was established: log psub(Torr)=-(11826/T)+10.7. The thermodynamic parameters of the evaporation process were calculated on this basis, and the values for AmBr3 and PnCl3 were determined by extrapolation. (orig.)

  15. 1976 Hanford americium-exposure incident: accident description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accident is described, involving the explosion of an ion-exchange column containing about 100 g of 241Am. A chemical operator was injured in this accident, receiving acid burns and superficial cuts on the upper part of his body. From 1 to 5 curies of 241Am is estimated to have been deposited on the injured worker and on his clothing

  16. Further Studies of Plutonium and Americium at Thule, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Asker; Dahlgaard, Henning; Nilsson, Karen Kristina;

    1984-01-01

    Eleven years after the accidental loss of nuclear weapons in 1968, the fourth scientific expedition to Thule occurred. The estimated inventory of 1 TBq 239,240Pu in the marine sediments was unchanged when compared with the estimate based on the 1974 data. Plutonium from the accident had moved...

  17. Inclusion compounds of plant growth regulators in cyclodextrins. V. 4-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid encapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin and heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsorteki, Frantzeska; Bethanis, Kostas; Pinotsis, Nikos; Giastas, Petros; Mentzafos, Dimitris

    2005-04-01

    The crystal structures of 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4CPA) included in beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin (TMbetaCD) have been studied by X-ray diffraction. The 4CPA/beta-CD complex crystallizes as a head-to-head dimer in the space group C2 in the Tetrad packing mode. The packing modes of some beta-CD dimeric complexes, having unique stackings, are also discussed. The 4CPA/TMbetaCD inclusion complex crystallizes in the space group P2(1) and its asymmetric unit contains two crystallographically independent complexes, complex A and complex B, exhibiting different conformations. The host molecule of complex A is significantly distorted, as a glucosidic residue rotated about the O4'-C1 and C4-O4 bonds forms an aperture where the guest molecule is accommodated. The phenyl moiety of the guest molecule of complex B is nearly perpendicular to the mean plane of the O4n atoms. The conformations of the guest molecules of the two complexes are similar. The crystal packing consists of antiparallel columns as in the majority of the TMbetaCD complexes published so far.

  18. Angular correlations of fission fragments from the reactions 232Th(p,p'f) and 236U(p,p'f) at a projectile energy of 26.5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular correlations of fission fragments from the reactions 232Th(p,p'f) and 236U(p,p'f) have been measured at a projectile energy of Ep=26.5 MeV and excitation energies up to the second chance fission. The scattered protons have been detected by a semiconductor telescope positioned at two different angles (vTel=90 and vTel=60 ). The fission fragments have been measured by a parallel plate avalanche detector, which was position sensitive in two dimensions. The data continuously cover the angular ranges of about -15 up to +95 for vTel=90 and about -5 up to +50 for vTel=60 with respect to the kinematical recoil axis. It succeeded to describe the changes of the angular distribution with increasing excitation energy in terms of the Transition State Model by a uniform increase of the contributions with K≠0 for both compound systems and both excitation reactions. (orig./DG)

  19. Study of in Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Galla Chinensis Ethanol Extractant Against 236 Strains Staphylococcus Epidermidis(MRSE and MSSE)%五倍子乙醇提取物对表皮葡萄球菌的体外抗菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仲兴; 王秀华; 杨永昌; 孟晓洁; 杨敬芳; 时东彦

    2004-01-01

    目的观察五倍子乙醇提取物对表皮葡萄球菌的体外抗菌活性,为临床应用和新药研究提供依据.方法采用新的中药抑菌实验方法,对五倍子提取物进行236株表皮葡萄球菌的最低抑菌浓度测定,并与五倍子水煎剂进行抑菌效果对比.结果五倍子提取物对236株表皮葡萄球菌中的127株耐甲氧西林表皮葡萄球菌(methicillin-resistant staphylococcus epidermidis,MRSE)和109株甲氧西林敏感的表皮葡萄球菌(methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus epidermidis,MSSE)的MIC90分别为1.15和0.288mg·ml-1.结论五倍子乙醇提取物对236株表皮葡萄球菌具有较强的抑菌作用.

  20. Estrogen and progesterone receptor status determined by the Ventana ES 320 automated immunohistochemical stainer and the CAS 200 image analyzer in 236 early-stage breast carcinomas: prognostic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layfield, L J; Saria, E A; Conlon, D H; Kerns, B J

    1996-03-01

    The quantitation of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PgR) has become the standard of care in the evaluation of patients with primary breast carcinoma. It has been demonstrated that ER and PgR detected by immunohistochemical methods in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue can be quantified by computerized image analysis. In this study, ER and PgR levels were determined by using an automated immunochemistry stainer (Ventana ES 320) and an image analyzer (CAS 200) in a series of 236 patients with stage I/II carcinoma of the breast. The degree of correlation of the ER and PgR levels determined by the dextran-coated charcoal method (DCC) with image analysis quantitation was high (r=0.75). The agreement between both methods was 77% for ER and 73% for PgR. Hormone receptor levels were correlated with prognosis as determined by overall survival. An ER level of 30 fmol/mg as determined by image analysis was established to stratify the patient population most effectively into favorable and unfavorable prognostic groups (P=0.003). An ER level of 20 fmol/mg for prognostic stratification reached statistical significance (P=0.03). The DCC method was not able to stratify the patients into prognostic groups at the traditionally accepted cutpoint of 10 fmol/mg (P=0.52). We conclude that when used in combination, automated immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis offer a favorable alternative to the DCC method in assessment of ER and PgR status in human mammary carcinoma. In addition, quantitative immunocytochemistry techniques may prove superior to the DCC method in specimens in which there is limited tumor volume (including fine-needle aspirates), stroma-rich tumors, and early-stage lesions including intraductal carcinoma.

  1. 24 CFR 236.60 - Excess Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... approved under 24 CFR part 248 or in connection with an adjustment of contract rents under section 8 of the... HUD's Uniform Physical Condition Standards and Inspection Requirements in 24 CFR part 5, subpart G; (B... under 24 CFR part 50 for activities that are not excluded under 24 CFR 50.19(b). (g)...

  2. 17 CFR 256.236 - Taxes accrued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... be kept so as to show for each class of taxes the amount accrued, the basis for the accrual, the... credited with the amount of taxes accrued during the accounting period, corresponding debits being made...

  3. 28 CFR 2.36 - Rescission guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... time spent in custody on a new offense that has not been credited towards service of the original... unlawful possession of a firearm or explosives in a prison facility, other than a community corrections center, as Category Six. Grade unlawful possession of a firearm in a community corrections center...

  4. 48 CFR 236.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Engineering Command, or Air Force Directorate of Civil Engineering. (3) Marshallese firm is defined in the... any organizational level of the DoD that— (i) Is responsible for the architectural, engineering,...

  5. 49 CFR 236.1003 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Positive Train Control... the Surface Transportation Board (49 CFR part 1201.1-1 (2008)). Cleartext means the un-encrypted text... output of an decryption or decipher process. Controlling locomotive means Locomotive, controlling,...

  6. 49 CFR 236.408 - Route locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems... locking shall be effective when the first pair of wheels of a locomotive or car passes a point not...

  7. 8 CFR 236.12 - Eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) of the Act based on the same relationship. (b) Legalization application pending as of May 5, 1988 or December 1, 1988. An alien whose legalization application was filed on or before May 5, 1988 (in the...

  8. 49 CFR 236.903 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Standards for Processor... management control plan means a plan designed to ensure that the proper and intended product configuration... behavior and motivation, that must be considered in product design. Human-machine interface (HMI) means...

  9. 49 CFR 236.911 - Exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Standards for Processor-Based Signal and... be handled? Products designed in accordance with subparts A through G of this part which are not...

  10. 8 CFR 236.11 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... In this subpart, the term: Eligible immigrant means a qualified immigrant who is the spouse or... Adjustment); or (3) Is a naturalized U.S. citizen who was a permanent resident under section 210 or 245A of the Act or section 202 of the Immigrant Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA)...

  11. 29 CFR 779.236 - In general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... service enterprises will be subject to different monetary standards than newly covered employment in such... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR... OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Covered Enterprises §...

  12. 10 CFR 600.236 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1368), Executive Order 11738, and Environmental Protection Agency regulations... the basis for the contract price. (10) Grantees and subgrantees will use time and material type... includes a ceiling price that the contractor exceeds at its own risk. (11) Grantees and subgrantees...

  13. Neutron Nuclear Data Evaluation of Actinoid Nuclei for CENDL-3.1

    CERN Document Server

    Guo-Chang, Chen; Bao-Sheng, Yu; Guo-You, Tang; Zhao-Min, Shi; Xi, Tao

    2011-01-01

    New evaluations for several actinoids of the third version of China Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (CENDL-3.1) have been completed during the period between 2000 and 2005. The evaluations are for all neutron induced reactions with Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium and Americium in the mass range A=232-241, 236-239, 236-246 and 240-244, respectively, and cover the incident neutron energy up to 20 MeV. In present evaluation, much more efforts were devoted to improve reliability of nuclide for available new measured data, especially scarce experimental data. A general description for the evaluation of several actinoids data were presented.

  14. Investigation of the retention and distribution of americium-241 in the baboon and the enhanced removal of americium-241 from the body by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were performed to study the metabolism and distribution of intravenously administered 241Am in the adult and juvenile baboon; in addition, decorporation therapy using Na3-CaDTPA was performed on selected baboons to assess the efficacy of this drug in removing systemic burdens of 241Am from this primate species. Determination of the kinetics of 241Am was accomplished principally by in vivo methodologies and by radiochemical analysis of 241Am activity of biological material. The use of Na3-CaDTPA as a therapeutic agent for the removal of 241Am from the body proved to be an effective form of treatment in the case of early administration. (U.S.)

  15. Americium-Curium Stabilization - 5'' Cylindrical Induction Melter System Design Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, D.C.

    1999-11-08

    Approximately 11,000 liters (3,600) gallons of solution containing isotopes of Am and Cm are currently stored in F-Canyon Tank 17.1. These isotopes were recovered during plutonium-242 production campaigns in the mid- and late-1970s. Experimental work for the project began in 1995 by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). Details of the process are given in the various sections of this document.

  16. Biosorption of radionuclide Americium-241 by A. niger spore and hyphae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosorption of radionuclide 241Am from solution was studied by a. niger spore and hyphae, and the effects of the operational conditions on the treatment were investigated. The results showed the treatment by A. niger spore and hyphae were very efficient. An average of 96% of the total 241Am was removed from 241Am solutions of 5.6-111 MBq/L (C0), with adsorption capacities (W) of 7.2-142.4 MBq/g biomass, 5.2-106.5 MBq/g, respectively. The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 1 h and the optimum pH value ranged 3-0.1 mol/L HNO3 and 3-2 for spore and hyphae of A. niger, respectively. No significant effects on 241Am biosorption were observed at 15 degree C-45 degree C, or challenged with containing Au3+ or Ag+, even 2000 times above 241Am amount. the index relationship between concentrations and adsorption capacities of 241Am indicated that the 241Am biosorption by A. niger spore and hyphae obey to Freundlich adsorption equation. The adsorption behavior of A. niger spore and hyphae were basically coincident

  17. Americium and plutonium release behavior from irradiated mixed oxide fuel during heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, I.; Suto, M.; Miwa, S.; Hirosawa, T.; Koyama, S.

    2013-06-01

    The release behavior of Pu and Am was investigated under the reducing atmosphere expected in sodium cooled fast reactor severe accidents. Irradiated Pu and U mixed oxide fuels were heated at maximum temperatures of 2773 K and 3273 K. EPMA, γ-ray spectrometry and α-ray spectrometry for released and residual materials revealed that Pu and Am can be released more easily than U under the reducing atmosphere. The respective release rate coefficients for Pu and Am were obtained as 3.11 × 10-4 min-1 and 1.60 × 10-4 min-1 at 2773 K under the reducing atmosphere with oxygen partial pressure less than 0.02 Pa. Results of thermochemical calculations indicated that the main released chemical forms would likely be PuO for Pu and Am for Am under quite low oxygen partial pressure.

  18. Fabrication of uranium-americium mixed oxide fuels: thermodynamical modeling and materials properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel irradiation in pressurized water reactors lead to the formation of fission products and minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) which can be transmuted in fast neutrons reactors. In this context, the aim of this work was to study the fabrication conditions of the U1-yAmyO2+x fuels which exhibit particular thermodynamical properties requiring an accurate monitoring of the oxygen potential during the sintering step. For this reason, a thermodynamical model was developed to assess the optimum sintering conditions for these materials. From these calculations, U1-yAmyO2+x (y=0.10; 0.15; 0.20; 0.30) were sintered in two range of atmosphere. In hyper-stoichiometric conditions at low temperature, porous and multiphasic compounds are obtained whereas in reducing conditions at high temperature materials are dense and monophasic. XAFS analyses were performed in order to obtain additional experimental data for the thermodynamical modeling refinement. These characterizations also showed the reduction of Am(+IV) to Am(+III) and the partial oxidation of U(+IV) to U(+V) due to a charge compensation mechanism occurring during the sintering. Finally, taking into account the high - activity of Am, self-irradiation effects were studied for two types of microstructures and two Am contents (10 and 15%). For each composition, a lattice parameter increase was observed without structural change coupled with a macroscopic swelling of the pellet diameter up to 1.2% for the dense compounds and 0.6% for the tailored porosity materials. (author)

  19. Chemical behaviour of americium in natural aquatic solutions: Hydrolysis, radiolysis and redox reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrolysis and redox reactions of the Am(III) and Am(V) ions have been investigated in NaClO4 and NaCl solutions as well as in natural saline groundwaters. The hydrolysis constants of Am(OH)n3-n species and the solubility product of Am(OH)3(s) have been determined in 0.1 M NaClO4, 0.1 M NaCl and 0.6 M NaCl solutions. As observed in concentrated NaCl solutions (> 3 M), the α-radiation induces the radiolytic oxidation of the Cl--ion to produce Cl2, HClO, ClO- and other oxidized species, which result in a strongly oxidizing medium. Consequently Am(III) is oxidized to Am(V). Under these conditions the hydrolysis constants of AmO2(OH)n1-n species and the solubility product are also determined. The α-radiation induced radiolysis reactions in NaCl solution and the subsequent oxidation reaction of Am(III) have been systematically investigated by varying pH, NaCl concentration and specific α-activity. Also included in the investigation are a few selected groundwaters of relatively high salinity from the Gorleben aquifer systems. (orig.)

  20. Effect of solvent on in vitro dissolution: Summary of results for uranium, americium, and cobalt aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revised 10 CFR Part 20 has adopted the ICRP Publication 30 method for calculating the committed effective dose equivalent from intakes of radionuclides. This dosimetry scheme requires knowledge or assumptions about the chemical form of the radionuclide, its particle size, and its known or assumed solubility. The solubility is classified as being either D (relatively soluble), W, or Y (relatively insoluble), depending on whether the material dissolves over periods of days, weeks, or years. Although Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees may wish to take advantage of material-specific knowledge in order to adjust annual limits on intake and derived air concentrations, relatively few radioactive materials to which workers and the general population may be exposed have been adequately characterized either in terms of physicochemical form or solubility. Experimental measurement of solubility using some type of in vitro dissolution measurement system is therefore needed. However, there is currently no clear consensus regarding the appropriate design of in vitro dissolution systems, particularly when considering the range of different radionuclides to be studied, and the complexity of the biological mechanisms involved in the retention and clearance of inhaled deposited radioactive particles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the several solvents on the dissolution of four test aerosols (57Co3O4, 241AmO2, ammonium diuranate [ADU], and U3O8) selected to encompass a variety of chemical and biochemical properties in vivo. The results of this study provide some guidance on the usefulness of in vitro dissolution tests for estimating the solubility of unknown radionuclide particles within the context of a simple model such as the class D, W, and Y formulation of ICRP 30

  1. Americium and plutonium separation by extraction chromatography for determination by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazi, Zakir H. [Department of Earth Science, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur Avenue, Ottawa K1N 6N5 (Canada); Cornett, Jack R., E-mail: jack.cornett@uottawa.ca [Department of Earth Science, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur Avenue, Ottawa K1N 6N5 (Canada); Zhao, Xaiolei; Kieser, Liam [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur Avenue, Ottawa K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Am and Pu were adsorbed and separated using a single extraction chromatography DGA column. • Pu was eluted from the column completely using on-column reduction of Pu(IV) to Pu(III). • ²⁴¹Am and 239,240Pu measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) agree with the certified values in two SRMs. Abstract: A simple method was developed to separate Pu and Am using single column extraction chromatography employing N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide (DGA) resin. Isotope dilution measurements of Am and Pu were performed using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and alpha spectrometry. For maximum adsorption Pu was stabilized in the tetra valent oxidation state in 8 M HNO₃ with 0.05 M NaNO₂ before loading the sample onto the resin. Am(III) was adsorbed also onto the resin from concentrated HNO₃, and desorbed with 0.1 M HCl while keeping the Pu adsorbed. The on-column reduction of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) with 0.02 M TiCl₃ facilitated the complete desorption of Pu. Interferences (e.g. Ca²⁺, Fe³⁺) were washed off from the resin bed with excess HNO₃. Using NdF₃, micro-precipitates of the separated isotopes were prepared for analysis by both AMS and alpha spectrometry. The recovery was 97.7 ± 5.3% and 95.5 ± 4.6% for ²⁴¹Am and ²⁴²Pu respectively in reagents without a matrix. The recoveries of the same isotopes were 99.1 ± 6.0 and 96.8 ± 5.3% respectively in garden soil. The robustness of the method was validated using certified reference materials (IAEA 384 and IAEA 385). The measurements agree with the certified values over a range of about 1–100 Bq kg⁻¹. The single column separation of Pu and Am saves reagents, separation time, and cost.

  2. New Synthetic Methods and Structure-Property Relationships in Neptunium, Plutonium, and Americium Borates. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas Edward

    2013-09-14

    The past three years of support by the Heavy Elements Chemistry Program have been highly productive in terms of advanced degrees awarded, currently supported graduate students, peer-reviewed publications, and presentations made at universities, national laboratories, and at international conferences. Ph.D. degrees were granted to Shuao Wang and Juan Diwu, who both went on to post-doctoral appointments at the Glenn T. Seaborg Center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with Jeff Long and Ken Raymond, respectively. Pius Adelani completed his Ph.D. with me and is now a post-doc with Peter C. Burns. Andrea Alsobrook finished her Ph.D. and is now a post-doc at Savannah River with Dave Hobbs. Anna Nelson completed her Ph.D. and is now a post-doc with Rod Ewing at the University of Michigan. As can be gleaned from this list, students supported by the Heavy Elements Chemistry grant have remained interested in actinide science after leaving my program. This follows in line with previous graduates in this program such as Richard E. Sykora, who did his post-doctoral work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with R. G. Haire, and Amanda C. Bean, who is a staff scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Philip M. Almond and Thomas C. Shehee, who are both staff scientists at Savannah River National Laboratory, Gengbang Jin who is a staff scientist at Argonne National Lab, and Travis Bray who has been a post-doc at both LBNL and ANL. Clearly this program is serving as a pipe-line for students to enter into careers in the national laboratories. About half of my students depart the DOE complex for academia or industry. My undergraduate researchers also remain active in actinide chemistry after leaving my group. Dan Wells was a productive undergraduate of mine, and went on to pursue a Ph.D. on uranium and neptunium chalcogenides with Jim Ibers at Northwestern. After earning his Ph.D., he went directly into the nuclear industry.

  3. Separation of Americium from Fission Product Lanthanides Using Cyanex 301 Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yongjun; CHEN Jing

    2001-01-01

    The extraction behavior of bis (2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid (HBTMPDTP),purified from Cyanex 301,was studied for extracting Am3+ and trivalent lanthanides (Lns).HBTMPDTP shows very high selectivity for Am.Separation factor(SF)of Am and Eu,SF Am/Eu,(trace amount)reaches a high value of 5.9×103 and SF Am/(Pr+Nd) (macro amount)is about 2×103.The mathematical model for the distribution ratios and process parameters calculated for HBTMPDTP extraction was established and the calculated results were verified experimentally.In a five-stage countercurrent process,the extraction rates of Am and Lns were >99.999% and 0.14%,respectively,to fulfill the separation requirements.The efficiency of this process was also verified in a cross-flow extraction experiment using a genuine Am-FPLns fraction.In the presence of TBP,the extraction of Am and Eu is enhanced,but their separation is reduced to some extent.A fairly good separation was achieved in a fractional extraction process using a mixture of HBTMPDTP and TBP in kerosene at low pH.

  4. Neutron capture and neutron-induced fission experiments on americium isotopes with DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Fowler, M. M.; Becker, J. A.; Bond, E. M.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Haslett, R. J.; Henderson, R. A.; Keksis, A. L.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron capture cross section data on Am isotopes were measured using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The neutron capture cross section was determined for 241Am for neutron energies between thermal and 320 keV. Preliminary results were also obtained for 243Am for neutron energies between 10 eV and 250 keV. The results on concurrent neutron-induced fission and neutron-capture measurements on 242mAm will be presented where the fission events were actively triggered during the experiments. In these experiments, a Parallel-Plate Avalanche Counter (PPAC) detector that surrounds the target located in the center of the DANCE array was used as a fission-tagging detector to separate (n,γ) events from (n,f) events. The first direct observation of neutron capture on 242mAm in the resonance region in between 2 and 9 eV of the neutron energy was obtained.

  5. Plutonium and americium in air on the coasts of the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of artificial radionuclides in air, deposition and seawater were carried out at coastal and inland locations in Cumbria, south-west Scotland, Northern Ireland and North Wales. The measurements were undertaken to determine the distribution of artificial radionuclides in the coastal environment attributable to discharges from Sellafield and to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the increased radionuclide concentration in the marine aerosol and their subsequent transfer to land. A number of different sampling methods were used and the contribution each method could make to the understanding of the marine aerosol was assessed. Measurements of the size distribution of the marine aerosol was also undertaken. The measurements demonstrated that the actinide concentrations measured in the air and deposition at coastal locations could be related to near shore sea water concentrations, but that no direct proportionality existed. It was also determined that a significant proportion of the material transferred from sea to land was associated with larger particulate present in the marine aerosol during conditions of above average onshore winds. (author)

  6. Neutron capture and neutron-induced fission experiments on americium isotopes with DANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandel, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Neutron capture cross section data on Am isotopes were measured using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The neutron capture cross section was determined for {sup 241}Am for neutron energies between thermal and 320 keV. Preliminary results were also obtained for {sup 243}Am for neutron energies between 35 eV and 200 keV. The results on concurrent neutron-induced fission and neutron-capture measurements on {sup 242m}Am will be presented, where the fission events were actively triggered during the experiments. In these experiments, the Parallel-Plate Avalanche Counter (PPAC) detector that surrounds the target located in the center of the DANCE array was used as a fission-tagging detector to separate (n,{gamma}) from (n,f) events. The first evidence of neutron capture on {sup 242m}Am in the resonance region in between 2 and 9 eV of the neutron energy was obtained.

  7. Concordant plutonium-241-americium-241 dating of environmental samples: results from forest fire ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oldham, Warren J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murrell, Michael T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katzman, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-07

    We have measured the Pu, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 151}Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu (t{sub 1/2} = 14.4 y)-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components including global fallout. There are a number of approaches for subtracting the global fallout component for such samples. One approach is to use {sup 242}/{sup 239}Pu as a normalizing isotope ratio in a three-isotope plot, where this ratio for the nonglobal fallout component can be estimated or assumed to be small. This study investigates a new, complementary method of normalization using the long-lived fission product, {sup 151}Sm (t{sub 1/2} = 90 y). We find that forest fire ash concentrates actinides and fission products with {approx}1E10 atoms {sup 239}Pu/g and {approx}1E8 atoms {sup 151}Sm/g, allowing us to measure these nuclides by mass spectrometric (MIC-TIMS) and radiometric (liquid scintillation counting) methods. The forest fire ash samples are characterized by a western U.S. regional isotopic signature representing varying mixtures of global fallout with a local component from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our results also show that {sup 151}Sm is well correlated with the Pu nuclides in the forest fire ash, suggesting that these nuclides have similar geochemical behavior in the environment. Results of this correlation indicate that the {sup 151}Sm/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio for global fallout is {approx}0.164, in agreement with an independent estimate of 0.165 based on {sup 137}Cs fission yields for atmospheric weapons tests at the NTS. {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating of the non-global fallout component in the forest fire ash samples yield ages in the late 1950's-early 1960's, consistent with a peak in NTS weapons testing at that time. The age results for this component are in agreement using both {sup 242}Pu and {sup 151}Sm normalizations, although the errors for the {sup 151}Sm correction are currently larger due to the greater uncertainty of their measurements. Additional efforts to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections are underway with emphasis on soil cores.

  8. Neutron capture and neutron-induced fission experiments on americium isotopes with DANCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron capture cross section data on Am isotopes were measured using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The neutron capture cross section was determined for 241Am for neutron energies between thermal and 320 keV. Preliminary results were also obtained for 243Am for neutron energies between 35 eV and 200 keV. The results on concurrent neutron-induced fission and neutron-capture measurements on 242mAm will be presented, where the fission events were actively triggered during the experiments. In these experiments, the Parallel-Plate Avalanche Counter (PPAC) detector that surrounds the target located in the center of the DANCE array was used as a fission-tagging detector to separate (n,γ) from (n,f) events. The first evidence of neutron capture on 242mAm in the resonance region in between 2 and 9 eV of the neutron energy was obtained.

  9. Mean squared slowing-down distance and age of americium-beryllium neutrons in perspex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THe mean squared slowing-down distance 2>, and the age to thermal capture (Migration Area), M2, are direct measures of the slowing.down, and the spreading out, processes of neutrons in a medium. They also enter directly into reactor calculations. These parameters have been determined experimentally for Am-Be neutrons (mean energy 4.46 MeV), in a block of perspex, using the activities induced in thin indium foils from the 115In(n,γ)116In reactions. (author) 13 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  10. Americium-Curium Stabilization - 5'' Cylindrical Induction Melter System Design Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 11,000 liters (3,600) gallons of solution containing isotopes of Am and Cm are currently stored in F-Canyon Tank 17.1. These isotopes were recovered during plutonium-242 production campaigns in the mid- and late-1970s. Experimental work for the project began in 1995 by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). Details of the process are given in the various sections of this document

  11. Effect of solvent on in vitro dissolution: Summary of results for uranium, americium, and cobalt aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Hoover, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    The revised 10 CFR Part 20 has adopted the ICRP Publication 30 method for calculating the committed effective dose equivalent from intakes of radionuclides. This dosimetry scheme requires knowledge or assumptions about the chemical form of the radionuclide, its particle size, and its known or assumed solubility. The solubility is classified as being either D (relatively soluble), W, or Y (relatively insoluble), depending on whether the material dissolves over periods of days, weeks, or years. Although Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees may wish to take advantage of material-specific knowledge in order to adjust annual limits on intake and derived air concentrations, relatively few radioactive materials to which workers and the general population may be exposed have been adequately characterized either in terms of physicochemical form or solubility. Experimental measurement of solubility using some type of in vitro dissolution measurement system is therefore needed. However, there is currently no clear consensus regarding the appropriate design of in vitro dissolution systems, particularly when considering the range of different radionuclides to be studied, and the complexity of the biological mechanisms involved in the retention and clearance of inhaled deposited radioactive particles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the several solvents on the dissolution of four test aerosols ({sup 57}Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, {sup 241}AmO{sub 2}, ammonium diuranate [ADU], and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) selected to encompass a variety of chemical and biochemical properties in vivo. The results of this study provide some guidance on the usefulness of in vitro dissolution tests for estimating the solubility of unknown radionuclide particles within the context of a simple model such as the class D, W, and Y formulation of ICRP 30.

  12. Distribution of plutonium and americium in human and animal tissues after chronic exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of plutonium in the tissues of a group of southern Finns was determined. Their Pu intake had been solely from fallout via inhalation. A group of northern Finns was also studied. They obtain most of the Pu from inhalation, but also some from their diet which is rich in reindeer liver. Reindeer obtain large amounts of transuranium elements in their natural winter diet, which mainly consists of lichen. Pu-239, 240 and Am-241 were also analyzed in elk because it is closely related to reindeer but does not feed on lichen. It was found that much of the Am-241 in reindeer tissues is due to ingrowth from Pu-241 in the animal. The aim of this study to establish whether this situation is also true for the human bone. (H.K.)

  13. Separation of americium(III) from lanthanides(III) by nanofiltration-complexation in aqueous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The separation of Am(III) from a mixture of lanthanides(III) was performed in aqueous medium by nanofiltration combined with a complexation step using a DTPA derivative as selective complexing agent. (author)

  14. Optimization of TRPO Process Parameters for Americium Extraction from High Level Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jing; WANG Jianchen; SONG Chongli

    2001-01-01

    The numerical calculations for Am multistage fractional extraction by trialkyl phosphine oxide (TRPO) were verified by a hot test.1750 L/t-U high level waste (HLW) was used as the feed to the TRPO process.The analysis used the simple objective function to minimize the total waste content in the TRPO process streams.Some process parameters were optimized after other parameters were selected.The optimal process parameters for Am extraction by TRPO are:10 stages for extraction and 2 stages for scrubbing;a flow rate ratio of 0.931 for extraction and 4.42 for scrubbing;nitric acid concentration of 1.35 mol/L for the feed and 0.5 mol/L for the scrubbing solution.Finally,the nitric acid and Am concentration profiles in the optimal TRPO extraction process are given.

  15. Functional sorbents for selective capture of plutonium, americium, uranium, and thorium in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yantasee, Wassana; Sangvanich, Thanapon; Creim, Jeffery A; Pattamakomsan, Kanda; Wiacek, Robert J; Fryxell, Glen E; Addleman, R Shane; Timchalk, Charles

    2010-09-01

    Self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous supports (SAMMS) are hybrid materials created from attachment of organic moieties onto very high surface area mesoporous silica. SAMMS with surface chemistries including three isomers of hydroxypyridinone, diphosphonic acid, acetamide phosphonic acid, glycinyl urea, and diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) analog were evaluated for chelation of actinides ((239)Pu, (241)Am, uranium, thorium) from blood. Direct blood decorporation using sorbents does not have the toxicity or renal challenges associated with traditional chelation therapy and may have potential applications for critical exposure cases, reduction of nonspecific dose during actinide radiotherapy, and for sorbent hemoperfusion in renal insufficient patients, whose kidneys clear radionuclides at a very slow rate. Sorption affinity (K(d)), sorption rate, selectivity, and stability of SAMMS were measured in batch contact experiments. An isomer of hydroxypyridinone (3,4-HOPO) on SAMMS demonstrated the highest affinity for all four actinides from blood and plasma and greatly outperformed the DTPA analog on SAMMS and commercial resins. In batch contact, a fifty percent reduction of actinides in blood was achieved within minutes, and there was no evidence of protein fouling or material leaching in blood after 24 h. The engineered form of SAMMS (bead format) was further evaluated in a 100-fold scaled-down hemoperfusion device and showed no blood clotting after 2 h. A 0.2 g quantity of SAMMS could reduce 50 wt.% of 100 ppb uranium in 50 mL of plasma in 18 min and that of 500 dpm mL(-1) in 24 min. 3,4-HOPO-SAMMS has a long shelf-life in air and at room temperature for at least 8 y, indicating its feasibility for stockpiling in preparedness for an emergency. The excellent efficacy and stability of SAMMS materials in complex biological matrices suggest that SAMMS can also be used as orally administered drugs and for wound decontamination. By changing the organic groups of SAMMS, they can be used not only for actinides but also for other radionuclides. By using the mixture of these SAMMS materials, broad spectrum decorporation of radionuclides is very feasible.

  16. Sorption of americium in tuff and pure minerals using synthetic and natural groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of Am between selected solid and liquid phases has been studied using initial 241Am solutions with a molarity smaller than 1 x 10-11. The synthetic and natural groundwaters used have pH values in the 7--8 range and a total alkalinity of approximately 1 mN which is mainly due to bicarbonate. Mass spectrometric isotope dilution was utilized to determine the amount of Am in the solution phase initially and after equilibrium was attained. Using this sensitive technique, 7 x 108 atoms of 241Am were accurately measured. Our results indicate that the percent of Am lost to the walls of the container in the absence of geologic material varies from 35 to 84. The Am sorption coefficient determined is on the order of 103 ml/g for clinoptilolite, 104 ml/g for tuff consisting mainly of alkali feldspar and cristobalite, and 105 ml/g for romanechite. 12 refs

  17. Americium-241 and plutonium-237 turnover in mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) living in field enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guary, J. C.; Fowler, S. W.

    1981-02-01

    Loss of 241Am and 237Pu from contaminated mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) living in situ in the Mediterranean Sea is described as the sum of three exponential functions. In the case of 241Am, two short-lived compartments representing a total of 80% of the incorporated radionuclide turned over rapidly with biological half-lives of 2 and 3 weeks. The remaining fraction of 241Am, associated with a long-lived compartment, was lost at an extremely slow rate ( Tb1/2=1·3 years). Plutonium-237 turnover in the two short-lived compartments (containing 70% of the Pu) was more rapid ( Tb1/2=1-2 days and 2 weeks) than that of 241Am; however, there was some indication that subsequent loss rates of the two radionuclides in long-lived compartments may be similar if determined over comparable periods of time. Loss rates of 241Am differed for the various tissues, with the most rapid rates occurring in gill, viscera and shell. Abrupt changes in loss observed in muscle and mantle suggested a translocation of 241Am to muscle and mantle during depuration. Whole shell contained by far the largest fraction (˜90%) of both 241Am and 237Pu taken up; in addition, these radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to mussel shell but readily leach into the water. These observations suggest that mollusc shell may influence the biogeochemistry of transuranic elements in littoral zones.

  18. New Synthetic Methods and Structure-Property Relationships in Neptunium, Plutonium, and Americium Borates. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The past three years of support by the Heavy Elements Chemistry Program have been highly productive in terms of advanced degrees awarded, currently supported graduate students, peer-reviewed publications, and presentations made at universities, national laboratories, and at international conferences. Ph.D. degrees were granted to Shuao Wang and Juan Diwu, who both went on to post-doctoral appointments at the Glenn T. Seaborg Center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with Jeff Long and Ken Raymond, respectively. Pius Adelani completed his Ph.D. with me and is now a post-doc with Peter C. Burns. Andrea Alsobrook finished her Ph.D. and is now a post-doc at Savannah River with Dave Hobbs. Anna Nelson completed her Ph.D. and is now a post-doc with Rod Ewing at the University of Michigan. As can be gleaned from this list, students supported by the Heavy Elements Chemistry grant have remained interested in actinide science after leaving my program. This follows in line with previous graduates in this program such as Richard E. Sykora, who did his post-doctoral work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with R. G. Haire, and Amanda C. Bean, who is a staff scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Philip M. Almond and Thomas C. Shehee, who are both staff scientists at Savannah River National Laboratory, Gengbang Jin who is a staff scientist at Argonne National Lab, and Travis Bray who has been a post-doc at both LBNL and ANL. Clearly this program is serving as a pipe-line for students to enter into careers in the national laboratories. About half of my students depart the DOE complex for academia or industry. My undergraduate researchers also remain active in actinide chemistry after leaving my group. Dan Wells was a productive undergraduate of mine, and went on to pursue a Ph.D. on uranium and neptunium chalcogenides with Jim Ibers at Northwestern. After earning his Ph.D., he went directly into the nuclear industry

  19. Combined procedure using radiochemical separation of plutonium, americium and uranium radionuclides for alpha-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiochemical separation of Pu, Am and U was tested from synthetic solutions and evaporator concentrate samples from nuclear power plants for isolation of each of them for alpha-spectrometry analysis. The separation was performed by anion-exchange chromatography, extraction chromatography, using TRU resin, and precipitation techniques. The aim of the study was to develop a sensitive analytical procedure for the sequential determination of 242Pu, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 235,238U in radioactive wastes. 238Pu, 242Pu, 243Am and 232U were used as tracers. The measurements of α emitting radionuclides were performed by semiconductor detector that is used especially when spectrometric information is needed. For synthetic solutions the chemical recovery was based on associated iron concentration and was about 93%. (author)

  20. Study on the uptake of Americium using PC88A - impregnated macroporous polymeric beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prime objective of radioactive waste treatment in nuclear industry is to minimize the waste volume by efficient process without generating secondary radioactive waste for its final disposal. Among the currently available technologies, for separation and recovery of metal ions, solvent extraction, ion-exchange, membrane based technologies and solid sorbent materials are more popular means. Though, all these technologies play major role in all the bulk separation processes, their marked limitations force the separation scientists to think of advance, more efficient and technically feasible alternatives. The extractant impregnated polymeric beads (EIMPBs), impregnated with metal-specific extractants, exhibit reliable separation performances under column operation, and hence bridge the gap between solvent extraction and ion exchange techniques. In the present work, PC88A impregnated PES beads are prepared and the sorption of Am (III) from aqueous waste solutions is investigated. The synthesized EIMPBs were characterized by FTIR, TGA and SEM techniques. The physiochemical strength of the beads was found to be excellent. The sorption study of Am (III), using these beads, was carried out by batch equilibration method and the effect of various parameters, like pH, equilibration time, Am (III) concentration, etc., on the sorption process, was investigated. The synthesized polymeric beads presented fairly higher sorption capacity for Am (III) at pH 3. The kinetics of extraction is very fast. The saturation of sorption is achieved in about 60 minutes of equilibration. The sorption kinetics data fits well in the pseudo second-order model, indicating that the sorption is dominated by chemisorptions. The sorption of Am (III) is observed to follow Langmuir isotherm and the monolayer capacity was calculated as 2.498 mg/g. The quantitative stripping of the extracted Am (III) can be achieved by using 0.1M oxalic acid. The blank polymeric beads, without PC88A,have shown negligible sorption of Am (III) under the similar experimental conditions

  1. Americium and plutonium release behavior from irradiated mixed oxide fuel during heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release behavior of Pu and Am was investigated under the reducing atmosphere expected in sodium cooled fast reactor severe accidents. Irradiated Pu and U mixed oxide fuels were heated at maximum temperatures of 2773 K and 3273 K. EPMA, γ-ray spectrometry and α-ray spectrometry for released and residual materials revealed that Pu and Am can be released more easily than U under the reducing atmosphere. The respective release rate coefficients for Pu and Am were obtained as 3.11 × 10−4 min−1 and 1.60 × 10−4 min−1 at 2773 K under the reducing atmosphere with oxygen partial pressure less than 0.02 Pa. Results of thermochemical calculations indicated that the main released chemical forms would likely be PuO for Pu and Am for Am under quite low oxygen partial pressure

  2. Kinetics of the oxidation-reduction reactions of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a review with about 250 references. Data for 240 reactions are cataloged and quantitative activation parameters are tabulated for 79 of these. Some empirical correlations are given. Twelve typical reactions are discussed in detail, along with the effects of self-irradiation and ionic strength. (U.S.)

  3. Americium and plutonium separation by extraction chromatography for determination by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Zakir H; Cornett, Jack R; Zhao, Xaiolei; Kieser, Liam

    2014-06-01

    A simple method was developed to separate Pu and Am using single column extraction chromatography employing N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide (DGA) resin. Isotope dilution measurements of Am and Pu were performed using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and alpha spectrometry. For maximum adsorption Pu was stabilized in the tetra valent oxidation state in 8M HNO3 with 0.05 M NaNO2 before loading the sample onto the resin. Am(III) was adsorbed also onto the resin from concentrated HNO3, and desorbed with 0.1 M HCl while keeping the Pu adsorbed. The on-column reduction of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) with 0.02 M TiCl3 facilitated the complete desorption of Pu. Interferences (e.g. Ca(2+), Fe(3+)) were washed off from the resin bed with excess HNO3. Using NdF3, micro-precipitates of the separated isotopes were prepared for analysis by both AMS and alpha spectrometry. The recovery was 97.7±5.3% and 95.5±4.6% for (241)Am and (242)Pu respectively in reagents without a matrix. The recoveries of the same isotopes were 99.1±6.0 and 96.8±5.3% respectively in garden soil. The robustness of the method was validated using certified reference materials (IAEA 384 and IAEA 385). The measurements agree with the certified values over a range of about 1-100 Bq kg(-1). The single column separation of Pu and Am saves reagents, separation time, and cost. PMID:24856406

  4. Rapid selective separation of americium/curium from simulated nuclear forensic matrices using triazine ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In analysis of complex nuclear forensic samples containing lanthanides, actinides and matrix elements, rapid selective extraction of Am/Cm for quantification is challenging, in particular due the difficult separation of Am/Cm from lanthanides. Here we present a separation process for Am/Cm(III) which is achieved using a combination of AG1-X8 chromatography followed by Am/Cm extraction with a triazine ligand. The ligands tested in our process were CyMe4-BTPhen, CyMe4-BTBP, CA-BTP and CA-BTPhen. Our process allows for purification and quantification of Am and Cm (recoveries 80% - 100%) and other major actinides in < 2 d without the use of multiple columns or thiocyanate. The process is unaffected by high level Ca(II)/Fe(III)/Al(III) (10 mg mL-1) and thus requires little pre-treatment of samples.

  5. Rapid selective separation of americium/curium from simulated nuclear forensic matrices using triazine ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginson, Matthew A.; Livens, Francis R.; Heath, Sarah L. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Radiochemistry Research; Thompson, Paul; Marsden, Olivia J. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading (United Kingdom); Harwood, Laurence M.; Hudson, Michael J. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Lewis, Frank W. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Northumbria Univ., Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical and Forensic Sciences

    2015-07-01

    In analysis of complex nuclear forensic samples containing lanthanides, actinides and matrix elements, rapid selective extraction of Am/Cm for quantification is challenging, in particular due the difficult separation of Am/Cm from lanthanides. Here we present a separation process for Am/Cm(III) which is achieved using a combination of AG1-X8 chromatography followed by Am/Cm extraction with a triazine ligand. The ligands tested in our process were CyMe{sub 4}-BTPhen, CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP, CA-BTP and CA-BTPhen. Our process allows for purification and quantification of Am and Cm (recoveries 80% - 100%) and other major actinides in < 2 d without the use of multiple columns or thiocyanate. The process is unaffected by high level Ca(II)/Fe(III)/Al(III) (10 mg mL{sup -1}) and thus requires little pre-treatment of samples.

  6. Subsurface Behavior of Plutonium and Americium at Non-Hanford Sites and Relevance to Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Riley, Robert G.

    2008-02-01

    Seven sites where Pu release to the environment has raised significant environmental concerns have been reviewed. A summary of the most significant hydrologic and geochemical features, contaminant release events and transport processes relevant to Pu migration at the seven sites is presented.

  7. Dicty_cDB: SHD236 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9.1 Oryzias latipes DNA, clone: ola1-242I19.F, genomic survey sequence. 54 0.004 ...1 DE092915 |DE092915.1 Oryzias latipes DNA, clone: ola1-209J09.R, genomic survey sequence. 54 0.004 1 DE0862...52 |DE086252.1 Oryzias latipes DNA, clone: ola1-188M19.F, genomic survey sequence. 54 0.004 1 DE078411 |DE07...8411.1 Oryzias latipes DNA, clone: ola1-200D13.F, genomic survey sequence. 54 0.0...04 1 DE075571 |DE075571.1 Oryzias latipes DNA, clone: ola1-178O04.F, genomic survey sequence. 54 0.004 1 DE0

  8. 49 CFR 236.1043 - Task analysis and basic requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of work, etc.), task(s), and desired success rate; (2) Based on a formal task analysis, identify the... performance necessary to perform each task; (5) Develop a training and evaluation curriculum that includes... curriculum and pass an examination that covers the PTC system and appropriate rules and tasks for which...

  9. 49 CFR 236.921 - Training and qualification program, general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mandatory directive that is executed or enforced, or is intended to be executed or enforced, by a train... they have the necessary knowledge and skills to effectively complete their duties related to...

  10. 49 CFR 236.1041 - Training and qualification program, general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; (2) Persons who dispatch train operations (issue or communicate any mandatory directive that is... skills to effectively complete their duties related to operation and maintenance of the PTC system....

  11. 48 CFR 852.236-88 - Contract changes-supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... next $30,000; 5 percent overhead and 5 percent profit on balance over $50,000. Profit shall be computed.../2 percent fee on the next $30,000; and 5 percent fee on balance over $50,000. (6) Not more than four... is subject to negotiation. (9) Cost of Federal Old Age Benefit (Social Security) tax and of...

  12. 49 CFR 236.909 - Minimum performance standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... physical or operating conditions on the railroad prior to or within the expected life cycle of the product... as the total residual risk in the system over its expected life-cycle after implementation of all... Administrator for Safety to be equally suitable. (2) For the previous condition and for the life-cycle of...

  13. Mathematics Enrichment: Grade 4. Curriculum Bulletin Number 236.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Patsy

    Enrichment activities for fourth-grade mathematics are presented. Some of the activities reinforce principles taught in the regular program; others introduce new concepts to challenge students. The activities are divided into the following categories: number pictures; multiplying or dividing by 10, 100, or 1000; tic-tac-toe word problems; map…

  14. 24 CFR 236.254 - Termination of mortgage insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of mortgage insurance... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND INTEREST REDUCTION PAYMENT FOR RENTAL PROJECTS Contract Rights...

  15. 24 CFR 236.1001 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR part 24. A “displaced person” shall be advised of his or her rights under the Fair Housing Act (42... (b)(1) of this section. (c) Relocation assistance for displaced persons. A “displaced person... CFR part 24, subpart B. (e) Appeals. A person who disagrees with the mortgagor's...

  16. 48 CFR 1852.236-75 - Partnering for construction contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... “partnership” used herein shall mean a relationship of open communication and close cooperation that involves... contractor, if applicable. Sustained commitment to the process is essential to assure success of the..., it is anticipated that within 30 days of the Notice to Proceed the prime Contractor's key...

  17. Dicty_cDB: CHO236 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available f*lnky**yylfflf*nkffffxf*kk--- ---ixnhhylylimvli*mimtimiiliiixiiiiiiiiiiiiiiviikiih*lvkqlk* mfyqiqimmkiii*yqifqlmiiillfkii*eiiiiiilai...iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimi iirimiii*iiiqti*msqsqrkqqli*fkwsykilglslihphskfkkrcqlersflcl *c

  18. 49 CFR 236.339 - Mechanical locking, maintenance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... connections shall be maintained so that, when a lever or latch is mechanically locked the following will be prevented: (a) Mechanical machine—(1) Latch-operated locking. Raising lever latch block so that bottom thereof is within three-eighths inch of top of quadrant. (2) Lever-operated locking. Moving lever...

  19. CROSSFLOW FILTRATION: EM-31, WP-2.3.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

    2011-02-01

    In the interest of accelerating waste treatment processing, the DOE has funded studies to better understand filtration with the goal of improving filter fluxes in existing crossflow equipment. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed some of those studies, with a focus on start-up techniques, filter cake development, the application of filter aids (cake forming solid precoats), and body feeds (flux enhancing polymers). This paper discusses the progress of those filter studies. Crossflow filtration is a key process step in many operating and planned waste treatment facilities to separate undissolved solids from supernate solutions. This separation technology generally has the advantage of self-cleaning through the action of wall shear stress created by the flow of waste slurry through the filter tubes. However, the ability of filter wall self-cleaning depends on the slurry being filtered. Many of the alkaline radioactive wastes are extremely challenging to filtration, e.g., those containing compounds of aluminum and iron, which have particles whose size and morphology reduce permeability. Unfortunately, low filter flux can be a bottleneck in waste processing facilities such as the Savannah River Integrated Salt Disposition Process and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Any improvement to the filtration rate would lead directly to increased throughput of the entire process. To date increased rates are generally realized by either increasing the crossflow filter feed flow rate, limited by pump capacity, or by increasing filter surface area, limited by space and increasing the required pump load. SRNL set up both dead-end and crossflow filter tests to better understand filter performance based on filter media structure, flow conditions, filter cleaning, and several different types of filter aids and body feeds. Using non-radioactive simulated wastes, both chemically and physically similar to the actual radioactive wastes, the authors performed several tests to evaluate methods to improve filter performance. With the proper use of filter flow conditions and filter enhancers, filter flow rates can be increased over rates currently realized today. Experiments that use non-radioactive simulants for actual waste always carry the inherent risk of not eliciting prototypic results; however, they will assist in focusing the scope needed to minimize radioactive testing and thus maximize safety. To that end this investigation has determined: (1) Waste simulant SB6 was found to be more challenging to filtration than a SRS Tank 8F simulant; (2) Higher solids concentration presents a greater challenge to filtration; (3) Filter cake is something that should be properly developed in initial filter operation; (4) Backpulsing is not necessary to maintain a good filter flux with salt wastes; (5) Scouring a filter without cleaning will lead to improved filter performance; (6) The presence of a filter cake can improve the solids separation by an order of magnitude as determined by turbidity; (7) A well developed cake with periodic scouring may allow a good filter flux to be maintained for long periods of time; and (8) Filtrate flux decline is reversible when the concentration of the filtering slurry drops and the filter is scoured.

  20. Crossflow Filtration: EM-31, WP-2.3.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the interest of accelerating waste treatment processing, the DOE has funded studies to better understand filtration with the goal of improving filter fluxes in existing crossflow equipment. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed some of those studies, with a focus on start-up techniques, filter cake development, the application of filter aids (cake forming solid precoats), and body feeds (flux enhancing polymers). This paper discusses the progress of those filter studies. Crossflow filtration is a key process step in many operating and planned waste treatment facilities to separate undissolved solids from supernate solutions. This separation technology generally has the advantage of self-cleaning through the action of wall shear stress created by the flow of waste slurry through the filter tubes. However, the ability of filter wall self-cleaning depends on the slurry being filtered. Many of the alkaline radioactive wastes are extremely challenging to filtration, e.g., those containing compounds of aluminum and iron, which have particles whose size and morphology reduce permeability. Unfortunately, low filter flux can be a bottleneck in waste processing facilities such as the Savannah River Integrated Salt Disposition Process and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Any improvement to the filtration rate would lead directly to increased throughput of the entire process. To date increased rates are generally realized by either increasing the crossflow filter feed flow rate, limited by pump capacity, or by increasing filter surface area, limited by space and increasing the required pump load. SRNL set up both dead-end and crossflow filter tests to better understand filter performance based on filter media structure, flow conditions, filter cleaning, and several different types of filter aids and body feeds. Using non-radioactive simulated wastes, both chemically and physically similar to the actual radioactive wastes, the authors performed several tests to evaluate methods to improve filter performance. With the proper use of filter flow conditions and filter enhancers, filter flow rates can be increased over rates currently realized today. Experiments that use non-radioactive simulants for actual waste always carry the inherent risk of not eliciting prototypic results; however, they will assist in focusing the scope needed to minimize radioactive testing and thus maximize safety. To that end this investigation has determined: (1) Waste simulant SB6 was found to be more challenging to filtration than a SRS Tank 8F simulant; (2) Higher solids concentration presents a greater challenge to filtration; (3) Filter cake is something that should be properly developed in initial filter operation; (4) Backpulsing is not necessary to maintain a good filter flux with salt wastes; (5) Scouring a filter without cleaning will lead to improved filter performance; (6) The presence of a filter cake can improve the solids separation by an order of magnitude as determined by turbidity; (7) A well developed cake with periodic scouring may allow a good filter flux to be maintained for long periods of time; and (8) Filtrate flux decline is reversible when the concentration of the filtering slurry drops and the filter is scoured.

  1. 18 CFR 367.2360 - Account 236, Taxes accrued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., the basis for the accrual, the accounts to which charged, and the amount of tax paid. ... accrued. (a) This account must be credited with the amount of taxes accrued during the accounting period... date of the balance sheet, must be shown under account 165, Prepayments (§ 367.1650). (b) If...

  2. Dicty_cDB: CHA236 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available **nsitttkknkkhiv*ifkxgessiykq*fkthinkykyik sylhik*HXKMGQLLSFINGNDHXEQIFIDFEHAQPSDDERXLXKTVNEVLIRGPAXIDK LLXY...kkkkklk Frame C: ptgkkkflygvtlrq*****nsitttkknkkhiv*ifkxgessiykq*fkthinkykyik sylhik*HXKMGQLLSFINGNDHXEQIFID

  3. 49 CFR 236.1033 - Communications and security requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shall: (1) Use an algorithm approved by the National Institute of Standards (NIST) or a similarly...; or (ii) When the key algorithm reaches its lifespan as defined by the standards body responsible for approval of the algorithm. (c) The cleartext form of the cryptographic keys shall be protected...

  4. 40 CFR 180.236 - Triphenyltin hydroxide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....0 Cattle, fat 0.2 Cattle, kidney 2.0 Cattle, liver 4.0 Cattle, meat 0.5 Goat, fat 0.2 Goat, kidney 2... Horse, kidney 2.0 Horse, liver 4.0 Horse, meat 0.5 Milk 0.06 Pecan 0.05 Potato 0.05 Sheep, fat 0.2...

  5. 49 CFR 236.915 - Implementation and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Standards... measures to provide for safe movement of trains, locomotives, roadway workers and on-track equipment...

  6. 49 CFR 236.302 - Track circuits and route locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking... shall be effective when the first pair of wheels of a locomotive or a car passes a point not more...

  7. 49 CFR 236.552 - Insulation resistance; requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives §...

  8. 49 CFR 236.51 - Track circuit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions..., appliance or other protective device, which provides a bypath for the electric current, or (2) As result of..., locomotive, or car occupies any part of a track circuit, including fouling section of turnout except...

  9. 49 CFR 236.55 - Dead section; maximum length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Rules and... feet, a special circuit shall be installed. Where shortest outer wheelbase of a locomotive operating... the length of the outer wheelbase of such locomotive unless special circuit is used....

  10. 49 CFR 236.54 - Minimum length of track circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Rules and... than maximum inner wheelbase of any locomotive or car operated over such track circuit is used...

  11. 49 CFR 236.515 - Visibility of cab signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop... shall be plainly visible to member or members of the locomotive crew from their stations in the cab....

  12. 49 CFR 236.1027 - PTC system exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Positive Train Control... functionality. (c) Primary train control systems cannot be integrated with locomotive electronic systems unless... locomotive to be brought to a safe stop in the event of any loss of electronic control; and (4) Are...

  13. 49 CFR 236.205 - Signal control circuits; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic... when any of the following conditions obtain within the block: (a) Occupancy by a train, locomotive,...

  14. 49 CFR 236.58 - Turnout, fouling section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions... allowance for maximum car overhang and width will prevent interference with train, locomotive, or...

  15. 48 CFR 852.236-86 - Workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Workers' compensation. 852... Workers' compensation. As prescribed in 836.577, insert the following clause: Workers' Compensation (JAN... workers compensation laws to all lands and premises owned or held by the United States. (End of clause)...

  16. 7 CFR 2.36 - Director, Office of Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... formulation and development of policies, programs, plans, procedures, standards and organization structures... Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT Delegations of Authority to Other General Officers and...

  17. 49 CFR 236.0 - Applicability, minimum requirements, and penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements of subpart H of this part apply to safety-critical processor-based signal and train control... preempts the field of locomotive safety, extending to the design, the construction, and the material...

  18. 49 CFR 236.907 - Product Safety Plan (PSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Standards for Processor... railroad operation or categories of operations on which the product is designed to be used, including train... comprehensive description of all hazards to be addressed in the system design and development,...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 236 - Risk Assessment Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... results of the application of safety design principles as noted in Appendix C to this part. The MTTHE is... subsystem or component in the risk assessment. (f) How are processor-based subsystems/components assessed? (1) An MTTHE value must be calculated for each processor-based subsystem or component, or...

  20. 48 CFR 1552.236-70 - Samples and certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contracts. Samples and Certificates (APR 1984) When required by the specifications or the Contracting... specified in the contract performance requirements. Samples shall be submitted in duplicate by the... CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...