WorldWideScience

Sample records for americium 236

  1. 1976 Hanford americium accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heid, K.R.; Breitenstein, B.D.; Palmer, H.E.; McMurray, B.J.; Wald, N.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the 2.5-year medical course of a 64-year-old Hanford nuclear chemical operator who was involved in an accident in an americium recovery facility in August 1976. He was heavily externally contaminated with americium, sustained a substantial internal deposition of this isotope, and was burned with concentrated nitric acid and injured by flying debris about the face and neck. The medical care given the patient, including the decontamination efforts and clinical laboratory studies, are discussed. In-vivo measurements were used to estimate the dose rates and the accumulated doses to body organs. Urinary and fecal excreta were collected and analyzed for americium content. Interpretation of these data was complicated by the fact that the intake resulted both from inhalation and from solubilization of the americium embedded in facial tissues. A total of 1100 μCi was excreted in urine and feces during the first 2 years following the accident. The long-term use of diethylenetriaminepentate (DTPA), used principally as the zinc salt, is discussed including the method, route of administration, and effectiveness. To date, the patient has apparently experienced no complications attributable to this extensive course of therapy, even though he has been given approximately 560 grams of DTPA. 4 figures, 1 table

  2. Chemistry of americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1976-01-01

    Essential features of the descriptive chemistry of americium are reviewed. Chapter titles are: discovery, atomic and nuclear properties, collateral reading, production and uses, chemistry in aqueous solution, metal, alloys, and compounds, and, recovery, separation, purification. Author and subject indexes are included. (JCB)

  3. Americium in water and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, C.H.; Thorne, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Data for americium 241 in aquatic environments are presented derived from areas contaminated solely by global fallout, and also from areas contaminated by radioactive waste discharges. For several water bodies, in particular the Mediterranean, comprehensive data are given characterising the inputs, distribution, geochemical behaviour and biological availability of americium. Many data are also reported for concentrations of americium in North European coastal waters (e.g. English Channel, North Sea, Irish Sea, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea and the Eastern Atlantic). Much of the discussion in this section is in terms of the behaviour of americium relative to plutonium. (Auth.)

  4. Recycling of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagstroem, Ingela

    1999-12-01

    Separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel is a part of the process of recycling fissile material. Extracting agents for partitioning the high level liquid waste (HLLW) from conventional PUREX reprocessing is studied. The CTH-process is based on three consecutive extraction cycles. In the first cycle protactinium, uranium, neptunium and plutonium are removed by extraction with di-2-ethylhexyl-phosphoric acid (HDEHP) from a 6 M nitric acid HLLW solution. Distribution ratios for actinides, fission products and corrosion products between HLLW and 1 M HDEHP in an aliphatic diluent have been investigated. To avoid addition of chemicals the acidity is reduced by a tributylphosphate (TBP) extraction cycle. The distribution ratios of elements present in HLLW have been measured between 50 % TBP in an aliphatic diluent and synthetic HLLW in range 0.1-6 M nitric acid. In the third extraction cycle americium and curium are extracted. To separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides a method based on selective stripping of the actinides from 1 M HDEHP is proposed. The aqueous phase containing ammonia, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and lactic acid is recycled in a closed loop after reextraction of the actinides into a second organic phase also containing 1 M HDEHP. Distribution ratios for americium and neodymium have been measured at varying DTPA and lactic acid concentrations and at varying pH. Nitrogen-donor reagents have been shown to have a potential to separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides. 2,2':6,2''-terpyridine as extractant follows the CHON-principle and can in synergy with 2-bromodecanoic acid separate americium from europium. Distribution ratios for americium and europium, in the range of 0.02-0.12 M nitric acid, between nitric acid and 0.02 M terpyridine with 1 M 2-bromodecanoic acid in tert-butylbenzene (TBB) was investigated. Comparison with other nitrogen-donor reagents show that increasing lipophilicity of the molecule, by substitution of

  5. Americium-241 - ED 4308

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, M.; Frot, P.; Gambini, D.; Gauron, C.; Moureaux, P.; Herbelet, G.; Lahaye, T.; Le Guen, B.; Pihet, P.; Rannou, A.; Vidal, E.

    2012-12-01

    This sheet presents the characteristics of Americium-241, its origin, and its radio-physical and biological properties. It briefly describes its use in nuclear medicine. It indicates its dosimetric parameters for external exposure, cutaneous contamination, and internal exposure due to acute contamination or to chronic contamination. It indicates and comments the various exposure control techniques: ambient dose rate measurement, surface contamination measurement, atmosphere contamination. It addresses the means of protection: premise design, protection against external exposure and against internal exposure. It describes how areas are delimited and controlled within the premises: regulatory areas, controls to be performed. It addresses the personnel classification, training and medical survey. It addresses the issue of wastes and effluents. It briefly recalls the administrative procedures related to the authorization and declaration of possession and use of sealed and unsealed sources. It indicates regulatory aspects related to the road transport of Americium-241, describes what is to be done in case of incident or accident (for the different types of contamination or exposure)

  6. Plutonium and americium separation from salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, P.G.; Miner, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Salts or materials containing plutonium and americium are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, heated, and contacted with an alkali metal carbonate solution to precipitate plutonium and americium carbonates which are thereafter readily separable from the solution

  7. Transmutation of Americium in Fast Neutron Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Youpeng

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, the feasibility to use a medium sized sodium cooled fast reactor fully loaded with MOX fuel for efficient transmutation of americium is investigated by simulating the safety performance of a BN600-type fast reactor loaded with different fractions of americium in the fuel, using the safety parameters obtained with the SERPENT Monte Carlo code. The focus is on americium mainly due to its long-term contribution to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel and its deterioration on c...

  8. Metabolism of americium-241 in dairy animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, W.W.; Patzer, R.G.; Mullen, A.A.; Hahn, P.B.; Potter, G.D.

    1978-10-01

    Groups of lactating cows and goats were used to examine americium-241 metabolism in dairy animals. Following either single oral or intravenous nuclide doses, samples of milk, urine, blood, and feces were taken over a 168-hr collection period and the americium concentrations were determined by gamma counting. Gastrointestinal uptake of americium by both cows and goats was estimated to be 0.014% of the respective oral doses. The cumulative percentage of oral dose transported to milk and urine was 4.4 x 10 -4 and 1.1 x 10 -3 respectively for cows and 4.4 x 10 -3 and 1.2 x 10 -3 respectively for goats. The relatively high americium concentrations noted in caprine milk following the oral doses are discussed. Plasma concentrations of americium decreased rapidly following all intravenous injections. The average percentage of injected americium transferred to milk, urine, and feces was 3, 6, and 2% respectively for cows and 2, 4, and 2% respectively for goats. In both intravenously dosed groups, approximately 30% of all americium released from the body was found in the urine during the first 24 hrs after injection. All animals were sacrificed 8 to 9 days after dosing. Bovine bone retained the greatest fraction of the administered dose followed by the liver. However, liver retained the greatest amount of americium in the goats following both oral and intravenous doses. Comparisons are presented between americium-241 and plutonium-238 transport in dairy cows

  9. Production of americium isotopes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehly, G.; Bourges, J.; Madic, C.; Nguyen, T.H.; Lecomte, M.

    1984-12-01

    The program of productions of americium 241 and 243 isotopes is based respectively on the retreatment of aged plutonium alloys or plutonium dioxide and on the treatment of plutonium targets irradiated either in CELESTIN reactors for Pu-Al alloys or OSIRIS reactor for plutonium 242 dioxide. All the operations, including americium final purifications, are carried out in hot cells equipped with remote manipulators. The chemical processes are based on the use of extraction chromatography with hydrophobic SiO 2 impregnated with extracting agents. Plutonium targets and aged plutonium alloys are dissolved in nitric acid using conventional techniques while plutonium dioxide dissolutions are performed routine at 300 grams scale with electrogenerated silver II in 4M HNO 3 at room temperature. The separation between plutonium and americium is performed by extraction of Pu(IV) either on TBP/SiO 2 or TOAHNO 3 /SiO 2 column. Americium recovery from waste streams rid of plutonium is realized by chromatographic extraction of Am(III) using mainly TBP and episodically DHDECMP as extractant. The final purification of both americium isotopes uses the selective extraction of Am(VI) on HDDiBMP/SiO 2 column at 60 grams scale. Using the overall process a total amount of 1000 grams of americium 241 and 100 grams of americium 243 has been produced nowadays and the AmO 2 final product indicates a purity better than 98.5%

  10. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  11. Formation of americium and europium humate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minai, Y.; Tominaga, T.; Meguro, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Binding constants of americium and europium with a humic acid were determined to study if complex formation of trivalent actinide-humates affects dissolved species of the actinides in hydrosphere. The purified humic acid was characterized by means of UV-vis, IR, and pH titration, indicating high carboxylate capacity and low aromaticity. Binding constants of americium and europium humates were determined at pH 4.6 and 6.0 by solvent extraction using 241 Am or 152 Eu as a tracer. The binding constants for americium-humate obtained preliminarily suggest that complexes with humic acid are not negligible in speciation of trivalent actinides in hydrosphere. The obtained binding constants were nearly identical with those determined previously by the same procedures, but with humic acids of different origin and compositions. (author)

  12. Biosorption of americium by alginate beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borba, Tania Regina de; Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Goes, Marcos Maciel de; Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Sakata, Solange Kazumi

    2009-01-01

    The use of biotechnology to remove heavy metals from wastes plays great potential in treatment of radioactive wastes and therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the biosorption of americium by alginate beads. Biosorption has been defined as the property of certain biomolecules to bind and remove selected ions or other molecules from aqueous solutions. The calcium alginate beads as biosorbent were prepared and analyzed for americium uptaking. The experiments were performed in different solution activity concentrations, pH and exposure time. The results suggest that biosorption process is more efficient at pH 4 and for 75, 150, 300 Bq/mL and 120 minutes were necessary to remove almost 100% of the americium-241 from the solution. (author)

  13. New Fecal Method for Plutonium and Americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L. III

    2000-01-01

    A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as thorium-228

  14. New fecal method for plutonium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L.; Fauth, D.J.; Nichols, S.T.

    2001-01-01

    A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin R (Eichrom Technologies), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin R , which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Technologies). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as 228 Th. (author)

  15. Transmutation of Americium in Fast Neutron Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youpeng

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, the feasibility to use a medium sized sodium cooled fast reactor fully loaded with MOX fuel for efficient transmutation of americium is investigated by simulating the safety performance of a BN600-type fast reactor loaded with different fractions of americium in the fuel, using the safety parameters obtained with the SERPENT Monte Carlo code. The focus is on americium mainly due to its long-term contribution to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel and its deterioration on core's safety parameters. Applying the SAS4A/SASSYS transient analysis code, it is demonstrated that the power rating needs to be reduced by 6% for each percent additional americium introduction into the reference MOX fuel, maintaining 100 K margin to fuel melting, which is the most limiting failure mechanism. Safety analysis of a new Accelerator Driven System design with a smaller pin pitch-to-diameter ratio comparing to the reference EFIT-400 design, aiming at improving neutron source efficiency, was also performed by simulating performance for unprotected loss of flow, unprotected transient overpower, and protected loss-of-heat-sink transients, using neutronic parameters obtained from MCNP calculations. Thanks to the introduction of the austenitic 15/15Ti stainless steel with enhanced creep rupture resistance and acceptable irradiation swelling rate, the suggested ADS design loaded with nitride fuel and cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic could survive the full set of transients, preserving a margin of 130 K to cladding rupture during the most limiting transient. The thesis concludes that efficient transmutation of americium in a medium sized sodium cooled fast reactor loaded with MOX fuel is possible but leads to a severe power penalty. Instead, preserving transmutation rates of minor actinides up to 42 kg/TWh th , the suggested ADS design with enhanced proton source efficiency appears like a better option for americium transmutation

  16. Preparation of americium source for smoke detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaswami, A.; Singh, R.J.; Manohar, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the method developed for the preparation of 241 Am source for smoke detector. Americium was electrodeposited from iso-propyl alcohol medium on silver backing. Thin layer of gold (few hundred micro gram thick) was plated on the americium source to make it safe for handling. The thickness of plated gold was such that the alpha radiations from the 241 Am source could escape out of the gold layer and cause ionisation in the surrounding air. The performance of the prepared sources were checked in a smoke detector and was found to be satisfactory and comparable to the imported sources. (author). 1 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. Redox chemistry of americium in nitric acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picart, S.; Jobelin, I.; Armengol, G.; Adnet, JM.

    2004-01-01

    The redox properties of the actinides are very important parameters for speciation studies and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing based on liquid-liquid extraction of actinides at different oxidation states (as in the Purex or Sesame process). They are also very useful for developing analytical tools including coulometry and redox titration. This study addressed the americium(IV)/americium(III) and americium(VI)/americium(V) redox couples, focusing on exhaustive acquisition of the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of americium oxidation at an electrode in a complexing nitric acid medium. (authors)

  18. 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident: psychological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Accidents involving exposure to radiation or radioactive materials may involve an unusual degree of emotional trauma. Methods that may be employed in dealing with such trauma are discussed in relation to a specific accident in which a radiation worker was injured and seriously contaminated with americium-241

  19. Americium migration in basalt and implications to repository risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickert, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were performed with americium as a minor component in groundwater. Batch adsorption, migration through column, and filtration experiments were performed. It was determined in batch experiments that americium is strongly adsorbed from solution. It was determined with filtration experiments that large percentages of the americium concentrations suspended by the contact solutions in batch experiments and suspended by the infiltrating groundwater in migration experiments were associated with particulate. Filtration was determined to be the primary mode of removal of americium from infiltrating groundwater in a column of granulated basalt (20 to 50 mesh) and an intact core of permeable basalt. Fractionally, 0.46 and 0.22 of the americium component in the infiltrating groundwater was transported through the column and core respectively. In view of these filtration and migration experiment results, the concept of K/sub d/ in the chromatographic sense is meaningless for predicting americium migration in bedrock by groundwater transport at near neutral pH

  20. Procedure for the analysis of americium in complex matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knab, D.

    1978-02-01

    A radioanalytical procedure for the analysis of americium in complex matrices has been developed. Clean separations of americium can be obtained from up to 100 g of sample ash, regardless of the starting material. The ability to analyze large masses of material provides the increased sensitivity necessary to detect americium in many environmental samples. The procedure adequately decontaminates from rare earth elements and natural radioactive nuclides that interfere with the alpha spectrometric measurements

  1. The relative physiological and toxicological properties of americium and plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.E.; Busch, E.; Johnson, O. [and others

    1951-11-15

    The relative physiological and toxicological properties of americium and plutonium have been studied following their intravenous administration to rats. The urinary and fecal excretion of americium was similar to that of plutonium administered as Pu(N0{sub 3}){sub 4}. The deposition of americium the tissues and organs of the rat was also similar to that observed for plutonium. The liver and the skeleton were the major sites of deposition. Zirconium citrate administered 15 minutes after injection of americium increased the urinary excretion of americium and decreased the amount found in the liver and the skeleton at 4 and 16 days. LD{sub 30}{sup 50} studies showed americium was slightly less toxic when given in the acute toxic range than was plutonium. The difference was, however, too slight to be important in establishing a larger tolerance does for americium. Survival studies, hematological observations, bone marrow observations, comparison of tumor incidence and the incidence of skeletal abnormalities indicated that americium and plutonium have essentially the same chronic toxicity when given on an equal {mu}c. basis. These studies support the conclusion that the tolerance values for americium should be essentially the same as those for Plutonium.

  2. Investigation of americium-241 metal alloys for target applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.; Rockwell International Corp., Golden, CO

    1982-01-01

    Several 241 Am metal alloys have been investigated for possible use in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Radiochemical Diagnostic Tracer Program. Several properties were desired for an alloy to be useful for tracer program applications. A suitable alloy would have a fairly high density, be ductile, homogeneous and easy to prepare. Alloys investigated have included uranium-americium, aluminium-americium, and cerium-americium. Uranium-americium alloys with the desired properties proved to be difficult to prepare, and work with this alloy was discontinued. Aluminium-americium alloys were much easier to prepare, but the alloy consisted of an aluminium-americium intermetallic compound (AmAl 4 ) in an aluminum matrix. This alloy could be cast and formed into shapes, but the low density of aluminum, and other problems, made the alloy unsuitable for the intended application. Americium metal was found to have a high solid solubility in cerium and alloys prepared from these two elements exhibited all of the properties desired for the tracer program application. Cerium-americium alloys containing up to 34 wt% americium have been prepared using both co-melting and co-reduction techniques. The latter technique involves co-reduction of cerium tetrafluoride and americium tetrafluoride with calcium metal in a sealed reduction vessel. Casting techniques have been developed for preparing up to eight 2.2 cm (0.87 in) diameter disks in a single casting, and cerium-americium metal alloy disks containing from 10 to 25 wt% 241 Am have been prepared using these techniques. (orig.)

  3. Surface complexation modeling of americium sorption onto volcanic tuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, M; Kelkar, S; Meijer, A

    2014-10-01

    Results of a surface complexation model (SCM) for americium sorption on volcanic rocks (devitrified and zeolitic tuff) are presented. The model was developed using PHREEQC and based on laboratory data for americium sorption on quartz. Available data for sorption of americium on quartz as a function of pH in dilute groundwater can be modeled with two surface reactions involving an americium sulfate and an americium carbonate complex. It was assumed in applying the model to volcanic rocks from Yucca Mountain, that the surface properties of volcanic rocks can be represented by a quartz surface. Using groundwaters compositionally representative of Yucca Mountain, americium sorption distribution coefficient (Kd, L/Kg) values were calculated as function of pH. These Kd values are close to the experimentally determined Kd values for americium sorption on volcanic rocks, decreasing with increasing pH in the pH range from 7 to 9. The surface complexation constants, derived in this study, allow prediction of sorption of americium in a natural complex system, taking into account the inherent uncertainty associated with geochemical conditions that occur along transport pathways. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Self-irradiation and oxidation effects on americium sesquioxide and Raman spectroscopy studies of americium oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horlait, Denis [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Caraballo, Richard [CEA, DEN, DTCD/SECM/LMPA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Lebreton, Florent [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Jégou, Christophe [CEA, DEN, DTCD/SECM/LMPA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Roussel, Pascal [Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, UMR 8012 CNRS, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille BP 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Delahaye, Thibaud, E-mail: thibaud.delahaye@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France)

    2014-09-15

    Americium oxides samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, with an emphasis on their structural behavior under oxidation and self-irradiation. Raman spectra of americium dioxide (AmO{sub 2}) and sesquioxide (Am{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were obtained for the first time. With the help of literature data on isostructural oxides, Raman signatures of Ia-3 C-type Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} and P-3m1 A-type Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} are identified. For AmO{sub 2,} a clear band is noted at 390 cm{sup −1}. Its nature is compared to that of the other actinide dioxides. Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} evolution under ambient conditions and against {sup 241}Am α self-irradiation was monitored by powder XRD. The sample, initially composed of A-type Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} as major phase as well as C2/m B-type and C-type structures as minor phases, progressively oxidizes to Fm-3m AmO{sub 2−δ} over a few months. On the basis of diffractogram refinements, evolutions of unit cell volumes caused by self-irradiation are also determined and discussed. - Graphical abstract: The evolution of americium oxide under ambient conditions was monitored using XRD (X-ray diffraction) and Raman spectroscopy. After a thermal treatment under reducing conditions, a polyphasic sample mainly composed of A- and C-type americium sesquioxides is evidenced by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The sample then evolves through two processes: oxidation and self-irradiation. The first one provokes the progressive appearance of F-type americium dioxide while the initial phases disappear, whereas the main effect of the second is a structural swelling with time. - Highlights: • The first Raman spectroscopy measurements on americium oxides were performed. • Observed Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} Raman bands were identified thanks to data on analogue compounds. • AmO{sub 2} assumed T{sub 2g} band presents a shift compared to the actinide dioxide series. • Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} evolution under self-irradiation and oxidation was also

  5. Higher Americium Oxidation State Research Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincher, Bruce J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Law, Jack D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Goff, George S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shehee, Thomas C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hobbs, David T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-18

    The partitioning of hexavalent Am from dissolved nuclear fuel requires the ability to efficiently oxidize Am(III) to Am(VI) and to maintain that oxidation state for a length of time sufficient to perform the separation. Several oxidants have been, or are being developed. Chemical oxidants include Ag-catalyzed ozone, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate, Cu(III) periodate, and sodium bismuthate. Hexavalent americium has also now successfully been prepared by electrolysis, using functionalized electrodes. So-called auto-reduction rates of Am(VI) are sufficiently slow to allow for separations. However, for separations based on solvent extraction or ion exchange using organic resins, the high valence state must be maintained under the reducing conditions of the organic phase contact, and a holding oxidant is probably necessary. Until now, only Cu(III) periodate and sodium bismuthate oxidation have been successfully combined with solvent extraction separations. Bismuthate oxidation provided the higher DAm, since it acts as its own holding oxidant, and a successful hot test using centrifugal contactors was performed. For the other oxidants, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate will not oxidize americium in nitric acid concentrations above 0.3 M, and it is not being further investigated. Peroxydisulfate in the absence of Ag catalysis is being used to prepare Am(V) in ion exchange work, discussed below. Preliminary work with Ag-catalyzed ozone has been unsuccessful for extractions of Am(VI) from 6.5 M HNO3, and only one attempt at extraction, also from 6.5 M HNO3, using the electrolytic oxidation has been attempted. However, this high acid concentration was based on the highest Am extraction efficiency using the bismuthate oxidant; which is only sparingly soluble, and thus the oxidation yield is based on bismuthate solubility. Lower acid concentrations may be sufficient with alternative oxidants and work with Ag-ozone, Cu(III) and electrolysis is on-going. Two non

  6. Feasibility of the fabrication of americium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, D.; Somers, J.

    1999-01-01

    The paper compares the processes used at ITU for the fabrication of americium targets for transmutation: powder mixing process, sol-gel method and the infiltration by an active solution of inactive pellets. The advantages of the latter process, related mainly to the lower level of dust formation, are stressed. Moreover, the radiological constraints on the fabrication as a function of Am content and of selected fabrication process are evaluated. As conclusion, the feasibility of Am target fabrication has been demonstrated on a laboratory scale, based on experimental results evaluation. The penalties due to radiological constraints in a semi-industrial process are acceptable. The future developments consist in the construction of a laboratory fully dedicated to minor actinides fuel pins or targets fabrication. (author)

  7. Americium/Curium Disposition Life Cycle Planning Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, W.N.; Krupa, J.; Stutts, P.; Nester, S.; Raimesch, R.

    1998-01-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy Savannah River Office (DOE- SR), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) evaluated concepts to complete disposition of Americium and Curium (Am/Cm) bearing materials currently located at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

  8. Plutonium and Americium Geochemistry at Hanford: A Site Wide Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-08-23

    This report was produced to provide a systematic review of the state-of-knowledge of plutonium and americium geochemistry at the Hanford Site. The report integrates existing knowledge of the subsurface migration behavior of plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site with available information in the scientific literature regarding the geochemistry of plutonium and americium in systems that are environmentally relevant to the Hanford Site. As a part of the report, key research needs are identified and prioritized, with the ultimate goal of developing a science-based capability to quantitatively assess risk at sites contaminated with plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site and the impact of remediation technologies and closure strategies.

  9. Americium/Curium Disposition Life Cycle Planning Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, W.N. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Krupa, J.; Stutts, P.; Nester, S.; Raimesch, R.

    1998-04-30

    At the request of the Department of Energy Savannah River Office (DOE- SR), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) evaluated concepts to complete disposition of Americium and Curium (Am/Cm) bearing materials currently located at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  10. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING AMERICIUM AND CURIUM FROM RARE EARTH ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baybarz, R.D.; Lloyd, M.H.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to methods of separating americium and curium values from rare earth values. In accordance with the invention americium, curium, and rare earth values are sorbed on an anion exchange resin. A major portion of the rare earth values are selectively stripped from the resin with a concentrated aqueous solution of lithium chloride, and americium, curium, and a minor portion of rare earth values are then stripped from the resin with a dilute aqueous solution of lithium chloride. The americium and curium values are further purified by increasing the concentration of lithium chloride in the solution to at least 8 molar and selectively extracting rare earth values from the resulting solution with a monoalkylphosphoric acid. (AEC)

  11. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  12. 1976 Hanford americium-exposure incident: external decontamination procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jech, J.J.; Berry, J.R.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    An accident resulted in the deposition on an injured workman's skin surfaces, in acid-burned areas and in lacerations, of something in excess of 6 mCi americium-241. The external decontamination procedures used, the change in americium content of the skin during the course of treatment, and some of the unusual problems encountered from the extrusion of foreign material and flaking of skin and scar tissue are described

  13. Preparation of americium metal of high purity and determination of the heat of formation of the hydrated trivalent americium ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirlet, J.C.

    1975-10-01

    In order to redetermine some physical and chemical properties of americium metal, several grams of Am-241 have been prepared by two independent methods: lanthanum reduction of the oxide and thermal dissociation of the intermetallic compound Pt 5 Am. After its separation from excess lanthanum or alloy constituent by evaporation, americium metal was further purified by sublimation at 1100 deg C and 10 -6 Torr. Irrespective of the method of preparation, the americium samples displayed the same d.h.c.p. crystal structure. As determined by vacuum hot extraction, the oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen contents are equal to or smaller than 250, 50 and 20 ppm, respectively. The heats of solution of americium metal (d.c.h.p. structure) in aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions have been measured at 298.15+-0.05K. The standard enthalpy of formation of Am 3+ (aq) is obtained as -616.7+-1.2 kJ mol -1 [fr

  14. Citric complexes, neodymium citrate and americium citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhlassa, Saidati.

    1981-06-01

    The behaviour of neodymium and americium has been studied in citric aqueous medium by two methods: solvent extraction of elements at tracer scale as chelates and by potentiometry. So range of pH and concentrations of elements and citric acid never reached before have been explored: 10 -7 -1 M, 10 -10 -3 , Csub(H3 Cit) -1 M, 1 2 O; AmCit, xH 2 O; NdCit 2 Co(NH 3 ) 6 , 8H 2 O; AmCit 2 Co(NH 3 ) 6 , xH 2 O and Nd 3 (OH) 4 (Cit) 4 NH 4 (Co(NH 3 ) 6 ) 2 , 18H 2 O. Their spectroscopic and crystallographic characteristics have been listed and studied. The nephelauxetic effect has been estimated from citric complexes as well as from citrates of these elements. The structure of the complexes in solution has been discussed on the basis of analysis of hypersensitive transition in different complexes [fr

  15. Applicability of insoluble tannin to treatment of waste containing americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, T.; Usuda, S.

    1998-01-01

    The applicability of insoluble tannin adsorbent to the treatment of aqueous waste contaminated with americium has been investigated. Insoluble tannin is considered highly applicable because it consists of only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and so its volume can be easily reduced by incineration. This report describes measurements of the americium distribution coefficient in low concentration nitric acid. The americium distribution coefficients were found to decrease with increasing concentration of nitric acid and sodium nitrate, and with increasing temperature. At 25 C in 2.0 x 10 -3 M HNO 3 , the distribution coefficient was found to be 2000 ml g -1 . The adsorption capacity was determined by column experiments using europium as a simulant of americium, and found to be 7 x 10 -3 mmol g -1 -dried tannin in 0.01 M HNO 3 at 25 C, which corresponds to approximately 1.7 mg- 241 Am/g-adsorbent(dried). The prospect of applying the adsorbent to the treatment of aqueous waste contaminated with americium appears promising. (orig.)

  16. A process for the recovery of americium from analytical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossard, P.; Kwinta, J.; Schwander, Y.

    1984-12-01

    The object of the present work is to define a procedure for the extraction of americium contained in hundreds of liters of liquid analytical wastes. The main objective is to produce wastes for which the americium concentration is lower than 0,5 mg/l, the operations being carried out in glove boxes. Dihexyl N, N-diethylcarbamylmethylene phosphonate (DHDECMP) is used for the extraction of americium. Experimental laboratory results and procedure design are described. Distribution coefficient, DHDECMP concentration, addition of TBP, influence of PH and temperature are studied. A bank of mixer-settlers appears to be the most appropriate laboratory equipment to handle large volume of solution with a good efficiency

  17. The selective extraction of americium from high level liquid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adnet, J.M.; Donnet, L.; Brossard, P.; Bourges, J.

    1996-12-31

    One of the possible ways selected by CEA for the partitioning of minor actinides from solutions containing fission products is the selective extraction of the oxidized species. This papers deals with the latest developments in the electrochemical oxidation of americium in nitric media to the oxidation states (IV) and (VI). Oxidized americium is generated and stabilized through the use of poly anionic ligands such as the phospho tungstate. With in view the use of such ligands in the treatment of real liquid wastes, the complexation of several metallic ions has been investigated A first experiment done with a real liquid waste to prove the possibility to selectively extract the oxidized americium is presented. (authors). 8 refs.

  18. Synergistic extraction behaviour of americium from simulated acidic waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, P.N.; Veeraraghavan, R.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    1998-01-01

    The extraction behaviour of americium has been investigated with mixtures of 3-phenyl-4-benzoyl-5-isoxazolone (PBI) and oxodonors viz. tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) and di-n-butyl octanamide (DBOA) using dodecane as the diluent from 1-6 M HNO 3 media. It is observed that D Am remains unaltered with PBI concentration (in the range 0.06-0.1 M) at 1.47 M TBP in the entire range of HNO 3 concentration. PBI and TBP in combination appears more promising compared to other synergistic systems. The possibility of using this mixture for americium removal from high level liquid waste solution has been explored. Extraction studies indicated that prior removal of uranium by 20% TBP in dodecane is helpful in the quantitative recovery of americium in three contacts. Effect of lanthanides on D Am is found to be marginal. (orig.)

  19. Covalency in Americium(III) Hexachloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Justin N; Su, Jing; Batista, Enrique R; Cary, Samantha K; Evans, William J; Kozimor, Stosh A; Mocko, Veronika; Scott, Brian L; Stein, Benjamin W; Windorff, Cory J; Yang, Ping

    2017-06-28

    Developing a better understanding of covalency (or orbital mixing) is of fundamental importance. Covalency occupies a central role in directing chemical and physical properties for almost any given compound or material. Hence, the concept of covalency has potential to generate broad and substantial scientific advances, ranging from biological applications to condensed matter physics. Given the importance of orbital mixing combined with the difficultly in measuring covalency, estimating or inferring covalency often leads to fiery debate. Consider the 60-year controversy sparked by Seaborg and co-workers ( Diamond, R. M.; Street, K., Jr.; Seaborg, G. T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1954 , 76 , 1461 ) when it was proposed that covalency from 5f-orbitals contributed to the unique behavior of americium in chloride matrixes. Herein, we describe the use of ligand K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and electronic structure calculations to quantify the extent of covalent bonding in-arguably-one of the most difficult systems to study, the Am-Cl interaction within AmCl 6 3- . We observed both 5f- and 6d-orbital mixing with the Cl-3p orbitals; however, contributions from the 6d-orbitals were more substantial. Comparisons with the isoelectronic EuCl 6 3- indicated that the amount of Cl 3p-mixing with Eu III 5d-orbitals was similar to that observed with the Am III 6d-orbitals. Meanwhile, the results confirmed Seaborg's 1954 hypothesis that Am III 5f-orbital covalency was more substantial than 4f-orbital mixing for Eu III .

  20. The ingestion of plutonium and americium by range cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blincoe, C.; Bohman, V.R.; Smith, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The intake of plutonium and americium in the diet of cattle grazing on plutonium contaminated desert range was determined. Daily feed intake of the grazing animals was also determined so that the amount of nuclides ingested daily could be ascertained. Soil ingested by range cattle constituted the principal and possibly only source of ingested plutonium and americium and resulted in a daily intake of 3600-6600 pCi 238 Pu, 85,000-400,000 pCi 239 Pu, and 11,000-31,000 pCi 241 Am daily. Determining transuranic intake by direct measurement and from the composition and contamination of the diet gave identical results. (author)

  1. 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident: overview and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Salient features of the 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident are discussed. Comparisons are made with previous human and animal exposure data, and conclusions drawn relative to the injured workman, to health physics practices, and to the adequacy of current exposure limits

  2. Determination of plutonium, americium and curium in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaut, CLaude; Germain, Pierre; Miramand, Pierre.

    1982-01-01

    The method used in the Laboratory for plutonium, americium and curium determination in marine samples (water, sediments, animals, plants) is presented. It is a modification of a procedure based on adsorption on ion exchange resins developed by other authors. The preliminary preparation of the samples, the radiochemical procedures and electrodeposition are described so as to be used as a practical handbook [fr

  3. Reduction Rates for Higher Americium Oxidation States in Nitric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Travis Shane [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mincher, Bruce Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schmitt, Nicholas C [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The stability of hexavalent americium was measured using multiple americium concentrations and nitric acid concentrations after contact with the strong oxidant sodium bismuthate. Contrary to our hypotheses Am(VI) was not reduced faster at higher americium concentrations, and the reduction was only zero-order at short time scales. Attempts to model the reduction kinetics using zero order kinetic models showed Am(VI) reduction in nitric acid is more complex than the autoreduction processes reported by others in perchloric acid. The classical zero-order reduction of Am(VI) was found here only for short times on the order of a few hours. We did show that the rate of Am(V) production was less than the rate of Am(VI) reduction, indicating that some Am(VI) undergoes two electron-reduction to Am(IV). We also monitored the Am(VI) reduction in contact with the organic diluent dodecane. A direct comparison of these results with those in the absence of the organic diluent showed the reduction rates for Am(VI) were not statistically different for both systems. Additional americium oxidations conducted in the presence of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ions showed that Am(VI) is reduced without the typical growth of Am(V) observed in the systems sans Ce ion. This was an interesting result which suggests a potential new reduction/oxidation pathway for Am in the presence of Ce; however, these results were very preliminary, and will require additional experiments to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. Overall, these studies have shown that hexavalent americium is fundamentally stable enough in nitric acid to run a separations process. However, the complicated nature of the reduction pathways based on the system components is far from being rigorously understood.

  4. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of americium(III) to americium(VI) in dilute phosphoric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyukova, M.S.; Litvina, M.N.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1980-01-01

    The reaction between trivalent americium and a mixture of silver with ammonium persulfate in 0.1-3M H 3 PO 4 solutions was studied. Hexavalent americium was found to be the product of interaction under these conditions. Americium oxidation is described with a first order equation with rate constants k=18.7 hr -1 and k=8.74 hr -1 for 0.1-0.5M and 1M H 3 PO 4 , respectively. The activation energy calculated from the temperature dependence of the rate of americium oxidation by a mixture of Ag 3 PO 4 with (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 is 9.1 kcal/mole. The stability of Am(VI) in 0.1-1M H 3 PO 4 was studied. No reduction of Am(VI) over a period of 30-40 hrs was observed; after that the reduction of Am(VI) follows a zero order law with the apparent rate constant k=0.0036 hr -1 . The mechanism of Am(III) oxidation with a mixture of silver and ammonium persulfate is discussed. (author)

  5. Americium extraction by alkylpyrocatechin from alkaline salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karalova, Z.K.; Rodionova, L.M.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1984-01-01

    Effect of iron, aluminium, calcium, and sodium nitrates on americium extraction by 0.1 mol/l DOP solution [4-(α-α dioctylethyl) pyrocatechin] in toluene from a mixture of 2 mol/l NaOH with 0.1 mol/l EDTA has been investigated. It has been shown that americium extraction does not change essen-- tially in the presence of salts that permits to use DOP for Am extraction from alkaline solutions in the presence of outside salts. Verification of the above method of extraction of radioactive isotopes has been carried out. According to the data obtained double extraction provides a preparation of alkaline solutions practically free from radioactive isotopes. DOP application for Am extraction from alkaline salt solutions allows one to carry out repeated Am concentration and separation from accompanying elements. Conditions, under which Fe(3)-Am(3) pair separation coefficient achieves nx10 2 -10 4 , have been found out

  6. Contribution to the study of higher valency states of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlet, Jean.

    1976-01-01

    Study of the chemistry of the higher valencies of americium in aqueous solutions and especially the autoreduction phenomenon. First a purification method of americium solutions is studied by precipitation, solvent extraction and ion exchange chromatography. Studies of higher valency states chemical properties are disturbed by the autoreduction phenomenon changing Am VI and Am V in Am III more stable. Stabilization of higher valency states, characterized by a steady concentration of Am VI in solution, can be done by complexation of Am VI and Am V ions or by a protecting effect of foreign ions. The original medium used has a complexing effect by SO 4 2- ions and a protecting effect by the system S 2 O 8 2- -Ag + consuming H 2 O 2 main reducing agent produced by water radiolysis. These effects are shown by the study of Am VI in acid and basic solutions. A mechanism of the stabilization effect is given [fr

  7. Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzPatrick, J.R.; Dunn, J.G.; Avens, L.R.

    1987-02-13

    Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides. AmF/sub 4/ is not further oxidized to AmF/sub 6/ by the application of O/sub 2/F at room temperature thereto, while plutonium compounds present in the americium sample are fluorinated to volatile PuF/sub 6/, which can readily be separated therefrom, leaving the purified americium oxides and/or fluorides as the solid tetrafluoride thereof.

  8. Research program on development of advanced treatment technology for americium-containing aqueous waste in NUCEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineo, Hideaki; Matsumura, Tatsuro; Tsubata, Yasuhiro

    1996-10-01

    A research program was prepared on the development of an advanced treatment process for the americium-containing concentrated aqueous waste in NUCEF, than allows americium recovery for the reuse and the reduction of TRU waste generation. A preliminary analysis was conducted on the separation requirements based on the components estimated for the waste. An R and D strategy was proposed from the view to reduce TRU waste generated in the processing that the highest priority is given on the control of TRU leakage such as americium into the effluent stream after americium recovery and the minimization of salt used in the separation over the decontamination of impurities from americium. The extraction chromatographic method was selected as a candidate technology for americium separation under the principle to use reagents that are functional in acidic conditions such as bidentate extractants of DHEDECMP, CMPO or diamides, considering the larger flexibilities in process modification and possible multi-component separation with compact equipment and the past achievements on the recovery of kg quantities of americium. Major R and D items extracted are screening and evaluation of extractants for americium and plutonium, optimization of separation conditions, selection of denitration method, equipment developments and development of solidification methods of discarded americium after reuse and of various kinds of separation residues. In order to cope these items, four steps of R and D program were proposed, i.e., fundamental experiment in beaker-scale on screening and evaluation of extractants, flowsheet study in bench-scale using simulated and small amount of americium aqueous waste solution to evaluate candidate process, americium recovery test in iron-shielded cell to be installed in NUCEF. It is objected to make recovery of 100g orders of americium used for research on fundamental TRU fuel properties. (J.P.N.)

  9. Ingestion Pathway Transfer Factors for Plutonium and Americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-07-28

    Overall transfer factors for major ingestion pathways are derived for plutonium and americium. These transfer factors relate the radionuclide concentration in a given foodstuff to deposition on the soil. Equations describing basic relationships consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.109 are followed. Updated values and coefficients from IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 364 are used when a available. Preference is given to using factors specific to the Savannah River Site.

  10. 1976 Hanford americium-exposure incident: decontamination and treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.R.; McMurray, B.J.; Jech, J.J.; Breitenstein, B.D.; Quigley, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    An injured worker, contaminated with over 6 mCi of americium-241, required special treatment and housing for 4 months. This paper is a description of the design and management of the facility in which most of the treatment and housing occurred. The problems associated with contamination control, waste handling, supplies, and radiological concerns during the two-stage transfer of the patient from a controlled situation to his normal living environment are discussed in detail

  11. Americium-241: the most useful isotope of the actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Used extensively in nuclear gauges and in many other areas, this man-made element (Atomic Number 95) was first isolated in weighable amounts during World War II. Americium is now a very useful by-product of the nuclear industry and is produced in kilogram amounts by appropriate recovery, separation and purification processes. A review will be presented of its discovery, nuclear and chemical properties, and uses, with emphasis on its production process and separations chemistry

  12. Extraction separation of americium and curium. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrzilova, H.

    1976-11-01

    A survey is given of extraction systems suitable for transplutonium element separation and preparation as well as for the practical application of their nuclear properties. Methods are discussed in detail of separating the actinide and the lanthanide fractions from fission and corrosion products and of separating americium from curium. The description is completed with flowsheets showing the separation of transplutonium elements from irradiated targets and waste solutions after spent fuel reprocessing. (L.K.)

  13. Ingestion Pathway Transfer Factors for Plutonium and Americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-01-01

    Overall transfer factors for major ingestion pathways are derived for plutonium and americium. These transfer factors relate the radionuclide concentration in a given foodstuff to deposition on the soil. Equations describing basic relationships consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.109 are followed. Updated values and coefficients from IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 364 are used when a available. Preference is given to using factors specific to the Savannah River Site

  14. On the structure of thorium and americium adenosine triphosphate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostapha, Sarah; Berton, Laurence; Boubals, Nathalie; Zorz, Nicole; Charbonnel, Marie-Christine; Fontaine-Vive, Fabien; Den Auwer, Christophe; Solari, Pier Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The actinides are chemical poisons and radiological hazards. One challenge to better appraise their toxicity and develop countermeasures in case of exposure of living organisms is to better assess pathways of contamination. Because of the high chemical affinity of those actinide elements for phosphate groups and the ubiquity of such chemical functions in biochemistry, nucleotides and in particular adenosine triphosphate nucleotide (ATP) may be considered critical target building blocks for actinides. Combinations of spectroscopic techniques (Fourier transformed Infra Red [FTIR], Electro-spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry [ESI-MS], and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure [EXAFS]) with quantum chemical calculations have been implemented in order to assess the actinides coordination arrangement with ATP. We describe and compare herein the interaction of ATP with thorium and americium; thorium(IV) as a representative of actinide(IV) like plutonium(IV) and americium(III) as a representative of all heavier actinides. In the case of thorium, an insoluble complex is readily formed. In the case of americium, a behavior identical to that described previously for lutetium has been observed with insoluble and soluble complexes. The comparative study of ATP complexation with Th(IV) and Am(III) shows their ability to form insoluble complexes for which a structural model has been proposed by analogy with previously described Lu(III) complexes. (authors)

  15. On the structure of thorium and americium adenosine triphosphate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostapha, Sarah; Fontaine-Vive, Fabien; Berthon, Laurence; Boubals, Nathalie; Zorz, Nicole; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Charbonnel, Marie Christine; Den Auwer, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    The actinides are chemical poisons and radiological hazards. One challenge to better appraise their toxicity and develop countermeasures in case of exposure of living organisms is to better assess pathways of contamination. Because of the high chemical affinity of those actinide elements for phosphate groups and the ubiquity of such chemical functions in biochemistry, nucleotides and in particular adenosine triphosphate nucleotide (ATP) may be considered critical target building blocks for actinides. Combinations of spectroscopic techniques (Fourier transformed Infra Red [FTIR], Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry [ESI-MS], and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure [EXAFS]) with quantum chemical calculations have been implemented in order to assess the actinides coordination arrangement with ATP. We describe and compare herein the interaction of ATP with thorium and americium; thorium(IV) as a representative of actinide(IV) like plutonium(IV) and americium(III) as a representative of all heavier actinides. In the case of thorium, an insoluble complex is readily formed. In the case of americium, a behavior identical to that described previously for lutetium has been observed with insoluble and soluble complexes. The comparative study of ATP complexation with Th(IV) and Am(III) shows their ability to form insoluble complexes for which a structural model has been proposed by analogy with previously described Lu(III) complexes.

  16. The EFTTRA-T4 experiment on americium transmutation

    CERN Document Server

    Konings, R J M; Dassel, G; Pijlgroms, B J; Somers, J; Toscano, E

    2000-01-01

    In the EFTTRA-T4 experiment the irradiation behaviour of a target containing americium dispersed in MgAl sub 2 O sub 4 was studied. Pellets containing 10-12 wt% sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am were fabricated by the infiltration method. However, it was found that the americium, intended to be present as AmO sub 2 sub - sub x , formed a compound, probably AmAlO sub 3 , during sintering. The T4 target was irradiated in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) Petten from August 1996 to January 1998 (358.4 fpd's). Post-test burn-up calculations indicated that the sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am concentration is reduced to 4% of the initial value at the end of the irradiation. The fraction of the initial americium atoms that were fissioned is 28%. Non-destructive and destructive examinations of the target indicated that swelling of the target pellets occurred. This is attributed to accumulation of helium, produced by alpha decay of sup 2 sup 4 sup 2 Cm that occurs in the transmutation scheme of sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am.

  17. Gut uptake factors for plutonium, americium and curium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Data on estimates of the absorption of plutonium, americium and curium from the human gut based on measurements of uptake in other mammalian species are reviewed. It is proposed that for all adult members of the public ingesting low concentrations of plutonium in food and water, 0.05% would be an appropriate value of absorption except when the conditions of exposure are known and a lower value can be justified. For dietary intakes of americium and curium, the available data do not warrant a change from the ICRP value of 0.05%. For newborn children ingesting americium, curium and soluble forms of plutonium, a value of 1% absorption is proposed for the first 3 months of life during which the infant is maintained on a milk diet. It is proposed that a value of 0.5% should be used for the first year of life to take account of the gradual maturation of the gut. In considering the ingestion of insoluble oxides of plutonium by infants, it is proposed that absorption is taken as 0.1% for the first 3 months and 0.05% for the first year. (author)

  18. 49 CFR 236.588 - Periodic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic test. 236.588 Section 236.588..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.588 Periodic test. Except as provided in § 236.586, periodic test of the automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal apparatus...

  19. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time. ...

  20. Extraction of pentavalent americium by di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molochnikova, N.P.; Myasoedov, B.F.; Frenkel, V.Ya.

    1983-01-01

    Conditions have been found for the extraction of americium(V) by HDEHP in octane from acetate buffer solutions at pH 4.5-5.0 in the presence of ammonium persulphate which was necessary to stabilize oxidized americium under these conditions. The effect of the nature of a solvent on the extraction coefficient of americium(V) was studied. Macroamounts of americium(V) were extracted by 0.5M HDEHP in octane. The absorption spectrum of americium(V) in the extract has been recorded. The stability of americium(V) in the organic phase was evaluated. The absence of interfering influence of the anions of phosphotungstic acids on the extraction of americium(V) by 0.5M HDEHP in octane makes it possible to separate americium(V) from trivalent actinides during one extraction from acetate solutions at pH 4.5-5.0 in the presence of 10 -3 M potassium phosphotungstate; the separation factor is about 10 3 . (author)

  1. Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations measured from the 125-meter Hanford Meteorological Tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Airborne plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentrations and fluxes were measured at six heights from 1.9 to 122 m on the Hanford meteorological tower. The data show that plutonium-239 was transported on nonrespirable and small particles at all heights. Airborne americium-241 concentrations on small particles were maximum at the 91 m height

  2. Robotic sample preparation for radiochemical plutonium and americium analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalnaker, N.; Beugelsdijk, T.; Thurston, A.; Quintana, J.

    1985-01-01

    A Zymate robotic system has been assembled and programmed to prepare samples for plutonium and americium analyses by radioactivity counting. The system performs two procedures: a simple dilution procedure and a TTA (xylene) extraction of plutonium. To perform the procedures, the robotic system executes 11 unit operations such as weighing, pipetting, mixing, etc. Approximately 150 programs, which require 64 kilobytes of memory, control the system. The system is now being tested with high-purity plutonium metal and plutonium oxide samples. Our studies indicate that the system can give results that agree within 5% at the 95% confidence level with determinations performed manually. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Implications of plutonium and americium recycling on MOX fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, A.; Pilate, S.; Maldague, Th.; La Fuente, A.; Evrard, G.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of the multiple recycling of plutonium in power reactors on the radiation dose rates is analyzed for the most critical stage in a MOX fuel fabrication plant. The limitation of the number of Pu recycling in light water reactors would rather stem from reactor core physics features. The case of recovering americium with plutonium is also considered and the necessary additions of shielding are evaluated. A comparison between the recycling of Pu in fast reactors and in light water reactors is presented. (author)

  4. Effect of 241-americium on bone marrow stroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuvel, R. van den

    1990-01-01

    The regulation of haemopoiesis occurs via complex interactions between the stroma and the haemopoietic cells. An attempt to further clarifying the mechanisms and the exact role of the stroma in the regulation was made in a study. Results revealed that the murine bone marrow stromal cells are highly radiosensitive after injection with 241-americium and can thus be considered as a target population after internal contamination. In addition, observations are made which may be important for risk estimation for the developing animal and during pregnancy. Contamination in utero and by lactation shows persistent damage up to 1 year after contamination at an average annual dose of 5 cGy. (author)

  5. Solubility of americium-241 in in vitro bovine ruminal-gastrointestinal fluids and predicted tissue retention and milk secretion of field-ingested americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, J.

    1978-01-01

    The alimentary solubility and behavior of americium-241 were studied in an artificial rumen and simulated bovine gastrointestinal fluids. Rumen juice was augmented with americium-241 nitrate solution and incubated for 24 hours. This juice was successively converted by the addition of bile and enzymes and adjustment of the pH to simulate the digestive stages of the abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, and lower small intestine. Fluid samples were collected from each of these digestive stages and radioanalyzed for soluble americium-241. Shortly after the addition of americium-241 to rumen juice, an average of 15.3% remained soluble while 7.2% remained soluble following the incubation period. The solubility decreased to 5.3% following the abomasal period and increased to 11.6% and 20.0% when maintained at pH 4.0 and 5.0, respectively, in the duodenal phase. The solubility increased to 52% during the jejunal incubation period and was reduced to 44.8% during the lower intestinal incubation period. The sharp rise in americium-241 solubility during the jejunal incubation perid was found to be due mainly to the action of bile. Predictions of tissue retention and milk secretion of americium-241 ingested by grazing cattle at Area 13 of the Nevada Test Site are included

  6. Analysis of americium, plutonium and technetium solubility in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Seiji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-08-01

    Safety assessments for geologic disposal of radioactive waste generally use solubilities of radioactive elements as the parameter restricting the dissolution of the elements from a waste matrix. This study evaluated americium, plutonium and technetium solubilities under a variety of geochemical conditions using the geochemical model EQ3/6. Thermodynamic data of elements used in the analysis were provided in the JAERI-data base. Chemical properties of both natural groundwater and interstitial water in buffer materials (bentonite and concrete) were investigated to determine the variations in Eh, pH and ligand concentrations (CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, F{sup -}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -} and NH{sub 4}{sup +}). These properties can play an important role in the complexation of radioactive elements. Effect of the groundwater chemical properties on the solubility and formation of chemical species for americium, plutonium and technetium was predicted based on the solubility analyses under a variety of geochemical conditions. The solubility and speciation of the radioactive elements were estimated, taking into account the possible range of chemical compositions determined from the groundwater investigation. (author)

  7. Plutonium and americium in the foodchain lichen-reindeer-man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaakkola, T.; Hakanen, M.; Keinonen, M.; Mussalo, H.; Miettinen, J.K.

    1977-01-01

    The atmospheric nuclear tests have produced a worldwide fallout of transuranium elements. In addition to plutonium measurable concentrations of americium are to be found in terrestrial and aquatic environments. The metabolism of plutonium in reindeer was investigated by analyzing plutonium in liver, bone, and lung collected during 1963-1976. To determine the distribution of plutonium in reindeer all tissues of four animals of different ages were analyzed. To estimate the uptake of plutonium from the gastrointestinal tract in reindeer, the tissue samples of elk were also analyzed. Elk which is of the same genus as reindeer does not feed on lichen but mainly on deciduous plants, buds, young twigs, and leaves of trees and bushes. The composition of its feed corresponds fairly well to that of reindeer during the summer. Studies on behaviour of americium along the foodchain lichen-reindeer-man were started by determining the Am-241 concentrations in lichen and reindeer liver. The Am-241 results were compared with those of Pu-239,240. The plutonium contents of the southern Finns, whose diet does not contain reindeer tissues, were determined by analyzing autopsy tissue samples (liver, lung, and bone). The southern Finns form a control group to the Lapps consuming reindeer tissues. Plutonium analyses of the placenta, blood, and tooth samples of the Lapps were performed

  8. Uptake and recovery of americium and uranium by Anacystis biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.H.; Jiunntzong Wu

    1993-01-01

    The optimum conditions for the uptake of americium and uranium from wastewater solutions by Anacystis nidulans cells, and the recovery of these radionuclides were studied. The optimum pH range for both actinides was in the acidic region between 3.0 and 5.0. In a pH 3.5 solution with an algal biomass of 70 μg/mL, up to 95% of the Am and U were taken up by the cells. However, the uptake levels were lowered considerably when ethylene dinitrilotetraacetic acid (EDTA) or iron or calcium ions were present in the solutions. Most of the radionuclides taken up by the cells could also be desorbed by washing with salt solutions. Of nine salt solutions tested, ammonium carbonate was the most effective. Our experiments using algal biomass to remove radionuclides from wastewater showed that about 92% of americium and 85% of uranium in wastewater could be taken up by algal biomass, from which about 46% of the Am and 82% of the U originally present in the wastewater could be recovered by elution with a salt solution. 17 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Extraction of americium of different oxidation states in two-phase aqueous system based on polyethylene glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molochnikova, N.P.; Frenkel', V.Ya.; Myasoedov, B.F.; Shkinev, V.M.; Spivakov, B.Ya.; Zolotov, Yu.A.

    1987-01-01

    Americium extraction in different oxidation states in two-phase aqueous system based on polyethylene glycol is investigated. Conditions for quantitative extraction of americium (3) and americium (5) from ammonium sulfate solutions within pH=3-5 interval in the presence of arsenazo 3 are found. Composition of the produced americium complexes with reagent is determined; americium (3) interacts with arsenazo 3 in ammonium sulfate solutions with the formation of MeR and Me 2 R composition complexes. Absorption spectrum characteristics of americium (3) and- (5) complexes with arsenazo 3 in ammonium sulfate solutions and extracts based polyethylene glycol aqueous solutions are given. Molar extinction coefficients of americium complexes with arsenazo (3) in these solutions are determined

  10. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a locking...

  11. 49 CFR 236.742 - Dog, locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, locking. 236.742 Section 236.742 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.742 Dog...

  12. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog. A...

  13. 49 CFR 236.105 - Electric lock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric lock. 236.105 Section 236.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.105 Electric lock. Electric lock, except forced...

  14. 33 CFR 236.3 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 236.3 Section 236.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER... QUALITY § 236.3 References. (a) PL 89-72 (b) ER 1105-2-10 (c) ER 1105-2-200 ...

  15. 24 CFR 236.901 - Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Audit. 236.901 Section 236.901... AND INTEREST REDUCTION PAYMENT FOR RENTAL PROJECTS Audits § 236.901 Audit. Where a State or local... mortgagor of a mortgage insured or held by the Commissioner under this part, it shall conduct audits in...

  16. 8 CFR 236.13 - Ineligible aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible aliens. 236.13 Section 236.13 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Family Unity Program § 236...

  17. 49 CFR 236.717 - Characteristics, operating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Characteristics, operating. 236.717 Section 236.717 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.717 Characteristics, operating. The measure of electrical values at which electrical or electronic...

  18. 49 CFR 236.712 - Brake pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.712 Brake pipe. A pipe running from the engineman's brake valve through the train, used for the transmission of air under... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake pipe. 236.712 Section 236.712 Transportation...

  19. 49 CFR 236.814 - Station, control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station, control. 236.814 Section 236.814..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.814 Station, control. The place where the control machine of a traffic control system is located. ...

  20. 49 CFR 236.777 - Operator, control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operator, control. 236.777 Section 236.777..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.777 Operator, control. An employee assigned to operate the control machine of a traffic control system. ...

  1. 49 CFR 236.771 - Machine, control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machine, control. 236.771 Section 236.771..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.771 Machine, control. An assemblage of manually operated devices for controlling the functions of a traffic...

  2. 36 CFR 2.36 - Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gambling. 2.36 Section 2.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.36 Gambling. (a) Gambling in any form, or the operation of gambling...

  3. 49 CFR 236.833 - Train, opposing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train, opposing. 236.833 Section 236.833..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.833 Train, opposing. A train, the movement of which is in a direction opposite to and toward another train...

  4. 49 CFR 236.832 - Train.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train. 236.832 Section 236.832 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.832 Train. A...

  5. Rare earth elements during diagenesis of abyssal sediments: analogies with a transuranic element americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boust, D.

    1987-03-01

    One of the possibilities for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes consists in burying them into abyssal sediments, the sediments being supposed to barrier out radionuclides migration. The objective of the work was to estimate the efficiency of sediment barrier with respect to americium. As there is no americium in abyssal sediments, an indirect approach was used: the behaviour of the rare earth elements, the best natural analogs of americium. They were analysed in a 15 m long core, from the Cap Verde abyssal plateau. The terrigenous phase derived from the African continent was modified by short-term processes (1-1000 years); the intermediate rare earth elements were dissolved. Mineral coatings, enriched in rare earth appeared. After burial, the evolution continued at a much slower rate (10 5 - 10 6 years). The rare elements of the mineral coatings derived from the dissolution of the terrigenous phase and from an additional source, deeper in the sediment column. The fluxes of rare earth elements from sediment to water column were estimated. In suboxic sediments, the dissolved particulate equilibrium was related to redox conditions. The short-term reactivity of americium was studied in laboratory experiments. Simple americium migration models showed that the sediments barrier was totally efficient with respect to americium. In the conditions, neptunium 237 a daughter product of americium 241 could induce fluxes of 10 16 atoms per year per ton of stored waste (10 -8 Ci y-1), during millions years, towards the water column [fr

  6. Analysis of biological samples for americium and curium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miglio, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    A method of analyzing biological materials by liquid scintillation counting for americium and curium which greatly reduces the contribution from 40 K is described. The method employs an extractant liquid scintillation cocktail using N,N,N-trioctyl-N-methyl-ammonium chloride as the extractant. Instrument as well as tissue backgrounds are reduced. The lowered backgrounds allow picocurie level samples to be analyzed by liquid scintillation counting instead of alpha pulse height analysis. The samples are reduced to a carbon-free ash and then dissolved in 8M LiNo 3 which is also 10 -2 M in HNO 3 . An aliquot is placed in a liquid scintillation vial along with the extractant-scintillator, shaken and counted

  7. Pretreatment of americium/curium solutions for vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to the heavy isotope programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Prior to vitrification, an in-tank oxalate precipitation and a series of oxalic/nitric acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Pretreatment development experiments were performed to understand the behavior of the lanthanides and the metal impurities during the oxalate precipitation and properties of the precipitate slurry. The results of these experiments will be used to refine the target glass composition allowing optimization of the primary processing parameters and design of the solution transfer equipment

  8. Determination of the oxygen-metal-ratio of uranium-americium mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartscher, W.

    1982-01-01

    During the dissolution of uranium-americium mixed oxides in phosphoric acid under nitrogen tetravalent uranium is oxidized by tetravalent americium. The obtained hexavalent uranium is determined by constant potential coulometry. The coulombs measured are equivalent to the oxygen in excess of the minimum composition of UO 2 x AmO 1 . 5 . The total uranium content of the sample is determined in a subsequent coulometric titration. The oxygen-metal ratio of the sample can be calculated for a given uranium-americium ratio. An excess of uranium dioxide is necessary in order to suppress the oxidation of water by tetravalent americium. The standard deviation of the method is 0.0017 O/M units. (orig.) [de

  9. In-line measurement of plutonium and americium in mixed solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.K.

    1981-01-01

    A solution assay instrument (SAI) has been developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and installed in the plutonium purification and americium recovery process area in the Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility. The instrument is designed for accurate, timely, and simultaneous nondestructive analysis of plutonium and americium in process solutions that have a wide range of concentrations and Am/Pu ratios. For a 25-mL sample, the assay precision is 5 g/L within a 2000-s count time

  10. Biochemical fractionation and cellular distribution of americium and plutonium in the biomass of freshwater macrophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotina, T.A.; Kalacheva, G.S.; Bolsunovsky, A.Ya.

    2011-01-01

    Accumulation of americium ( 241 Am) and plutonium ( 238,242 Pu) and their distribution in cell compartments and biochemical components of the biomass of freshwater aquatic plants Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum and Myrioplyllum spicatum and aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica have been investigated in laboratory experiments. Americium and plutonium taken up from water by Elodea canadensis apical shoots were mainly absorbed by structural components of plant cells (90% for 241 Am; 89% for 238 Pu and 82-87% for 242 Pu). About 10-18% of isotope activity was recorded in the cytosol fraction. The major concentration (76-92%) of americium was bound to cell wall cellulose-like polysaccharides of Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum, Ceratophyllum demersum and Fontinalis antipyretica, 8-24% of americium activity was registered in the fraction of proteins and carbohydrates, and just a minor concentration (<1%) in the lipid fraction. The distribution of plutonium in the biomass fractions of Elodea was similar to that of americium. Hence, americium and plutonium had the highest affinity to cellulose-like polysaccharides of cell walls of freshwater submerged macrophytes. (author)

  11. Distribution of uranium, americium and plutonium in the biomass of freshwater macrophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotina, T.A.; Kalacheva, G.S.; Bolsunovsky, A.YA.

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of uranium ( 238 U), americium ( 241 Am) and plutonium ( 242 Pu) and their distribution in cell compartments and biochemical components of the biomass of aquatic plants Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Myrioplyllum spicatum and aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica have been investigated in laboratory batch experiments. Isotopes of uranium, americium and plutonium taken up from the water by Elodea canadensis apical shoots were mainly absorbed by cell walls, plasmalemma and organelles. A small portion of isotopes (about 6-13 %) could be dissolved in cytoplasm. The major portion (76-92 %) of americium was bound to cell wall cellulose-like polysaccharides of Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum, Ceratophyllum demersum and Fontinalis antipyretica, 8-23 % of americium activity was registered in the fraction of proteins and carbohydrates, and just a small portion (< 1%) in lipid fraction. The distribution of plutonium in the biomass fraction of Elodea was similar to that of americium. Hence, americium and plutonium had the highest affinity to cellulose-like polysaccharides in Elodea biomass. Distribution of uranium in the biomass of Elodea differed essentially from that of transuranium elements: a considerable portion of uranium was recorded in the fraction of protein and carbohydrates (51 %). From our data we can assume that uranium has higher affinity to carbohydrates than proteins. (authors)

  12. Distribution of uranium, americium and plutonium in the biomass of freshwater macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotina, T.A.; Kalacheva, G.S.; Bolsunovsky, A.YA. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    Accumulation of uranium ({sup 238}U), americium ({sup 241}Am) and plutonium ({sup 242}Pu) and their distribution in cell compartments and biochemical components of the biomass of aquatic plants Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Myrioplyllum spicatum and aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica have been investigated in laboratory batch experiments. Isotopes of uranium, americium and plutonium taken up from the water by Elodea canadensis apical shoots were mainly absorbed by cell walls, plasmalemma and organelles. A small portion of isotopes (about 6-13 %) could be dissolved in cytoplasm. The major portion (76-92 %) of americium was bound to cell wall cellulose-like polysaccharides of Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum, Ceratophyllum demersum and Fontinalis antipyretica, 8-23 % of americium activity was registered in the fraction of proteins and carbohydrates, and just a small portion (< 1%) in lipid fraction. The distribution of plutonium in the biomass fraction of Elodea was similar to that of americium. Hence, americium and plutonium had the highest affinity to cellulose-like polysaccharides in Elodea biomass. Distribution of uranium in the biomass of Elodea differed essentially from that of transuranium elements: a considerable portion of uranium was recorded in the fraction of protein and carbohydrates (51 %). From our data we can assume that uranium has higher affinity to carbohydrates than proteins. (authors)

  13. 236-Z canyon utilization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The 236-Z canyon contains equipment for repurification of plutonium and recovery of plutonium from scrap material. To meet production requirements of Fast Flux Test Facility/Clinch River Breeder Reactor oxide with the existing plant, several new pieces of equipment will be needed in the future. More storage space and a better accountability system are needed to support this increased production. The available canyon space needs to be utilized to its fullest in order to accommodate the new equipment. The purpose of this document is to identify the new pieces of equipment, show how they fit into the flowsheet, and locate them in the canyon

  14. Selective dissolution of americium by ferricyanide ions in basic aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, D.; Fouchard, S.; Simoni, E.

    2000-01-01

    Americium exhibits a soluble form in aqueous alkaline media under oxidizing conditions which is not the case for the other Transplutonium Elements (TPE). This property can be exploited for High Level Liquid Waste (HLLW) treatment to extract Am, one of the main radionuclides responsible for the long term radiotoxicity of nuclear waste. The Soluble Am compound can be obtained by adding a concentrated basic solution of ferricyanide ions (Fe(CN) 6 3- ) to a trivalent americium hydroxide precipitate. The method allows complete and rapid extraction of americium via its soluble form in alkaline solutions. Under these conditions, other TPE and lanthanides remain in the solid state as precipitates of highly insoluble trivalent hydroxides. In the case of dissolution involving large amounts of americium, the formation of the soluble americium species is followed by the appearance of a reddish precipitate in the basic solution. Dissolution of the reddish solid in NaOH or NaOH/Fe(CN) 6 3- media demonstrated the existence of a media dependent solubility of the precipitate, and therefore the existence of at least two forms of soluble Am. Spectroscopic studies (UV-visible, EXAFS-XANES) of this reddish solid led to the determination of an Am oxidation state (pentavalent americium) and its possible formula (Na 2 AmVO 2 (OH) 3 .nH 2 O). Electrochemical studies show that the only possible oxidation reaction of trivalent americium in the working media yields the pentavalent form, and that the hexavalent state is unattainable. Stoichiometric and spectroscopic studies show that not all the ferricyanide ions required for complete dissolution of Am remain in the free Fe(CN) 6 3- form. This observation supports the view that this dissolution of Am(III) solid compound is much more complex than a simple oxidation by the ferricyanide ions. The existence of a molecular interaction between Am(V)O 2 + and ferricyanide ions is highly probable. This work demonstrates that the selective dissolution

  15. Effect of americium-241 on luminous bacteria. Role of peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrova, M., E-mail: maka-alexandrova@rambler.r [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Rozhko, T. [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Vydryakova, G. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kudryasheva, N. [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-15

    The effect of americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), an alpha-emitting radionuclide of high specific activity, on luminous bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum was studied. Traces of {sup 241}Am in nutrient media (0.16-6.67 kBq/L) suppressed the growth of bacteria, but enhanced luminescence intensity and quantum yield at room temperature. Lower temperature (4 {sup o}C) increased the time of bacterial luminescence and revealed a stage of bioluminescence inhibition after 150 h of bioluminescence registration start. The role of conditions of exposure the bacterial cells to the {sup 241}Am is discussed. The effect of {sup 241}Am on luminous bacteria was attributed to peroxide compounds generated in water solutions as secondary products of radioactive decay. Increase of peroxide concentration in {sup 241}Am solutions was demonstrated; and the similarity of {sup 241}Am and hydrogen peroxide effects on bacterial luminescence was revealed. The study provides a scientific basis for elaboration of bioluminescence-based assay to monitor radiotoxicity of alpha-emitting radionuclides in aquatic solutions. - Highlights: {yields} Am-241 in water solutions (A = 0.16-6.7 kBq/L) suppresses bacterial growth.{yields} Am-241 (A = 0.16-6.7 kBq/L) stimulate bacterial luminescence. {yields} Peroxides, secondary radiolysis products, cause increase of bacterial luminescence.

  16. Americium/Curium Melter 2A Pilot Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.E.; Fellinger, A.P.; Jones, T.M.; Miller, C.B.; Miller, D.H.; Snyder, T.K.; Stone, M.E.; Witt, D.C.

    1998-05-01

    Isotopes of americium (Am) and curium (Cm) were produced in the past at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for research, medical, and radiological applications. These highly radioactive and valuable isotopes have been stored in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years. Vitrification of this solution will allow the material to be more safely stored until it is transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation for use in research and medical applications. To this end, the Am/Cm Melter 2A pilot system, a full-scale non- radioactive pilot plant of the system to be installed at the reprocessing facility, was designed, constructed and tested. The full- scale pilot system has a frit and aqueous feed delivery system, a dual zone bushing melter, and an off-gas treatment system. The main items which were tested included the dual zone bushing melter, the drain tube with dual heating and cooling zones, glass compositions, and the off-gas system which used for the first time a film cooler/lower melter plenum. Most of the process and equipment were proven to function properly, but several problems were found which will need further work. A system description and a discussion of test results will be given

  17. Density of simulated americium/curium melter feed solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1997-09-22

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to Oak Ridge National Laboratory and use in heavy isotope production programs. Prior to vitrification, a series of in-tank oxalate precipitation and nitric/oxalic acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Following nitric acid dissolution and oxalate destruction, the solution will be denitrated and evaporated to a dissolved solids concentration of approximately 100 g/l (on an oxide basis). During the Am/Cm vitrification, an airlift will be used to supply the concentrated feed solution to a constant head tank which drains through a filter and an in-line orifice to the melter. Since the delivery system is sensitive to the physical properties of the feed, a simulated solution was prepared and used to measure the density as a function of temperature between 20 to 70{degrees} C. The measured density decreased linearly at a rate of 0.0007 g/cm3/{degree} C from an average value of 1.2326 g/cm{sup 3} at 20{degrees} C to an average value of 1.1973g/cm{sup 3} at 70{degrees} C.

  18. Density of simulated americium/curium melter feed solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1997-01-01

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to Oak Ridge National Laboratory and use in heavy isotope production programs. Prior to vitrification, a series of in-tank oxalate precipitation and nitric/oxalic acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Following nitric acid dissolution and oxalate destruction, the solution will be denitrated and evaporated to a dissolved solids concentration of approximately 100 g/l (on an oxide basis). During the Am/Cm vitrification, an airlift will be used to supply the concentrated feed solution to a constant head tank which drains through a filter and an in-line orifice to the melter. Since the delivery system is sensitive to the physical properties of the feed, a simulated solution was prepared and used to measure the density as a function of temperature between 20 to 70 degrees C. The measured density decreased linearly at a rate of 0.0007 g/cm3/degree C from an average value of 1.2326 g/cm 3 at 20 degrees C to an average value of 1.1973g/cm 3 at 70 degrees C

  19. Americium adsorption on the surface of macrophytic algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, F.P.; Fowler, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Data are presented on the rates at which americium (Am) deposits upon blade surfaces of three benthic algal species (Ulva rigida, Fucus vesiculosus and Gigartina stellata) following short-term exposures (1-6 h). Am is taken up in direct proportion to the ambient radionuclide concentration in sea water. Uptake by the green alga was 3 to 5 times greater than that for the brown and red species. Experimental evidence indicated that Am accumulation is a passive process and that adsorption takes place mainly on the thin outer organic coating of the seaweed. The Am transport coefficients are quite similar to that previously found for the naturally occurring ..cap alpha..-emitter /sup 210/Po, but are an order of magnitude lower than a plutonium transport coefficient reported in the literature. Release of labelled extracellular products associated with the algal surface coating is considered to be responsible for the rapid loss of Am observed previously in macroalgae and may in fact serve as a mechanism for transferring Am to filter feeding zooplankton. (author).

  20. Americium adsorption on the surface of macrophytic algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.P.; Fowler, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Data are presented on the rates at which americium (Am) deposits upon blade surfaces of three benthic algal species (Ulva rigida, Fucus vesiculosus and Gigartina stellata) following short-term exposures (1-6 h). Am is taken up in direct proportion to the ambient radionuclide concentration in sea water. Uptake by the green alga was 3 to 5 times greater than that for the brown and red species. Experimental evidence indicated that Am accumulation is a passive process and that adsorption takes place mainly on the thin outer organic coating of the seaweed. The Am transport coefficients are quite similar to that previously found for the naturally occurring α-emitter 210 Po, but are an order of magnitude lower than a plutonium transport coefficient reported in the literature. Release of labelled extracellular products associated with the algal surface coating is considered to be responsible for the rapid loss of Am observed previously in macroalgae and may in fact serve as a mechanism for transferring Am to filter feeding zooplankton. (author)

  1. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original position after being trailed through and holds them under spring compression. ...

  2. 49 CFR 236.765 - Locking, mechanical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, mechanical. 236.765 Section 236.765 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Locking, mechanical. An arrangement of locking bars, dogs, tappets, cross locking and other apparatus by...

  3. 49 CFR 236.761 - Locking, electric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, electric. 236.761 Section 236.761 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Locking, electric. The combination of one or more electric locks and controlling circuits by means of...

  4. 49 CFR 236.757 - Lock, electric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lock, electric. 236.757 Section 236.757... Lock, electric. A device to prevent or restrict the movement of a lever, a switch or a movable bridge, unless the locking member is withdrawn by an electrical device, such as an electromagnet, solenoid or...

  5. 48 CFR 552.236-80 - Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat. 552.236-80 Section... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552.236-80 Heat. As prescribed in 536.570-11, insert the following clause: Heat (APR 1984) Unless otherwise specified or unless already...

  6. 49 CFR 236.709 - Block, absolute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Block, absolute. 236.709 Section 236.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  7. 49 CFR 236.706 - Bed, locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bed, locking. 236.706 Section 236.706 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  8. 49 CFR 236.564 - Acknowledging time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acknowledging time. 236.564 Section 236.564 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  9. 49 CFR 236.714 - Cab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cab. 236.714 Section 236.714 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  10. 49 CFR 236.721 - Circuit, control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, control. 236.721 Section 236.721 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  11. 49 CFR 236.702 - Arm, semaphore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Arm, semaphore. 236.702 Section 236.702 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  12. 49 CFR 236.708 - Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Block. 236.708 Section 236.708 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  13. 49 CFR 236.728 - Circuit, trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, trap. 236.728 Section 236.728 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  14. 49 CFR 236.533 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 236.533 Section 236.533 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  15. 49 CFR 236.710 - Block, latch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Block, latch. 236.710 Section 236.710 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  16. 49 CFR 236.576 - Roadway element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roadway element. 236.576 Section 236.576 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  17. 49 CFR 236.704 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 236.704 Section 236.704 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  18. 49 CFR 236.589 - Relays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relays. 236.589 Section 236.589 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... once every six years. (b) [Reserved] [49 FR 3387, Jan. 26, 1984] ...

  19. 49 CFR 236.719 - Circuit, acknowledgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, acknowledgment. 236.719 Section 236.719 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  20. 49 CFR 236.700 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 236.700 Section 236.700 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  1. 49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumatic apparatus. 236.590 Section 236.590 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  2. 49 CFR 236.561 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 236.561 Section 236.561 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  3. 49 CFR 236.713 - Bridge, movable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bridge, movable. 236.713 Section 236.713 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  4. 49 CFR 236.726 - Circuit, track.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, track. 236.726 Section 236.726 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  5. 49 CFR 236.530 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 236.530 Section 236.530 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  6. 49 CFR 236.703 - Aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aspect. 236.703 Section 236.703 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  7. 49 CFR 236.705 - Bar, locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bar, locking. 236.705 Section 236.705 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  8. 49 CFR 236.707 - Blade, semaphore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blade, semaphore. 236.707 Section 236.707 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  9. 49 CFR 236.760 - Locking, approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, approach. 236.760 Section 236.760 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  10. 49 CFR 236.377 - Approach locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approach locking. 236.377 Section 236.377 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  11. 49 CFR 236.803 - Signal, approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal, approach. 236.803 Section 236.803 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  12. 49 CFR 236.516 - Power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power supply. 236.516 Section 236.516 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL...

  13. 49 CFR 236.744 - Element, roadway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Element, roadway. 236.744 Section 236.744 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Element, roadway. That portion of the roadway apparatus of automatic train stop, train control, or cab...

  14. 49 CFR 236.731 - Controller, circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controller, circuit. 236.731 Section 236.731 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Controller, circuit. A device for opening and closing electric circuits. ...

  15. 49 CFR 236.811 - Speed, medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Speed, medium. 236.811 Section 236.811 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Speed, medium. A speed not exceeding 40 miles per hour. ...

  16. 49 CFR 236.813 - Speed, slow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Speed, slow. 236.813 Section 236.813 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Speed, slow. A speed not exceeding 20 miles per hour. ...

  17. 49 CFR 236.751 - Interlocking, manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interlocking, manual. 236.751 Section 236.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Interlocking, manual. An arrangement of signals and signal appliances operated from an interlocking machine and...

  18. 15 CFR 23.6 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 23.6 Section 23.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce USE OF PENALTY MAIL IN THE LOCATION AND... entities outside the Office of the Secretary charged with carrying out specified substantive functions (i.e...

  19. 49 CFR 236.790 - Release, time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Release, time. 236.790 Section 236.790... Release, time. A device used to prevent the operation of an operative unit until after the expiration of a predetermined time interval after the device has been actuated. ...

  20. 49 CFR 236.768 - Locking, time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, time. 236.768 Section 236.768... Locking, time. A method of locking, either mechanical or electrical, which, after a signal has been caused to display an aspect to proceed, prevents, until after the expiration of a predetermined time...

  1. 48 CFR 53.236-1 - Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction. 53.236-1... AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 53.236-1 Construction. The following forms are prescribed, as stated below, for use in contracting for construction, alteration, or repair, or dismantling, demolition...

  2. Dicty_cDB: VHB236 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHB236 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U12076-1 VHB236P (Link to Original site) VHB...236F 655 VHB236Z 805 VHB236P 1440 - - Show VHB236 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHB...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHB2-B/VHB236Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHB...236P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHB236 (VHB236Q) /CSM/VH/VHB2-B/VHB...Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value VHB236 (VHB236Q) /CSM/VH/VHB2-B/VHB

  3. The rapid determination of americium curium, and uranium in urine by ultrafiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.N.; Popplewell, D.S.; Ham, G.J.; Griffin, R.

    1975-01-01

    The rapid ultrafiltration method developed for the assay of plutonium has been extended to the determination of americium, curium and uranium in urine. The limits of detection for americium and curium, and uranium are 0.09 and 0.12 dm -1 l -1 respectively, and the analysis time excluding counting less than 2 hours. The method can therefor be effectively used as a rapid screening procedure. When the reference level for plutonium is exceeded, the α activity may require to be characterised. The single ultrafiltration technique must be modified for turbid urine samples. The method is inappropriate, except for uranium, when the urine contains DTPA. (author)

  4. Medical management after contamination and incorporation of americium in occupational exposure. Medizinische Massnahmen nach Kontamination und Inkorporation von Americium bei beruflicher Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensicke, F.; Stopp, G.; Scheler, R.; Klucke, H.; Czarwinski, R.; Naumann, M.; Hoelzer, F.; Ott, R.; Schmidt, I. (Staatliches Amt fuer Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Strahlenschutzmedizin)

    1990-10-01

    In handling with an ampule of {sup 241}Am-nitrate solution one person received an contamination of the body surface, especially the face and the hairs, and an internal contamination of americium. The paper presents the results obtained in medical management to reduced the contamination of the skin and of the incorporated radionuclide. The radioactivity of the body surface could be reduced up to small local areas. After treatment with DTPA (Ditripentat) the internal exposure decrease about 83%. (orig.).

  5. Adsorption-desorption characteristics of plutonium and americium with sediment particles in the estuarine environment: studies using plutonium-237 and americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C.N.; Fukai, R.

    1975-01-01

    The particle formation of plutonium and americium, their adsorption onto fresh water sediments and the desorption from the sediments in sea water were studied in the Laboratory under simulated river-estuary conditions, using γ-emitting plutonium-237 and americium-241. The results of the experiments show that the particle formation of plutonium depends on its valence states, on pH and on the salinity of the medium. For river water at pH4, some 25%, 20% and 30% of the added 237 Pu was in particulate form, larger than 0.45 μm, for Pu (III), Pu (IV) and Pu (VI), respectively, while 65%, 90% and 50% of the respective valence states was associated with particles at pH 8. In sea water the general pattern remains similar, although Pu (VI) is more soluble in sea water owing to higher ligand concentrations for carbonate and bicarbonate complexes. The pH-dependency of particle formation of Am (III) is more steep than that of plutonium and seems to be influenced by colloidal substances occurring in the experimental media. The adsorption-desorption characteristics of plutonium and americium with the sediment in river water as well as sea water reflect the characteristics of their particle formation, being dependent upon such properties as valence states, the pH and salinity of the medium. A sewage effluent added to the media has small but measurable effects on the adsorption-desorption processes of plutonium. (author)

  6. Total and Compound Formation Cross Sections for Americium Nuclei: Recommendations for Coupled-Channels Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    Calculations for total cross sections and compound-nucleus (CN) formation cross sections for americium isotopes are described, for use in the 2017 NA-22 evaluation effort. The code ECIS 2006 was used in conjunction with Frank Dietrich's wrapper `runtemplate'.

  7. Evaluation of the readsorption of plutonium and americium in dynamic fractionations of environmental solid samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Roongrat; Hou, Xiaolin; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2008-01-01

    extractions. The degree of readsorption in dynamic and conventional batch extraction systems are compared and evaluated by using a double-spiking technique. A high degree of readsorption of plutonium and americium (>75%) was observed in both systems, and they also exhibited similar distribution patterns...

  8. Sequential separation method for the determination of Plutonium and Americium in fecal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raveendran, Nanda; Rao, D.D.; Yadav, J.R.; Baburajan, A.

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of internal contamination due to Plutonium and Americium of radiation workers of Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility (AFFF) at Tarapur was carried out by the bioassay (Fecal sample) of the workers. Conventionally the separation of 'Pu' and 'Am' was carried out by alkali fusion followed by the anion exchange separation for Pu and cation exchange separation for Am. This paper deals with an alternative method in which initially the entire ash of the sample added with 236 Pu tracer (3-11 mBq) and 243 Am tracer (2.8-14.5 mBq) was acid leached and Pu was separated by anion exchange as per standard analytical procedure and Am by using TRU resin. In this work the extraction chromatography method using TRU resin procured from Eichrom,U.K. which contains N-N-di isobutyl carbanoyl methyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) as extractant, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) as diluent absorbed on inert polymeric support has been used for the separation of Am from fecal sample. The 8N HNO 3 effluent from Pu separation step was dried and the residue was dissolved in 10 ml 1M Al(NO 3 ) 3 in 3M HNO 3 and pinch of Ascorbic acid was added and loaded on a TRU resin column (dia ∼ 4 mm and height 60 mm) preconditioned with 30 ml 1M Al(NO 3 ) 3 in 3 MHNO 3 . The column was washed with 5 ml 3M HNO 3 and 5 ml 2M HNO 3 . The nitrate concentration was lowered using addition of 10 ml 0.05 M HNO 3 . Am was eluted with 3 ml 9M HCl and 20 ml 2M HCl. The elute was dried and electrodeposited on a SS planchet in NH 4 (SO 4 ) 2 solution at pH 2.2 for two hours. Pu and Am activity estimated by counting in passivated ion implanted planner Silicon detector (PIPS) coupled to 8K channel alpha spectrometer. The sample was counted for duration of 3-4 lacs of seconds. In this study the numbers of samples analyzed are 25. The paper gives detail of analytical recoveries of Pu tracer varies from 55-90 % with a mean of 70% and std. deviation 9.9%. The Am tracer recovery was in the range of 20-89.3% with a mean of

  9. Migration ability of plutonium and americium in the soils of Polessie State Radiation-Ecological Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetlana Ovsiannikova; Maryna Papenia; Katsiaryna Voinikava; Galina Sokolik; Sergey Svirschevsky; Justin Brown; Lindys Skipperud

    2010-01-01

    The physicochemical forms of radionuclides in soils determine the processes of their entry into the soil solutions, redistribution in the soil profile, soil-plant and soil-ground or surface waters transfer as well as spreading outside the contaminated area. The vertical distribution of plutonium and americium and their physicochemical forms in soils of Polessie State Radiation-Ecological Reserve (PSRER) were studied with the aim of establishing the potential for radionuclide migration. Samples of alluvial soddy-podzolic and peaty soils with a low (1-3%) and relatively high (∼80% of dry sample mass) content of organic matter have been selected for investigation. A method employing sequential selective extraction has been used for analysis of radionuclide physicochemical forms in the soils. Activity concentrations of 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am in the samples were determined via radiochemical analysis with alpha-spectrometric identification of radionuclides. The results indicate that the main proportion of plutonium and americium remains in the 0-20 cm soil layer. The inventories of mobile and biologically available forms of plutonium and americium, expressed as a percentage of the total radionuclide content in soil, lie in the ranges of 1.1-9.4 and 2.7-29% respectively. Greater proportions of mobile and biologically available forms of radionuclides appear to be associated with mineral soil as compared to organic soil. In both mineral and organic soils, the portion of mobile americium is higher than plutonium. The inventories of mobile forms of plutonium and americium increase with the depth of soils. (author)

  10. Interaction and diffusion transport of americium in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Guinart, Oriol; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry department, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    The final disposal of High Level Radioactive Wastes (HLRW) is based on its long-term storage in underground facilities located in geological stable sites with a multi-barrier system, the so called Deep Geological Repositories (DGR), that will keep HLRW confined for >10.000 years. After this period of time, leachates rich in long-live radioisotopes might escape from DGR and start to transport towards the biosphere. There is still a lack of information concerning the interaction and transport in soils of some radionuclides present in HLRW, especially for radionuclides that present a high sorption, such as americium (Am). Having reliable information about the mobility of radionuclides in soils is crucial in order to develop risk assessment models and to take proper decisions in case of soil contamination. The aim of the present work was, by means of laboratory scale experiments, to study the interaction and, for first time, to evaluate the diffusion transport of {sup 241}Am in soils. The {sup 241}Am interaction in soils was assessed by applying sorption batch assays to 20 soil samples with contrasted edaphic properties which allowed us to quantify the solid-liquid distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) and desorption percentage. K{sub d} (Am) values ranged from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 5} L kg{sup -1} and desorption percentages were always less than 2% which denoted a high capacity of the soil to incorporate the Am and a low reversibility of the sorption process. The influence of soil properties in {sup 241}Am interaction was studied by means of multiple linear and multivariate regressions. Although a single correlation between K{sub d} (Am) values and a soil property was not found, the main properties affecting {sup 241}Am interaction in soils were soil pH, carbonate and organic matter contents in the soil. Finally, additional batch assays at different controlled pH were done to study Am sorption as a function of the contact solution pH. A variation of the Am sorption

  11. Structural characterisations and mechanistic investigations of the selective dissolution of americium by the ferricyanide ions in alkaline media. Application for the partitioning americium curium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouchard, Sebastien

    2000-01-01

    Americium exhibits a high solubility form in basic media under oxidant conditions, unlike the other Transplutonium elements (TPE). This property can be used in the frame of High Level Liquid Waste (HLLW) treatment in order to extract preferentially the americium element, the main responsible of the long term radiotoxicity of the nuclear waste. This soluble compound can be obtained by addition of a concentrated basic solution of Fe(CN) 6 3- ions on Am(OH) 3 precipitates. This technique enables a rapid extraction of Am by the synthesis of this soluble form in alkaline solutions. Under these conditions, the other TPE remain in the solid state as trivalent hydroxide solids, strongly insoluble. In the case of dissolutions involving large amounts of Am(OH) 3 , the formation of the soluble complex is concomitant with the appearance of a reddish precipitate in the basic solution. Dissolution experiments which were carried out on this solid in NaOH/Fe(CN) 6 3- have demonstrated the dependency of the solubility equilibria with the media. Spectroscopic studies (UV Visible, XAS) on the precipitate have enabled the determination of the chemical structure and the oxidation state of the americium in the solid: Na 2 Am(V)O 2 (OH) 3 ,nH 2 O. Electrochemical studies on the americium solution have confirmed that the oxidation of Am(OH) 3 by the Fe(CN) 6 3- ions in basic media could only lead to the pentavalent form. A stoichiometric study carries out between a AmO 2 + ion and one Fe(CN) 6 3- ion and the spectroscopic characterisation of this reaction have demonstrated that the Fe(CN) 6 3- ion didn't remain as an un-complexed form in solution after the alkaline mixing. These results tend to prove that this dissolution of Am(OH) 3 is much more complex than a simple oxidation by the Fe(CN) 6 3- ions. The existence of molecular interactions between AmO 2 + and Fe(CN) 6 3- has been postulated and a mechanistic scheme has been proposed in order to explain the appearance of the soluble

  12. Reference: 236 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 236 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u15992545i Dharmasiri...5 Jul Developmental cell Dharmasiri Nihal|Dharmasiri Sunethra|Ehrismann Jasmin S|Estelle Mark|Hobbie Lawrence|J端rgens Gerd|Lechner Esther|Weijers Dolf|Yamada Masashi

  13. 76 FR 16041 - Agency Information Collection (VAAR Clauses 852.236-72, 852.236-82, 852.236-83, 852.236-84 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... each other and to the existing building elements. The information is used by the contracting officer... through the use of automated collection techniques or the use of other forms of information technology... Regulation (VAAR) Clause 852.236-82, Payments Under Fixed-Price Construction Contracts (without NAS...

  14. Resolved resonance parameters for 236Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morogovskij, G.B.; Bakhanovich, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    Multilevel Breit-Wigner parameters were obtained for fission cross-section representation in the 0.01-33 eV energy region from evaluation of a 236 Np experimental fission cross-section in the resolved resonance region. (author)

  15. 33 CFR 236.4 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control, beach erosion control and hurricane protection, hydroelectric power, recreation, water supply... Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER... QUALITY § 236.4 Background. (a) The role of the Corps of Engineers in the development of water and related...

  16. 48 CFR 236.604 - Performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance evaluation... Architect-Engineer Services 236.604 Performance evaluation. (a) Preparation of performance reports. Use DD Form 2631, Performance Evaluation (Architect-Engineer), instead of SF 1421. (2) Prepare a separate...

  17. Plutonium and americium in arctic waters, the North Sea and Scottish and Irish coastal zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallstadius, L.; Aarkrog, Asker; Dahlgaard, Henning

    1986-01-01

    of the Irish Sea) to Spitsbergen. 241Am found in Arctic waters probably originates from the decay of fallout 241Pu and, like Pu, tentatively has a residence time of the order of several years. Americium from Sellafield has an estimated mean residence time of 4–6 months in Scottish waters.......Plutonium and americium have been measured in surface waters of the Greenland and Barents Seas and in the northern North Sea from 1980 through 1984. Measurements in water and biota, Fucus, Mytilus and Patella, were carried out in North-English and Scottish waters in 1982 and Fucus samples were...... collected from the Irish coast in 1983. Fallout is found to dominate as a source of 239+240Pu north of latitude 65°N, while for 238Pu a substantial fraction originates from European nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. The 238Pu/239+240Pu isotope ratio provides clear evidence of the transport of effluent...

  18. Biochemical behaviour of plutonium and americium and geochemical modelling of the soil solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, N.D.; Livens, F.R.; Horrill, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    Field observations suggest that plutonium and americium in the environment are present in very different chemical forms in the interstitial waters of an intertidal sediment. Thermodynamic modelling using the PHREEQE code predicts that plutonium is present entirely in oxidation state (V) as the PuO 2 CO 3 - ion, whereas americium is present entirely in oxidation state (III), largely as the uncharged Am(OH)CO 3 species, but with significant concentrations of the Am 3+ and the AmSO 4 + ions. There are, however, differences between these predictions and others published for a very similar system which apparently arise from uncertainties in the thermodynamic data. Field data cannot resolve these differences unambiguously. (author) 29 refs.; 3 tabs

  19. High-purity germanium detection system for the in vivo measurement of americium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyree, W.H.; Falk, R.B.; Wood, C.B.; Liskey, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    A high-purity germanium (HPGe) array, photon-counting system has been developed for the Rocky Flats Plant Body-Counter Medical Facility. The newly improved system provides exceptional resolutions of low-energy X-ray and gamma-ray spectra associated with the in vivo deposition of plutonium and americium. Described are the operational parameters of the system and some qualitative results illustrating detector performance for the photon emissions produced from the decay of plutonium and americium between energy ranges from 10 to 100 kiloelectron volts. Since large amounts of data are easily generated with the system, data storage, analysis, and computer software developments continue to be an essential ingredient for processing spectral data obtained from the detectors. Absence of quantitative data is intentional. The primary concern of the study was to evaluate the effects of the various physical and electronic operational parameters before adding those related entirely to a human subject

  20. Electrodeposition of americium on a liquid cadmium cathode from a molten salt bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplace, A.; Lacquement, J.; Maillard, C.; Donner, L.

    2004-01-01

    A high-activity experiment involving the electrode position of americium on a liquid cadmium cathode from a LiCl-KCl eutectic with about 3 g of AmO 2 was conducted in a shielded cell in the ATALANTE complex. After describing the electrolyzer and the experimental conditions, the authors discuss the preparation of the LiCl-KCl-AmCl 3 solution and briefly review its electrochemical properties. It was clearly confirmed that Am(III) reduction on an inert solid cathode occurs in two steps forming Am(II) before Am(0), whereas only one reduction step was observed on liquid cadmium. The main results of this study concern americium electrode position on the liquid cadmium cathode (recovery yields, current densities, problems encountered). The solvent properties of cadmium for actinide/lanthanide separation are discussed. (authors)

  1. Determination of americium and plutonium in autopsy tissue: methods and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, H.A.; Eutsler, B.C.; McInroy, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The current methods used by the tissue analysis program at LASL for the determination of americium and plutonium in autopsy tissue are described. Problems affecting radiochemical yield are discussed. Included are problems associated with sample preparation, separation of plutonium from large amounts of bone ash, and reagent contamination. The average 242 Pu tracer yield for 1800 Pu determinations is 78 +- 12%. The average 242 Am tracer yield is 85 +- 7% for 40 determinations

  2. Final Radiological Assessment of External Exposure for CLEAR-Line Americium Recovery Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Adam C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Belooussova, Olga N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hetrick, Lucas Duane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently planning to implement an americium recovery program. The americium, ordinarily isotopically pure 241Am, would be extracted from existing Pu materials, converted to an oxide and shipped to support fabrication of americium oxide-beryllium neutron sources. These operations would occur in the currently proposed Chloride Extraction and Actinide Recovery (CLEAR) line of glove boxes. This glove box line would be collocated with the currently-operational Experimental Chloride Extraction Line (EXCEL). The focus of this document is to provide an in-depth assessment of the currently planned radiation protection measures and to determine whether or not further design work is required to satisfy design-goal and ALARA requirements. Further, this document presents a history of americium recovery operations in the Department of Energy and high-level descriptions of the CLEAR line operations to provide a basis of comparison. Under the working assumptions adopted by this study, it was found that the evaluated design appears to mitigate doses to a level that satisfies the ALARA-in-design requirements of 10 CFR 835 as implemented by the Los Alamos National Laboratory procedure P121. The analyses indicate that extremity doses would also meet design requirements. Dose-rate calculations were performed using the radiation transport code MCNP5 and doses were estimated using a time-motion study developed in consort with the subject matter expert. A copy of this report and all supporting documentation are located on the Radiological Engineering server at Y:\\Rad Engineering\\2013 PROJECTS\\TA-55 Clear Line.

  3. Quantitative determination of americium and curium in solutions using potassium tungstophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chistyakov, V.M.; Baranov, A.A.; Erin, E.A.; Timoaeev, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Two methods of americium (4) and curium (4) titration-replacement and redox ones - have been considered. According to the replacement method thorium nitrate solution was used as a titrant and the final point of titration was determined spectophotometrically. Using the method developed, on the basis of experimental data, the composition of thorium (4) complex with potassium tungstophosphate was determined. In case of the redox titration sodium nitrite was used, and the final titration point was indicated either spectrophotometrically or potentiometrically

  4. Medical management after contamination and incorporation of americium in occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gensicke, F.; Stopp, G.; Scheler, R.; Klucke, H.; Czarwinski, R.; Naumann, M.; Hoelzer, F.; Ott, R.; Schmidt, I.

    1990-01-01

    In handling with an ampule of 241 Am-nitrate solution one person received an contamination of the body surface, especially the face and the hairs, and an internal contamination of americium. The paper presents the results obtained in medical management to reduced the contamination of the skin and of the incorporated radionuclide. The radioactivity of the body surface could be reduced up to small local areas. After treatment with DTPA (Ditripentat) the internal exposure decrease about 83%. (orig.) [de

  5. Experimental studies to validate model calculations and maximum solubility limits for Plutonium and Americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This report focuses on studies of KIT-INE to derive a significantly improved description of the chemical behaviour of Americium and Plutonium in saline NaCl, MgCl 2 and CaCl 2 brine systems. The studies are based on new experimental data and aim at deriving reliable Am and Pu solubility limits for the investigated systems as well as deriving comprehensive thermodynamic model descriptions. Both aspects are of high relevance in the context of potential source term estimations for Americium and Plutonium in aqueous brine systems and related scenarios. Americium and Plutonium are long-lived alpha emitting radionuclides which due to their high radiotoxicity need to be accounted for in a reliable and traceable way. The hydrolysis of trivalent actinides and the effect of highly alkaline pH conditions on the solubility of trivalent actinides in calcium chloride rich brine solutions were investigated and a thermodynamic model derived. The solubility of Plutonium in saline brine systems was studied under reducing and non-reducing conditions and is described within a new thermodynamic model. The influence of dissolved carbonate on Americium and Plutonium solubility in MgCl 2 solutions was investigated and quantitative information on Am and Pu solubility limits in these systems derived. Thermodynamic constants and model parameter derived in this work are implemented in the Thermodynamic Reference Database THEREDA owned by BfS. According to the quality assurance approach in THEREDA, is was necessary to publish parts of this work in peer-reviewed scientific journals. The publications are focused on solubility experiments, spectroscopy of aquatic and solid species and thermodynamic data. (Neck et al., Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 81, (2009), pp. 1555-1568., Altmaier et al., Radiochimica Acta, 97, (2009), pp. 187-192., Altmaier et al., Actinide Research Quarterly, No 2., (2011), pp. 29-32.).

  6. 49 CFR 236.532 - Strap iron inductor; use restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Strap iron inductor; use restricted. 236.532 Section 236.532 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD.... [49 FR 3386, Jan. 26, 1984] ...

  7. 49 CFR 236.562 - Minimum rail current required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum rail current required. 236.562 Section 236.562 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD.... [49 FR 3387, Jan. 26, 1984] ...

  8. 49 CFR 236.764 - Locking, lever operated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, lever operated. 236.764 Section 236.764... Locking, lever operated. The mechanical locking of an interlocking machine which is actuated by means of the lever. ...

  9. Adsorption-Desorption Characteristics of Plutonium and Americium with Sediment Particles in the Estuarine Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C.N.; Fukai, R.

    1976-01-01

    The particle formation of plutonium and americium, their adsorption onto fresh water sediments and the desorption from the sediments in sea water were studied in the Laboratory under simulated river-estuary conditions, using γ-emitting plutonium-237 and americium-241. The results of the experiments show that the particle formation of plutonium depends on its valence states, on pH and on the salinity of the medium. For river water at pH4, some 25%, 20% and 30% of the added 237 Pu was in particulate form, larger than 0.45pm, for Pu (III), Pu (IV) and Pu (VI), respectively, while 65%, 90% and 50% of the respective valence states was associated with particles at pH 8. In sea water the general pattern remains similar, although Pu (VI) is more soluble in sea water owing to higher ligand concentrations for carbonate and bicarbonate complexes. The pH-dependency of particle formation of Am (III) is more steep than that of plutonium and seems to be influenced by colloidal substances occurring in the experimental media. The adsorption-desorption characteristics of plutonium and americium with the sediment in river water as well as sea water reflect the characteristics of their particle formation, being dependent upon such properties as valence states, the pH and salinity of the medium. A sewage effluent added to the media has small but measurable effects on the adsorption-desorption processes of plutonium. (author)

  10. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfoxide as an extractant for americium(III) from aqueous nitrate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, J.P.; Kedari, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    Solvent extraction separation of Am(III) from dilute aqueous nitrate media into n-dodecane by bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfoxide (BESO) has been investigated over a wide range of experimental conditions. Very poor extractability of Am(III) necessitated the use of calcium nitrate as the salting-out agent. Effects of certain variables such as acidity, extractant concentration, salting-out agent concentration, organic diluents on the metal extraction by BESO have been examined in detail. By increasing the concentration of BESO in organic phase or calcium nitrate in aqueous phase, nearly quantitative extraction of americium even from moderate acidity is accomplished. Slope analyses applied to Am(III) distribution experiments from acidic nitrate solutions indicate predominant formation of the trisolvated organic phase complex, Am(NO 3 ) 3 *3BESO for which equilibrium constant is found to be, log K x = 1.99. Extraction behavior of Am(III) has also been evaluated in the presence of several water-miscible polar organic solvents to study their possible synergistic effects on its extraction. Extractability of americium increased 5 to 10-fold with increasing concentration of some of these additives, with maximum enhancement being observed in the presence of acetone or acetonitrile. Recovery of BESO from loaded americium is easily obtained using dilute nitric acid as the strippant. (author) 30 refs.; 2 figs.; 5 tabs

  11. Fabrication of uranium-americium mixed oxide pellet from microsphere precursors: Application of CRMP process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, E.; Picart, S.; Delahaye, T.; Jobelin, I.; Lebreton, F.; Horlait, D.; Bisel, I.; Blanchart, P.; Ayral, A.

    2014-10-01

    Mixed uranium-americium oxides are one of the materials envisaged for Americium Bearing Blankets dedicated to transmutation in fast neutron reactors. Recently, several processes have been developed in order to validate fabrication flowchart in terms of material specifications such as density and homogeneity but also to suggest simplifications for lowering industrial costs and hazards linked to dust generation of highly contaminating and irradiating compounds. This study deals with the application of an innovative route using mixed oxide microspheres obtained from metal loaded resin bead calcination, called Calcined Resin Microsphere Pelletization (CRMP). The synthesis of mixed oxide microsphere precursor of U0.9Am0.1O2±δ is described as well as its characterisation. The use of this free-flowing precursor allows the pressing and sintering of one pellet of U0.9Am0.1O2±δ. The ceramic obtained was characterised and results showed that its microstructure is dense and homogeneous and its density attains 95% of the theoretical density. This study validates the scientific feasibility of the CRMP process applied to the fabrication of uranium and americium-containing materials.

  12. Influence of dissolved organic substances in groundwater on sorption behavior of americium and neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggs, S. Jr.; Seitz, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Groundwaters typically contain dissolved organic carbon consisting largely of high molecular weight compounds of humic and fulvic acids. To evaluate whether these dissolved organic substances can enhance the tranport of radionuclides through the groundwater system, experiments were conducted to examine the sorption of americium and neptunium onto crushed basalt in the presence of dissolved humic- and fulvic-acid organic carbon introduced into synthetic groundwater. The partitioning experiments with synthetic groundwater show that increasing the concentration of either humic or fulvic acid in the water has a significant inhibiting effect on sorption of both americium and neptunium. At 22 0 C, adsorption of these radionuclides, as measured by distribution ratios (the ratio of nuclide sorbed onto the solid to nuclide in solution at the end of the experiment), decreased by 25% to 50% by addition of as little as 1 mg/L dissolved organic carbon and by one to two orders of magnitude by addition of 100 to 200 mg/L dissolved organic carbon. Distribution ratios measured in solutions reacted at 90 0 C similarly decreased with the addition of dissolved organic carbon but generally ranged from one to two orders of magnitude higher than those determined in the 22 0 C experiment. These results suggest that organic carbon dissolved in deep groundwaters may significantly enhance the mobility of radionuclides of americium and neptunium. 23 references, 5 figures, 11 tables

  13. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852.236-87 Section 852.236-87 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.236-87 Accident prevention. As prescribed in 836.513,...

  14. 49 CFR 236.809 - Signal, slotted mechanical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal, slotted mechanical. 236.809 Section 236.809 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.809 Signal, slotted mechanical. A mechanically operated signal with an electromagnetic device...

  15. 27 CFR 41.236 - Trade name certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade name certificate. 41.236 Section 41.236 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Processed Tobacco § 41.236 Trade name certificate. Every person that files an application for a permit as an...

  16. 49 CFR 236.342 - Switch circuit controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch circuit controller. 236.342 Section 236.342 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Instructions § 236.342 Switch circuit controller. Switch circuit controller connected at the point to switch...

  17. 49 CFR 236.732 - Controller, circuit; switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controller, circuit; switch. 236.732 Section 236.732 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.732 Controller, circuit; switch. A device for opening and closing electric circuits, operated by a...

  18. 34 CFR 75.236 - Effect of the grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of the grant. 75.236 Section 75.236 Education... Make A Grant § 75.236 Effect of the grant. The grant obligates both the Federal Government and the... reference: See 34 CFR part 74, Subpart L—Programmatic Changes and Budget Revisions. Approval of Multi-Year...

  19. 48 CFR 552.236-77 - Specifications and Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Drawings 552.236-77 Section 552.236-77 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES....236-77 Specifications and Drawings As prescribed in 536.570-8, insert the following clause: Specifications and Drawings (SEP 1999) The requirements of the clause entitled “Specifications and Drawings for...

  20. 49 CFR 236.21 - Location of roadway signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of roadway signals. 236.21 Section 236.21...: All Systems Roadway Signals and Cab Signals § 236.21 Location of roadway signals. Each roadway signal shall be positioned and aligned so that its aspects can be clearly associated with the track it governs...

  1. 49 CFR 236.828 - System, traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System, traffic control. 236.828 Section 236.828..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.828 System, traffic control. A block signal system under which train movements are authorized by block...

  2. Physics of plutonium and americium recycling in PWR using advanced fuel concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcade, E.

    2004-01-01

    PWR waste inventory management is considered in many countries including Frances as one of the main current issues. Pu and Am are the 2 main contents both in term of volume and long term radio-toxicity. Waiting for the Generation IV systems implementation (2035-2050), one of the mid-term solutions for their transmutation involves the use of advanced fuels in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). These have to require as little modification as possible of the core internals, the cooling system and fuel cycle facilities (fabrication and reprocessing). The first part of this paper deals with some neutronic characteristics of Pu and/or Am recycling. In a second part, 2 technical solutions MOX-HMR and APA-DUPLEX-84 are presented and the third part is devoted to the study of a few global strategies. The main neutronic parameters to be considered for Pu and Am recycling in PWR are void coefficient, Doppler coefficient, fraction of delayed neutrons and power distribution (especially for heterogeneous configurations). The modification of the moderation ratio, the opportunity to use inert matrices (targets), the optimisation of Uranium, Plutonium and Americium contents are the key parameters to play with. One of the solutions (APA-DUPLEX-84) presented here is a heterogeneous assembly with regular moderation ratio composed with both target fuel rods (Pu and Am embedded in an inert matrix) and standard UO 2 fuel rods. An EPR (European Pressurised Reactor) type reactor, loaded only with assemblies containing 84 peripheral targets, can reach an Americium consumption rate of (4.4; 23 kg/TWh) depending on the assembly concept. For Pu and Am inventories stabilisation, the theoretical fraction of reactors loaded with Pu + Am or Pu assemblies is about 60%. For Americium inventory stabilisation, the fraction decreases down to 16%, but Pu is produced at a rate of 18.5 Kg/TWh (-25% compared to one through UOX cycle)

  3. Accumulation of americium-241 in the biomass of aquatic plants of the Yenisei river: experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotina, T.A.; Bolsunovsky, A.Y.A.; Bondareva, L.G. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Due to the operation of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (Krasnoyarsk-26), which has been manufacturing weapons-grade plutonium for several decades, the Yenisei River is contaminated with transuranic elements (including {sup 241}Am). {sup 241}Am was found in the riverside soil, sediment and in the biomass of aquatic plants (Bolsunovsky et al., 1999, 2002). Aquatic plants are an important link in the migration of radionuclides in an aquatic ecosystem. In laboratory experiments, we investigated accumulation of {sup 241}Am by the submerged macrophyte from the Yenisei River: the pond weed (Elodea canadensis) and the aquatic moss (Fontinalis antipyretica), and release of {sup 241}Am from the biomass. The content of {sup 241}Am was measured on a Canberra (USA) gamma-spectrometer. The experiments showed that specific accumulation and concentration factors of {sup 241}Am in the plants were in inverse proportion to their biomass. We obtained new data on release of {sup 241}Am from the biomass of macrophyte. Americium-241 was more firmly fixed in the biomass of the aquatic moss. In 12 months, the biomass of the aquatic moss released about 30% of the initial americium activity into the water. To compare, the biomass of the pond weed released into the water medium up to 64% of the initial {sup 241}Am activity in 1.5 4 months. The release rate was dependent on the decomposition rate of the plant biomass. The experiments showed that submerged macrophyte of the Yenisei River can accumulate considerable activities of {sup 241}Am and retain americium for long periods of time in biomass. (author)

  4. Speciation of americium in seawater and accumulation in the marine sponge Aplysina cavernicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloubier, Melody; Michel, Hervé; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Moisy, Philippe; Tribalat, Marie-Aude; Oberhaensli, François R; Dechraoui Bottein, Marie Yasmine; Thomas, Olivier P; Monfort, Marguerite; Moulin, Christophe; Den Auwer, Christophe

    2015-12-21

    The fate of radionuclides in the environment is a cause of great concern for modern society, seen especially in 2011 after the Fukushima accident. Among the environmental compartments, seawater covers most of the earth's surface and may be directly or indirectly impacted. The interaction between radionuclides and the marine compartment is therefore essential for better understanding the transfer mechanisms from the hydrosphere to the biosphere. This information allows for the evaluation of the impact on humans via our interaction with the biotope that has been largely undocumented up to now. In this report, we attempt to make a link between the speciation of heavy elements in natural seawater and their uptake by a model marine organism. More specifically, because the interaction of actinides with marine invertebrates has been poorly studied, the accumulation in a representative member of the Mediterranean coralligenous habitat, the sponge Aplysina cavernicola, was investigated and its uptake curve exposed to a radiotracer (241)Am was estimated using a high-purity Ge gamma spectrometer. But in order to go beyond the phenomenological accumulation rate, the speciation of americium(III) in seawater must be assessed. The speciation of (241)Am (and natural europium as its chemically stable surrogate) in seawater was determined using a combination of different techniques: Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF), Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) at the LIII edge, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the resulting data were compared with the speciation modeling. In seawater, the americium(III) complex (as well as the corresponding europium complex, although with conformational differences) was identified as a ternary sodium biscarbonato complex, whose formula can be tentatively written as NaAm(CO3)2·nH2O. It is therefore this chemical form of americium that is

  5. Uptake of plutonium and americium by barley from two contaminated Nevada Test Site soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Tompkins, G.A.; Leventhal, L.; Babcock, K.L.

    1976-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare, Var. Atlas 68) plant uptake of Pu 239 , Pu 240 , and Am 241 was studied using two soil samples collected from widely separated areas of the Nevada Test Site. Each area had been previously contaminated with plutonium and americium as a result of a separate high explosive (nonnuclear) detonation of a device containing plutonium. The plants were grown on 3-kg soil samples in a controlled environment chamber. The plutonium concentration ratio (plutonium concentration in dry plant tissue/plutonium concentration in dry soil) was in the order of 10 -5 for plant vegetative material. The plutonium concentration ratio for the grain was 20 to 100 times lower than that in the vegetative material. Concentration ratios for americium were in the order of 10 -4 for vegetative growth and 25 to 75 times lower for the grain. These results imply that americium is more available to plants than plutonium. Plutonium-bearing particles were identified in a soil sample using an autoradiographic technique and then separated from the soil samples. The Pu 239 oxide equivalent diameters of plutonium-bearing particles could be described by a log-normal distribution function in the range of 0.2 to 0.7 μm. The actual diameters of the particles were 2 to 3 times the PuO 2 equivalent diameter. Microprobe analyses of the surface region of particles greater than 2 μm showed the following order of abundance: U, Pu is greater than O is greater than Al is greater than Si is greater than Fe is greater than Mg. Photographs obtained with a scanning electron microscope revealed that some of the particles are quite irregular and have large specific surface areas which might enhance solubility and plant uptake

  6. Fabrication of uranium–americium mixed oxide pellet from microsphere precursors: Application of CRMP process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, E. [Radiochemistry and Processes Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Picart, S., E-mail: sebastien.picart@cea.fr [Radiochemistry and Processes Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Delahaye, T. [Fuel Cycle Technology Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Jobelin, I. [Radiochemistry and Processes Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Lebreton, F.; Horlait, D. [Fuel Cycle Technology Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Bisel, I. [Radiochemistry and Processes Department, CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Blanchart, P. [Heterogeneous Materials Research Group, Centre Européen de la Céramique, F-87068 Limoges (France); Ayral, A. [Institut Européen des Membranes, CNRS-ENSCM-UM2, CC47, University Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier cedex 5 (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Dust free process for (U,Am)O{sub 2} transmutation target fabrication. • Synthesis of U{sub 0.9}Am{sub 0.1}O{sub 2} mixed oxide microspheres from ion exchange resin. • Fabrication of dense U{sub 0.9}Am{sub 0.1}O{sub 2} pellet with 95% TD from mixed oxide microspheres. - Abstract: Mixed uranium–americium oxides are one of the materials envisaged for Americium Bearing Blankets dedicated to transmutation in fast neutron reactors. Recently, several processes have been developed in order to validate fabrication flowchart in terms of material specifications such as density and homogeneity but also to suggest simplifications for lowering industrial costs and hazards linked to dust generation of highly contaminating and irradiating compounds. This study deals with the application of an innovative route using mixed oxide microspheres obtained from metal loaded resin bead calcination, called Calcined Resin Microsphere Pelletization (CRMP). The synthesis of mixed oxide microsphere precursor of U{sub 0.9}Am{sub 0.1}O{sub 2±δ} is described as well as its characterisation. The use of this free-flowing precursor allows the pressing and sintering of one pellet of U{sub 0.9}Am{sub 0.1}O{sub 2±δ}. The ceramic obtained was characterised and results showed that its microstructure is dense and homogeneous and its density attains 95% of the theoretical density. This study validates the scientific feasibility of the CRMP process applied to the fabrication of uranium and americium-containing materials.

  7. Recovery of Americium-241 from lightning rod by the method of chemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    About 95% of the lightning rods installed in the Peruvian territory have set in their structures, pose small amounts of radioactive sources such as Americium-241 ( 241 Am), fewer and Radium 226 ( 226 Ra) these are alpha emitters and have a half life of 432 years and 1600 years respectively. In this paper describes the recovery of radioactive sources of 241 Am radioactive lightning rods using the conventional chemical treatment method using agents and acids to break down the slides. The 241 Am recovered was as excitation source and alpha particle generator for analysing samples by X Ray Fluorescence, for fixing the stainless steel 241 Am technique was used electrodeposition. (author)

  8. Comparison of acid leachate and fusion methods to determine plutonium and americium in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.L.; Markun, F.; TenKate, T.

    1992-06-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at Argonne National Laboratory performs radiochemical analyses for a wide variety of sites within the Department of Energy complex. Since the chemical history of the samples may vary drastically from site to site, the effectiveness of any analytical technique may also vary. This study compares a potassium fluoride-pyrosulfate fusion technique with an acid leachate method. Both normal and high-fired soils and vegetation samples were analyzed for both americium and plutonium. Results show both methods work well, except for plutonium in high-fired soils. Here the fusion method provides higher accuracy

  9. Influence of biofilms on migration of uranium, americium and europium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Nils; Zirnstein, Isabel; Arnold, Thuro

    2015-01-01

    The report on the influence of biofilms on migration of uranium, americium and europium in the environment deals with the contamination problems of uranium mines such as SDAG WISMUT in Saxonia and Thuringia. In mine waters microorganisms form a complex microbiological biocoenosis in spite of low pH values and high heavy metal concentrations including high uranium concentrations. The analyses used microbiological methods like confocal laser scanning microscopy and molecular-biological techniques. The interactions of microorganism with fluorescent radioactive heavy metal ions were performed with TRLFS (time resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy).

  10. Rad Calc III: Radioanalysis calculation program for plutonium and americium determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackadar, J.M.; Wong, A.S.; Stalnaker, N.D.; Willerton, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    The radiochemistry team of the Analytical Chemistry Group has supported nuclear materials production and management programs at Los Alamos National Laboratory since the 1940s. Routinely, plutonium and americium contents in various matrices (such as metals, oxides, process solutions, and waste streams) are determined by direct alpha and gamma analyses. Over the years, analysts have written a number of computer programs to calculate analytical results. In 1999, the program was enhanced and upgraded to produce Rad Calc III. The new program, written in Visual Basic 4.0, corrects limitations of previous versions, offers enhanced features, and incorporates user suggestions to customize the program and make it more user friendly

  11. Recovery of americium from slag and crucible wastes and its purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, K.M.; Dabholkar, G.M.; Vijayan, K.; Ramamoorthy, N.; Narayanan, C.V.; Jambunathan, U.; Kapoor, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    A method of recovery and purification of americium-241 from slag waste streams is described. Extraction of Am from slag solution of 0.16 M HNO 3 was carried out by tri-n-butyl phosphate. After stripping with acetic acid, Am was precipitated at pH 1. This was followed by metathesis to remove Ca. Final separation of Pu from Am solution was achieved by anion exchange method using Dowex 1x4 anion exchange resin. Details of large scale recovery of Am from slag are also described. (author). 12 refs., 11 tabs., 1 fig

  12. Distribution coefficients for plutonium and americium on particulates in aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, A.L.; Schell, W.R.; Sibley, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution coefficients of two transuranic elements, plutonium and americium, were measured experimentally in laboratory systems of selected freshwater, estuarine, and marine environments. Gamma-ray emitting isotopes of these radionuclides, 237 Pu and 241 Am, were significantly greater than the sorption Ksub(d) values, suggesting some irreversibility in the sorption of these radionuclides onto sediments. The effects of pH and of sediment concentration on the distribution coefficients were also investigated. There were significant changes in the Ksub(d) values as these parameters were varied. Experiments using sterilized and nonsterilized samples for some of the sediment/water systems indicate possible bacterial effects on Ksub(d) values. (author)

  13. Plutonium and americium in arctic waters, the North Sea and Scottish and Irish coastal zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallstadius, L.; Aarkrog, Asker; Dahlgaard, Henning

    1986-01-01

    collected from the Irish coast in 1983. Fallout is found to dominate as a source of 239+240Pu north of latitude 65°N, while for 238Pu a substantial fraction originates from European nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. The 238Pu/239+240Pu isotope ratio provides clear evidence of the transport of effluent...... of the Irish Sea) to Spitsbergen. 241Am found in Arctic waters probably originates from the decay of fallout 241Pu and, like Pu, tentatively has a residence time of the order of several years. Americium from Sellafield has an estimated mean residence time of 4–6 months in Scottish waters....

  14. Laboratory investigation of the role of desorption kinetics on americium transport associated with bentonite colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Timothy Mark; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Ware, Stuart Douglas; Reimus, Paul William

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the parameters that control colloid-mediated transport of radionuclides is important for the safe disposal of used nuclear fuel. We report an experimental and reactive transport modeling examination of americium transport in a groundwater-bentonite-fracture fill material system. A series of batch sorption and column transport experiments were conducted to determine the role of desorption kinetics from bentonite colloids in the transport of americium through fracture materials. We used fracture fill material from a shear zone in altered granodiorite collected from the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland and colloidal suspensions generated from FEBEX bentonite, a potential repository backfill material. The colloidal suspension (100 mg L(-1)) was prepared in synthetic groundwater that matched the natural water chemistry at GTS and was spiked with 5.5 × 10(-10) M (241)Am. Batch characterizations indicated that 97% of the americium in the stock suspension was adsorbed to the colloids. Breakthrough experiments conducted by injecting the americium colloidal suspension through three identical columns in series, each with mean residence times of 6 h, show that more than 95% of the bentonite colloids were transported through each of the columns, with modeled colloid filtration rates (k(f)) of 0.01-0.02 h(-1). Am recoveries in each column were 55-60%, and Am desorption rate constants from the colloids, determined from 1-D transport modeling, were 0.96, 0.98, and 0.91 h(-1) in the three columns, respectively. The consistency in Am recoveries and desorption rate constants in each column indicates that the Am was not associated with binding sites of widely-varying strengths on the colloids, as one binding site with fast kinetics represented the system accurately for all three sequential columns. Our data suggest that colloid-mediated transport of Am in a bentonite-fracture fill material system is unlikely to result in transport over long distance scales because

  15. Study of the extraction and the purification of americium and trivalent actinides contained in effluents with supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillou, P.

    1990-12-01

    The supported liquid membrane technique is studied and developed for americium recovery from uranium or plutonium matrices and decontamination of liquid radioactive wastes. First tests on uranium-nickel solutions with a flat membrane showed the easiness of the operation and the efficiency of the process. Acid-resistant (10 N), interchangeable elements with hollow fibers, are developed and also a computerized automatic device. The different tests on americium solutions demonstrate the feasibility and the reliability of the system. Influence of various parameters on transfer kinetics is investigated

  16. Transmutation of americium and curium incorporated in zirconia-based host materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raison, P.E. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles; Haire, R.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Presented are studies involving the incorporation of americium and curium in zirconia-based materials. First explored was the pseudo ternary system AmO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. It was determined that selected Y-CSZ materials can incorporate significant quantities of americium oxide and remain cubic single-phase. The cell parameters of these fluorite-type products were established to be linear with the AmO{sub 2} content. The Cm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} system was also investigated. It was found that at 25 mol% of CmO{sub 1.5}, the Cm(III) stabilized zirconia in its cubic form (a = 5.21 {+-}0.01 Angstrom). At higher and lower concentrations, diphasic materials were encountered. At 50 mol% of CmO{sub 1.5}, a pyrochlore oxide - Cm{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} - is formed (a = 10.63 {+-}0.02 Angstrom). (author)

  17. Fuel cycle covariance of plutonium and americium separations to repository capacity using information theoretic measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scopatz, Anthony; Schneider, Erich; Li, Jun; Yim, Man-Sung

    2011-01-01

    A light water reactor, fast reactor symbiotic fuel cycle scenario was modeled and parameterized based on thirty independent inputs. Simultaneously and stochastically choosing different values for each of these inputs and performing the associated fuel cycle mass-balance calculation, the fuel cycle itself underwent Monte Carlo simulation. A novel information theoretic metric is postulated as a measure of system-wide covariance. This metric is the coefficient of variation of the set of uncertainty coefficients generated from 2D slices of a 3D contingency table. It is then applied to the fuel cycle, taking fast reactor used fuel plutonium and americium separations as independent variables and the capacity of a fully-loaded tuff repository as the response. This set of parameters is known from prior studies to have a strong covariance. When measured with all 435 other input parameters possible, the fast reactor plutonium and americium separations pair was found to be ranked the second most covariant. This verifies that the coefficient of variation metric captures the desired sensitivity of sensitivity effects in the nuclear fuel cycle. (author)

  18. Contribution to the prediction of americium, plutonium and neptunium behaviour in the geosphere: chemical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robouch, P.

    1989-01-01

    An exhaustive bibliographic review on hydrolysis of americium gives the stability constants, at zero ionic strength. No evidence of Am(OH) 4 - formation was found by solubility studies up to pH 2 (CO 3 ) 3 characterised by its X-ray diffraction pattern is studied at a high ionic strength. All the published results on Am in carbonate media are reinterpreted using these stability constants (Am-OH-CO 3 complexes are not needed). No evidence of Am(CO 3 ) 4 5- formation was found by spectrophotometry up to 3M. Literature results are used to determine the formal redox potentials at pH = 9.4 and to calculate the formation constants, at zero ionic strength. The formation of complexes between americium and humic materials (purified fulvic and humic acids) has been studied by a spectrophotometric technique. The results are interpreted by the formation of a 1:1 complexe. Solubility of the solid PuO 2 (CO 3 ) is measured in bicarbonate media at high ionic strength, to obtain the solubility product and formation constants of the PuO 2 (CO 3 ) i 2-2i complexes [fr

  19. Production of a square geometry Americium standard source for use with photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Priscila; Geraldo, Bianca; Raele, Marcus P.; Marumo, Júlio T.; Vicente, Roberto; Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A., E-mail: priscila3.costa@usp.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In the development of a thermal neutron detector using a square photodiode and a thin boron film, a radioactive calibration source with the same geometry was needed. An americium-243 standard source was produced by electrodeposition aiming at the calibration of a PIN-type silicon photodiode with a detection area of 10 x 10 mm{sup 2}. To produce the samples two tests were performed. In the first test, a square stainless steel plate (10 x 10 mm{sup 2}) was fixed on the surface of the conventional plate, which was removed after deposition. To reduce the loss of activity of the source, in the second test nail polish was applied on the silver plate leaving only an area of 10 x 10 mm{sup 2} without varnish coating. Once the electrodeposition process was completed, the activity concentration measurement was performed by alpha particle spectrometry. The first method presented a lower activity when compared to the total activity of Am-243 added initially. For the second method, the total activity was concentrate in the exposed square region (without nail polish). The results showed that it is possible to obtain a square geometry source; furthermore, the surrounding nail polish was not contaminated by {sup 243}Am. The comparison of these two approaches indicated that the second method was more efficient as it was possible to concentrate all the americium activity in the delimited square area. (author)

  20. Comparison of Americium-Beryllium neutron spectrum obtained using activation foil detectors and NE-213 spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunny, Sunil; Subbaiah, K.V.; Selvakumaran, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron spectrum of Americium - Beryllium (α,n) source is measured with two different spectrometers vis-a-vis activation foils (foil detectors) and NE-213 organic scintillator. Activity induced in the foils is measured with 4π-β-γ sodium iodide detector by integrating counts under photo peak and the saturation activity is found by correcting to elapsed time before counting. The data on calculated activity is fed into the unfolding code, SAND-II to obtain neutron spectrum. In the case of organic scintillator, the pulse height spectrum is obtained using MCA and this is processed with unfolding code DUST in order to get neutron spectrum. The Americium - Beryllium (α,n) neutron spectrum thus obtained by two different methods is compared. It is inferred that the NE-213 scintillator spectrum is in excellent agreement with the values beyond 1MeV. Neutron spectrum obtained by activation foils depends on initial guess spectrum and is found to be in reasonable agreement with NE-213 spectrum. (author)

  1. The distribution of plutonium-239 and americium-241 in the Syrian hamster following its intravenous administration as citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodwell, P.; Stather, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    Actinide distribution in various tissues and the skeleton of hamsters by liquid scintillation counting or isotope dilution. For plutonium 57% of activity was concentrated in the skeleton and more than 90% in the liver and skeleton after seven days. For americium the liver retained more than 50% of total activity and 25% was excreted in urine within seven days. (U.K.)

  2. 49 CFR 236.527 - Roadway element insulation resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roadway element insulation resistance. 236.527 Section 236.527 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... element insulation resistance. Insulation resistance between roadway inductor and ground shall be...

  3. 49 CFR 236.14 - Spring switch signal protection; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring switch signal protection; requirements. 236... Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.14 Spring switch signal protection; requirements. (a... track signaled for movements in only one direction through a spring switch in automatic block signal...

  4. 48 CFR 236.602-1 - Selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection criteria. 236... Architect-Engineer Services 236.602-1 Selection criteria. (a) Establish the evaluation criteria before making the public announcement required by FAR 5.205(d) and include the criteria and their relative order...

  5. 49 CFR 236.810 - Spectacle, semaphore arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spectacle, semaphore arm. 236.810 Section 236.810 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Spectacle, semaphore arm. That part of a semaphore arm which holds the roundels and to which the blade is...

  6. 49 CFR 236.722 - Circuit, cut-in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, cut-in. 236.722 Section 236.722 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  7. 49 CFR 236.553 - Seal, where required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seal, where required. 236.553 Section 236.553 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  8. 49 CFR 236.555 - Repaired or rewound receiver coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repaired or rewound receiver coil. 236.555 Section 236.555 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION...

  9. 49 CFR 236.723 - Circuit, double wire; line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, double wire; line. 236.723 Section 236.723 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION...

  10. 49 CFR 236.727 - Circuit, track; coded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, track; coded. 236.727 Section 236.727 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  11. 49 CFR 236.526 - Roadway element not functioning properly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roadway element not functioning properly. 236.526 Section 236.526 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION...

  12. 49 CFR 236.586 - Daily or after trip test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Daily or after trip test. 236.586 Section 236.586 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... device is within specified limits. [49 FR 3387, Jan. 26, 1984] ...

  13. 49 CFR 236.552 - Insulation resistance; requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insulation resistance; requirement. 236.552 Section 236.552 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... intermittent inductive automatic train stop system. [49 FR 3387, Jan. 26, 1984] ...

  14. 49 CFR 236.701 - Application, brake; full service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application, brake; full service. 236.701 Section 236.701 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION...

  15. 49 CFR 236.601 - Signals controlled by devices; location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signals controlled by devices; location. 236.601 Section 236.601 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION...

  16. 49 CFR 236.725 - Circuit, switch shunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, switch shunting. 236.725 Section 236.725 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  17. 49 CFR 236.724 - Circuit, shunt fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, shunt fouling. 236.724 Section 236.724 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  18. 49 CFR 236.720 - Circuit, common return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, common return. 236.720 Section 236.720 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  19. 49 CFR 236.556 - Adjustment of relay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustment of relay. 236.556 Section 236.556 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  20. 49 CFR 236.551 - Power supply voltage; requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power supply voltage; requirement. 236.551 Section 236.551 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION...

  1. 49 CFR 236.534 - Entrance to equipped territory; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entrance to equipped territory; requirements. 236.534 Section 236.534 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE...

  2. 49 CFR 236.711 - Bond, rail joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bond, rail joint. 236.711 Section 236.711 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  3. 49 CFR 236.305 - Approach or time locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approach or time locking. 236.305 Section 236.305 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION...

  4. 49 CFR 236.813a - State, most restrictive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State, most restrictive. 236.813a Section 236.813a Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... State, most restrictive. The mode of an electric or electronic device that is equivalent to a track...

  5. 8 CFR 236.2 - Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confined aliens, incompetents, and minors. 236.2 Section 236.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Detention...

  6. 49 CFR 236.501 - Forestalling device and speed control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forestalling device and speed control. 236.501... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.501 Forestalling device and speed... the following features: (1) Low-speed restriction, requiring the train to proceed under slow speed...

  7. 49 CFR 236.825 - System, automatic train control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System, automatic train control. 236.825 Section..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.825 System, automatic train control. A system so arranged that its operation will automatically...

  8. 49 CFR 236.1033 - Communications and security requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Train Control Systems § 236.1033 Communications and security requirements. (a) All wireless... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Communications and security requirements. 236.1033... exceeding the security strength required to protect the data as defined in the railroad's PTCSP and required...

  9. 48 CFR 852.236-78 - Government supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government supervision. 852.236-78 Section 852.236-78 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Government supervision. As prescribed in 836.572, insert the following clause: Government Supervision (APR...

  10. 49 CFR 236.766 - Locking, movable bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, movable bridge. 236.766 Section 236.766... Locking, movable bridge. The rail locks, bridge locks, bolt locks, circuit controllers, and electric locks used in providing interlocking protection at a movable bridge. ...

  11. Excess of {sup 236}U in the northwest Mediterranean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo, E., E-mail: echamizo@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía, Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); López-Lora, M., E-mail: mlopezlora@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía, Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); Bressac, M., E-mail: matthieu.bressac@utas.edu.au [IAEA-Environment Laboratories, Monte Carlo 98000 (Monaco); Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Levy, I., E-mail: I.N.Levy@iaea.org [IAEA-Environment Laboratories, Monte Carlo 98000 (Monaco); Pham, M.K., E-mail: M.Pham@iaea.org [IAEA-Environment Laboratories, Monte Carlo 98000 (Monaco)

    2016-09-15

    In this work, we present first {sup 236}U results in the northwestern Mediterranean. {sup 236}U is studied in a seawater column sampled at DYFAMED (Dynamics of Atmospheric Fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea) station (Ligurian Sea, 43°25′N, 07°52′E). The obtained {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U atom ratios in the dissolved phase, ranging from about 2 × 10{sup −9} at 100 m depth to about 1.5 × 10{sup −9} at 2350 m depth, indicate that anthropogenic {sup 236}U dominates the whole seawater column. The corresponding deep-water column inventory (12.6 ng/m{sup 2} or 32.1 × 10{sup 12} atoms/m{sup 2}) exceeds by a factor of 2.5 the expected one for global fallout at similar latitudes (5 ng/m{sup 2} or 13 × 10{sup 12} atoms/m{sup 2}), evidencing the influence of local or regional {sup 236}U sources in the western Mediterranean basin. On the other hand, the input of {sup 236}U associated to Saharan dust outbreaks is evaluated. An additional {sup 236}U annual deposition of about 0.2 pg/m{sup 2} based on the study of atmospheric particles collected in Monaco during different Saharan dust intrusions is estimated. The obtained results in the corresponding suspended solids collected at DYFAMED station indicate that about 64% of that {sup 236}U stays in solution in seawater. Overall, this source accounts for about 0.1% of the {sup 236}U inventory excess observed at DYFAMED station. The influence of the so-called Chernobyl fallout and the radioactive effluents produced by the different nuclear installations allocated to the Mediterranean basin, might explain the inventory gap, however, further studies are necessary to come to a conclusion about its origin. - Highlights: • First {sup 236}U results in the northwest Mediterranean Sea are reported. • Anthropogenic {sup 236}U dominates the whole seawater column at DYFAMED station. • {sup 236}U deep-water column inventory exceeds by a factor of 2.5 the global fallout one. • Saharan dust intrusions are responsible for an annual

  12. 236U and its measurement with accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xianggao; He Ming; Li Chaoli; Wang Wei; Gong Jie; Lu Liyuan; Jiang Shan; Zhang Dawei; Huang Chuntang; Shi Guozhu; Sheng Hongtao; Wu Shaolei; He Guozhu; Wu Shaoyong

    2009-01-01

    236 U is a long-lived radionuclide with half-life of 2.342(3) x 10 7 a. The ratio of 236 U/ 238 U is about 10 -14 in the natural Uranium. The origin and production of 236 U in globe are introduced and estimated in this paper, respectively. The major applications of 236 U as a 100-million year neutron flux integrator, as a 'fingerprint' for monitoring nuclear environment and nuclear activity,and as a tracer in geological studies are briefly summarized. The accelerator mass spectrometry(AMS) measurement of 236 U in the world and the research on HI-13 tandem accelerator at China Institute of Atomic Energy(CIAE) is also mentioned in this paper. (authors)

  13. Worldwide bioassay data resources for plutonium/americium internal dosimetry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.; Bertelli, L.; Little, T.; Guilmette, R.; Riddell, T.; Filipy, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Biokinetic models are the scientific underpinning of internal dosimetry. These models describe how materials of interest taken into the body by various routes (for example inhalation) are transported through the body, allowing the modelling of bioassay measurements and the estimation of radiation dose. The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) publishes biokinetic models for use in internal dosimetry. These models represent the consensus judgement of a committee of experts, based on human and animal data. Nonetheless, it is important to validate biokinetic models using directly applicable data, in a scientifically transparent manner, especially for internal dosimetry research purposes (as opposed to radiation protection), as in epidemiology studies. Two major goals would be to determine individual variations of model parameters for the purpose of assessing this source of uncertainty in internal dose calculations, and to determine values of workplace specific parameters (such as particle solubility in lung fluids) for different representative workplaces. Furthermore, data on the observed frequency of intakes under various conditions can be used in the interpretation of bioassay data. All of the above may be couched in the terminology of Bayesian statistical analysis and amount to the determination of the Bayesian prior probability distributions needed in a Bayesian interpretation of bioassay data. The authors have direct knowledge of several significant databases of plutonium/americium bioassay data (including autopsy data). The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the worldwide community with these resources and to invite others who may know of other such databases to participate with us in a publication that would document the content, form, and the procedures for seeking access to these databases. These databases represent a tremendous scientific resource in this field. Examples of databases known to the authors include: the

  14. Complex formation of trivalent americium with salicylic acid at very low concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanie Mueller; Margret Acker; Steffen Taut; Gert Bernhard; Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden

    2010-01-01

    For the first time, the complexation of americium(III) with salicylic acid was studied at trace metal concentrations using a 2.0 m Long Path Flow Cell for UV-vis spectroscopy. The detection limit of Am(III) in aqueous solution at pH 3.0 was found to be 5 x 10 -9 M. Two Am(III)-salicylate complexes were formed at pH 5.0 in 0.1 M NaClO 4 , indicated by a clear red shift of the absorption maximum. The absorption spectra obtained from spectrophotometric titration were analyzed by means of factor analysis and complex stabilities were calculated to be log β 110 = 2.56 ± 0.08 and log β 120 = 3.93 ± 0.19. (author)

  15. Plutonium and americium concentrations and vertical profiles in some Italian mosses used as bioindicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Meli, M.A.; Guerra, F.; Degetto, S.; Jia, G.; Gerdol, R.

    1998-01-01

    We have examined the uptake of actinide elements Am and Pu by different species of lichen and moss collected in two locations (Urbino, Central Italy; Alps region, North-east Italy). Plutonium and americium were separated and determined by extraction chromatography, electrodeposition and alpha-spectrometry. This paper summarizes our results with a special emphasis on the vertical profiles of these actinides in two different species of mosses. Several 1-2 cm depth sections were obtained and dated by 210 Pb method. A typical peak for 239,240 Pu and 241 Am was found in the very old moss species ('Sphagnum Compactum') at a depth corresponding to the period 1960-1970 which was the period characterized by the maximum nuclear weapon tests. In a younger moss species ('Neckeria Crispa') no peak was observed and the regression curves showed that Am is more mobile than 239,240 Pu and 238 Pu. (author)

  16. The uptake of plutonium-239, 240, americium-241, strontium-90 into plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popplewell, D.S.; Ham, G.J.; Johnson, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the results of measurements on the uptake of plutonium, americium, strontium-90 and caesium-137 into peas, beet, oats, sweet corn, tomatoes and vegetable marrow grown in tubs containing radioactively-contaminated silts. The silts had been taken from an area of West Cumbria commonly referred to as the Ravenglass estuary. The experiments are categorised as being carried out under non-standard conditions because of the manner in which the radioactivity came to be incorporated into the growth medium. The growth medium was representative of conditions which could arise when the estuarine silt moves inland under the influence of wind and tide and mixes with the adjacent farm land. The silt had been contaminated by radioactive effluents from the nuclear fuels reprocessing plant at Sellafield and this contamination had been brought about by natural means. (Auth.)

  17. Separation of trivalent americium and europium by purified Cyanex 301 immobilized in macro porous polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Chen; Veltkamp, A.C.; Booij, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    High separation ability of purified Cyanex 301 towards trivalent americium over europium in liquid-liquid extraction is confirmed. Solvent 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) lowered the partitioning of Am 3+ but remained the separation ability over europium. Solvent toluene and 3-octanone lowered the separation factor to ∼ 1000. It is feasible to separate Am 3+ from Eu 3+ by Cyanex 301 which was immobilized in the macro porous polymer (MPP). 3-Octanone is a suitable solvent for dissolving NH 4 OH-saponified Cyanex 301 and MPP is a suitable solid supported material for column operation. A five-step column experiment demonstrated the feasibility to separate Am 3+ from Eu 3+ in column which was packed with Cyanex 301-impregnated MPP. (author)

  18. Spectral properties of americium(III) in silicate matrices. Concentration-dependent up-conversion emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assefa, Zerihun; Haire, R.G.; Stump, N.

    2002-01-01

    We have been pursuing the spectroscopic properties of actinide ions in silicate matrices. One facet of these studies involves the behavior of Stokes and anti-Stokes emissions exhibited by Am 3+ in these hosts. Several attributes have been found to influence the spectral profile, which include excitation wavelength, laser power, and dopant-concentration. Excitation with the 514.5 nm (19435 cm -1 ) line of argon laser provides anti-Stokes emissions at 21100 and ∼19920 cm -1 in the borosilicate matrices. This up-conversion was found to proceed through a multi-photon scheme, and the efficiency increases with increased dopant concentration. Based on our concentration-dependent studies, the up-conversion is suggested to involve a cross-relaxation process [( 5 D 1' , 7 F 0' ) ( 7 F 6' , 7 F 2' )] between neighboring americium ions. (author)

  19. Standard practice for The separation of americium from plutonium by ion exchange

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes the use of an ion exchange technique to separate plutonium from solutions containing low concentrations of americium prior to measurement of the 241Am by gamma counting. 1.2 This practice covers the removal of plutonium, but not all the other radioactive isotopes that may interfere in the determination of 241Am. 1.3 This practice can be used when 241Am is to be determined in samples in which the plutonium is in the form of metal, oxide, or other solid provided that the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved (See Test Methods C758, C759, and C1168). 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Magnesium ionophore II as an extraction agent for trivalent europium and americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makrlik, Emanuel [Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Environmental Sciences; Vanura, Petr [Univ. of Chemistry and Technology, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    2016-11-01

    Solvent extraction of microamounts of trivalent europium and americium into nitrobenzene by using a mixture of hydrogen dicarbollylcobaltate (H{sup +}B{sup -}) and magnesium ionophore II (L) was studied. The equilibrium data were explained assuming that the species HL{sup +}, HL{sup +}{sub 2}, ML{sup 3+}{sub 2}, and ML{sup 3+}{sub 3} (M{sup 3+} = Eu{sup 3+}, Am{sup 3+}; L=magnesium, ionophore II) are extracted into the nitrobenzene phase. Extraction and stability constants of the cationic complex species in nitrobenzene saturated with water were determined and discussed. From the experimental results it is evident that this effective magnesium ionophore II receptor for the Eu{sup 3+} and Am{sup 3+} cations could be considered as a potential extraction agent for nuclear waste treatment.

  1. Vertical distribution of236U in the North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigl, R; Steier, P; Sakata, K; Sakaguchi, A

    2017-04-01

    The first extensive study on 236 U in the North Pacific Ocean has been conducted. The vertical distribution of 236 U/ 238 U isotopic ratios and the 236 U concentrations were analysed on seven depth profiles, and large variations with depth were found. The range of 236 U/ 238 U isotopic ratios was from (0.09 ± 0.03) × 10 -10 to (14.1 ± 2.2) × 10 -10 , which corresponds to 236 U concentrations of (0.69 ± 0.24) × 10 5 atoms/kg and (119 ± 21) × 10 5 atoms/kg, respectively. The variations in 236 U concentrations could mainly be attributed to the different water masses in the North Pacific Ocean and their formation processes. Uranium-236 inventories on the water column of each sampling station were calculated and varied between (3.89 ± 0.08) × 10 12 atoms/m 2 and (7.03 ± 0.50) × 10 12 atoms/m 2 , which is lower than in former studies on comparable latitudes in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Sea of Japan. The low inventories of 236 U found for the North Pacific Ocean in this study can be explained by the lack of additional input sources of artificial radionuclides, apart from global and regional/local fallout. This study expands the use of 236 U as oceanographic circulation tracer to yet another ocean basin and shows that this isotope can be used for tracing circulation patterns of water masses in the Pacific Ocean. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Separation of oxidized americium from lanthanides by use of pillared metal(IV) phosphate-phosphonate hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, J.D.; Clearfield, A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Borkowski, M.; Reed, D.T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad, NM (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences Div.

    2012-07-01

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle in the US poses many challenges, one of which is found in the waste streams, which contain both trivalent lanthanides and actinides. The separation of americium from the raffinate will dramatically reduce the long-term radiotoxicity of the waste. The sorption of americium in both the tri- and pentavalent oxidation states was observed for four M(IV) phosphate-phosphonate ion exchange materials in nitric acid at pH 2. High selectivity was observed for reduced Am(III) with K{sub d} values ca. 6 x 10{sup 5} mL/g, while the K{sub d} values for Am(V) were much lower. A new method of synthesizing and stabilizing AmO{sub 2}{sup +} to yield a lifetime of at least 24 h in acidic media using a combination of sodium persulfate and calcium hypochlorite will be described.

  3. Separation of oxidized americium from lanthanides by use of pillared metal(IV) phosphate-phosphonate hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.D.; Clearfield, A.; Borkowski, M.; Reed, D.T.

    2012-01-01

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle in the US poses many challenges, one of which is found in the waste streams, which contain both trivalent lanthanides and actinides. The separation of americium from the raffinate will dramatically reduce the long-term radiotoxicity of the waste. The sorption of americium in both the tri- and pentavalent oxidation states was observed for four M(IV) phosphate-phosphonate ion exchange materials in nitric acid at pH 2. High selectivity was observed for reduced Am(III) with K d values ca. 6 x 10 5 mL/g, while the K d values for Am(V) were much lower. A new method of synthesizing and stabilizing AmO 2 + to yield a lifetime of at least 24 h in acidic media using a combination of sodium persulfate and calcium hypochlorite will be described.

  4. Dicty_cDB: SFH236 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SF (Link to library) SFH236 (Link to dictyBase) - G00315 DDB0191340 Contig-U16349-1...brary) Clone ID SFH236 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID G00315 dictyBase ID DDB0191340 Link to Contig ...Contig-U16349-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SF/SFH2-...VDCVTNSSDASCTNFQYPLANITADINNL CGSMPYMPVCTIQQSCNQESSTSGICDPFSILGDSCLHDMPGMSG--- ---ASGSVVEQCSSVDSISNLPTTMQLFAGIKSICT...ii yvvaclicqfvpfnnhviknpqqvvfvihsqflvivvfticqa*vv--- ---ASGSVVEQCSSVDSISNLPTTMQLFAGIKSICTEMAMDGCEKCSGNSPTTTC

  5. Upper limits to americium concentration in large sized sodium-cooled fast reactors loaded with metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youpeng; Wallenius, Janne

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The americium transmutation capability of Integral Fast Reactor was investigated. • The impact from americium introduction was parameterized by applying SERPENT Monte Carlo calculations. • Higher americium content in metallic fuel leads to a power penalty, preserving consistent safety margins. - Abstract: Transient analysis of a large sized sodium-cooled reactor loaded with metallic fuel modified by different fractions of americium have been performed. Unprotected loss-of-offsite power, unprotected loss-of-flow and unprotected transient-over-power accidents were simulated with the SAS4A/SASSYS code based on the geometrical model of an IFR with power rating of 2500 MW th , using safety parameters obtained with the SERPENT Monte Carlo code. The Ti-modified austenitic D9 steel, having higher creep rupture strength, was considered as the cladding and structural material apart from the ferritic/martensitic HT9 steel. For the reference case of U–12Pu–1Am–10Zr fuel at EOEC, the margin to fuel melt during a design basis condition UTOP is about 50 K for a maximum linear rating of 30 kW/m. In order to maintain a margin of 50 K to fuel failure, the linear power rating has to be reduced by ∼3% and 6% for 2 wt.% and 3 wt.% Am introduction into the fuel respectively. Hence, an Am concentration of 2–3 wt.% in the fuel would lead to a power penalty of 3–6%, permitting a consumption rate of 3.0–5.1 kg Am/TW h th . This consumption rate is significantly higher than the one previously obtained for oxide fuelled SFRs

  6. 48 CFR 252.236-7000 - Modification proposals-price breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-price breakdown. 252.236-7000 Section 252.236-7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.236-7000 Modification proposals—price breakdown. As prescribed in 236.570(a), use the following clause: Modification Proposals—Price Breakdown (DEC 1991) (a) The...

  7. Uptake of americium-241 by plants from contaminated Chernobyl exclusive zone test site soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashydov, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    Americium-241 was found to accumulate in soils and biological objects of the environment. Its concentration has increased many times after the Chernobyl disaster and can be expected to increase about 40 times in the future. This research concentrated on the contaminated exclusive Chernobyl zone polluted by trace radionuclides, their behavior and accumulation by various plant species. Special attention is devoted to the bioavailability of 241 Am to the plants Galium rivale, G. tinctorium, G. aparine, G. intermedium, Berteroa incana, Artemisia absinthium, A. vulgaris, Centaurea borysthenica, C. arenaria, Cirsium arvense, Succissa pratensis, Solidago virgaurea, Linaria vulgaris, Lepidium ruderale, Stenactis annua, Veronica maxima, Verbascum lychnitis, Euphorbia cyparissias, Genista tinctoria, Erigeron canadensis, Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur, which were collected from the Chernobyl, Kopachi, and Yanov districts. The plant samples of Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur were collected from the Yanov district, where the soil contamination by 241 Am and 137 Cs was at the level of 660 and 27 MBq/m 2 , respectively. Gamma spectroscopy and radiochemical methods were used to estimate the activity concentration of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am. The radionuclides were measured in the dry green mass of the plant samples and in the dry soils. The contamination of the Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur samples by 137 Cs was (5.8±1,5)x10 6 , (7.4±1.1)x10 5 , and (2.6±0.2)x10 6 Bq/kg dry mass, respectively, and contamination by 241 Am was 47±5, 45±3 and 3.2±0.2 Bq/kg, respectively. The soil-to-plant transfer ratio for 137 Cs ranged lay within the interval of 0.2 to 0.03 Bq/kg : Bq/m 2 , the the transfer ratio for 241 Am did not exceed 7x10 -5 Bq/kg : Bq/m 2 . The coefficient of the relative contents of the 241 Am/ 239+240 Pu radionuclides in the various plant samples varied from 3.2 to 8.3, while for soil from

  8. Contrasts between the marine and freshwater biological interactions of plutonium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, H.D.; Bowen, V.T.

    1975-01-01

    Whether in lakes or the oceans the transuranic elements plutonium and americium are taken up by marine organisms, with concentration factors that would class them as nice, typical heavy metals. There is no evidence for strong, widespread discrimination against the transuranics by either plant or animal absorptive surfaces. In both freshwater and marine situations the major reservoir of Pu and Am soon becomes the sediments, and organisms are more exposed to uptake of these nuclides the closer is their ecological involvement with the sediments. Although there is little evidence that this can be an ionic strength effect, it does appear that Pu may be somewhat more available, biologically, in marine environments, and Am, conversely, in fresh water. We incline to the belief that details of these behaviors are usually controlled by local availability of organic complexers. No compelling evidence exists of increase in Pu concentration at higher levels of food chains; in marine situations this appears true of Am as well, but a few data suggest that in fresh water fish there is a progressive increase, in higher trophic levels, in the ratio Am to Pu. Although marine and fresh water biogeochemistries of transuranics are much more similar than we had expected, it will generally be dangerous to extrapolate from one to the other. In both systems there appears to us no question that we are observing real element biogeochemistry, not the redistribution of inert, labelled, fallout fragments

  9. Multicompartment kinetic models for the metabolism of americium, plutonium and uranium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sontag, W.

    1986-01-01

    To examine the kinetic behaviour of americium, plutonium and uranium in male and female rats, an extended mammillary model has been developed, composed of 10 compartments connected with 17 linear transfer coefficients. The 10 compartments describe the behaviour of the three nuclides in the blood, skeleton, liver and kidney; the remaining activity is assigned to one residual organ. Each organ is divided into two compartments, short- and long-term. In the skeleton the short-term compartment has been assumed to be the bone surface and marrow, and the long-term compartment the deep bone; in the liver, evidence suggests that the short-term compartment is physiologically associated with lysosomes and the long-term compartment identical with telolysosomes. Influence of age, sex and different nuclides on the transfer coefficients and the absorbed radiation dose are discussed. By using the transfer coefficients calculated for intravenous injection, the behaviour of the nuclides in skeleton and liver during continuous intake has been calculated. The behaviour of the three nuclides in skeleton and liver after intravenous injection has also been calculated with the additional assumption that from the fifth day the animals were treated continuously with a chelating agent. (UK)

  10. Development and Testing of an Americium/Lanthanide Separation Flowsheet Using Sodium Bismuthate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Law; Bruce Mincher; Troy Garn; Mitchell Greenhalgh; Nicholas Schmitt; Veronica Rutledge

    2014-04-01

    The separation of Am from the lanthanides and curium is a key step in proposed advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The partitioning and transmutation of Am is desirable to minimize the long-term heat load of material interred in a future high-level waste repository. A separation process amenable to process scale-up remains elusive. Given only subtle chemistry differences within and between the ions of the trivalent actinide and lanthanide series this separation is challenging ; however, higher oxidation states of americium can be prepared using sodium bismuthate and separated via solvent extraction using diamylamylphosphonate (DAAP) extraction. Among the other trivalent metals only Ce is also oxidized and extracted. Due to the long-term instability of Am(VI) , the loaded organic phase is readily selectively stripped to partition the actinide to a new acidic aqueous phase. Batch extraction distribution ratio measurements were used to design a flowsheet to accomplish this separation. Additionally, crossflow filtration was investigated as a method to filter the bismuthate solids from the feed solution prior to extraction. Results of the filtration studies, flowsheet development work and flowsheet performance testing using a centrifugal contactor are detailed.

  11. Speciation and bioavailability of Americium-241 in the fresh water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierkens, J.

    1986-01-01

    Due to its anthropogenic origin, the transuranic americium 241 confronts physiologists with the intriguing question, which mechanisms are involved in the incorporation or elimination of such artificial elements in biological cycles. The investigations on the speciation and bioavailability of 241 Am in the freshwater environment aim to establish a relation between the behavior of 241 Am in freshwater ecosystems and its availability for biota. In the limnic environment, most often characterized by a high organic load and a low conductivity, the effect of complexation of 241 Am with humic acids and competition with trivalent cations such as A1 and Fe, were proven to be significant on the speciation of 241 Am. Based on the registration of the 241 Am uptake by a large number of freshwater organisms, the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz was chosen to study the whole-body uptake of 241 Am, its corresponding organ distribution and its retention in the animal. The share of external fixation and ingestion in the global uptake, and the effect of speciation on it, were studied more carefully. Other aspects in this physiological part were: the kinetics of 241 Am in the hemolymph and the hepatopancreas, and its subcellular distribution in the digestive gland. Finally, by comparing the physiology of 241 Am with some other metals ( 240 Pu, 64 Cu, 198 Au) with analogous or contradictional properties, we tried to find out whether the behavior of 241 Am in organisms can be explained from its chemical characteristics

  12. Americium and plutonium in water, biota, and sediment from the central Oregon coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Reinald Dreas [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Plutonium-239, 240 and americium-241 were measured in the mussel Mytilus californianus from the region of Coos Bay, OR. The flesh of this species has a plutonium concentration of about 90 fCi/kg, and an Am-241/Pu-239, 240 ratio that is high relative to mixed fallout, ranging between two and three. Transuranic concentrations in sediment, unfiltered water, and filterable particulates were also measured; none of these materials has an Am/Pu ratio as greatly elevated as the mussels, and there is no apparent difference in the Am/Pu ratio of terrestrial runoff and coastal water. Sediment core profiles do not allow accumulation rates or depositional histories to be identified, but it does not appear that material characterized by a high Am/Pu ratio has ever been introduced to this estuary. Other bivalves (Tresus capax and Macoma nasuta) and a polychaete (Abarenicola sp.) do not have an elevated Am/Pu ratio, although the absolute activity of plutonium in the infaunal bivalves is roughly four times that in the mussels.

  13. Americium and plutonium in water, biota, and sediment from the central Oregon coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, R.D.

    1982-06-01

    Plutonium-239, 240 and americium-241 were measured in the mussel Mytilus californianus from the region of Coos Bay, OR. The flesh of this species has a plutonium concentration of about 90 fCi/kg, and an Am-241/Pu-239, 240 ratio that is high relative to mixed fallout, ranging between two and three. Transuranic concentrations in sediment, unfiltered water, and filterable particulates were also measured; none of these materials has an Am/Pu ratio as greatly elevated as the mussels, and there is no apparent difference in the Am/Pu ratio of terrestrial runoff and coastal water. Sediment core profiles do not allow accumulation rates or depositional histories to be identified, but it does not appear that material characterized by a high Am/Pu ratio has ever been introduced to this estuary. Other bivalves (Tresus capax and Macoma nasuta) and a polychaete (Abarenicola sp.) do not have an elevated Am/Pu ratio, although the absolute activity of plutonium in the infaunal bivalves is roughly four times that in the mussels

  14. In Vitro Dissolution Tests of Plutonium and Americium Containing Contamination Originating From ZPPR Fuel Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William F. Bauer; Brian K. Schuetz; Gary M. Huestis; Thomas B. Lints; Brian K. Harris; R. Duane Ball; Gracy Elias

    2012-09-01

    Assessing the extent of internal dose is of concern whenever workers are exposed to airborne radionuclides or other contaminants. Internal dose determinations depend upon a reasonable estimate of the expected biological half-life of the contaminants in the respiratory tract. One issue with refractory elements is determining the dissolution rate of the element. Actinides such as plutonium (Pu) and Americium (Am) tend to be very refractory and can have biological half-lives of tens of years. In the event of an exposure, the dissolution rates of the radionuclides of interest needs to be assessed in order to assign the proper internal dose estimates. During the November 2011 incident at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) involving a ZPPR fuel plate, air filters in a constant air monitor (CAM) and a giraffe filter apparatus captured airborne particulate matter. These filters were used in dissolution rate experiments to determine the apparent dissolution half-life of Pu and Am in simulated biological fluids. This report describes these experiments and the results. The dissolution rates were found to follow a three term exponential decay equation. Differences were noted depending upon the nature of the biological fluid simulant. Overall, greater than 95% of the Pu and 93% of the Am were in a very slow dissolving component with dissolution half-lives of over 10 years.

  15. Removal of plutonium and Americium from hydrochloric acid waste streams using extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, L.D.; FitzPatrick, J.R.; Salazar, R.R.; Schake, B.S.; Martinez, B.T.

    1995-01-01

    Extraction chromatography is under development as a method to lower actinide activity levels in hydrochloric acid (HCl) effluent streams. Successful application of this technique for radioactive liquid waste treatment would provide a low activity feedstream for HCl recycle, reduce the loss of radioactivity to the environment in aqueous effluents, and lower the quantity and improve the form of solid waste generated. The extraction of plutonium and americium from HCl solutions was examined for several commercial and laboratory-produced sorbed resin materials. Polymer beads were coated with n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl- methylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and either tributyl phosphate (TBP), or diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP). Distribution coefficients for Pu and Am were measured by contact studies in 1-10 M HCl, while varying REDOX conditions, actinide loading levels, and resin formulations. Flow experiments were run to evaluate actinide loading and elution under varied conditions. Significant differences in the actinide distribution coefficients in contact experiments, and in actinide retention in flow experiments were observed as a function of resin formulation

  16. Cleanex process: a versatile solvent extraction process for recovery and purification of lanthanides, americium, and curium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, J.E.; Collins, E.D.; King, L.J.

    1979-01-01

    At a concentration of 1 M in straight-chain hydrocarbon diluent, HDEHP will extract americium, curium, and other trivalent actinide and lanthanide elements from dilute acid or salt solutions. The solute is back-extracted with more concentrated acid, either nitric or hydrochloric. The process has been used in the continuous, countercurrent mode, but its greatest advantage arises in batch extractions where the excess acid can be titrated with NaOH to produce a final acidity of about 0.03 M. Under these conditions, 99% recovery can be achieved, usually in one stage. Cleanex was used on the 50-liter scale at the Transuranium Processing Plant at Oak Ridge for 12 years to provide a broad spectrum cleanup to transuranium elements before applying more sophisticated techniques for separating individual products. The process is also used routinely to recover excessive losses of curium and/or californium from plant waste streams. The solvent system is relatively resistant to radiation damage, being usable up to 200 W-h/liter

  17. Assessment of radiation doses from residential smoke detectors that contain americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, F.R.; Etnier, E.L.; Holton, G.A.; Travis, C.C.

    1981-10-01

    External dose equivalents and internal dose commitments were estimated for individuals and populations from annual distribution, use, and disposal of 10 million ionization chamber smoke detectors that contain 110 kBq (3 μCi) americium-241 each. Under exposure scenarios developed for normal distribution, use, and disposal using the best available information, annual external dose equivalents to average individuals were estimated to range from 4 fSv (0.4 prem) to 20 nSv (2 μrem) for total body and from 7 fSv to 40 nSv for bone. Internal dose commitments to individuals under post disposal scenarios were estimated to range from 0.006 to 80 μSv (0.0006 to 8 mrem) to total body and from 0.06 to 800 μSv to bone. The total collective dose (the sum of external dose equivalents and 50-year internal dose commitments) for all individuals involved with distribution, use, or disposal of 10 million smoke detectors was estimated

  18. Study of biosorbents application on the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes with americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borba, Tania Regina de

    2010-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy for many different purposes has been intensified and highlighted by the benefits that it provides. Medical diagnosis and therapy, agriculture, industry and electricity generation are examples of its application. However, nuclear energy generates radioactive wastes that require suitable treatment ensuring life and environmental safety. Biosorption and bioaccumulation represent an emergent alternative for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes, providing volume reduction and physical state change. This work aimed to study biosorbents for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes contaminated with americium-241 in order to reduce the volume and change the physical state from liquid to solid. The biosorbents evaluated were Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in calcium alginate beads, inactivated and free cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, calcium alginate beads, Bacillus subtilis, Cupriavidus metallidurans and Ochrobactrum anthropi. The results were quite satisfactory, achieving 100% in some cases. The technique presented in this work may be useful and viable for implementing at the Waste Management Laboratory of IPEN - CNEN/SP in short term, since it is an easy and low cost method. (author)

  19. Plutonium-236 traces determination in plutonium-238 by α spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena, M.L.; Pottier, R.; Berger, R.

    1969-01-01

    Two methods are described in this report for the determination of plutonium-236 traces in plutonium-238 by a spectrometry using semi-conductor detectors. The first method involves a direct comparison of the areas under the peaks of the α spectra of plutonium-236 and plutonium-238. The electrolytic preparation of the sources is carried out after preliminary purification of the plutonium. The second method makes it possible to determine the 236 Pu/ 238 Pu ratio by comparing the areas of the α peaks of uranium-232 and uranium-234, which are the decay products of the two plutonium isotopes respectively. The uranium in the source, also deposited by electrolysis, is separated from a 1 mg amount of plutonium either by a T.L.A. extraction, or by the use of ion-exchange resins. The report ends with a discussion of the results obtained with plutonium of two different origins. (authors) [fr

  20. Buildup of 236U in the gaseous diffusion plant product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    A generalized projection of the average annual 236 U concentration that can be expected in future enriched uranium product from the US-ERDA gaseous diffusion plants when reprocessed fuels become available for cascade feeding is given. It is concluded that the buildup of 236 U is not an ever-increasing function, but approaches a limiting value. Projected concentrations result in only slight separative work losses and present no operational problem to ERDA in supplying light water reactor requirements. The use of recycle uranium from power reactor spent fuels will result in significant savings in natural uranium feed

  1. Separation of neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium from uranium with di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (HDEHP) for radiometric and ICP-MS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramebaeck, H.; Skaalberg, M.

    1998-01-01

    The possibility of using di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in solvent extraction for the separation of neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium from large amounts of uranium was studied. Neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium (as well as uranium) were extracted from HNO 3 , whereafter americium and curium were back-extracted with 5M HNO 3 . Thereafter was neptunium back-extracted in 1M HNO 3 containing hydroxylamine hydronitrate. Finally, plutonium was back-extracted in 3M HCl containing Ti(III). The method separates 238 Pu from 241 Am for α-spectroscopy. For ICP-MS analysis, the interferences from 238 U are eliminated: tailing from 238 U, for analysis of 237 Np, and the interference of 238 UH + for analysis of 239 Pu. The method has been used for the analysis of actinides in samples from a spent nuclear fuel leaching and radionuclide transport experiment. (author)

  2. Use of radioisotopes in the study of tetracycline analytical application. Extraction of compounds formed between tetracycline and neptunium and americium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Lima, F.W. de

    1986-01-01

    The behavior of tetracycline as complexing agent, in solvent extraction studies of neptunium and americium, using benzyl alcohol as the organic phase, is presented. By using radioactive tracers of 239 Np and 2 4 1 Am the extraction percent of these elements were determined as a function of pH in the absence and in the presence of several masking agents. The influence of shaking time and the use of different types of supporting eletrolytes upon the extraction behavior was also studied. The extraction curves obtained using EDTA as masking agent show that tetracycline can be used for neptunium and americium separation. In this condition neptunium is extracted into the organic phase and americium remains in the aqueous phase. (Author) [pt

  3. Transport of plutonium, americium, and curium from soils into plants by roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimpl, M.; Schuettelkopf, H.

    1979-12-01

    For assessing the dose from radionuclides in agricultural products by ingestion it is necessary to know the soil to plant transfer factors. The literature was entirely investigated, in order to judge the size of the soil to plant transfer factors. In total, 92 publications - from 1948 to 1978 -have been evaluated. As result, transfer factors from 10 -9 to 10 -3 have been found for Plutonium, and from 10 -6 to 1 for Americium. For Curium only few data are available in literature. The considerable variation of the measured transfer factors is based on the dependence of these transfer factors from the ion exchange capacity of soils, from the amount of organic materials, from the pH-value, and from the mode of contamination. There are, in any case, contradictory data, although there has been detected a dependence of the transfer factors from these parameters. Chelating agenst increase the transfer factors to approximately 1300. As well, fertilizers have an influence on the size of the transfer factors - however, the relationships have been scarcely investigated. The distribution of actinides within the individual parts of plants has been investigated. The highest concentrations are in the roots; in the plant parts above ground the concentration of actinides decreases considerably. The most inferior transfer factors were measured for the respective seed or fruits. The soil to plant transfer factors of actinides are more dependend on the age of the plants within one growing period. At the beginning of the period, the transfer factor is considerably higher than at the end of this period. With respect to plants with a growing period of several years, correlations are unknown. (orig.) [de

  4. Experiments comparing the uptake of americium from chloride media using extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzPatrick, J.R.; Schake, B.S.; Schulte, L.D.; Martinez, B.T.; Salazar, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    Clean-up of actinide effluent waste steams is of increasing importance at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility, TA-55, and removing the actinide elements to very low levels allows less radioactivity to go the Los Alamos National Laboratory Water Treatment Facility, TA-50, thus reducing the number of drums of TRU waste. Americium (Am) is a difficult element to remove from chloride media because the +3 state is difficult to oxidize and chelating resins work better with elements such as plutonium which are more readily oxidized to the +4 and/or +6 state. Currently in hydrochloric acid (HC1) media, the acidic liquid waste is neutralized with potassium hydroxide to precipitate the metal hydroxides, before disposal to TA-50. This process is not very efficient. The removal of Am from chloride media was compared using a series of resins, some commercial and some made in our laboratory, using different percentages by weight of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diiso- butylcarbamoyl-methylphosphine oxide (CMPO ) along with diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP) or tributyl phosphate (TBP) as diluents. Resins were also made with no added diluent. Early comparisons using small-scale contact studies with 0.5 grams of resin in 0.1M-12M HC1, and subsequent small-scale flow experiments show a trend in which Am uptake is proportional to the amount of CMPO on the resins and the diluent plays a minor role in the uptake of Am from these solutions. Redox chemistry effects were also investigated. From these studies, it is possible to determine the best conditions for the removal of Am from HC1 media thus reducing the gross alpha content of the waste stream by a factor of 10-100 which reduces the number of barrels of waste produced at the Water Treatment Facility

  5. Concentration and vertical distribution of plutonium and americium in Italian mosses and lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, G.; Desideri, D.; Guerra, F.; Meli, M.A.; Testa, C.

    1997-01-01

    The plutonium and americium concentration and vertical distribution in some Italian mosses and lichens have been determined. The 239,240 Pu, 238 Pu and 241 Am concentration ranges in tree trunk lichens 0.83-1.87, 0.052-0.154 and 0.180-0.770 Bq/kg, respectively. The corresponding values in tree mosses are higher and more scattered ranging from 0.321 to 4.96, from 0.029 to 0.171 and from 0.200 to 1.93 Bq/kg. The mean 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu and 241 Am/ 239,240 Pu ratios are 0.088±0.037 and 0.38 ± 0.13 in lichens and 0.091±0.072 and 0.54±0.16 in tree mosses. The Pu and Am concentrations are relatively low in terrestrial mosses. The 239,240 Pu, 238 Pu and 241 Am vertical distributions in a terrestrial moss core (Neckera Crispa) collected near Urbino (central Italy) show an exponential decrease with the height. On the contrary the 241 Am vertical distribution in another terrestrial moss core (Sphagnum Compactum) collected in the Alps (northern Italy) shows an interesting peak at 16 cm which corresponds to the deposition of fallout from the nuclear weapon tests in 1960's. The 241 Am movement upward and downward in the moss core is also studied. The results show once again that both mosses and lichens are very effective accumulators of Pu and Am and that they can be used as good biological indicators of the radionuclide airborne pollution from nuclear facilities and nuclear weapon tests. They can play a very important role in cycling naturally or artificially enhanced radionuclides in the atmosphere over long time scales. (author)

  6. Americium/Lanthanide Separations in Alkaline Solutions for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, George S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Long, Kristy Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reilly, Sean D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jarvinen, Gordon D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Runde, Wolfgang H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-11

    Project goals: Can used nuclear fuel be partitioned by dissolution in alkaline aqueous solution to give a solution of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium and a filterable solid containing nearly all of the lanthanide fission products and certain other fission products? What is the chemistry of Am/Cm/Ln in oxidative carbonate solutions? Can higher oxidation states of Am be stabilized and exploited? Conclusions: Am(VI) is kinetically stable in 0.5-2.0 M carbonate solutions for hours. Aliquat 336 in toluene has been successfully shown to extract U(VI) and Pu(VI) from carbonate solutions. (Stepanov et al 2011). Higher carbonate concentration gives lower D, SF{sub U/Eu} for = 4 in 1 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Experiments with Am(VI) were unsuccessful due to reduction by the organics. Multiple sources of reducing organics...more optimization. Reduction experiments of Am(VI) in dodecane/octanol/Aliquat 336 show that after 5 minutes of contact, only 30-40% of the Am(VI) has been reduced. Long enough to perform an extraction. Shorter contact times, lower T, and lower Aliquat 336 concentration still did not result in any significant extraction of Am. Anion exchange experiments using a strong base anion exchanger show uptake of U(VI) with minimal uptake of Nd(III). Experiments with Am(VI) indicate Am sorption with a Kd of 9 (10 minute contact) but sorption mechanism is not yet understood. SF{sub U/Nd} for = 7 and SF{sub U/Eu} for = 19 after 24 hours in 1 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.

  7. Determination of americium and curium using ion-exchange in the nitric-acid-methanol medium for environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Fukai, R.

    1976-01-01

    While transplutonic elements are only slightly sorbed to anion exchangers from hydrochloric or nitric acid media, the presence of alcohol enhances the anionic exchange of these elements, especially in nitric and sulfuric solutions. In the present work a method has been developed for determining americium and curium in environmental samples, on the basis of the difference between the sorption characteristics to anion exchangers in the acid-methanol system of these transplutonic elements and those of plutonium, polonium and thorium. The method also permits us to perform sequential determination of plutonium, when necessary

  8. 27 CFR 46.236 - Articles in a warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles in a warehouse... Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Filing Requirements § 46.236 Articles in a warehouse. (a) Articles... articles will be offered for sale. (b) Articles offered for sale at several locations must be reported on a...

  9. 8 CFR 236.5 - Fingerprints and photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DETENTION OF INADMISSIBLE AND DEPORTABLE ALIENS; REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 236.5 Fingerprints and photographs. Every alien 14 years of age or older... inadmissible to the United States and ordered removed by an immigration judge shall be fingerprinted, unless...

  10. 48 CFR 852.236-89 - Buy American Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contained in this clause 852.236-89 are waived for World Trade Organization (WTO) Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) country, Australian, Chilean, or Moroccan, least developed country, or Caribbean Basin... country, Australian, Chilean, or Moroccan, least developed country, or Caribbean Basin country...

  11. 48 CFR 52.236-17 - Layout of Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Layout of Work. 52.236-17... Layout of Work. As prescribed in 36.517, insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when... need for accurate work layout and for siting verification during work performance: Layout of Work (APR...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 236 - Civil Penalties 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... device that functions as track relay not in its most restrictive state when train, locomotive, or car..., timing relays and timing devices 1,000 2,000 236.110Results of tests 1,000 2,000 Subpart B—Automatic... as track relays and through signal mechanism contacts and time releases at automatic interlocking 1...

  13. 27 CFR 40.236 - Release from customs custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release from customs... on Tobacco Products § 40.236 Release from customs custody. The release of tobacco products from customs custody, in bond, for transfer to the premises of a tobacco products factory, shall be in...

  14. 7 CFR 58.236 - Pasteurization and heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... destruction. Condensed milk products made from pasteurized milk may be transported to a drying plant, provided... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.236 Pasteurization and heat treatment. All milk and buttermilk used in the manufacture of dry milk products and modified dry milk products shall be pasteurized...

  15. 48 CFR 52.236-4 - Physical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Physical Data. 52.236-4... Physical Data. As prescribed in 36.504, insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when a fixed-price construction contract is contemplated and physical data (e.g., test borings, hydrographic...

  16. Mass and abundance {sup 236}U sensitivities at CIRCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cesare, M., E-mail: m.decesare@cira.it [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200 Canberra (Australia); CIRCE and Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Seconda Universitá di Napoli, via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); De Cesare, N.; D’Onofrio, A. [CIRCE and Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Seconda Universitá di Napoli, via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, Edificio G, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Fifield, L.K. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200 Canberra (Australia); Gialanella, L.; Terrasi, F. [CIRCE and Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Seconda Universitá di Napoli, via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, Edificio G, 80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    The actinides (e.g. {sup 236}U and {sup x}Pu isotopes) are present in environmental samples at the ultra trace level since atmospheric tests of NWs (Nuclear Weapons) performed in the past, deliberate dumping of nuclear waste, nuclear fuel reprocessing, on a large scale and operation of NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants) on a small scale have led to the release of a wide range of radioactive nuclides in the environment. Their detection requires the most sensitive AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) techniques and at the Center for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) in Caserta, Italy, an upgraded actinide AMS system, based on a 3-MV pelletron tandem accelerator, has been operated. In this paper the progress made in order to push the {sup 236}U mass sensitivity and {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U isotopic ratio down to the natural levels is reported. A uranium contamination mass of about 0.05 μg and a {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U isotopic ratio sensitivities at the level of 3.2 × 10{sup −13} are presently achievable.

  17. Mass and abundance 236U sensitivities at CIRCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, M.; De Cesare, N.; D'Onofrio, A.; Fifield, L. K.; Gialanella, L.; Terrasi, F.

    2015-10-01

    The actinides (e.g. 236U and xPu isotopes) are present in environmental samples at the ultra trace level since atmospheric tests of NWs (Nuclear Weapons) performed in the past, deliberate dumping of nuclear waste, nuclear fuel reprocessing, on a large scale and operation of NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants) on a small scale have led to the release of a wide range of radioactive nuclides in the environment. Their detection requires the most sensitive AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) techniques and at the Center for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) in Caserta, Italy, an upgraded actinide AMS system, based on a 3-MV pelletron tandem accelerator, has been operated. In this paper the progress made in order to push the 236U mass sensitivity and 236U/238U isotopic ratio down to the natural levels is reported. A uranium contamination mass of about 0.05 μg and a 236U/238U isotopic ratio sensitivities at the level of 3.2 × 10-13 are presently achievable.

  18. 49 CFR 236.919 - Operations and Maintenance Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Standards for Processor-Based Signal and Train Control Systems § 236.919 Operations and Maintenance Manual. (a... identify all software versions, revisions, and revision dates. Plans must be legible and correct. (c...

  19. 49 CFR 236.1039 - Operations and Maintenance Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Positive Train Control Systems § 236.1039 Operations and Maintenance Manual. (a) The railroad shall catalog and... software versions, revisions, and revision dates. Plans must be legible and correct. (c) Hardware, software...

  20. 48 CFR 1852.236-73 - Hurricane plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Hurricane plan. 1852.236-73... Hurricane plan. As prescribed in 1836.570(c), insert the following clause: Hurricane Plan (DEC 1988) In the event of a hurricane warning, the Contractor shall— (a) Inspect the area and place all materials...

  1. 46 CFR 169.236 - Inspection and testing required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... boundaries of fuel tanks; or (2) To pipelines, heating coils, pumps, fittings, or other appurtenances connected to fuel tanks. (c) Inspections must be conducted as follows: (1) In ports or places in the United... Inspection and Certification Repairs and Alterations § 169.236 Inspection and testing required. (a) The...

  2. 48 CFR 852.236-74 - Inspection of construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: (a) Inspection of materials and articles furnished under this contract will be made at the site by... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of construction... CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.236-74...

  3. 48 CFR 52.236-26 - Preconstruction Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preconstruction Conference....236-26 Preconstruction Conference. As prescribed in 36.522, insert the following clause: Preconstruction Conference (FEB 1995) If the Contracting Officer decides to conduct a preconstruction conference...

  4. 49 CFR 236.338 - Mechanical locking required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... locking sheet and dog chart. 236.338 Section 236.338 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart. Mechanical locking shall be in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart currently in effect. ...

  5. 48 CFR 53.236 - Construction and architect-engineer contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction and architect-engineer contracts. 53.236 Section 53.236 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION...-engineer contracts. ...

  6. Temperature and concentration dependences of the electrical resistivity for alloys of plutonium with americium under normal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiovkin, Yu. Yu.; Povzner, A. A.; Tsiovkina, L. Yu.; Dremov, V. V.; Kabirova, L. R.; Dyachenko, A. A.; Bystrushkin, V. B.; Ryabukhina, M. V.; Lukoyanov, A. V.; Shorikov, A. O.

    2010-01-01

    The temperature and concentration dependences of the electrical resistivity for alloys of americium with plutonium are analyzed in terms of the multiband conductivity model for binary disordered substitution-type alloys. For the case of high temperatures ( T > ΘD, ΘD is the Debye temperature), a system of self-consistent equations of the coherent potential approximation has been derived for the scattering of conduction electrons by impurities and phonons without any constraints on the interaction intensity. The definitions of the shift and broadening operator for a single-electron level are used to show qualitatively and quantitatively that the pattern of the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity for alloys is determined by the balance between the coherent and incoherent contributions to the electron-phonon scattering and that the interference conduction electron scattering mechanism can be the main cause of the negative temperature coefficient of resistivity observed in some alloys involving actinides. It is shown that the great values of the observed resistivity may be attributable to interband transitions of charge carriers and renormalization of their effective mass through strong s-d band hybridization. The concentration and temperature dependences of the resistivity for alloys of plutonium and americium calculated in terms of the derived conductivity model are compared with the available experimental data.

  7. Osteosarcoma induction by plutonium-239, americium-241 and neptunium-237 : the problem of deriving risk estimates for man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Spontaneous bone cancer (osteosarcoma) represents only about 0.3% of all human cancers, but is well known to be inducible in humans by internal contamination with radium-226 and radium-224. plutonium-239, americium-241 and neptunium-237 form, or will form, the principal long-lived alpha particle emitting components of high activity waste and burnt-up nuclear fuel elements. These three nuclides deposit extensively in human bone and although, fortunately, no case of a human osteosarcoma induced by any of these nuclides is known, evidence from animal studies suggests that all three are more effective than radium-226 in inducing osteosarcoma. The assumption that the ratio of the risk factors, the number of osteosarcoma expected per 10000 person/animal Gy, for radium-226 and any other bone-seeking alpha-emitter will be independent of animal species has formed the basis of all the important studies of the radiotoxicity of actinide nuclides in experimental animals. The aim of this communication is to review the risk factors which may be calculated from the various animal studies carried out over the last thirty years with plutonium-237, americium-241 and neptunium-237 and to consider the problems which may arise in extrapolating these risk factors to homo sapiens

  8. 49 CFR 236.330 - Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement. 236.330 Section 236.330 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Rules and Instructions § 236.330 Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement. Locking dog of switch-and-lock...

  9. 48 CFR 52.236-23 - Responsibility of the Architect-Engineer Contractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Architect-Engineer Contractor. 52.236-23 Section 52.236-23 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.236-23 Responsibility of the Architect-Engineer Contractor. As prescribed in 36.609-2(b), insert the following clause: Responsibility of the Architect-Engineer Contractor (APR 1984) (a...

  10. 48 CFR 236.602 - Selection of firms for architect-engineer contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection of firms for architect-engineer contracts. 236.602 Section 236.602 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 236.602 Selection of firms for architect-engineer...

  11. 48 CFR 952.236-71 - Inspection in architect-engineer contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection in architect-engineer contracts. 952.236-71 Section 952.236-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF....236-71 Inspection in architect-engineer contracts. As prescribed at 936.609-3 insert the following...

  12. 48 CFR 853.236 - Construction and architect-engineer contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction and architect-engineer contracts. 853.236 Section 853.236 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 853.236 Construction and architect-engineer...

  13. 48 CFR 52.236-24 - Work Oversight in Architect-Engineer Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Architect-Engineer Contracts. 52.236-24 Section 52.236-24 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.236-24 Work Oversight in Architect-Engineer Contracts. As prescribed in 36.609-3, insert the following clause: Work Oversight in Architect-Engineer Contracts (APR 1984) The extent and...

  14. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.36 Navigable waters...

  15. 49 CFR 236.503 - Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... predetermined rate of speed exceeded. 236.503 Section 236.503 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... § 236.503 Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded. An automatic train control system shall operate to initiate an automatic brake application when the speed of...

  16. 48 CFR 1452.236-70 - Prohibition Against Use of Lead-based Paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Lead-based Paint. 1452.236-70 Section 1452.236-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Clauses 1452.236-70 Prohibition Against Use of Lead-based Paint. As prescribed in 1436.570(b), insert the following clause: Prohibition Against Use of Lead-Based Paint—Department of the Interior (JUL 1996) Paint...

  17. 48 CFR 452.236-71 - Prohibition Against the Use of Lead-Based Paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Use of Lead-Based Paint. 452.236-71 Section 452.236-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and Clauses 452.236-71 Prohibition Against the Use of Lead-Based Paint. As prescribed in 436.571, insert the following clause: Prohibition Against the Use of Lead-Based Paint (NOV 1996) Neither the...

  18. 48 CFR 452.236-74 - Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Sedimentation, and Pollution. 452.236-74 Section 452.236-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF....236-74 Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution. As prescribed in 436.574, insert the following clause: Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution (NOV 1996) (a) Operations shall be...

  19. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal...

  20. The photoluminescence of crystallophosphors on the base of NaBi(WO4)2 activated by americium, plutonium and neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliva, V.R.; Novikov, Yu.P.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1989-01-01

    The luminescence properties of crystallophosphors based on NaBi(WO 4 ) 2 activated by americium, plutonium and neptunium were studied. The synthesis of crystallophosphors is described. Crystallophosphors luminesce in the near infrared region. The excitation and luminescence spectra of crystallophosphors are considered. The dependence of luminescence yield is linear in the wide interval of activator concentration. (author) 3 refs.; 4 figs

  1. Peculiar Behavior of (U,Am)O(2-δ) Compounds for High Americium Contents Evidenced by XRD, XAS, and Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Florent; Horlait, Denis; Caraballo, Richard; Martin, Philippe M; Scheinost, Andreas C; Rossberg, Andre; Jégou, Christophe; Delahaye, Thibaud

    2015-10-19

    In U(1-x)Am(x)O(2±δ) compounds with low americium content (x ≤ 20 atom %) and oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratios close to 2.0, Am(III+) cations are charge-balanced by an equivalent amount of U(V+) cations while the fluorite structure of pure U(IV+)O2 is maintained. Up to now, it is unknown whether this observation also holds for higher americium contents. In this study, we combined X-ray diffraction with Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopies to investigate a U(0.5)Am(0.5)O(2±δ) compound. Our results indicate that americium is again only present as Am(III+), while U(V+) remains below the amount required for charge balance. Unlike lower americium contents, this leads to an overall oxygen hypostoichiometry with an average O/M ratio of 1.92(2). The cationic sublattice is only slightly affected by the coexistence of large amounts of reduced (Am(III+)) and oxidized (U(V+)) cations, whereas significant deviations from the fluorite structure are evidenced by both extended X-ray absorption fine structure and Raman spectroscopies in the oxygen sublattice, with the observation of both vacancies and interstitials, the latter being apparently consistent with the insertion of U6O12 cuboctahedral-type clusters (as observed in the U4O9 or U3O7 phases). These results thus highlight the specificities of uranium-americium mixed oxides, which behave more like trivalent lanthanide-doped UO2 than U(1-x)Pu(x)O(2±δ) MOX fuels.

  2. Update neutron nuclear data evaluation for 236,238Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Guochang; Wang, Jimin; Yu, Baosheng; Cao, Wentian; Tang, Guo-you

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear data with high accuracy for actinides play an important role in nuclear technology applications, including reactor design and operation, fuel cycle, estimation of the amount of minor actinides (MAs) in high burnup reactors and to research to transmute the MAs to short half-lived nuclides or stable ones. The nuclides of 236 Np are generated via the α-decay of 240 Am or 237 Np(n, 2n) and 237 Np(d, t) reactions. And the nuclides of 238 Np are generated via the α-decay of 242 Am or 237 Np(n, γ) and 237 Np(d, p) reactions. In the present work, according to the systematic trend of the total cross section and elastic cross section etc. of different Np isotopes, and based on the neutron optical model parameters (OMP) of 237 Np, a new set of neutron optical model parameters were obtained for 236,238 Np. Based on the new set OMP and the systematic trend of the cross sections of different Np isotopes, a full set of 236,238 Np neutron nuclear data has been updated and improved by theoretical calculation. The present result has significant improvements over the data in CENDL-3.1

  3. Chemical behaviour of trivalent and pentavalent americium in saline NaCl-solutions. Studies of transferability of laboratory data to natural conditions. Interim report. Reported period: 1.2.1993-31.12.1993; Chemisches Verhalten von drei- und fuenfwertigem Americium in Salinen NaCl-Loesungen. Untersuchung der Uebertragbarkeit von Labordaten auf natuerliche Verhaeltnisse. Zwischenbericht. Berichtszeitraum 1.2.1993-31.12.1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runde, W.; Kim, J.I.

    1994-09-15

    In order to clarify the chemical behaviour of Americium in saline aqueous systems relevant for final storage this study deals with the chemical reactions of trivalent and pentavalent Americium in NaCl-solutions under the influence of radiolysis from its own alpha radiation. The focus of the study was on investigating the geologically relevant reactions, such as hydrolysis or carbonate- and chloride complexing in solid-liquid equilibriums. Comprehensive measurements on solubility and spectroscopic studies in NaCl-solutions were carried out in a CO{sub 2}-free atmosphere and 10{sup -2} atm CO{sub 2} partial pressure. Identification and characterisation of the AM (III) and AM(V) solid phases were supplemented by structural research with the chemically analogue EU (III) and Np(V) compounds. The alpha-radiation induced radiolysis in saline NaCl solutions and the redox behaviour of Americium which was influenced thereby were spectroscopically quantified. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Klaerung des chemischen Verhaltens von Americium in endlagerrelevanten salinen aquatischen Systemen befasst sich die vorliegende Arbeit mit den chemischen Reaktionen des drei- und fuenfwertigen Americiums in NaCl-Loesungen unter dem Einfluss der Radiolyse durch die eigene {alpha}-Strahlung. Der Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit lag auf der Untersuchung der geologisch relevanten Reaktionen, wie Hydrolyse sowie Carbonat- und Chloridkomplexierung in fest-fluessig Gleichgewichtssystemen. Hierzu wurden umfassende Loeslichkeitsmessungen und spektroskopische Untersuchungen in NaCl-Loesungen, sowohl unter CO{sub 2}-freier Atmosphaere als auch unter 10{sup -2} atm CO{sub 2}-Partialdruck, durchgefuehrt. Die Identifizierung und Charakterisierung der Am(III)- und Am(V)-Festphasen wurde ergaenzt durch strukturelle Untersuchungen mit den chemisch analogen Eu(III)- und Np(V)-Verbindungen. Die von der {alpha}-Strahlung induzierte Radiolyse in salinen NaCl-Loesungen und das dadurch beeinflusste Redoxverhalten von Americium

  4. Crystallographic and Spectroscopic Characterization of Americium Complexes Containing the Bis[(phosphino)methyl]pyridine-1-oxide (NOPOPO) Ligand Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbey, Jordan F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Rapko, Brian M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Wang, Zheming [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; McNamara, Bruce K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Surbella, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Pellegrini, Kristi L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Schwantes, Jon M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States

    2018-02-06

    Abstract The crystal structures of americium species containing a common multi-functional phosphine oxide ligand, reported for its ability to extract f elements from acidic solutions, namely 2,6-[Ph2P(O)CH2]2C5H3-NO, L, have finally been determined after over three decades of separations studies involving these species and their surrogates. The molecular compounds Am(L)(NO3)3, Am 1:1, and [Am(L)2(NO3)][NO3]2, Am 2:1, along with their neodymium and europium analogs were synthesized and characterized using single-crystal X-ray crystallography, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR) spectroscopy and luminescence spectroscopy to provide a comprehensive comparison with new and known analogous complexes.

  5. Moessbauer spectroscopy of 237Np created by α-decay of 241Am in some compounds of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebizant, Jean.

    1977-01-01

    The Moessbauer emission spectra of 237 Np impurities fed by α decay of 241 Am were measured in the following compounds: Am metal, AmPtsub(x) (x=1, 3, 5), AmAs, AmBi, Am 2 O 3 , AmO 2 , Lisub(x)AmOsub(x+1) (x=1, 2, 3, 4) and Li 6 AmO 6 . The studies concerned the consequences of the recoil and ionization effects, associated with the α-decay of 241 Am in the solid phase; these are analysed in situ and on a time scale of about 100 ns after the α emission; the dependence of these effects on the physico-chemical nature of the host and on the temperature; information about the electronic, magnetic and structural properties and, also, about the vibrational properties of the Np impurity in the investigated solid matrice as far as the previous effects do not hamper such conclusions. The existence itself of the Moessbauer effect shows that the Np ions are stabilized in well-defined lattice locations at the time of emission of the 59.5keV γ quanta (approximately 100ns), once this level is reached after the 241 Am decay. In Am metal and AmPtsub(x) alloys, the observation of a single charge state for neptunium indicates that the electronic effects associated with the α-decay are recovered in less than 100ns. In the americium oxide compounds and the monopnictides AmAs and AmBi, several charge states of neptunium recoil ions are observed; this shows unambiguously the importance of the ionization effects caused by the α-decay. Some informations about magnetic and electronic properties of the americium host matrices were obtained. The vibration modes of 237 Np impurities in the lattice of Am metal are described by means of the Debye model with a characteristic temperature thetasub(D)=115K [fr

  6. Separation of americium by liquid-liquid extraction using diglycol-amides water-soluble complexing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapron, S.; Marie, C.; Pacary, V.; Duchesne, M.T.; Miguirditchian, M. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Processses Departement, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Arrachart, G.; Pellet-Rostaing, S. [Institut de Chimie Separative de Marcoule, LTSM, Bat 426, F-30207 Bagnols-sur- Ceze (France)

    2016-07-01

    Recycling americium (Am) alone from spent nuclear fuels is an important option studied for the future nuclear cycle (Generation IV systems) since Am belongs to the main contributors of the long-term radiotoxicity and heat power of final waste. Since 2008, a liquid-liquid extraction process called EXAm has been developed by the CEA to allow the recovery of Am alone from a PUREX raffinate (a dissolution solution already cleared from U, Np and Pu). A mixture of DMDOHEMA (N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-dioctyl-2-(2-(hexyloxy)ethyl)-malonamide) and HDEHP (di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid) in TPH is used as the solvent and the Am/Cm selectivity is improved using TEDGA (N,N,N',N'-tetraethyl-diglycolamide) as a selective complexing agent to maintain Cm and heavier lanthanides in the acidic aqueous phase (5 M HNO{sub 3}). Americium is then stripped selectively from light lanthanides at low acidity (pH=3) with a poly-aminocarboxylic acid. The feasibility of sole Am recovery was already demonstrated during hot tests in ATALANTE facility and the EXAm process was adapted to a concentrated raffinate to optimize the process compactness. The speciation of TEDGA complexes formed in the aqueous phase with Am, Cm and lanthanides was studied to better understand and model the behavior of TEDGA in the process. Some Ln-TEDGA species are extracted into the organic phase and this specific chemistry might play a role in the Am/Cm selectivity improvement. Hence the hydrophilicity-lipophilicity balance of the complexing agent is an important parameter. In this comprehensive study, new analogues of TEDGA were synthesized and tested in the EXAm process conditions to understand the relationship between their structure and selectivity. New derivatives of TEDGA with different N-alkyl chain lengths and ramifications were synthesized. The impact of lipophilicity on ligand partitioning and Am/Cm selectivity was investigated. (authors)

  7. Anthropogenic 236U in Danish Seawater: Global Fallout versus Reprocessing Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Steier, Peter; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on the occurrence of 236U in seawater along Danish coasts, which is the sole water-exchange region between the North Sea-Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea. Seawater collected in 2013 and 2014 were analyzed for 236U (as well as 238U and 137Cs). Our results indicate that 236U...... seawater. However, unexpectedly high 236U/238U ratios as well as high 236U concentrations were observed at low-salinity locations of the Baltic Sea. While this feature might be interpreted as a clue for another significant 236U input in the Baltic Sea, it may also be caused by the complexity of water...... currents or slow turnover rate....

  8. Inspection report of unauthorized possession and use of unsealed americium-241 and subsequent confiscation, J.C. Haynes Company, Newark, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This US Nuclear Regulatory Commission report documents the circumstances surrounding the March 26, 1985, confiscation and subsequent decontamination activities related to the use of unauthorized quantities of americium-241 at the John C. Haynes Company (licensee) of Newark, Ohio. It focuses on the period from early February to July 26, 1985. The incident started when NRC Region III recieved information that John C. Haynes possessed unauthorized quantities of americium-241 and was conducting unauthorized activities (diamond irradiation). By July 26, 1985, the decontamination activities at the licensee's laboratory were concluded. The licensee's actions with diamond irradiation resulted in contamination in restricted and unrestricted areas of the facility. The confiscation and decontamination activities required the combined efforts of NRC, Federal Bureau of Investigation, US Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, the State of Ohio, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. The report describes the factual information and significant findings associated with the confiscation and decontamination activities

  9. Anthropogenic 236U in Danish Seawater: Global Fallout versus Reprocessing Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jixin; Steier, Peter; Nielsen, Sven; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per; Golser, Robin

    2017-06-20

    This work focuses on the occurrence of 236 U in seawater along Danish coasts, which is the sole water-exchange region between the North Sea-Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea. Seawater collected in 2013 and 2014 were analyzed for 236 U (as well as 238 U and 137 Cs). Our results indicate that 236 U concentrations in Danish seawater are distributed within a relatively narrow range of (3.6-8.2) × 10 7 atom/L and, to a certain extent, independent of salinity. 236 U/ 238 U atomic ratios in Danish seawater are more than 4 times higher than the estimated global fallout value of 1× 10 -9 . The levels of 236 U/ 238 U atomic ratios obtained are comparable to those reported for the open North Sea and much higher than several other open oceans worldwide. This indicates that besides the global fallout input, the discharges from the two major European nuclear reprocessing plants are dominating sources of 236 U in Danish seawater. However, unexpectedly high 236 U/ 238 U ratios as well as high 236 U concentrations were observed at low-salinity locations of the Baltic Sea. While this feature might be interpreted as a clue for another significant 236 U input in the Baltic Sea, it may also be caused by the complexity of water currents or slow turnover rate.

  10. Experimental study of Americium-241 biokinetics in Homarus Gammarus lobster. Analysis of the accumulation and detoxication mechanisms at the sub-cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquet, F.

    1991-12-01

    The Americium 241 radioelement accumulation and elimination rate and mechanisms in the lobster organism have been experimentally studied; incorporation and detoxification capacities of each organ are evaluated. The existence of various biological compartments is shown; the major role of the digestive gland in accumulation of the radioelement, its distribution towards the various organs, and its resorption is comprehensively described, with an analysis at the subcellular and molecular levels. 401 p., 65 fig., 43 tab., 428 ref

  11. An experimental study of americium-241 biokinetics in the Lobster Homarus Gammarus. Analysis of the accumulation/storage and detoxification processes at the subcellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquet, F.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental study of americium-241 kinetics has been conducted in the lobster Homarus gammmarus. The investigations were conducted at all the levels from the whole body to the subcellular and molecular levels. The animals were contaminated by a single or chronic ingestion of 241 Am labelled mussels. Assessments of accumulation, elimination and distribution of the radionuclide were established on organisms kept in the laboratory; they made it possible to demonstrate the importance of the digestive gland in the radionuclide transfer pathways. The preliminary results led to structural then ultrastructural investigations of the digestive gland in association with radioautographic studies and cellular extractions methods. Four cellular types were demonstrated, only two of them being implied in the radionuclide retention, the former being responsible for americium intake and the latter for its long-term retention. By means of biochemical techniques, subcellular accumulation was studied and the organelles implied in the nuclide retention were specified. Finally, a method of cellular nuclei dissociation was developed; it made it possible to analyse the molecular nature of americium ligands and to demonstrate the function of the protein nuclear matrix in the nuclide retention

  12. Preliminary results from uranium/americium affinity studies under experimental conditions for cesium removal from NPP ''Kozloduy'' simulated wastes solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforova, A.; Kinova, L.; Peneva, C.; Taskaeva, I.; Petrova, P.

    2005-01-01

    We use the approach described by Westinghouse Savannah River Company using ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) to remove elevated concentrations of radioactive cesium to facilitate handling waste samples from NPP K ozloduy . Preliminary series of tests were carried out to determine the exact conditions for sufficient cesium removal from five simulated waste solutions with concentrations of compounds, whose complexing power complicates any subsequent processing. Simulated wastes solutions contain high concentrations of nitrates, borates, H 2 C 2 O 4 , ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and Citric acid, according to the composition of the real waste from the NPP. On this basis a laboratory treatment protocol was created. This experiment is a preparation for the analysis of real waste samples. In this sense the results are preliminary. Unwanted removal of non-cesium radioactive species from simulated waste solutions was studied with gamma spectrometry with the aim to find a compromise between on the one hand the AMP effectiveness and on the other hand unwanted affinity to AMP of Uranium and Americium. Success for the treatment protocol is defined by proving minimal uptake of U and Am, while at the same time demonstrating good removal effectiveness through the use of AMP. Uptake of U and Am were determined as influenced by oxidizing agents at nitric acid concentrations, proposed by Savannah River National laboratory. It was found that AMP does not significantly remove U and Am when concentration of oxidizing agents is more than 0.1M for simulated waste solutions and for contact times inherent in laboratory treatment protocol. Uranium and Americium affinity under experimental conditions for cesium removal were evaluated from gamma spectrometric data. Results are given for the model experiment and an approach for the real waste analysis is chosen. Under our experimental conditions simulated wastes solutions showed minimal affinity to AMP when U and Am are most probably in

  13. Phenotype-gene: 236 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 236 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u3ria224u1234i decreased size... in organ named whole plant in environment of low light intensity regimen for AT4G35090 Bueso Eduardo et al.... 2007 Dec. Plant J. 52(6):1052-65. http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u17931347i decre...ased size in organ named whole plant in environment of low light intensity regimen http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u736i AT4G35090

  14. Radiative neutron capture cross section from 236U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baramsai, B.; Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Roman, A. R.; Rusev, G.; Walker, C. L.; Couture, A.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Kawano, T.

    2017-08-01

    The 236U(n ,γ ) reaction cross section has been measured for the incident neutron energy range from 10 eV to 800 keV by using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) γ -ray calorimeter at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The cross section was determined with the ratio method, which is a technique that uses the 235U(n ,f ) reaction as a reference. The results of the experiment are reported in the resolved and unresolved resonance energy regions. Individual neutron resonance parameters were obtained below 1 keV incident energy by using the R -matrix code sammy. The cross section in the unresolved resonance region is determined with improved experimental uncertainty. It agrees with both ENDF/B-VII.1 and JEFF-3.2 nuclear data libraries. The results above 10 keV agree better with the JEFF-3.2 library.

  15. 236 children with developmental hydrocephalus: causes and clinical consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Hannah M; Ishak, Gisele E; Rue, Tessa C; Dempsey, Jennifer C; Browd, Samuel R; Millen, Kathleen J; Doherty, Dan; Dobyns, William B

    2016-01-01

    Few systematic assessments of developmental forms of hydrocephalus exist. We reviewed MRIs and clinical records of patients with infancy-onset hydrocephalus. Among 411 infants, 236 had hydrocephalus with no recognizable extrinsic cause. These children were assigned to one of five subtypes and compared on the basis of clinical characteristics, developmental and surgical outcomes. At an average age of 5.3 years, 72% of children were walking independently and 87% could eat by mouth. 18% had epilepsy. Distinct patterns of associated malformations and syndromes were observed within each subtype. On average, children with aqueductal obstruction, cysts and encephaloceles had worse clinical outcomes than those with other forms of developmental hydrocephalus. 53% of surgically-treated patients experienced at least one shunt failure, but hydrocephalus associated with posterior fossa crowding required fewer shunt revisions. We conclude that each subtype of developmental hydrocephalus is associated with distinct clinical characteristics, syndromology, and outcomes, suggesting differences in underlying mechanisms. PMID:26184484

  16. 48 CFR 952.236 - Construction and architect-engineer contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction and architect-engineer contracts. 952.236 Section 952.236 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... Construction and architect-engineer contracts. ...

  17. 48 CFR 853.236-70 - VA Form 10-6298, Architect-Engineer Fee Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false VA Form 10-6298, Architect-Engineer Fee Proposal. 853.236-70 Section 853.236-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...-Engineer Fee Proposal. VA Form 10-6298, Architect-Engineer Fee Proposal, shall be used as prescribed in 836...

  18. 49 CFR 236.557 - Receiver; location with respect to rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Receiver; location with respect to rail. 236.557 Section 236.557 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... with specifications of the carrier. [49 FR 3387, Jan. 26, 1984] ...

  19. 49 CFR 236.531 - Trip arm; height and distance from rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trip arm; height and distance from rail. 236.531 Section 236.531 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... line to gage side of the nearest running rail, in accordance with specifications of the carrier. [49 FR...

  20. 49 CFR 236.577 - Test, acknowledgement, and cut-in circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test, acknowledgement, and cut-in circuits. 236.577 Section 236.577 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... every twelve months. [49 FR 3387, Jan. 26, 1984] Inspection and Tests; Locomotive ...

  1. 49 CFR 236.554 - Rate of pressure reduction; equalizing reservoir or brake pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rate of pressure reduction; equalizing reservoir or brake pipe. 236.554 Section 236.554 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS...

  2. 49 CFR 236.560 - Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail. 236.560 Section 236.560 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., in accordance with specifications of the carrier. [49 FR 3387, Jan. 26, 1984] ...

  3. 49 CFR 236.529 - Roadway element inductor; height and distance from rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roadway element inductor; height and distance from rail. 236.529 Section 236.529 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... rail, in accordance with specifications of the carrier. [49 FR 3386, Jan. 26, 1984] ...

  4. 49 CFR 236.310 - Signal governing approach to home signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal governing approach to home signal. 236.310 Section 236.310 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION...

  5. 49 CFR 236.407 - Approach or time locking; where required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approach or time locking; where required. 236.407 Section 236.407 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION...

  6. 49 CFR 236.206 - Battery or power supply with respect to relay; location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery or power supply with respect to relay; location. 236.206 Section 236.206 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION,...

  7. 49 CFR 236.1015 - PTC Safety Plan content requirements and PTC System Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... variance, including the significance of each variance between the PTC system and its applicable operating...) A description of the safety assurance concepts that are to be used for system development, including... System Certification. 236.1015 Section 236.1015 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...

  8. 49 CFR 236.13 - Spring switch; selection of signal control circuits through circuit controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... circuits through circuit controller. 236.13 Section 236.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...; selection of signal control circuits through circuit controller. The control circuits of signals governing... circuit controller, or through the contacts of relay repeating the position of such circuit controller...

  9. 49 CFR 236.103 - Switch circuit controller or point detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch circuit controller or point detector. 236.103 Section 236.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... controller or point detector. Switch circuit controller, circuit controller, or point detector operated by...

  10. 49 CFR 236.6 - Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... controller. 236.6 Section 236.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... switch circuit controller. Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller connected to the point, or with facing-point lock and circuit controller, shall be so maintained that when point is open...

  11. 48 CFR 236.274 - Restriction on acquisition of steel for use in military construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of steel for use in military construction projects. 236.274 Section 236.274 Federal Acquisition....274 Restriction on acquisition of steel for use in military construction projects. In accordance with..., Division E), do not acquire, or allow a contractor to acquire, steel for any construction project or...

  12. 49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... between electrical and mechanical levers. 236.340 Section 236.340 Transportation Other Regulations... Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and mechanical levers shall be maintained so that mechanical...

  13. Analytical utility of the M series x-ray emission lines applied to uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.G.

    1976-01-01

    Secondary emission x-ray analysis for actinide elements has usually meant utilizing the L series x-ray lines. The major disadvantage of these x-ray lines is that they fall in the region of high level Bremsstrahlung radiation, producing a high background and, subsequently, larger error and high detection limits. The utilization of the M series x-ray lines of actinide elements with wavelength dispersive x-ray spectrometers greatly minimizes these problems. Calibration curves for uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium were prepared by the ''coprex'' method, and the analytical characteristics of the L and M series compared. The Mα and β x-ray lines, under optimum conditions, are several times more sensitive than their L series counterparts. With the greater sensitivity in addition to the lower background, peak to background ratios for M lines up to 40 times greater than those for L lines were obtained. Detection limits can be lowered from about 0.7 μg using the Lα 1 line to 0.05 μg when M x-ray lines are used. The relative advantages and disadvantages of utilizing the L and M series x-ray lines for secondary emission x-ray analysis are discussed

  14. Use of radioanalytical methods for determination of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldo, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    Activated charcoal is a common type of radioactive waste that contains high concentrations of fission and activation products. The management of this waste includes its characterization aiming the determination and quantification of the specific radionuclides including those known as Difficult-to-Measure Radionuclides (RDM). The analysis of the RDM's generally involves complex radiochemical analysis for purification and separation of the radionuclides, which are expensive and time-consuming. The objective of this work was to define a methodology for sequential analysis of the isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium present in a type of radioactive waste, evaluating chemical yield, analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost. Three methodologies were compared and validated that employ ion exchange (TI + EC), extraction chromatography (EC) and extraction with polymers (ECP). The waste chosen was the activated charcoal from the purification system of primary circuit water cooling the reactor IEA-R1. The charcoal samples were dissolved by acid digestion followed by purification and separation of isotopes with ion exchange resins, extraction and chromatographic extraction polymers. Isotopes were analyzed on an alpha spectrometer, equipped with surface barrier detectors. The chemical yields were satisfactory for the methods TI + EC and EC. ECP method was comparable with those methods only for uranium. Statistical analysis as well the analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost revealed that EC method is the most effective for identifying and quantifying U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm present in charcoal. (author)

  15. Vertical transport of particulate-associated plutonium and americium in the upper water column of the Northeast Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Ballestra, S.; La Rosa, J.; Fukai, R.

    1983-01-01

    Concentrations of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) were determined in seawater, suspended particulate matter, sediment trap samples, and biogenic material collected at the VERTEX I site in the North Pacific off central California. From a vertical profile taken over the upper 1500 m, the presence of sub-surface maxima of sup(239+240)Pu and 241 Am were identified between 100 to 750 m and 250 to 750 m, respectively. A large fraction (32%) of the filterable sup(239+240)Pu in surface waters was associated with cells during a phytoplankton bloom; Pu:Am activity ratios in surface water and the suspended particles indicated that Pu was concentrated by the cells to a greater degree than Am. However, similar measurements beneath the surface layer showed an overall enrichment of Am over Pu on fine suspended particles with depth. Freshly produced zooplankton fecal pellets and large, fast sinking particles collected in PITS contained relatively high concentrations of Pu and Am. Both transuranic concentrations in trapped particles and transuranic flux tended to increase with depth down to 750 m, suggesting that their scavenging is in the upper water column. Am appeared to be scavenged by sinking biogenic particles to a greater extent than Pu. The results are discussed. (author)

  16. 49 CFR 236.303 - Control circuits for signals, selection through circuit controller operated by switch points or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... circuit controller operated by switch points or by switch locking mechanism. 236.303 Section 236.303... § 236.303 Control circuits for signals, selection through circuit controller operated by switch points...-point frogs and derails shall be selected through circuit controller operated directly by switch points...

  17. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages. 110.236 Section 110.236 Navigation and... Grounds § 110.236 Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal... shall notify the Captain of the Port, Honolulu, Hawaii, and the Commanding Officer, U.S. Naval Air...

  18. Molten salt extraction (MSE) of americium from plutonium metal in CaCl2-KCl-PuCl3 and CaCl2-PuCl3 salt systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, K.E.

    1992-01-01

    Molten salt extraction (MSE) of americium-241 from reactor-grade plutonium has been developed using plutonium trichloride salt in stationary furnaces. Batch runs with oxidized and oxide-free metal have been conducted at temperature ranges between 750 and 945C, and plutonium trichloride concentrations from one to one hundred mole percent. Salt-to-metal ratios of 0.10, 0.15, and 0 30 were examined. The solvent salt was either eutectic 74 mole percent CaCl 2 endash 26 mole percent KCl or pure CaCl 2 . Evidence of trivalent product americium, and effects of temperature, salt-to-metal ratio, and oxide contamination on the americium extraction efficiency are given. 24 refs, 20 figs, 13 tabs

  19. Observations on the redistribution of plutonium and americium in the Irish Sea sediments, 1978 to 1996: concentrations and inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, P.J.; Denoon, D.C.; Woodhead, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of plutonium and americium in the sub-tidal sediments of the Irish Sea is described following major surveys in 1978, 1983, 1988 and 1995. Concentrations in surface sediments have declined near the source at Sellafield since 1988. Time-series of inter-tidal surface sediment concentrations are presented from 1977 onwards, revealing the importance of sediment reworking and transport in controlling the evolution of the environmental signal. The surface and near-surface sediments, in the eastern Irish Sea 'mud-patch', are generally well mixed with respect to Pu (α) and 241 Am distributions but show increasing variability with depth - up to 4 orders of magnitude in concentration. The inventories of 239,240 Pu and 241 Am in the sub-tidal sediments have been estimated and compared with the reported decay-corrected discharges. These amounted to 360 and 545 TBq respectively, in 1995, about 60% of the total decay-corrected discharge. Part of the unaccounted fraction may be due to unrepresentative sampling of the seabed. It is speculated that some tens of TBq of plutonium and 241 Am reside undetected in the large volumes of coarse-grained, sub-tidal and inter-tidal sediment which characterise much of the Irish Sea. This has been due to the inability of the available corers to penetrate to the base of contamination in these mobile sediments. Further observations are needed to verify and quantify the missing amount. A budget of plutonium-α and 241 Am has been estimated based on published observations in the three main compartments: water column, sub-tidal and inter-tidal sediments. This amounts to 460-540 TBq and 575-586 TBq respectively, or 64-75% and 60-61%, of the decay-corrected reported discharge. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Picomolar traces of americium(III) introduce drastic changes in the structural chemistry of terbium(III). A break in the ''gadolinium break''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, Jan M. [TU Wien, Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria); Mueller, Danny; Knoll, Christian; Wilkovitsch, Martin; Weinberger, Peter [TU Wien, Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna (Austria); Giester, Gerald [University of Vienna, Institute of Mineralogy and Crystallography, Vienna (Austria); Ofner, Johannes; Lendl, Bernhard [TU Wien, Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna (Austria); Steinhauser, Georg [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institute of Radioecology and Radiation Protection (Germany)

    2017-10-16

    The crystallization of terbium 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] (ZT) in the presence of trace amounts (ca. 50 Bq, ca. 1.6 pmol) of americium results in 1) the accumulation of the americium tracer in the crystalline solid and 2) a material that adopts a different crystal structure to that formed in the absence of americium. Americium-doped [Tb(Am)(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}ZT]{sub 2} ZT.10 H{sub 2}O is isostructural to light lanthanide (Ce-Gd) 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] compounds, rather than to the heavy lanthanide (Tb-Lu) 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] (e.g., [Tb(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}]{sub 2}ZT{sub 3}.6 H{sub 2}O) derivatives. Traces of Am seem to force the Tb compound into a structure normally preferred by the lighter lanthanides, despite a 10{sup 8}-fold Tb excess. The americium-doped material was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy, radiochemical neutron activation analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the inclusion properties of terbium 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] towards americium were quantified, and a model for the crystallization process is proposed. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Measurement of total alpha activity of neptunium, plutonium, and americium in highly radioactive Hanford waste by iron hydroxide precipitation and 2-heptanone solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, T.C.; Kaye, J.H.

    1992-06-01

    An improved method has been developed to concentrate the major alpha-emitting actinide elements neptunium, plutonium, and americium from samples with high salt content such as those resulting from efforts to characterize Hanford storage tank waste. Actinide elements are concentrated by coprecipitation of their hydroxides using iron carrier. The iron is removed by extraction from 8M HCI with 2-heptanone. The actinide elements remain in the aqueous phase free from salts, iron, and long-lived fission products. Recoveries averaged 98 percent

  2. 49 CFR 236.203 - Hand operated crossover between main tracks; protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.203 Hand operated crossover between main... crossover is occupied by a train, locomotive or car in such a manner as to foul the main track. It shall not...

  3. MISCIBILITY, SOLUBILITY, AND VISCOSITY MEASUREMENTS FOR R-236EA WITH POTENTIAL LUBRICANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of miscibility, solubility, and viscosity measurements of refrigerant R-236ea with three potential lubricants. (NOTE: The data were needed to determine the suitability of refrigerant/lubricant combinations for use in refrigeration systems.) The lubricants...

  4. European roe deer antlers as an environmental archive for fallout 236U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, M.B.; Steier, P.; Wallner, G.; Fifield, L.K.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic 236 U and 239 Pu were measured in European roe deer antlers hunted between 1955 and 1977 which covers and extends beyond the period of intensive nuclear weapons testing (1954–1962). The antlers were hunting trophies, and hence the hunting area, the year of shooting and the approximate age of each animal is given. Uranium and plutonium are known to deposit in skeletal tissue. Since antler histology is similar to bone, both elements were expected in antlers. Furthermore, roe deer shed their antlers annually, and hence antlers may provide a time-resolved environmental archive for fallout radionuclides. The radiochemical procedure is based on a Pu separation step by anion exchange (Dowex 1 × 8) and a subsequent U purification by extraction chromatography using UTEVA ® . The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the VERA facility (University of Vienna). In addition to the 236 U and 239 Pu concentrations, the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotopic ratios were determined with a mean value of 0.172 ± 0.023 which is in agreement with the ratio of global fallout (∼0.18). Rather high 236 U/ 238 U ratios of the order of 10 −6 were observed. These measured ratios, where the 236 U arises only from global fallout, have implications for the use of the 236 U/ 238 U ratio as a fingerprint for nuclear accidents or releases from nuclear facilities. Our investigations have shown the potential to use antlers as a temporally resolved archive for the uptake of actinides from the environment. - Highlights: • Roe deer antlers were studied as an environmental archive for the retrospective study of fallout isotopes 236 U and 239 Pu. • The rather high 236 U/ 238 U ratios of about 10 −6 suggest 236 U as a fingerprint tool for nuclear material releases. • The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio underpins global fallout as the main anthropogenic contributor in antlers.

  5. A comparison of fallout (236)U and (239)Pu uptake by Australian vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Dietze, M M A; Tims, S G; Fifield, L K

    2016-01-01

    The isotopes (236)U and (239)Pu, both produced during nuclear weapons tests carried out in the 1950s and 1960s, are present in the environment and may be used as tracers for soil erosion studies. Although these radionuclides occur only at ultra-trace levels in nature, they can be readily measured by accelerator mass spectrometry with the 14UD heavy ion accelerator at the Australian National University. We have analysed a series of vegetation samples for their (236)U and (239)Pu concentration and compared the results with those found in the surrounding soil. (236)U could be measured in all collected samples whereas (239)Pu could not be detected in several vegetation samples due to its very low concentration, although it was readily detectable in the soil. We find that, relative to plutonium, (236)U is preferentially taken up by plants with enrichment factors ((236)U/(239)Pu)veg/((236)U/(239)Pu)soil that range between 7 and 52 in the present study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Depth profile of 236U/238U in soil samples in La Palma, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srncik, M.; Steier, P.; Wallner, G.

    2011-01-01

    The vertical distribution of the 236U/238U isotopic ratio was investigated in soil samples from three different locations on La Palma (one of the seven Canary Islands, Spain). Additionally the 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratio, as it is a well establish tool for the source identification, was determined. The radiochemical procedure consisted of a U separation step by extraction chromatography using UTEVA® Resin (Eichrom Technologies, Inc.). Afterwards Pu was separated from Th and Np by anion exchange using Dowex 1x2 (Dow Chemical Co.). Furthermore a new chemical procedure with tandem columns to separate Pu and U from the matrix was tested. For the determination of the uranium and plutonium isotopes by alpha spectrometry thin sources were prepared by microprecipitation techniques. Additionally these fractions separated from the soil samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) to get information on the isotopic ratios 236U/238U, 240Pu/239Pu and 236U/239Pu, respectively. The 236U concentrations [atoms/g] in each surface layer (∼2 cm) were surprisingly high compared to deeper layers where values around two orders of magnitude smaller were found. Since the isotopic ratio 240Pu/239Pu indicated a global fallout signature we assume the same origin as the probable source for 236U. Our measured 236U/239Pu value of around 0.2 is within the expected range for this contamination source. PMID:21481502

  7. Synthesis of zirconia sol stabilized by trivalent cations (yttrium and neodymium or americium): a precursor for Am-bearing cubic stabilized zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemonnier, Stephane; Grandjean, Stephane; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Jolivet, Jean-Pierre

    2010-03-07

    Recent concepts for nuclear fuel and targets for transmuting long-lived radionuclides (minor actinides) and for the development of innovative Gen-IV nuclear fuel cycles imply fabricating host phases for actinide or mixed actinide compounds. Cubic stabilized zirconia (Zr, Y, Am)O(2-x) is one of the mixed phases tested in transmutation experiments. Wet chemical routes as an alternative to the powder metallurgy are being investigated to obtain the required phases while minimizing the handling of contaminating radioactive powder. Hydrolysis of zirconium, neodymium (a typical surrogate for americium) and yttrium in aqueous media in the presence of acetylacetone was firstly investigated. Progressive hydrolysis of zirconium acetylacetonate and sorption of trivalent cations and acacH on the zirconia particles led to a stable dispersion of nanoparticles (5-7 nm) in the 6-7 pH range. This sol gels with time or with temperature. The application to americium-containing solutions was then successfully tested: a stable sol was synthesized, characterized and used to prepare cubic stabilized zirconia (Zr, Y, Am)O(2-x).

  8. Determining the americium transmutation rate and fission rate by post-irradiation examination within the scope of the ECRIX-H experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamontagne, J., E-mail: jerome.lamontagne@cea.fr [Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), DEN, DEC, Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Pontillon, Y. [Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), DEN, DEC, Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Esbelin, E. [CEA, DEN, DRCP, Marcoule, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Béjaoui, S.; Pasquet, B. [Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), DEN, DEC, Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Bourdot, P. [CEA, DEN, DER, Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Bonnerot, J.M. [Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), DEN, DEC, Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2013-09-15

    The ECRIX-H experiment aims to assess the feasibility of transmuting americium micro-dispersed in an inert magnesia matrix under a locally moderated neutron flux in the Phénix reactor. A first set of examinations demonstrated that pellet behaviour was satisfactory with moderate swelling at the end of the irradiation. Additional post-irradiation examinations needed to be conducted to confirm the high transmutation rate so as to definitively conclude on the success of the ECRIX-H experiment. This article presents and discusses the results of these new examinations. They confirm the satisfactory behaviour of the MgO matrix not only during the basic irradiation but also during post-irradiation thermal transients. These examinations also provide additional information on the behaviour of fission products both in the americium-based particles and in the MgO matrix. These results particularly validate the transmutation rate predicted by the calculation codes using several different analytical techniques. The fission rate is also determined.

  9. Analytical performance of radiochemical method for americium determination in urine; Desempenho analitico do metodo radioquimico para determinacao de americio em urina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Juliana Ferreira; Carneiro, Janete C.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: ju_barreto@terra.com.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents an analytical method developed and adapted for separation and analysis of Plutonium (Pu) isotopes and Americium (Am) in urine samples. The proposed method will attend the demand of internal exposure monitoring program for workers involved mainly with dismantling rods and radioactive smoke detectors. In this experimental procedure four steps are involved as preparation of samples, sequential radiochemical separation, preparation of the source for electroplating and quantification by alpha spectrometry. In the first stage of radiochemical separation, plutonium is conventionally isolated employing the anion exchange technique. Americium isolation is achieved sequentially by chromatographic extraction (Tru.spec column) from the load and rinse solutions coming from the anion exchange column. The {sup 243}Am tracer is added into the sample as chemical yield monitors and to correct the results improving the precision and accuracy. The mean recovery obtained is 60%, and the detection limit for 24h urine sample is 1.0 mBq L{sup -1} in accordance with the literature. Based in the preliminary results, the method is appropriate to be used in monitoring programme of workers with a potential risk of internal contamination. (author)

  10. First measurements of (236)U concentrations and (236)U/(239)Pu isotopic ratios in a Southern Hemisphere soil far from nuclear test or reactor sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srncik, M; Tims, S G; De Cesare, M; Fifield, L K

    2014-06-01

    The variation of the (236)U and (239)Pu concentrations as a function of depth has been studied in a soil profile at a site in the Southern Hemisphere well removed from nuclear weapon test sites. Total inventories of (236)U and (239)Pu as well as the (236)U/(239)Pu isotopic ratio were derived. For this investigation a soil core from an undisturbed forest area in the Herbert River catchment (17°30' - 19°S) which is located in north-eastern Queensland (Australia) was chosen. The chemical separation of U and Pu was carried out with a double column which has the advantage of the extraction of both elements from a relatively large soil sample (∼20 g) within a day. The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry using the 14UD pelletron accelerator at the Australian National University. The highest atom concentrations of both (236)U and (239)Pu were found at a depth of 2-3 cm. The (236)U/(239)Pu isotopic ratio in fallout at this site, as deduced from the ratio of the (236)U and (239)Pu inventories, is 0.085 ± 0.003 which is clearly lower than the Northern Hemisphere value of ∼0.2. The (236)U inventory of (8.4 ± 0.3) × 10(11) at/m(2) was more than an order of magnitude lower than values reported for the Northern Hemisphere. The (239)Pu activity concentrations are in excellent agreement with a previous study and the (239+240)Pu inventory was (13.85 ± 0.29) Bq/m(2). The weighted mean (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratio of 0.142 ± 0.005 is slightly lower than the value for global fallout, but our results are consistent with the average ratio of 0.173 ± 0.027 for the southern equatorial region (0-30°S). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. {sup 236}U and {sup 129}I as tracers of water masses in the Arctic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casacuberta, Nuria; Christl, Marcus; Vockenhuber, Christof; Synal, Hans-Arno [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH-Zurich (Switzerland); Walther, Clemens [Institut fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Loeff, Michiel van der [AWI-Geochemistry, Alfred Wegener Institut Fuer Polar und Meeresforshung, Bremerhaven (Germany); Masque, Pere [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    Recently {sup 236}U attested to be a new transient oceanographic tracer: it is conservative in seawater and far from having reached steady state in the oceans. Its main sources in the North Atlantic are global fallout and European reprocessing plants. In this study, concentrations of {sup 236}U and {sup 129}I of eight deep profiles in the Arctic Ocean collected in 2011-2012 were determined with a compact ETH Zurich AMS system (TANDY). Results on {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U show a steep gradient, from the lowest ever-reported {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U atomic ratio in open ocean water (5±5) x 10{sup -12} up to (3700±80) x 10{sup -12}. Whereas the very low ratios are indicative for deep old waters, high ratios in shallow and surface waters show a clear signature of Atlantic Waters (AW) penetrating to the Arctic Ocean. The combination of {sup 236}U with {sup 129}I, both being released by the nuclear reprocessing plants of Sellafield and La Hague, with a distinct temporal input function, is used to estimate transit time of AW distributions in the Arctic Ocean.

  12. Feasibility of using 236U to reconstruct close-in fallout deposition from the Hiroshima atomic bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, A; Kawai, K; Steier, P; Imanaka, T; Hoshi, M; Endo, S; Zhumadilov, K; Yamamoto, M

    2010-10-15

    The first results on the feasibility of using (236)U to reconstruct the level and spatial distribution of close-in fallout deposition from the Hiroshima A-bomb are reported, coupled with the use of global fallout (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu. The results for global fallout (236)U in soil samples (0-30cm) from Ishikawa prefecture showed that the deposition density of (236)U from the global fallout can be accurately evaluated using AMS. All deposited (236)U, (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu appeared to have been recovered using 30-cm cores. It was also noted from the depth profiles for (236)U/(239+240)Pu and (236)U/(137)Cs ratios that the downward behavior of (236)U in the soil was apparently similar to that of (239+240)Pu, while the (137)Cs was liable to be retained in upper layers compared with (236)U and (239+240)Pu. The accumulated levels were 1.78×10(13)atomsm(-2) for (236)U, 4340Bqm(-2) for (137)Cs and 141Bqm(-2) for (239+240)Pu. The ratios of (236)U/(137)Cs and (236)U/(239+240)Pu were (4.10±0.12)×10(9) and (1.26±0.04)×10(11)atomsBq(-1), respectively. Results of (236)U, (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu measurements for the seven soil cores (0-30cm) from Hiroshima were discussed on the basis of ratios of (236)U/(137)Cs and (236)U/(239+240)Pu by comparing with those from the background area in Ishikawa, indicating that the global fallout dominates the current level of (236)U accumulation in soil in the Black-rain area around Hiroshima after the Hiroshima bomb, and the contribution of the close-in fallout (236)U produced by the Hiroshima A-bomb seems difficult to observe. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhaled americium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    This project includes experiments to determine the effects of Zn-DTPA therapy on the retention, translocation and biological effects of inhaled 241 AmO 2 . Beagle dogs that received inhalation exposure to 241 AmO 2 developed leukopenia, clincial chemistry changes associated with hepatocellular damage, and were euthanized due to respiratory insufficiency caused by radiation pneumonitis 120 to 131 days after pulmonary deposition of 22 to 65 μCi 241 Am. Another group of dogs that received inhalation exposure to 241 AmO 2 and were treated daily with Zn-DTPA had initial pulmonary deposition of 19 to 26 μCi 241 Am. These dogs did not develop respiratory insufficiency, and hematologic and clinical chemistry changes were less severe than in the non-DTPA-treated dogs

  14. Artificial radionuclides in the Northern European Marine Environment. Distribution of radiocaesium, plutonium and americium in sea water and sediments in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groettheim, Siri

    2000-01-01

    This study considers the distribution of radiocaesium, plutonium and americium in the northern marine environment. The highest radiocaesium activity in sea water was observed in Skagerrak, 26 Bq/m 3 , and in surface sediments in the Norwegian Sea, 60 Bq/kg. These enhanced levels were related to Chernobyl. The highest 239,240Pu activity in surface water was measured in the western North Sea, 66 mBq/m 3 . In sea water, sub-surface maxima were observed at several locations with an 239,240Pu activity up to 160 mBq/m 3 , and were related to Sellafield. With the exception to the North Sea, surface sediments reflected Pu from global fallout from weapons tests only. (author)

  15. Recovery of Americium-241 from lightning rod by the method of chemical treatment; Recuperacion del Americio-241 provenientes de los pararrayos por el metodo de tratamiento quimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, W.H., E-mail: wcruz@ipen.gob.pe [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (GRRA/IPEN), Lima (Peru). Division de Gestion de Residuos Radiactivos

    2013-07-01

    About 95% of the lightning rods installed in the Peruvian territory have set in their structures, pose small amounts of radioactive sources such as Americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), fewer and Radium 226 ({sup 226}Ra) these are alpha emitters and have a half life of 432 years and 1600 years respectively. In this paper describes the recovery of radioactive sources of {sup 241}Am radioactive lightning rods using the conventional chemical treatment method using agents and acids to break down the slides. The {sup 241}Am recovered was as excitation source and alpha particle generator for analysing samples by X Ray Fluorescence, for fixing the stainless steel {sup 241}Am technique was used electrodeposition. (author)

  16. Artificial radionuclides in the Northern European Marine Environment. Distribution of radiocaesium, plutonium and americium in sea water and sediments in 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groettheim, Siri

    2000-07-01

    This study considers the distribution of radiocaesium, plutonium and americium in the northern marine environment. The highest radiocaesium activity in sea water was observed in Skagerrak, 26 Bq/m{sub 3}, and in surface sediments in the Norwegian Sea, 60 Bq/kg. These enhanced levels were related to Chernobyl. The highest 239,240Pu activity in surface water was measured in the western North Sea, 66 mBq/m{sub 3}. In sea water, sub-surface maxima were observed at several locations with an 239,240Pu activity up to 160 mBq/m{sub 3}, and were related to Sellafield. With the exception to the North Sea, surface sediments reflected Pu from global fallout from weapons tests only. (author)

  17. Safe handling of kilogram amounts of fuel-grade plutonium and of gram amounts of plutonium-238, americium-241 and curium-244

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louwrier, K.P.; Richter, K.

    1976-01-01

    During the past 10 years about 600 glove-boxes have been installed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements at Karlsruhe. About 80% of these glove-boxes have been designed and equipped for handling 100-g to 1-kg amounts of 239 Pu containing 8-12% 240 Pu (low-exposure plutonium). A small proportion of the glove-boxes is equipped with additional shielding in the form of lead sheet or lead glass for work with recycled plutonium. In these glove-boxes gram-amounts of 241 Am have also been handled for preparation of Al-Am targets using tongs and additional shielding inside the glove-boxes themselves. Water- and lead-shielded glove-boxes equipped with telemanipulators have been installed for routine work with gram-amounts of 241 Am, 243 Am and 244 Cm. A prediction of the expected radiation dose for the personnel is difficult and only valid for a preparation procedure with well-defined preparation steps, owing to the fact that gamma dose-rates depend strongly upon proximity and source seize. Gamma radiation dose measurements during non-routine work for 241 Am target preparation showed that handling of gram amounts leads to a rather high irradiation dose for the personnel, despite lead or steel glove-box shielding and shielding within the glove-boxes. A direct glove-hand to americium contact must be avoided. For all glove-handling of materials with gamma radiation an irradiation control of the forearms of the personnel by, for example, thermoluminescence dosimeters is necessary. Routine handling of americium and curium should be executed with master-slave equipment behind neutron and gamma shielding. (author)

  18. Preliminary application of 241-Americium calcaneus bone mineral density measurement in osteoporosis. Comparison with double X-ray densitometry of the lumber spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Liang; Zhu Chengmo; Li Peiyong; Wang Hui; Pu Mingfang; Qiu Jigao

    2001-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) of calcaneus in 54 normals, 45 Osteoporosis, 25 suspected osteoporosis and 16 other non-osteoporosis patients, a total of 140 cases were measured by HUAKE (HK-1) 241-Americium BMD absorpmetry, among them 43 were compared with that of lumber spine (L2 - L4) measured by Lunar Corporation's Expert-XL absorpmeter. BMD of normal group of calcaneus was (409.8 +- 79.4) mg/cm 2 . The BMD were decreased slowly with the increasing age. The BMD of osteoporosis, suspected osteoporosis and non-osteoporosis group were 230.3 +- 62.3, 395.7 +- 57.4 and 363.3 +- 51.9 mg/cm 2 respectively. The BMD of osteoporosis group was much lower than that of normal group, and also lower than that of the other two groups, among 26 patients (57.78%) had bone fracture, all was in accordance with the clinical diagnosis of osteoporosis. The BMD of suspected osteoporosis and non-osteoporosis had no significant difference with normal group. The coefficient variation (CV) of BMD in repeated measurement in calcaneus of 4 participants was less than 1.2%. The correlative coefficient (r) between BMD of calcaneus and lumber spine (L2 - L4) group was 0.6824. The correlative coefficient of normal young adult-matched percentage and T value in 2 groups were 0.6863 and 0.6755 respectively, whereas aged-matched percentage, Z value were 0.4614 and 0.5009 respectively. In conclusion 241-Americium calcaneus BMD absorpmetry has the advantage of low price, easy to operate, reliable and valuable in diagnosis osteoporosis. The correlations of calcaneus and lumber spine BMD, normal young adult-matched percentage and T value were rather good

  19. Correction factor K calculation for Americium-Beryllium neutron sources measured in a manganese sulfate bath; Calculo do fator de correcao K para fontes de neutrons de Americio-Berilio medida no banho de sulfato de manganes do LNMRI/IRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Sandro P.; Fonseca, Evaldo S. da; Patrao, Karla C.S.; Goncalves, Marcello G. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Neutrons; Pereira, Walsan W. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)

    2005-03-15

    This paper simulates a manganese sulfate bath at the Ionizing Radiation Metrology National Laboratory for the calculation of K correction factor for the neutro emission ratio in some Americium-Beryllium sources.

  20. 30 CFR 285.236 - If I have a limited lease, how long will my lease remain in effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If I have a limited lease, how long will my lease remain in effect? 285.236 Section 285.236 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER...

  1. 49 CFR 236.565 - Provision made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provision made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading cock; requirement. 236.565 Section 236.565 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...

  2. 49 CFR 236.567 - Restrictions imposed when device fails and/or is cut out en route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions imposed when device fails and/or is cut out en route. 236.567 Section 236.567 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS...

  3. 49 CFR 236.568 - Difference between speeds authorized by roadway signal and cab signal; action required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Difference between speeds authorized by roadway signal and cab signal; action required. 236.568 Section 236.568 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES...

  4. 49 CFR 236.566 - Locomotive of each train operating in train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive of each train operating in train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped. 236.566 Section 236.566 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 49 CFR 236.207 - Electric lock on hand-operated switch; control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.207 Electric lock on hand-operated switch; control. Electric lock on hand-operated switch shall be controlled so that it cannot be unlocked... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric lock on hand-operated switch; control...

  6. 49 CFR 236.12 - Spring switch signal protection; where required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring switch signal protection; where required... Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.12 Spring switch signal protection; where required. Signal protection shall be provided for facing and trailing movements through spring switch within...

  7. 24 CFR 1000.236 - What are eligible administrative and planning expenses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... administrative management; (2) Coordination monitoring and evaluation; (3) Preparation of the IHP including data... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are eligible administrative...) § 1000.236 What are eligible administrative and planning expenses? (a) Eligible administrative and...

  8. 48 CFR 53.236-2 - Architect-engineer services (SF's 252 and 330).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Architect-engineer... ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 53.236-2 Architect-engineer...-engineer and related services: (a) SF 252 (Rev. 10/83), Architect-Engineer Contract. SF 252 is prescribed...

  9. Ajeigbe et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2013) 10(5):236 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    Ajeigbe et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2013) 10(5):236-243 .... relative humidity of 45–50%. The rats were fed on a commercially available diet produced by Bendel Feed and Flour Mills ..... feed and feeding (Esonu et al., 2001) as well as drugs (Iheukwumere et al., 2007). The purpose of this research work was ...

  10. 49 CFR 236.7 - Circuit controller operated by switch-and-lock movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit controller operated by switch-and-lock..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.7 Circuit controller operated by switch-and-lock movement. Circuit controller operated by switch-and-lock movement shall be maintained so...

  11. HEAT TRANSFER EVALUATION OF HFC-236FA IN CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the shell-side heat transfer performance of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236fa, which is considered to be a potential substitute for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-114 in Navy shipboard chillers, for both conventional finned [1024- and 1575-fpm (...

  12. HEAT TRANSFER EVALUATION OF HFC-236EA WITH HIGH PERFORMANCE ENHANCED TUBES IN CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the heat transfer performance of pure hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236ea for high performance enhanced tubes which had not been previously used in Navy shipboard chillers. Shell-side heat transfer coefficient data are presented for condensa...

  13. HEAT TRANSFER EVALUATION OF HFC-236EA AND CFC-114 IN CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a heat transfer evaluation of the refrigerants hexafluoropropane (HFC-236ea) and 1,1,2,2-dichloro-tetrafluoroethane (CFC-114). (NOTE: With the mandatory phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), as dictated by the Montreal Protocol and Clean Air Act Ame...

  14. 49 CFR 236.1007 - Additional requirements for high-speed service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional requirements for high-speed service..., AND APPLIANCES Positive Train Control Systems § 236.1007 Additional requirements for high-speed... by this subpart, and which have been utilized on high-speed rail systems with similar technical and...

  15. 48 CFR 52.236-28 - Preparation of Proposals-Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation of Proposals....236-28 Preparation of Proposals—Construction. As prescribed in 36.520, insert the following provision: Preparation of Proposals—Construction (OCT 1997) (a) Proposals must be (1) submitted on the forms furnished by...

  16. MISCIBILITY, SOLUBILITY, VISCOSITY, AND DENSITY MEASUREMENTS FOR R-236FA WITH POTENTIAL LUBRICANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of miscibility, solubility, viscosity, and density measurements for refrigerant R-236fa and two potential lubricants . (The data are needed to determine the suitability of refrigerant/lubricant combinations for use in refrigeration systems.) The tested oi...

  17. 49 CFR 236.335 - Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.335 Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking. Driving pieces, dogs, stops and trunnions shall be rigidly secured to locking bars. Swing dogs...

  18. Isotope shift of 234U, 236U, 238U in U I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, J.M.; Nguyen Van, S.; Saint-Dizier, J.P.; Pianarosa, P.

    1976-01-01

    New and very accurate data of isotope shifts and relative isotope shifts in 234 U, 236 U, 238 U are presented. The invariance of the relative isotope shift, for the transitions we have investigated, supports the hypothesis that the so called specific mass effect is negligible in uranium

  19. VLBI, MERLIN and HST observations of the giant radio galaxy 3C 236

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilizzi, RT; Tian, WW; Conway, JE; Nan, R; Miley, GK; Barthel, PD; Normandeau, M; Dallacasa, D; Gurvits, LI

    We present VLBI and MERLIN data at 1.66 and 4.99 GHz on the central component coincident with the nucleus of the giant radio galaxy, 3C 236. The nuclear radio structure is composed of two complexes of emission which are resolved on scales from 1 milli-arcsec (mas) to 1 arcsec. Oscillations with an

  20. Capture Cross Section of 236U: the n_TOF Results

    CERN Document Server

    Barbagallo, M; Vermeulen, M J; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Hernández-Prieto, A; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Lampoudis, C; Langer, C; Leal-Cidoncha, E; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Losito, R; Mallick, A; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondalaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Robles, M S; Rubbia, C; Sabaté-Gilarte, M; Sarmento, R; Saxena, A; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarrío, D; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wright, T; Žugec, P

    2014-01-01

    Neutron induced capture cross section on U-236 has been measured with high accuracy and high resolution at n\\_TOF, in order to improve data libraries needed for the development of advanced nuclear reactors. Preliminary results obtained with two different detection systems are reported.

  1. 49 CFR 236.327 - Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.327 Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail. Switch, movable-point frog, or split-point derail equipped with lock rod shall be maintained so...

  2. Radioisotope dilution analyses of geological samples using 236U and 229Th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosholt, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    The use of 236 U and 229 Th in alpha spectrometric measurements has some advantages over the use of other tracers and measurement techniques in isotope dilution analyses of most geological samples. The advantages are: 1) these isotopes do not occur in terrestrial rocks, 2) they have negligible decay losses because of their long half lives, 3) they cause minimal recoil contamination to surface-barrier detectors, 4) they allow for simultaneous determination of the concentration and isotopic composition of uranium and thorium in a variety of sample types, and 5) they allow for simple and constant corrections for spectral interferences, 0.5% of the 238 U activity is subtracted for the contribution of 235 U in the 236 U peak and 1% of the 229 Th activity is subtracted from the 230 Th activity. Disadvantages in using 236 U and 229 Th are: 1) individual separates of uranium and thorium must be prepared as very thin sources for alpha spectrometry, 2) good resolution in the spectrometer system is required for thorium isotopic measurements where measurement times may extend to 300 h, and 3) separate calibrations of the 236 U and 229 Th spike solution with both uranium and thorium standards are required. The use of these tracers in applications of uranium-series disequilibrium studies has simplified the measurements required for the determination of the isotopic composition of uranium and thorium because of the minimal corrections needed for alpha spectral interferences. (orig.)

  3. Resonant tunneling through the triple-humped fission barrier of U-236

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csatlos, M; Krasznahorkay, A; Thirolf, PG; Habs, D; Eisermann, Y; Faestermann, T; Graw, G; Gulyas, J; Harakeh, MN; Hertenberger, R; Hunyadi, M; Maier, HJ; Mate, Z; Schaile, O; Wirth, HF

    2005-01-01

    The fission probability of U-236 as a function of the excitation energy has been measured with high energy resolution using the U-235(d, pf) reaction in order to study hyperdeformed (HD) rotational bands. Rotational band structures with a moment of inertia of theta = 217 +/- 38 h(2)/MeV have been

  4. Measurement of the (236)U(n, f) Cross Section at n_TOF

    CERN Document Server

    Sarmento, R; Vaz, P; Colonna, N; Calviani, M

    2011-01-01

    A precise knowledge of the (236)U neutron-induced fission cross-section is required for the development of accelerator-driven systems and reactors based on the Th-U cycle. The evaluated data presently stored in the nuclear data libraries rely on outdated experimental measurements and show large discrepancies in the energy region between 1 keV and 100 keV. More recent measurements made at LANSCE and GELINA yielded results which are in disagreement with the literature for the resonance region and below 10 eV. In order to improve the present knowledge of the (236)U(n, f) cross-section, a new measurement was performed at the neutron Time-Of-Flight facility n\\_TOF at CERN. A Fast Ionization Chamber was used, in which four samples of (236)U and two of (235)U were mounted. The (236)U(n, f) cross-section was determined relative to the standard (235)U(n, f) reaction. The contribution from the (235)U contamination in the samples was subtracted, together with the alpha-particle background. Finally, the data were correct...

  5. European roe deer antlers as an environmental archive for fallout (236)U and (239)Pu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Steier, P; Wallner, G; Fifield, L K

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic (236)U and (239)Pu were measured in European roe deer antlers hunted between 1955 and 1977 which covers and extends beyond the period of intensive nuclear weapons testing (1954-1962). The antlers were hunting trophies, and hence the hunting area, the year of shooting and the approximate age of each animal is given. Uranium and plutonium are known to deposit in skeletal tissue. Since antler histology is similar to bone, both elements were expected in antlers. Furthermore, roe deer shed their antlers annually, and hence antlers may provide a time-resolved environmental archive for fallout radionuclides. The radiochemical procedure is based on a Pu separation step by anion exchange (Dowex 1 × 8) and a subsequent U purification by extraction chromatography using UTEVA(®). The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the VERA facility (University of Vienna). In addition to the (236)U and (239)Pu concentrations, the (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratios were determined with a mean value of 0.172 ± 0.023 which is in agreement with the ratio of global fallout (∼0.18). Rather high (236)U/(238)U ratios of the order of 10(-6) were observed. These measured ratios, where the (236)U arises only from global fallout, have implications for the use of the (236)U/(238)U ratio as a fingerprint for nuclear accidents or releases from nuclear facilities. Our investigations have shown the potential to use antlers as a temporally resolved archive for the uptake of actinides from the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Actinide Oxidation State and O/M Ratio in Hypostoichiometric Uranium-Plutonium-Americium U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x Mixed Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Lebreton, Florent; Aufore, Laurence; Scheinost, Andreas C; Martin, Philippe M

    2016-03-07

    Innovative americium-bearing uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x are envisioned as nuclear fuel for sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors (SFRs). The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio, directly related to the oxidation state of cations, affects many of the fuel properties. Thus, a thorough knowledge of its variation with the sintering conditions is essential. The aim of this work is to follow the oxidation state of uranium, plutonium, and americium, and so the O/M ratio, in U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x samples sintered for 4 h at 2023 K in various Ar + 5% H2 + z vpm H2O (z = ∼ 15, ∼ 90, and ∼ 200) gas mixtures. The O/M ratios were determined by gravimetry, XAS, and XRD and evidenced a partial oxidation of the samples at room temperature. Finally, by comparing XANES and EXAFS results to that of a previous study, we demonstrate that the presence of uranium does not influence the interactions between americium and plutonium and that the differences in the O/M ratio between the investigated conditions is controlled by the reduction of plutonium. We also discuss the role of the homogeneity of cation distribution, as determined by EPMA, on the mechanisms involved in the reduction process.

  7. 25 CFR 900.236 - May an Indian tribe elect to negotiate contract provisions on conflict of interest to take the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... provisions on conflict of interest to take the place of this regulation? 900.236 Section 900.236 Indians... Interest § 900.236 May an Indian tribe elect to negotiate contract provisions on conflict of interest to... Indian tribe's own written code of ethics satisfies the objectives of the personal conflicts provisions...

  8. Americium, plutonium and uranium contamination and speciation in well waters, streams and atomic lakes in the Sarzhal region of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Vintró, L; Mitchell, P I; Omarova, A; Burkitbayev, M; Jiménez Nápoles, H; Priest, N D

    2009-04-01

    New data are reported on the concentrations, isotopic composition and speciation of americium, plutonium and uranium in surface and ground waters in the Sarzhal region of the Semipalatinsk Test Site, and an adjacent area including the settlement of Sarzhal. The data relate to filtered water and suspended particulate from (a) streams originating in the Degelen Mountains, (b) the Tel'kem 1 and Tel'kem 2 atomic craters, and (c) wells on farms located within the study area and at Sarzhal. The measurements show that (241)Am, (239,240)Pu and (238)U concentrations in well waters within the study area are in the range 0.04-87mBq dm(-3), 0.7-99mBq dm(-3), and 74-213mBq dm(-3), respectively, and for (241)Am and (239,240)Pu are elevated above the levels expected solely on the basis of global fallout. Concentrations in streams sourced in the Degelen Mountains are similar, while concentrations in the two water-filled atomic craters are somewhat higher. Suspended particulate concentrations in well waters vary considerably, though median values are very low, at 0.01mBq dm(-3), 0.08mBq dm(-3) and 0.32mBq dm(-3) for (241)Am, (239,240)Pu and (238)U, respectively. The (235)U/(238)U isotopic ratio in almost all well and stream waters is slightly elevated above the 'best estimate' value for natural uranium worldwide, suggesting that some of the uranium in these waters is of test-site provenance. Redox analysis shows that on average most of the plutonium present in the microfiltered fraction of these waters is in a chemically reduced form (mean 69%; 95% confidence interval 53-85%). In the case of the atomic craters, the proportion is even higher. As expected, all of the americium present appears to be in a reduced form. Calculations suggest that annual committed effective doses to individual adults arising from the daily ingestion of these well waters are in the range 11-42microSv (mean 21microSv). Presently, the ground water feeding these wells would not appear to be contaminated with

  9. Americium, plutonium and uranium contamination and speciation in well waters, streams and atomic lakes in the Sarzhal region of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon Vintro, L. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)], E-mail: luis.leon@ucd.ie; Mitchell, P.I.; Omarova, A. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Burkitbayev, M. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Al-Faraby Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Jimenez Napoles, H. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Priest, N.D. [School of Health and Social Sciences, Middlesex University, Enfield, EN3 4SA (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    New data are reported on the concentrations, isotopic composition and speciation of americium, plutonium and uranium in surface and ground waters in the Sarzhal region of the Semipalatinsk Test Site, and an adjacent area including the settlement of Sarzhal. The data relate to filtered water and suspended particulate from (a) streams originating in the Degelen Mountains, (b) the Tel'kem 1 and Tel'kem 2 atomic craters, and (c) wells on farms located within the study area and at Sarzhal. The measurements show that {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 238}U concentrations in well waters within the study area are in the range 0.04-87 mBq dm{sup -3}, 0.7-99 mBq dm{sup -3}, and 74-213 mBq dm{sup -3}, respectively, and for {sup 241}Am and {sup 239,240}Pu are elevated above the levels expected solely on the basis of global fallout. Concentrations in streams sourced in the Degelen Mountains are similar, while concentrations in the two water-filled atomic craters are somewhat higher. Suspended particulate concentrations in well waters vary considerably, though median values are very low, at 0.01 mBq dm{sup -3}, 0.08 mBq dm{sup -3} and 0.32 mBq dm{sup -3} for {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 238}U, respectively. The {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U isotopic ratio in almost all well and stream waters is slightly elevated above the 'best estimate' value for natural uranium worldwide, suggesting that some of the uranium in these waters is of test-site provenance. Redox analysis shows that on average most of the plutonium present in the microfiltered fraction of these waters is in a chemically reduced form (mean 69%; 95% confidence interval 53-85%). In the case of the atomic craters, the proportion is even higher. As expected, all of the americium present appears to be in a reduced form. Calculations suggest that annual committed effective doses to individual adults arising from the daily ingestion of these well waters are in the range 11-42 {mu}Sv (mean 21 {mu

  10. Theoretical and experimental study of the bio-geochemical behaviour of americium 241 in simplified rhizosphere conditions. Application to a calcareous agricultural soil; Etude theorique et experimentale du comportement biogeochimique de l'americium-241 en conditions rhizospheriques simplifiees. Application dans un sol agricole calcaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrier, T

    2004-06-01

    Americium 241, is one of the most radio-toxic contaminant produced during the nuclear fuel cycle. It can be found in all environmental compartments, in particular the soils. The main goals of this study are to identify, quantify and model the effect of the main factors controlling the mobility of {sup 241}Am in the rhizosphere and the agricultural soils. The physico-chemical parameters of the soil and of the soil solution, the potential role of microorganisms on the sorption-desorption processes, and the speciation of americium in solution have been more particularly studied. {sup 241}Am remobilization has been studied at the laboratory using leaching experiments performed in controlled conditions on reworked calcareous soils artificially contaminated with {sup 241}Am. The soil samples have been washed out in different hydrodynamic conditions by solutions with various compositions. The eluted solution has been analyzed (pH, conductivity, ionic composition, Fe{sub tot}, organic acids, {sup 241}Am) and its bacterial biomass content too. The overall results indicate that {sup 241}Am remobilization is contrasted and strongly linked with the condition under study (pH, ionic strength, glucose and/or citrate concentration). Therefore, a solution in equilibrium with the soil or containing small exudate concentrations (10{sup -4} M) re-mobilizes only a very small part of the americium fixed on the solid phase. The desorption of {sup 241}Am corresponds to a solid/liquid coefficient of partition (K{sub d}) of about 10{sup 5} L.kg{sup -1}. A significant addition of glucose induces an important dissolution of soil carbonates by the indirect action of microorganisms, but does not significantly favor the {sup 241}Am remobilization. On the other hand, the presence of strong citrate concentrations ({>=} 10{sup -2} M) allows 300 to 10000 time greater re-mobilizations by the complexing of {sup 241}Am released after the dissolution of the carrying phases. Finally, the colloidal

  11. Updated and revised neutron reaction data for 236,238Np

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Guochang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear data with high accuracy for minor actinides play an important role in nuclear technology applications, including reactor design and operation, fuel cycle, estimation of the amount of minor actinides in high burn-up reactors and the minor actinides transmutation. Based on a new set of neutron optical model parameter and the reaction cross section systematics of fissile isotopes, a full set of 236,238Np neutron reaction data from 10−5 eV ∼20 MeV are updated and improved through theoretical calculation. Mainly revised quantities include the total, elastic, inelastic, fission, (n, 2n and (n, γ reaction cross sections as well as angular distribution etc. The promising results are obtained when the renewal evaluated data of 236,238Np will replace the evaluated data in CENDL-3.1 database.

  12. Neutron widths for 236U from high resolution transmission measurements at a 100M flightpath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carraro, G.; Brusegan, A.

    1975-01-01

    A series of neutron transmission measurements has been performed on 236 U aiming at a determination of the resonance parameters and their statistical properties. The analysis range covered neutron energies from 40eV to 4.1 keV. The experiments were carried out at about 100 m flightpath of the 80 MeV electron linear accelerator of CBNM using a 10 B slab-NaI detector and 2 236 U-oxyde samples on loan from the USAEC. A table displays the details of 6 experimental runs, 3 of which were arranged in such a way that the effect of the 235 U and 238 U impurities in the sample on the transmission was automatically compensated

  13. The SOFIA experiment: Measurement of 236U fission fragment yields in inverse kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grente L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The SOFIA (Studies On FIssion with Aladin experiment aims at measuring fission-fragments isotopic yields with high accuracy using inverse kinematics at relativistic energies. This experimental technique allows to fully identify the fission fragments in nuclear charge and mass number, thus providing very accurate isotopic yields for low energy fission of a large variety of fissioning systems. This report focuses on the latest results obtained with this set-up concerning electromagnetic-induced fission of 236U.

  14. Depth profile of 236U/238U in soil samples in La Palma, Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Srncik, M.; Steier, P.; Wallner, G.

    2011-01-01

    The vertical distribution of the 236U/238U isotopic ratio was investigated in soil samples from three different locations on La Palma (one of the seven Canary Islands, Spain). Additionally the 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratio, as it is a well establish tool for the source identification, was determined. The radiochemical procedure consisted of a U separation step by extraction chromatography using UTEVA® Resin (Eichrom Technologies, Inc.). Afterwards Pu was separated from Th and Np by anion exchange ...

  15. Study of biosorbents application on the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes with americium-241; Estudo da aplicacao de biossorventes no tratamento de rejeitos radioativos liquidos contendo americio-241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borba, Tania Regina de

    2010-07-01

    The use of nuclear energy for many different purposes has been intensified and highlighted by the benefits that it provides. Medical diagnosis and therapy, agriculture, industry and electricity generation are examples of its application. However, nuclear energy generates radioactive wastes that require suitable treatment ensuring life and environmental safety. Biosorption and bioaccumulation represent an emergent alternative for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes, providing volume reduction and physical state change. This work aimed to study biosorbents for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes contaminated with americium-241 in order to reduce the volume and change the physical state from liquid to solid. The biosorbents evaluated were Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in calcium alginate beads, inactivated and free cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, calcium alginate beads, Bacillus subtilis, Cupriavidus metallidurans and Ochrobactrum anthropi. The results were quite satisfactory, achieving 100% in some cases. The technique presented in this work may be useful and viable for implementing at the Waste Management Laboratory of IPEN - CNEN/SP in short term, since it is an easy and low cost method. (author)

  16. Diluent and extractant effects on the enthalpy of extraction of uranium(VI) and americium(III) nitrates by trialkyl phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Sood, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of various diluents such as n-hexane, n-heptane n-octane, isooctane, n-decane, n-undecane, n-dodecane, n-tetradecane, n-hexadecane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, p-xylene, mesitylene and o-dichlorobenzene on the enthalpy of extraction of uranyl nitrate by tri-n-amyl phosphate (TAP) over the temperature range 283 K--333 K has been studied. The results indicate that the enthalpy of extraction does not vary significantly with the diluents studied. Also enthalpies of extraction of uranyl nitrate and americium(III) nitrate by neutral organo phosphorous extractants such as tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), tri-n-amyl phosphate (TAP), tri-sec-butyl phosphate (TsBP), tri-isoamyl phosphate (TiAP) and tri-n-hexyl phosphate (THP) have been studied. An attempt has been made to explain the trends, on the basis of the nature of the solvate formed and the different terms which contribute to the overall enthalpy change

  17. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr body-burden in general public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.pl [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Edward B. [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Department of Physical Therapy Basics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Administration College, Bielsko-Biala (Poland); Tomankiewicz, Ewa [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Joanna [Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Nowak, Sebastian [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Szczygiel, Elzbieta [Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Brudecki, Kamil [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of {sup 238}Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. - Highlights: > Surgery for joint replacement as novel sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination. > Proposed way of sampling is not causing ethic doubts. > It is a convenient way of collecting human bone samples from global population. > The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. > The opposite patient age correlations trends were found for 90Sr (negative) and Pu, Am (positive).

  18. Americium-241 integral radiative capture cross section in over-moderated neutron spectrum from pile oscillator measurements in the Minerve reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geslot Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental program, called AMSTRAMGRAM, was recently conducted in the Minerve low power reactor operated by CEA Cadarache within the frame of the CHANDA initiative (Solving CHAllenges in Nuclear Data. Its aim was to measure the integral capture cross section of 241Am in the thermal domain. Motivation of this work is driven by large differences in this actinide thermal point reported by major nuclear data libraries. The AMSTRAMGRAM experiment, that made use of well characterized EC-JRC americium samples, was based on the oscillation technique commonly implemented in the Minerve reactor. First results are presented and discussed in this article. A preliminary calculation scheme was used to compare measured and calculated results. It is shown that this work confirms a bias previously observed with JEFF-3.1.1 (C/E-1 = −10.5 ± 2%. On the opposite, the experiment is in close agreement with 241Am thermal point reported in JEFF-3.2 (C/E-1 = 0.5 ± 2%.

  19. Study of 236U/238U ratio at CIRCE using a 16-strip silicon detector with a TOF system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Cesare M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS is presently the most sensitive technique for the measurement of long-lived actinides, e.g. 236U and xPu isotopes. A new actinide AMS system, based on a 3-MV pelletron tandem accelerator, is operated at the Center for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage (CIRCE in Caserta, Italy. In this paper we report on the procedure adopted to increase the 236U abundance sensitivity as low as possible. The energy and position determinations of the 236U ions, using a 16-strip silicon detector have been obtained. A 236U/238U isotopic ratio background level of about 2.9×10−11 was obtained, summing over all the strips, using a Time of Flight-Energy (TOF-E system with a 16-strip silicon detector (4.9×10−12 just with one strip.

  20. Study of 236U/238U ratio at CIRCE using a 16-strip silicon detector with a TOF system

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, M.; De Cesare, N.; D'Onofrio, A.; Gialanella, L.; Terrasi, F.

    2015-04-01

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is presently the most sensitive technique for the measurement of long-lived actinides, e.g. 236U and xPu isotopes. A new actinide AMS system, based on a 3-MV pelletron tandem accelerator, is operated at the Center for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage (CIRCE) in Caserta, Italy. In this paper we report on the procedure adopted to increase the 236U abundance sensitivity as low as possible. The energy and position determinations of the 236U ions, using a 16-strip silicon detector have been obtained. A 236U/238U isotopic ratio background level of about 2.9×10-11 was obtained, summing over all the strips, using a Time of Flight-Energy (TOF-E) system with a 16-strip silicon detector (4.9×10-12 just with one strip).

  1. Solubility of plutonium and americium-241 from rumen contents of cattle grazing on plutonium-contaminated desert vegetation in in vitro bovine gastrointestinal fluids - August 1975 to January 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, J.; Giles, K.R.; Brown, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    The alimentary solubility of plutonium and americium-241 ingested by cattle grazing at Area 13 of the Nevada Test Site and the Clean Slate II site on the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada was studied in a series of experiments. For each experiment, or trial, rumen contents collected from a fistulated steer or a normal animals at the time of sacrifice were incubated in simulated bovine gastrointestinal fluids, and the solubility of plutonium and americium was analyzed following the abomasal, duodenal, jejunal, and lower intestinal digestive states. For Area 13, the peak plutonium-238 solubilities ranged from 1.09 to 9.60 percent for animals grazing in the inner enclosure that surrounds ground zero (GZ); for animals grazing in the outer enclosure, the peaks ranged from 1.86 to 18.46%. The peak plutonium-239 solubilities ranged from 0.71 to 4.81% for animals from the inner enclosure and from 0.71 to 3.61% for animals from the outer enclosure. Plutonium-238 was generally more soluble than plutonium-239. Plutonium ingested by cattle grazing in the outer enclosure was usually more soluble than plutonium ingested by cattle grazing in the inner enclosure. The highest concentrations of plutonium in the rumen contents of cattle grazing in the inner enclosure were found in trials conducted during August and November 1975 and January 1976. These concentrations decreased during the February, May, and July 1976 trials. The decrease was followed by an increase in plutonium concentration during the November 1976 trial. The concentration of americium-241 followed the same trend. 13 references, 13 tables

  2. The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelaer, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium: Nuclear masses are an important quantity to study nuclear structure since they reflect the sum of all nucleonic interactions. Many experimental possibilities exist to precisely measure masses, out of which the Penning trap is the tool to reach the highest precision. Moreover, absolute mass measurements can be performed using carbon, the atomic-mass standard, as a reference. The new double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has been installed and commissioned within this thesis work, which is the very first experimental setup of this kind located at a nuclear reactor. New technical developments have been carried out such as a reliable non-resonant laser ablation ion source for the production of carbon cluster ions and are still continued, like a non-destructive ion detection technique for single-ion measurements. Neutron-rich fission products will be available by the reactor that are important for nuclear astrophysics, especially the r-process. Prior to the on-line coupling to the reactor, TRIGA-TRAP already performed off-line mass measurements on stable and long-lived isotopes and will continue this program. The main focus within this thesis was on certain rare-earth nuclides in the well-established region of deformation around N ∝ 90. Another field of interest are mass measurements on actinoids to test mass models and to provide direct links to the mass standard. Within this thesis, the mass of 241 Am could be measured directly for the first time. (orig.)

  3. The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelaer, Jens

    2010-06-14

    The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium: Nuclear masses are an important quantity to study nuclear structure since they reflect the sum of all nucleonic interactions. Many experimental possibilities exist to precisely measure masses, out of which the Penning trap is the tool to reach the highest precision. Moreover, absolute mass measurements can be performed using carbon, the atomic-mass standard, as a reference. The new double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has been installed and commissioned within this thesis work, which is the very first experimental setup of this kind located at a nuclear reactor. New technical developments have been carried out such as a reliable non-resonant laser ablation ion source for the production of carbon cluster ions and are still continued, like a non-destructive ion detection technique for single-ion measurements. Neutron-rich fission products will be available by the reactor that are important for nuclear astrophysics, especially the r-process. Prior to the on-line coupling to the reactor, TRIGA-TRAP already performed off-line mass measurements on stable and long-lived isotopes and will continue this program. The main focus within this thesis was on certain rare-earth nuclides in the well-established region of deformation around N {proportional_to} 90. Another field of interest are mass measurements on actinoids to test mass models and to provide direct links to the mass standard. Within this thesis, the mass of {sup 241}Am could be measured directly for the first time. (orig.)

  4. The 236U neutron capture cross-section measured at the n_TOF CERN facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastromarco M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 236U isotope plays an important role in nuclear systems, both for future and currently operating ones. The actual knowledge of the capture reaction of this isotope is satisfactory in the thermal region, but it is considered insufficient for Fast Reactor and ADS applications. For this reason the 236U(n, γ reaction cross-section has been measured for the first time in the whole energy region from thermal energy up to 1 MeV at the n_TOF facility with two different detection systems: an array of C6D6 detectors, employing the total energy deposited method, and a FX1 total absorption calorimeter (TAC, made of 40 BaF2 crystals. The two n_TOF data sets agree with each other within the statistical uncertainty in the Resolved Resonance Region up to 800 eV, while sizable differences (up to ≃ 20% are found relative to the current evaluated data libraries. Moreover two new resonances have been found in the n_TOF data. In the Unresolved Resonance Region up to 200 keV, the n_TOF results show a reasonable agreement with previous measurements and evaluated data.

  5. Evaluation of the US Army DT-236 battlefield personnel dosimetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R.E.; Oyan, R.; Sims, C.S.; Dooley, M.A.

    1986-06-01

    Performance characteristics of the US Army DT-236 battlefield personnel dosimetry system were evaluated using the Health Physics Research Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The DT-236 dosimeter is designed to measure total (neutron plus gamma) radiation dose using a radiophotoluminescent (RPL) detector for gamma rays and a silicon diode for fast neutrons. Areas considered in this evaluation included preirradiation dose indication; accuracy and precision of total, gamma, and neutron dose measurements; fading; angular response; temperature dependence; and relative dosimeter response in air and on various body locations. Experimental results for a variety of radiation fields and dose levels indicate that the existing system overestimates total, neutron, and gamma radiation doses in air by about 20 to 60% relative to reference values. Associated measurement precisions were about +-5% of the means for doses above approximately 0.5 Gy. Fading characteristics, angular dependence, and temperature dependence of the RPL and diode systems were consistent with results expected based on detector characteristics and previous performance studies. Recommendations to improve existing reader performance and measurement accuracy are also presented.

  6. Towards saturation of the electron-capture delayed fission probability: The new isotopes 240Es and 236Bk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Konki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The new neutron-deficient nuclei 240Es and 236Bk were synthesised at the gas-filled recoil separator RITU. They were identified by their radioactive decay chains starting from 240Es produced in the fusion–evaporation reaction 209Bi(34S,3n240Es. Half-lives of 6(2s and 22−6+13s were obtained for 240Es and 236Bk, respectively. Two groups of α particles with energies Eα=8.19(3MeV and 8.09(3MeV were unambiguously assigned to 240Es. Electron-capture delayed fission branches with probabilities of 0.16(6 and 0.04(2 were measured for 240Es and 236Bk, respectively. These new data show a continuation of the exponential increase of ECDF probabilities in more neutron-deficient isotopes.

  7. AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE 236U DETECTION LIMIT IN THE SURFACE AIR USING RADIOCHEMICAL SEPARATION AND ALPHA-SPECTROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Gedeonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to nuclear weapon testing, nuclear reactor accidents, uranium mining and nuclear fuel reprocessing, additional uranium has been introduced into the environment. 236U isotope is produced from 235U by capture of a thermal neutron and it can be used as an indicator for artificial uranium in the environment. In this paper the sensitive method for236U determination in the surface air is described. This method includes a total dissolution of the air dust in a mixture of mineral acids, uranium concentration and purification by anion-exchange chromatography. Long time measurements of the separated uranium fraction are made with the use of alpha-spectrometer based on PIPS-detector. The lower limit of detection for 236U in the surface air is determined as 5 • 10-9 Bq/m3 (2 ng/m3.

  8. Update of JAEA-TDB. Additional selection of thermodynamic data for solid and gaseous phases on nickel, selenium, zirconium, technetium, thorium, uranium, neptunium plutonium and americium, update of thermodynamic data on iodine, and some modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akira; Fujiwara, Kenso; Doi, Reisuke; Yoshida, Yasushi

    2012-07-01

    We additionally selected thermodynamic data for solid and gaseous phases of nickel, selenium, zirconium, technetium, thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium to our thermodynamic database JAEA-TDB for geological disposal of radioactive waste of high-level and TRU wastes. We thermodynamically obtained equilibrium constant from addition and subtraction of Gibbs free energy of formation on nickel, selenium, zirconium, technetium, thorium, uranium, neptunium plutonium and americium, which were selected in the Thermochemical Database Project by the Nuclear Energy Agency in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Furthermore, we collected and updated thermodynamic data on iodine, changed master species of technetium(IV), and added thermodynamic data on selenium due to improving reliability of the thermodynamic database. We prepared text files of the updated thermodynamic database (JAEA-TDB) for geochemical calculation programs of PHREEQC, EQ3/6 and Geochemist's Workbench. These text files are contained in the attached CD-ROM and will be available on our Website (http://migrationdb.jaea.go.jp/). (author)

  9. 236U and 239,240Pu ratios from soils around an Australian nuclear weapons test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tims, S.G.; Froehlich, M.B.; Fifield, L.K.; Wallner, A.; De Cesare, M.

    2016-01-01

    The isotopes 236 U, 239 Pu and 240 Pu are present in surface soils as a result of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests carried out in the 1950's and 1960's. These isotopes potentially constitute artificial tracers of recent soil erosion and sediment movement. Only Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has the requisite sensitivity to measure all three isotopes at these environmental levels. Coupled with its relatively high throughput capabilities, this makes it feasible to conduct studies of erosion across the geographical extent of the Australian continent. In the Australian context, however, global fallout is not the only source of these isotopes. As part of its weapons development program the United Kingdom carried out a series of atmospheric and surface nuclear weapons tests at Maralinga, South Australia in 1956 and 1957. The tests have made a significant contribution to the Pu isotopic abundances present in the region around Maralinga and out to distances ∼1000 km, and impact on the assessment techniques used in the soil and sediment tracer studies. Quantification of the relative fallout contribution derived from detonations at Maralinga is complicated owing to significant contamination around the test site from numerous nuclear weapons safety trials that were also carried out around the site. We show that 236 U can provide new information on the component of the fallout that is derived from the local nuclear weapons tests, and highlight the potential of 236 U as a new fallout tracer. - Highlights: • Measured 236 U inventories around the Maralinga Test Nuclear weapons test site. • Comparison of 236 U and 239 Pu soil depth profiles at Maralinga. • Differences in 236 U and 239 Pu inventories indicate most Pu fallout is from the safety trials, rather than the weapons tests.

  10. Determining the americium transmutation rate and fission rate by post-irradiation examination within the scope of the ECRIX-H experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, J.; Pontillon, Y.; Esbelin, E.; Béjaoui, S.; Pasquet, B.; Bourdot, P.; Bonnerot, J. M.

    2013-09-01

    The ECRIX-H experiment aims to assess the feasibility of transmuting americium micro-dispersed in an inert magnesia matrix under a locally moderated neutron flux in the Phénix reactor. A first set of examinations demonstrated that pellet behaviour was satisfactory with moderate swelling at the end of the irradiation. Additional post-irradiation examinations needed to be conducted to confirm the high transmutation rate so as to definitively conclude on the success of the ECRIX-H experiment. This article presents and discusses the results of these new examinations. They confirm the satisfactory behaviour of the MgO matrix not only during the basic irradiation but also during post-irradiation thermal transients. These examinations also provide additional information on the behaviour of fission products both in the americium-based particles and in the MgO matrix. These results particularly validate the transmutation rate predicted by the calculation codes using several different analytical techniques. The fission rate is also determined. Moderate pellet swelling under irradiation (6.7 vol.%), while only 23% of the produced He and 4% of the fission gases were released from the fuel. No interaction between the pellets and the cladding. Formation of bubbles due to the precipitation of fission gases and He mainly in bubbles located inside the americium-based particles. These bubbles are the main cause of macroscopic swelling in the pellets. Well-crystallised structure of the MgO matrix which shows no amorphisation after irradiation despite the presence of fission products. The absence of any reaction of MgO with the americium-based phase, Formation of a PuO2-type crystalline phase from AmO1.62 particles following the Am transmutation process. A shielded electron probe micro-analyser (EPMA) 'CAMECA' Camebax equipped to collect and exploit the measurements using the 'SAMx' system. A Philips XL30 scanning electron microscope (SEM). Field acquisitions were performed thanks to

  11. Fabrication of targets for transmutation of americium : synthesis of inertial matrix by sol-gel method. Procedure study on the infiltration of a radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Carretero, A.

    2002-01-01

    addition a new and unexpected phase formed by the reaction of americium with spinel during the high temperature synthesis process has been identified. This new phase could provide a unique menas to stabilise Am in one particular oxidation state. (Author)

  12. Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Section of Uranium, Americium and Curium Isotopes. Progress report - Research Contract 14485, Coordinated Research Project on Minor Actinide Neutron Reaction Data (MANREAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A.A.; Bergman, A.A.; Berlev, A.I.; Koptelov, E.A.; Samylin, B.F.; Trufanov, A.M.; Fursov, B.I.; Shorin, V.S.

    2009-12-01

    This report contains brief description of the Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer and results of measurements of neutron-induced fission cross sections for 236 U, 242m Am, 243 Cm, 244 Cm, 245 Cm and 246 Cm done at this spectrometer. The work was partially supported through the IAEA research contract RC-14485-RD in the framework of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project 'Minor Actinide Neutron Reaction Data (MANREAD)'. The detailed description of the experimental set up, measurements procedure and data treatment can be found in the JIA-1182 (2007) and JIA-1212 (2009) reports from the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Science published in Russian. Part 1 contains the first year report of the research contract and part 2 the second year report. (author)

  13. Design review plan for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (Project W-236A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renfro, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    This plan describes how the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) Project conducts reviews of design media; describes actions required by Project participants; and provides the methodology to ensure that the design is complete, meets the technical baseline of the Project, is operable and maintainable, and is constructable. Project W-236A is an integrated project wherein the relationship between the operating contractor and architect-engineer is somewhat different than that of a conventional project. Working together, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and ICF Karser Hanford (ICF KH) have developed a relationship whereby ICF KH performs extensive design reviews and design verification. WHC actively participates in over-the-shoulder reviews during design development, performs a final review of the completed design, and conducts a formal design review of the Safety Class I, ASME boiler and Pressure Vessel Code items in accordance with WHC-CM-6-1, Standard Engineering Practices

  14. Method for 236U Determination in Seawater Using Flow Injection Extraction Chromatography and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Steier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    An automated analytical method implemented in a flow injection (FI) system was developed for rapid determination of 236U in 10 L seawater samples. 238U was used as a chemical yield tracer for the whole procedure, in which extraction chromatography (UTEVA) was exploited to purify uranium, after...... experimental parameters affecting the analytical effectiveness were investigated and optimized in order to achieve high chemical yields and simple and rapid analysis as well as low procedure background. Besides, the operational conditions for the target preparation prior to the AMS measurement were optimized......, on the basis of studying the coprecipitation behavior of uranium with iron hydroxide. The analytical results indicate that the developed method is simple and robust, providing satisfactory chemical yields (80−100%) and high analysis speed (4 h/sample), which could be an appealing alternative to conventional...

  15. Isotopic compositions of236U,239Pu, and240Pu in soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Hayano, Kazuhiko; Okayama, Kumiko; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2017-10-19

    Six years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, data for 236 U and 236 U/ 238 U have remained limited to a few heavily contaminated samples. In the present study, activities of 236 U, 239 Pu, and 240 Pu, along with other U isotopes in 46 soil samples both heavily and lightly contaminated by this accident were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and triple-quadrupole ICP-MS. The 236 U activities and 236 U/ 238 U atom ratios in these soil samples were in the range of (0.469-24.4) × 10 -5  Bq kg -1 and ((0.099-1.35) × 10 -7 ), respectively. Higher 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios (0.245-0.312) and 238 Pu/ 239+240 Pu activity ratios (0.859-1.62) indicated Pu contamination originated from this accident and global fallout in some samples. For those soil samples along with black substances collected along roads in Fukushima Prefecture, high linear correlations were presented between 236 U activities and 239+240 Pu activities (Pearson's r = 0.755, p < 0.01), and between 236 U activities and 238 Pu activities (Pearson's r = 0.844, p < 0.01). The analysis of these soil samples confirmed the release of 236 U, although in trace amounts, during the FDNPP accident.

  16. Determination of {sup 236}U in environmental samples by single extraction chromatography coupled to triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Guosheng [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8564 (Japan); Division of Nuclear Technology and Applications, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Radiographic Techniques and Equipment, Beijing, 100049 (China); Tazoe, Hirofumi [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8564 (Japan); Yamada, Masatoshi, E-mail: myamada@hirosaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8564 (Japan)

    2016-11-09

    In order to measure trace {sup 236}U and {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U in environmental samples with a high matrix effect, a novel and simple method was developed that makes the digestion and purification procedures compatible with advanced triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A total dissolution of sample with HF + HNO{sub 3} + HClO{sub 4} was followed by chromatographic separation with a single resin column containing normal type DGA resin (N,N,N′,N’-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide) as the extractant system. The analytical accuracy and precision of {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U ratios, measured as {sup 236}U{sup 16}O{sup +}/{sup 238}U{sup 16}O{sup +}, were examined by using the reference materials IAEA-135, IAEA-385, IAEA-447, and JSAC 0471. The low method detection limit (3.50 × 10{sup −6} Bq kg{sup −1}) makes it possible to perform routine monitoring of environmental {sup 236}U due to global fallout combined with the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident fallout (>10{sup −5} Bq kg{sup −1}). Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to measure {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U ratios and {sup 236}U activities in soil samples contaminated by the accident. The low {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U atom ratios ((1.50–13.5) × 10{sup −8}) and {sup 236}U activities ((2.25–14.1) × 10{sup −2} mBq kg{sup −1}) indicate {sup 236}U contamination was mainly derived from global fallout in the examined samples. - Highlights: • A simple {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U analytical method has been developed. • The separation required just one DGA column chromatography. • {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U atom ratios in soil were measured by ICP-MS/MS. • {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U atom ratios of (1.50–13.5) × 10{sup −8} were observed in Japanese samples. • {sup 236}U activities of (2.25–14.1) × 10{sup −2} mBq kg{sup −1} were found in Japanese samples.

  17. Nuclear weapons produced236U,239Pu and240Pu archived in a Porites Lutea coral from Enewetak Atoll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Tims, S G; Fallon, S J; Wallner, A; Fifield, L K

    2017-11-01

    A slice from a Porites Lutea coral core collected inside the Enewetak Atoll lagoon, within 15 km of all major nuclear tests conducted at the atoll, was analysed for 236 U, 239 Pu and 240 Pu over the time interval 1952-1964 using a higher time resolution than previously reported for a parallel slice from the same core. In addition two sediment samples from the Koa and Oak craters were analysed. The strong peaks in the concentrations of 236 U and 239 Pu in the testing years are confirmed to be considerably wider than the flushing time of the lagoon. This is likely due to the growth mechanism of the coral. Following the last test in 1958 atom concentrations of both 236 U and 239 Pu decreased from their peak values by more than 95% and showed a seasonal signal thereafter. Between 1959 and 1964 the weighted average of the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio is 0.124 ± 0.008 which is similar to that in the lagoon sediments (0.129 ± 0.006) but quite distinct from the global fallout value of ∼0.18. This, and the high 239,240 Pu and 236 U concentrations in the sediments, provides clear evidence that the post-testing signal in the coral is dominated by remobilisation of the isotopes from the lagoon sediments rather than from global fallout. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 236U/238U and 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios in small (2 L) sea and river water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigl, R; Srncik, M; Steier, P; Wallner, G

    2013-02-01

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and alpha spectrometry were used to determine uranium ((236)U, (238)U, (234)U) and plutonium isotopes ((239)Pu, (240)Pu) in sea and river water samples. Plutonium was separated by Dowex(®) 1 × 8 resin and UTEVA(®) resin was used for uranium purification. The measured (236)U/(238)U isotopic ratios for surface water from the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean and the Black Sea were in the order of 10(-9), while values for river water were in the order of 10(-8). These contaminations may be attributed to global fallout. A sample of the reference material IAEA-443, collected from the Irish Sea, showed, in accordance to the reference value, a ratio that was 10(3) times higher due to effluents from the reprocessing plant at Sellafield. These results underline the good suitability of (236)U/(238)U as a tracer for hydrology and oceanography, and show that relatively small water samples are sufficient for the determination of (236)U by AMS, which is not the case for plutonium with present techniques. The plutonium concentrations in our water samples could only be measured with large uncertainties and were in the order of 10(-3) mBq/L (with the exception of the Irish Sea sample). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sequential Injection Method for Rapid and Simultaneous Determination of 236U, 237Np, and Pu Isotopes in Seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Steier, Peter

    2013-01-01

    An automated analytical method implemented in a novel dual-column tandem sequential injection (SI) system was developed for simultaneous determination of 236U, 237Np, 239Pu, and 240Pu in seawater samples. A combination of TEVA and UTEVA extraction chromatography was exploited to separate and purify...

  20. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The adsorption of {sup 241}Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of {sup 241}Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of {sup 241}Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  1. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.; Abelairas, A.

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of 241 Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of 241 Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of 241 Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification.

  2. EURADOS action for determination of americium in skull measures in vivo and Monte Carlo simulation; Accion EURADOS para la determinacion de americio en craneo mediante medidas in-vivo y simulacion Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Ponte, M. A.; Navarro Amaro, J. F.; Perez Lopez, B.; Navarro Bravo, T.; Nogueira, P.; Vrba, T.

    2013-07-01

    From the Group of WG7 internal dosimetry of the EURADOS Organization (European Radiation Dosimetry group, e.V.) which It coordinates CIEMAT, international action for the vivo measurement of americium has been conducted in three mannequins type skull with detectors of Germanium by gamma spectrometry and simulation by Monte Carlo methods. Such action has been raised as two separate exercises, with the participation of institutions in Europe, America and Asia. Other actions similar precede this vivo intercomparison of measurement and modeling Monte Carlo1. The preliminary results and associated findings are presented in this work. The laboratory of the body radioactivity (CRC) of service counter of dosimetry staff internal (DPI) of the CIEMAT, it has been one of the participants in vivo measures exercise. On the other hand part, the Group of numerical dosimetry of CIEMAT is participant of the Monte Carlo2 simulation exercise. (Author)

  3. Fueling the central engine of radio galaxies. II. The footprints of AGN feedback on the ISM of 3C 236

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labiano, A.; García-Burillo, S.; Combes, F.; Usero, A.; Soria-Ruiz, R.; Tremblay, G.; Neri, R.; Fuente, A.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T.

    2013-01-01

    Context. There is growing observational evidence of active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback on the interstellar medium (ISM) of radio-quiet and radio-loud galaxies. While AGN feedback is expected to be more common at high-redshift objects, studying local universe galaxies helps to better characterize the different manifestations of AGN feedback. Aims: Molecular line observations can be used to quantify the mass and energy budget of the gas affected by AGN feedback. We study the emission of molecular gas in 3C 236, a Faranoff-Riley type 2 (FR II) radio source at z ~ 0.1, and search for the footprints of AGN feedback. The source 3C 236 shows signs of a reactivation of its AGN triggered by a recent minor merger episode. Observations have also previously identified an extreme H i outflow in this source. Methods: The IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI) was used to study the distribution and kinematics of molecular gas in 3C 236 by imaging with high spatial resolution (0.6″) the emission of the 2-1 line of 12CO in the nucleus of the galaxy. We searched for outflow signatures in the CO map. We also derived the star-formation rate (SFR) in 3C 236 using data available from the literature at UV, optical, and IR wavelengths, to determine the star-formation efficiency (SFE) of molecular gas. Results: The CO emission in 3C 236 comes from a spatially resolved ~1.4″(2.6 kpc-) diameter disk characterized by a regular rotating pattern. Within the limits imposed by the sensitivity and velocity coverage of the CO data, we do not detect any outflow signatures in the cold molecular gas. The disk has a cold gas mass M(H2) ~ 2.1 × 109 M⊙. Based on CO we determine a new value for the redshift of the source zCO = 0.09927 ± 0.0002. The similarity between the CO and H i profiles indicates that the deep H i absorption in 3C 236 can be accounted for by a rotating H i structure. This restricts the evidence of H i outflow to only the most extreme velocities. In the light of the new

  4. Epidemiological and clinical features of primary liver cancer: an analysis of 236 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Rongrong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the epidemiological and clinical features of patients with primary liver cancer (PLC. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 236 patients with complete information who were admitted to The First Hospital of Lanzhou University and diagnosed with PLC for the first time form August 2012 to August 2014, and their epidemiological and clinical features were analyzed. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. ResultsAmong the 236 PLC patients, there were 198 male patients (83.9% and 38 female patients (16.1%, and the patients aged 41-60 years has the highest incidence rate (58.5%, 138/236. Nineteen patients had a family history of liver cancer, 28 had a history of heavy drinking, 34 were complicated by type 2 diabetes, and 44 were complicated by hypertension. Among these patients, 232 (98.3% developed PLC on the basis of chronic liver disease, and 4 (1.7% had no chronic liver disease. There were 207 patients (87.7% with chronic HBV infection, and most of them had HBeAg-negative infection. Fourteen patients (5.9% had chronic HCV infection, 5 (2.1% had HBV/HCV co-infection, and 6 (2.5% had chronic alcoholic hepatitis. Among the 212 patients with HBV infection, 51(241% had HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B, and 95(448% had HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B; there was significant difference in HBV DNA level between the two groups (χ2=40687,Ρ=0001. Among all the PLC patients, 104 had an alpha-fetoprotein(AFP level of >400 IU/ml, 48 had an AFP level of 200-400 IU/ml, and 84 had an AFP level of <200 IU/ml; 154 (62.3% had a single lesion, and 72 (30.5% had multiple lesions; most (72.7% of patients with a single lesion had the single lesion in the right lobe, and the proportions of patients with multiple lesions in the right lobe and in both lobes accounted for 58.3% and 41.7%, respectively. Among the 80 PLC patients with

  5. Critical and shielding parametric studies with the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI to identify the key points to take into account during the transportation of blanket assemblies with high ratio of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosmain, Cecile-Aline

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of French research program on Generation IV sodium cooled fast reactor, one possible option consists in burning minor actinides in this kind of Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor. Two types of transmutation mode are studied in the world : the homogeneous mode of transmutation where actinides are scattered with very low enrichment ratio in fissile assemblies and the heterogeneous mode where fissile core is surrounded by blanket assemblies filled with minor actinides with ratio of incorporated actinides up to 20%. Depending on which element is considered to be burnt and on its content, these minor actinides contents imply constraints on assemblies' transportation between Nuclear Power Plants and fuel cycle facilities. In this study, we present some academic studies in order to identify some key constraints linked to the residual power and neutron/gamma load of such kind of blanket assemblies. To simplify the approach, we considered a modeling of a 'model cask' dedicated to the transportation of a unique irradiated blanket assembly loaded with 20% of Americium and basically inspired from an existent cask designed initially for the damaged fissile Superphenix assembly transport. Thermal calculations performed with EDF-SYRTHES code have shown that due to thermal limitations on cladding temperature, the decay time to be considered before transportation is 20 years. This study is based on explicit 3D representations of the cask and the contained blanket assembly with the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI/JEFF3.1.1 library and concludes that after such a decay time, the transportation of a unique Americium radial blanket is feasible only if the design of our model cask is modified in order to comply with the dose limitation criterion. (author)

  6. The distribution of {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U in the North Atlantic and adjacent oceans; Die Verteilung von {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U im Nordatlantik und den angrenzenden Ozeanen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christl, Marcus; Casacuberta, Nuria; Lachner, Johannes; Maxeiner, Sascha; Vockenhuber, Christof; Synal, Hans-Arno [Labor fuer Ionenstrahlphysik, ETH Zuerich (Switzerland); Herrmann, Juergen [Bundesamt fuer Seeschifffahrt und Hydroghraphie, Hamburg (Germany); Castrillejo, Maxi; Masque, Pere [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Rutgers van der Loeff, Michiel [Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The technical developments of recent years, such as the introduction of helium as a stripping gas, make compact AMS systems probably among the most sensitive analyzers available for ultra-trace analyzes of actinides in the environment. Such systems are particularly suitable for the trace analysis of {sup 236}U since conventional mass spectrometry does not provide the necessary suppression of the substrate caused by molecules or neighboring masses. Over the past few years, unique data sets of {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U have been produced at the AMS System Tandy of the ETH Zurich in the Atlantic and Arctic Ocean as well as in the Mediterranean and the North Sea. This lecture will provide a brief overview of the latest technical developments in the field of heavy ion analysis at compact AMS plants at ETH Zurich. In the second part, the produced data sets are then assembled and the current understanding of this new ocean tracer discussed. [German] Die technischen Entwicklungen der letzten Jahre, wie zum Beispiel die Einfuehrung von Helium als stripper Gas, machen kompakte AMS Systeme wahrscheinlich zu den sensitivsten verfuegbaren Analysegeraeten fuer Ultra-Spurenstoffanalysen von Aktiniden in der Umwelt. Solche Systeme eignen sich im Besonderen zur Spurenanalyse von {sup 236}U, da konventionelle Massenspektrometrie hier nicht die erforderliche Unterdrueckung des durch Molekuele oder Nachbarmassen verursachten Untergrundes bietet. Am AMS System Tandy der ETH Zuerich wurden waehrend der letzten Jahre einzigartige Datensaetze von {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U im Atlantischen und Arktischen Ozean, sowie im Mittelmeer und der Nordsee produziert. In diesem Vortrag soll zunaechst ein kurzer Ueberblick ueber die neuesten technischen Entwicklungen im Bezug auf Schwerionen Analysen an kompakten AMS Anlagen der ETH Zuerich gegeben werden. Im zweiten Teil werden dann die produzierten Datensaetze zusammengefuegt und das gegenwaertige Verstaendnis dieses neuen Ozean-Tracers diskutiert.

  7. Tank 241-TX-118, core 236 analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESCH, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    This document is the analytical laboratory report for tank 241-TX-118 push mode core segments collected between April 1, 1998 and April 13, 1998. The segments were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the Tank 241-TX-118 Push Mode Core sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Benar, 1997), the Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995), the Data Quality Objective to Support Resolution of the Organic Complexant Safety Issue (Organic DQO) (Turner, et al, 1995) and the Historical Model Evaluation Data Requirements (Historical DQO) (Sipson, et al., 1995). The analytical results are included in the data summary table (Table 1). None of the samples submitted for Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) exceeded notification limits as stated in the TSAP (Benar, 1997). One sample exceeded the Total Alpha Activity (AT) analysis notification limit of 38.4microCi/g (based on a bulk density of 1.6), core 236 segment 1 lower half solids (S98T001524). Appropriate notifications were made. Plutonium 239/240 analysis was requested as a secondary analysis. The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group in accordance with the Memorandum of Understanding (Schreiber, 1997) and are not considered in this report

  8. Tank 241-TX-118, core 236 analytical results for the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ESCH, R.A.

    1998-11-19

    This document is the analytical laboratory report for tank 241-TX-118 push mode core segments collected between April 1, 1998 and April 13, 1998. The segments were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the Tank 241-TX-118 Push Mode Core sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Benar, 1997), the Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995), the Data Quality Objective to Support Resolution of the Organic Complexant Safety Issue (Organic DQO) (Turner, et al, 1995) and the Historical Model Evaluation Data Requirements (Historical DQO) (Sipson, et al., 1995). The analytical results are included in the data summary table (Table 1). None of the samples submitted for Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) exceeded notification limits as stated in the TSAP (Benar, 1997). One sample exceeded the Total Alpha Activity (AT) analysis notification limit of 38.4{micro}Ci/g (based on a bulk density of 1.6), core 236 segment 1 lower half solids (S98T001524). Appropriate notifications were made. Plutonium 239/240 analysis was requested as a secondary analysis. The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group in accordance with the Memorandum of Understanding (Schreiber, 1997) and are not considered in this report.

  9. Four-dimensional Langevin approach to low-energy nuclear fission of 236U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Chikako; Usang, Mark D.; Ivanyuk, Fedir A.; Maruhn, Joachim A.; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Chiba, Satoshi

    2017-12-01

    We developed a four-dimensional (4D) Langevin model, which can treat the deformation of each fragment independently and applied it to low-energy fission of 236U, the compound system of the reaction n +235U . The potential energy is calculated with the deformed two-center Woods-Saxon (TCWS) and the Nilsson-type potential with the microscopic energy corrections following the Strutinsky method and BCS pairing. The transport coefficients are calculated by macroscopic prescriptions. It turned out that the deformation for the light and heavy fragments behaves differently, showing a sawtooth structure similar to that of the neutron multiplicities of the individual fragments ν (A ) . Furthermore, the measured total kinetic energy TKE (A ) and its standard deviation are reproduced fairly well by the 4D Langevin model based on the TCWS potential in addition to the fission fragment mass distributions. The developed model allows a multiparametric correlation analysis among, e.g., the three key fission observables, mass, TKE, and neutron multiplicity, which should be essential to elucidate several longstanding open problems in fission such as the sharing of the excitation energy between the fragments.

  10. Effect translational invariance in low-lying electric dipole excitations in 236U and 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertugral, F.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the translational invariant QRPA approach suggested by Pyatov [1] for the spherical nuclei has been extended to describe the 1 - states in deformed nuclei. The role of spurious centre-of-motion state on the Pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) has been investigated in the deformed 236 U and 238 U nuclei. It has been shown that the effect of taking into account the translational invariance of the Hamiltonians in the QRPA with separation of zero energy spurious solutions are noticeable in both the low energy density of 1 - states and in the PDR. Present investigation demonstrates the advantage of the translational invariant QRPA over the non translational invariant one. Within the translational invariant model the effect of removing spurious states on the E1 strength distribution is stronger than in none invariant QRPA (∼20%) for the states up to the neutron binding energy. It is found that the spurious state is spread over many levels, the largest admixture being situated in the region of the energy spacing between nuclear shells o w h . The giant resonance states contain, as a rule, very small admixtures of the spurious state

  11. Which cleansing care is better, foot bath or shower? Analysis of 236 limb ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Hitomi; Ichioka, Shigeru

    2015-10-01

    Foot baths and showering are two widely used methods to cleanse limb ulcers. However, some clinicians warn that foot baths may contribute to the spread of infection at the ulcer site. This study aimed to retrospectively investigate the relationship between cleansing methods and the limb prognoses of 236 patients with chronic limb ulcers. These patients were divided into two groups according to the method used to cleanse their ulcers, foot bath and showering. Limb prognosis, including loss of all toes and major amputation, was retrospectively analysed. The rates of loss of all toes and major amputation were 53·0% and 30% in the foot bath group, and 35·3% and 18·4% in the showering group, respectively. The rates of loss of all toes (adjusted odds ratios = 2·07; P = 0·0066; 95% confidence intervals, 1·22-3·50) and major amputation (adjusted odds ratio = 1·90; P = 0·037; 95% confidence intervals, 1·03-3·50) were significantly higher in the foot bath group than those in the showering group. Our results demonstrate that showering is preferable to foot baths for the cleansing of chronic limb ulcers. Clinicians should be cautious that inappropriate cleansing may cause ulcer infections to spread. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Functions and requirements for Project W-236B, Initial Pretreatment Module: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Hanford Site tank waste supernatants will be pretreated to separate the low-level and high-level fractions. The low-level waste fraction, containing the bulk of the chemical constituents, must be processed into a vitrified waste product which will be disposed of onsite, in a safe, environmentally sound, and cost effective manner. The high-level waste fraction separated during supernatant pretreatment (primarily cesium) will be recombined with an additional high-level waste fraction generated from pretreatment of the tank waste sludges and solids. This combined high-level waste fraction will be immobilized as glass and disposed in a geological repository. The purpose of this document is to establish the functional requirements baseline for Project W-236B, Initial Pretreatment Module, by defining the level 5 and 6 functions and requirements for the project. A functional analysis approach has been used to break down the program functions and associated physical requirements that each function must meet. As the systems engineering process evolves, the design requirements document will replace this preliminary functions and requirements document. The design requirements document (DRD) will identify key decisions and associated uncertainties that impact the project. A revision of this document to a DRD is not expected to change the performance requirements or open issues. However, additional requirements and issues may be identified

  13. Fission Fragment Angular Distributions in the $^{234}$U(n,f) and $^{236}$U(n,f) reactions

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the fission fragment angular distribution (FFAD) of the $^{234}$U(n,f) and $^{236}$U (n,f) reactions with the PPAC detection setup used in previous n_TOF-14 experiment. This experiment would take advantage of the high resolution of the n_TOF facility to investigate the FFAD behaviour in the pronounced vibrational resonances that have been observed between 0.1 and 2 MeV for the thorium cycle isotopes. In addition, the angular distribution of these isotopes will be measured for the first time beyond 14 MeV. Furthermore, the experiment will also provide the fission cross section with reduced statistical uncertainty, extending the $^{236}$U(n,f) data up to 1 GeV

  14. The Concentration of (236)Pu Daughters in Plutonium for Application to MOX Production from Plutonium from Dismantled US Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, T.E.; Cremers, T.L.

    2001-05-01

    The isotope {sup 236}Pu in the weapons-grade plutonium to be used in the US MOX (mixed-oxide) plant is of concern because the daughter products of {sup 236}Pu are sources of high-energy gamma rays. The {sup 208}Tl daughter of {sup 236}Pu emits intense, high-energy gamma rays that are important for radiation exposure calculations for plant design. It is generally thought that the concentrations of {sup 236}Pu and its daughters are well below 10{sup {minus}10}, but these concentrations are generally below the detection limits of most analytical techniques. One technique that can be used to determine the concentration {sup 208}Tl is the direct measurement of the intensity of the {sup 208}Tl gamma rays in the gamma-ray spectrum from plutonium. Thallium-208 will be in equilibrium with {sup 228}Th, and may very well be in equilibrium with {sup 232}U for most aged plutonium samples. We have used the FRAM isotopic analysis software to analyze dozens of archived high-resolution gamma ray spectra from various samples of US and foreign plutonium. We are able to quantify the ratio of minor isotopes with measurable gamma-ray emissions to the major isotope of plutonium and hence, through the measurement of the plutonium isotopic distribution of the sample, to elemental plutonium itself. Excluding items packaged in fluoropolymer vials, all samples analyzed with {sup 240}Pu < 9% gave {sup 228}Th/Pu ratios < 3.4 e-012 and all samples of US-produced plutonium, including {sup 240}Pu values up to 16.4%, gave {sup 228}Th/Pu ratios < 9.4 e-012. None of these values is significant from a radiation dose standpoint.

  15. (236)U and (239,)(240)Pu ratios from soils around an Australian nuclear weapons test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, S G; Froehlich, M B; Fifield, L K; Wallner, A; De Cesare, M

    2016-01-01

    The isotopes (236)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu are present in surface soils as a result of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests carried out in the 1950's and 1960's. These isotopes potentially constitute artificial tracers of recent soil erosion and sediment movement. Only Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has the requisite sensitivity to measure all three isotopes at these environmental levels. Coupled with its relatively high throughput capabilities, this makes it feasible to conduct studies of erosion across the geographical extent of the Australian continent. In the Australian context, however, global fallout is not the only source of these isotopes. As part of its weapons development program the United Kingdom carried out a series of atmospheric and surface nuclear weapons tests at Maralinga, South Australia in 1956 and 1957. The tests have made a significant contribution to the Pu isotopic abundances present in the region around Maralinga and out to distances ∼1000 km, and impact on the assessment techniques used in the soil and sediment tracer studies. Quantification of the relative fallout contribution derived from detonations at Maralinga is complicated owing to significant contamination around the test site from numerous nuclear weapons safety trials that were also carried out around the site. We show that (236)U can provide new information on the component of the fallout that is derived from the local nuclear weapons tests, and highlight the potential of (236)U as a new fallout tracer. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and application of mass spectrometric techniques for ultra-trace determination of236U in environmental samples-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Ketterer, Michael E; Hu, Sheng; Uchida, Shigeo; Wang, Xiaolin

    2017-12-01

    Measurements of the long-lived radionuclide 236 U are an important endeavor, not only in nuclear safeguards work, but also in terms of using this emerging nuclide as a tracer in chemical oceanography, hydrology, and actinide sourcing. Depending on the properties of a sample and its neutron irradiation history, 236 U/ 238 U ratios from different sources vary significantly. Therefore, this ratio can be treated as an important fingerprint for radioactive source identification, and in particular, affords a definitive means of discriminating between naturally occurring U and specific types of anthropogenic U. The development of mass spectrometric techniques makes it possible to determine ultra-trace levels of 236 U in environmental samples. In this paper, we review the current status of mass spectrometric approaches for determination of 236 U in environmental samples. Various sample preparation methods are summarized and compared. The mass spectrometric techniques emphasized herein are thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The strategies or principles used by each technique for the analysis of 236 U are described. The performances of these techniques in terms of abundance sensitivity and detection limit are discussed in detail. To date, AMS exhibits the best capability for ultra-trace determinations of 236 U. The levels and behaviors of 236 U in various environmental media are summarized and discussed as well. Results suggest that 236 U has an important, emerging role as a tracer for geochemical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Selectivity of bis-triazinyl bipyridine ligands for americium(III) in Am/Eu separation by solvent extraction. Part 1. Quantum mechanical study on the structures of BTBP complexes and on the energy of the separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbutt, Jerzy; Oziminski, Wojciech P

    2012-12-21

    Theoretical studies were carried out on two pairs of americium and europium complexes formed by tetra-N-dentate lipophilic BTBP ligands, neutral [ML(NO(3))(3)] and cationic [ML(2)](3+) where M = Am(III) or Eu(III), and L = 6,6'-bis-(5,6-diethyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine (C2-BTBP). Molecular structures of the complexes have been optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level and total energies of the complexes in various media were estimated using single point calculations performed at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) and MP2/6-311G(d,p) levels of theory. In the calculations americium and europium ions were treated using pseudo-relativistic Stuttgart-Dresden effective core potentials and the accompanying basis sets. Selectivity in solvent extraction separation of two metal ions is a co-operative function of contributions from all extractable metal complexes, which depend on physico-chemical properties of each individual complex and on its relative amount in the system. Semi-quantitative analysis of BTBP selectivity in the Am/Eu separation process, based on the contributions from the two pairs of Am(III) and Eu(III) complexes, has been carried out. To calculate the energy of Am/Eu separation, a model of the extraction process was used, consisting of complex formation in water and transfer of the formed complex to the organic phase. Under the assumptions discussed in the paper, this simple two-step model results in reliable values of the calculated differences in the energy changes for each pair of the Am/Eu complexes in both steps of the process. The greater thermodynamic stability (in water) of the Am-BTBP complexes, as compared with the analogous Eu species, caused by greater covalency of the Am-N than Eu-N bonds, is most likely the main reason for BTBP selectivity in the separation of the two metal ions. The other potential reason, i.e. differences in lipophilic properties of the analogous complexes of Am and Eu, is less important with regard to this selectivity.

  18. EPISODIC STAR FORMATION COUPLED TO REIGNITION OF RADIO ACTIVITY IN 3C 236

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremblay, Grant R.; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Sparks, William B.; De Bruyn, Ger; Schoenmakers, Arno P.

    2010-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys and STIS FUV/NUV/optical imaging of the radio galaxy 3C 236, whose relic ∼4 Mpc radio jet lobes and inner 2 kpc compact steep spectrum (CSS) radio source are evidence of multiple epochs of active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. Consistent with previous results, our data confirm the presence of four bright knots of FUV emission in an arc along the edge of the inner circumnuclear dust disk in the galaxy's nucleus, as well as FUV emission cospatial with the nucleus itself. We interpret these to be sites of recent or ongoing star formation. We present photometry of these knots, as well as an estimate for the internal extinction in the source using line ratios from archival ground-based spectroscopy. We estimate the ages of the knots by comparing our extinction-corrected photometry with stellar population synthesis models. We find the four knots cospatial with the dusty disk to be young, of order ∼10 7 yr old. The FUV emission in the nucleus, to which we do not expect scattered light from the AGN to contribute significantly, is likely due to an episode of star formation triggered ∼10 9 yr ago. We argue that the young ∼10 7 yr old knots stem from an episode of star formation that was roughly coeval with the event resulting in reignition of radio activity, creating the CSS source. The ∼10 9 yr old stars in the nucleus may be associated with the previous epoch of radio activity that generated the 4 Mpc relic source, before being cut off by exhaustion or interruption. The ages of the knots, considered in the context of both the disturbed morphology of the nuclear dust and the double-double morphology of the 'old' and 'young' radio sources, present evidence for an AGN/starburst connection that is possibly episodic in nature. We suggest that the AGN fuel supply was interrupted for ∼10 7 yr due to a minor merger event and has now been restored. The resultant nonsteady flow of gas in the disk is likely

  19. Neutron Capture Cross Sections and Gamma Emission Spectra from Neutron Capture on 234,236,238U Measured with DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, J. L.; Mosby, S.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A. J.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Kawano, T.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wu, C.-Y.; Becker, J. A.; Chyzh, A.; Baramsai, B.; Mitchell, G. E.; Krticka, M.

    2014-05-01

    A new measurement of the 238U(n, γ) cross section using a thin 48 mg/cm2 target was made using the DANCE detector at LANSCE over the energy range from 10 eV to 500 keV. The results confirm earlier measurements. Measurements of the gamma-ray emission spectra were also made for 238U(n, γ) as well as 234,236U(n, γ). These measurements help to constrain the radiative strength function used in the cross-section calculations.

  20. The Spectrum of Clinical and Pathological Manifestations of AIDS in a Consecutive Series of 236 Autopsied Cases in Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaneshwar Namdeorao Lanjewar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The HIV epidemic in the Asian subcontinent has a significant impact on India. The AIDS associated pathology has not been well evaluated in a representative study hence very little is known about the spectrum of HIV/AIDS associated diseases in Indian subcontinent. To determine the important postmortem findings in HIV infected individuals in Mumbai, autopsy study was carried out. The patient population included patients with AIDS who died at the tertiary care hospital over a 20 year period from 1988 to 2007. A total of 236 (182; 77% males and 54; 23% females patients with AIDS were autopsied. The main risk factor for HIV transmission was heterosexual contact (226 patients; 96% and 223/236 (94% patients died of HIV-related diseases. Tuberculosis was the prime cause of death in 149 (63% patients, followed by bacterial pneumonia 33 (14%, cryptococcosis 18 (8%, toxoplasmosis of brain 15 (6%, pneumocystis jiroveci (PCJ 1 (0.5% and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 7 (3% cases. The major underlying pathologies are either preventable or treatable conditions. There is an urgent need for attention towards the diagnosis, issue of therapy, and care of HIV disease in developing countries. Reducing mortality in patients with AIDS from infections must be highest public health policy in India.

  1. Use of an internal standard 233U, 236U to improve the accuracy of isotopic uranium analysis by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Application to isotope dilution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, C.; Hagemann, R.; Lucas, M.; Devillers, C.

    1982-01-01

    A method using a calibrated mixture of isotopes 233 U and 236 U has been developed in order to correct the isotopic fractionation which limits the accuracy of isotopic analysis by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The 236/233 internal standard ratio is calibrated against the 235/238 ratios of uranium isotopic standards. To perform the analysis of the unknown sample, the latter is mixed with the internal standard, the differences between the true value and the observed values of the 236/233 ratio allows the determination of a correction factor, which is applied to the measured 235/238 ratio values. Since 1978, 235 U abundance measurements on series of samples have been performed, using this technique; data are obtained with an accuracy better than 0,05%. It is intended to apply this method for precise determination of 238/233 ratio in the case of uranium concentration measurements by isotope dilution [fr

  2. Bio-aggregates based building materials state-of-the-art report of the RILEM Technical Committee 236-BBM

    CERN Document Server

    Collet, Florence

    2017-01-01

    The work of the RILEM Technical Committee (TC -236 BBM) was dedicated to the study of construction materials made from plant particles. It considered the question whether building materials containing as main raw material recyclable and easily available plant particles are renewable. This book includes a state-of-the-art report and an appendix. The state-of-the-art report relates to the description of vegetal aggregates. Then, hygrothermal properties, fire resistance, durability and finally the impact of the variability of the method of production of bio-based concrete are assessed. The appendix is a TC report which presents the experience of a working group. The goal was to define testing methods for the measurement of water absorption, bulk density, particle size distribution, and thermal conductivity of bio aggregates. The work is based on a first round robin test of the TC-BBM where the protocols in use by the different laboratories (labs) are compared. .

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Spiroplasma floricola 23-6T (ATCC 29989), a Bacterium Isolated from a Tulip Tree (Liriodendron tulipifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Ming; Wu, Pei-Shan; Lo, Wen-Sui; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2018-04-19

    Spiroplasma floricola 23-6 T (ATCC 29989) was isolated from the flower surface of a tulip tree ( Liriodendron tulipifera L.). Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to facilitate the investigation of its biology and the comparative genomics among Spiroplasma species. Copyright © 2018 Tsai et al.

  4. Numerical methods to analyze alpha spectra and application to the study of neptunium 237 and neptunium 236

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Torano, E.

    1990-01-01

    A set of numerical methods to analize alpha spectra measured with semiconductor detectors are presented. The methods can be divided in two groups, the first being based in the X 2 minimization ands the second in the use of the Fourier Transform. The methods based in the minimization of X 2 can, in turn, be divided according to the model used to fit the spectra. Some of them use a monoenergetic line for the intercomparison with the other peaks in the same spectrum. The others take into account the analytical function developed to represent an alpha line. Both allow the determination of positions and areas of the components, as well as the uncertainties of the results. The Fast Fourier Transform is applied to the second group of methods, which include the smoothing of experimental data, and the deconvolution of spectra. Examples are given of the application of these methods to real spectra. The alpha spectra of 237 Np and 236 Np are studied by using some of the methods described in this work. (Author)

  5. Gamma-Ray Emission Spectra as a Constraint on Calculations of 234 , 236 , 238U Neutron-Capture Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, J. L.; Krticka, M.; Kawano, T.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Chyzh, A.

    2015-10-01

    Calculations of the neutron-capture cross section at low neutron energies (10 eV through 100's of keV) are very sensitive to the nuclear level density and radiative strength function. These quantities are often poorly known, especially for radioactive targets, and actual measurements of the capture cross section are usually required. An additional constraint on the calculation of the capture cross section is provided by measurements of the cascade gamma spectrum following neutron capture. Recent measurements of 234 , 236 , 238U(n, γ) emission spectra made using the DANCE 4 π BaF2 array at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will be presented. Calculations of gamma-ray spectra made using the DICEBOX code and of the capture cross section made using the CoH3 code will also be presented. These techniques may be also useful for calculations of more unstable nuclides. This work was performed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396) and Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (Contract DE-AC52-07NA2734).

  6. Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, R; Adler, D C; Srinivasan, V J; Fujimoto, J G

    2007-07-15

    A Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) laser at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the human retina is demonstrated. Achievable performance, physical limitations, design rules, and scaling principles for FDML operation and component choice in this wavelength range are discussed. The fiber-based FDML laser operates at a sweep rate of 236 kHz over a 63 nm tuning range, with 7 mW average output power. Ultra-high-speed retinal imaging is demonstrated at 236,000 axial scans per second. This represents a speed improvement of approximately10x over typical high-speed OCT systems, paving the way for densely sampled volumetric data sets and new imaging protocols.

  7. Mannich Bases as Enone Precursors for Water-Mediated Efficient Synthesis of 2,3,6-Trisubstituted Pyridines and 5,6,7,8-Tetrahydroquinolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanashalshahaby, Essam Hamied Ahmed; Unaleroglu, Canan

    2015-06-08

    A highly efficient, regioselective, and environmentally friendly method has been developed for water-mediated synthesis of 2,3,6-trisubstituted pyridines and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolines. The introduced method allows easy preparation of various polysubstituted pyridines and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolines via domino reaction of an enolizable ketone, ammonia and enones derived from different Mannich bases in mild reaction conditions. Montmorillonite K-10 promoted this one-pot three-component reaction and gave both new and known 2,3,6-trisubstituted pyridines and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolines in good yields. The reaction protocol provides a wide array of functionality in construction of polysubstituted pyridines and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolines from commercially available starting materials in easily applicable and environmentally friendly conditions.

  8. Time-resolved record of236U and239,240Pu isotopes from a coral growing during the nuclear testing program at Enewetak Atoll (Marshall Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Chan, W Y; Tims, S G; Fallon, S J; Fifield, L K

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive series of nuclear tests were carried out by the United States at Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands, especially between 1952 and 1958. A Porites Lutea coral that was growing in the Enewetak lagoon within a few km of all of the high-yield tests contains a continuous record of isotopes, which are of interest (e.g. 14 C, 236 U, 239,240 Pu) through the testing period. Prior to the present work, 14 C measurements at ∼2-month resolution had shown pronounced peaks in the Δ 14 C data that coincided with the times at which tests were conducted. Here we report measurements of 236 U and 239,240 Pu on the same coral using accelerator mass spectrometry, and again find prominent peaks in the concentrations of these isotopes that closely follow those in 14 C. Consistent with the 14 C data, the magnitudes of these peaks do not, however, correlate well with the explosive yields of the corresponding tests, indicating that smaller tests probably contributed disproportionately to the debris that fell in the lagoon. Additional information about the different tests can also be obtained from the 236 U/ 239 Pu and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios, which are found to vary dramatically over the testing period. In particular, the first thermonuclear test, Ivy-Mike, has characteristic 236 U/ 239 Pu and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu signatures which are diagnostic of the first arrival of nuclear test material in various archives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inclusive distributions of charged hadrons in pp collisions at $\\sqrt(s) = 0.9$and 2.36 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Veres, Gabor I

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of inclusive charged-hadron transverse-momentum (pT) and pseudorapidity (eta) distributions are presented for proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s)=0.9 and 2.36 TeV. For non-single-diffractive interactions, the average pT of charged hadrons is measured to be 0.46+-0.01(stat.)+-0.01(syst.) GeV/c at 0.9 TeV and 0.50+-0.01(stat.)+-0.01(syst.) GeV/c at 2.36 TeV, for |eta|<2.4. At these energies, the measured pseudorapidity densities in the central region, dNch/deta(|eta|<0.5), are 3.48+-0.02(stat.)+-0.13(syst.) and 4.47+-0.04(stat.)+-0.16(syst.), respectively. The results at 2.36 TeV represent the highest-energy measurements ever published at a particle collider at the time of the presentation at the Lake Louise Winter Institute.

  10. A 233U/236U/242Pu/244Pu spike for isotopic and isotope dilution analysis by mass spectrometry with internal calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A.; Belyaev, B.; Buljanitsa, L.

    1989-11-01

    The Khlopin Radium Institute prepared on behalf of the IAEA a synthetic mixture of 233 U, 236 U, 242 Pu and 244 Pu isotopes. The isotopic composition and elemental concentration of uranium and plutonium were certified on the basis of analyses done by four laboratories of the IAEA Network, using mass spectrometry with internal standardization. The certified values for 233 U/ 236 U ratio and the 236 U chemical concentration have a coefficient of variation of 0.05%. The latter is fixed by the uncertainty in the 235 U/ 238 U ratio of NBS500 used as internal standard. The coefficients of variation of the 244 Pu/ 242 Pu ratio and the 242 Pu chemical concentration are respectively 0.10% and 0.16% and limited by the uncertainty in the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio of NBS947. This four isotope mixture was used as an internal standard as well as a spike, to analyze 30 batches of LWR spent fuel solutions. The repeatability of the mass spectrometric measurements have a coefficient of variation of 0.025% for the uranium concentration, and of 0.039% for the plutonium concentration. The spiking and treatment errors had a coefficient of variation of 0.048%. (author). Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Triterpenes from the aerial parts of Cimicifuga yunnanensis and their antiproliferative effects on p53(N236S) mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Yin; Zhu, Hui; Tang, Wen-Ru; Luo, Yin; Du, Jiang; Qiu, Ming-Hua

    2013-05-24

    Nine new triterpene derivatives, yunnanterpenes A-F (1-6), 15,16-seco-cimiterpenes A and B (7, 8), and cimilactone C (9), and 15 known analogues (10-24) were isolated from the aerial parts of Cimicifuga yunnanensis. The new structures were established using a combination of MS, NMR, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. WT MEFs (wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts) and tumorigenic cell lines p53(-/-)+H-RasV12 and p53(-/-)+p53(N236S)+H-RasV12 were used for evaluating active structures, targeting p53(N236S) (corresponding to p53(N239S) in humans) mutation. Compound 5 showed nonselective activities against these cell lines, with IC50 values of 5.8, 8.6, and 6.0 μM, respectively. Compound 4 exhibited greater selectivity against the p53(-/-)+p53(N236S)+H-RasV12 cells (IC50 5.5 μM) than against the WT MEFs cells (IC50 14.3 μM).

  12. Transverse momentum and pseudorapidity distributions of charged hadrons in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9 and 2.36 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Ero, Janos; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hoch, Michael; Hormann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kasieczka, Gregor; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schofbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; De Wolf, Eddi A.; Hashemi, Majid; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Adler, Volker; Beauceron, Stephanie; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Joris; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Villella, Ilaria; Chabert, Eric Christian; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Marinov, Andrey; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; Cortina Gil, Eduardo; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Demin, Pavel; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Gregoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Herquet, Philippe; Alves, Gilvan; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes e Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Oguri, Vitor; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Dias, Marco Andre Ferreira; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Novaes, Sergio F.; Padula, Sandra; Damgov, Jordan; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leandar; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Hu, Zhen; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhu, Bo; Andres Carrillo Montoya, Camilo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Andres Ocampo Rios, Alberto; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Fereos, Reginos; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Papadakis, Antonakis; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A.; Tsiakkouri, Demetra; Zinonos, Zinonas; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Kannike, Kristjan; Muntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Eerola, Paula; Czellar, Sandor; Harkonen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimaki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Klem, Jukka; Kortelainen, Matti J.; Lampen, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Linden, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Maenpaa, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Descamps, Julien; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, Francois-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, Andre; Rousseau, Delphine; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Elgammal, Sherif; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Mine, Philippe; Paganini, Pascal; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Besson, Auguste; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frederic; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gele, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Ripp-Baudot, Isabelle; Speck, Joaquim; Van Hove, Pierre; Baty, Clement; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fassi, Farida; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Xiao, Hong; Roinishvili, Vladimir; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Actis, Oxana; Bender, Walter; Biallass, Philipp; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Hof, Carsten; Kirsch, Matthias; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sowa, Michael; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Zeidler, Clemens; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flugge, Gunter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrens, Ulf; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Olzem, Jan; Parenti, Andrea; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Stein, Matthias; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Draeger, Jula; Eckstein, Doris; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Klanner, Robert; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Sander, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schroder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbruck, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Wolf, Roger; Bauer, Julia; Blum, Peter; Buege, Volker; Cakir, Altan; Chwalek, Thorsten; Daeuwel, Daniel; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Frey, Martin; Gruschke, Jasmin; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Hoffmann, Karl-heinz; Honc, Simon; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Muller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Piparo, Danilo; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Renz, Manuel; Sabellek, Andreas; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jurgen; Stober, Fred-Markus; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Zeise, Manuel; Zhukov, Valery; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Karafasoulis, Konstantinos; Kyriakis, Aristoteles; Loukas, Demitrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Petrakou, Eleni; Zachariadou, Aikaterini; Agapitos, Antonis; Gouskos, Loukas; Katsas, Panagiotis; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saganis, Konstantinos; Xaxiris, Evangelos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Triantis, Frixos A.; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Debreczeni, Gergely; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Laszlo, Andras; Sikler, Ferenc; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Sharma, Richa; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jas Bir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chauhan, Sushil; Choudhary, Brajesh C.; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Kumar, Ashok; Ranjan, Kirti; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Suggisetti, Praveenkumar; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Nayak, Aruna; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Fahim, Ali; Jafari, Abideh; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Moshaii, Ahmad; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Dimitrov, Anton; Fedele, Francesca; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Capiluppi, Paolo; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Genta, Chiara; Landi, Gregorio; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; De Guio, Federico; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Menasce, Dario; Miccio, Vincenzo; Moroni, Luigi; Negri, Pietro; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pullia, Antonino; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Salerno, Roberto; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Tancini, Valentina; Taroni, Silvia; Cimmino, Anna; De Gruttola, Michele; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Noli, Pasquale; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Biasotto, Massimo; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; De Mattia, Marco; Dorigo, Tommaso; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Giubilato, Piero; Gonella, Franco; Gresele, Ambra; Gulmini, Michele; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Maron, Gaetano; Mattiazzo, Serena; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Passaseo, Marina; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zotto, Pierluigi; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Pagano, Davide; Ratti, Sergio P.; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fano, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Nappi, Aniello; Santocchia, Attilio; Servoli, Leonello; Volpe, Roberta; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Bocci, Andrea; Castaldi, Rino; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Dutta, Suchandra; Fiori, Francesco; Foa, Lorenzo; Gennai, Simone; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Sarkar, Subir; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Organtini, Giovanni; Palma, Alessandro; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Dellacasa, Giulio; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Mila, Giorgia; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Trocino, Daniele; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ambroglini, Filippo; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Penzo, Aldo; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Jung, Seung Yong; Hong, Byung-Sik; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Sim, Kwang Souk; Kim, Jangho; Choi, Minkyoo; Park, In Kyu; Choi, Suyong; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Jo, Youngkwon; Kwon, Jeongteak; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla Valdez, Heriberto; Sanchez Hernandez, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio Salazar; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Allfrey, Philip; Krofcheck, David; Aumeyr, Thomas; Butler, Philip H.; Signal, Tony; Williams, Jennifer C.; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R.; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Gorski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Musella, Pasquale; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Silva, Pedro; Varela, Joao; Wohri, Hermine Katharina; Altsybeev, Igor; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Finger, Miroslav; Finger, Michael, Jr.; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Obrant, Gennady; Shcheglov, Yury; Shchetkovskiy, Alexander; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Ilina, Natalia; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Oulianov, Alexei; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Shreyber, Irina; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Vardanyan, Irina; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Konovalova, Nina; Rusakov, Sergey V.; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Datsko, Kirill; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Sytine, Alexandre; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Maletic, Dimitrije; Puzovic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernandez Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M.; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Pelayo, Jesus Puerta; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; de Troconiz, Jorge F.; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Iglesias, Lara Lloret; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Diaz Merino, Irma; Diez Gonzalez, Carlos; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Jorda, Clara; Pardo, Patricia Lobelle; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Rodrigo, Teresa; Jimeno, Alberto Ruiz; Scodellaro, Luca; Sanudo, Mar Sobron; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Beaudette, Florian; Beccati, Barbara; Bell, Alan James; Bellan, Riccardo; Benedetti, Daniele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bolognesi, Sara; Bona, Marcella; Breuker, Horst; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cano, Eric; Cattai, Ariella; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Covarelli, Roberto; Cure, Benoit; Dahms, Torsten; De Roeck, Albert; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gowdy, Stephen; Guiducci, Luigi; Gutleber, Johannes; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Henderson, Conor; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Honma, Alan; Huhtinen, Mika; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Lecoq, Paul; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lourenco, Carlos; Macpherson, Alick; Maki, Tuula; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Meridiani, Paolo; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mulders, Martijn; Noy, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimia, Martti; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ryjov, Vladimir; Sakulin, Hannes; Schafer, Christoph; Schlatter, Wolf-Dieter; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stockli, Fabian; Traczyk, Piotr; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Istvan Veres, Gabor; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Konig, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Caminada, Lea; Casella, Maria Chiara; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dambach, Sarah; Dissertori, Gunther; Dittmar, Michael; Eggel, Christina; Eugster, Jurg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Herve, Alain; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nardulli, Alessandro; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann-Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Schinzel, Dietrich; Sordini, Viola; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Trub, Peter; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Rikova, Mirena Ivova; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Tsirigkas, Dimitrios; Wilke, Lotte; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, E.Augustine; Chen, Wan-Ting; Go, Apollo; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Ming-Hsiung; Wu, Jing-Han; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lin, Sheng-wen; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-ming; Ueno, Koji; Wang, Chin-chi; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Ayhan, Aydin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Demir, Zahide; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gurpinar, Emine; Karaman, Turker; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sahin, Ozge; Sengul, Ozden; Sogut, Kenan; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gulmez, Erhan; Halu, Arda; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bell, Peter; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Hansen, Maria; Heath, Greg P.; Heath, Helen F.; Hill, Christopher; Huckvale, Benedickt; Jackson, James; Kreczko, Lukasz; Mackay, Catherine Kirsty; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M.; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Smith, Vincent J.; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W.; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M.; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David J.A.; Coughlan, John A.; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Kennedy, Bruce W.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R.; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Foudas, Costas; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; MacEvoy, Barry C.; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R.; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Bose, Tulika; Clough, Andrew; Heister, Arno; St. John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Andrea, Jeremy; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Esen, Selda; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Cebra, Daniel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Wallny, Rainer; Babb, John; Chandra, Avdhesh; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J.William; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Shen, Benjamin C.; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G.; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, Andre; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Muelmenstaedt, Johannes; Norman, Matthew; Padhi, Sanjay; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Vartak, Adish; Wurthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Blume, Michael; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Garberson, Jeffrey; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lamb, James; Lowette, Steven; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Witherell, Michael; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Gataullin, Marat; Litvine, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Newman, Harvey B.; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Terentyev, Nikolay; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T.; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Blekman, Freya; Cassel, David; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Ryd, Anders; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar A.T.; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; Binkley, Morris; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Demarteau, Marcel; Eartly, David P.; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hahn, Alan; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M.; James, Eric; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Limon, Peter; Lueking, Lee; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; McCauley, Thomas; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Popescu, Sorina; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Smith, Richard P.; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J.; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Piero Di Giovanni, Gian; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D.; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Kim, Bockjoo; Klimenko, Sergey; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Prescott, Craig; Rapsevicius, Valdas; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael; Scurlock, Bobby; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Luis Rodriguez, Jorge; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Chen, Jie; Dharmaratna, Welathantri G.D.; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V.; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F.; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Baarmand, Marc M.; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatian, Samvel; Mironov, Camelia; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Smoron, Agata; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Cankocak, Kerem; Chung, Kwangzoo; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Murray, Michael; Radicci, Valeria; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Bandurin, Dmitry; Barfuss, Anne-fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G.; Kirn, Malina; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C.; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; D'Enterria, David; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristian Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wyslouch, Bolek; Xie, Si; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cole, Perrie; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Petyt, David; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A.; Sonnek, Peter; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Lundstedt, Carl; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R.; Baur, Ulrich; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Smith, Kenneth; Strang, Michael; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Wood, Darien; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Valls, Nil; Warchol, Jadwiga; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Killewald, Phillip; Ling, Ta-Yung; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroue, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatzerklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E.; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F.; Gecse, Zoltan; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Laasanen, Alvin T.; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Potamianos, K.; Sedov, Alexey; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank J.M.; Liu, Jinghua H.; Matveev, Mikhail; Morales, Jafet; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Korjenevski, Sergey; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Gershtein, Yuri; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Asaadi, Jonathan; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Jeong, Chiyoung; Lee, Sung Won; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Sheldon, Paul; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Buehler, Marc; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Gunthoti, Kranti; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Mattson, Mark; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Flood, Kevin; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Lomidze, David; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Reeder, Don; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H.; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of inclusive charged-hadron transverse-momentum and pseudorapidity distributions are presented for proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 0.9 and 2.36 TeV. The data were collected with the CMS detector during the LHC commissioning in December 2009. For non-single-diffractive interactions, the average charged-hadron transverse momentum is measured to be 0.46 +/- 0.01 (stat.) +/- 0.01 (syst.) GeV/c at 0.9 TeV and 0.50 +/- 0.01 (stat.) +/- 0.01 (syst.) GeV/c at 2.36 TeV, for pseudorapidities between -2.4 and +2.4. At these energies, the measured pseudorapidity densities in the central region, dN(charged)/d(eta) for |eta| < 0.5, are 3.48 +/- 0.02 (stat.) +/- 0.13 (syst.) and 4.47 +/- 0.04 (stat.) +/- 0.16 (syst.), respectively. The results at 0.9 TeV are in agreement with previous measurements and confirm the expectation of near equal hadron production in p-pbar and pp collisions. The results at 2.36 TeV represent the highest-energy measurements at a particle collider to date.

  13. Can the periodic spectral modulations observed in 236 Sloan Sky Survey stars be due to dark matter effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Fabrizio; Licata, Ignazio

    2017-09-01

    The search for dark matter (DM) is one of the most active and challenging areas of current research. Possible DM candidates are ultralight fields such as axions and weak interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Axions piled up in the center of stars are supposed to generate matter/DM configurations with oscillating geometries at a very rapid frequency, which is a multiple of the axion mass m B (Brito et al (2015); Brito et al (2016)). Borra and Trottier (2016) recently found peculiar ultrafast periodic spectral modulations in 236 main sequence stars in the sample of 2.5 million spectra of galactic halo stars of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (˜1% of main sequence stars in the F-K spectral range) that were interpreted as optical signals from extraterrestrial civilizations, suggesting them as possible candidates for the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) program. We argue, instead, that this could be the first indirect evidence of bosonic axion-like DM fields inside main sequence stars, with a stable radiative nucleus, where a stable DM core can be hosted. These oscillations were not observed in earlier stellar spectral classes probably because of the impossibility of starting a stable oscillatory regime due to the presence of chaotic motions in their convective nuclei. The axion mass values, (50< {m}B< 2.4× {10}3) μ {eV}, obtained from the frequency range observed by Borra and Trottier, (0.6070< f< 0.6077) THz, agree with the recent theoretical results from high-temperature lattice quantum chromodynamics (Borsanyi et al (2016); Borsanyi et al (2016b)).

  14. On the Use of 233U-236U Double-Spike for TIMS Measurements of Uranium Isotopes: A Simulation Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R W

    2004-01-01

    Synthetic ion beams with instantaneous and temporal characteristics appropriate to thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) were mathematically generated and analyzed to determine the effects of using a mixed 233 U- 236 U spike (double-spike) in the analysis of uranium isotopes. The instantaneous beam characteristics are the intensities (e.g., counts per second) modeled with a Poisson distribution plus a component of random noise that simulates the detection processes. Several beam intensity and mass fractionation vs. time functions were modeled to simulate a range of sample sizes and the commonly employed methods of data collection. These beam profiles were also generated with different noise levels, and signal-to-noise vs. analytical precision diagrams are presented. Modeling focused on natural uranium, where 238 U/ 235 U = 137.88, and on the ability of a given method to determine precisely and accurately small variations in this ratio. Practical limits on precision were determined to be 20-30 ppm, which is consistent with precision seen for other elements by state-of-the-art TIMS. The TIMS total evaporation method was compared directly with the double-spike method. While similar analytical precisions are obtained with either method, the double-spike method of correcting for analytical bias gives more accurate results. The results of a total evaporation analysis will deviate from true by more than the analytical precision if as little as 0.05% of the signal is not integrated, whereas the accuracy and precision of the double-spiked analyses are always linked

  15. Evaluation of neutron data for americium-241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov, V.M.; Sukhovitskij, E.Sh.; Porodzinskij, Yu.V.; Klepatskij, A.B.; Morogovskij, G.B. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    The evaluation of neutron data for {sup 241}Am is made in the energy region from 10{sup -5} eV up to 20 MeV. The results of the evaluation are compiled in the ENDF/B-VI format. This work is performed under the Project Agreement CIS-03-95 with the International Science and Technology Center (Moscow). The Financing Party for the Project is Japan. The evaluation was requested by Y. Kikuchi (JAERI). (author). 60 refs.

  16. The proliferation potential of neptunium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, J. S.; Shin, J. S.; Kim, J. S.; Kwack, E. H.; Kim, B. K.

    2000-05-01

    It is recognized that some trans-uranic elements other than plutonium, in particular Np and Am, if will be available in sufficient quantities, could be used for nuclear explosive devices. The spent fuel has been accumulating in number of nuclear power plant and operation of large scale commercial reprocessing plants. However, these materials are not covered by the definition of special fissionable material in the Agency Statute. At the time when the Statute was adopted, the availability of meaningful quantities of separated Np and Am was remote and they were not included in the definition of special fissionable material. Then, IAEA Board decided a measure for control of Np and Am on September 1999. This report contains the control method and the characteristic of Np and Am for using domestic nuclear industries, and it can be useful for understanding how to report and account of Np and Am. (author)

  17. Analysis procedure for americium in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, R.W.; Hayes, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Several methods for the analysis of 241 Am in environmental samples were evaluated and a preferred method was selected. This method was modified and used to determine the 241 Am content in sediments, biota, and water. The advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. The method is also suitable for 244 Cm analysis

  18. Experiments of pyrochemical process with americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hirokazu; Minato, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    Experiments of pyrochemical process of minor actinide nitrides are scheduled. Experimental procedures of electrochemical study of the molten salts containing minor actinides (10-100mg) were established. Preliminary study with a rare earth element used as a surrogate was carried out in the hot cells using master-slave manipulators. (author)

  19. 1976 Hanford Americium exposure incident: hematologic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1982-05-01

    Hematologic evaluation of an individual with an initial systemic body burden of approx. 200 μCi 241 Am revealed a significant (P < 0.01) reduction of total leukocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes. This effect on total leukocytes and neutrophils was evident approx. 30 days after exposure, appeared to stabilize at about 3 months after exposure, and remained at this lower level thorugh a 52-months observation period. The effect on lymphocytes was apparent by 3 days after exposure, stabilizing at approx. 50% of pre-exposure values for about 7 months, with a return to pre-exposure levels in the following 4 y. There was a progressive and significant (P < 0.001) decline in platelet counts during the 52-months postexposure period. The pattern of response in erythrocyte parameters was complex. Immediately after the accident, these values were less than the pre-exposure mean level; they gradually increased (P < 0.001) for approx. 2 y and then began a progressive decline (P < 0.001)

  20. Accurate measurements of fission-fragment yields in 234,235,236,238U(γ,f) with the SOFIA set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatillon, A.; Taieb, J.; Martin, J.F.; Pellereau, E.; Boutoux, G.; Gorbinet, T.; Grente, L.; Belier, G.; Laurent, B.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Caamano, M.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Paradela, C.; Ramos, D.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, J.L.; Vargas, J.; Audouin, L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Yan, Y.; Casarejos, E.; Farget, F.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Heinz, A.; Lindberg, S.; Jurado, B.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Kurz, N.; Loeher, B.; Nociforo, C.; Pietri, S.; Rossi, D.; Schmidt, K.H.; Simon, H.; Voss, B.; Weick, H.; Toernqvist, H.

    2016-01-01

    SOFIA (Studies On Fission with Aladin) is a new experimental set-up dedicated to accurate measurement of fission-fragments isotopic yields. It is located at GSI, the only place to use inverse kinematics at relativistic energies in order to study the (γ,f) electromagnetic-induced fission. The SOFIA set-up is a large-acceptance magnetic spectrometer, which allows to fully identify both fission fragments in coincidence on the whole fission-fragment range. This paper will report on fission yields obtained in 234,235,236,238 U(γ,f) reactions. (authors)

  1. Data Evaluation of Actinide Cross Sections: 238Pu, 237Pu, and 236Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guaglioni, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jurgenson, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Descalle, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thompson, I. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ormand, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Escher, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Younes, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mattoon, C. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Beck, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Burke, J. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bailey, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-04

    This report documents the recent evaluation of the 236Pu, 237Pu, and 238Pu cross section sets. Nuclear data evaluation is the fundamental interface that takes measured nuclear cross section data and turns them into a continuous curve that 1) is consistent with other measurements and nuclear reaction theory/models, and 2) is required by down-stream users. All experiments that generate nuclear data need to include an evaluation step for their data to be broadly useful to the end users.

  2. Thermodynamic performance of an auto-cascade ejector refrigeration cycle with mixed refrigerant R32 + R236fa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yingying; Wang, Lin; Liang, Kunfeng

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an auto-cascade ejector refrigeration cycle (ACERC) is proposed to obtain lower refrigeration temperature based on conventional ejector refrigeration and auto-cascade refrigeration principle. The thermodynamic performance of ACERC is investigated theoretically. The zeotropic refrigerant mixture R32 + R236fa is used as its working fluid. A parametric analysis is conducted to evaluate the effects of some thermodynamic parameters on the cycle performance. The study shows that refrigerant mixture composition, condenser outlet temperature and evaporation pressure have effects on performance of ACERC. The theoretical results also indicate that the ACERC can achieve the lowest refrigeration temperature at the temperature level of −30 °C. The application of zeotropic refrigerant mixture auto-cascade refrigeration in the ejector refrigeration cycle can provide a new way to obtain lower refrigeration temperature utilizing low-grade thermal energy. - Highlights: • An auto-cascade ejector refrigerator with R32 + R236fa mixed refrigerant is proposed. • The cycle can obtain a refrigeration temperature at −30 °C temperature range. • The effects of some thermodynamic parameters on the cycle performance are evaluated

  3. Charged-particle multiplicity measurement in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9 and 2.36 TeV with ALICE at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aamodt, K.; Abeysekara, U.; Abrahantes Quintana, A.; Abramyan, A.; Adamova, D.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agocs, A.G.; Aguilar Salazar, S.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, N.; Ahn, S.U.; Akimoto, R.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Avina, E.Almaraz; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anelli, G.; Angelov, V.; Anson, C.; Anticic, T.; Antinori, F.; Antinori, S.; Antipin, K.; Antonczyk, D.; Antonioli, P.; Anzo, A.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshauser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arceo, R.; Arend, A.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I.C.; Asryan, A.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T.C.; Aysto, J.; Azmi, M.D.; Bablok, S.; Bach, M.; Badala, A.; Baek, Y.W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldit, A.; Ban, J.; Barbera, R.; Barnafoldi, G.G.; Barnby, L.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Barile, F.; Basile, M.; Basmanov, V.; Bastid, N.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I.G.; Becker, B.; Belikov, I.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belogianni, A.; Benhabib, L.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdermann, E.; Berdnikov, Y.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bimbot, L.; Biolcati, E.; Blanc, A.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boccioli, M.; Bock, N.; Bogdanov, A.; Boggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Bohm, J.; Boldizsar, L.; Bombara, M.; Bombonati, C.; Bondila, M.; Borel, H.; Borshchov, V.; Borisov, A.; Bortolin, C.; Bose, S.; Bosisio, L.; Bossu, F.; Botje, M.; Bottger, S.; Bourdaud, G.; Boyer, B.; Braun, M.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bravina, L.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Bruckner, G.; Brun, R.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G.E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Camacho, E.; Camerini, P.; Campbell, M.; Canoa Roman, V.; Capitani, G.P.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carminati, F.; Casanova Diaz, A.; Caselle, M.; Castellanos, J.Castillo; Castillo Hernandez, J.F.; Catanescu, V.; Cattaruzza, E.; Cavicchioli, C.; Cerello, P.; Chambert, V.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charpy, A.; Charvet, J.L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D.D.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C.H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chuman, F.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Cobanoglu, O.; Coffin, J.P.; Coli, S.; Colla, A.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Conner, E.S.; Constantin, P.; Contin, G.; Contreras, J.G.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cormier, T.M.; Cortese, P.; Cortes Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M.R.; Costa, F.; Cotallo, M.E.; Crescio, E.; Crochet, P.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Cussonneau, J.; Dainese, A.; Dalsgaard, H.H.; Danu, A.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; de Barros, G.O.V.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gaspari, M.; de Groot, J.; De Gruttola, D.; de Haas, A.P.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; De Remigis, R.; de Rooij, R.; de Vaux, G.; Delagrange, H.; Dellacasa, G.; Deloff, A.; Demanov, V.; Denes, E.; Deppman, A.; D'Erasmo, G.; Derkach, D.; Devaux, A.; Di Bari, D.; Di Giglio, C.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Dialinas, M.; Diaz, L.; Diaz, R.; Dietel, T.; Divia, R.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobretsov, V.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Donigus, B.; Dominguez, I.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A.K.; Dubuisson, J.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A.K.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; Elia, D.; Emschermann, D.; Enokizono, A.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evrard, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fateev, O.; Fearick, R.; Fedunov, A.; Fehlker, D.; Fekete, V.; Felea, D.; Fenton-Olsen, B.; Feofilov, G.; Fernandez Tellez, A.; Ferreiro, E.G.; Ferretti, A.; Ferretti, R.; Figueredo, M.A.S.; Filchagin, S.; Fini, R.; Fionda, F.M.; Fiore, E.M.; Floris, M.; Fodor, Z.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Formenti, F.; Fragiacomo, E.; Fragkiadakis, M.; Frankenfeld, U.; Frolov, A.; Fuchs, U.; Furano, F.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhoje, J.J.; Gadrat, S.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A.; Gallio, M.; Ganoti, P.; Ganti, M.S.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia Trapaga, C.; Gebelein, J.; Gemme, R.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Giraudo, G.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glasow, R.; Glassel, P.; Glenn, A.; Gomez Jimenez, R.; Gonzalez Santos, H.; Gonzalez-Trueba, L.H.; Gonzalez-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Gorbunov, Y.; Gotovac, S.; Gottschlag, H.; Grabski, V.; Grajcarek, R.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gros, P.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J.F.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, H.; Haaland, O.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hamblen, J.; Han, B.H.; Harris, J.W.; Hartig, M.; Harutyunyan, A.; Hasch, D.; Hasegan, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Heide, M.; Heinz, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Hernandez, C.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hetland, K.F.; Hicks, B.; Hiei, A.; Hille, P.T.; Hippolyte, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hristov, P.; Hrivnacova, I.; Hu, S.; Huang, M.; Huber, S.; Humanic, T.J.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D.S.; Ichou, R.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Innocenti, P.G.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivan, C.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Iwasaki, T.; Jacholkowski, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jancurova, L.; Jangal, S.; Janik, R.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jirden, L.; Jones, G.T.; Jones, P.G.; Jovanovic, P.; Jung, H.; Jung, W.; Jusko, A.; Kaidalov, A.B.; Kalcher, S.; Kalinak, P.; Kalisky, M.; Kalliokoski, T.; Kalweit, A.; Kamal, A.; Kamermans, R.; Kanaki, K.; Kang, E.; Kang, J.H.; Kapitan, J.; Kaplin, V.; Kapusta, S.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Khan, M.M.; Khan, S.A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kikola, D.; Kileng, B.; Kim, D.J.; Kim, D.S.; Kim, D.W.; Kim, H.N.; Kim, J.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, J.S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.H.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J.L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bosing, C.; Kliemant, M.; Klovning, A.; Kluge, A.; Kniege, S.; Koch, K.; Kolevatov, R.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskih, A.; Kornas, E.; Kour, R.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Kozlov, K.; Kral, J.; Kralik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kraus, I.; Kravcakova, A.; Krawutschke, T.; Krivda, M.; Krumbhorn, D.; Krus, M.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P.G.; Kumar, L.; Kumar, N.; Kupczak, R.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A.N.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kushpil, V.; Kutouski, M.; Kvaerno, H.; Kweon, M.J.; Kwon, Y.; La Rocca, P.; Lackner, F.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lafage, V.; Lal, C.; Lara, C.; Larsen, D.T.; Laurenti, G.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Bornec, Y.; Le Bris, N.; Lee, H.; Lee, K.S.; Lee, S.C.; Lefevre, F.; Lenhardt, M.; Leistam, L.; Lehnert, J.; Lenti, V.; Leon, H.; Leon Monzon, I.; Leon Vargas, H.; Levai, P.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M.A.; Listratenko, O.; Liu, L.; Loginov, V.; Lohn, S.; Lopez, X.; Lopez Noriega, M.; Lopez-Ramirez, R.; Lopez Torres, E.; Lovhoiden, G.; Lozea Feijo Soares, A.; Lu, S.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Luquin, L.; Lutz, J.R.; Ma, K.; Ma, R.; Madagodahettige-Don, D.M.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Maire, A.; Makhlyueva, I.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malaev, M.; Malagalage, K.J.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malek, M.; Malkiewicz, T.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Mangotra, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Mares, J.; Margagliotti, G.V.; Margotti, A.; Marin, A.; Martashvili, I.; Martinengo, P.; Martinez Hernandez, M.I.; Martinez Davalos, A.; Martinez Garcia, G.; Maruyama, Y.; Marzari Chiesa, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masetti, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastromarco, M.; Mastroserio, A.; Matthews, Z.L.; Matyja, A.; Mayani, D.; Mazza, G.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mendez Lorenzo, P.; Meoni, M.; Mercado Perez, J.; Mereu, P.; Miake, Y.; Michalon, A.; Miftakhov, N.; Milosevic, J.; Minafra, F.; Mischke, A.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitu, C.; Mizoguchi, K.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Mondal, M.M.; Montano Zetina, L.; Monteno, M.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moretto, S.; Morsch, A.; Moukhanova, T.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muhuri, S.; Muller, H.; Munhoz, M.G.; Munoz, J.; Musa, L.; Musso, A.; Nandi, B.K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Navach, F.; Navin, S.; Nayak, T.K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nazarov, G.; Nedosekin, A.; Nendaz, F.; Newby, J.; Nianine, A.; Nicassio, M.; Nielsen, B.S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikolic, V.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B.S.; Nilsson, M.S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Novitzky, N.; Nyatha, A.; Nygaard, C.; Nyiri, A.; Nystrand, J.; Ochirov, A.; Odyniec, G.; Oeschler, H.; Oinonen, M.; Okada, K.; Okada, Y.; Oldenburg, M.; Oleniacz, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orsini, F.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Ortona, G.; Oskamp, C.J.; Oskarsson, A.; Osmic, F.; Osterman, L.; Ostrowski, P.; Otterlund, I.; Otwinowski, J.; Ovrebekk, G.; Oyama, K.; Ozawa, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Padilla, F.; Pagano, P.; Paic, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S.; Pal, S.K.; Palaha, A.; Palmeri, A.; Panse, R.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Park, W.J.; Pastircak, B.; Pastore, C.; Paticchio, V.; Pavlinov, A.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pepato, A.; Pereira, H.; Peressounko, D.; Perez, C.; Perini, D.; Perrino, D.; Peryt, W.; Peschek, J.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Peters, A.J.; Petracek, V.; Petridis, A.; Petris, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Peyre, J.; Piano, S.; Piccotti, A.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Pitz, N.; Piuz, F.; Platt, R.; Ploskon, M.; Pluta, J.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta Lerma, P.L.M.; Poggio, F.; Poghosyan, M.G.; Polak, K.; Polichtchouk, B.; Polozov, P.; Polyakov, V.; Pommeresch, B.; Pop, A.; Posa, F.; Pospisil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Pouthas, J.; Prasad, S.K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C.A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Pulvirenti, A.; Punin, A.; Punin, V.; Putis, M.; Putschke, J.; Quercigh, E.; Rachevski, A.; Rademakers, A.; Radomski, S.; Raiha, T.S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Ramirez Reyes, A.; Rammler, M.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Rasanen, S.S.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rath, S.; Read, K.F.; Real, J.S.; Redlich, K.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A.R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.P.; Reygers, K.; Ricaud, H.; Riccati, L.; Ricci, R.A.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rivetti, A.; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M.; Roed, K.; Rohrich, D.; Roman Lopez, S.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosinsky, P.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Rousseau, S.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio-Montero, A.J.; Rui, R.; Rusanov, I.; Russo, G.; Ryabinkin, E.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Safarik, K.; Sahoo, R.; Saini, J.; Saiz, P.; Sakata, D.; Salgado, C.A.; Salgueiro Domingues da Silva, R.; Salur, S.; Samanta, T.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sandor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sano, S.; Santo, R.; Santoro, R.; Sarkamo, J.; Saturnini, P.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schindler, H.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H.R.; Schossmaier, K.; Schreiner, S.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Segato, G.; Semenov, D.; Senyukov, S.; Seo, J.; Serci, S.; Serkin, L.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Sgura, I.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Sharkov, G.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siciliano, M.; Sicking, E.; Siddi, E.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silenzi, A.; Silvermyr, D.; Simili, E.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B.C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T.B.; Skjerdal, K.; Smakal, R.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Snow, H.; Sogaard, C.; Soloviev, A.; Soltveit, H.K.; Soltz, R.; Sommer, W.; Son, C.W.; Son, H.; Song, M.; Soos, C.; Soramel, F.; Soyk, D.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B.K.; Stachel, J.; Staley, F.; Stan, E.; Stefanek, G.; Stefanini, G.; Steinbeck, T.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stocco, D.; Stock, R.; Stolpovsky, P.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A.A.P.; Subieta Vasquez, M.A.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Swoboda, D.; Symons, J.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szostak, A.; Szuba, M.; Tadel, M.; Tagridis, C.; Takahara, A.; Takahashi, J.; Tanabe, R.; Takaki, D.J.Tapia; Taureg, H.; Tauro, A.; Tavlet, M.; Tejeda Munoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thader, J.; Tieulent, R.; Tlusty, D.; Toia, A.; Tolyhy, T.; Torcato de Matos, C.; Torii, H.; Torralba, G.; Toscano, L.; Tosello, F.; Tournaire, A.; Traczyk, T.; Tribedy, P.; Troger, G.; Truesdale, D.; Trzaska, W.H.; Tsiledakis, G.; Tsilis, E.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Turvey, A.; Tveter, T.S.; Tydesjo, H.; Tywoniuk, K.; Ulery, J.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Urban, J.; Urciuoli, G.M.; Usai, G.L.; Vacchi, A.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; van den Brink, A.; van der Kolk, N.; Vyvre, P.Vande; van Leeuwen, M.; Vannucci, L.; Vargas, A.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A.; Vassiliev, I.; Vasileiou, M.; Vechernin, V.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vetlitskiy, I.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Vikhlyantsev, O.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y.P.; Vodopianov, A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vranic, D.; Vrlakova, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, V.; Wallet, L.; Wan, R.; Wang, D.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Wen, Q.; Wessels, J.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilk, A.; Wilk, G.; Williams, M.C.S.; Willis, N.; Windelband, B.; Xu, C.; Yang, C.; Yang, H.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yermia, F.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I-K.; Yuan, X.; Yurevich, V.; Yushmanov, I.; Zabrodin, E.; Zagreev, B.; Zalite, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanevsky, Yu.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Zavada, P.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zelnicek, P.; Zenin, A.; Zepeda, A.; Zgura, I.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, S.; Zhu, J.; Zichichi, A.; Zinchenko, A.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zychacek, V.; Zynovyev, M.

    2010-01-01

    Charged-particle production was studied in proton-proton collisions collected at the LHC with the ALICE detector at centre-of-mass energies 0.9 TeV and 2.36 TeV in the pseudorapidity range |eta| < 1.4. In the central region (|eta| < 0.5), at 0.9 TeV, we measure charged-particle pseudorapidity density dNch/deta = 3.02 +- 0.01 (stat.) +0.08 -0.05 (syst.) for inelastic interactions, and dNch/deta = 3.58 +- 0.01 (stat.) +0.12 -0.12 (syst.) for non-single-diffractive interactions. At 2.36 TeV, we find dNch/deta = 3.77 +- 0.01 (stat.) +0.25 -0.12 (syst.) for inelastic, and dNch/deta = 4.43 +- 0.01 (stat.) +0.17 -0.12 (syst.) for non-single-diffractive collisions. The relative increase in charged-particle multiplicity from the lower to higher energy is 24.7% +- 0.5% (stat.) +5.7% -2.8% (syst.) for inelastic and 23.7% +- 0.5% (stat.) +4.6% -1.1% (syst.) for non-single-diffractive interactions. This increase is consistent with that reported by the CMS collaboration for non-single-diffractive events and larger th...

  4. Analysis of {sup 236}U and plutonium isotopes, {sup 239,240}Pu, on the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, as a potential tool in oceanography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo, Elena; López-Lora, Mercedes [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía), Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); Villa, María [Departamento de Física Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 4A, 41012 Seville (Spain); Servicio de Radioisótopos, Centro de Investigación, Tecnología e Innovación, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 4B, 41012 Seville (Spain); Casacuberta, Núria [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zürich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); López-Gutiérrez, José María [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía), Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); Departamento de Física Aplicada I, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidad de Sevilla, Virgen de África 7, 41011 Seville (Spain); Pham, Mai Khanh [IAEA-Environment Laboratories, Monte Carlo 98000 (Monaco)

    2015-10-15

    The performance of the 1 MV AMS system at the CNA (Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Seville, Spain) for {sup 236}U and {sup 239,240}Pu measurements has been extensively investigated. A very promising {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U abundance sensitivity of about 3 × 10{sup −11} has been recently achieved, and background figures for {sup 239}Pu of about 10{sup 6} atoms were reported in the past. These promising results lead to the use of conventional low energy AMS systems for the analysis of {sup 236}U and {sup 239}Pu and its further application in environmental studies. First {sup 236}U results obtained on our AMS system for marine samples (sediments and water) are presented here. Results of two new IAEA reference materials (IAEA-410 and IAEA-412, marine sediments from Pacific Ocean) are reported. The obtained {sup 236}U/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, of 0.12 and 0.022, respectively, show a dependency with the contamination source (i.e. local fallout from the US tests performed at the Bikini Atoll and general fallout). The results obtained for a third IAEA reference material (IAEA-381, seawater from the Irish Sea), are also presented. In the following, the uranium and plutonium isotopic compositions obtained on a set of 5 intercomparison seawater samples from the Arctic Ocean provided by the ETH Zürich are discussed. By comparing them with the obtained results on the 600 kV AMS facility Tandy at the ETH Zürich, we demonstrate the solidity of the CNA technique for {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U determinations at, at least, 7 × 10{sup −10} level. Finally, these results are discussed in their environmental context.

  5. Americium-curium separation by means of selective extraction of hexavalent americium using a centrifugal contactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikas, C.; Germain, M.; Bathellier, A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper deals with Am (VI) - Cm (III) separation in nitrate media. The kinetics of oxidation of Am (III) by sodium persulfate in the presence of Ag + ions were reinvestigated by studying the effect of additions of small amounts of reagents which do not drastically change the distribution coefficients of Am (VI) or Cm (III) ions. Organo phosphorus solvents were selected because they are radiation resistant, possess weak reductant properties and that their affinity for hexavalent ion is high. The operating procedure was selected by consideration of the results of the two previous investigations. This can be done by using a centrifugal contactor enabling in to set organic-aqueous phase contact time in accordance with the kinetics of extraction of Am (VI), oxidation of Am (III) in aqueous phase, and reduction of Am (VI) in organic phase

  6. Fission cross section ratios for sup 233,234,236 U relative to sup 235 U from 0. 5 to 400 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Balestrini, S.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA)); Hill, N.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross section ratios from 0.5 to 400 MeV for samples of {sup 233, 234, 236}U relative to {sup 235}U have been measured at the WNR neutron Source at Los Alamos. The fission reaction rate was determined using a fast parallel plate ionization chamber at a 20-m flight path. Cross sections over most the energy range were also extracted using the neutron fluence determined with three different proton telescope arrangements. Those data provided the shape of the {sup 235}U(n,f) cross section relative to the hydrogen scattering cross section. That shape was then normalized to the very accurately known value for {sup 235}U(n,f) at 14.1 MeV to allow us to obtain cross section section values from the ratio data and our values for {sup 235}U(n,f). 6 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Fission cross section ratios for 233,234,236U relative to 235U from 0.5 to 400 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Balestrini, S.J.; Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A.; Hill, N.W.

    1991-01-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross section ratios from 0.5 to 400 MeV for samples of 233, 234, 236 U relative to 235 U have been measured at the WNR neutron Source at Los Alamos. The fission reaction rate was determined using a fast parallel plate ionization chamber at a 20-m flight path. Cross sections over most the energy range were also extracted using the neutron fluence determined with three different proton telescope arrangements. Those data provided the shape of the 235 U(n,f) cross section relative to the hydrogen scattering cross section. That shape was then normalized to the very accurately known value for 235 U(n,f) at 14.1 MeV to allow us to obtain cross section section values from the ratio data and our values for 235 U(n,f). 6 refs., 1 fig

  8. Fission cross section ratios for 233,234,236U relative to 235U from 0.5 to 400 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Balestrini, S.J.; Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A.; Hill, N.W.

    1992-01-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross section ratios from 0.5 to 400 MeV for samples of 233,234,236 U relative to 235 U have been measured at the WNR neutron Source at Los Alamos. The fission reaction rate was determined using a fast parallel plate ionization chamber at a 20-m flight path. Cross sections over most of the energy range were also extracted using the neutron fluence determined with three different proton telescope arrangements. Those data provided the shape of the 235 U(n, f) cross section relative to the hydrogen scattering cross section. That shape was then normalized to the very accurately known value for 235 U(n, f) at 14.1 MeV which will allow us to obtain cross section values from the ratio data and our values for 235 U(n, f). (orig.)

  9. Charged particle multiplicities in pp interactions at sqrt(s) = 0.9, 2.36, and 7 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, V. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Aremenia); et al.,

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of primary charged hadron multiplicity distributions are presented for non-single-diffractive events in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of sqrt(s) = 0.9, 2.36, and 7 TeV, in five pseudorapidity ranges from |eta|<0.5 to |eta|<2.4. The data were collected with the minimum-bias trigger of the CMS experiment during the LHC commissioning runs in 2009 and the 7 TeV run in 2010. The multiplicity distribution at sqrt(s) = 0.9 TeV is in agreement with previous measurements. At higher energies the increase of the mean multiplicity with sqrt(s) is underestimated by most event generators. The average transverse momentum as a function of the multiplicity is also presented. The measurement of higher-order moments of the multiplicity distribution confirms the violation of Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling that has been observed at lower energies.

  10. Costing of severe pneumonia in hospitalized infants and children aged 2-36 months, at a secondary and tertiary level hospital of a not-for-profit organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helle Ostergaard; Hanehøj, Malin; Das, Ashima Rani

    2009-01-01

    . At both levels the greatest single cost was the hospital stay itself, comprising 74% and 56% of the total cost, respectively. Diagnostic investigations were a large expense and supportive treatment with nebulization and oxygen therapy added to the costs. Mean household expenditure on secondary level......OBJECTIVES: To determine health care provider cost and household cost of the treatment of severe pneumonia in infants and young children admitted to secondary and tertiary level health care facilities. METHODS: The study was done in a private, not-for-profit medical college hospital, in Vellore......, India, in mid-2008. Children aged 2-36 months admitted with severe pneumonia with no underlying chronic disease were included in the study. The relatives were interviewed daily on matters relating to patients' view point of the costs. These were direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs which...

  11. Charged particle multiplicities in pp interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9, 2.36, and 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hartl, Christian; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; Ceard, Ludivine; Cerny, Karel; De Wolf, Eddi A.; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Adler, Volker; Beauceron, Stephanie; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Joris; Maes, Michael; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Marinov, Andrey; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Demin, Pavel; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Ferreira Dias, Marco Andre; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Novaes, Sergio F.; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dyulendarova, Milena; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Marinova, Evelina; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Yang, Min; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Li, Wenbo; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhu, Bo; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Fereos, Reginos; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A.; Rykaczewski, Hans; Assran, Yasser; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Kannike, Kristjan; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Klem, Jukka; Kortelainen, Matti J.; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Porteboeuf, Sarah; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Besson, Auguste; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Falkiewicz, Anna; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Xiao, Hong; Roinishvili, Vladimir; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Ata, Metin; Bender, Walter; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Hof, Carsten; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Magass, Carsten; Masetti, Gianni; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Olzem, Jan; Parenti, Andrea; Raspereza, Alexei; Raval, Amita; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Klanner, Robert; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Schwandt, Joern; Srivastava, Ajay Kumar; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Wolf, Roger; Bauer, Julia; Buege, Volker; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Piparo, Danilo; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Renz, Manuel; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Zeise, Manuel; Zhukov, Valery; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A.; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Debreczeni, Gergely; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Laszlo, Andras; Sikler, Ferenc; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jas Bir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Choudhary, Brajesh C.; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Kumar, Ashok; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Suggisetti, Praveenkumar; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Dimitrov, Anton; Fedele, Francesca; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Trentadue, Raffaello; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Genta, Chiara; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Tancini, Valentina; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cimmino, Anna; De Cosa, Annapaola; De Gruttola, Michele; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Noli, Pasquale; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Biasotto, Massimo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Conti, Enrico; De Mattia, Marco; Dorigo, Tommaso; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Giubilato, Piero; Gresele, Ambra; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Santocchia, Attilio; Servoli, Leonello; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Volpe, Roberta; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Sarkar, Subir; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Organtini, Giovanni; Palma, Alessandro; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Mila, Giorgia; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Trocino, Daniele; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ambroglini, Filippo; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dohhee; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jaeho; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Seo, Eunsung; Shin, Seungsu; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz Burelo, Eduard; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A.; Allfrey, Philip; Krofcheck, David; Tam, Jason; Butler, Philip H.; Doesburg, Robert; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R.; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Sá Martins, Pedro; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Silva, Pedro; Varela, Joao; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr., Michael; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Bondar, Nikolai; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V.; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M.; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bell, Alan James; Benedetti, Daniele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bolognesi, Sara; Breuker, Horst; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cano, Eric; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Covarelli, Roberto; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; Dahms, Torsten; De Roeck, Albert; Duarte Ramos, Fernando; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Gennai, Simone; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Harvey, John; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hegner, Benedikt; Henderson, Conor; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Honma, Alan; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Karavakis, Edward; Lecoq, Paul; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lourenco, Carlos; Macpherson, Alick; Maki, Tuula; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stöckli, Fabian; Stoye, Markus; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Tsyganov, Andrey; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Caminada, Lea; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hervé, Alain; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguiló, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Wilke, Lotte; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Wan-Ting; Dutta, Suchandra; Go, Apollo; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Ming-Hsiung; Liu, Zong-kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gökbulut, Gül; Güler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Nart, Alisah; Önengüt, Gülsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatöz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gülmez, Erhan; Halu, Arda; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Özbek, Melih; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bell, Peter; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Hansen, Maria; Hartley, Dominic; Heath, Greg P.; Heath, Helen F.; Huckvale, Benedickt; Jackson, James; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M.; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J.; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W.; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M.; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David J.A.; Coughlan, John A.; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Kennedy, Bruce W.; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R.; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R.; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Clough, Andrew; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St. John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Esen, Selda; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Cebra, Daniel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Schwarz, Thomas; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Deisher, Amanda; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Pasztor, Gabriella; Satpathy, Asish; Shen, Benjamin C.; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G.; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Muelmenstaedt, Johannes; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Gataullin, Marat; Kcira, Dorian; Litvine, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B.; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Terentyev, Nikolay; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T.; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Fields, Laura Johanna; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Riley, Daniel; Ryd, Anders; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar A.T.; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Demarteau, Marcel; Eartly, David P.; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gunthoti, Kranti; Gutsche, Oliver; Hahn, Alan; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M.; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; James, Eric; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Limon, Peter; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; McCauley, Thomas; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Popescu, Sorina; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Saoulidou, Niki; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J.; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D.; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Goldberg, Sean; Kim, Bockjoo; Klimenko, Sergey; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Prescott, Craig; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bandurin, Dmitry; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F.; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M.; Dorney, Brian; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; O'Brien, Christine; Silvestre, Catherine; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Cankocak, Kerem; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Radicci, Valeria; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G.; Kirn, Malina; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C.; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cole, Perrie; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Lundstedt, Carl; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R.; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Chasco, Matthew; Kaadze, Ketino; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Warchol, Jadwiga; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E.; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F.; Gecse, Zoltan; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Laasanen, Alvin T.; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Potamianos, Karolos; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank J.M.; Liu, Jinghua H.; Morales, Jafet; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Duggan, Daniel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Asaadi, Jonathan; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Buehler, Marc; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Lomidze, David; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Parker, William; Reeder, Don; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H.; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of primary charged hadron multiplicity distributions are presented for non-single-diffractive events in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of sqrt(s) = 0.9, 2.36, and 7 TeV, in five pseudorapidity ranges from |eta|<0.5 to |eta|<2.4. The data were collected with the minimum-bias trigger of the CMS experiment during the LHC commissioning runs in 2009 and the 7 TeV run in 2010. The multiplicity distribution at sqrt(s) = 0.9 TeV is in agreement with previous measurements. At higher energies the increase of the mean multiplicity with sqrt(s) is underestimated by most event generators. The average transverse momentum as a function of the multiplicity is also presented. The measurement of higher-order moments of the multiplicity distribution confirms the violation of Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling that has been observed at lower energies.

  12. Kommentarer til opdateret risikovurdering og ansøgning. Gossypium hirsutum (281-24-236/3006-210-23), Insect resistance by Bt-toxin (lepidoptera) X Insect resistance by Bt-toxin (coleoptera); herbicide tolerance to glyphosate. Modtaget 03-04-2006, deadline 02-05-2006, svar 07-04-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Strandberg, Morten Tune; Christensen, Christian Dam

    2006-01-01

    "DMUs konklusioner vedr. den økologiske risikovurdering af den genmodificerede, insektresistente bomuldshybrid mellem event 281-24-236 og 3006-210-23. Den genmodificerede bomuldskrydsning 281-24-236/3006-210-23, adskiller sig fra konventionel bomuld ved at have indsat gener der gør planterne tole...

  13. Position paper, need for additional waste storage capacity and recommended path forward for project W-236a, Multi-function Waste Tank Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awadalla, N.G.

    1994-01-01

    Project W-236a, Multi-function waste Tank Facility (MWTF), was initiated to increase the safe waste storage capacity for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) by building two new one million gallon underground storage tanks in the 200 West Area and four tanks in the 200 East Area. Construction of the tanks was scheduled to begin in September 1994 with operations beginning in calendar year (CY) 1998. However, recent reviews have raised several issues regarding the mission, scope, and schedule of the MWTF. The decision to build new tanks must consider several elements, such as: Operational risk and needs -- Operational risk and flexibility must be managed such that any identified risk is reduced as soon as practicable; The amount of waste that will be generated in the future -- Additional needed tank capacity must be made available to support operations and maintain currently planned safety improvement activities; Safety issues -- The retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks (SSTs) and watch list tanks will add to the total amount of waste that must be stored in a double-shell tank (DST); Availability of existing DSTs -- The integrity of the 28 existing DSTs must be continuously managed; and Affect on other projects and programs -- Because MWTF systems have been integrated with other projects, a decision on one project will affect another. In addition the W-236a schedule is logically tied to support retrieval and safety program plans. Based on the above, two new tanks are needed for safe waste storage in the 200 West Area, and they need to be built as soon as practicable. Design should continue for the tanks in the 200 East Area with a decision made by September, on whether to construct them. Construction of the cross-site transfer line should proceed as scheduled. To implement this recommendation several actions need to be implemented

  14. Applicability of the fish embryo acute toxicity (FET) test (OECD 236) in the regulatory context of Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobanska, Marta; Scholz, Stefan; Nyman, Anna-Maija; Cesnaitis, Romanas; Gutierrez Alonso, Simon; Klüver, Nils; Kühne, Ralph; Tyle, Henrik; de Knecht, Joop; Dang, Zhichao; Lundbergh, Ivar; Carlon, Claudio; De Coen, Wim

    2018-03-01

    In 2013 the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline (236) for fish embryo acute toxicity (FET) was adopted. It determines the acute toxicity of chemicals to embryonic fish. Previous studies show a good correlation of FET with the standard acute fish toxicity (AFT) test; however, the potential of the FET test to predict AFT, which is required by the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) regulation (EC 1907/2006) and the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) Regulation (EC 1272/2008), has not yet been fully clarified. In 2015 the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) requested that a consultant perform a scientific analysis of the applicability of FET to predict AFT. The purpose was to compare the toxicity of substances to fish embryos and to adult fish, and to investigate whether certain factors (e.g., physicochemical properties, modes of action, or chemical structures) could be used to define the applicability boundaries of the FET test. Given the limited data availability, the analysis focused on organic substances. The present critical review summarizes the main findings and discusses regulatory application of the FET test under REACH. Given some limitations (e.g., neurotoxic mode of action) and/or remaining uncertainties (e.g., deviation of some narcotic substances), it has been found that the FET test alone is currently not sufficient to meet the essential information on AFT as required by the REACH regulation. However, the test may be used within weight-of-evidence approaches together with other independent, relevant, and reliable sources of information. The present review also discusses further research needs that may overcome the remaining uncertainties and help to increase acceptance of FET as a replacement for AFT in the future. For example, an increase in the availability of data generated according to OECD test guideline 236 may provide evidence of a higher predictive power

  15. Study of paramagnetic defect centers in as-grown and annealed TiO{sub 2} anatase and rutile nanoparticles by a variable-temperature X-band and high-frequency (236 GHz) EPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, S.K.; Andronenko, S.I. [Physics Department, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd West, Montreal, QC, Canada H3G 1M8 (Canada); Tipikin, D.; Freed, J.H. [ACERT Biomedical Center, Baker Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-1301 (United States); Somani, V.; Prakash, Om [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Material Science, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-03-01

    Detailed EPR investigations on as-grown and annealed TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in the anatase and rutile phases were carried out at X-band (9.6 GHz) at 77, 120–300 K and at 236 GHz at 292 K. The analysis of EPR data for as-grown and annealed anatase and rutile samples revealed the presence of several paramagnetic centers: Ti{sup 3+}, O{sup −}, adsorbed oxygen (O{sub 2}{sup −}) and oxygen vacancies. On the other hand, in as-grown rutile samples, there were observed EPR lines due to adsorbed oxygen (O{sub 2}{sup −}) and the Fe{sup 3+} ions in both Ti{sup 4+} substitutional positions, with and without coupling to an oxygen vacancy in the near neighborhood. Anatase nanoparticles were completely converted to rutile phase when annealed at 1000° C, exhibiting EPR spectra similar to those exhibited by the as-grown rutile nanoparticles. The high-frequency (236 GHz) EPR data on anatase and rutile samples, recorded in the region about g=2.0 exhibit resolved EPR lines, due to O{sup −} and O{sub 2}{sup −} ions enabling determination of their g-values with higher precision, as well as observation of hyperfine sextets due to Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 4+} ions in anatase. - Highlights: • EPR as-grown and annealed TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in anatase and rutile • X-band at 77, 120–300 K; 236 GHz at 292 K. • Presence of Ti{sup 3+}, O{sup −}, adsorbed oxygen (O{sub 2}{sup −}) and oxygen vacancies. • Anatase completely converted to rutile when annealed at 1000 °C. • At 236 GHz, hyperfine sextets due to Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 4+} ions in anatase.

  16. Clinico-pathological correlation of digital rectal examination findings amongst Nigerian men with prostatic diseases: A prospective study of 236 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufus W Ojewola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: This study aims at correlating different digital rectal examination (DRE abnormalities with histopathological results in patients with prostatic diseases. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 236 patients who underwent prostate needle biopsy (PNB. Inclusion criteria were presence of abnormal DRE findings or elevated prostate specific antigen above 4 ng/ml or both. They all had 10-core extended transrectal biopsy and specimens were sent for histopathological examination. Correlations were made between DRE findings and histopathology results. Two separate multivariate logistic regression models were created; the first evaluated the relationship of predictors (DRE findings to the likelihood of detecting cancer and the second explored predictors of high-grade cancer on PNB. Results: Two hundred and thirty-six patients were enrolled with a mean age of 66.9 years and range of 43-90 years. Histopathology results were malignant in 102 (43.2% and benign in 134 (56.8%. Ninety-one (38.6% and 145 (61.4% had normal DRE and abnormal DRE findings with cancer detection rates of 23.1% and 55.8% respectively. Nodular prostate is the most common abnormality in 63.4% patients with abnormal DRE. Each sign of DRE had different predictive value with enhanced positive predictive value when combinations of abnormalities are present. Abnormal DRE is an independent predictor of high-grade tumor. Mean Gleason scores were 4.7 and 7.1 in patients with normal and abnormal DRE respectively. Conclusion: DRE is a useful and important tool in assessing patients with suspected prostate diseases who need prostate biopsy. An abnormal DRE correlated well with prostate cancer and independently predicted high-grade disease in these men.

  17. Fabrication of targets for transmutation of americium : synthesis of inertial matrix by sol-gel method. Procedure study on the infiltration of a radioactive solutions; Fabricacion de blancos para la transmutacion de americio: sintesis de matrices inertes por el metodo sol-gel. Estudio del procedimiento de infiltracion de disoluciones radiactivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Carretero, A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    made. In addition a new and unexpected phase formed by the reaction of americium with spinel during the high temperature synthesis process has been identified. This new phase could provide a unique menas to stabilise Am in one particular oxidation state. (Author)

  18. Study of the electrochemical oxidation of Am with lacunary heteropolyanions and silver nitrate; Etude de l'oxydation electrochimique de l'americium en presence d'heteropolyanions lacunaires et de nitrate d'argent en milieu aqueux acide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartier, D

    1999-07-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of Am(III) with certain lacunary heteropolyanions (LHPA {alpha}{sub 2}-P{sub 2}W{sub 17}O{sub 61}{sup 10-} or {alpha}SiW{sub 11}O{sub 39}{sup 8-}) and silver nitrate is an efficient way to prepare Am(VI). This document presents bibliographic data and an experimental study of the process. Thus, it has been established that Am(IV) is an intermediate species in the reaction and occurs in 1:1 (Amt{sup IV}LHPA) or 1:2 (Am {sup IV}(LHAP){sub 2}) complexes with the relevant LHPA. These 1:1 complexes of Am(IV) have been identified and isolated in this work whereas 1:2 complexes were known from previous studies. The reactivity of these complexes in oxidation shows that 1:1 complexes of Am(IV) are oxidised much more quickly than 1:2 complexes. Apparent stability constants of Am(III) and Am(IV) complexes with the relevant LHPA have been measured for a 1 M nitric acid medium. Thermodynamic data of the reaction are then assessed: redox potentials of Am pairs are computed for a 1 M nitric acid medium containing various amount of LHPA ligands. Those results show that the role of LHPA is to stabilize the intermediate species Am(IV) by lowering the Am(IV)/Am(III) pair potential of about 1 Volt. Nevertheless, if this stabilisation is too strong (i.e. of tungsto-silicate), the oxidation of Am(IV) requires high anodic potential (more than 2 V/ENH). Then, the faradic yield of the oxidation of americium is poor because of water oxidation. This study has also shown that the main role of silver is to catalyze the electrochemical oxidation of Am{sup IV}(LHPA){sub X} complexes. Indeed, these oxidations without silver are extremely slow. An oxygen tracer experiment has been performed during the oxidation of Am(III) in Am(VI). It has been shown that the oxygen atoms of Am(VI) (AMO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) come from water molecules of the solvent and not from the complexing oxygen atoms of the ligands. (author)

  19. Peptide profiling of bovine kefir reveals 236 unique peptides released from caseins during its production by starter culture or kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Jennifer; Aşçı Arslan, Ayşe; Fedorova, Maria; Hoffmann, Ralf; Küçükçetin, Ahmet; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2015-03-18

    Kefir has a long tradition in human nutrition due to its presupposed health promoting effects. To investigate the potential contribution of bioactive peptides to the physiological effects of kefir, comprehensive analysis of the peptide profile was performed by nano-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap MS coupled to nano-ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography. Thus, 257 peptides were identified, mainly released from β-casein, followed by αS1-, κ-, and αS2-casein. Most (236) peptides were uniquely detected in kefir, but not in raw milk indicating that the fermentation step does not only increase the proteolytic activity 1.7- to 2.4-fold compared to unfermented milk, but also alters the composition of the peptide fraction. The influence of the microflora was determined by analyzing kefir produced from traditional kefir grains or commercial starter culture. Kefir from starter culture featured 230 peptide sequences and showed a significantly, 1.4-fold higher proteolytic activity than kefir from kefir grains with 127 peptides. A match of 97 peptides in both varieties indicates the presence of a typical kefir peptide profile that is not influenced by the individual composition of the microflora. Sixteen of the newly identified peptides were previously described as bioactive, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory, antimicrobial, immunomodulating, opioid, mineral binding, antioxidant, and antithrombotic effects. The present study describes a comprehensive peptide profile of kefir comprising 257 sequences. The peptide list was used to identify 16 bioactive peptides with ACE-inhibitory, antioxidant, antithrombotic, mineral binding, antimicrobial, immunomodulating and opioid activity in kefir. Furthermore, it was shown that a majority of the kefir peptides were not endogenously present in the raw material milk, but were released from milk caseins by proteases of the microbiota and are therefore specific for the product. Consequently, the proteolytic activity and the

  20. First Measurement of Bose-Einstein Correlations in Proton-Proton Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=0.9$ and 2.36 TeV at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Sirunyan, Albert M.; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Er, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; /Yerevan Phys. Inst. /Vienna, OAW /CERN /Minsk, High Energy Phys. Ctr. /Antwerp U., WISINF /Vrije U., Brussels /Brussels U. /Gent U. /Louvain U. /UMH, Mons /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /CERN /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Piemonte Orientale U., Novara /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /CHEP, Taegu /Chonnam Natl. U. /Korea U. /UCLA /CERN /UC, Riverside /Budapest, RMKI /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /Caltech /Carnegie Mellon U. /Colorado U. /Cornell U. /Fairfield U.

    2010-05-01

    Bose-Einstein correlations have been measured using samples of proton-proton collisions at 0.9 and 2.36 TeV center-of-mass energies, recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The signal is observed in the form of an enhancement of pairs of same-sign charged particles with small relative four-momentum. The size of the correlated particle emission region is seen to increase significantly with the particle multiplicity of the event.

  1. First Measurement of Bose-Einstein Correlations in proton-proton Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ =0.9 and 2.36 TeV at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; Ceard, Ludivine; De Wolf, Eddi A.; Hashemi, Majid; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Adler, Volker; Beauceron, Stephanie; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Joris; Maes, Michael; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Villella, Ilaria; Chabert, Eric Christian; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Marinov, Andrey; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Demin, Pavel; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Oguri, Vitor; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Ferreira Dias, Marco Andre; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Novaes, Sergio F.; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dyulendarova, Milena; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Marinova, Evelina; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Yang, Min; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Hu, Zhen; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhu, Bo; Cabrera, Andrés; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Fereos, Reginos; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Papadakis, Antonakis; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A.; Rykaczewski, Hans; Tsiakkouri, Demetra; Zinonos, Zinonas; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Kannike, Kristjan; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Klem, Jukka; Kortelainen, Matti J.; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Descamps, Julien; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Rousseau, Delphine; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Elgammal, Sherif; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Kalinowski, Artur; Miné, Philippe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Besson, Auguste; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Speck, Joaquim; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Xiao, Hong; Roinishvili, Vladimir; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Actis, Oxana; Ata, Metin; Bender, Walter; Biallass, Philipp; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Hof, Carsten; Kirsch, Matthias; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Sowa, Michael; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Zeidler, Clemens; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Olzem, Jan; Parenti, Andrea; Raspereza, Alexei; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Draeger, Jula; Eckstein, Doris; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Klanner, Robert; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Wolf, Roger; Bauer, Julia; Buege, Volker; Cakir, Altan; Chwalek, Thorsten; Daeuwel, Daniel; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Piparo, Danilo; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Renz, Manuel; Sabellek, Andreas; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Zeise, Manuel; Zhukov, Valery; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Katsas, Panagiotis; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A.; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Debreczeni, Gergely; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Laszlo, Andras; Sikler, Ferenc; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Sharma, Richa; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jas Bir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chauhan, Sushil; Choudhary, Brajesh C.; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Shilpi; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Ashok; Ranjan, Kirti; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Suggisetti, Praveenkumar; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Fahim, Ali; Jafari, Abideh; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Dimitrov, Anton; Fedele, Francesca; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Trentadue, Raffaello; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Genta, Chiara; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Miccio, Vincenzo; Moroni, Luigi; Negri, Pietro; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Salerno, Roberto; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Tancini, Valentina; Taroni, Silvia; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cimmino, Anna; De Cosa, Annapaola; De Gruttola, Michele; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Noli, Pasquale; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Conti, Enrico; De Mattia, Marco; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gresele, Ambra; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Mazzucato, Mirco; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Santocchia, Attilio; Servoli, Leonello; Valdata, Marisa; Volpe, Roberta; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Tito DAgnolo, Raffaele; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Organtini, Giovanni; Palma, Alessandro; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Mila, Giorgia; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Trocino, Daniele; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ambroglini, Filippo; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jaeho; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Choi, Suyong; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz Burelo, Eduard; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villaseñor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A.; Allfrey, Philip; Krofcheck, David; Tam, Jason; Butler, Philip H.; Signal, Tony; Williams, Jennifer C.; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R.; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Mini, Giuliano; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Raposo, Luis; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Silva, Pedro; Soares, David; Varela, Joao; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Altsybeev, Igor; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr., Michael; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Bondar, Nikolai; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Ilina, Natalia; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Oulianov, Alexei; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Shreyber, Irina; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V.; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Datsko, Kirill; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Sytine, Alexandre; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Krpic, Dragomir; Maletic, Dimitrije; Milosevic, Jovan; Puzovic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M.; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Diaz Merino, Irma; Diez Gonzalez, Carlos; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Beaudette, Florian; Bellan, Riccardo; Benedetti, Daniele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bolognesi, Sara; Breuker, Horst; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cano, Eric; Cattai, Ariella; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Covarelli, Roberto; Curé, Benoît; Dahms, Torsten; De Roeck, Albert; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Gennai, Simone; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gowdy, Stephen; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Henderson, Conor; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Honma, Alan; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Lecoq, Paul; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lourenco, Carlos; Macpherson, Alick; Maki, Tuula; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Orsini, Luciano; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stöckli, Fabian; Traczyk, Piotr; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Caminada, Lea; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hervé, Alain; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nardulli, Alessandro; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Schinzel, Dietrich; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Schmidt, Alexander; Tsirigkas, Dimitrios; Wilke, Lotte; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Wan-Ting; Go, Apollo; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Ming-Hsiung; Lu, Yun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lin, Sheng-Wen; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Ueno, Koji; Wang, Chin-chi; Wang, Minzu; Wei, Jui-Te; Adiguzel, Aytul; Ayhan, Aydin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Demir, Zahide; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gökbulut, Gül; Güler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Nart, Alisah; Önengüt, Gülsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatöz, Ayse; Sahin, Ozge; Sengul, Ozden; Sogut, Kenan; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gülmez, Erhan; Halu, Arda; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Özbek, Melih; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bell, Peter; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Hansen, Maria; Heath, Greg P.; Heath, Helen F.; Hill, Christopher; Huckvale, Benedickt; Jackson, James; Kreczko, Lukasz; Mackay, Catherine Kirsty; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M.; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Smith, Vincent J.; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W.; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M.; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David J.A.; Coughlan, John A.; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Kennedy, Bruce W.; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R.; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Foudas, Costas; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R.; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Bose, Tulika; Clough, Andrew; Heister, Arno; St. John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Andrea, Jeremy; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Esen, Selda; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Cebra, Daniel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Schwarz, Thomas; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Deisher, Amanda; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Felcini, Marta; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Wallny, Rainer; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Pasztor, Gabriella; Satpathy, Asish; Shen, Benjamin C.; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G.; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Muelmenstaedt, Johannes; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Blume, Michael; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Garberson, Jeffrey; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lamb, James; Lowette, Steven; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Witherell, Michael; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Gataullin, Marat; Kcira, Dorian; Litvine, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Newman, Harvey B.; Rogan, Christopher; Shin, Kyoungha; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Terentyev, Nikolay; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T.; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Blekman, Freya; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Fields, Laura Johanna; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Riley, Daniel; Ryd, Anders; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar A.T.; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Demarteau, Marcel; Eartly, David P.; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hahn, Alan; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M.; James, Eric; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Limon, Peter; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; McCauley, Thomas; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Popescu, Sorina; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Saoulidou, Niki; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Smith, Richard P.; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J.; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D.; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Kim, Bockjoo; Klimenko, Sergey; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Prescott, Craig; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Mesa, Dalgis; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F.; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M.; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatian, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Cankocak, Kerem; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Murray, Michael; Radicci, Valeria; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Bandurin, Dmitry; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G.; Kirn, Malina; Mignerey, Alice; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C.; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; D'Enterria, David; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wyslouch, Bolek; Xie, Si; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cole, Perrie; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Sonnek, Peter; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Lundstedt, Carl; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R.; Baur, Ulrich; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Smith, Kenneth; Strang, Michael; Zennamo, Joseph; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Warchol, Jadwiga; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Killewald, Phillip; Ling, Ta-Yung; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatzerklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E.; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F.; Gecse, Zoltan; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Laasanen, Alvin T.; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Potamianos, Karolos; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank J.M.; Liu, Jinghua H.; Morales, Jafet; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Asaadi, Jonathan; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Buehler, Marc; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Gunthoti, Kranti; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Dutta, Suchandra; Efron, Jonathan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Lomidze, David; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Polese, Giovanni; Reeder, Don; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H.; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Bose-Einstein correlations have been measured using samples of proton-proton collisions at 0.9 and 2.36 TeV center-of-mass energies, recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The signal is observed in the form of an enhancement of pairs of same-sign charged particles with small relative four-momentum. The size of the correlated particle emission region is seen to increase significantly with the particle multiplicity of the event.

  2. Numerical investigations of the fuel cycle for a 10 GW(TH)-OTTO-pebble-bed reactor with regard to high conversion ratio under special consideration of U-236 disconnexion through isotope-separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, H.

    1976-12-01

    A conversion ratio of near 1.0 can be achieved in a pebble-bed reactor using the OTTO (once through then out) loading scheme, having an economic burn-up of the fuel, an economic power density and a moderation ratio, which is considered realistically for the future. The flexibility of the reactor concept and of the fuel element design allows to recycle the fuel during full-power operation. In the present report first the criteria are shown, which are necessary to reach a high conversion ratio. Further it is presented that the conversion ratio increases considerably by closing the fuel cycle in consequence of the building-up of U-233. In this way the fuel inventory and the fuel consumption can considerably be diminished. It is demonstrated that the building-up and the accumulation of U-236 effects an important deterioration of the neutron economy. By taking the reprocessed uranium through an isotope separation (for example: ultra-gas-centrifugation) and by separation of U-236 from the other uranium isotopes it is possible to reduce the fuel consumption considerably. The expenditure and the cost which are necessary for the isotope separation are presented. (orig.) [de

  3. Plutonium and americium behavior in coral atoll environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.L.; Eagle, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Inventories of 239+240 Pu and 241 Am greatly in excess of global fallout levels persist in the benthic environments of Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. Quantities of 239+240 Pu and lesser amounts of 241 Am are continuously mobilizing from these sedimentary reservoirs. The amount of 239+240 Pu mobilized to solution at any time represents 0.08 to 0.09% of the sediment inventories to a depth of 16 cm. The mobilized 239+240 Pu has solute-like characteristics and different valence states coexist in solution - the largest fraction of the soluble plutonium is in an oxidized form (+V,VI). The adsorption of plutonium to sediments is not completely reversible because of changes that occur in the relative amounts of the mixed oxidation states in solution with time. Further, any characteristics of 239+240 Pu described at one location may not necessarily be relevant in describing its behavior elsewhere following mobilization and migration. The relative amounts of 241 Am to 239+240 Pu in the sedimentary deposits at Enewetak and Bikini may be altered in future years because of mobilization and radiological decay. Mobilization of 239+240 Pu is not a process unique to these atolls, and quantities in solution derived from sedimentary deposits can be found at other global sites. These studies in the equatorial Pacific have significance in assessing the long-term behavior of the transuranics in any marine environment. 22 references, 1 figure, 13 tables

  4. Gastrointestinal absorption of americium in rats: effect of citrate concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, J.; Ishigure, N.; Oghiso, Y.; Sato, H.

    1994-01-01

    The gastrointestinal absorption of 241 Am was studied in relation to the amount of sodium citrate administered with it. Fasted Wistar strain female rats received 241 Am orally in sodium citrate solution of various concentrations and 5 days after administration animals were sacrificed and the retention and distribution of 241 Am was studied. The results indicated that the f 1 value was very high at about 10% of administered activity when 241 Am was given to fasted rats with a large amount of sodium citrate. (author)

  5. Further Studies of Plutonium and Americium at Thule, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Asker; Dahlgaard, Henning; Nilsson, Karen Kristina

    1984-01-01

    further away from the impact point and at some locations the vertical distribution indicated a downward displacement of Pu in the sediment column since 1974. Seawater and seaplants showed no evidence of the presence of Pu from sources other than fallout; but Pu in benthos varied nearly proportionally...

  6. Uptake of plutonium and americium by plants from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Tompkins, G.A.; Babcock, K.L.

    1975-01-01

    Plant uptake of 239 , 240 Pu and 241 Am was studied on two soil samples collected on the Nevada Test Site. These soils had each been previously contaminated with the radionuclides by high explosive detonation of devices containing plutonium. The 239 PuO 2 equivalent diameters of plutonium bearing particles present in the soil samples were determined and found to be log-normal in the range of 0.2 to 0.7 μm. Particles were examined by electronmicroscopy and found to be 2 to 3 times larger than the 239 PuO 2 equivalent diameter. Electron microprobe analysis showed that these particles consisted primarily of Pu, U, and O, with Al, Si, Fe and Mg present in much smaller amounts. The plutonium distribution ratio (D. R. = nuclide concentration in plant/nuclide concentration in soil) was in the order of 10 -5 for barley plant vegetation and was 20 to 100 times lower for barley grain. The D. R. for 241 Am was in the order of 10 -4 for vegetative growth and 25-75 times lower for the grain. In other uptake experiments three different soils were utilized: slightly acid forest soil, neutral valley soil, and calcareous alkaline soil. The 239 240 Pu and 241 Am were added to the soil as nitrate or chloride solution to facilitate the addition of Pu to soil in different oxidation states. Where Pu in the higher oxidation states (nitrate) was added to the alkaline calcareous soil, the highest plant uptake was observed. In uptake experiments with wheat the plutonium distribution ratio of the grain ranged from about 4 x 10 -8 to 4 x 10 -6 . The 241 Am D. R.'s ranged from 3 x 10 -7 to 3 x 10 -5 . (U.S.)

  7. Biosorption of americium-241 by immobilized Rhizopus arrihizus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Jiali; Yang Yuanyou; Luo Shunzhong; Liu Ning; Jin Jiannan; Zhang Taiming; Zhao Pengji

    2004-01-01

    Rhizopus arrihizus (R. arrihizus), a fungus, which in previous experiments had shown encouraging ability to remove 241 Am from solutions, was immobilized by calcium alginate and other reagents. The various factors affecting 241 Am biosorption by the immobilized R. arrihizus were investigated. The results showed that not only can immobilized R. arrihizus adsorb 241 Am as efficiently as free R. arrihizus, but that also can be used repeatedly or continuously. The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 2 h, and more than 94% of 241 Am was removed from 241 Am solutions of 1.08 MBq/l by immobilized R. arrihizu in the pH range 1-7. Temperature did not affect the adsorption on immobilized R. arrihizus in the range 15-45 deg. C. After repeated adsorption for 8 times, the immobilized R. arrihizus still adsorbed more than 97% of 241 Am. At this time, the total adsorption of 241 Am was more than 88.6 KBq/g, and had not yet reached saturation. Ninety-five percent of the adsorbed 241 Am was desorbed by saturated EDTA solution and 98% by 2 mol/l HNO 3

  8. Further Studies of Plutonium and Americium at Thule, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Asker; Dahlgaard, Henning; Nilsson, Karen Kristina

    1984-01-01

    Eleven years after the accidental loss of nuclear weapons in 1968, the fourth scientific expedition to Thule occurred. The estimated inventory of 1 TBq 239,240Pu in the marine sediments was unchanged when compared with the estimate based on the 1974 data. Plutonium from the accident had moved...

  9. Europium (III) and americium (III) stability constants with humic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, R.A.; Choppin, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The stability constants for tracer concentrations of Eu(III) and Am(III) complexes with a humic acid extracted from a lake-bottom sediment were measured using a solvent extraction system. The organic extractant was di(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid in toluene while the humate aqueous phase had a constant ionic strength of 0.1 M (NaClO 4 ). Aqueous humic acid concentrations were monitored by measuring uv-visible absorbances at approx.= 380 nm. The total carboxylate capacity of the humic acid was determined by direct potentiometric titration to be 3.86 +- 0.03 meq/g. The humic acid displayed typical characteristics of a polyelectrolyte - the apparent pKsub(a), as well as the calculated metal ion stability constants increased as the degree of ionization (α) increased. The binding data required a fit of two stability constants, β 1 and β 2 , such that for Eu, log β 1 = 8.86 α + 4.39, log β 2 = 3.55 α + 11.06 while for Am, log β 1 = 10.58 α + 3.84, log β 2 = 5.32 α + 10.42. With hydroxide, carbonate, and humate as competing ligands, the humate complex associated with the β 1 constant is calculated to be the dominant species for the trivalent actinides and lanthanides under conditions present in natural waters. (orig.)

  10. Ecological behavior of plutonium and americium in a freshwater pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Garland, T.R.; Weimer, W.C.

    1975-03-01

    A Pu processing waste pond on the Hanford Reservation has been studied since mid-1973 to characterize the pond's limnology and determine the ecological behavior in this ecosystem. About 8.1 kg of Pu was reported to have been discharged into waste trenches leading to the pond. Mean ratios of isotopes in the sediments are 0.85 for 238 Pu to 239 240 Pu, 0.61 for 241 Am to 238 Pu, and 0.49 for 241 Am to 239 240 Pu. Levels of Pu and Am in the interstitial water range from 0.5 to 13 pCi/g (dry wt. of sediment). For 238 Pu in pond water the mean concentration is 0.007 pCi/l, for 239 240 Pu it is 0.002 pCi/l, and for 241 Am it is 1.08 pCi/l. The remaining biota had Pu and Am levels which were generally well below those of the sediments. (U.S.)

  11. A bioassay method for americium and curium in feces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre Gagne; Dominic Lariviere; Joel Surette; Sheila Kramer-Tremblay; Xiongxin Dai; Candice Didychuk

    2013-01-01

    Fecal radiobioassay is an essential and sensitive tool to estimate the internal intake of actinides after a radiological incident. A new fecal analysis method, based on lithium metaborate fusion of fecal ash for complete sample dissolution followed by sequential column chromatography separation of actinides, has been developed for the determination of low-level Am and Cm in a large size sample. Spiked synthetic fecal samples were analyzed to evaluate method performance against the acceptance criteria for radiobioassay as defined by ANSI N13.30; both satisfactory accuracy and repeatability were achieved. This method is a promising candidate for reliable dose assessment of low level actinide exposure to meet the regulatory requirements of routine radiobioassay for nuclear workers and the public. (author)

  12. Biosorption of americium-241 by immobilized Rhizopus arrihizus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Jiali E-mail: liaojiali@163.com; Yang Yuanyou; Luo Shunzhong; Liu Ning; Jin Jiannan; Zhang Taiming; Zhao Pengji

    2004-01-01

    Rhizopus arrihizus (R. arrihizus), a fungus, which in previous experiments had shown encouraging ability to remove {sup 241}Am from solutions, was immobilized by calcium alginate and other reagents. The various factors affecting {sup 241}Am biosorption by the immobilized R. arrihizus were investigated. The results showed that not only can immobilized R. arrihizus adsorb {sup 241}Am as efficiently as free R. arrihizus, but that also can be used repeatedly or continuously. The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 2 h, and more than 94% of {sup 241}Am was removed from {sup 241}Am solutions of 1.08 MBq/l by immobilized R. arrihizu in the pH range 1-7. Temperature did not affect the adsorption on immobilized R. arrihizus in the range 15-45 deg. C. After repeated adsorption for 8 times, the immobilized R. arrihizus still adsorbed more than 97% of {sup 241}Am. At this time, the total adsorption of {sup 241}Am was more than 88.6 KBq/g, and had not yet reached saturation. Ninety-five percent of the adsorbed {sup 241}Am was desorbed by saturated EDTA solution and 98% by 2 mol/l HNO{sub 3}.

  13. High-Resolution Measurements of Neutron Energy Spectra from Americium-Beryllium and Americium-Boron Neutron Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, James W.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. A Helium-3 sandwich spectrometer incorporating two semiconductor detectors was designed and constructed to enable the measurement of high resolution neutron energy spectra in the energy range from 100 keV to 15 MeV. The instrument is novel in respect of the inclusion of an anode wire which enables the gas chamber to function as a gas proportional counter. Few similar instruments have been constructed and no similar instrument is known to be currently (1990) in use in the UK. The efficiency of the spectrometer was determined experimentally, using a Californium-252 spontaneous fission source, in the low-scatter facility of the National physical Laboratory. A Monte Carlo code has been written to determine the absolute efficiency over an energy range from 81 keV to 20 MeV. The calculated values were used to extrapolate the measured efficiency to higher energies. Furthermore the Monte Carlo code was used to determine certain operating parameters to optimise the efficiency of the spectrometer. The neutron energy spectra from two different size standard Am-Be neutron sources and a standard Am-B neutron source available at NPL were measured. Although these types of neutron sources have been subject to energy spectra measurements elsewhere, the present work improves considerably on the previous poorer energy resolution and energy range. The new data indicates for the three neutron sources studied that the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10) per unit fluence, for each, were identical, being within 2% of 3.70 E-10 Sv cm^2.

  14. The Absolute Total Delayed Neutron Yields, Relative Abundances and Half-Lives of Delayed Neutron Groups from Neutron Induced Fission of 232Th, 233U, 236U, 239Pu and 241Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piksaikin, V.M.; Egorov, A.S.; Mitrofanov, K.V.

    2013-10-01

    The absolute total yield, relative yields and half-lives of individual delayed neutron groups produced from fast neutron-induced fission of 232 Th, 233 U, 236 U, 239 Pu and 241 Am are measured by performing cyclic irradiations of the sample and subsequently measuring the time dependence of the delayed neutron activity decay. The data are analysed using an iterative least-squares fitting procedure to estimate the temporary delayed neutron parameters both for the 6- and 8-group models at each incident neutron energy. The improved data contribute to the continuing effort to meet the data requirements emerging from the current trends in reactor technologies, including the growing interest in fuel recycling strategies and new concepts of actinide burners. (author)

  15. Postoperative consumption of opioid analgesics following correction of pectus excavatum is influenced by pectus severity: a single-centre study of 236 patients undergoing minimally invasive correction of pectus excavatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Kasper; Pfeiffer-Jensen, Mogens; Pilegaard, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Surgical correction of pectus excavatum (PE) is primarily performed to achieve cosmetic and psychological benefits for the patient. Minimally invasive repair of PE is often associated with severe postoperative pain. This study estimates the effect of the severity of PE...... on the postoperative consumption of opioid analgesics following this procedure to optimise pain management. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 236 consecutive patients undergoing minimally invasive repair of PE from 2005 to 2008. The collected data included depth of preoperative pectus excavation, patient...... demographics, peri- and postoperative information, including data on pain management. The consumption of opioid analgesics was registered after discontinuation of epidural analgesia and other types of opioid analgesics used during the study period were converted to morphine equivalents. Multiple linear...

  16. 76 FR 2759 - Proposed Information Collection (VAAR Clauses 852-236-72, 852.236-81, 852.236-82, 852.236-83, 852...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... each other and to the existing building elements. The information is used by the contracting officer... needed to administer contracts. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed collection of... respondents, including through the use of automated collection techniques or the use of other forms of...

  17. BDML Metadata: 236 [SSBD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BY-NC-SA 0.150 0ec11f69-8817-4c7f-94cf-8973a5da1081 0.105 x 0.105 x 0.5 (micrometer), 40 (second) http://ssbd.qbic.riken.jp/data.../source/Ce_KK_P002/RNAi_W06F12.1a_070215_02/ http://ssbd.qbic.riken.jp/data.../bdml/Ce_KK_P002/RNAi_W06F12.1a_070215_02.bdml0.15.xml http://ssbd.qbic.riken.jp/data/pdpml/C...e_KK_P002.pdpml0.05.xml http://ssbd.qbic.riken.jp/search/0ec11f69-8817-4c7f-94cf-8973a5da1081/ http://ssbd.qbic.riken.jp/omero/webclient/?show=dataset-168 ...

  18. 49 CFR 236.106 - Relays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems... of train operations, shall be tested at least once every four years except: (a) Alternating current... soft iron magnetic structure shall be tested at least once every 2 years. [49 FR 3384, Jan. 26, 1984] ...

  19. Publications | Page 236 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC works with developing-country researchers and institutions to build local capacity through funding, knowledge sharing, and training. Through books, articles, research publications, and studies, we aim to widen the impact of our investment and advance development research. We share the results of our funded ...

  20. Colonic polyps: experience of 236 Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, U; Thapa, B R; Vaiphei, K; Singh, K

    1998-04-01

    We studied the clinical spectrum, histology, and malignant potential of colonic polyps in Indian children (children with colonic polyps were studied from January 1991 to October 1996. They were evaluated clinically and colonoscopic polypectomy was done. Children with five or more juvenile polyps were labeled as having juvenile polyposis and serial colonoscopic polypectomies were done every 3 wk. Colectomy was performed when there were intractable symptoms or clearing of the polyps by colonoscopy was not possible. Histological examination of the polyps was done. Follow-up colonoscopy was done in children with juvenile polyposis only. The mean age of these children was 6.12 +/- 2.7 yr, with a male preponderance (3.5:1). Rectal bleeding of a mean duration of 14 +/- 16 months was the presenting symptom in 98.7%. Solitary polyps were seen in 76%, multiple polyps in 16.5%, and juvenile polyposis in 7% (n = 17) of the children. A majority (93%) of the polyps were juvenile and 85% were rectosigmoid in location. Adenomatous changes, seen in 11%, were more common in juvenile polyposis (59%) than in juvenile polyps (5%). Among those with juvenile polyposis, colon clearance was achieved in eight, six required colectomy for intractable symptoms, and three were still on the polypectomy program. Polyps recurred in 5% of children with juvenile polyps and 37.5% of those with juvenile polyposis. Juvenile polyps remain the most common colonic polyps in children. A significant number of cases of polyps are multiple and proximally located, which emphasizes the need for total colonoscopy in all. Juvenile polyps should be removed even if asymptomatic because of their neoplastic potential. Colonoscopic polypectomy is effective even in juvenile polyposis. Surveillance colonoscopy is required in juvenile polyposis only.