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Sample records for americas ix final

  1. Program and Abstracts, Boron Americas IX Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feakes, Debra A.

    2006-08-09

    The Scientific and Technical Information (STI) submitted includes the final report and a collection of abstracts for the Ninth Boron in the Americas Conference which was held May 19-22, 2004, in San Marcos, Texas. The topics covered in the abstracts include: Application in Medicine, Application in Organic Synthesis and Catalysis, Boranes and Carboranes, Materials and Polymers, Metallaboranes and Metallacarboranes, Organoboron Compounds, Synthesis and Catalysis, and Theoretical Studies. Attendees represented researchers from government, industry, and academia.

  2. Notes on Clavarioid fungi—IX. Addendum to Clavulinopsis in North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, Ronald H.

    1971-01-01

    This paper constitutes an addendum to a previous paper by the author on the genus Clavulinopsis in North America. One new species is described, Clavulinopsis subaustralis Petersen, and one new combination made, Clavulinopsis laeticolor f. coccineo-basalis (Joss.) Petersen.

  3. Measurement of attitudes toward commercial development of geothermal energy in Federal Region IX. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    A survey was conducted of ten target study groups and subgroups for Klamath Falls, Oregon, and Susanville, California: local government, current and potential industry at the site, relocators to the site, current and potential financial community, regulators, and current and potential promoters and developers. The results of benchmark attitudinal measurement is presented separately for each target group. A literature review was conducted and Macro-environmental attitudes of a sample of local government and industry personnel at the sites were assessed. An assessment of capabilities was made which involved two measurements. The first was a measurement of a sample of promoters, developers, and industrial service companies active at the site to determine infrastructure capabilities required by industry for geothermal plants. The second measurement involved analyzing a sample of industry management in the area and defining their requirements for plant retrofit and expansion. Finally, the processes used by the study group to analyze information to reach commitment and regulatory decisions that significantly impact on geothermal energy projects at the site were identified and defined.

  4. Final Scientific Report - Wind Powering America State Outreach Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Mark; Margolis, Anne

    2012-02-01

    The goal of the Wind Powering America State Outreach Project was to facilitate the adoption of effective state legislation, policy, finance programs, and siting best practices to accelerate public acceptance and development of wind energy. This was accomplished by Clean Energy States Alliance (CESA) through provision of informational tools including reports and webinars as well as the provision of technical assistance to state leaders on wind siting, policy, and finance best practices, identification of strategic federal-state partnership activities for both onshore and offshore wind, and participation in regional wind development collaboratives. The Final Scientific Report - Wind Powering America State Outreach Project provides a summary of the objectives, activities, and outcomes of this project as accomplished by CESA over the period 12/1/2009 - 11/30/2011.

  5. Project Closeout: Guidance for Final Evaluation of Building America Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, P.; Burch, J.; Hendron, B.

    2008-03-01

    This report presents guidelines for Project Closeout. It is used to determine whether the Building America program is successfully facilitating improved design and practices to achieve energy savings goals in production homes. Its objective is to use energy simulations, targeted utility bill analysis, and feedback from project stakeholders to evaluate the performance of occupied BA communities.

  6. The European Large Area ISO Survey - IX. The 90-mu m luminosity function from the Final Analysis sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serjeant, S; Carraminana, A; Gonzales-Solares, E; Heraudeau, P; Mujica, R; Perez-Fournon, [No Value; Sedgwick, N; Rowan-Robinson, M; Franceschini, A; Babbedge, T; del Burgo, C; Ciliegi, P; Efstathiou, A; La Franca, F; Gruppioni, C; Hughes, D; Lari, C; Oliver, S; Pozzi, F; Stickel, M; Vaccari, M

    2004-01-01

    We present the 90-mum luminosity function of the Final Analysis of the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS), extending the sample size of our previous analysis (Paper IV) by about a factor of 4. Our sample extends to z = 1.1, similar to50 times the comoving volume of Paper IV, and 10(7.7)

  7. The Brazilian position during the final transactions the treaty for the proscriptions of nuclear weapons in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian position during the final transactions on the treaty for the proscription of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America is presented. An analysis of the main clauses of this treaty is given, well as a comparative study between the principle points of Tlatelolco Treaty and Non-Proliferation Treaty

  8. [Ultrasmall nanoparticles for radiotherapy: AGuIX].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, F; Detappe, A; Dufort, S; Sancey, L; Louis, C; Carme, S; Tillement, O

    2015-10-01

    Since twenty years, many nanoparticles based on high atomic number elements have been developed as radiosensitizers. The design of these nanoparticles is limited by the classical rules associated with the development of nanoparticles for oncology and by the specific ones associated to radiosensitizers, which aim to increase the effect of the dose in the tumor area and to spare the health tissues. For this application, systemic administration of nanodrugs is possible. This paper will discuss the development of AGuIX nanoparticles and will emphasize on this example the critical points for the development of a nanodrug for this application. AGuIX nanoparticles display hydrodynamic diameters of a few nanometers and are composed of polysiloxane and gadolinium chelates. This particle has been used in many preclinical studies and is evaluated for a further phase I clinical trial. Finally, in addition to its high radiosensitizing potential, AGuIX display MRI functionality and can be used as theranostic nanodrug for personalized medicine. PMID:26343033

  9. Final Report for Harvesting a New Wind Crop: Innovative Economic Approaches for Rural America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Innis; Randy Udall; Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-09-30

    Final Report for ''Harvesting a New Wind Crop: Innovative Economic Approaches for Rural America'': This project, ''Harvesting a New Wind Crop'', helped stimulate wind development by rural electric cooperatives and municipal utilities in Colorado. To date most of the wind power development in the United States has been driven by large investor-owned utilities serving major metropolitan areas. To meet the 5% by 2020 goal of the Wind Powering America program the 2,000 municipal and 900 rural electric cooperatives in the country must get involved in wind power development. Public power typically serves rural and suburban areas and can play a role in revitalizing communities by tapping into the economic development potential of wind power. One barrier to the involvement of public power in wind development has been the perception that wind power is more expensive than other generation sources. This project focused on two ways to reduce the costs of wind power to make it more attractive to public power entities. The first way was to develop a revenue stream from the sale of green tags. By selling green tags to entities that voluntarily support wind power, rural coops and munis can effectively reduce their cost of wind power. Western Resource Advocates (WRA) and the Community Office for Resource Efficiency (CORE) worked with Lamar Light and Power and Arkansas River Power Authority to develop a strategy to use green tags to help finance their wind project. These utilities are now selling their green tags to Community Energy, Inc., an independent for-profit marketer who in turn sells the tags to consumers around Colorado. The Lamar tags allow the University of Colorado-Boulder, the City of Boulder, NREL and other businesses to support wind power development and make the claim that they are ''wind-powered''. This urban-rural partnership is an important development for the state of Colorado's rural communities

  10. BSC Final Report: Lessons Learned from Building America Participation; February 1995 - December 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Bob [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2004-04-01

    This report chronicles the how and why of the key BSC Building America outcomes. It is organized and put in the context of what the Building Science Consortium has learned from and with its building industry partners.

  11. Quantum supersymmetric Bianchi IX cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damour, Thibault; Spindel, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    We study the quantum dynamics of a supersymmetric squashed three-sphere by dimensionally reducing (to one timelike dimension) the action of D =4 simple supergravity for a S U (2 ) -homogeneous (Bianchi IX) cosmological model. The quantization of the homogeneous gravitino field leads to a 64-dimensional fermionic Hilbert space. After imposition of the diffeomorphism constraints, the wave function of the Universe becomes a 64-component spinor of spin(8,4) depending on the three squashing parameters, which satisfies Dirac-like, and Klein-Gordon-like, wave equations describing the propagation of a "quantum spinning particle" reflecting off spin-dependent potential walls. The algebra of the supersymmetry constraints and of the Hamiltonian one is found to close. One finds that the quantum Hamiltonian is built from operators that generate a 64-dimensional representation of the (infinite-dimensional) maximally compact subalgebra of the rank-3 hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebra A E3 . The (quartic-in-fermions) squared-mass term μ^ 2 entering the Klein-Gordon-like equation has several remarkable properties: (i) it commutes with all the other (Kac-Moody-related) building blocks of the Hamiltonian; (ii) it is a quadratic function of the fermion number NF; and (iii) it is negative in most of the Hilbert space. The latter property leads to a possible quantum avoidance of the singularity ("cosmological bounce"), and suggests imposing the boundary condition that the wave function of the Universe vanish when the volume of space tends to zero (a type of boundary condition which looks like a final-state condition when considering the big crunch inside a black hole). The space of solutions is a mixture of "discrete-spectrum states" (parametrized by a few constant parameters, and known in explicit form) and of continuous-spectrum states (parametrized by arbitrary functions entering some initial-value problem). The predominantly negative values of the squared-mass term lead to a "bottle

  12. Hardware and Programmatic Progress on the Ares I-X Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephan R.

    2008-01-01

    In less than two years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will execute the Ares I-X mission. This will be the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle; which, together with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle (Figure 1), will eventually send humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. As the countdown to this first Ares mission continues, personnel from across the Ares I-X Mission Management Office (MMO) are finalizing designs and, in some cases, already fabricating vehicle hardware in preparation for an April 2009 launch. This paper will discuss the hardware and programmatic progress of the Ares I-X mission.

  13. Ares I-X Flight Test--The Future Begins Here

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Tuma, Margaret L.; Heitzman, Keith

    2007-01-01

    In less than two years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will launch the Ares I-X mission. This will be the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which, together with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, will eventually send humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. As the countdown to this first Ares mission continues, personnel from across the Ares I-X Mission Management Office (MMO) are finalizing designs and fabricating vehicle hardware for a 2009 launch. This paper will discuss the hardware and programmatic progress of the Ares I-X mission.

  14. Final Scientific/Technical Report Solar America Initiative: Solar Outreach and Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, Jane M

    2011-09-10

    The purpose of the Solar America Initiative: Solar Outreach and Communications grant was to promote better communications among stakeholders; address infrastructure barriers to solar energy; and coordinate with industry, the U.S. Department of Energy, national laboratories, states, cities and counties. The Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), a non-profit organization formed in 1982, approached this grant project by establishing a wide range of communication and outreach activities including newsletters, workshops, webinars, model practices and publications; by advancing easy and fair hook-up rules to the utility grid; and by upgrading training based on industry competency standards. The Connecting to the Grid project and the Solar Codes and Standards Public Hearings project offered communication coupled with technical assistance to overcome interconnection, net metering and other regulatory and program barriers. The Workforce Development Project tackled building a strong workforce through quality training and competency assessment programs. IREC's web site, the semi-monthly state and stakeholder newsletter and the metrics report resulted in better communications among stakeholders. Workshops and phone seminars offered technical assistance and kept stakeholders up-to-date on key issues. All of these activities resulted in implementing sustainable solutions to institutional and market barriers to solar energy and getting the right information to the right people.

  15. Coagulation Factor IX for Hemophilia B Therapy


    OpenAIRE

    Orlova, N.; Kovnir, S.; Vorobiev, I.; Gabibov, A.

    2012-01-01

    Factor IX is a zymogen enzyme of the blood coagulation cascade. Inherited absence or deficit of the IX functional factor causes bleeding disorder hemophilia B, which requires constant protein replacement therapy. Reviewed herein are the current state in the manufacturing of FIX, improved variants of the recombinant protein for therapy, transgenic organisms for obtaining FIX, and the advances in the gene therapy of hemophilia B.

  16. Quantum Supersymmetric Bianchi IX Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Damour, Thibault

    2014-01-01

    We study the quantum dynamics of a supersymmetric squashed three-sphere by dimensionally reducing to one timelike dimension the action of D=4 simple supergravity for a Bianchi IX cosmological model. After imposition of the diffeomorphism constraints, the wave function of the Universe becomes a spinor of Spin(8,4) depending on the three squashing parameters, which satisfies Dirac, and Klein-Gordon-like, wave equations describing the propagation of a quantum spinning particle reflecting off spin-dependent potential walls. The algebra of the susy constraints and of the Hamiltonian one is found to close. One finds that the quantum Hamiltonian is built from operators that generate a 64-dimensional representation of the maximally compact sub-algebra of the rank-3 hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebra AE3. The (quartic-in-fermions) squared-mass term entering the Klein-Gordon-like equation has several remarkable properties: 1)it commutes with all the other (Kac-Moody-related) building blocks of the Hamiltonian; 2)it is a quad...

  17. El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  18. Disorders of Cranial Nerves IX and X

    OpenAIRE

    Erman, Audrey B.; Kejner, Alexandra E.; Hogikyan, Norman D.; Eva L Feldman

    2009-01-01

    The glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves mediate the complex interplay between the many functions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Defects may occur anywhere from the brainstem to the peripheral nerve and can result in significant impairment in speech, swallowing, and breathing. Multiple etiologies can produce symptoms. This review will broadly examine the normal functions, clinical examination, and various pathologies of cranial nerves IX and X.

  19. Feminizing Science: The Alchemy of Title IX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The author scrutinizes the National Academy of Sciences report "Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering" and its dangerous call to place the sciences under the sledgehammer of Title IX. Her findings: A one-sided, inaccurate, and internally contradictory report prepared by a committee lacking…

  20. Title IX and Intercollegiate Sports: Equal Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weistart, John

    1998-01-01

    After 25 years of federal Title IX regulation, only three dozen of the top 300 college athletics programs are in compliance. Women receive less than 40% of athletic scholarships. College sports are locked into a budgetary structure that favors two dominant men's sports, football and basketball. Divisive rhetoric and resistance delay balanced…

  1. Use of mutation techniques for improvement of cereals in Latin America. Final reports of a co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents the scientific results obtained under the FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Improvement of Cereals in Latin America through Mutation Breeding. Some of the selected mutants were already tested in multilocation trials and had higher yields and/or other advantages, in comparison with the leading local varieties. On the basis of these results it it expected that a few new mutant varieties of rice (Brazil, Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala), wheat (Brazil, Chile) and barley (Peru) will be officially released within the next few years. Still more mutants, which are valuable for conventional breeding programmes as new sources of desired genes, were selected. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Frito-Lay North America/NREL CRADA: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-176

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, A.

    2013-06-01

    Frito Lay North America (FLNA) requires technical assistance for the evaluation and implementation of renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in production facilities and distribution centers across North America. Services provided by NREL do not compete with those available in the private sector, but rather provide FLNA with expertise to create opportunities for the private sector renewable/efficiency industries and to inform FLNA decision making regarding cost-effective projects. Services include: identifying the most cost-effective project locations based on renewable energy resource data, utility data, incentives and other parameters affecting projects; assistance with feasibility studies; procurement specifications; design reviews; and other services to support FNLA in improving resource efficiency at facilities. This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) establishes the terms and conditions under which FLNA may access capabilities unique to the laboratory and required by FLNA. Each subsequent task issued under this umbrella agreement would include a scope-of-work, budget, schedule, and provisions for intellectual property specific to that task.

  3. Title IX Compliance in Virginia High Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Daniel E.

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT More than thirty years ago Congress passed the Educational Amendments to ensure fair treatment for all students. Specifically, Title IX provided that [N]o person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance (Educational Amendments of 1972,p. 7). The number of court cases against colleges and high schools...

  4. Experimental Mg IX photo recombination rate coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate coefficient for radiative and dielectronic recombination of beryllium-like magnesium ions was measured with high resolution at the Heidelberg heavy-ion storage ring TSR. In the electron-ion collision energy range 0-207 eV resonances due to 2s → 2p (ΔN = 0) and 2s → 3l (ΔN = 1) core excitations were detected. At low energies below 0.15 eV the recombination rate coefficient is dominated by strong 1s2(2s2p 3P)7l resonances with the strongest one occurring at an energy of only 21 meV. These resonances decisively influence the Mg IX recombination rate coefficient in a low temperature plasma. The experimentally derived Mg IX dielectronic recombination rate coefficient (±15% systematical uncertainty) is compared with the recommendation by Mazzotta et al. (1998, AandAS, 133, 403) and the recent calculations by Gu (2003, ApJ, 590, 1131) and by Colgan et al. (2003, AandA, 412, 597). These results deviate from the experimental rate coefficient by 130%, 82% and 25%, respectively, at the temperature where the fractional abundance of Mg IX is expected to peak in a photoionized plasma. At this temperature a theoretical uncertainty in the 1s2(2s2p 3P)7l resonance positions of only 100 meV would translate into an uncertainty of the plasma rate coefficient of almost a factor 3. This finding emphasizes that an accurate theoretical calculation of the Mg IX recombination rate coefficient from first principles is challenging. (authors)

  5. Experimental Mg IX photorecombination rate coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippers, S.; Schnell, M.; Brandau, C.; Kieslich, S.; Müller, A.; Wolf, A.

    2004-07-01

    The rate coefficient for radiative and dielectronic recombination of beryllium-like magnesium ions was measured with high resolution at the Heidelberg heavy-ion storage ring TSR. In the electron-ion collision energy range 0-207 eV resonances due to 2s -> 2p (Δ N = 0) and 2s -> 3l (Δ N=1) core excitations were detected. At low energies below 0.15 eV the recombination rate coefficient is dominated by strong 1s2 (2s 2p 3P) 7l resonances with the strongest one occuring at an energy of only 21 meV. These resonances decisively influence the Mg IX recombination rate coefficient in a low temperature plasma. The experimentally derived Mg IX dielectronic recombination rate coefficient (±15% systematical uncertainty) is compared with the recommendation by Mazzotta et al. (1998, A&AS, 133, 403) and the recent calculations by Gu (2003, ApJ, 590, 1131) and by Colgan et al. (2003, A&A, 412, 597). These results deviate from the experimental rate coefficient by 130%, 82% and 25%, respectively, at the temperature where the fractional abundance of Mg IX is expected to peak in a photoionized plasma. At this temperature a theoretical uncertainty in the 1s2 (2s 2p 3P) 7l resonance positions of only 100 meV would translate into an uncertainty of the plasma rate coefficient of almost a factor 3. This finding emphasizes that an accurate theoretical calculation of the Mg IX recombination rate coefficient from first principles is challenging.

  6. FUNDAMENTALS OF AMHARIC (REVISED EDITION), UNITS VIII-IX. DIALOGUES FOR CONVERSATION, AMHARIC SCRIPT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARTON, DONALD K.; AND OTHERS

    THIS IS THE THIRD AND FINAL VOLUME OF A NINE-UNIT COURSE IN BASIC AMHARIC. VOLUMES ONE AND TWO DEAL WITH THE PROBLEMS OF PRONUNCIATION AND THE ORAL-AURAL MASTERY OF BASIC GRAMMATICAL CONSTRUCTIONS. AT THE END OF EACH VOLUME ARE APPENDED ENGLISH-AMHARIC AND AMHARIC-ENGLISH GLOSSARIES. VOLUME THREE (UNITS VIII-IX) IS DIVIDED INTO TWO PARTS. PART I…

  7. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Procedures....34(a) (i) General, ; 106.34 Music classes, ; 106.34(f) Physical education, ; Sex education, ; 106.34... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation...

  8. Bianchi IX Cosmologies and the Golden Ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, M S

    2016-01-01

    Solutions to the Einstein equations for Bianchi IX cosmologies are examined through the use of Ellis MacCallum Wainwright (expansion-normalized) variables. Using an iterative map derived from the Einstein equations one can construct an infinite number of periodic solutions. The simplest periodic solutions consist of 3-cycles. It is shown that for 3-cycles the time series of the logarithms of the expansion-normalized spatial curvature components vs normalized time (which is runs backwards towards the initial singularity), generates a set of self-similar golden rectangles. In addition the golden ratio appears in other aspects of the same time series representation.

  9. Experimental Mg IX photorecombination rate coefficient

    CERN Document Server

    Schippers, S; Brandau, C; Kieslich, S; Müller, A; Wolf, A

    2004-01-01

    The rate coefficient for radiative and dielectronic recombination of berylliumlike magnesium ions was measured with high resolution at the Heidelberg heavy-ion storage ring TSR. In the electron-ion collision energy range 0-207 eV resonances due to 2s -> 2p (Delta N = 0) and 2s -> 3l (Delta N=1) core excitations were detected. At low energies below 0.15 eV the recombination rate coefficient is dominated by strong 1s2 (2s 2p 3P) 7l resonances with the strongest one occuring at an energy of only 21 meV. These resonances decisively influence the Mg IX recombination rate coefficient in a low temperature plasma. The experimentally derived Mg IX dielectronic recombination rate coefficient (+-15% systematical uncertainty) is compared with the recommendation by Mazzotta et al. (1998, A&AS, 133, 403) and the recent calculations by Gu (2003, ApJ, 590, 1131) and by Colgan et al. (2003, A&A, 412, 597). These results deviate from the experimental rate coefficient by 130%, 82% and 25%, respectively, at the temperatu...

  10. Pretreatment to enhance protoporphyrin IX accumulation in photodynamic therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, M.J.P.; Smits, T.; Kleinpenning, M.M.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Erp, P.E.J. van

    2009-01-01

    The response rates of photodynamic therapy (PDT) vary widely. Limited uptake of topically applied 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA), or its methyl ester (MAL), and suboptimal production of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) may account for these differences. Recently, we demonstrated that hyperkeratosis is an impo

  11. The Instabilities of Bianchi Type IX Einstein Static Universes

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the stability of the Einstein static universe as a non-LRS Bianchi type IX solution of the Einstein equations in the presence of both non-tilted and tilted fluids. We find that the static universe is unstable to homogeneous perturbations of Bianchi type IX to the future and the past.

  12. 77 FR 64401 - Order of Succession for HUD Region IX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Order of Succession for HUD Region IX AGENCY: Office of Field Policy and Management, HUD. ACTION: Notice of Order of Succession. SUMMARY: In this notice, the Assistant Deputy Secretary... Succession for the San Francisco Regional Office and its Field Offices (Region IX). This Order of...

  13. Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabacher, Mark; Martin, Rodney; Waterman, Robert; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Ossenfort, John; Matthews, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Automating prelaunch diagnostics for launch vehicles offers three potential benefits. First, it potentially improves safety by detecting faults that might otherwise have been missed so that they can be corrected before launch. Second, it potentially reduces launch delays by more quickly diagnosing the cause of anomalies that occur during prelaunch processing. Reducing launch delays will be critical to the success of NASA's planned future missions that require in-orbit rendezvous. Third, it potentially reduces costs by reducing both launch delays and the number of people needed to monitor the prelaunch process. NASA is currently developing the Ares I launch vehicle to bring the Orion capsule and its crew of four astronauts to low-earth orbit on their way to the moon. Ares I-X will be the first unmanned test flight of Ares I. It is scheduled to launch on October 27, 2009. The Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype is a prototype ground diagnostic system that will provide anomaly detection, fault detection, fault isolation, and diagnostics for the Ares I-X first-stage thrust vector control (TVC) and for the associated ground hydraulics while it is in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and on the launch pad. It will serve as a prototype for a future operational ground diagnostic system for Ares I. The prototype combines three existing diagnostic tools. The first tool, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), is a model-based tool that is commercially produced by Qualtech Systems, Inc. It uses a qualitative model of failure propagation to perform fault isolation and diagnostics. We adapted an existing TEAMS model of the TVC to use for diagnostics and developed a TEAMS model of the ground hydraulics. The second tool, Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE), is a rule-based expert system developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We developed SHINE rules for fault detection and mode identification. The prototype

  14. The local atomic structure of di-alanine amino acid derivative of protoporphyrin IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photophysical and photochemical properties of photosensitizers bearing potential for photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and treatment (PDT) of malignant tissues strictly depend on the details of their chemical processing. In this work, the x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAFS) and electron spin resonance (ESR) techniques were applied to determine the nearest neighbourhood of iron in the di-alanine amino acid derivative of protoporphyrin IX (L-alanine diprotoporphyrinate). The investigated compound is a technological precursor for novel-class, highly water-soluble protoporphyrin IX-based photosensitizers, which have potential for applications in PDD and PDT and have just entered phase I clinical trials. Knowing the chemical content and exact atomic structures of the technological precursor, as well as of the high-purity final product, which all might contain some contamination, is a prerequisite for preparing photosensitizers for preliminary clinical tests

  15. Ares I-X Flight Test Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. R.; Tuma, M. L.; Heitzman, K.

    2007-01-01

    In response to the Vision for Space Exploration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has defined a new space exploration architecture to return humans to the Moon and prepare for human exploration of Mars. One of the first new developments will be the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), which will carry the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to support International Space Station (ISS) missions and, later, support lunar missions. As part of Ares I development, NASA will perform a series of Ares I flight tests. The tests will provide data that will inform the engineering and design process and verify the flight hardware and software. The data gained from the flight tests will be used to certify the new Ares/Orion vehicle for human space flight. The primary objectives of this first flight test (Ares I-X) are the following: Demonstrate control of a dynamically similar integrated Ares CLV/Orion CEV using Ares CLV ascent control algorithms; Perform an in-flight separation/staging event between an Ares I-similar First Stage and a representative Upper Stage; Demonstrate assembly and recovery of a new Ares CLV-like First Stage element at Kennedy Space Center (KSC); Demonstrate First Stage separation sequencing, and quantify First Stage atmospheric entry dynamics and parachute performance; and Characterize the magnitude of the integrated vehicle roll torque throughout the First Stage (powered) flight. This paper will provide an overview of the Ares I-X flight test process and details of the individual flight tests.

  16. IBM PC/IX operating system evaluation plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation plan for the IBM PC/IX Operating System designed for IBM PC/XT computers is discussed. The evaluation plan covers the areas of performance measurement and evaluation, software facilities available, man-machine interface considerations, networking, and the suitability of PC/IX as a development environment within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA PC Research and Development project. In order to compare and evaluate the PC/IX system, comparisons with other available UNIX-based systems are also included.

  17. Induced mutations in connection with biotechnology for crop improvement in Latin America. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ), with the neglected cereals of South America (quinoa and kiwicha), and vegetatively propagated fruits (citrus, banana and avocado) and ornamentals. Important additional achievements were the formation of a network of co-operating scientists and the training of researchers. Finally, the know-how gained in this CRP is relevant to the same crops, and to other plants elsewhere. Thus, it will also benefit additional parts of the world

  18. A computational study of ligand binding affinities in iron(III) porphine and protoporphyrin IX complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Marcus C

    2014-07-01

    The search for novel anti-malarial drugs that can disrupt biomineralization of ferriprotoporphyrin IX to haemozoin requires an understanding of the fundamental chemistry of the porphyrin's iron(iii) centre at the water-lipid interface. Towards this end, the binding affinities for a diverse set of 31 small ligands with iron(iii) porphine have been calculated using density functional theory, in the gas phase and also with implicit solvent corrections for both water and n-octanol. In addition, the binding of hydroxide, chloride, acetate, methylamine and water to ferriprotoporphyrin IX has been studied, and very similar trends are observed for the smaller and larger models. Anionic ligands generally give stronger binding than neutral ones; the strongest binding is observed for RO(-) and OH(-) ligands, whilst acetate binds relatively weakly among the anions studied. Electron-rich nitrogen donors tend to bind more strongly than electron-deficient ones, and the weakest binding is found for neutral O and S donors such as oxazole and thiophene. In all cases, ligand binding is stronger in n-octanol than in water, and the differences in binding energies for the two solvents are greater for ionic ligands than for neutrals. Finally, dimerization of ferriprotoporphyrin IX by means of iron(iii)-carboxylate bond formation has been modelled. The results are discussed in terms of haemozoin crystal growth and its disruption by known anti-malarial drugs.

  19. Wind Power America Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spangler, Brian [Montana Dept. of Environmental Quality Energy Office, Helena, MT (United States); Montgomery, Kathi [Montana Dept. of Environmental Quality Energy Office, Helena, MT (United States); Cartwright, Paul [Montana Dept. of Environmental Quality Energy Office, Helena, MT (United States)

    2012-01-30

    The objective of this grant was to further the development of Montana’s vast wind resources for small, medium and large scale benefits to Montana and the nation. This was accomplished through collaborative work with wind industry representatives, state and local governments, the agricultural community and interested citizens. Through these efforts DEQ was able to identify development barriers, educate and inform citizens as well as participate in regional and national dialogue that will spur the development of wind resources

  20. Bianchi-IX string cosmological model in Lyra geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F Rahaman; S Chakraborty; N Begum; M Hossain; M Kalam

    2003-06-01

    A class of cosmological solutions of massive strings for the Bianchi-IX space-time are obtained within the framework of Lyra geometry. Various physical and kinematical properties of the models are discussed.

  1. Small-scale bioenergy initiatives: brief description and preliminary lessons on livelihood impacts from case studies in Asia, Latin America and Afica. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-01-15

    Fifteen case studies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America were undertaken to assess the impacts that different types of local-level bioenergy initiatives can have on rural livelihoods. The report concludes with preliminary lessons and recommendations for further work.

  2. Action of the protoporphyrin-Ix (Pp-Ix) in the life period of Drosophila mutants deficient in endogenous antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human being is daily exposed to free radicals or reactive oxygen species (Ros), as a result of the breathing and the interactions with xenobiotics that can cause irreversible lesions in molecules and cellular structures and that they are associated to diseases like the cancer, neuro degenerative and to the acceleration of the normal process of aging. Fortunately, to reduce the damaging effect of the Ros the cell has endogenous antioxidant systems constituted by antioxidant enzymes as: the superoxide dismutase (Sod), the catalase (Cat), and the glutathione peroxidase and reductase. Even, when these systems are not enough, we find to the exogenous antioxidants that cooperate in the balance of the Ros, as the porphyrins that include to the chlorophyllin, the hemin and the bilirubin among others. The protoporphyrin-Ix (Pp-Ix) is a tetra pyrrole without metallic center with antimutagenic and antioxidant activity similar to that of the chlorophyllin. However, is also known that their over-expression has toxic effects, because induces Ros. In Drosophila melanogaster, recently was found that the Pp-Ix have dual action anti and persistent mutagenic. One of their possible mechanism to act like mutagen is through the Ros induction. To evaluate this possibility and based in that the increase in the Ros levels can accelerate the aging process, in the present work the Pp-Ix role was evaluated, in the life period of Drosophila melanogaster strains deficient in Sod and Cat, sensitive to radiation or oxidative stress (rad, whd and flr3) and a wild one as control (C-S). Females and males of each strain were treated chronically for separate with sucrose or Pp-Ix and every 15 days a group of each sex was irradiated with 10 Gy of gamma rays. The results indicated that the chronic treatment with Pp-Ix and in combination with radiation, increased the life period of the C-S strain. The Sod strain had a contrary effect and this effect was pronounced with the combined treatment of Pp-Ix

  3. Long-Acting Recombinant Fusion Protein Linking Coagulation Factor IX with Albumin (rIX-FP) in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambost, Hervé; Male, Christoph; Lambert, Thierry; Halimeh, Susan; Chernova, Tatiana; Mancuso, Maria Elisa; Curtin, Julie; Voigt, Christine; Li, Yanyan; Jacobs, Iris; Santagostino, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Summary A global phase 3 study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of a recombinant fusion protein linking coagulation factor IX with albumin (rIX-FP) in 27 previously treated male children (1–11 years) with severe and moderately severe haemophilia B (factor IX [FIX] activity ≤2 IU/dl). All patients received routine prophylaxis once every seven days for up to 77 weeks, and treated any bleeding episodes on-demand. The mean terminal half-life of rIX-FP was 91.4 hours (h), 4.3-fold longer than previous FIX treatment and clearance was 1.11 ml/h/kg, 6.4-fold slower than previous FIX treatment. The median (Q1, Q3) annualised spontaneous bleeding rate was 0.00 (0.00, 0.91) and was similar between the <6 years and ≥6 years age groups, with a weekly median prophylactic dose of 46 IU/kg. In addition, patients maintained a median trough level of 13.4 IU/dl FIX activity on weekly prophylaxis. Overall, 97.2% of bleeding episodes were successfully treated with one or two injections of rIX-FP (95% CI: 92% to 99%), 88.7% with one injection, and 96% of the treatments were rated effective (excellent or good) by the Investigator. No patient developed FIX inhibitors and no safety concerns were identified. These results indicate that rIX-FP is safe and effective for preventing and treating bleeding episodes in children with haemophilia B with weekly prophylaxis. Routine prophylaxis with rIX-FP at treatment intervals of up to 14 days are currently being investigated in children with severe and moderately severe haemophilia B. Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01662531) PMID:27583313

  4. 20. IX saab Briti Nõukogus avatud uste päevade raames...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    21. IX tutvustab kunstiteadlane Anneli Porri kunstnik Tracey Eminist valmistatud portreefilmi ja teisi Briti Nõukogu raamatukogus leiduvaid Briti kaasaegset kunsti käsitlevaid dokumentaalfilme. Tallinna Kunstihoones kuni 18. IX Briti kaasaegset abstraktsionismi tutvustav näitus "Supernoova"

  5. Diagnosis and epidemiology of animal diseases in Latin America. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meetings of FAO/IAEA/SIDA co-ordinated research projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1986 the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture embarked on a programme of support to scientists in developing countries focused on improving animal disease diagnosis through the use of nuclear and related technologies. As part of this programme the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA) agreed to provide support for a FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) concerned with the introduction and use of such technologies in Latin America. Through this programme, which was entitled Regional Network for Latin America on Animal Disease Diagnosis Using Immunoassays and Labeled DNA Probe Techniques, studies were supported on a number of diseases considered to be of substantial economic and social importance to the region, including brucellosis, tuberculosis, babesiosis, leukosis, bluetongue and chlamydia infection in cattle and psedorabies in pigs. One significant conclusion was that large number of diseases studied limited research findings owing to the lack of a critical mass of scientists studying any one specific disease problem. Thus when in 1991, SIDA agreed to follow-up CRP on Immunoassay Methods for the Diagnosis and Epidemiology of Animal Diseases in Latin America, the work was restricted to three diseases, i.e. foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), bovine brucellosis and bovine babesiosis. In 1994 results were presented in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, France. The outcome of this meeting was the validation of ELISAs for the above mentioned diseases and a recommendation that future research should focus on diagnosis and epidemiology to support existing control and eradication campaigns against the two diseases of major importance in the region (FMD and Brucellosis). A follow-up CRP (1994-1997) entitled the Use of ELISA for Epidemiology and Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease and Bovine Brucellosis in Latin America focused on the further validation and subsequent use of a

  6. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  7. Methods of producing protoporphyrin IX and bacterial mutants therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jizhong; Qiu, Dongru; He, Zhili; Xie, Ming

    2016-03-01

    The presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed in certain embodiments to a method of producing protoporphyrin IX by (1) cultivating a strain of Shewanella bacteria in a culture medium under conditions suitable for growth thereof, and (2) recovering the protoporphyrin IX from the culture medium. The strain of Shewanella bacteria comprises at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX. In certain embodiments of the method, the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or of shew_1140. In other embodiments, the presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed to mutant strains of Shewanella bacteria having at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX during cultivation of the bacteria. In certain embodiments the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or shew_1140.

  8. Bianchi type IX string cosmological model in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raj Bali; Shuchi Dave

    2001-04-01

    We have investigated Bianchi type IX string cosmological models in general relativity. To get a determinate solution, we have assumed a condition ρ= i.e. rest energy density for a cloud of strings is equal to the string tension density. The various physical and geometrical aspects of the models are also discussed.

  9. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for Region IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report represents a detailed summation of existing workforce levels, training programs, career potential, and staffing level projections through 1981 for EPA Region IX. This region serves the states of Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Nevada. The specific pollution programs considered include air, noise, pesticides, potable water, radiation…

  10. Phase-space dynamics of Bianchi IX cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complex phase-space dynamical behaviour of a class of Biachi IX cosmological models is discussed, as the chaotic gravitational collapse due Poincare's homoclinic phenomena, and the n-furcation of periodic orbits and tori in the phase space of the models. Poincare maps which show this behaviour are constructed merically and applications are discussed. (Author)

  11. Spectroscopy of Ferric Heme and Protoporphyrin IX Ions In Vacuo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyer, Jean; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2013-01-01

    This chapter deals with gas-phase spectroscopy of protoporphyrin IX and heme ions, two important biochromophores in nature. These ions strongly absorb blue and green light, which accounts for e.g. the red colour of blood. We present absorption spectra of four-coordinate ferric heme cations at room...

  12. Alates 24. IX on Rotermanni soolalao suures saalis...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Arhitektuurifoto näitus "Urbanistlik antoloogia: Stockholmi portreed". Eksponeeritud 15 rootsi fotograafi tööd alates 1860. aastatest kuni tänapäevani. Näituse kuraator Lars Westberg. 23. IX pidas rootsi fotograaf ja näituse idee autor Bruno Ehrs loengu kunstist pildistada arhitektuuri ja inimesi linnamaastikul

  13. 23. IX korraldab Vaala galerii kunstioksjoni "Väliseesti eri"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Oksjonil on esindatud Eerik Haamer, Jaan Grünberg, Arno Vihalemm, Eduard Wiiralt, Ruth Tulving, Endel Kõks, Harald Jürissaar, Otto Paas, Ville Tops, Otto Puusta. Töödega saab tutvuda alates 18. IX, traditsiooniline sügisoksjon toimub 18. XI

  14. A Clash of Titans: College Football v. Title IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieronek, Catherine

    1994-01-01

    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972, Civil Rights Act of 1971, designed to ensure equal educational opportunity for men and women, is reviewed as it pertains to college athletics. Related litigation and National Collegiate Athletic Association efforts to promote compliance are examined, an argument for excluding revenue-producing sports…

  15. Dynamic of exact perturbations in Bianchi IX type cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic of Bianchi IX type cosmological models is studied, after reducing Einstein equations to Hamiltonian system. Using the Melnikov method, the existence of chaos in the dynamic of these models is proved, and some numerical experiments are carried out. (M.C.K.)

  16. Study of primitive universe in the Bianchi IX model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of general relativity is used to study the homogeneous cosmological model Bianch IX with isometry group SO(3) near the cosmological singularity. The Bogoyavlenskii-Novikov formalism to explain the anusual behaviour of the Liapunov exponent associated with this chaotic system, is introduced. (author)

  17. IX : An OS for datacenter applications with aggressive networking requirements

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The conventional wisdom is that aggressive networking requirements, such as high packet rates for small messages and microsecond-scale tail latency, are best addressed outside the kernel, in a user-level networking stack. We present IX, a dataplane operating system designed to support low-latency, high-throughput and high-connection count applications.  Like classic operating systems such as Linux, IX provides strong protection guarantees to the networking stack.  However, and unlike classic operating systems, IX is designed for the ground up to support applications with aggressive networking requirements on dense multi-core platforms with 10GbE and 40GbE Ethernet NICs.  IX outperforms Linux by an order of magnitude on micro benchmarks, and by up to 3.6x when running an unmodified memcached, a popular key-value store. The presentation is based on the joint work with Adam Belay, George Prekas, Ana Klimovic, Sam Grossman and Christos Kozyrakis, published at OSDI 2014; Best P...

  18. Transforming the treatment for hemophilia B patients: update on the clinical development of recombinant fusion protein linking recombinant coagulation factor IX with recombinant albumin (rIX-FP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagostino, Elena

    2016-05-01

    Recombinant fusion protein linking recombinant coagulation factor IX with recombinant albumin (rIX-FP; Idelvion®(†)) is an innovative new treatment designed to extend the half-life of factor IX (FIX) and ease the burden of care for hemophilia B patients. The rIX-FP clinical development program - PROLONG-9FP - is in its advanced phases, with pivotal studies in previously treated adults, adolescents, and pediatrics now completed. Across all age groups studied, rIX-FP has demonstrated a markedly improved pharmacokinetic profile compared with plasma-derived and recombinant FIX treatments, with a 30-40% higher incremental recovery, an approximately 5-fold longer half-life, a lower clearance, and a greater area under the curve. rIX-FP has been very well tolerated with an excellent safety profile. In the pivotal studies, there have been no reports of FIX inhibitors or antidrug antibodies, and few treatment-related adverse events have been observed. Prophylactic regimens of rIX-FP administered once weekly to once every 14 days have been highly effective. When used for surgical prophylaxis, a single infusion of rIX-FP has been sufficient to maintain hemostasis, even during major orthopedic surgery. An ongoing study is now enrolling previously untreated patients and evaluating the possibility of extending the dosing interval to every 21 days. There is little doubt that rIX-FP will transform the treatment of hemophilia B. PMID:27288064

  19. Educational Research in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Abdeljalil Akkari; Soledad Perez

    1998-01-01

    The present paper consists of four primary sections. First, we describe the historical context of educational research in Latin America. In the second section, we focus on various theoretical frameworks that are applied to educational research in the region. We identify the main institutions involved in this research in the third section. Finally, in conclusion we offer suggestions that we consider to be of greatest priority for the future of educational research in Latin America.

  20. The Development of the Ares I-X Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ess, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) has identified a series of tests to provide insight into the design and development of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Ares I-X was created as the first suborbital development flight test to help meet CxP objectives. The Ares I-X flight vehicle is an early operational model of Ares, with specific emphasis on Ares I and ground operation characteristics necessary to meet Ares I-X flight test objectives. Ares I-X will encompass the design and construction of an entire system that includes the Flight Test Vehicle (FTV) and associated operations. The FTV will be a test model based on the Ares I design. Select design features will be incorporated in the FTV design to emulate the operation of the CLV in order to meet the flight test objectives. The operations infrastructure and processes will be customized for Ares I-X, while still providing data to inform the developers of the launch processing system for Ares/Orion. The FTV is comprised of multiple elements and components that will be developed at different locations. The components will be delivered to the launch/assembly site, Kennedy Space Center (KSC), for assembly of the elements and components into an integrated, flight-ready, launch vehicle. The FTV will fly a prescribed trajectory in order to obtain the necessary data to meet the objectives. Ares I-X will not be commanded or controlled from the ground during flight, but the FTV will be equipped with telemetry systems, a data recording capability and a flight termination system (FTS). The in-flight part of the test includes a trajectory to simulate maximum dynamic pressure during flight and perform a stage separation representative of the CLV. The in-flight test also includes separation of the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) from the First Stage and recovery of the First Stage. The data retrieved from the flight test will be analyzed

  1. Illiterate America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Jonathan

    Intended for those involved in American social service and educational communities, this book addresses the widespread problem of illiteracy in the United States and the social consequences of this problem. Following an introduction, the chapters in the first section of the book discuss the growing crisis of illiterate America, specifically, the…

  2. Use of nuclear and related techniques in studies of agroecological effects resulting from the use of persistent pesticides in Central America. Report of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of pesticides for the control of pests of agriculture and vectors of human and animal diseases in the countries of Central America is the highest per capita and one of the most intense in the world. There are reports of acute toxicity and chronic effects among farm workers. There are also reports that pesticide residues in food frequently exceed the Codex Alimentarius Commission's maximum residue levels (MRLs) and shipments of foodstuffs have been rejected by importing countries due to the presence of excessive residues of pesticides. Pesticides are also implicated in the contamination of continental and coastal waters. The indiscriminate use of pesticides would be expected to also aggravate pest problems by adversely affecting populations of beneficial arthropods and causing the development of resistance in pest populations. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a co-ordinated research project in 1992 to generate information on residues of pesticides in the environment, their persistence under local conditions and effect on local species of beneficial arthropods in agricultural and adjacent areas in the countries of Central America. Such information could be used in the implementation of legislation to control the distribution and use of pesticides and the development and application of integrated pest management programmes. Scientists from Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama and the United States of America participated in this project. This TECDOC reports on the accomplishments of the project and includes the papers presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Panama City, Panama, 20-24 April 1998

  3. Star formation rate in Holmberg IX dwarf galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelić M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use previously determined Hα fluxes for dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX (Arbutina et al. 2009 to calculate star formation rate (SFR in this galaxy. We discuss possible contaminations of Hα flux and, for the first time, we take into account optical emission from supernova remnants (SNRs as a possible source of contamination of Hα flux. Derived SFR for Holmberg IX is 3:4 x 10-4M.yr-1. Our value is lower then in previous studies, due to luminous shock-heated source M&H 9-10, possible hypernova remnant, which we excluded from the total Hα flux in our calculation of SFR.

  4. Ares I-X Best Estimated Trajectory Analysis and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Beck, Roger E.; Starr, Brett R.; Derry, Stephen D.; Brandon, Jay; Olds, Aaron D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I-X trajectory reconstruction produced best estimated trajectories of the flight test vehicle ascent through stage separation, and of the first and upper stage entries after separation. The trajectory reconstruction process combines on-board, ground-based, and atmospheric measurements to produce the trajectory estimates. The Ares I-X vehicle had a number of on-board and ground based sensors that were available, including inertial measurement units, radar, air-data, and weather balloons. However, due to problems with calibrations and/or data, not all of the sensor data were used. The trajectory estimate was generated using an Iterative Extended Kalman Filter algorithm, which is an industry standard processing algorithm for filtering and estimation applications. This paper describes the methodology and results of the trajectory reconstruction process, including flight data preprocessing and input uncertainties, trajectory estimation algorithms, output transformations, and comparisons with preflight predictions.

  5. Arabidopsis lectin receptor kinases LecRK-IX.1 and LecRK-IX.2 are functional analogs in regulating phytophthora resistance and plant cell death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yan; Cordewener, Jan H G; America, Antoine H P; Shan, Weixing; Bouwmeester, Klaas; Govers, Francine

    2015-01-01

    L-type lectin receptor kinases (LecRK) are potential immune receptors. Here, we characterized two closely-related Arabidopsis LecRK, LecRK-IX.1 and LecRK-IX.2, of which T-DNA insertion mutants showed compromised resistance to Phytophthora brassicae and Phytophthora capsici, with double mutants showi

  6. Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on kinetics of protoporphyrin IX production in CHO cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Warchoł

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA is utilized in a photodynamic therapy as a compound capable of augmenting intracellular pool of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX, which exhibits properties of a photosensitizer. The studies were aimed at monitoring accumulation of endogenous protoporphyrin IX in CHO cells under effect of various concentrations of ALA in culture medium and following removal of the compound from the culture medium. Cell content of PpIX was determined following incubation of the cells for 72 h in a culture medium containing different concentration of ALA. Moreover, the cells were preincubated for 2 h in ALA at various concentrations and separated from the compound by medium change and their PpIX content was monitored following incubation. PpIX content was defined by a fluorescent technique under the confocal microscope. In the course of continuous incubation of cells with ALA, biphasic alterations were noted in cellular PpIX concentration. Removal of ALA from the incubation medium resulted at first in a decrease in PpIX content in cells, which was followed by an evidently augmented accumulation of the compound in the cells. The results suggested that in the case of CHO cells, exogenous ALA was not an exclusive source of PpIX synthesis and that alterations in enzyme activities were responsible for production of PpIX.

  7. New polymorphic variants of human blood clotting factor IX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surin, V.L.; Luk`yanenko, A.V.; Tagiev, A.F.; Smirnova, O.V. [Hematological Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Plutalov, O.V.; Berlin, Yu.A. [Shemyakin Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-04-01

    The polymorphism of Alu-repeats, which are located in the introns of the human factor IX gene (copies 1-3), was studied. To identify polymorphic variants, direct sequencing of PCR products that contained appropriate repeats was used. In each case, 20 unrelated X chromosomes were studied. A polymorphic Dra I site was found near the 3{prime}-end of Alu copy 3 within the region of the polyA tract. A PCR-based testing system with internal control of restriction hydrolysis was suggested. Testing 81 unrelated X chromosomes revealed that the frequency of the polymorphic Dra I site is 0.23. Taq I polymorphism, which was revealed in Alu copy 4 of factor IX gene in our previous work, was found to be closely linked to Dra I polymorphism. Studies in linkage between different types of polymorphisms of the factor IX gene revealed the presence of a rare polymorphism in intron a that was located within the same minisatellite region as the known polymorphic insertion 50 bp/Dde I. However, the size of the insertion in our case was 26 bp. Only one polymorphic variant was found among over 150 unrelated X chromosomes derived from humans from Moscow and its vicinity. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Stakeholder Involvement in the United States of America. Appendix IX.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project site is a remediation site near Cincinnati, Ohio. At this site, a facility for uranium purification was operated that produced over 250 million tonnes of high purity uranium. During operations, about 500 000 tonnes of contaminated material was released to the surrounding environment and through the groundwater to a nearby aquifer. For this remediation programme the United States Department of Energy (DOE), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) established the Fernald Citizens Task Force. It was composed of 14 members from the local community, experts and non-voting members from the DOE, EPA and OEPA. The goals of this Task Force were: (1) What should be the future use of the Fernald site? (2) What residual risk and remediation levels should remain following remediation? (3) Where should the waste be disposed? (4) What should be the priorities among remedial actions?

  9. Monoclonal antibodies to coagulation factor IX define a high-frequency polymorphism by immunoassays.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, K. J.

    1985-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have been used to demonstrate a polymorphism of human plasma coagulation factor IX antigen in double antibody solid-phase immunoradiometric assays. This polymorphism is detected in an assay where a monoclonal antibody (A-1) adsorbed to microtiter wells is used to bind factor IX from diluted plasma samples. Plasma samples with the factor IX polymorphism have less than 0.2 U/ml of apparent antigen when tested with the A-1 antibody, while assays with other monoclonal antibo...

  10. Evaluation of PpIX formation in Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia I (CIN) using widefield fluorescence images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Inada, Natalia M.; Fortunato, Thereza C.; Lombardi, Welington; da Silva, Eduardo V.; Vollet Filho, José D.; Kurachi, Cristina; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2016-03-01

    Optical techniques has been described as auxiliary technology for screening of neoplasia because shows the potential for tissues differentiation in real-time and it is a noninvasive detection and safe. However, only endogenous fluorophores presents the lesion may be insufficient and needed of the administration of the fluorophores synthesized, such as, precursor molecule of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) induced by 5- aminolevulinic acid and your derivatives. Topical application of methylaminolevulinate (MAL), induces formation of the endogenous photosensitizer, PpIX in tissues where carcinogenesis has begun. The PpIX tend to accumulate in premalignant and malignant tissues and the illumination with light with appropriate wavelength beginning to excitation of PpIX fluorescence, which helps to localize PpIX-rich areas and identify potentially malignant tissues. The aim of the study is to evaluate the production of PpIX in the cervix with CIN I through of the fluorescence images captured after 1 hour of cream application. It was possible to visualize PpIX fluorescence in cervix and it was possible to observe the selectivity in fluorescence in squamous-columnar junction, which a pre-cancerous condition (CIN) and usually is localized. Through the image processing it was possible to quantify the increase of red fluorescence. For the CIN I the increase of red fluorescence was approximately of 4 times indicating a good PpIX formation.

  11. La Curie romaine de Pie IX à Pie X

    OpenAIRE

    Jankowiak, François

    2013-01-01

    Le pontificat de Pie IX fut à la fois le plus long de l’histoire de la succession apostolique et celui du dernier “Papa-Re”, entouré d’une Curie romaine chargée du gouvernement de l’Église et de ses États. L’échec des concessions « constitutionnalistes » de 1847-1848 puis l’exil à Gaète déterminèrent une restauration autoritaire, confirmant la Curie comme le conservatoire de pratiques de gouvernement spécifiques. Face au mouvement unitaire italien, la Curie multiplia les adresses théologiques...

  12. Oscillator strengths for Ar VII, Ca IX and Fe XV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayal, S. S.

    1986-01-01

    The excitation energies and oscillator strengths are calculated for electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions between 3s2 1S, 3s3p(1,3)P0, 3p2 3P, 1D, 1S and 3s3d(1,3)D states in Ar VII, Ca IX, and Fe XV ions of the magnesium sequence. These states are represented by the fairly large configuration-interaction expansions. The calculations have been carried out in both LS and intermediate coupling schemes. The relativistic corrections have been included through the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. The results are compared with previous theoretical calculations and with measurements.

  13. Fe IX Calculations for the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Adam R

    2011-01-01

    New calculations of the energy levels, radiative transition rates and collisional excitation rates of \\ion{Fe}{ix} have been carried out using the Flexible Atomic Code, paying close attention to experimentally identified levels and extending existing calculations to higher energy levels. For lower levels, R-matrix collisional excitation rates from earlier work have been used. Significant emission is predicted by these calculations in the 5f-3d transitions, which will impact analysis of SDO AIA observations using the 94\\AA\\ filter.

  14. Effect of IX dosing on polypropylene and PVDF membrane fouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Darli Theint

    2013-07-01

    The performance of ion exchange (IX) resin for organics removal from wastewater was assessed using advanced characterisation techniques for varying doses of IX. Organic characterisation using liquid chromatography with a photodiode array (PDA) and fluorescence spectroscopy (Method A), and UV254, organic carbon and organic nitrogen detectors (Method B), was undertaken on wastewater before and after magnetic IX treatment. Results showed partial removal of the biopolymer fraction at high IX doses. With increasing concentration of IX, evidence for nitrogen-containing compounds such as proteins and amino acids disappeared from the LC-OND chromatogram, complementary to the fluorescence response. A greater fluorescence response of tryptophan-like proteins (278nm/343nm) for low IX concentrations was consistent with aggregation of tryptophan-like compounds into larger aggregates, either by self-aggregation or with polysaccharides. Recycling of IX resin through multiple adsorption steps without regeneration maintained the high level of humics removal but there was no continued removal of biopolymer. Subsequent membrane filtration of the IX treated waters resulted in complex fouling trends. Filtration tests with either polypropylene (PP) or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes showed higher rates of initial fouling following treatment with high IX doses (10mL/L) compared to filtration of untreated water, while treatment with lower IX doses resulted in decreased fouling rates relative to the untreated water. However, at longer filtration times the rate of fouling of IX treated waters was lower than untreated water and the relative fouling rates corresponded to the amount of biopolymer material in the feed. It was proposed that the mode of fouling changed from pore constriction during the initial filtration period to filter cake build up at longer filtration times. The organic composition strongly influenced the rate of fouling during the initial filtration period due to

  15. Cutaneous melanoma in Latin America: a population-based descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sortino-Rachou, Ana Maria; Curado, Maria Paula; Cancela, Marianna de Camargo

    2011-03-01

    Cutaneous melanoma incidences vary between geographic regions and are a health concern for Caucasians and for all ethnic populations. In Latin America, data from population-based cancer registries of cutaneous melanoma incidence rates have rarely been reported. We searched the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents volume IX (CI5-IX) database for cutaneous melanoma and select cases by topography (C43) from 11 population-based cancer registries in Latin America. Between 1998 and 2002, a total of 4,465 cutaneous melanoma cases were reported in Latin America. The average age-standardized incidence rates (per 100,000 persons-year) was 4.6 (male) and 4.3 (female). This study presents an overview of cutaneous melanoma incidence in Latin America, highlighting the need to enhance coverage of population-based cancer registries in Latin America, to allow for a better understanding of this neoplasm in the region. Thus it can help in implementing primary prevention programs for the whole Latino population. At this point in time, early detection messages should target young women and older men in Latin America.

  16. The Broadband Spectral Variability of Holmberg IX X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Walton, D J; Harrison, F A; Middleton, M J; Fabian, A C; Bachetti, M; Barret, D; Miller, J M; Ptak, A; Rana, V; Stern, D; Tao, L

    2016-01-01

    We present the results from four new broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 ($L_{\\rm{X}} > 10^{40}$ erg s$^{-1}$), performed by the $Suzaku$ and $NuSTAR$ observatories in coordination. Combined with the two prior observations coordinating $XMM$-$Newton$, $Suzaku$ and $NuSTAR$, we now have broadband observations of this remarkable source from six separate epochs. Two of these new observations probe lower fluxes than seen previously, allowing us to extend our knowledge of the broadband spectral variability exhibited by Holmberg IX X-1. The broadband spectra are well fit by two thermal blackbody components, which dominate the emission below 10 keV, as well as a steep ($\\Gamma \\sim 3.5$) powerlaw tail which dominates above $\\sim$15 keV. Remarkably, while the 0.3-10.0 keV flux varies by a factor of $\\sim$3 between all these epochs, the 15-40 keV flux varies by only $\\sim$20%. Although the spectral variability is strongest in the $\\sim$1-10 keV band, the broadband var...

  17. Modelling topical photodynamic therapy treatment including the continuous production of Protoporphyrin IX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C. L.; Brown, C. T. A.; Wood, K.; Moseley, H.

    2016-11-01

    Most existing theoretical models of photodynamic therapy (PDT) assume a uniform initial distribution of the photosensitive molecule, Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). This is an adequate assumption when the prodrug is systematically administered; however for topical PDT this is no longer a valid assumption. Topical application and subsequent diffusion of the prodrug results in an inhomogeneous distribution of PpIX, especially after short incubation times, prior to light illumination. In this work a theoretical simulation of PDT where the PpIX distribution depends on the incubation time and the treatment modality is described. Three steps of the PpIX production are considered. The first is the distribution of the topically applied prodrug, the second in the conversion from the prodrug to PpIX and the third is the light distribution which affects the PpIX distribution through photobleaching. The light distribution is modelled using a Monte Carlo radiation transfer model and indicates treatment depths of around 2 mm during daylight PDT and approximately 3 mm during conventional PDT. The results suggest that treatment depths are not only limited by the light penetration but also by the PpIX distribution.

  18. Carbonic anhydrase IX in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, S.; Rabbani, Z.N.; Vollmer, R.T.; Schreiber, E.G.; Oosterwijk, E.; Dewhirst, M.W.; Vujaskovic, Z.; Kelley, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Tumor hypoxia is associated with poor prognosis and increased tumor aggressiveness. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX, an endogenous marker for tumor hypoxia, catalyzes the hydration of carbon dioxide into carbonic acid and contributes to the pH regulation of tumor cells. Therefore, CA IX might al

  19. "What Do I Think about Title IX?" Voices from a University Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paule-Koba, Amanda L.; Harris, Othello; Freysinger, Valeria J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the apparent benefits of Title IX, the implementation of the law remains controversial, and there are divergent beliefs regarding its impact on collegiate sport. The purpose of this study was to examine how members of a university community, whose intercollegiate sport programs have changed, perceive and make sense of Title IX and the…

  20. On the role of type IX collagen in the extracellular matrix of cartilage: type IX collagen is localized to intersections of collagen fibrils

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    The tissue distribution of type II and type IX collagen in 17-d-old chicken embryo was studied by immunofluorescence using polyclonal antibodies against type II collagen and a peptic fragment of type IX collagen (HMW), respectively. Both proteins were found only in cartilage where they were co-distributed. They occurred uniformly throughout the extracellular matrix, i.e., without distinction between pericellular, territorial, and interterritorial matrices. Tissues that undergo endochondral bo...

  1. Latex carrier for improving protoporphyrin IX for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Brian; Liu, Li; Chen, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Attachment of Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) to poly (styrene-co-4-vinylpyridine) (PS4VP) nanobeads was carried out to improve its properties in aqueous solutions. After using an oil-in-water heated emulsion polymerization technique to synthesize PS4VP, PPIX was bonded to the particles via the carboxylic acid of PPIX hydrogen-bonding to the nitrogen at the surface of PS4VP, thereby preventing self-reactions between the carboxyl groups and the porphyrin core. Refraining the two parts from interacting while attached to the nanobeads prevented PPIX from aggregating, which then increased water solubility, enhanced luminescence and singlet oxygen production. Attachment also improved cell uptake and cell destruction by photodynamic activity. This shows that PS4VP-PPIX may help improve aspects of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of cancer. PMID:27020668

  2. Long-acting recombinant coagulation factor IX albumin fusion protein (rIX-FP) in hemophilia B: results of a phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagostino, Elena; Martinowitz, Uri; Lissitchkov, Toshko; Pan-Petesch, Brigitte; Hanabusa, Hideji; Oldenburg, Johannes; Boggio, Lisa; Negrier, Claude; Pabinger, Ingrid; von Depka Prondzinski, Mario; Altisent, Carmen; Castaman, Giancarlo; Yamamoto, Koji; Álvarez-Roman, Maria-Teresa; Voigt, Christine; Blackman, Nicole; Jacobs, Iris

    2016-04-01

    A global phase 3 study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of recombinant fusion protein linking coagulation factor IX with albumin (rIX-FP) in 63 previously treated male patients (12-61 years) with severe hemophilia B (factor IX [FIX] activity ≤2%). The study included 2 groups: group 1 patients received routine prophylaxis once every 7 days for 26 weeks, followed by either 7-, 10-, or 14-day prophylaxis regimen for a mean of 50, 38, or 51 weeks, respectively; group 2 patients received on-demand treatment of bleeding episodes for 26 weeks and then switched to a 7-day prophylaxis regimen for a mean of 45 weeks. The mean terminal half-life of rIX-FP was 102 hours, 4.3-fold longer than previous FIX treatment. Patients maintained a mean trough of 20 and 12 IU/dL FIX activity on prophylaxis with rIX-FP 40 IU/kg weekly and 75 IU/kg every 2 weeks, respectively. There was 100% reduction in median annualized spontaneous bleeding rate (AsBR) and 100% resolution of target joints when subjects switched from on-demand to prophylaxis treatment with rIX-FP (P< .0001). The median AsBR was 0.00 for all prophylaxis regimens. Overall, 98.6% of bleeding episodes were treated successfully, including 93.6% that were treated with a single injection. No patient developed an inhibitor, and no safety concerns were identified. These results indicate rIX-FP is safe and effective for preventing and treating bleeding episodes in patients with hemophilia B at dosing regimens of 40 IU/kg weekly and 75 IU/kg every 2 weeks. This trial was registered atwww.clinicaltrials.govas #NCT0101496274. PMID:26755710

  3. Long-acting recombinant coagulation factor IX albumin fusion protein (rIX-FP) in hemophilia B: results of a phase 3 trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinowitz, Uri; Lissitchkov, Toshko; Pan-Petesch, Brigitte; Hanabusa, Hideji; Oldenburg, Johannes; Boggio, Lisa; Negrier, Claude; Pabinger, Ingrid; von Depka Prondzinski, Mario; Altisent, Carmen; Castaman, Giancarlo; Yamamoto, Koji; Álvarez-Roman, Maria-Teresa; Voigt, Christine; Blackman, Nicole; Jacobs, Iris

    2016-01-01

    A global phase 3 study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of recombinant fusion protein linking coagulation factor IX with albumin (rIX-FP) in 63 previously treated male patients (12-61 years) with severe hemophilia B (factor IX [FIX] activity ≤2%). The study included 2 groups: group 1 patients received routine prophylaxis once every 7 days for 26 weeks, followed by either 7-, 10-, or 14-day prophylaxis regimen for a mean of 50, 38, or 51 weeks, respectively; group 2 patients received on-demand treatment of bleeding episodes for 26 weeks and then switched to a 7-day prophylaxis regimen for a mean of 45 weeks. The mean terminal half-life of rIX-FP was 102 hours, 4.3-fold longer than previous FIX treatment. Patients maintained a mean trough of 20 and 12 IU/dL FIX activity on prophylaxis with rIX-FP 40 IU/kg weekly and 75 IU/kg every 2 weeks, respectively. There was 100% reduction in median annualized spontaneous bleeding rate (AsBR) and 100% resolution of target joints when subjects switched from on-demand to prophylaxis treatment with rIX-FP (P < .0001). The median AsBR was 0.00 for all prophylaxis regimens. Overall, 98.6% of bleeding episodes were treated successfully, including 93.6% that were treated with a single injection. No patient developed an inhibitor, and no safety concerns were identified. These results indicate rIX-FP is safe and effective for preventing and treating bleeding episodes in patients with hemophilia B at dosing regimens of 40 IU/kg weekly and 75 IU/kg every 2 weeks. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT0101496274. PMID:26755710

  4. Characterization and standardization of tissue-simulating protoporphyrin IX optical phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marois, Mikael; Bravo, Jaime; Davis, Scott C.; Kanick, Stephen Chad

    2016-03-01

    Optical devices for measuring protoporphryin IX (PpIX) fluorescence in tissue are routinely validated by measurements in optical phantoms. Yet there exists limited data to form a consensus on the recipe for phantoms that both mimic the optical properties found in tissue and yield a reliable and stable relationship between PpIX concentration and the fluorescence remission intensity. This study characterizes the influence of multiple phantom components on PpIX fluorescence emission intensity, using Intralipid as the scattering source, bovine whole blood as the background absorber, and Tween as a surfactant to prevent PpIX aggregation. Optical measurements showed a linear proportionality (r>0.99) between fluorescence intensity and PpIX concentration (0.1 to 10 μg/mL) over a range of Intralipid (1 to 2%) and whole blood (0.5 to 3%) for phantoms containing low surfactant (≤0.1%), with fluorescence intensities and scattering and absorption properties stable for 5 h after mixing. The role of surfactant in PpIX phantoms was found to be complex, as aggregation was evident in aqueous nonturbid phantoms with no surfactant (0% Tween), and avoided in phantoms containing Intralipid as the scattering source with no additional or low amounts of added surfactant (≤0.1% Tween). Conversely, phantoms containing higher surfactant content (>0.1% Tween) and whole blood showed interactions that distorted the fluorescence emissions.

  5. Evaluation of Sonochemiluminescence in a Phantom in the Presence of Protoporphyrin IX Conjugated to Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a liquid is irradiated with high-intensity and low-frequency ultrasound, acoustic cavitation occurs and there are some methods to determine and quantify this phenomenon. The existing methods for performing these experiments include sonochemiluminescence and chemical dosimetric methods. The particles in a liquid decrease the ultrasonic intensity threshold needed for cavitation onset. In this study, a new nano conjugate made up of Protoporphyrin IX and gold nanoparticles, i.e., Au-PpIX was used to provide nucleation sites for cavitation. The nonradiative relaxation time of PpIX in the presence of GNPs is longer than the similar time for PpIX without GNPs. This effect can be used in medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The acoustic cavitation activity was investigated studying integrated sonochemiluminescence signal in the wavelength range of 400-500 nm in polyacrylamide gel phantom containing luminol using a cooled CCD spectrometer at different intensities of 1 MHz ultrasound. In order to confirm these results, a chemical dosimetric method was utilized, too. sonochemiluminescence signal level in gel phantom containing Au-PpIX was higher than the other phantoms. These results have been confirmed by the chemical dosimetric data. This finding can be related to the existence of PpIX as a sensitizer and GNPs as cavitation nuclei. In other words, nanoparticles have acted as the sites for cavitation and have increased the cavitation rate. Another theory is that activation of PpIX has produced more free radicals and has enhanced the sonochemiluminescence signal level.

  6. Evaluation of ALA-induced PpIX as a photosensitizer for PDT in cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucroy, Michael D.; Edwards, Benjamin F.; Peavy, George M.; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Griffey, Stephen M.; Madewell, Bruce R.

    1998-07-01

    Given exogenously, ALA defeats intrinsic regulatory feedback mechanisms allowing intracellular accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a highly efficient photosensitizer. In vivo, PpIX synthesis in neoplastic mammary tissues averages 20-fold higher than in normal mammary tissues. PpIX is retained intracellularly, unlike perivascular localization of other photosensitizers, and it is then cleared quickly from the body. In vitro, ALA induced PpIX production in our laboratory in 6 cell lines tested, including an established feline kidney cell line and dermal fibroblasts from primary skin biopsy explant, resulting in photosensitization. Fluorescent microscopy confirmed PpIX production in skin adnexae following ALA administration in a normal cat. To evaluate toxicity, three cats were treated with a single i.v. dose of ALA (either 100, 200, of 400 mg/kg) and followed for 7 days. Cats receiving 100 or 200 mg/kg ALA i.v. had elevated liver enzymes and bilirubin within 24 hours. Histopathology revealed hydropic changes in the liver and renal fibrosis. The cat receiving 400 mg/kg ALA intravenously had cutaneous flush, bradycardia and apnea associated with ALA administration; within 24 hours the cat was lethargic, anorectic and icteric. ALT, AST and bilirubin concentrations had increased significantly. At necropsy the liver had a prominent lobular pattern; histopathology revealed severe periportal hepatitis and splenic necrosis. Systemically administered ALA induces PpIX production, but toxicity may preclude its clinical application in the cat. PpIX levels seem to be more time dependent than those dependent at these three ALA doses and they are well beyond the saturation point for adequate PpIX conversion. The literature is scant regarding toxicity associated with parenteral administration of ALA.

  7. DNA Damage and Cell Cycle Arrest Induced by Protoporphyrin IX in Sarcoma 180 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Porphyrin derivatives have been widely used in photodynamic therapy as effective sensitizers. Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX, a well-known hematoporphyrin derivative component, shows great potential to enhance light induced tumor cell damage. However, PpIX alone could also exert anti-tumor effects. The mechanisms underlying those direct effects are incompletely understood. This study thus investigated the putative mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor effects of PpIX on sarcoma 180 (S180 cells. Methods: S180 cells were treated with different concentrations of PpIX. Following the treatment, cell viability was evaluated by the 3-(4, 5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT assay; Disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by flow cytometry; The trans-location of apoptosis inducer factor (AIF from mitochondria to nucleus was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy; DNA damage was detected by single cell gel electrophoresis; Cell cycle distribution was analyzed by DNA content with flow cytometry; Cell cycle associated proteins were detected by western blotting. Results: PpIX (≥ 1 µg/ml significantly inhibited proliferation and reduced viability of S180 cells in a dose-dependent manner. PpIX rapidly and significantly triggered mitochondrial membrane depolarization, AIF (apoptosis inducer factor translocation from mitochondria to nucleus and DNA damage, effects partially relieved by the specific inhibitor of MPTP (mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Furthermore, S phase arrest and upregulation of the related proteins of P53 and P21 were observed following 12 and 24 h PpIX exposure. Conclusion: PpIX could inhibit tumor cell proliferation by induction of DNA damage and cell cycle arrest in the S phase.

  8. Use of proteomics for validation of the isolation process of clotting factor IX from human plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Clifton, James; Huang, Feilei; Gaso-Sokac, Dajana; Brilliant, Kate; Hixson, Douglas; Josic, Djuro

    2009-01-01

    The use of proteomic techniques in the monitoring of different production steps of plasma-derived clotting factor IX (pd F IX) was demonstrated. The first step, solid-phase extraction with a weak anion-exchange resin, fractionates the bulk of human serum albumin (HSA), immunoglobulin G, and other non-binding proteins from F IX. The proteins that strongly bind to the anion-exchange resin are eluted by higher salt concentrations. In the second step, anion-exchange chromatography, residual HSA, ...

  9. Public Lives- Prívate Secrets: gender, honor, sexualíty, and illegitimacy in colonial spanish America / Hacerse Nadie: sometimiento, sexo y silencio en la España de finales del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Rodríguez Jiménez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ann Twinam, Public Lives- Prívate Secrets: gender, honor, sexualíty, and illegitimacy in colonial spanish America. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999. 447 páginas. Dentro de poco se cumplirán dieciocho años de la publicación norteamericana de Mineros y comerciantes, libro que quedó andado en la historiografía antioqueña y colombiana. Fue en este libro cuando Ann Twinam descubrió la historia del desplante callejero realizado al pujante comerciante medellinense, Gabriel Muñoz. Desde entonces, Ann se dedicó a estudiar la razón y la forma como muchos criollos prósperos solicitaban a la Corona Cédulas de Gracias al Sacar para limpiar su origen. En la búsqueda de estos documentos, que limpiaban máculas y sacaban de la ignominia, descubrió que el fenómeno de la legitimación tenía características hispanoamericanas, con una historia larga y compleja. / Angel Rodríguez Sánchez. Hacerse Nadie: sometimiento, sexo y silencio en la España de finales del siglo XVI. Lleida: Editorial Milenio. 1998. 211 páginas. Hacerse nadie, es más que un retrato pícaro. Angel Rodríguez comprende muy bien que el mundo aldeano peninsular vivía su propio tiempo y circunstancia. La inquisición actuó junto a esta otra inquisición, que se sirvió del rumor, la envidia, el odio, el rencor y, probablemente, el deseo de venganza. Hubo confesiones sinceras, honestas, es cierto. Pero, la máquina del miedo estaba aceitada. Las delaciones sirvieron para inquietar y fabricar manuales que regularan y transformaran la vida de los clérigos.

  10. Have We Forgotten K-12? The Need For Punitive Damages To Improve Title IX Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina A. Pohlman

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the fall of 2000, the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review examined 129 public high schools in southwestern Pennsylvania to evaluate the region’s compliance with Title IX. The Tribune-Review promptly published the results, which were bleak. During the 1999–2000 academic year, two out of every three athletes were boys. Moreover, sixty-nine cents out of every dollar spent on school athletic programs went to boys, with the average school spending $493 on each male athlete and $350 on each female athlete. The individual results of two schools were especially troubling: Duquesne High School had only nine girls playing organized sports in 1999–2000; Clairton High School had only fifteen spots on just one female sports team—basketball. Finally, the survey noted that collegiate athletic programs had been recruiting significantly less in the region.6 As one college coach explained, even the area’s rare, exceptional athlete frequently struggled in the collegiate setting, since such athletes had never had the opportunity to become accustomed to competing against the same caliber of athletes when younger.

  11. Pain during photodynamic therapy is associated with protoporphyrin IX fluorescence and fluence rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S.R.; Skiveren, J.; Philipsen, P.A.;

    2008-01-01

    and protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence, lesion type, lesion preparation and lesion localization. Methods Twenty-six patients with actinic keratoses (AKs) in different localizations and 34 patients with facial acne vulgaris were treated with methyl aminolaevulinate-PDT. Patients with acne were illuminated using......) patients with acne had a pain score of 6 [interquartile range (IQR) 5-7] compared with 8 (IQR 6-10) when using a fluence rate of 68 mW cm(-2) (P = 0.018). After correcting the pain score for PpIX fluorescence no differences in pain scores were found between first and second acne treatment, locations of AK...... lesions or between the two types of lesions. Conclusions Pain during PDT was correlated with the PpIX fluorescence in the treatment area prior to illumination. Pain was reduced using a lower fluence rate during PDT of acne Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  12. Evaluation of Sonochemiluminescence in a Phantom in the Presence of Protoporphyrin IX Conjugated to Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shanei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction When a liquid is irradiated with high-intensity and low-frequency ultrasound, acoustic cavitation occurs and there are some methods to determine and quantify this phenomenon. The existing methods for performing these experiments include sonochemiluminescence (SCL and chemical dosimetric methods. The particles in a liquid decrease the ultrasonic intensity threshold needed for cavitation onset. In this study, a new nanoconjugate made up of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX and gold nanoparticles (GNP, i.e., Au-PpIX was used to provide nucleation sites for cavitation. The nonradiative relaxation time of PpIX in the presence of GNPs is longer than the similar time for PpIX without GNPs. This effect can be used in medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Materials and Methods The acoustic cavitation activity was investigated studying integrated SCL signal in the wavelength range of 400-500 nm in polyacrylamide gel phantom containing luminol using a cooled CCD spectrometer at different intensities of 1 MHz ultrasound. In order to confirm these results, a chemical dosimetric method was utilized, too. Results SCL signal level in gel phantom containing Au-PpIX was higher than the other phantoms. These results have been confirmed by the chemical dosimetric data. Conclusion This finding can be related to the existence of PpIX as a sensitizer and GNPs as cavitation nuclei. In other words, nanoparticles have acted as the sites for cavitation and have increased the cavitation rate. Another theory is that activation of PpIX has produced more free radicals and has enhanced the SCL signal level.

  13. New selective carbonic anhydrase IX inhibitors: synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of diarylpyrazole-benzenesulfonamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogez-Florent, Tiphaine; Meignan, Samuel; Foulon, Catherine; Six, Perrine; Gros, Abigaëlle; Bal-Mahieu, Christine; Supuran, Claudiu T; Scozzafava, Andrea; Frédérick, Raphaël; Masereel, Bernard; Depreux, Patrick; Lansiaux, Amélie; Goossens, Jean-François; Gluszok, Sébastien; Goossens, Laurence

    2013-03-15

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX expression is increased upon hypoxia and has been proposed as a therapeutic target since it has been associated with poor prognosis, tumor progression and pH regulation. We report the synthesis and the pharmacological evaluation of a new class of human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) inhibitors, 4-(5-aryl-2-hydroxymethyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-benzenesulfonamides. A molecular modeling study was conducted in order to simulate the binding mode of this new family of enzyme inhibitors within the active site of hCA IX. Pharmacological studies revealed high hCA IX inhibitory potency in the parameters nanomolar range. This study showed that the position of sulfonamide group in meta of the 1-phenylpyrazole increase a selectivity hCA IX versus hCA II of our compounds. An in vitro antiproliferative screening has been performed on the breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell using doxorubicin as cytotoxic agent and in presence of selected CA IX inhibitor. The results shown that the cytotoxic efficiency of doxorubicin in an hypoxic environment, expressed in IC50 value, is restored at 20% level with 1μM CA IX inhibitor. PMID:23168081

  14. Identification of a juxtamembrane mechanosensitive domain in the platelet mechanosensor glycoprotein Ib-IX complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Deng, Wei; Zhou, Liang; Xu, Yan; Yang, Wenjun; Liang, Xin; Wang, Yizhen; Kulman, John D; Zhang, X Frank; Li, Renhao

    2015-01-15

    How glycoprotein (GP)Ib-IX complex on the platelet surface senses the blood flow through its binding to the plasma protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) and transmits a signal into the platelet remains unclear. Here we show that optical tweezer-controlled pulling of the A1 domain of VWF (VWF-A1) on GPIb-IX captured by its cytoplasmic domain induced unfolding of a hitherto unidentified structural domain before the dissociation of VWF-A1 from GPIb-IX. Additional studies using recombinant proteins and mutant complexes confirmed its existence in GPIb-IX and enabled localization of this quasi-stable mechanosensitive domain of ∼60 residues between the macroglycopeptide region and the transmembrane helix of the GPIbα subunit. These results suggest that VWF-mediated pulling under fluid shear induces unfolding of the mechanosensitive domain in GPIb-IX, which may possibly contribute to platelet mechanosensing and/or shear resistance of VWF-platelet interaction. The identification of the mechanosensitive domain in GPIb-IX has significant implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of related blood diseases. PMID:25359992

  15. A study of reported factor IX use around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonebraker, J S; Bolton-Maggs, P H B; Brooker, M; Farrugia, A; Srivastava, A

    2011-05-01

    Replacement therapy has significantly improved the life expectancy and lifestyle of people with haemophilia. The objectives of this article were to study the reported factor IX (FIX) use on a country-by-country basis and address the following question: Does the reported FIX use vary by national economies? We obtained data on the reported number of international units (IUs) of FIX used for 90 countries from the Marketing Research Bureau and the World Federation of Hemophilia. Results show that the reported FIX use varies considerably across national economies, even among the wealthiest of countries.Trends suggest that the reported FIX usage increases with increasing economic capacity and has been increasing over time. Trends also suggest that consumption of FIX has been increasing at a greater rate in high income countries. Given these trends, there will likely be an overall increase in the amount of FIX concentrates used in the treatment of haemophilia B. We also found that FIX use both in terms of IUs per capita and IUs per person provide a complete picture of the level of haemophilia care within a country. Such information is critical for planning efforts of national healthcare agencies to determine realistic budget priorities and pharmaceutical manufacturers to determine adequate production levels of FIX concentrates. By improving the data collection and surveillance of FIX use for the treatment of people with haemophilia B, we can identify trends and needs of patients and highlight best treatment practices among countries. PMID:21299742

  16. Recombinant Human Factor IX Produced from Transgenic Porcine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hwan Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitation step to remove casein. The purified protein had high specific activity and a low ratio of the active form (FIXa. The purified rhFIX had 11.9 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla residues/mol protein, which approached full occupancy of the 12 potential sites in the Gla domain. The rhFIX was shown to have a higher isoelectric point and lower sialic acid content than plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX. The rhFIX had the same N-glycosylation sites and phosphorylation sites as pdFIX, but had a higher specific activity. These results suggest that rhFIX produced from porcine milk is physiologically active and they support the use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for industrial scale production in milk.

  17. Protoporphyrin IX formation after topical application of methyl aminolaevulinate and BF-200 aminolaevulinic acid declines with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, C V; Philipsen, P A; Wulf, H C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a popular treatment modality in dermatology. The effect of PDT in epidermal cells depends on formation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). A variety of physiological changes in epidermal function occur with increasing age...... assessed. Treatment efficacy in relation to age was evaluated in 100 basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) treated with MAL-PDT. RESULTS: Both photosensitizers induced significantly more PpIX formation in the younger group. Linear regression revealed a significant age-related decline in PpIX formation after...... the standard application time of 3 h (P treatments). Skin phototype, stratum corneum hydration and UV damage were not associated with PpIX formation. The treatment efficacy of BCCs 3 months after MAL-PDT was higher in young patients (P =  0·012). CONCLUSIONS: PpIX formation in human skin...

  18. Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence for enhanced photodynamic diagnosis and photodynamic therapy in murine models of skin and breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollakanti, Kishore Reddy

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is a photosensitizing agent derived from aminolevulinic acid. PpIX accumulates specifically within target cancer cells, where it fluoresces and produces cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. Our aims were to employ PpIX fluorescence to detect squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin (Photodynamic diagnosis, PDD), and to improve treatment efficacy (Photodynamic therapy, PDT) for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous breast cancer. Hyperspectral imaging and a spectrometer based dosimeter system were used to detect very early SCC in UVB-irradiated murine skin, using PpIX fluorescence. Regarding PDT, we showed that low non-toxic doses of vitamin D, given before ALA application, increase tumor specific PpIX accumulation and sensitize BCC and breast cancer cells to ALA-PDT. These optical imaging methods and the combination therapy regimen (vitamin D and ALA-PDT) are promising tools for effective management of skin and breast cancer.

  19. Travel grant program for the IX International Congresses of Mycology and Bacteriology -- Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granigan, Marion

    2000-05-25

    In 1999, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) and the National Academy of Sciences' U.S. National Committee for the International Union of Microbiological Sciences (IUMS) jointly organized a competitive travel grant program to support the participation of U.S. scientists in the 9th International Congresses of the Bacteriological and Applied Microbiology, Mycology and Virology Divisions of the IUMS in Sydney, Australia, August 16-20, 1999. Funding was solicited for the program, and the ASM Minority and International Activities department administered the $40,000 raised. Travel grants in the amount of $2,000 were offered to U.S. investigators (citizens, including federal employees, and permanent residents working in the United States) in the early stages of their careers who planned to attend and present their research at the Congress. Teams of established and new investigators who applied jointly were eligible to received a combined $3,000 award. IUMS developed a questionnaire th at each applicant were required to complete and return, which asked each award recipient about their experience at the Congresses. Questionnaire results are included.

  20. In vivo imaging and quantification of carbonic anhydrase IX expression as an endogenous biomarker of tumor hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagna Bao

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX is a transmembrane protein that has been shown to be greatly upregulated under conditions of hypoxia in many tumor cell lines. Tumor hypoxia is associated with impaired efficacy of cancer therapies making CA IX a valuable target for preclinical and diagnostic imaging. We have developed a quantitative in vivo optical imaging method for detection of CA IX as a marker of tumor hypoxia based on a near-infrared (NIR fluorescent derivative of the CA IX inhibitor acetazolamide (AZ. The agent (HS680 showed single digit nanomolar inhibition of CA IX as well as selectivity over other CA isoforms and demonstrated up to 25-fold upregulation of fluorescent CA IX signal in hypoxic versus normoxic cells, which could be blocked by 60%-70% with unlabeled AZ. CA IX negative cell lines (HCT-116 and MDA-MB-231, as well as a non-binding control agent on CA IX positive cells, showed low fluorescent signal under both conditions. In vivo FMT imaging showed tumor accumulation and excellent tumor definition from 6-24 hours. In vivo selectivity was confirmed by pretreatment of the mice with unlabeled AZ resulting in >65% signal inhibition. HS680 tumor signal was further upregulated >2X in tumors by maintaining tumor-bearing mice in a low oxygen (8% atmosphere. Importantly, intravenously injected HS680 signal was co-localized specifically with both CA IX antibody and pimonidazole (Pimo, and was located away from non-hypoxic regions indicated by a Hoechst stain. Thus, we have established a spatial correlation of fluorescence signal obtained by non-invasive, tomographic imaging of HS680 with regions of hypoxia and CA IX expression. These results illustrate the potential of HS680 and combined with FMT imaging to non-invasively quantify CA IX expression as a hypoxia biomarker, crucial to the study of the underlying biology of hypoxic tumors and the development and monitoring of novel anti-cancer therapies.

  1. Carnosine inhibits carbonic anhydrase IX-mediated extracellular acidosis and suppresses growth of HeLa tumor xenografts

    OpenAIRE

    Ditte, Zuzana; Ditte, Peter; Labudova, Martina; Simko, Veronika; Iuliano, Filippo; Zatovicova, Miriam; Csaderova, Lucia; Pastorekova, Silvia; Pastorek, Jaromir

    2014-01-01

    Background Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a transmembrane enzyme that is present in many types of solid tumors. Expression of CA IX is driven predominantly by the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway and helps to maintain intracellular pH homeostasis under hypoxic conditions, resulting in acidification of the tumor microenvironment. Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is an anti-tumorigenic agent that inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the role of CA I...

  2. Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernethy, Bob; Chandra, Subrato; Baden, Steven; Cummings, Jim; Cummings, Jamie; Beal, David; Chasar, David; Colon, Carlos; Dutton, Wanda; Fairey, Philip; Fonorow, Ken; Gil, Camilo; Gordon, Andrew; Hoak, David; Kerr, Ryan; Peeks, Brady; Kosar, Douglas; Hewes, Tom; Kalaghchy, Safvat; Lubliner, Mike; Martin, Eric; McIlvaine, Janet; Moyer, Neil; Liguori, Sabrina; Parker, Danny; Sherwin, John; Stroer, Dennis; Thomas-Rees, Stephanie; Daniel, Danielle; McIlvaine, Janet

    2010-11-30

    This report summarizes the work conducted by the Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP - www.baihp.org) during the final budget period (BP5) of our contract, January 1, 2010 to November 30, 2010. Highlights from the four previous budget periods are included for context. BAIHP is led by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) of the University of Central Florida. With over 50 Industry Partners including factory and site builders, work in BP5 was performed in six tasks areas: Building America System Research Management, Documentation and Technical Support; System Performance Evaluations; Prototype House Evaluations; Initial Community Scale Evaluations; Project Closeout, Final Review of BA Communities; and Other Research Activities.

  3. A new peptide ligand for targeting human carbonic anhydrase IX, identified through the phage display technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Askoxylakis

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX is a transmembrane enzyme found to be overexpressed in various tumors and associated with tumor hypoxia. Ligands binding this target may be used to visualize hypoxia, tumor manifestation or treat tumors by endoradiotherapy. METHODS: Phage display was performed with a 12 amino acid phage display library by panning against a recombinant extracellular domain of human carbonic anhydrase IX. The identified peptide CaIX-P1 was chemically synthesized and tested in vitro on various cell lines and in vivo in Balb/c nu/nu mice carrying subcutaneously transplanted tumors. Binding, kinetic and competition studies were performed on the CAIX positive human renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52, the CAIX negative human renal cell carcinoma cell line CaKi 2, the human colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT 116 and on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. Organ distribution studies were carried out in mice, carrying SKRC 52 tumors. RNA expression of CAIX in HCT 116 and HUVEC cells was investigated by quantitative real time PCR. RESULTS: In vitro binding experiments of (125I-labeled-CaIX-P1 revealed an increased uptake of the radioligand in the CAIX positive renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52. Binding of the radioligand in the colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT 116 increased with increasing cell density and correlated with the mRNA expression of CAIX. Radioligand uptake was inhibited up to 90% by the unlabeled CaIX-P1 peptide, but not by the negative control peptide octreotide at the same concentration. No binding was demonstrated in CAIX negative CaKi 2 and HUVEC cells. Organ distribution studies revealed a higher accumulation in SKRC 52 tumors than in heart, spleen, liver, muscle, intestinum and brain, but a lower uptake compared to blood and kidney. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that CaIX-P1 is a promising candidate for the development of new ligands targeting human carbonic anhydrase IX.

  4. Pleistocene Palaeoart of the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the great time depth of Pleistocene rock art and mobiliary ‘art’ in the four other continents, the available evidence from the Americas is very limited, and restricted at best to the last part of the final Pleistocene. A review of what has so far become available is hampered by a considerable burden of literature presenting material contended to be of the Ice Age, even of the Mesozoic in some cases, that needs to be sifted through to find a minute number of credible claims. Even the timing of the first colonization of the Americas remains unresolved, and the lack of clear-cut substantiation of palaeoart finds predating about 12,000 years bp is conspicuous. There are vague hints of earlier human presence, rendering it likely that archaeology has failed to define its manifestations adequately, and Pleistocene palaeoart remains almost unexplored at this stage.

  5. Treatment of hemophilia B: focus on recombinant factor IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franchini M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Massimo Franchini, Francesco Frattini, Silvia Crestani, Cinzia Sissa, Carlo BonfantiDepartment of Transfusion Medicine and Hematology, Carlo Poma Hospital, Mantua, ItalyAbstract: Hemophilia B is a recessive X-linked bleeding disorder characterized by deficiency of the coagulation factor IX (FIX. In hemophilia B patients the severity of the bleeding phenotype is related to the degree of the FIX defect. Hemophilia B treatment has improved greatly in the last 20 years with the introduction first of plasma-derived and then of recombinant FIX concentrates. Replacement therapy may be administered through on-demand or prophylaxis regimens, but the latter treatment modality has been shown to be superior in prevention of hemophilic arthropathy and in improvement of patients' quality of life. The purpose of this narrative review is to summarize the current knowledge on treatment strategies for hemophilia B, focusing on recombinant FIX products either clinically used or in development. There is only one rFIX product that is licensed to treat hemophilia B patients; from the analysis of the literature data presented in this review, the authors conclude that this rFIX product has demonstrated an excellent safety profile and excellent clinical efficacy for halting and preventing bleeds in hemophilia B patients. While prophylaxis has emerged as the best therapeutic strategy for such patients because of its ability to prevent hemophilic arthropathy and to improve patients' quality of life, the pharmacokinetically tailored dosing of rFIX is another key point when planning hemophilia B treatment, as it allows optimization of the factor concentrate usage. Further clinical studies are needed to better assess the safety and efficacy (ie, the incidence of adverse reactions and inhibitor development of newer rFIX products.Keywords: recombinant FIX products, plasma-derived FIX concentrate, bleeding, blood clotting disorder, on-demand treatment, prophylaxis treatment

  6. Theory of the variable quantum yield of Bilirubin-IX Photoisomers: the end of a chapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Bilirubin-IX (BR-IX), responsible for neonatal jaundice, has two slightly different chromophores which undergo the Davidoff (exciton) interaction. Because of this, BR-IX in certain solvents, e.g. human serum albumin (but not Me/OH) exhibits magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), due to the exciton lines only. The absoption spectrum of BR-IX in the exciton line region is best fitted by two gaussian lines of equal width, but the MCD spectrum best fit requires two gaussian of unequal width: the gaussian assumption is made for ease of calculation. The difference between the fitted spectra shows up as a single broad line of maximum smaller than that of the gaussian lines, and in the region of the central portion of the gaussians overlap. The origin of this line is as yet unknown, so that much further work needs to be done on the structure of the excited state of BR-IX giving rise to the exciton interaction. This is currently being undertaken. However, the variation of the exciton interaction energy with wavelength as deduced from present theory seems reasonably certain though its origin may not be

  7. White light-informed optical properties improve ultrasound-guided fluorescence tomography of photoactive protoporphyrin IX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Brendan P.; DSouza, Alisha V.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Davis, Scott C.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-04-01

    Subsurface fluorescence imaging is desirable for medical applications, including protoporphyrin-IX (PpIX)-based skin tumor diagnosis, surgical guidance, and dosimetry in photodynamic therapy. While tissue optical properties and heterogeneities make true subsurface fluorescence mapping an ill-posed problem, ultrasound-guided fluorescence-tomography (USFT) provides regional fluorescence mapping. Here USFT is implemented with spectroscopic decoupling of fluorescence signals (auto-fluorescence, PpIX, photoproducts), and white light spectroscopy-determined bulk optical properties. Segmented US images provide a priori spatial information for fluorescence reconstruction using region-based, diffuse FT. The method was tested in simulations, tissue homogeneous and inclusion phantoms, and an injected-inclusion animal model. Reconstructed fluorescence yield was linear with PpIX concentration, including the lowest concentration used, 0.025 μg/ml. White light spectroscopy informed optical properties, which improved fluorescence reconstruction accuracy compared to the use of fixed, literature-based optical properties, reduced reconstruction error and reconstructed fluorescence standard deviation by factors of 8.9 and 2.0, respectively. Recovered contrast-to-background error was 25% and 74% for inclusion phantoms without and with a 2-mm skin-like layer, respectively. Preliminary mouse-model imaging demonstrated system feasibility for subsurface fluorescence measurement in vivo. These data suggest that this implementation of USFT is capable of regional PpIX mapping in human skin tumors during photodynamic therapy, to be used in dosimetric evaluations.

  8. Intercultural Education Series. The Americas and Self-Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Earl, Ed.; Dean, Frances, Ed.

    This is the final monograph in the Programa de Educacion Interamericana resource series on Latin America: SO 001 424 through SO 001 428. Two main sections are contained here: 1) philosophical and methodological approaches to the problems of teaching the social studies, and 2) ammunition in knowing the Americas so they can be taught better. The…

  9. IDENTIFYING YOUNG STARS IN MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS FOR THE MYStIX PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Massive Young star-forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-rays (MYStIX) project requires samples of young stars that are likely members of 20 nearby Galactic massive star-forming regions. Membership is inferred from statistical classification of X-ray sources, from detection of a robust infrared excess that is best explained by circumstellar dust in a disk or infalling envelope and from published spectral types that are unlikely to be found among field stars. We present the MYStIX membership lists here, and describe in detail the statistical classification of X-ray sources via a 'Naive Bayes Classifier'. These membership lists provide the empirical foundation for later MYStIX science studies

  10. Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi IX: Inclusion of inverse triad corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Karami, Asieh

    2016-06-01

    We consider the loop quantization of the (diagonal) Bianchi type IX cosmological model. We explore different quantization prescriptions that extend the work of Wilson-Ewing and Singh. In particular, we study two different ways of implementing the so-called inverse triad corrections. We construct the corresponding Hamiltonian constraint operators and show that the singularity is formally resolved. We find the effective equations associated with the different quantization prescriptions, and study the relation with the isotropic k = 1 model that, classically, is contained within the Bianchi IX model. Somewhat surprisingly, we find the most natural quantization does not reduce to the k = 1 model. We use geometrically defined scalar observables to explore the physical implications of each of these theories. This is the first part in a series of papers analyzing different aspects of the Bianchi IX model, with inverse corrections, within loop quantum cosmology (LQC).

  11. Materials for Electroactive Ion-Exchange (EaIX) Separations of Pertechnetate Ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stender, Matthias; Hubler, Timothy L.; Alhoshan, Mansour; Smyrl, William H.

    2004-03-29

    Many contaminants of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) exist as anions (e.g. chromate, pertechnetate and nitrate). The objective of this study is to develop Electroactive Ion-Exchange (EaIX) materials. Such materials can be used to separate pertechnetate ion from radioactive wastes located at DOE sites while limiting the amount of secondary wastes generated. We have developed a synthetic strategy to prepare vinyl-bipyridyl and -terpyridyl ligands which allow incorporation of ion-selective architectures with a polymerizable handle. Fe complexes formed with these ligands provide the working core of the electroactive polymers. The polymers can be directly used as materials for EaIX or they can be incorporated into porous composite materials that are then used for EaIX.

  12. The role of polymorphisms of genes encoding collagen IX and XI in lumbar disc disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeczko, Łukasz; Janeczko, Magdalena; Chrzanowski, Robert; Zieliński, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The intervertebral disc disease (IDD) is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders. A number of environment and anthropometric risk factors may contribute to it. The recent reports have suggested the importance of genetic factors, especially these which encode collagen types IX and XI. The allelic variants in the collagen IX genes - COL9A2 (Trp2) and COL9A3 (Trp3) have been identified as genetic risk factors for IDD, because they interfere the cross-linking between collagen types II, IX and XI and result in decreased stability of intervertebral discs. Type XI collagen is a minor component of cartilage collagen fibrils, but it is present in the annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus of intervertebral discs. Some studies have shown the association between gene COL11A1 polymorphism c.4603C>T and IDD. The frequency of 4603T allele was significantly higher in the patients with IDD than in the healthy controls. PMID:24636772

  13. Regulation of human clotting factor IX cDNA expression in transgenic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡以平; 邱信芳; 薛京伦; 刘祖洞

    1995-01-01

    To study the expression of human dotting factor IX cDNA in transgenic mice,Which is an es-sential work on gene therapy for hemophilia B,3 recombinant constructions containing different lengths ofhuman dotting factor IX cDNA have been introduced into the cultured cells.All of the recombinant constructionswere found to he expressed well in vitro.They were then microinjected into the male pronudei of the fertilizedmouse eggs respectively for generating trahsgenic mice.Unfortunately,none of them was expressed in any transgenicmice.These results show that the expression of the human clotting factor IX cDNA in the transgenic mice canbe determined by cis regulatory element(s).As compared With the results from other related works,it is sug-gested that the cis regulatory element(s)is resided in the 5’-end non-coding region.

  14. Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi IX: Inclusion of inverse triad corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Corichi, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    We consider the loop quantization of the (diagonal) Bianchi type IX cosmological model. We explore different quantization prescriptions that extend the work of Wilson-Ewing and Singh. In particular, we study two different ways of implementing the so-called inverse triad corrections. We construct the corresponding Hamiltonian constraint operators and show that the singularity is formally resolved. We find the effective equations associated with the different quantization prescriptions, and study the relation with the isotropic $k$=1 model that, classically, is contained within the Bianchi IX model. We use geometrically defined scalar observables to explore the physical implications of each of these theories. This is the first part in a series of papers analyzing different aspects of the Bianchi IX model, with inverse corrections, within loop quantum cosmology.

  15. PREFACE: The IX Mexican Workshop on Particles and Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amore, Paolo; Aranda, Alfredo; Bashir, Adnan; Mondragón, Myriam; Raya, Alfredo

    2006-05-01

    The IX Mexican Workshop on Particles and Fields was held in the beautiful city of Colima, in the South-West of Mexico, from 17-22 November 2003. The proceedings of the Workshop were delayed due to problems with a previous publisher, we are very grateful that Journal of Physics: Conference Series kindly agreed to publish the proceedings rapidly at this late stage. The Workshop aimed to cover, through invited lectures delivered by internationally known experts, the most recent developments in the field. There was also a series of short seminars as well as a poster session, which allowed the whole community to participate with their most recent research results. A special session was dedicated to awarding the Division Medal to Professor Benjamin Grinstein, from The University of California, San Diego, for his outstanding contributions to the field. This volume contains the written version of the material presented at the Workshop. The Workshop was attended by more than 100 participants, including faculty members, postdocs and graduate students. It was organized by the Particles and Fields Division of the Mexican Physical Society, and generously sponsored by several institutions: Universidad de Colima, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV), Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (Conacyt). The Local Organizing Committee was integrated by Paolo Amore, Alfredo Aranda, Carlos Moisés Hernóndez Suórez (Director of the Physics Faculty), Arturo Gonzólez Larios, Enrique Farías Martínez, and Myriam Cruz Calvario, all from the University of Colima. The members of the National Organizing Committee were Adnan Bashir (IFM-UMSHN), Jens Erler (IF-UNAM), Heriberto Castilla Valdés (CINVESTAV-U.Zacatenco), Gabriel López Castro (CINVESTAV-U.Zacatenco), Myriam Mondragón (IF-UNAM) and Luis Villaseñ or (IFM-UMSHN). We gratefully acknowledge the help given by

  16. Natural gas in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite having proven reserves equal to that of North America, natural gas has traditionally played a minor role in the energy policies of Latin American countries, being considered secondary to oil. There has, therefore, been a neglect of the sector with a resultant lack of an adequate infrastructure throughout the region, perhaps with the exception of Argentina. However, with a massive increase in energy demand, growing concerns with environmental matters and a need to reduce the massive pollution levels in major cities in the region, natural gas is forecast to play a much greater role in Latin America's energy profile, with final consumption forecast to rise at 5.4% per annum for the next 15 years. This book assesses both the development of the use of natural gas in the power industrial sector and proposals for its growth into the residential, commercial and transport sectors. It analyses the significant investment required and the governments' need to turn to the private sector for investment and innovation. Natural Gas in Latin America analyses the possibilities and pitfalls of investing in the sector and describes the key trends and issues. It analyses all aspects of the gas industry from exploration and production to transportation and distribution to end users. (Author)

  17. Spectra of W VIII and W IX in the EUV Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ryabtsev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The results obtained on the W VIII spectrum as well as on the isoelectronic spectra Lu V, Hf VI, Ta VII, and Re IX in the VUV wavelength region are summarized with emphasis on the main trends along the isoelectronic sequence. A total of 187 lines of W VIII in the region of 160–271 Å were accurately measured and identified, 98 levels were found, and transition probabilities calculated. The isoelectronic regularities support the data on W VIII. A list of spectral lines in the region of 170–199 Å, considered as belonging to W IX, is presented.

  18. Expression of HIF-1alpha, CA IX, VEGF, and MMP-9 in surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, S.; Rabbani, Z.N.; Dewhirst, M.W.; Vujaskovic, Z.; Vollmer, R.T.; Schreiber, E.G.; Oosterwijk, E.; Kelley, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Endogenous hypoxia markers have been studied as prognostic indicators because they appear to be associated with tumor aggressiveness. This study was undertaken to compare the expression of two endogenous hypoxia markers, Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX),

  19. 12 CFR 900.3 - Terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....C. 1451, et seq.). Generally Accepted Accounting Principles or GAAP means accounting principles... used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. 900.3 Section 900.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD... to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. As used throughout this...

  20. "To Study the Relationship of Academic Stress and Socio-Economic Status among IX Standard Students of Raipur City"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Suhail Ahmed; Ayyub, Khan Farhat

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between academic stress and socio-economic status among IX standard students. The research was carried out in Raipur City (Chhattisgarh) on a sample of 600 IX standard students of English and Hindi medium schools. Academic Stress was measured by Stress Inventory for School Students prepared by Seema Rani…

  1. 15 CFR 717.1 - Clarification procedures; challenge inspection requests pursuant to Article IX of the Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection requests pursuant to Article IX of the Convention. 717.1 Section 717.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade... COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS CWC CLARIFICATION PROCEDURES (CONSULTATIONS AND CHALLENGE... Convention. (a) Article IX of the Convention sets forth procedures for clarification, between States...

  2. Bianchi Type-IX viscous fluid cosmological model in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raj Bali; Mahesh Kumar Yadav

    2005-02-01

    Bianchi Type-IX viscous fluid cosmological model is investigated. To get a deterministic model, we have assumed the condition = ( is a constant) between metric potentials and where is the coefficient of shear viscosity and the scalar of expansion in the model. The coefficient of bulk viscosity () is taken as constant. The physical and geometrical aspects of the model are also discussed.

  3. Quark matter coupled to domain walls in Bianchi types II, VIII and IX Universes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S D Katore; M M Sancheti; S P Hatkar

    2014-10-01

    In this study of Bianchi types II, VIII and IX Universes, quark matter coupled to domain walls in the context of general relativity are explored. To obtain deterministic solution of the Einstein’s field equations, various techniques are adopted. The features of the obtained solution are discussed.

  4. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter IX: engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report corresponds to Chapter IX of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2. Data base assessment are made for systems engineering, magnet systems, torus systems, and NBI heating systems. R and D programme and impact on INTOR design are also specified. In addition to the data base assessment, studies have been made for several new tasks. (author)

  5. 22. IX avati Tallinna Keskraamatukogu võõrkeelse kirjanduse osakonnas... / Milvi Aasaru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aasaru, Milvi

    2003-01-01

    Näitus "Sada aastat Nikolai Roerichi teaduslik-kunstilisest ekspeditsioonist mööda Vana-Vene linnu ja Baltimaid (1903-1904)". Kuni 22. IX oli Tallinna Männiku raamatukogus N. Roerichi tööde reprode väljapanek "Retk muinasaega"

  6. Protoporphyrin IX formation and photobleaching in different layers of normal human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Idorn, Luise W; Philipsen, Peter A;

    2012-01-01

    human skin was tape-stripped and incubated with 20% methylaminolevulinate (MAL) or 20% hexylaminolevulinate (HAL) for 3 h. Fluorescence microscopy quantified PpIX accumulation in epidermis, superficial, mid and deep dermis, down to 2 mm. PpIX photobleaching by light-emitting diode (LED, 632 nm, 18 and......Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used for various skin disorders, and selective targeting of specific skin structures is desirable. The objective was to assess accumulation of PpIX fluorescence and photobleaching within skin layers using different photosensitizers and light sources. Normal...... 37 J/cm(2)), intense pulsed light (IPL, 500-650 nm, 36 and 72 J/cm(2)) and long-pulsed dye laser (LPDL, 595 nm, 7.5 and 15 J/cm(2)) was measured using fluorescence photography and microscopy. We found higher PpIX fluorescence intensities in epidermis and superficial dermis in HAL-incubated skin than...

  7. Protoporphyrin IX-induced structural and functional changes in human red blood cells, haemoglobin and myoglobin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Susmita Sil; Tania Bose; Dibyendu Roy; Abhay Sankar Chakraborti

    2004-09-01

    Protoporphyrin IX and its derivatives are used as photosensitizers in the photodynamic therapy of cancer. Protoporphyrin IX penetrates into human red blood cells and releases oxygen from them. This leads to a change in the morphology of the cells. Spectrophotometric studies reveal that protoporphyrin IX interacts with haemoglobin and myoglobin forming ground state complexes. For both proteins, the binding affinity constant decreases, while the possible number of binding sites increases, as the aggregation state of the porphyrin is increased. The interactions lead to conformational changes of both haemoglobin and myoglobin as observed in circular dichroism studies. Upon binding with the proteins, protoporphyrin IX releases the heme-bound oxygen from the oxyproteins, which is dependent on the stoichiometric ratios of the porphyrin: protein. The peroxidase activities of haemoglobin and myoglobin are potentiated by the protein-porphyrin complexation. Possible mechanisms underlying the relation between the porphyrin-induced structural modifications of the heme proteins and alterations in their functional properties have been discussed. The findings may have a role in establishing efficacy of therapeutic uses of porphyrins as well as in elucidating their mechanisms of action as therapeutic agents.

  8. African Swine Fever Virus p72 Genotype IX in Domestic Pigs, Congo, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchuelo, Raquel; Pelayo, Virginia; Poudevigne, Frédéric; Leon, Tati; Nzoussi, Jacques; Bishop, Richard; Pérez, Covadonga; Soler, Alejandro; Nieto, Raquel; Martín, Hilario; Arias, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    African swine fever virus p72 genotype IX, associated with outbreaks in eastern Africa, is cocirculating in the Republic of the Congo with West African genotype I. Data suggest that viruses from eastern Africa are moving into western Africa, increasing the threat of outbreaks caused by novel viruses in this region. PMID:21801650

  9. Ramona cold nuclear bank of the Siemens 9x9-IX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of making the transitory analyses of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power station when Siemens fuel of the type 9x9-IX is used, proposed for the cycle 2 of the Unit 2, the data bank in cold condition for the Ramona code has been generated. (Author)

  10. Ares I-X Flight Evaluation Tasks in Support of Ares I Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Richards, James S.; Coates, Ralph H., III; Cruit, Wendy D.; Ramsey, Matthew N.

    2010-01-01

    NASA s Constellation Program successfully launched the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle on October 28, 2009. The Ares I-X flight was a development flight test that offered a unique opportunity for early engineering data to impact the design and development of the Ares I crew launch vehicle. As the primary customer for flight data from the Ares I-X mission, the Ares Projects Office established a set of 33 flight evaluation tasks to correlate fight results with prospective design assumptions and models. Included within these tasks were direct comparisons of flight data with pre-flight predictions and post-flight assessments utilizing models and modeling techniques being applied to design and develop Ares I. A discussion of the similarities and differences in those comparisons and the need for discipline-level model updates based upon those comparisons form the substance of this paper. The benefits of development flight testing were made evident by implementing these tasks that used Ares I-X data to partially validate tools and methodologies in technical disciplines that will ultimately influence the design and development of Ares I and future launch vehicles. The areas in which partial validation from the flight test was most significant included flight control system algorithms to predict liftoff clearance, ascent, and stage separation; structural models from rollout to separation; thermal models that have been updated based on these data; pyroshock attenuation; and the ability to predict complex flow fields during time-varying conditions including plume interactions.

  11. Downregulation of carbonic anhydrase IX promotes Col10a1 expression in chondrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshifumi Maruyama

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrase (CA IX is a transmembrane isozyme of CAs that catalyzes reversible hydration of CO(2. While it is known that CA IX is distributed in human embryonic chondrocytes, its role in chondrocyte differentiation has not been reported. In the present study, we found that Car9 mRNA and CA IX were expressed in proliferating but not hypertrophic chondrocytes. Next, we examined the role of CA IX in the expression of marker genes of chondrocyte differentiation in vitro. Introduction of Car9 siRNA to mouse primary chondrocytes obtained from costal cartilage induced the mRNA expressions of Col10a1, the gene for type X collagen α-1 chain, and Epas1, the gene for hypoxia-responsible factor-2α (HIF-2α, both of which are known to be characteristically expressed in hypertrophic chondrocytes. On the other hand, forced expression of CA IX had no effect of the proliferation of chondrocytes or the transcription of Col10a1 and Epas1, while the transcription of Col2a1 and Acan were up-regulated. Although HIF-2α has been reported to be a potent activator of Col10a1 transcription, Epas1 siRNA did not suppress Car9 siRNA-induced increment in Col10a1 expression, indicating that down-regulation of CA IX induces the expression of Col10a1 in chondrocytes in a HIF-2α-independent manner. On the other hand, cellular cAMP content was lowered by Car9 siRNA. Furthermore, the expression of Col10a1 mRNA after Car9 silencing was augmented by an inhibitor of protein kinase A, and suppressed by an inhibitor for phosphodiesterase as well as a brominated analog of cAMP. While these results suggest a possible involvement of cAMP-dependent pathway, at least in part, in induction of Col10a1 expression by down-regulation of Car9, more detailed study is required to clarify the role of CA IX in regulation of Col10a1 expression in chondrocytes.

  12. Action of the protoporphyrin-Ix (Pp-Ix) in the life period of Drosophila mutants deficient in endogenous antioxidants; Accion de la protoporfirina-IX (PP-IX) en el periodo de vida de mutantes de Drosophila deficientes en antioxidantes endogenos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal E, L. M.

    2012-07-01

    The human being is daily exposed to free radicals or reactive oxygen species (Ros), as a result of the breathing and the interactions with xenobiotics that can cause irreversible lesions in molecules and cellular structures and that they are associated to diseases like the cancer, neuro degenerative and to the acceleration of the normal process of aging. Fortunately, to reduce the damaging effect of the Ros the cell has endogenous antioxidant systems constituted by antioxidant enzymes as: the superoxide dismutase (Sod), the catalase (Cat), and the glutathione peroxidase and reductase. Even, when these systems are not enough, we find to the exogenous antioxidants that cooperate in the balance of the Ros, as the porphyrins that include to the chlorophyllin, the hemin and the bilirubin among others. The protoporphyrin-Ix (Pp-Ix) is a tetra pyrrole without metallic center with antimutagenic and antioxidant activity similar to that of the chlorophyllin. However, is also known that their over-expression has toxic effects, because induces Ros. In Drosophila melanogaster, recently was found that the Pp-Ix have dual action anti and persistent mutagenic. One of their possible mechanism to act like mutagen is through the Ros induction. To evaluate this possibility and based in that the increase in the Ros levels can accelerate the aging process, in the present work the Pp-Ix role was evaluated, in the life period of Drosophila melanogaster strains deficient in Sod and Cat, sensitive to radiation or oxidative stress (rad, whd and flr{sup 3}) and a wild one as control (C-S). Females and males of each strain were treated chronically for separate with sucrose or Pp-Ix and every 15 days a group of each sex was irradiated with 10 Gy of gamma rays. The results indicated that the chronic treatment with Pp-Ix and in combination with radiation, increased the life period of the C-S strain. The Sod strain had a contrary effect and this effect was pronounced with the combined treatment of

  13. Ares I-X Flight Test Development Challenges and Success Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askins, Bruce; Davis, Steve; Olsen, Ronald; Taylor, James

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program's Ares I-X rocket launched successfully on October 28, 2009 collecting valuable data and providing risk reduction for the Ares I project. The Ares I-X mission was formulated and implemented in less than four years commencing with the Exploration Systems Architecture Study in 2005. The test configuration was founded upon assets and processes from other rocket programs including Space Shuttle, Atlas, and Peacekeeper. For example, the test vehicle's propulsion element was a Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor. The Ares I-X rocket comprised a motor assembly, mass and outer mold line simulators of the Ares I Upper Stage, Orion Spacecraft and Launch Abort System, a roll control system, avionics, and other miscellaneous components. The vehicle was 327 feet tall and weighed approximately 1,800,000 pounds. During flight the rocket reached a maximum speed of Mach 4.8 and an altitude of 150,000 feet. The vehicle demonstrated staging at 130,000 feet, tested parachutes for recovery of the motor, and utilized approximately 900 sensors for data collection. Developing a new launch system and preparing for a safe flight presented many challenges. Specific challenges included designing a system to withstand the environments, manufacturing large structures, and re-qualifying heritage hardware. These and other challenges, if not mitigated, may have resulted in test cancellation. Ares I-X succeeded because the mission was founded on carefully derived objectives, led by decisive and flexible management, implemented by an exceptionally talented and dedicated workforce, and supported by a thorough independent review team. Other major success factors include the use of proven heritage hardware, a robust System Integration Laboratory, multi-NASA center and contractor team, concurrent operations, efficient vehicle assembly, effective risk management, and decentralized element development with a centralized control board. Ares I-X was a technically complex test that

  14. Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving ruminant productivity on small-holder farms in Latin America through the use of immunoassay techniques. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting of a co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of a CRP completed in 1989 and entitled ''Regional Network for Improving the Reproductive Management of Milk, Meat and Fibre Producing Livestock with the Use of Radioimmunoassay Techniques'' clearly indicated that nutritional inadequacies and livestock management deficiencies were the major factors affecting livestock productivity in Latin America. Based on these conclusions a CRP entitled ''Development of Feed Supplementation Strategies for Improving Ruminant Productivity on Small-holder Farms in Latin America through the Use of Immunoassay Techniques'' was initiated late in the same year. The primary aim of the Programme was to improve the productivity of indigenous ruminant livestock species maintained on typical small-holder farms in the region. Central to the approach was to first identify the nutritional and management constraints which affect reproductive and productive efficiency, and subsequently to devise and test corrective measures which would be practical, sustainable and economically viable. Important related goals of the Programme were to enhance the level of expertise and the educational quality within animal production research institutes in the region, to encourage close contact between scientists and institutions in developing and developed countries and to promote scientific information exchange on a regional basis. Refs, figs, tabs

  15. RA Reactor operation and maintenance (I-IX), Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report on RA reactor operation and maintenance for year 1963 is divided in six tasks. This volume contains the introductory report, and three tasks of the final report, namely reactor exploitation, reactivity changes of the RA reactor before repair, planning of refuelling

  16. Topics in Finance Part IX--Working Capital Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2012-01-01

    The final topic in a series looking at financial management from a theoretical perspective, working capital management provides the focus of the current article. We investigate how three key axioms--the risk-return tradeoff, agency conflicts, and stockholder wealth maximization--relate to this activity that occupies much of the financial manager's…

  17. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  18. America in the Eyes of America Watchers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huiyun; He, Kai

    2015-01-01

    almost half of the survey participants thought that America would remain the global hegemon in the next ten years. Meanwhile, a large majority was also optimistic that China is a rising great power, especially in the economic sense, in the world. More than half of the respondents saw Asian military...... issues, such as the South China Sea issue, as the most difficult problem between China and the US....

  19. Immigrant America: A Portrait

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbaut, RG; Portes, A.

    2014-01-01

    This revised, updated, and expanded fourth edition of Immigrant America: A Portrait provides readers with a comprehensive and current overview of immigration to the United States in a single volume. Updated with the latest available data, Immigrant America explores the economic, political, spatial, and linguistic aspects of immigration; the role of religion in the acculturation and social integration of foreign minorities; and the adaptation process for the second generation. This revised ed...

  20. Intersex (ix) mutations of Drosophila melanogaster cause nonrandom cell death in genital disc and can induce tumours in genitals in response to decapentaplegic (dppdisk) mutations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. N. chatterjee; P. Chatterjee; S. Kuthe; M. Acharyya-Ari; R. Chatterjee

    2015-06-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the intersex (ix) is a terminally positioned gene in somatic sex determination hierarchy and function with the female specific product of double sex (DSXF) to implement female sexual differentiation. The null phenotype of ix is to transform diplo-X individuals into intersexes while leaving haplo-X animals unaffected. This study on the effect of different intersex mutations on genital disc development provides the following major results: (i) similar range of a characteristic array of morphological structures (from almost double sex terminalia to extreme reduction of terminal appendages) was displayed by the terminalia of XX ix1/ix1, XX ix2/ix2 and XX ix5/ix5 individuals; (ii) an increased number of apoptotic cells were found to occur in a localized manner in mature third instar larval genital discs of ix individuals; (iii) ix mutations can induce high frequency of neoplastic tumours in genitals in the presence of decapentaplegic (dppdisk) mutations; and (iv) heteroallelic combinations of dppdisk mutations can also induce tumours in intersex genitals with variable expressivity. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that: (i) loss of function of ix causes massive cell death in both male and female genital primordia of genital discs, resulting phenotype mimicking in male and female characteristics in genitals; and (ii) at the discs, the apoptotic cells persist as ‘undead’ cells that can induce oncogenic transformation in the neighbouring disc cells when dpp signalling is blocked or reduced by dppdisk mutations.

  1. Bianchi VIII and IX vacuum cosmologies: Almost every solution forms particle horizons and converges to the Mixmaster attractor

    CERN Document Server

    Brehm, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Bianchi models are posited by the BKL picture to be essential building blocks towards an understanding of generic cosmological singularities. We study the behaviour of spatially homogeneous anisotropic vacuum spacetimes of Bianchi type VIII and IX, as they approach the big bang singularity. It is known since 2001 that generic Bianchi IX spacetimes converge towards the so-called Mixmaster attractor as time goes towards the singularity. We extend this result to the case of Bianchi VIII vacuum. The BKL picture suggests that particle horizons should form, i.e. spatially separate regions should causally decouple. We prove that this decoupling indeed occurs, for Lebesgue almost every Bianchi VIII and IX vacuum spacetime.

  2. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible carbonic anhydrase-IX enhances hexokinase II inhibitor-induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Su-jong; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Myung, Sun-jung; Jang, Eun-sun; Kwak, Min-Sun; Cho, Eun-Ju; Jang, Ja-June; Kim, Yoon-jun; Lee, Hyo-Suk

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The hypoxic condition within large or infiltrative hypovascular tumors produces intracellular acidification, which could activate many signaling pathways and augment cancer cell growth and invasion. Carbonic anhydrase-IX (CA-IX) is an enzyme lowering pH. This study is to examine whether hypoxia induces CA-IX in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, and to evaluate its clinical implication in HCC patients. Methods: Human HCC cell lines (Huh-7 and HepG2 cells) were used, and cell growth wa...

  3. 77 FR 71673 - Decision To Rescind Buy America Waiver for Minivans and Minivan Chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... technical documentation were full size vans and/or pickup trucks, and not minivans. Braun also alleged that... 21, 2010 (75 FR 35123). The waiver exempted minivans and minivan chassis from the Buy America final..., FTA waived its Buy America final assembly requirement for minivans and minivan chassis. 75 FR...

  4. IX Proceso abierto de consultas oficiosas de las Naciones Unidas sobre los océanos y el Derecho del mar (IX UNICPOLOS, Nueva york, 23-27 junio de 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel García García-Revillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del marco jurídico que se describe a continuación, se celebró en la Sala 1 de la Sede de las Naciones Unidas en Nueva York, del 23 al 27 de junio de 2008, el IX UNICPOLOS, esto es, el IX Proceso abierto de consultas oficiosas de las Naciones Unidas sobre los océanos y el derecho del mar.

  5. Novel sulfonamide bearing coumarin scaffolds as selective inhibitors of tumor associated carbonic anhydrase isoforms IX and XII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandak, Navneet; Ceruso, Mariangela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Sharma, Pawan K

    2016-07-01

    Four novel scaffolds consisting of total 24 compounds (1a-1o, 2a-2c, 3a-3c and 4a-4c) bearing aromatic sulfonamide and coumarin moieties connected through various linkers were synthesized in order to synergize the inhibition potential of both the moieties against four selected human carbonic anhydrase isoforms (hCA I, II, IX & XII). All compounds were found to be potent inhibitors of tumor associated hCA IX & XII while at the same time required large amounts to inhibit off-targeted housekeeping hCA I & II. Selectivity was more pronounced against hCA II over I, and hCA XII over IX. Results were compared with antitumor drug acetazolamide. One derivative 2b of series 2 was found to be a better selective inhibitor of hCA IX and XII. PMID:27137360

  6. Exact solutions of the Bianchi types V and IX via time-dependent quasi-Maxwell equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Morteza

    2014-02-01

    The exact solutions of the Einstein field equations for the Bianchi types V and IX in presence of a perfect fluid via the time-dependent quasi-Maxwell (TQM) equations are investigated by using the threading formalism.

  7. Chern-Simons functional and the no-boundary proposal in Bianchi IX quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Louko, J

    1995-01-01

    The Chern-Simons functional S_{\\rm CS} is an exact solution to the Ashtekar-Hamilton-Jacobi equation of general relativity with a nonzero cosmological constant. In this paper we consider S_{\\rm CS} in Bianchi type IX cosmology with S^3 spatial surfaces. We show that among the classical solutions generated by~S_{\\rm CS}, there is a two-parameter family of Euclidean spacetimes that have a regular NUT-type closing. When two of the three scale factors are equal, these spacetimes reduce to a one-parameter family within the Euclidean Taub-NUT-de~Sitter metrics. For a nonzero cosmological constant, \\exp(iS_{\\rm CS}) therefore provides a semiclassical estimate to the Bianchi~IX no-boundary wave function in Ashtekar's variables.

  8. Ares I-X First Stage Internal Aft Skirt Re-Entry Heating Data and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Craig P.; Tashakkor, Scott B.

    2011-01-01

    The CLVSTATE engineering code is being used to predict Ares-I launch vehicle first stage reentry aerodynamic heating. An engineering analysis is developed which yields reasonable predictions for the timing of the first stage aft skirt thermal curtain failure and the resulting internal gas temperatures. The analysis is based on correlations of the Ares I-X internal aft skirt gas temperatures and has been implemented into CLVSTATE. Validation of the thermal curtain opening models has been accomplished using additional Ares I-X thermocouple, calorimeter and pressure flight data. In addition, a technique which accounts for radiation losses at high altitudes has been developed which improves the gas temperature measurements obtained by the gas temperature probes (GTP). Updates to the CLVSTATE models are shown to improve the accuracy of the internal aft skirt heating predictions which will result in increased confidence in future vehicle designs

  9. Ares I-X Best Estimated Trajectory and Comparison with Pre-Flight Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Beck, Roger E.; Derry, Stephen D.; Brandon, Jay M.; Starr, Brett R.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Olds, Aaron D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I-X trajectory reconstruction produced best estimated trajectories of the flight test vehicle ascent through stage separation, and of the first and upper stage entries after separation. The trajectory reconstruction process combines on-board, ground-based, and atmospheric measurements to produce the trajectory estimates. The Ares I-X vehicle had a number of on-board and ground based sensors that were available, including inertial measurement units, radar, air- data, and weather balloons. However, due to problems with calibrations and/or data, not all of the sensor data were used. The trajectory estimate was generated using an Iterative Extended Kalman Filter algorithm, which is an industry standard processing algorithm for filtering and estimation applications. This paper describes the methodology and results of the trajectory reconstruction process, including flight data preprocessing and input uncertainties, trajectory estimation algorithms, output transformations, and comparisons with preflight predictions.

  10. In Vivo Gene Therapy of Hemophilia B: Sustained Partial Correction in Factor IX-Deficient Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Mark A.; Rothenberg, Steven; Landen, Charles N.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Leland, Frances; Toman, Carol; Finegold, Milton; Thompson, Arthur R.; Read, M. S.; Brinkhous, Kenneth M.; Woo, Savio L. C.

    1993-10-01

    The liver represents a model organ for gene therapy. A method has been developed for hepatic gene transfer in vivo by the direct infusion of recombinant retroviral vectors into the portal vasculature, which results in the persistent expression of exogenous genes. To determine if these technologies are applicable for the treatment of hemophilia B patients, preclinical efficacy studies were done in a hemophilia B dog model. When the canine factor IX complementary DNA was transduced directly into the hepatocytes of affected dogs in vivo, the animals constitutively expressed low levels of canine factor IX for more than 5 months. Persistent expression of the clotting. factor resulted in reductions of whole blood clotting and partial thromboplastin times of the treated animals. Thus, long-term treatment of hemophilia B patients may be feasible by direct hepatic gene therapy in vivo.

  11. Carbonic anhydrase IX, a hypoxia-induced catalytic component of the pH regulating machinery in tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eSedlakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acidic tissue microenvironment contributes to tumor progression via multiple effects including the activation of angiogenic factors and proteases, reduced cell-cell adhesion, increased migration and invasion, etc. In addition, intratumoral acidosis can influence the uptake of anticancer drugs and modulate the response of tumors to conventional therapy. Acidification of the tumor microenvironment often develops due to hypoxia-triggered oncogenic metabolism, which leads to the extensive production of lactate, protons and carbon dioxide. In order to avoid intracellular accumulation of the acidic metabolic products, which is incompatible with the survival and proliferation, tumor cells activate molecular machinery that regulates pH by driving transmembrane inside-out and outside-in ion fluxes. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX is a hypoxia-induced catalytic component of the bicarbonate import arm of this machinery. Through its catalytic activity, CA IX directly participates in many acidosis-induced features of tumor phenotype as demonstrated by manipulating its expression and/or by in vitro mutagenesis. CA IX can function as a survival factor protecting tumor cells from hypoxia and acidosis, as a pro-migratory factor facilitating cell movement and invasion, as a signaling molecule transducing extracellular signals to intracellular pathways (including major signaling and metabolic cascades and converting intracellular signals to extracellular effects on adhesion, proteolysis and other processes. These functional implications of CA IX in cancer are supported by numerous clinical studies demonstrating the association of CA IX with various clinical correlates and markers of aggressive tumor behavior. Although our understanding of the many faces of CA IX is still incomplete, existing knowledge supports the view that CA IX is a biologically and clinically relevant molecule, exploitable in anticancer strategies aimed at targeting adaptive responses to hypoxia

  12. NMR study of the influence of iodine substitution in the Chevrel compounds Mo6Te8-xIx and Mo6Se8-xIx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have obtained the 125Te and 77Se nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the Chevrel type compounds Mo6Te8-xIx (x=0,1,2) at room temperature and Mo6Se8-xIx (x=0,0.5,1.0,1.5,2.0) over the temperature range 70-300 K, in order to study the effect of I doping in these materials. The spectra consisted of the superposition of two separate anisotropic Knight shifts corresponding to the two different crystallographic sites of the Se and Te nuclei within their respective compounds. The distinction between the two lines became more blurred with the increase of the iodine concentration. Analysis of the results tends to favor the supposition that in the case of the Se compound, the iodine favors the replacement of the Se ternary sites, although some temperature dependence on the choice of site was discerned. In the case of the Te compounds, the experimental evidence showed that even for x=2, both the ternary and the non-ternery sites were occupied. An abrupt change in the NMR parameters for Mo6Se8 near T=100 K was found

  13. N‐methylmesoporphyrin IX fluorescence as a reporter of strand orientation in guanine quadruplexes

    OpenAIRE

    Sabharwal, Navin C.; Savikhin, Victoria; Turek‐Herman, Joshua R.; Nicoludis, John M.; Szalai, Veronika A.; Yatsunyk, Liliya A.

    2014-01-01

    Guanine quadruplexes (GQ) are four‐stranded DNA structures formed by guanine‐rich DNA sequences. The formation of GQs inhibits cancer cell growth, although the detection of GQs in vivo has proven difficult, in part because of their structural diversity. The development of GQ‐selective fluorescent reporters would enhance our ability to quantify the number and location of GQs, ultimately advancing biological studies of quadruplex relevance and function. N‐methylmesoporphyrin IX (NMM) interacts ...

  14. Bilateral Cranial IX and X Nerve Palsies After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Seung Don; Kim, Dong Hwan; Lee, Seung Ah; Joo, Hye In; Yeo, Jin Ah; Chung, Sung Joon

    2016-01-01

    We report a 57-year-old man with bilateral cranial nerve IX and X palsies who presented with severe dysphagia. After a mild head injury, the patient complained of difficult swallowing. Physical examination revealed normal tongue motion and no uvular deviation. Cervical X-ray findings were negative, but a brain computed tomography revealed a skull fracture involving bilateral jugular foramen. Laryngoscopy indicated bilateral vocal cord palsy. In a videofluoroscopic swallowing study, food resid...

  15. The Chern-Simons state for the non-diagonal Bianchi IX model

    OpenAIRE

    Paternoga, Robert; Graham, Robert

    1998-01-01

    The Bianchi IX mixmaster model is quantized in its non-diagonal form, imposing spatial diffeomorphism, time reparametrization and Lorentz invariance as constraints on physical state vectors before gauge-fixing. The result turns out to be different from quantizing the diagonal model obtained by gauge-fixing already on the classical level. For the non-diagonal model a generalized 9-dimensional Fourier transformation over a suitably chosen manifold connects the representations in metric variable...

  16. A sucrose-binding site provides a lead towards an isoform-specific inhibitor of the cancer-associated enzyme carbonic anhydrase IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinard, Melissa A; Aggarwal, Mayank; Mahon, Brian P; Tu, Chingkuang; McKenna, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Human carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) isoform IX (CA IX) is an extracellular zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO2 to HCO3(-), thereby playing a role in pH regulation. The majority of normal functioning cells exhibit low-level expression of CA IX. However, in cancer cells CA IX is upregulated as a consequence of a metabolic transition known as the Warburg effect. The upregulation of CA IX for cancer progression has drawn interest in it being a potential therapeutic target. CA IX is a transmembrane protein, and its purification, yield and crystallization have proven challenging to structure-based drug design, whereas the closely related cytosolic soluble isoform CA II can be expressed and crystallized with ease. Therefore, we have utilized structural alignments and site-directed mutagenesis to engineer a CA II that mimics the active site of CA IX. In this paper, the X-ray crystal structure of this CA IX mimic in complex with sucrose is presented and has been refined to a resolution of 1.5 Å, an Rcryst of 18.0% and an Rfree of 21.2%. The binding of sucrose at the entrance to the active site of the CA IX mimic, and not CA II, in a non-inhibitory mechanism provides a novel carbohydrate moiety binding site that could be further exploited to design isoform-specific inhibitors of CA IX.

  17. Transmembrane carbonic anhydrase isozymes IX and XII in the female mouse reproductive organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Eija

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbonic anhydrase (CA classically catalyses the reversible hydration of dissolved CO2 to form bicarbonate ions and protons. The twelve active CA isozymes are thought to regulate a variety of cellular functions including several processes in the reproductive systems. Methods The present study was designed to investigate the expression of transmembrane CAs, CA IX and XII, in the mouse uterus, ovary and placenta. The expression of CA IX and XII was examined by immunoperoxidase staining method and western blotting. CA II and XIII served as positive controls since they are known to be present in the mouse reproductive tract. Results The data of our study indicated that CA XII is expressed in the mouse endometrium. Only very faint signal was observed in the corpus luteum of the ovary and the placenta remained mainly negative. CA IX showed weak reaction in the endometrial epithelium, while it was completely absent in the ovary and placenta. Conclusion The conservation of CA XII expression in both mouse and human endometrium suggests a role for this isozyme in reproductive physiology.

  18. [Geriatric rehabilitation from the perspective of Book 9 of the German social code, SGB IX].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H

    2007-10-01

    The legal foundations for provision and realization of geriatric rehabilitation benefits are contained in particular in Book 9 of the German social code, SGB IX (covering rehabilitation and participation of people with disabilities). This paper discusses claims foundations and benefit prerequisites of geriatric rehabilitation taking into consideration the relations between Book 5 (on health insurance) and Book 9 of the social code. The article includes a definition of "geriatric rehabilitation" in light of the SGB IX, describes the benefit carriers' obligations as well as the procedure in place for determining geriatric rehab need, in this context appraising the designation as "geriatric patient" in terms of its appropriateness as an identifying criterion in determining need. Provision of geriatric rehab benefits is contingent on a potential for attaining rehab goals as specified by SGB IX as well as on fulfillment of the benefit prerequisites. Responsibility for the content, extent and quality of geriatric rehabilitation lies with the benefit carriers, as is the case for the obligation to secure availability of the required numbers and quality of rehabilitation facilities and services. The article specifies the legal foundations of the various benefit types (ambulatory, mobile rehab, under a Personal Budget, integrated benefit provision, or early rehab), and discusses geriatric rehabilitation in the framework of an insurance-based medical care system as well as of activating care.

  19. Role of enhanced half-life factor VIII and IX in the treatment of haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Ali J; Obaji, Samya G; Collins, Peter W

    2015-06-01

    Treatment of congenital haemophilia with factor VIII and IX concentrates often requires frequent infusions. This has obvious implications in establishing effective administration strategies and, in turn, adherence. To overcome these issues, three main technologies--polyethylene-glycol, Fc-neonatal IgG1 and albumin fusion products--have emerged into various stages of clinical development. Published data indicates an approximately 1·5- and fivefold increase in half-life of factor VIII and IX, respectively, compared to standard recombinant concentrates. Studies into efficacy and safety are starting to be published. Monitoring and optimal use of these new concentrates remains unknown. Weekly factor IX prophylaxis appears to be a feasible prophylactic regimen in haemophilia B patients. Weekly longer-acting FVIII is unlikely to provide adequate prophylaxis in most patients with haemophilia A but may reduce the frequency of infusions. Ongoing clinical trials and real life experience will help shape how these products can be used in practice and their cost effectiveness. The drive for convenience however should not overshadow the ultimate goal of prophylaxis, namely, preventing bleeding and arthropathy. PMID:25754016

  20. Young Stellar Populations in MYStIX Star Forming Regions: Candidate Protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Romine, Gregory; Getman, Konstantin V; Kuhn, Michael A; Povich, Matthew S

    2016-01-01

    The Massive Young Star Forming Complex in Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX) project provides a new census on stellar members of massive star forming regions within 4 kpc. Here the MYStIX Infrared Excess catalog (MIRES) and Chandra-based X-ray photometric catalogs are mined to obtain high-quality samples of Class I protostars using criteria designed to reduce extragalactic and Galactic field star contamination. A total of 1,109 MYStIX Candidate Protostars (MCPs) are found in 14 star forming regions. Most are selected from protoplanetary disk infrared excess emission, but 20% are found from their ultrahard X-ray spectra from heavily absorbed magnetospheric flare emission. Two-thirds of the MCP sample is newly reported here. The resulting samples are strongly spatially associated with molecular cores and filaments on Herschel far-infrared maps. This spatial agreement and other evidence indicate that the MCP sample has high reliability with relatively few 'false positives' from contaminating populations. But the limite...

  1. Summary of RPC 2007, the IX International Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Archana

    2009-01-01

    This summary highlights the success stories and open issues for the widely employed Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC). Many experiments were represented, each having its own specific requirements for the operation of the detector. The general focus is on the understanding of operational characteristics, namely studies of electrode material, gas systems, aging and long term performance. Simulations of electric field and transport parameters are reported, along with performance at high rates, focused on timing and time-of-flight systems. There are important issues related to operation of large RPC systems and their commissioning, QA and QC procedures. Finally, RPCs are now being used in diverse applications such as Calorimetry with analogue readout and in Astrophysics

  2. Fish biodiversity and conservation in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, R E; Albert, J S; Di Dario, F; Mincarone, M M; Petry, P; Rocha, L A

    2016-07-01

    The freshwater and marine fish faunas of South America are the most diverse on Earth, with current species richness estimates standing above 9100 species. In addition, over the last decade at least 100 species were described every year. There are currently about 5160 freshwater fish species, and the estimate for the freshwater fish fauna alone points to a final diversity between 8000 and 9000 species. South America also has c. 4000 species of marine fishes. The mega-diverse fish faunas of South America evolved over a period of >100 million years, with most lineages tracing origins to Gondwana and the adjacent Tethys Sea. This high diversity was in part maintained by escaping the mass extinctions and biotic turnovers associated with Cenozoic climate cooling, the formation of boreal and temperate zones at high latitudes and aridification in many places at equatorial latitudes. The fresh waters of the continent are divided into 13 basin complexes, large basins consolidated as a single unit plus historically connected adjacent coastal drainages, and smaller coastal basins grouped together on the basis of biogeographic criteria. Species diversity, endemism, noteworthy groups and state of knowledge of each basin complex are described. Marine habitats around South America, both coastal and oceanic, are also described in terms of fish diversity, endemism and state of knowledge. Because of extensive land use changes, hydroelectric damming, water divergence for irrigation, urbanization, sedimentation and overfishing 4-10% of all fish species in South America face some degree of extinction risk, mainly due to habitat loss and degradation. These figures suggest that the conservation status of South American freshwater fish faunas is better than in most other regions of the world, but the marine fishes are as threatened as elsewhere. Conserving the remarkable aquatic habitats and fishes of South America is a growing challenge in face of the rapid anthropogenic changes of the 21

  3. Boys & Girls Clubs of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National BGC Week Join Our Cause Donate Now Boys & Girls Clubs of America and the UPS Foundation ... the Dangers Faced When Behind-the-Wheel MORE» Boys & Girls Clubs of America Names Jocelyn Woods National ...

  4. America's Children and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search America's Children and the Environment Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us America's Children and the Environment is an EPA report that presents key information ...

  5. Economic integration in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    This pioneering study shows that economic integration in the Americas is not simply a matter of removing trade barriers. Economic Integration in the Americas addresses the pervasive effects of economic integration on the economy as a whole.

  6. Americas at Odds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Despite lingering disputes,the United States keeps a firm grip on Latin America During his presidential campaign,Evo Morales said his election would be a "nightmare" for the United States.The Bolivian president honored his words. On September 10, Morales declared U.S.

  7. Ecodesign in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.M.

    2003-01-01

    This PhD thesis describes and analyses the change process started by the Ecodesign project in Central America, executed between 1998 and 2002. The project started using the concept and praxis developed in Europe. Nine ecodesign projects were performed in industry, and ecodesign was introduced to cou

  8. Literacy in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    1991-01-01

    Literacy in South America must be understood in terms of the linguistic diversity there, where only 2 of 14 nations and territories are monolingual. Oral traditions, standardization of indigenous languages, nonstandard varieties of colonial languages, bilingual education and mother tongue literacy, literacy teaching, and politics are discussed.…

  9. Still Teaching for America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronholz, June

    2013-01-01

    In this article, June Kronholz talks to co-chief executives of Teach For America (TFA), Elisa Villanueva Beard and Matt Kramer about how TFA has managed to keep its forward momentum for almost 24 years. Four primary reasons are discussed: (1) Common Vision, Regional Innovation; (2) Data-Driven Improvement; (3) Global Reach; and (4) Stoking the…

  10. Two Visions of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldi, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Since the seventeenth century, there have been two narratives about modernity in general and America in particular. The author uses the term "narrative" to include (a) facts, (b) arguments, and most important, (c) a larger vision of how one sees the world and chooses to engage the world. The first and originalist narrative is the Lockean Liberty…

  11. Only "In America"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Maria Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    As the daughter of an interracial couple growing up in a middle-class town on Long Island in the 1970s, Soledad O'Brien learned not to let inappropriate or racist comments throw her. Now as the anchorwoman of CNN's "In America" documentary unit, she says she asks those uncomfortable questions about race all the time. She shines spotlight on…

  12. An Idea Called America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartoonian, Michael; Van Scotter, Richard; White, William E.

    2007-01-01

    America evolved out of the principles of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment, suggesting that individuals could govern themselves and that people were "endowed" with "unalienable rights" such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. To secure these principles, Americans would continue to work on forming a more perfect Union, by…

  13. Lateinamerika oder -amerikas? Latin America or Americas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén García Timón

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Anhand interdisziplinärer und empirischer Studien wird Lateinamerika als Bühne für die Entwicklung transkultureller Phänomene präsentiert. Geschlechterverhältnisse in unterschiedlichen Kontexten stehen im Mittelpunkt der Untersuchung. Begriffe wie Macht, Rasse oder Raum werden mit dem Ziel, weg von der bisherigen Vorstellung von homogenen kulturellen Einheiten zu kommen, revidiert.Latin America is presented as a stage for the development of transcultural phenomena through the use of interdisciplinary and empirical studies. Gender relations in different contexts lie at the heart of this study. Terms such as power, race, or space are revised with the goal of moving away from current perceptions of homogenous cultural unities.

  14. Seminario Tecnico Regional Sobre Alternativas de Educacion Basica de Adultos en el Marco de la REDALF del Proyecto Principal de Educacion en America Latina y el Caribe (Colonia Tovar, Venezuela, 29 de Septiembre al 3 de Octubre, 1986). Documento Final. (Regional Seminar on Alternatives for Basic Adult Education in the REDALF Project for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean (Colonia Tovar, Venezuela, September 29-October 3, 1986). Final Document.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    The final report of a conference concerning adult basic education de Adultos en el Marco de la REDALF del related to innovative projects in adult education in nine countries. A wide spectrum of issues related to adult basic education, curriculum, methodology, evaluation, and research are analyzed in the context of educational planning. Among the…

  15. Processing ix spent resin waste for C-14 isotope recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process developed at Ontario Hydro for recovering carbon-14 (C-14) from spent ion exchange resin wastes is described. Carbon-14 is an undesirable by-product of CANDU1 nuclear reactor operation. It has an extremely long (5730 years) half-life and can cause dosage to inhabitants by contact, inhalation, or through the food cycle via photosynthesis. Release of carbon-14 to the environment must be minimized. Presently, all the C-14 produced in the Moderator and Primary Heat Transport (PHT) systems of the reactor is effectively removed by the respective ion exchange columns, and the spent ion exchange resins are stored in suitably engineered concrete structures. Because of the large volumes of spent resin waste generated each year this method of disposal by long term storage tends to be uneconomical; and may also be unsatisfactory considering the long half-life of the C-14. However, purified C-14 is a valuable commercial product for medical, pharmaceutical, agricultural, and organic chemistry research. Currently, commercial C-14 is made artificially in research reactors by irradiating aluminum nitride targets for 4.5 years. If the C-14 containing resin waste can be used to reduce this unnecessary production of C-14, the total global build-up of this radioactive chemical can be reduced. There is much incentive in removing the C-14 from the resin waste to reduce the volume of C-14 waste, and also in purifying the recovered C-14 to supply the commercial market. The process developed by Ontario Hydro consists of three main steps: C-14 removal from spent resins, enrichment of recovered C-14, and preparation of final product. Components of the process have been successfully tested at Ontario Hydro's Research Division, but the integration of the process is yet to be demonstrated. A pilot scale plant capable of processing 4 m3 of spent resins annually is being planned for demonstrating the technology. The measured C-14 activity levels on the spent resins ranged from 47-213 Ci

  16. Use of Cre/loxP recombination to swap cell binding motifs on the adenoviral capsid protein IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used Cre/loxP recombination to swap targeting ligands present on the adenoviral capsid protein IX (pIX). A loxP-flanked sequence encoding poly-lysine (pK-binds heparan sulfate proteoglycans) was engineered onto the 3'-terminus of pIX, and the resulting fusion protein allowed for routine virus propagation. Growth of this virus on Cre-expressing cells removed the pK coding sequence, generating virus that could only infect through alternative ligands, such as a tyrosine kinase receptor A (TrkA)-binding motif engineered into the capsid fibre protein for enhanced infection of neuronal cells. We used a similar approach to swap the pK motif on pIX for a sequence encoding a single-domain antibody directed towards CD66c for targeted infection of cancer cells; Cre-mediated removal of the pK-coding sequence simultaneously placed the single-domain antibody coding sequence in frame with pIX. Thus, we have developed a simple method to propagate virus lacking native viral tropism but containing cell-specific binding ligands. - Highlights: → We describe a method to grow virus lacking native tropism but containing novel cell-binding ligands. → Cre/loxP recombination was used to modify the adenovirus genome. → A targeting ligand present on capsid protein IX was removed or replaced using recombination. → Cre-loxP was also used to 'swap' the identity of the targeting ligand present on pIX.

  17. Carbonic anhydrase IX and response to postmastectomy radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer: a subgroup analysis of the DBCG82 b and c trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, Marianne; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Knudsen, Helle;

    2008-01-01

    invasive tumour-containing paraffin blocks from 1,000 patients (more than seven nodes surgically removed) were transferred to tissue microarrays. Tissue microarray sections were stained immunohistochemically for CA IX (M75). The median follow up for patients remaining alive was 17 years. Clinical end...... of tumours positive for CA IX was 16% (> or = 10% invasive tumour staining). CA IX was not an independent prognostic marker for survival, distant metastases, or locoregional recurrence in the subgroup of 945 patients or within either of the two randomization arms. In subgroup analyses, however, CA IX...

  18. Carbonic anhydrase IX and response to postmastectomy radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer: a subgroup analysis of the DBCG82 b and c trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, M.; Sorensen, F.B.; Alsner, J.;

    2008-01-01

    invasive tumour-containing paraffin blocks from 1,000 patients (more than seven nodes surgically removed) were transferred to tissue microarrays. Tissue microarray sections were stained immunohistochemically for CA IX (M75). The median follow up for patients remaining alive was 17 years. Clinical end...... of tumours positive for CA IX was 16% (>= 10% invasive tumour staining). CA IX was not an independent prognostic marker for survival, distant metastases, or locoregional recurrence in the subgroup of 945 patients or within either of the two randomization arms. In subgroup analyses, however, CA IX...

  19. Biomass energy in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  20. Driving in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世一

    2005-01-01

    Mitsuaki recently arrived in the United States to enter university. He wants to do well in his studies and adjust to the new culture. But Mitsuaki has a problem. It's not his roommates. It's not his school fees. It's not even his English ability. Mitsuaki's problem is that he doesn't have a car. And in America, that really makes him a foreigner. Mitsuaki has already discovered a basic fact of American culture : Driving is a way of life.

  1. Electricity in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeze, P.

    1998-12-01

    The report provides an overview of the Latin American power market; analyses the power generation, transmission and distribution capabilities of 20 countries in central and south America; includes detailed comparative data on current capacity, shortfall and growth; investigates the existing network infrastructures and projected demand; examines the opportunities for independent power producers resulting from deregulation; assesses indigenous and imported fuel resources; and discusses the broad financial opportunities and restraints.

  2. Making America Great Again?

    OpenAIRE

    Leth, Aksel N.; Lykke, Lærke G.; Dyrbye, Zachary R.; Jordahn, Sally E.; Egholm, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at uncovering the discourses in Donald Trump’s announcement speech and their relation to his campaign slogan Make America Great Again. Through a thorough analysis of his speech, we have identified thematic categories and used critical discourse studies (CDS), to denaturalise the discourses he produces and reproduces in a socio-cultural and socio-political context. Our method of Critical Discourse Analysis is based on Fairclough, complemented by Wodak, Richardson and van Dijk, ...

  3. Evaluation of a Carbonic Anhydrase IX-Targeted Near-Infrared Dye for Fluorescence-Guided Surgery of Hypoxic Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Peng-Cheng; Roy, Jyoti; Putt, Karson S; Low, Philip S

    2016-05-01

    Proof-of-principle studies in ovarian, lung, and brain cancer patients have shown that fluorescence-guided surgery can enable removal of otherwise undetectable malignant lesions, decrease the number of cancer-positive margins, and permit identification of disease-containing lymph nodes that would have normally evaded resection. Unfortunately, the current arsenal of tumor-targeted fluorescent dyes does not permit identification of all cancers, raising the need to design new tumor-specific fluorescent dyes to illuminate the currently undetectable cancers. In an effort to design a more universal fluorescent cancer imaging agent, we have undertaken to synthesize a fluorophore that could label all hypoxic regions of tumors. We report here the synthesis, in vitro binding, and in vivo imaging of a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye that is targeted to carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), i.e., a widely accepted marker of hypoxic tissues. The low molecular weight NIR probe, named Hypoxyfluor, is shown to bind CA IX with high affinity and accumulate rapidly and selectively in CA IX positive tumors. Because nearly all human cancers contain hypoxic regions that express CA IX abundantly, this NIR probe should facilitate surgical resection of a wide variety of solid tumors. PMID:27043317

  4. [Travellers to South America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloveras, Susana Cristina

    2011-12-01

    The geography, tourist attractions and the multiple sites of historical and cultural interest make South America as an important destination chosen by travelers. The continent has a wide climatic variation from north to south, making exposure to risk different between the tropics and the temperate or cold regions. In the countries of tropical South America, the greatest risk is associated with the possibility of acquiring vector-borne diseases, like yellow fever, dengue, malaria and leishmaniasis. The risk of acquiring traveler's diarrhea and food-borne illness is similar across the continent, with some variations according to country and to visit urban or rural areas. Rabies, pertussis and diphtheria have appeared as epidemics in several countries and other diseases such as rickettsiosis, hantavirosis and viral encephalitis have expanded their distribution. The geographic and epidemiological diversity of South America, promotes a challenge for travel medicine specialists because during the pre-travel advice they have to take in account the kind of trip, traveller's medical history, exposure to risk and the dynamics of endemic emerging and reemerging diseases in the region.

  5. Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication by chalepin and pseudane IX isolated from Ruta angustifolia leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, Tutik Sri; Widyawaruyanti, Aty; Lusida, Maria Inge; Fuad, Achmad; Soetjipto; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Aoki, Chie; Hotta, Hak

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly prevalent among global populations, with an estimated number of infected patients being 170 million. Approximately 70-80% of patients acutely infected with HCV will progress to chronic liver disease, such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. New therapies for HCV infection have been developed, however, the therapeutic efficacies still need to be improved. Medicinal plants are promising sources for antivirals against HCV. A variety of plants have been tested and proven to be beneficial as antiviral drug candidates against HCV. In this study, we examined extracts, their subfractions and isolated compounds of Ruta angustifolia leaves for antiviral activities against HCV in cell culture. We isolated six compounds, chalepin, scopoletin, γ-fagarine, arborinine, kokusaginine and pseudane IX. Among them, chalepin and pseudane IX showed strong anti-HCV activities with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) of 1.7 ± 0.5 and 1.4 ± 0.2 μg/ml, respectively, without apparent cytotoxicity. Their anti-HCV activities were stronger than that of ribavirin (2.8 ± 0.4 μg/ml), which has been widely used for the treatment of HCV infection. Mode-of-action analyses revealed that chalepin and pseudane IX inhibited HCV at the post-entry step and decreased the levels of HCV RNA replication and viral protein synthesis. We also observed that arborinine, kokusaginine and γ-fagarine possessed moderate levels of anti-HCV activities with IC₅₀ values being 6.4 ± 0.7, 6.4 ± 1.6 and 20.4 ± 0.4 μg/ml, respectively, whereas scopoletin did not exert significant anti-HCV activities at 30 μg/ml.

  6. Comparison of Ares I-X Wind-Tunnel Derived Buffet Environment with Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, David J.; Sekula, Martin K.; Rausch, Russ D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (FTV), launched in October 2009, carried with it over 243 buffet verification pressure sensors and was one of the most heavily instrumented launch vehicle flight tests. This flight test represented a unique opportunity for NASA and its partners to compare the wind-tunnel derived buffet environment with that measured during the flight of Ares I-X. It is necessary to define the launch vehicle buffet loads to ensure that structural components and vehicle subsystems possess adequate strength, stress, and fatigue margins when the vehicle structural dynamic response to buffet forcing functions are considered. Ares I-X buffet forcing functions were obtained via wind-tunnel testing of a rigid buffet model (RBM) instrumented with hundreds of unsteady pressure transducers designed to measure the buffet environment across the desired frequency range. This paper discusses the comparison of RBM and FTV buffet environments, including fluctuating pressure coefficient and normalized sectional buffet forcing function root-mean-square magnitudes, frequency content of power-spectral density functions, and force magnitudes of an alternating flow phenomena. Comparison of wind-tunnel model and flight test vehicle buffet environments show very good agreement with root-mean-square magnitudes of buffet forcing functions at the majority of vehicle stations. Spectra proved a challenge to compare because of different wind-tunnel and flight test conditions and data acquisition rates. However, meaningful and promising comparisons of buffet spectra are presented. Lastly, the buffet loads resulting from the transition of subsonic separated flow to supersonic attached flow were significantly over-predicted by wind-tunnel results.

  7. The rates and patterns of deletions in the human factor IX gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketterling, R.P.; Vielhaber, E.L.; Lind, T.J.; Thorland, E.C.; Sommer S.S. (Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States))

    1994-02-01

    Deletions are commonly observed in genes with either segments of highly homologous sequences or excessive gene length. However, in the factor IX gene and in most genes, deletions (of [ge]21 bp) are uncommon. The authors have analyzed DNA from 290 families with hemophilia B (203 independent mutations) and have found 12 deletions >20 bp. Eleven of these are >2 kb (range >3-163 kb), and one is 1.1 kb. The junctions of the four deletions that are completely contained within the factor IX gene have been determined. A novel mutation occurred in patient HB128: the data suggest that a 26.8-kb deletion occurred between two segments of alternating purines and pyrimidines and that a 2.3-kb sense strand segment derived from the deleted region was inserted. For a sample of 203 independent mutations, the authors estimate the [open quotes]baseline[close quotes] rates of deletional mutation per base pair per generation as a function of size. The rate for large (>2 kb)I deletions is exceedingly low. For every mutational event in which a given base is at the junction of a large deletion, there are an estimated 58 microdeletions (<20 bp) and 985 single-base substitutions at that base. Analysis of the nine reported deletion junctions in the factor IX gene literature reveals that (i) five are associated with inversion, orphan sequences, or sense strand insertions; (ii) four are simple deletions that display an excess of short direct repeats at their junctions; (iii) there is no dramatic clustering of junctions within the gene; and (iv) with the exception of alternating purines and pyrimidines, deletion junctions are not preferentially associated with repetitive DNA. 58 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. The Regulation of Biosimilars in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ricardo; Araujo, Denizar Vianna

    2016-03-01

    This article summarizes the regulatory scenario on biological medications in Latin America focusing on comparability studies, extrapolation of indications, interchangeability and pharmacovigilance issues. In the case of comparability studies, what is being discussed is the possibility of decreasing the clinical trials requirement, but that the molecule should be well characterized in the studies of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. With the worldwide-level approval of the first monoclonal antibody biosimilar, infliximab, extrapolation of indications are being discussed, since the behavior of the Latin America regulatory agencies has been different with regard to such issue. Another issue discussed by the regulatory agencies is the interchangeability between biological medications and their biosimilars, mainly due to the fact that there is a clear confusion on interchangeability and substitution concepts. Finally, the pharmacovigilance debate, according to what takes place globally, is related to the need for identifying and differentiating the reference biological medication and its biosimilars for traceability purposes. PMID:26951254

  9. IX Congreso Nacional de Ingeniería Termodinámica : libro de actas

    OpenAIRE

    García Cascales, José Ramón; Zueco Jordán, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Este libro contiene los trabajos presentados en el IX Congreso Nacional de Ingeniería Termodinámica celebrado en la ETSI Industriales de la Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, del 3 al 5 de junio de 2015. Incluye un amplio repertorio de temas energéticos, como la eficiencia energética y sostenibilidad, en soluciones técnicas aplicadas o teóricas, los nuevos materiales, procesos y máquinas que aporten nuevas soluciones a los problemas energéticos y la formación y docencia en Ingeniería Termo...

  10. Collateral patient doses in the Varian 21iX radiotherapy Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The radiotherapy aim is to irradiate the patient tumor cells while the doses in healthy tissue remains as low as possible. Nevertheless, when high photon energy accelerators are used, collateral undesired photon and neutron doses are always implied during the treatments and became more important with the new accelerators and techniques as IMRT. To assess secondary cancer risk outside the treatment volume as a long-term medical consequence of treatments, the total doses received by each patient outside the primary field during his treatment must be estimated. To achieve this purpose photon and neutron dose equivalents Hp(10) and H*(10) has been measured in a new Varian 21iX with maximum photon energy of 15 MV placed recently in our radiotherapy department. Three devices: 1) a neutron dose rate meter BERTHOLD LB 4111 calibrated recently in the German PTB laboratory, 2) a calibrated environmental pressurized photon ionization chamber (IC) VICTOREEN 450-PI n/s 1020, and 3) a calibrated personal electronic photon dosimeter GAMMACOM 4200M, were placed above the treatment couch outside the primary field while the Varian 21iX reference test were done. In particular the photon and neutron doses in the couch were measured while a water phantom was irradiated during automatic beam data acquisition for a 15 MV beam. A complete set of measurements changing field size are made. These 15 MV results are compared with data measured previously by thermoluminescence and bubble dosimeters in the same facility for an Elekta Precise and a Siemens KDS both with maximum photon energy of 18 MV. From this the benefits in the patient collateral doses of decreasing the maximum treatment photon energy are discussed. The patient doses obtained in the Varian 21iX had values that go from 80 to 800 uSv per treatment Gray. As the Varian 21iX therapy Linac is operated in pulsed mode with short pulse length the discussion of the results includes: 1. The correction of dead time in the GM

  11. Spectra of W VIII and W IX in the EUV Region

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Ryabtsev; Edward Kononov; Rimma Kildiyarova; Wan-Ü Lydia Tchang-Brillet; Jean-Francois Wyart; Norbert Champion; Christophe Blaess

    2015-01-01

    The results obtained on the W VIII spectrum as well as on the isoelectronic spectra Lu V, Hf VI, Ta VII, and Re IX in the VUV wavelength region are summarized with emphasis on the main trends along the isoelectronic sequence. A total of 187 lines of W VIII in the region of 160–271 Å were accurately measured and identified, 98 levels were found, and transition probabilities calculated. The isoelectronic regularities support the data on W VIII. A list of spectral lines in the region of 170–199 ...

  12. Perspektiven : Das IX. Nordisch-Baltische Germanistentreffen in Os/Bergen, 14.-16. Juni 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Der Band versammelt ausgewählte Beiträge des IX.Nordisch-Baltischen Germanistentreffens, das vom14. bis 16. Juni 2012 im Konferenzhotel Solstrandin Os, ca. 30 Kilometer südlich von Bergen amBjørnafjord gelegen, stattfand. 19 Jahre nach demdritten Treffen des Nordischen Germanistenverbandesin Oslo 1993 lud der seit 2002 auch die baltischenGermanistiken repräsentierende Nordisch-BaltischeGermanistenverband mit dem NBGT 2012 zum zweitenMal nach Norwegen ein. Die Dokumentation bildetdie thematisc...

  13. Factor IX[sub Madrid 2]: A deletion/insertion in Facotr IX gene which abolishes the sequence of the donor junction at the exon IV-intron d splice site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solera, J. (Unidades de Genetica Molecular, Madrid (Spain)); Magallon, M.; Martin-Villar, J. (Hemofilia Hospital, Madrid (Spain)); Coloma, A. (Departamento deBioquimica de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Autonoma, Madrid (Spain))

    1992-02-01

    DNA from a patient with severe hemophilia B was evaluated by RFLP analysis, producing results which suggested the existence of a partial deletion within the factor IX gene. The deletion was further localized and characterized by PCR amplification and sequencing. The altered allele has a 4,442-bp deletion which removes both the donor splice site located at the 5[prime] end of intron d and the two last coding nucleotides located at the 3[prime] end of exon IV in the normal factor IX gene; this fragment has been inserted in inverted orientation. Two homologous sequences have been discovered at the ends of the deleted DNA fragment.

  14. Sulfonamides incorporating heteropolycyclic scaffolds show potent inhibitory action against carbonic anhydrase isoforms I, II, IX and XII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barresi, Elisabetta; Salerno, Silvia; Marini, Anna Maria; Taliani, Sabrina; La Motta, Concettina; Simorini, Francesca; Da Settimo, Federico; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-02-15

    Three series of polycyclic compounds possessing either primary sulfonamide or carboxylic acid moieties as zinc-binding groups were investigated as inhibitors of four physiologically relevant CA isoforms, the cytosolic hCA I and II, as well as the transmembrane hCA IX and XII. Most of the new sulfonamides reported here showed excellent inhibitory effects against isoforms hCA II, IX and XII, but no highly isoform-selective inhibition profiles. On the other hand, the carboxylates selectively inhibited hCA IX (KIs ranging between 40.8 and 92.7nM) without inhibiting significantly the other isoforms. Sulfonamides/carboxylates incorporating polycyclic ring systems such as benzothiopyranopyrimidine, pyridothiopyranopyrimidine or dihydrobenzothiopyrano[4,3-c]pyrazole may be considered as interesting candidates for exploring the design of isoform-selective CAIs with various pharmacologic applications. PMID:26796953

  15. Synthesis and inhibition potency of novel ureido benzenesulfonamides incorporating GABA as tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase IX and XII inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceruso, Mariangela; Antel, Sabrina; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-01-01

    New ureido benzenesulfonamides incorporating a GABA moiety as a linker between the ureido and the sulfonamide functionalities were synthesized and their inhibition potency determined against both the predominant cytosolic (hCA I and II) and the transmembrane tumor-associated (hCA IX and XII) isoforms of the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1). The majority of these compounds were medium potency inhibitors of the cytosolic isoform hCA I and effective hCA II inhibitors, whereas they showed strong inhibition of the two transmembrane tumor-associated isoforms hCA IX and XII, with KIs in nanomolar range. Only one derivative had a good selectivity for inhibition of the tumor-associated hCA IX target isoform over the cytosolic and physiologically dominant off-target hCA I and II, being thus a potential tool to develop new anticancer agents. PMID:25792500

  16. Nonacog gamma, a novel recombinant factor IX with low factor IXa content for treatment and prophylaxis of bleeding episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecek, Peter L; Abbühl, Brigitt; Tangada, Srilatha D; Chapman, Miranda; Gritsch, Herbert; Rottensteiner, Hanspeter; Schrenk, Gerald; Mitterer, Artur; Dietrich, Barbara; Höllriegl, Werner; Schiviz, Alexandra; Horling, Frank; Reipert, Birgit M; Muchitsch, Eva-Maria; Pavlova, Borislava G; Scheiflinger, Friedrich

    2015-03-01

    Nonacog gamma is a new recombinant factor IX to treat factor IX deficiency. It is indicated for control of bleeding episodes, perioperative management and routine prophylaxis to prevent or reduce the frequency of bleeding episodes in adults and children with hemophilia B. Nonacog gamma was first approved in the USA in June 2013 under the trade name RIXUBIS followed by market approvals in Australia and the EU in 2014, and marketing authorization decision is pending in Japan. Nonacog gamma is derived from a recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell line using a state of the art biotechnological manufacturing process. Recombinant factor IX is produced by Baxter's protein-free fermentation technology, which was first developed for ADVATE. The product is purified and formulated in the absence of any human or animal-derived protein. Nonacog gamma was characterized both in comprehensive in vitro and in vivo non-clinical studies as well as in an extensive clinical trial program. PMID:25660348

  17. Swift UV/Optical Telescope Imaging of Star Forming Regions in M81 and Holmberg IX

    CERN Document Server

    Hoversten, E A; Berk, D E Vanden; Basu-Zych, A R; Breeveld, A A; Brown, P J; Kuin, N P M; Page, M J; Roming, P W A; Siegel, M H

    2011-01-01

    We present Swift UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT) imaging of the galaxies M81 and Holmberg IX. We combine UVOT imaging in three near ultraviolet (NUV) filters (uvw2: 1928 {\\AA}, uvm2: 2246 {\\AA}, and uvw1: 2600 {\\AA}) with ground based optical imaging from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to constrain the stellar populations of both galaxies. Our analysis consists of three different methods. First we use the NUV imaging to identify UV star forming knots and then perform SED modeling on the UV/optical photometry of these sources. Second, we measure surface brightness profiles of the disk of M81 in the NUV and optical. Last we use SED fitting of individual pixels to map the properties of the two galaxies. In agreement with earlier studies we find evidence for a burst in star formation in both galaxies starting ~200 Myr ago coincident with the suggested time of an M81-M82 interaction. In line with theories of its origin as a tidal dwarf we find that the luminosity weighted age of Holmberg IX is a few hundred million year...

  18. Crystal Structure of the Fab Fragment of an Anti-factor IX Antibody 10C12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiao-Li; ZENG Tu; HUANG Ming-Dong

    2008-01-01

    10C12 is an anticoagulant antibody identified from a phage display single-chain Fv human antibody library. It can be directed at the calcium-stabilized Gla domain of Factor-IX, an important coagulation factor in intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation cascade, and interfere with membrane anchoring of Factor IX, thus inhibiting blood coagulation function. 10C12 has been demonstrated as an effective anti-coagulant in attenuating thrombosis in several different animal models. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Fab fragment of 10C12. The crystal contains two Fab molecules in the asymmetric unit with identical conformation, forming a lattice with large cavities. In addition, comparison of this free Fab with the antigen-bound structure of 10C12 shows no change in CDR conformations and the relative disposition of the variable subunits of H and L chains, suggesting the rigid conformation of this 10C12 Fab and a lock-and-key mechanism of antibody-antigen recognition for 10C 12.

  19. The Ultrahigh Resolution IXS Beamline of NSLS-II: Recent Advances and Scientific Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultrahigh resolution IXS beamline of NSLS-II is designed to probe a region of dynamic response that requires an ultrahigh energy and momentum resolution of up to 0.1 meV and −1 respectively, which is currently still beyond the reach of existing low and high frequency inelastic scattering probes. Recent advances at NSLS-II in developing the required x-ray optics and instrumentation based on the use of extremely asymmetric Bragg back reflections of Si have allowed us to achieve sub-meV energy resolution with sharp tails and high efficiency at a medium energy of around 9.1 keV, thereby validating the optical design of the beamline for the baseline scope and paving the way for further development towards the ultimate goal of 0.1 meV. The IXS beamline is expected to provide a broad range of scientific opportunities, particularly in areas of liquid, disordered and bio-molecular systems.

  20. No evidence for protoplanetary disk destruction by OB stars in the MYStIX sample

    CERN Document Server

    Richert, Alexander J W; Getman, Konstantin V; Kuhn, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    HST images of proplyds in the Orion Nebula, as well as submillimeter/radio measurements, show that the dominant O7 star Theta1 Ori C photoevaporates nearby disks around pre-main sequence stars. Theory predicts that massive stars photoevaporate disks within distances of order 0.1 pc. These findings suggest that young, OB-dominated massive H II regions are inhospitable to the survival of protoplanetary disks, and subsequently to the formation and evolution of planets. In the current work, we test this hypothesis using large samples of pre-main sequence stars in 20 massive star-forming regions selected with X-ray and infrared photometry in the MYStIX survey. Complete disk destruction would lead to a deficit of cluster members with excess in JHKs and Spitzer/IRAC bands in the vicinity of O stars. In four MYStIX regions containing O stars and a sufficient surface density of disk-bearing sources to reliably test for spatial avoidance, we find no evidence for the depletion of inner disks around pre-main sequence sta...

  1. Ares I-X Range Safety Simulation and Analysis IV and V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Carl M.; Brewer, Joan D.; Dulski, Matt B.; Gimenez, Adrian; Barron, Kyle; Tarpley, Ashley F.; Craig, A. Scott; Beaty, Jim R.; Starr, Brett R.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Ares I-X vehicle launched on a suborbital test flight from the Eastern Range in Florida on October 28, 2009. NASA generated a Range Safety (RS) product data package to meet the RS trajectory data requirements defined in the Air Force Space Command Manual (AFSPCMAN) 91-710. Some products included were a nominal ascent trajectory, ascent flight envelopes, and malfunction turn data. These products are used by the Air Force s 45th Space Wing (45SW) to ensure public safety and to make flight termination decisions on launch day. Due to the criticality of the RS data, an independent validation and verification (IV&V) effort was undertaken to accompany the data generation analyses to ensure utmost data quality and correct adherence to requirements. As a result of the IV&V efforts, the RS product package was delivered with confidence that two independent organizations using separate simulation software generated data to meet the range requirements and yielded similar results. This document captures the Ares I-X RS product IV&V analysis, including the methodology used to verify inputs, simulation, and output data for certain RS products. Additionally a discussion of lessons learned is presented to capture advantages and disadvantages to the IV&V processes used.

  2. Optical Observations of M81 Galaxy Group in Narrow Band [SII] and H_alpha Filters: Holmberg IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbutina, B.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of the nearby tidal dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX in M81 galaxy group in narrow band [SII] and H$alpha$ filters, carried out in March and November 2008 with the 2m RCC telescope at NAO Rozhen, Bulgaria. Our search for resident supernova remnants (identified as sources with enhanced [SII] emission relative to their H$alpha$ emission in this galaxy yielded no sources of this kind, besides M&H 10-11 or HoIX X-1. Nevertheless, we found a number of objects with significant H$alpha$ emission that probably represent uncatalogued HII regions.

  3. eEF1A1 binds and enriches protoporphyrin IX in cancer cells in 5-aminolevulinic acid based photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhichao; Cui, Xiaojun; Wei, Dan; Liu, Wei; Li, Buhong; He, Hao; Ye, Huamao; Zhu, Naishuo; Wei, Xunbin

    2016-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), which is endogenously derived from 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) or its derivatives, is a promising modality for the treatment of both pre-malignant and malignant lesions. However, the mechanisms of how ALA-induced PpIX selectively accumulated in the tumors are not fully elucidated. Here we discovered that eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 (eEF1A1) interacted with PpIX (with an affinity constant of 2.96 × 106 M‑1). Microscopy imaging showed that ALA-induced PpIX was co-localized with eEF1A1 in cancer cells. eEF1A1 was found to enrich ALA-induced PpIX in cells by competitively blocking the downstream bioavailability of PpIX. Taken together, our study discovered eEF1A1 as a novel photosensitizer binding protein, which may play an essential role in the enrichment of ALA-induced PpIX in cancer cells during PDT. These suggested eEF1A1 as a molecular marker to predict the selectivity and efficiency of 5-ALA based PDT in cancer therapy.

  4. Timekeeping in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J. M.; Lombardi, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    Time and its measurement belong to the most fundamental core of physics, and many scientific and technological advances are directly or indirectly related to time measurements. Timekeeping is essential to everyday life, and thus is the most measured physical quantity in modern societies. Time can also be measured with less uncertainty and more resolution than any other physical quantity. The measurement of time is of the utmost importance for many applications, including: global navigation satellite systems, communications networks, electric power generation, astronomy, electronic commerce, and national defense and security. This paper discusses how time is kept, coordinated, and disseminated in the Americas.

  5. Chinese Food in America

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Diana T.

    2011-01-01

    How did Chinese food get to look like this? With more than 41,000 Chinese restaurants in America - 3 times the number of McDonald’s restaurants - Chinese food is one of the most accepted and misunderstood cuisines in the United States. From large cities to small towns, locals can always count on an order of orange chicken in a takeout box, with a few fortune cookies thrown in the bag. But what Americans view as Chinese food is far from a traditional Chinese meal, wh...

  6. Eating in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康海燕

    2007-01-01

    Americans are too busy to cook at home.They often eat outside.Eating culture is one of the important parts in America.There are many kinds of restaurants.Some are open for breakfast. Others are open twenty-four hours a day. A number of restaurants call themselves"family restaurants".They serve no alcohol~* and have fairly restricted~* menus.They serve steaks,hamburgers and sandwiches.Besides these,there are some special restaurants.They serve only or mainly steaks,seafood,etc.

  7. Mosques in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Khalidi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article derived from an exhibit catalogue put together by Public Affairs Germany in the U.S. Embassy in Berlin and the U.S. Consulates in Frankfurt and Düsseldorf and accompanied Dr. Omar Khalidi’s photo exhibit “Mosques in America.” There are over 2,000 mosques in the United States, mostly housed in buildings originally built for other purposes. American mosques built in the last few decades, however, in the period in which Islam has begun to feel at home in the United States, are almost universally architect-designed.

  8. Knight Capital Americas LLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert D.; Meister, Darren

    2015-01-01

    $450 million dollars in less than an hour. Although it was ultimately saved from bankruptcy when it was acquired two days later, the terms of acquisition were very unfavourable to the company's shareholders. How did this happen? Could it have been prevented? What should the staff, the chief executive......It took 19 years to build Knight Capital Americas LLC into the largest market maker on the New York Stock Exchange, but on August 1, 2012, it took only 45 minutes for the firm to be wiped out by an information technology (IT) problem: a change in the company's software caused it to lose more than...

  9. Let's Go to America!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

      The United States and China have signed an agreement to facilitate Chinese group leisure travel to the United States. This agreement provides the necessary framework to permit group leisure travel from China to the United States. U.S. companies can now enter into business relationships with Chinese travel agencies to organize and market travel packages for group leisure travel to the United States. It also attracts more and more Chinese to go to America, as more and more convenience and comforts are coming up during the travel.……

  10. Let's Go to America!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The United States and China have signed an agreement to facilitate Chinese group leisure travel to the United States. This agreement provides the necessary framework to permit group leisure travel from China to the United States. U.S. companies can now enter into business relationships with Chinese travel agencies to organize and market travel packages for group leisure travel to the United States. It also attracts more and more Chinese to go to America, as more and more convenience and comforts are coming up during the travel.

  11. A study of gene transfer and expression of human clotting factor IX in Hemophilia B mice mediated by mini-adenoviral vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Xiaobo; (高啸波); YE; Chenbo; (叶晨波); SHI; Ding; (侍鼎); CHEN; Li; (陈立); QIU; Xinfang; (邱信芳); XUE; Jinglun; (薛京伦)

    2003-01-01

    Vector Gti'IX containing human clotting factor IX cDNA with intron 1 (hFIX mini-gene or Fi'IX) driven by CMV promoter was constructed based on the mini-adenoviral vector GT2073 (mini-Ad vector) with all viral protein coding sequences deleted. Mini-Ad packaging cell 293Cre4 was first transduced with Gti'IX, and then was transfected with helper-adenovirus AdLC8, thus mini-Ad virions AdGTi'IX were obtained. At the same time, previous normal adenoviral vector pAdSPi'IX containing viral genome and hFIX mini-gene was constructed, and then previous adenovirus (pre-Ad) AdSPi'IX was obtained as control. The ratio of helper-adenovirus among purified virons AdGTi'IX was less than 0.8%. 3T3 cells were transfected with AdGTi'IX and AdSPi'IX at a MOI of 50 per cell and ELISA result showed that transient expression level in vitro was 1.4±0.2 μg /106@24 h and 1.6±0.3 μg/106@24 h respectively. Each hemophilia B (FIX knock-out) mouse received celiac injection of 1×1010pfu AdGTi'IX or AdSPi'IX. The highest expression level of hFIX in mouse plasma was 590 ng/mL and 690 ng/mL respectively, and the expression time lasted for 16 weeks and 9 weeks respectively. The bleeding time reduced from over 30 min to 7.5 min, and 5-min blood lost reduced from 430 μL to 60 μL. The results of anti-Ad IgG assays indicated that immune response triggered by AdGTi'IX was obviously weaker than that triggered by AdSPi'IX. These results indicated that, compared with previous adenovirus (pre-Ad), the mini-Ad vector system prolonged the expression time of hFIX and reduced immune response, thus offering a promising result for further pre-clinical study.

  12. WELFARE REGIMES IN LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Campana-Alabarce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a characterization of Latin American and Caribbean Welfare regimes in historiographical perspective. Firstly, it makes a review of the emergence conditions of Welfare States in Western Europe and its core features, with particular emphasis on its role as a method to regulate inequalities in industrial capitalism. Dialoguing with it, then stops in the specific configurations that welfare regimes have taken in Latin America during the course of the twentieth century. Finally, it provides a map of its contemporary features and the major challenges that the States of the region face in his capacity as right guarantors for the future.

  13. Chemistry of fluoronitro compounds. IX. Synthesis of fluoronitro binder systems. Final report, August 1, 1970-March 1, 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, H.M.; Simon, R.L.; Hill, M.E.

    1971-03-01

    Synthesis of bis(2-fluoro-2,2-dinitroethyl)difluoroformal and synthetic studies of tris(2-fluoro-2,2-dinitroethoxy)-2,3-epoxypropyl orthocarbonate, 1,1,1-tris(2-fluoro-2,2-dinitroethyl)-2,3-epoxypropane, orthocarbonate prepolymers, and bis(2-fluoro-2,2-dinitroethyl) dichloroformal are discussed.

  14. Efficacy of a high-purity factor IX concentrate in hemophilia B patients undergoing surgery Eficácia do concentrado de alta pureza do fator IX em pacientes cirúrgicos portadores de hemofilia B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Rasi

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A plasma derived, high purity, solvent-detergent treated and subsequently nanofiltered factor IX concentrate (BEMOFIL was evaluated in 19 hemophilia B patients, including four with severe, thirteen with mild or moderate type of disease and two hemophilia B carriers undergoing 31 surgical procedures. The mean in vivo recovery was 52 %, range 36 - 76 %. The mean preoperative plasma factor IX activity after the initial loading dose was 0.86 IU mL-1, range 0.59 - 1.32 IU mL-1. In eight major orthopedic procedures, the mean usage of factor IX was 44600 IU or 574 IU kg-1 during the hospital stay, mean 11.6 days. Thromboprophylaxis was not used. The hemostatic efficacy was evaluated good in all cases and there were no thromboembolic complications. In conclusion, BEMOFIL used as bolus dosing was found to be safe and effective in achieving hemostasis in subjects with hereditary F IX deficiency undergoing surgery.O concentrado de fator IX ( Bemofil , um derivado plasmático de alta pureza tratado com solventes- detergente e nano-filtrado , foi avaliado em 19 pacientes portadores de Hemofilia B .Quatro pacientes apresentavam a forma grave da moléstia, 13 a forma leve e moderada e dois portadores em um total de 31 atos cirúrgicos.A recuperação média "in vivo" foi de 52% (36-76%. A atividade plasmática média pré-operatória do fator IX após a dose inicial foi de 0,86 UI ml -1 , média de 0,59 - 1,32 UI ml-1. Em oito procedimentos ortopédicos extensos , a média de utilização do fator IX foi de 44.600 UI ou 574 UI kg -1 durante a hospitalização que teve a média de 11,6 dias. A tromboprofilaxia não foi utilizada. A eficácia hemostática avaliada em todos os casos foi boa ,e não ocorreu nenhum tipo de complicação tromboembólica. Concluímos que o Bemofil em bolus foi considerado seguro e eficaz para a hemostasia em pacientes portadores de hemofilia B que necessitam de um procedimento cirúrgico.

  15. Education in America. Opposing Viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

    This book, part of a series about differing viewpoints on education in America, examines how education can be improved for this and future generations of America's youth. The following papers and their authors are included: "Public Education Needs Extensive Reform" (John Taylor Gatto); "Public Education Does Not Need Extensive Reform" (Gerald…

  16. Locking in on Latin America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL; RICE

    2006-01-01

    China cautious as it sets up generous investment in Latin America The United States is keeping a watchful eye as China bolsters political and economic ties with Latin America. The situation has U.S. political analysts trying to determine just how China s emerging influence

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Collision strengths in FeIX (Tayal+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayal, S. S.; Zatsarinny, O.

    2016-02-01

    Collision strengths and thermally averaged collision strengths for a large number of extreme-ultraviolet lines of FeIX arising by electron impact have been reported. The thermally averaged collision strengths are calculated at electron temperatures in the range 104-107K for the 122043 forbidden and allowed transitions between the 370 fine-structure levels. The atomic parameters for FeIX play an important role in modeling of various astrophysical plasmas, including especially the solar corona. The B-spline Breit-Pauli R-matrix method has been used in the calculation of collision strengths. The target wave functions and transition probabilities have been determined by combining the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method with the B-spline box-based multichannel expansions. We have included 370 fine-structure levels of FeIX in the energy region up to 3s23p55s states. The close-coupling expansion includes levels of the 3s23p6, 3s23p53d, 4l, 5s, 3s3p63d, 4s, 4p, 3s23p43d2, 3s3p53d2 configurations and some low-lying levels of the 3s23p33d3 configuration in our collision strengths and transition probabilities calculations. There is a good agreement with the previous R-matrix collision strength calculations by Storey et al. (2002, J/A+A/394/753) and Del Zanna et al. (2014, J/A+A/565/A77) for transitions between the lowest 17 levels of the 3s23p6, 3s23p53d and 3s3p63d configurations, especially for electron temperatures logT(K)>=5.0. The transitions between the first 17 levels are dominated by Rydberg series of resonances converging to the levels of the 3s23p43d2 configuration. The present results and the calculation of Del Zanna et al. show significant differences for many weaker forbidden and intercombination transitions with thermally averaged collision strengths smaller than 0.01. (3 data files).

  18. Optimizing lutetium 177-anti-carbonic anhydrase IX radioimmunotherapy in an intraperitoneal clear cell renal cell carcinoma xenograft model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muselaers, C.H.J.; Oosterwijk, E.; Bos, D.L.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Boerman, O.C.

    2014-01-01

    A new approach in the treatment of clear cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC) is radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using anti-carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) antibody G250. To investigate the potential of RIT with lutetium 177 (177Lu)-labeled G250, we conducted a protein dose escalation study and subsequently an RIT st

  19. Egg-Citing! Isolation of Protoporphyrin IX from Brown Eggshells and Its Detection by Optical Spectroscopy and Chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Michelle L.; Miller, Tyson A.; Bruckner, Christian

    2011-01-01

    A simple and cost-effective laboratory experiment is described that extracts protoporphyrin IX from brown eggshells. The porphyrin is characterized by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. A chemiluminescence reaction (peroxyoxalate ester fragmentation) is performed that emits light in the UV region. When the porphyrin extract is added as a fluor…

  20. "Prompt and Equitable" Explained: How to Craft a Title IX Compliant Sexual Harassment Policy and Why It Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Jason A.

    2012-01-01

    An April 2011 "Dear Colleague" letter issued by the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights provided new guidance related to Title IX and the civil rights violation inherent in sexual harassment cases. Using the "Dear Colleague" letter as a guide, this article will provide best practice suggestions to remedy gender discrimination…

  1. Rifampicin-dependent antibodies bind a similar or identical epitope to glycoprotein IX-specific quinine-dependent antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgess, J K; Lopez, J A; Gaudry, L E; Chong, B H

    2000-01-01

    The drug-dependent antibody of a patient with rifampicin-induced thrombocytopenia was characterized using the antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAIPA assay), flow cytometry, and immunoprecipitation. The antibody was found to bind glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX but not GPIIb-IIIa because (1

  2. Collegiate Athletic Opportunities For Women Under Title IX Raises The Proportionality Concern For Men’s Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Compton

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Title IX of the Education Reformation Act was passed in 1972 for the purpose of providing equality between males and females in intercollegiate sports.  Since its inception the disparity between men’s and women’s varsity athletics programs has persisted throughout American colleges and universities.  Discrimination and equal protection concerns define the continuing debate of gender equality under the Act.  Campuses across the Nation have seen athletic departments add women’s varsity sport programs and cut men’s programs in order to remain compliant under the Act.  This paper explores the equal protection concerns of proportionality amongst enrollment rates and participation rates in intercollegiate athletics.  The state of Title IX today remains clouded with questions by college administrators who, after over three decades of enforcement, are employing proportionality concepts as a measure to obtain gender equality in sports.  The proportionality practice of cutting men’s programs instead of adding women’s programs may undermine the purpose of Title IX.  This paper is an analysis of the Court decisions and lawsuits that characterize the controversy of Title IX and its legal application to claims of gender bias associated with female athletic programs.  The study of this concern is imperative and will shape how college athletic programs are administered in the future.

  3. Expression and activity of carbonic anhydrase IX is associated with metabolic dysfunction in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Ying; Wang, H.; Oosterwijk, E.; Tu, C.; Shiverick, K.T.; Silverman, D.N.; Frost, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    The expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), a marker for hypoxic tumors, is correlated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. We show herein that the MDA-MB-231 cells, a "triple-negative," basal B line, express exclusively CAIX, while a luminal cell line (T47D) expresses carbonic anhydra

  4. Extension of a Spectral Bounding Method to Complex Rotated Hamiltonians, with Application to $p^2-ix^3$

    OpenAIRE

    Handy, C. R.; Wang, Xiao Qian

    2001-01-01

    We show that a recently developed method for generating bounds for the discrete energy states of the non-hermitian $-ix^3$ potential (Handy 2001) is applicable to complex rotated versions of the Hamiltonian. This has important implications for extension of the method in the analysis of resonant states, Regge poles, and general bound states in the complex plane (Bender and Boettcher (1998)).

  5. South America Geologic Map (geo6ag)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. The geologic map of South America was digitized so that we could use...

  6. Fermilab and Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Leon M.

    2006-09-01

    As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet.

  7. Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Compartment Pressure Comparisons During Ascent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs. William J.; Kirchner, Robert D.; McLachlan, Blair G.; Hand, Lawrence A.; Nelson, Stuart L.

    2011-01-01

    Predictions of internal compartment pressures are necessary in the design of interstage regions, systems tunnels, and protuberance covers of launch vehicles to assess potential burst and crush loading of the structure. History has proven that unexpected differential pressure loads can lead to catastrophic failure. Pressures measured in the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) compartment of Ares I-X during flight were compared to post-flight analytical predictions using the CHCHVENT chamber-to-chamber venting analysis computer program. The measured pressures were enveloped by the analytical predictions for most of the first minute of flight but were outside of the predictions thereafter. This paper summarizes the venting system for the USS, discusses the probable reasons for the discrepancies between the measured and predicted pressures, and provides recommendations for future flight vehicles.

  8. Infrared photometry of the nova-like system IX Velorum (= CPD -4801577)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous IR photometry of the UX UMa-type nova-like system IX Velorum reveals phase-correlated light variations in JHK filter bands with an amplitude of about Om.06. From a periodogram analysis an orbital period of P = 0.1939 ± 0.0001 day is determined. Physical reasons for the observed IR light variability are discussed. Model light curve calculations demonstrate that the observed light curves can be interpreted by a superposition of ellipsoidal light variations and asymmetric light distribution on the surface of the secondary component owing to illumination from the disc. The observation of different heights of the two light maxima might be an indication for an additional orbital light variation due to the changing aspect of the disc and/or bright spot region. (author)

  9. Dynamics of gravitating hadron matter in Bianchi-IX cosmological model

    CERN Document Server

    Pavluchenko, Sergey A

    2016-01-01

    We perform an analysis of the Einstein-Skyrme cosmological model in Bianchi-IX background. We analytically describe asymptotic regimes and semi-analytically -- generic regimes. It appears that depending on the product of Newtonian constant $\\kappa$ with Skyrme coupling $K$, in absence of the cosmological term there are three regimes possible -- recollapse with $\\kK 2$. In presence of the positive cosmological term, power-law regimes turn to exponential (de Sitter) ones while recollapse regime turn to exponential if the value for $\\Lambda$-term is sufficiently large, otherwise the regime remains recollapse. Negative cosmological term leads to the recollapse regardless of $\\kK$. All nonsingular regimes have the squashing coefficient $a(t) \\to 1$ at late times, which is associated with restoring symmetry dynamics. Also all nonsingular regimes appear to be linearly stable -- exponential solutions always while power-law for an open region of initial conditions.

  10. Dynamics of gravitating hadron matter in a Bianchi-IX cosmological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavluchenko, Sergey A.

    2016-08-01

    We perform an analysis of the Einstein-Skyrme cosmological model in the Bianchi-IX background. We analytically describe asymptotic regimes and semianalytically describe generic regimes. It appears that depending on the product of the Newtonian constant κ with Skyrme coupling K , in the absence of the cosmological term, there are three possible regimes: recollapse with κ K 2 . In the presence of the positive cosmological term, power-law regimes turn to the exponential (de Sitter) ones, while the recollapse regime turns to the exponential if the value for the Λ -term is sufficiently large, otherwise the regime remains recollapse. The negative cosmological term leads to the recollapse regardless of κ K . All nonsingular regimes have the squashing coefficient a (t )→1 at late times, which is associated with restoring symmetry dynamics. Also all nonsingular regimes appear to be linearly stable exponential solutions always, while power-law regimes for an open region of the initial conditions.

  11. 5. IX avati Pärnus paralleelselt Eesti Litograafiakeskuse korraldatud litograafiasümpoosioniga...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Litograafiakeskuses litograafia ajalugu tutvustav näitus. Pärnu kontserdimajas noorte - Jaak Visnap, Inga Heamägi, Kadri Alesmaa, Marko Mäetamm, Viljar Kõiv, Lembe Ruben - litograafianäitus "New generation". Endla teatri näitusesaalides näitus "Old Stars" - esinevad Evi Tihemets, Marje Üksine, Raul Meel, Leonhard Lapin, Tiia Külv, Urmas Vaino, Herald Eelma. Teatri Küüni ja kohviku seintel noorte soome ja rootsi litograafide tööd. Pärnu mudaravilas ülevaade litokeskuse kursustel valminud töödest. Endises Linnagaleriis Rüütli t. näitus 6.-12. IX sümpoosioni raames toimunud workshop'ide töödest

  12. Detection limits of 405 nm and 633 nm excited PpIX fluorescence for brain tumor detection during stereotactic biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwardt, Niklas; Götz, Marcus; Haj-Hosseini, Neda; Hollnburger, Bastian; Sroka, Ronald; Stepp, Herbert; Zelenkov, Petr; Rühm, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    5-aminolevulinic-acid-(5-ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence may be used to improve stereotactic brain tumor biopsies. In this study, the sensitivity of PpIX-based tumor detection has been investigated for two potential excitation wavelengths (405 nm, 633 nm). Using a 200 μm fiber in contact with semi-infinite optical phantoms containing ink and Lipovenös, PpIX detection limits of 4.0 nM and 200 nM (relating to 1 mW excitation power) were determined for 405 nm and 633 nm excitation, respectively. Hence, typical PpIX concentrations in glioblastomas of a few μM should be well detectable with both wavelengths. Additionally, blood layers of selected thicknesses were placed between fiber and phantom. Red excitation was shown to be considerably less affected by blood interference: A 50 μm blood layer, for instance, blocked the 405- nm-excited fluorescence completely, but reduced the 633-nm-excited signal by less than 50%. Ray tracing simulations demonstrated that - without blood layer - the sensitivity advantage of 405 nm rises for decreasing fluorescent volume from 50-fold to a maximum of 100-fold. However, at a tumor volume of 1 mm3, which is a typical biopsy sample size, the 633-nm-excited fluorescence signal is only reduced by about 10%. Further simulations revealed that with increasing fiber-tumor distance, the signal drops faster for 405 nm. This reduces the risk of detecting tumor tissue outside the needle's coverage, but diminishes the overlap between optically and mechanically sampled volumes. While 405 nm generally offers a higher sensitivity, 633 nm is more sensitive to distant tumors and considerably superior in case of blood-covered tumor tissue.

  13. ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy of experimental malignant glioma in the BD-IX rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, Henry; Angell-Petersen, Even; Peng, Qian; Sun, Chung-Ho; Sorensen, Dag R.; Carper, Steven W.; Madsen, Steen J.

    2005-04-01

    Introduction: Failure of treatment for high grade gliomas is usually due to local recurrence at the site of surgical resec-tion indicating that a more aggressive form of local therapy could be of benefit. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a local form of treatment involving the administration of a tumor-localizing photosensitizing drug that is activated by light of a specific wavelength The results of in vitro experiments indicated that PDT, given at low fluence rates was substantially more effective at inhibiting glioma spheroid growth than short term high fluence rate regimes. This prompted the initia-tion of in vivo studies of low fluence rate 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) PDT in a rat glioma model. Methods:BT4C cell line tumors were established in the brains of inbred BD- IX rats. Eighteen days following tumor induction the animals were injected with 125 mg/kg ALA ip. and four hours later light treatment at various fluences and fluence rates were given after the introduction of an optical fiber. Tumor histology and animal survival were examined. Results: In vitro experiments verified that the cell line was sensitive to ALA PDT. Microfluorometry of frozen tissue sections showed that PpIX is produced with a greater than 20:1 tumor to normal tissue selectivity ratio four hours after ALA injection. Histological examination demonstrated neutrophil infiltration and tumor central necrosis in low fluence rate treated tumors. Conclusions: Low fluence rate long term ALA mediated PDT had a more pronounced effect on tumor histology than single shot short duration treatments at similar total fluence levels.

  14. Ares I-X Range Safety Simulation Verification and Analysis IV and V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpley, Ashley; Beaty, James; Starr, Brett

    2010-01-01

    NASA s ARES I-X vehicle launched on a suborbital test flight from the Eastern Range in Florida on October 28, 2009. NASA generated a Range Safety (RS) flight data package to meet the RS trajectory data requirements defined in the Air Force Space Command Manual 91-710. Some products included in the flight data package were a nominal ascent trajectory, ascent flight envelope trajectories, and malfunction turn trajectories. These data are used by the Air Force s 45th Space Wing (45SW) to ensure Eastern Range public safety and to make flight termination decisions on launch day. Due to the criticality of the RS data in regards to public safety and mission success, an independent validation and verification (IV&V) effort was undertaken to accompany the data generation analyses to ensure utmost data quality and correct adherence to requirements. Multiple NASA centers and contractor organizations were assigned specific products to IV&V. The data generation and IV&V work was coordinated through the Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel s Trajectory Working Group, which included members from the prime and IV&V organizations as well as the 45SW. As a result of the IV&V efforts, the RS product package was delivered with confidence that two independent organizations using separate simulation software generated data to meet the range requirements and yielded similar results. This document captures ARES I-X RS product IV&V analysis, including the methodology used to verify inputs, simulation, and output data for an RS product. Additionally a discussion of lessons learned is presented to capture advantages and disadvantages to the IV&V processes used.

  15. Lack of prognostic and predictive value of CA IX in radiotherapy of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck with known modifiable hypoxia: An evaluation of the DAHANCA 5 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Overgaard, Jens

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: CA IX is suggested to be an endogenous marker of hypoxia in tumours like squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether CA IX served as a prognostic factor for outcome in a large population of HNSCC and if CA IX......+/-the hypoxic radiosensitizer nimorazole. CA IX was measured using immunohistochemistry and results were divided into four groups of CA IX expression: 30% of the tumour area with positive membrane staining. Locoregional control and disease-specific survival were used as endpoints...... in the head and neck treated with conventional radiotherapy and concomitant nimorazole....

  16. Core-shell AgSiO2-protoporphyrin IX nanoparticle: Effect of the Ag core on reactive oxygen species generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lismont, M.; Pá; ez-Martinez, C.; Dreesen, L.

    2015-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer is based on the use of a light sensitive molecule to produce, under specific irradiation, toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). A way to improve the therapy efficiency is to increase the amount of produced ROS near cancer cells. This aim can be achieved by using a metal enhanced process arising when an optically active molecule is located near a metallic nanoparticle (NP). Here, the coupling effect between silver (Ag) NPs and protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) molecules, a clinically approved photosensitizer, is studied compared first, to PpIX fluorescence yield and second, to ROS production efficiency. By applying a modified Stöber process, PpIX was encapsulated into a silica (SiO2) shell, surrounding a 60 nm sized Ag core. We showed that, compared to SiO2-PpIX NPs, Ag coated SiO2-PpIX NPs dramatically decreased PpIX fluorescence together with singlet oxygen production efficiency. However, after incubation time in the dark, the amount of superoxide anions generated by the Ag doped sample was higher than the control sample one.

  17. Inelastic X-ray Scattering Beamline Collaborative Development Team Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report for the project to create a beam line for inelastic x-ray scattering at the Advanced Photon Source. The facility is complete and operating well, with spectrometers for both high resolution and medium resolution measurements. With the advent of third generation synchrotron sources, inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) has become a valuable technique to probe the electronic and vibrational states of a wide variety of systems of interest in physics, chemistry, and biology. IXS is a weak probe, and experimental setups are complex and require well-optimized spectrometers which need a dedicated beamline to function efficiently. This project was the result of a proposal to provide a world-class, user friendly beamline for IXS at the Advanced Photon Source. The IXS Collaborative Development Team (IXS-CDT) was formed from groups at the national laboratories and a number of different universities. The beamline was designed from the front end to the experimental stations. Two different experimental stations were provided, one for medium resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (MERIX) and a spectrometer for high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HERIX). Funding for this project came from several sources as well as the DOE. The beamline is complete with both spectrometers operating well. The facility is now open to the general user community and there has been a tremendous demand to take advantage of the beamline's capabilities. A large number of different experiments have already been carried out on the beamline. A detailed description of the beamline has been given in the final design report (FDR) for the beamline from which much of the material in this report came. The first part of this report contains a general overview of the project with more technical details given later.

  18. O neoliberalismo na America Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ibarra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neoliberalism in Latin America. Neoliberalism and globalization had decisive influence in shaping public policies both internal and foreign in Latin America. Less state, trade and market freedoms, social goals subordinated to economic criteria, are part and parcel of the neoliberal utopia. Price stability was erected as the main social objective; import substitution resulted replaced by exports as the main source of growth. The neoliberal net results as applied to Latin America are: less growth, deindustrialization, income concentration and precarious employments. Therefore, countries public policies should try to gain autonomy to use jointly markets and public intervention in a constructive and innovative fashion.

  19. North America and South America (NA-SA) neuropathy project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Trivedi, Jaya; Wolfe, Gil I; Nations, Sharon; Herbelin, Laura; de Freitas, M G; Quintanilha, Giseli; Khan, Saud; Dimachkie, Mazen; Barohn, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common neurological disorder. There may be important differences and similarities in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy between North America (NA) and South America (SA). Neuromuscular databases were searched for neuropathy diagnosis at two North American sites, University of Kansas Medical Center and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, and one South American site, Federal Fluminense University in Brazil. All patients were included into one of the six major categories: immune-mediated, diabetic, hereditary, infectious/inflammatory, systemic/metabolic/toxic (not diabetic) and cryptogenic. A comparison of the number of patients in each category was made between North America and South America databases. Total number of cases in North America was 1090 and in South America was 1034 [immune-mediated: NA 215 (19.7%), SA 191 (18%); diabetic: NA 148 (13.5%), SA 236 (23%); hereditary: NA 292 (26.7%), SA 103 (10%); infectious/inflammatory: NA 53 (4.8%), SA 141 (14%); systemic/metabolic/toxic: NA 71 (6.5%), SA 124 (12%); cryptogenic: NA 311 (28.5%), SA 239 (23%)]. Some specific neuropathy comparisons were hereditary neuropathies [Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) cases] in NA 246/292 (84.2%) and SA 60/103 (58%); familial amyloid neuropathy in SA 31/103 (30%) and none in NA. Among infectious neuropathies, cases of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) neuropathy in SA were 36/141(25%), Chagas disease in SA were 13/141(9%) and none for either in NA; cases of neuropathy due to leprosy in NA were 26/53 (49%) and in SA were 39/141(28%). South American tertiary care centers are more likely to see patients with infectious, diabetic and hereditary disorders such as familial amyloid neuropathies. North American tertiary centers are more likely to see patients with CMT. Immune neuropathies and cryptogenic neuropathies were seen equally in North America and South America.

  20. Efforts to eradicate yellow crazy ants on Johnston Atoll: Results from Crazy Ant Strike Team IX, December 2014-June 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; Peck, Robert W.; Donmoyer, Kevin; Kropidlowski, Stephan; Pollock, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The ecologically destructive yellow crazy ant (YCA; Anoplolepis gracilipes) was first detected on Johnston Atoll in January 2010. Within eight months, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service had mobilized its first crazy ant strike team (CAST), a group of biologists dedicated to testing and identifying insecticidal baits to be used to eradicate the ant on the atoll. During December 2014‒May 2015 CAST IX focused on testing hydrogel crystals saturated with sucrose solution (25%) carrying the insecticides thiamethoxam and dinotefuran against YCA. A series of experiments, including artificial nest box trials, and field-based palatability trials and eradication tests on small (500 m2 or 0.05 ha) and large plots (2500 m2 or 0.25 ha), were conducted to test concentrations of thiamethoxam ranging from 0.0005% to 0.01%, and dinotefuran at 0.05%. Additionally, the cat food-based matrix containing dinotefuran (0.05%), the standard bait used to suppress YCA on Johnston since 2011, and textured vegetable protein (TVP) carrying dinotefuran at 0.1% and 0.05% were included in large plot tests. Nest box trials were inconclusive due to a consistent loss of queen and worker ants in control boxes, so they were discontinued. Palatability trials suggested higher dosages of thiamethoxam (0.005 and 0.01%) were less attractive than lower dosages (0.0005 and 0.001%) and controls (sucrose only), but small and large plot experiments failed to identify a thiamethoxam concentration that was consistently effective at killing YCA. In contrast, hydrogel containing dinotefuran was consistently effective, killing >95% of YCA on small and large plots. As expected, the cat food bait effectively reduced YCA abundances, but was slightly less effective than hydrogel containing dinotefuran over time. Three successive, approximately weekly treatments of large plots with hydrogel bait, or other baits followed by hydrogel bait, suggest an increasing overall effectiveness, with no aversion of YCA to the bait

  1. Geoparks in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Geopark is a territory delimited part of a holistic concept of protection, education and sustainable development, based on geological sites of particular importance, rarity or aesthetic geological sites. A Geopark achieves its goals through three main areas: geoconservation, education and geotourism. The first network of Geoparks born in Europe in 2000, and from 2004 UNESCO is promoting the creation of a Global Geoparks Network (Global Geoparks Network, GGN ). Currently, there are 64 Global Geoparks in 19 countries, and the movement is in full development. In Latin America there is hardly Araripe Geopark in Brazil. Presented in this work, projects and studies related to the development of Geoparks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Peru and Venezuela. We understand that Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico and Nicaragua have projects in this line, but the details are not yet readily available. The authors invite geoscientists and professionals in related fields to join a movement for the creation of the Latin American Network of Geoparks, intended as a framework for the conservation, sustainable use and disclosure of our national geological heritage

  2. [Health system reforms in South America: an opportunity for UNASUR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Temporão, José; Faria, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Health systems in South America still support segmentation, privatization and fragmentation. Health reforms of the structural adjustment programs in the 1980s and 1990s in South America followed different purposes and strategies ranging from privatization, commodification and state intervention for the implementation of a national public health service with universal access as a right of the citizens. Since the 2000s, many countries have expanded social policies, reduced poverty and social inequalities, and improved access to healthcare. This article proposes to discuss the health systems in South America from historical and political backgrounds, and the progress from the reforms in the last three decades. It also presents the three paradigmatic models of reform and their evolution, as well as the contrasts between universal coverage and universal systems. Finally, it presents current strengths and weaknesses of the twelve South American health systems as well as current opportunities and challenges in health for UNASUR. PMID:25597728

  3. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egleé L. Zent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback. ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  4. Heart Failure Society of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Site Terms and Conditions Copyright © 2016 Heart Failure Society of America. All Rights Reserved 2016 Board Review ... Membership Membership Information Membership in the Heart Failure Society is open to all health care professionals with ...

  5. ScaleUp America Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA’s new ScaleUp America Initiative is designed to help small firms with high potential “scale up” and grow their businesses so that they will provide more jobs...

  6. Road Rage Rampant in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159883.html Road Rage Rampant in America 8 of 10 drivers ... of 10 drivers demonstrated significant anger, aggression or road rage in the past year, the study found. ...

  7. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Zent, Egleé L

    2013-01-01

    Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback). ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  8. Huntington's Disease Society of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Andrews HDSA Researcher Spotlight- Dr. Amber Southwell Advocacy Huntington’s Disease Parity Act Affordable Care Act Social Security ... 08.30.16 HD Support & Care Network and Huntington’s Disease Society of America Partner for Stronger HD ...

  9. Learning Disabilities Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... purchases to benefit LDA. Shop Now October is Learning Disabilities Awareness Month Learning Disabilities Association of America ( ... children's health and reduce toxic exposures. Learn More Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal Committed to the study ...

  10. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enabled to enjoy the full interactive experience. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America Find a Doctor Find a ... Local Chapters News Events Search: What are Crohn's & Colitis? What is Crohn's Disease What is Ulcerative Colitis ...

  11. Inflation Targeting in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorio Corbo; Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes Latin America’s recent experience with the use of inflation targeting (IT) while the region has made substantial progress toward eradicating high inflation. The paper assesses the implementation and results of inflation targeting in Latin America from a broad perspective. It starts by reviewing the issues relevant for the choice of exchange-rate regimes and monetary frameworks, documenting the evolution of exchange rate and monetary regimes in Latin America during the last...

  12. A simple technique to reduce epistaxis and nasopharyngeal trauma during nasotracheal intubation in a child with factor IX deficiency having dental restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Anita V; Sanders, John C

    2004-10-01

    Epistaxis and airway trauma are often associated with nasotracheal intubation. We describe a patient with Factor IX deficiency who required nasotracheal intubation. An inexpensive, nonproprietary, rapid technique was used to reduce the trauma of intubation.

  13. Changes in Latin America: consequences for human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrot, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This article looks at Latin America's political shift over the last several years. The author argues that these changes have largely been misunderstood and underestimated in the United States for a number of reasons. First, Latin America's unprecedented growth failure over the past 25 years is a major cause of these political changes and has not been well-understood. Second, the collapse of the International Monetary Fund's influence in Latin America, and in middle-income countries, is an epoch-making change. Third, the availability of alternative sources of finance, especially from the reserves of the Venezuelan government, has become very important. Finally, the increasing assertion of national control over natural resources is an important part of the new relationship between Latin America and the United States. For these and other reasons, the relationship between Latin America and the United States has undergone a fundamental and possibly irreversible change, and one that opens the way to new and mostly more successful economic policies. PMID:17844930

  14. Fostering renewable energy markets in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jeremy [North American Comission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation describes projects, programs and other issues addressed in order to promote renewable energy markets in North America. These are carried out by the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). In the first part of this presentation, there are going to be found some of the rules imposed by the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC). Then, it is shown the structure of the CEC as well as its programs, besides, there are presented the environment projects and the objectives along with their respective trades. There are described both benefits environmental and non-environmental. Also, there are shown the issues which the CEC is working in. And finally, it is shown a list mentioning the aspects that would change if: the expansion of the Mexico's Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE), happens, the grid-interconnected and the self supply of Renewable Electricity increase. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se describen los proyectos, los programas y otras cuestiones, cuyo objetivo es impulsar los mercados de energia renovable en America del Norte, realizadas por la North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation. En la primera parte, se encuentran algunas de las reglas impuestas por el Acuerdo de Cooperacion Ambiental de America del Norte (ACAAN). Enseguida, se muestra la estructura y los programas de la Comision para la Cooperacion Ambiental (CCA). Asimismo, se describen los proyectos ambientales, los objetivos junto con sus correspondientes tratados. Mas adelante, se explican tanto los beneficios ambientales como aquellos que no lo son. Igualmente, explican las cuestiones que podrian cambiar de: suceder la expansion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), incrementarse el auto- suministro de la energia renovable y los sistemas interconectados.

  15. PG1058 Is a Novel Multidomain Protein Component of the Bacterial Type IX Secretion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veith, Paul D.; Butler, Catherine A.; Nor Muhammad, Nor A.; Chen, Yu-Yen; Slakeski, Nada; Peng, Benjamin; Zhang, Lianyi; Dashper, Stuart G.; Cross, Keith J.; Cleal, Steven M.; Moore, Caroline; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis utilises the Bacteroidetes-specific type IX secretion system (T9SS) to export proteins across the outer membrane (OM), including virulence factors such as the gingipains. The secreted proteins have a conserved carboxy-terminal domain essential for type IX secretion that is cleaved upon export. In P. gingivalis the T9SS substrates undergo glycosylation with anionic lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) and are attached to the OM. In this study, comparative analyses of 24 Bacteroidetes genomes identified ten putative novel components of the T9SS in P. gingivalis, one of which was PG1058. Computer modelling of the PG1058 structure predicted a novel N- to C-terminal architecture comprising a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, a β-propeller domain, a carboxypeptidase regulatory domain-like fold (CRD) and an OmpA_C-like putative peptidoglycan binding domain. Inactivation of pg1058 in P. gingivalis resulted in loss of both colonial pigmentation and surface-associated proteolytic activity; a phenotype common to T9SS mutants. Immunoblot and LC-MS/MS analyses of subcellular fractions revealed T9SS substrates accumulated within the pg1058 mutant periplasm whilst whole-cell ELISA showed the Kgp gingipain was absent from the cell surface, confirming perturbed T9SS function. Immunoblot, TEM and whole-cell ELISA analyses indicated A-LPS was produced and present on the pg1058 mutant cell surface although it was not linked to T9SS substrate proteins. This indicated that PG1058 is crucial for export of T9SS substrates but not for the translocation of A-LPS. PG1058 is a predicted lipoprotein and was localised to the periplasmic side of the OM using whole-cell ELISA, immunoblot and LC-MS/MS analyses of subcellular fractions. The structural prediction and localisation of PG1058 suggests that it may have a role as an essential scaffold linking the periplasmic and OM components of the T9SS. PMID:27711252

  16. Optimization of The Electroporation Conditions for Transfection of Human Factor IX into The Goat Fetal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Amiri Yekta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Electroporation is the most common method used for the transfection of DNA. Although this method has been attributed for various cell using different buffer compositions, the effects of DNA concentration on the transfection efficiency has not yet been studied. Here the correlation between the efficiency of electroporation reaction and increments of DNA concentration has been investigated. Following this investigation, a study was set out to produce a transgenic goat which is capable of secreting recombinant human coagulation factor IX in its milk.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a linearized recombinant vector (pBC1 entailing human coagulation factor IX (5.7 kb cDNA was introduced into goat fetal fibroblast cells (three sub passages via electroporation in four separate experiments (while other variables were kept constant, beginning with 10 μg DNA per pulse in the first experiment and increments of 10 μg/pulse for the next three reactions. Thereafter, polymerase chain reaction (PCR-positive cell culture plates were diluted by several factors for further analysis of the transfected wells. Subsequently, positive cells were isolated for fluorescence in situ hybridization. Logistic regression model was used for data analyzing. Significance was defined as p< 0.05.Results: The results showed no significant difference among three first concentrations except for group 1 (10 μg/pulse and group 3 (30 μg/pulse, but there was a significant difference between these groups and the fourth group (p<0.05, as this group (40 μg/pulse statistically showed the highest rate of transfection. As the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH results indicated the transgene was integrated in a single position in PCR positive cells.Conclusion: Increasing amount of using the vector 40μg/pulse efficiently increased the number of transfected cells. Besides of voltage and buffer strength which had been previously shown to play a critical role

  17. Commissioning of a Varian Clinac iX 6 MV photon beam using Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirgayussa, I. Gde Eka; Yani, Sitti; Rhani, M. Fahdillah; Haryanto, Freddy

    2015-09-01

    Monte Carlo modelling of a linear accelerator is the first and most important step in Monte Carlo dose calculations in radiotherapy. Monte Carlo is considered today to be the most accurate and detailed calculation method in different fields of medical physics. In this research, we developed a photon beam model for Varian Clinac iX 6 MV equipped with MilleniumMLC120 for dose calculation purposes using BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc Monte Carlo system based on the underlying EGSnrc particle transport code. Monte Carlo simulation for this commissioning head LINAC divided in two stages are design head Linac model using BEAMnrc, characterize this model using BEAMDP and analyze the difference between simulation and measurement data using DOSXYZnrc. In the first step, to reduce simulation time, a virtual treatment head LINAC was built in two parts (patient-dependent component and patient-independent component). The incident electron energy varied 6.1 MeV, 6.2 MeV and 6.3 MeV, 6.4 MeV, and 6.6 MeV and the FWHM (full width at half maximum) of source is 1 mm. Phase-space file from the virtual model characterized using BEAMDP. The results of MC calculations using DOSXYZnrc in water phantom are percent depth doses (PDDs) and beam profiles at depths 10 cm were compared with measurements. This process has been completed if the dose difference of measured and calculated relative depth-dose data along the central-axis and dose profile at depths 10 cm is ≤ 5%. The effect of beam width on percentage depth doses and beam profiles was studied. Results of the virtual model were in close agreement with measurements in incident energy electron 6.4 MeV. Our results showed that photon beam width could be tuned using large field beam profile at the depth of maximum dose. The Monte Carlo model developed in this study accurately represents the Varian Clinac iX with millennium MLC 120 leaf and can be used for reliable patient dose calculations. In this commissioning process, the good criteria of dose

  18. Commissioning of a Varian Clinac iX 6 MV photon beam using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo modelling of a linear accelerator is the first and most important step in Monte Carlo dose calculations in radiotherapy. Monte Carlo is considered today to be the most accurate and detailed calculation method in different fields of medical physics. In this research, we developed a photon beam model for Varian Clinac iX 6 MV equipped with MilleniumMLC120 for dose calculation purposes using BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc Monte Carlo system based on the underlying EGSnrc particle transport code. Monte Carlo simulation for this commissioning head LINAC divided in two stages are design head Linac model using BEAMnrc, characterize this model using BEAMDP and analyze the difference between simulation and measurement data using DOSXYZnrc. In the first step, to reduce simulation time, a virtual treatment head LINAC was built in two parts (patient-dependent component and patient-independent component). The incident electron energy varied 6.1 MeV, 6.2 MeV and 6.3 MeV, 6.4 MeV, and 6.6 MeV and the FWHM (full width at half maximum) of source is 1 mm. Phase-space file from the virtual model characterized using BEAMDP. The results of MC calculations using DOSXYZnrc in water phantom are percent depth doses (PDDs) and beam profiles at depths 10 cm were compared with measurements. This process has been completed if the dose difference of measured and calculated relative depth-dose data along the central-axis and dose profile at depths 10 cm is ≤ 5%. The effect of beam width on percentage depth doses and beam profiles was studied. Results of the virtual model were in close agreement with measurements in incident energy electron 6.4 MeV. Our results showed that photon beam width could be tuned using large field beam profile at the depth of maximum dose. The Monte Carlo model developed in this study accurately represents the Varian Clinac iX with millennium MLC 120 leaf and can be used for reliable patient dose calculations. In this commissioning process, the good

  19. Commissioning of a Varian Clinac iX 6 MV photon beam using Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirgayussa, I Gde Eka, E-mail: ekadirgayussa@gmail.com; Yani, Sitti; Haryanto, Freddy, E-mail: freddy@fi.itb.ac.id [Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, 40132 (Indonesia); Rhani, M. Fahdillah [Tang Tock Seng Hospital (Singapore)

    2015-09-30

    Monte Carlo modelling of a linear accelerator is the first and most important step in Monte Carlo dose calculations in radiotherapy. Monte Carlo is considered today to be the most accurate and detailed calculation method in different fields of medical physics. In this research, we developed a photon beam model for Varian Clinac iX 6 MV equipped with MilleniumMLC120 for dose calculation purposes using BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc Monte Carlo system based on the underlying EGSnrc particle transport code. Monte Carlo simulation for this commissioning head LINAC divided in two stages are design head Linac model using BEAMnrc, characterize this model using BEAMDP and analyze the difference between simulation and measurement data using DOSXYZnrc. In the first step, to reduce simulation time, a virtual treatment head LINAC was built in two parts (patient-dependent component and patient-independent component). The incident electron energy varied 6.1 MeV, 6.2 MeV and 6.3 MeV, 6.4 MeV, and 6.6 MeV and the FWHM (full width at half maximum) of source is 1 mm. Phase-space file from the virtual model characterized using BEAMDP. The results of MC calculations using DOSXYZnrc in water phantom are percent depth doses (PDDs) and beam profiles at depths 10 cm were compared with measurements. This process has been completed if the dose difference of measured and calculated relative depth-dose data along the central-axis and dose profile at depths 10 cm is ≤ 5%. The effect of beam width on percentage depth doses and beam profiles was studied. Results of the virtual model were in close agreement with measurements in incident energy electron 6.4 MeV. Our results showed that photon beam width could be tuned using large field beam profile at the depth of maximum dose. The Monte Carlo model developed in this study accurately represents the Varian Clinac iX with millennium MLC 120 leaf and can be used for reliable patient dose calculations. In this commissioning process, the good

  20. Distribution of protoporphyrin IX in Bowen's disease and basal cell carcinomas treated with topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David J.; Stables, G. I.; Ash, D. V.; Brown, Stanley B.

    1995-03-01

    We have used ultra-low light level fluorescence microscopy to examine the suggestion that the relatively poor response of human basal cell carcinomas (BCC) to topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) arises from limited drug penetration into the lesion. The distribution of ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in human BCC and Bowen's disease was examined and, in almost all cases, was found to be most intense in those regions of tumor immediately adjacent to the dermis. This distribution was independent of tumor type, and did not appear to be affected by tumor depth in the skin. It is suggested that ALA penetration may not limit the efficacy of ALA-PDT in the treatment of BCC. Failure of superficial ALA-based PDT in basal cell carcinoma may, instead, be related to the histological structure of this type of lesion.

  1. Spitzer IRAC observations of IR excess in Holmberg IX X-1: A circumbinary disk or a variable jet?

    CERN Document Server

    Dudik, R P; Roberts, T P; Grise, F; Singh, A; Pagano, R; Winter, L M

    2016-01-01

    We present Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) photometric observations of the Ultra-luminous X-ray Source (ULX, X-1) in Holmberg IX. We construct a spectral energy distribution (SED) for Holmberg IX X-1 based on published optical, UV and X-ray data combined with the IR data from this analysis. We modeled the X-ray and optical data with disk and stellar models, however we find a clear IR excess in the ULX SED that cannot be explained by fits or extrapolations of any of these models. Instead, further analysis suggests that the IR excess results either from dust emission, possibly from a circumbinary disk or from a variable jet.

  2. Caught between a Rock and a Hard Place: The Title IX Generation, Mathematics, and the State of Feminist Quantitative Social Science Research

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Jill R.

    2012-01-01

    In this essay I reflect on the fortieth anniversary of the Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act of 1972 (Title IX), which prohibited discrimination based on sex in federally funded education programs in the United States and inspired educational programs that encourage girls to pursue math and science careers. I argue that despite the feminist underpinnings of Title IX, in recent years feminism has discouraged the advancement of women in math and science by excluding quantitative research ...

  3. Liver gene therapy by lentiviral vectors reverses anti-factor IX pre-existing immunity in haemophilic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Annoni, Andrea; Cantore, Alessio; Della Valle, Patrizia; Goudy, Kevin; Akbarpour, Mahzad; Russo, Fabio; Bartolaccini, Sara; D'Angelo, Armando; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Naldini, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    A major complication of factor replacement therapy for haemophilia is the development of anti-factor neutralizing antibodies (inhibitors). Here we show that liver gene therapy by lentiviral vectors (LVs) expressing factor IX (FIX) strongly reduces pre-existing anti-FIX antibodies and eradicates FIX inhibitors in haemophilia B mice. Concomitantly, plasma FIX levels and clotting activity rose to 50–100% of normal. The treatment was effective in 75% of treated mice. FIX-specific plasma cells (PC...

  4. Recombinant Factor IX Fc Fusion Protein Maintains Full Procoagulant Properties and Exhibits Prolonged Efficacy in Hemophilia B Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garabet G Toby

    Full Text Available Hemophilia B is an inherited X chromosome-linked disorder characterized by impaired blood clotting owing to the absence of functional coagulation factor IX. Due to the relatively short half-life of factor IX, patients with hemophilia B require frequent factor IX infusions to maintain prophylaxis. We have developed a recombinant factor IX (rFIX fused to the Fc region of IgG (rFIXFc with an extended half-life in animals and humans.Procoagulant properties of rFIXFc and rFIX (BENEFIX® were compared to determine the effect of the Fc region on rFIXFc hemostatic function. Specifically, we assessed rFIXFc activation, intermolecular interactions within the Xase complex, inactivation by antithrombin III (AT and thrombin generation potential compared with rFIX. We also assessed the acute and prophylactic efficacy profiles of rFIXFc and rFIX in vivo in hemophilia B mouse bleeding models.The activation by factor XIa or factor VIIa/tissue factor, inhibition by AT, interaction profiles with phospholipids, affinities for factor VIIIa within the context of the Xase complex, and thrombin generation profiles were similar for rFIXFc and rFIX. Xase complexes formed with either molecule exhibited similar kinetic profiles for factor Xa generation. In acute efficacy models, mice infused with rFIXFc or rFIX were equally protected from bleeding. However, in prophylactic efficacy models, protection from bleeding was maintained approximately three times longer in rFIXFc-dosed mice than in those given rFIX; this prolonged efficacy correlates with the previously observed half-life extension. We conclude that rFIXFc retains critical FIX procoagulant attributes and that the extension in rFIXFc half-life translates into prolonged efficacy in hemophilia B mice.

  5. A novel library of saccharin and acesulfame derivatives as potent and selective inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase IX and XII isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carradori, Simone; Secci, Daniela; De Monte, Celeste; Mollica, Adriano; Ceruso, Mariangela; Akdemir, Atilla; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Codispoti, Rossella; De Cosmi, Federica; Guglielmi, Paolo; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-03-01

    Small libraries of N-substituted saccharin and N-/O-substituted acesulfame derivatives were synthesized and tested as atypical and selective inhibitors of four different isoforms of human carbonic anhydrase (hCA I, II, IX and XII, EC 4.2.1.1). Most of them inhibited hCA XII in the low nanomolar range, hCA IX with KIs ranging between 19 and 2482nM, whereas they were poorly active against hCA II (KIs >10μM) and hCA I (KIs ranging between 318nM and 50μM). Since hCA I and II are ubiquitous off-target isoforms, whereas the cancer-related isoforms hCA IX and XII were recently validated as drug targets, these results represent an encouraging achievement in the development of new anticancer candidates. Moreover, the lack of a classical zinc binding group in the structure of these inhibitors opens innovative, yet unexplored scenarios for different mechanisms of inhibition that could explain the high inhibitory selectivity. A computational approach has been carried out to further rationalize the biological data and to characterize the binding mode of some of these inhibitors. PMID:26810710

  6. Fission Rate Ratios of FCA-IX Assemblies as Integral Experiment for Assessment of TRU's Fission Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Masahiro; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Okajima, Shigeaki

    2016-03-01

    At the fast critical assembly (FCA) of JAEA, central fission rate ratios for TRU such as 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu, 242Pu, 241Am, 243Am, and 244Cm were measured in the seven uraniumfueled assemblies (FCA-IX assemblies) with systematically changed neutron spectra. The FCA-IX assemblies were constructed with simplicity both in geometry and composition. By virtue of these FCA-IX assemblies where the simple combinations of uranium fuel and diluent (graphite and stainless steel) in their core regions were systematically varied, the neutron spectra of them cover from the intermediate to fast one. Taking their advantages, benchmark models with respect to the central fission rate ratios had been recently developed for the evaluation of the TRU's fission cross sections. As an application of these benchmark models, the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library JENDL-4.0 was utilized by a Monte Carlo calculation code. Several results show large discrepancies between the calculation and experimental values. The benchmark models would be well suited for the evaluation and modification of the nuclear data for the TRU's fission cross sections.

  7. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Escobar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats.

  8. Modifier activity of the protoporphyrin IX of the clastogenic damage induced by gamma radiation in Drosophila melanogaster; Actividad modificadora de la protoporfirina IX del dano clastogenico inducido por radiacion gamma en Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez A, G. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that the copper sodium chlorophyllin (CCS) it is a potent inhibitor of the one genetic damage induced by physical or chemical agents in systems like: bacteria, Drosophila, rainbow trout and mammals. Nevertheless it has been observed that under certain conditions it promotes it. In the laboratory of Drosophila of the ININ evidences have been obtained that the CCS increases the percentage of lethal embryonic dominant and post-embryonic induced by gamma radiation. One of the probable causes of this effect promoter, is the oxidizer stress that it could cause the metallic center of the CCS. The objective of this investigation it was the evaluation of the inhibitory action of the protoporphyrin IX (PP-IX) of the genetic damage induced by gamma radiation in the germinal line of Drosophila melanogaster. For such effect it was used the lethal dominant test by means of two protocols: one in the one that the PP-IX or CCS was administered to the females and the other one to the males. Females of genotype y/y and males of the canton-S stump were used. In both cases the males were treated with 40 Gy of gamma radiation. Its were count the embryonic lethal dominant (L-E) and those post-embryonic (L-PE) of the F1. The results indicated that after the one pretreatment with PP-IX to the crossed females with males treaties increase the percentage of L-E (P {<=} 0.001) and it diminished that of L-PE (P {<=} 0.001) compared with the sucrose control more radiation, however when it was pretreated with CCS also it was observed an increment in the percentage of L-E (P {<=} 0.001), but it doesn't present effect on that of L-PE. In contrast, when the males were pretreated, it was observed that the PP-IX tends to increase those L-E, but diminished the L-PE (P {<=} 0.05), however when it was pretreated with CCS was observed that increased the percentage of L-E (P {<=} 0.001) but diminished that of L-PE (P {<=} 0.001). It was concluded that none of the two pigments

  9. Latin America`s emerging non-proliferation consensus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redick, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    Latin America`s incorporation into the international nuclear non-proliferation regime is well advanced. The 1967 Tlatelolco Treaty, which established a regional nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ), is nearing completion. A signal event occurred January 18, when Argentina and Chile deposited instruments of ratification to the treaty, leaving Brazil and Cuba the only major countries in Latin America that are not yet contracting parties. And after more than two decades of concern about the nuclear programs and policies in Argentina and Brazil, there is room for great optimism that Brazil may now be moving quickly on important non-proliferation issues. Even Cuba, the {open_quotes}bad boy of the neighborhood{close_quotes} in the eyes of many, which held aloof from the Tlatelolco process for three decades, has stated its willingness to join the zone in the future.

  10. LBT Discovery of a Yellow Supergiant Eclipsing Binary in the Dwarf Galaxy Holmberg IX

    CERN Document Server

    Prieto, J L; Kochanek, C S; Weisz, D R; Baruffolo, A; Bechtold, J; Burwitz, V; DeSantis, C; Gallozzi, S; Garnavich, P M; Giallongo, E; Hill, J M; Pogge, R W; Ragazzoni, R; Speziali, R; Thompson, D J; Wagner, R M

    2007-01-01

    In a variability survey of M81 using the Large Binocular Telescope we have discovered a peculiar eclipsing binary (MV ~ -7.1) in the field of the dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX. It has a period of 272 days and the light curve is well-fit by an overcontact model in which both stars are overflowing their Roche lobes. It is composed by two yellow supergiants (V-I ~ 1 mag, T_eff = 4800 K), rather than the far more common red or blue supergiants. Such systems must be rare. While we failed to find any similar systems in the literature, we did, however note a second example. The SMC F0 supergiant R47 is a bright (MV ~ -7.5) periodic variable whose All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) light curve is well-fit as a contact binary with a 181 day period. We propose that these systems are the progenitors of supernovae like SN 2004et and SN 2006ov, which appeared to have yellow progenitors. The binary interactions (mass transfer, mass loss) limit the size of the supergiant to give it a higher surface temperature than an isolated star...

  11. Projects from Federal Region IX: Department of Energy Appropriate Energy Technology Program. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, C.W.; Clark, H.R.; Kay, J.; Lucarelli, F.B.; Rizer, S.

    1980-01-01

    Details and progress of appropriate energy technology programs in Region IX are presented. In Arizona, the projects are Solar Hot Water for the Prescott Adult Center and Solar Prototype House for a Residential Community. In California, the projects are Solar AquaDome Demonstration Project; Solar Powered Liquid Circulating Pump; Appropriate Energy Technology Resource Center; Digester for Wastewater Grown Aquatic Plants; Performance Characteristics of an Anaerobic Wastewater Lagoon Primary Treatment System; Appropriate Energy/Energy Conservation Demonstration Project; Solar Energy for Composting Toilets; Dry Creek Rancheria Solar Demonstration Projects; Demonstration for Energy Retrofit Analysis and Implementation; and Active Solar Space Heating System for the Integral Urban House. In Hawaii, the projects are: Java Plum Electric; Low-Cost Pond Digesters for Hawaiian Pig Farm Energy Needs; Solar Beeswax Melter; Methane Gas Plant for Operating Boilers and Generating Steam; and Solar Water Heating in Sugarcane Seed-Treatment Plants. A Wind-Powered Lighted Navigation Buoys Project for Guam is also described. A revised description of the Biogas Energy for Hawaiian Small Farms and Homesteads is given in an appendix.

  12. New energy levels, calculated lifetimes and transition probabilities in Xe IX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, M; Raineri, M; Reyna Almandos, J [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CIOp), CC 3 (1897) Gonnet, La Plata (Argentina); Biemont, E [IPNAS, Universite de Liege, B15 Sart Tilman, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-02-28

    Twenty-one new experimental energy levels belonging to the 4d{sup 9}6p, 4d{sup 9}4f and 4d{sup 9}5f configurations of Xe IX are presented. They have been deduced from 75 newly classified lines involving the configurations 4d{sup 9}5p, 4d{sup 9}6p, 4d{sup 9}4f, 4d{sup 9}5f and 4d{sup 9}5d, 4d{sup 9}5s, 4d{sup 9}6s for the odd and even parities, respectively. The radiative lifetimes of these levels as well as the weighted oscillator strengths and transition probabilities for all the observed spectral lines have been calculated with optimized parameters deduced from a least-squares fitting procedure applied in the framework of a relativistic Hartree-Fock method including core-polarization effects. The scale of transition probabilities has also been assessed through comparisons with lifetimes calculated using a relativistic multiconfigurational Dirac-Fock approach.

  13. Iron(III) protoporphyrin IX complexes of the antimalarial Cinchona alkaloids quinine and quinidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Katherine A; Gildenhuys, Johandie; le Roex, Tanya

    2012-04-20

    The antimalarial properties of the Cinchona alkaloids quinine and quinidine have been known for decades. Surprisingly, 9-epiquinine and 9-epiquinidine are almost inactive. A lack of definitive structural information has precluded a clear understanding of the relationship between molecular structure and biological activity. In the current study, we have determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction the structures of the complexes formed between quinine and quinidine and iron(III) protoporphyrin IX (Fe(III)PPIX). Coordination of the alkaloid to the Fe(III) center is a key feature of both complexes, and further stability is provided by an intramolecular hydrogen bond formed between a propionate side chain of Fe(III)PPIX and the protonated quinuclidine nitrogen atom of either alkaloid. These interactions are believed to be responsible for inhibiting the incorporation of Fe(III)PPIX into crystalline hemozoin during its in vivo detoxification. It is also possible to rationalize the greater activity of quinidine compared to that of quinine.

  14. Quasi Periodic Oscillations and Strongly Comptonized X-ray emission from Holmberg IX X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Dewangan, G C; Rao, A R

    2006-01-01

    We report the discovery of a 200mHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in the X-ray emission from a bright ultra-luminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg IX X-1 using a long XMM-Newton observation. The QPO has a centroid at 202.5_{-3.8}^{+4.9}mHz, a coherence Q ~9.3 and an amplitude (rms) of 6% in the 0.2-10keV band. This is only the second detection of a QPO from an ULX, after M82 X-1, and provides strong evidence against beaming. The power spectrum is well fitted by a power law with an index of ~0.7. The total integrated power (rms) is ~9.4% in the 0.001-1Hz range. The X-ray spectrum shows clear evidence for a soft X-ray excess component that is well described by a multicolor disk blackbody (kT_in ~ 0.3keV) and a high energy curvature that can be modeled either by a cut-off power law (Gamma ~ 1; E_cutoff ~9keV) or as a strongly Comptonized continuum in an optically thick (tau ~7.3) and cool (kT_e ~3keV) plasma. Both the presence of the QPO and the shape of the X-ray spectrum strongly suggest that the ULX is not i...

  15. Neutron contamination of Varian Clinac iX 10 MV photon beam using Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yani, S.; Tursinah, R.; Rhani, M. F.; Soh, R. C. X.; Haryanto, F.; Arif, I.

    2016-03-01

    High energy medical accelerators are commonly used in radiotherapy to increase the effectiveness of treatments. As we know neutrons can be emitted from a medical accelerator if there is an incident of X-ray that hits any of its materials. This issue becomes a point of view of many researchers. The neutron contamination has caused many problems such as image resolution and radiation protection for patients and radio oncologists. This study concerns the simulation of neutron contamination emitted from Varian Clinac iX 10 MV using Monte Carlo code system. As neutron production process is very complex, Monte Carlo simulation with MCNPX code system was carried out to study this contamination. The design of this medical accelerator was modelled based on the actual materials and geometry. The maximum energy of photons and neutron in the scoring plane was 10.5 and 2.239 MeV, respectively. The number and energy of the particles produced depend on the depth and distance from beam axis. From these results, it is pointed out that the neutron produced by linac 10 MV photon beam in a typical treatment is not negligible.

  16. Recombinant to modified factor VIII and factor IX - chromogenic and one-stage assays issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, S; Kershaw, G; Tiefenbacher, S

    2016-07-01

    The recent development of modified recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) and factor IX (FIX) therapeutic products with extended half-lives will create challenges for the haemostasis laboratory in obtaining recovery estimates of these products in clinical samples using existing assays. The new long-acting therapeutic concentrates contain molecular modifications of Fc fusion, site-specific of polyethylene glycol or albumin fusion. The optimum methods for monitoring each new product will need to be assessed individually and laboratories should select an assay which gives similar results to the assay used to assign potency to the product in question. For some extended half-life FVIII and FIX products some one stage assays are entirely unsuitable for monitoring purposes. For most products and assay reagents studied so far, and reviewed in this manuscript, chromogenic FVIII or FIX assays can be safely used with conventional plasma standards. If one stage assays are used then they should be performed using carefully selected reagents/methods which have been shown to recover activity close to the labelled potency for the specific product being monitored. PMID:27405680

  17. Sulfamate inhibitor S4 influences carbonic anhydrase IX ectodomain shedding in colorectal carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hektoen, Helga Helseth; Ree, Anne Hansen; Redalen, Kathrine Røe; Flatmark, Kjersti

    2016-10-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a pivotal pH regulator under hypoxia, which by its tumor-specific expression represents an attractive target for cancer therapy. Here, we report on effects of the sulfamate CAIX inhibitor S4 (4-(3'-(3″,5″-dimethylphenyl)ureido)phenyl sulfamate) in colorectal carcinoma cell lines. S4 was administered under experimental hypoxia or normoxia to HT29, KM20L2 and HCT116 cells. Effects on survival, proliferation, pH, lactate extrusion and CAIX protein expression were evaluated. S4 treatment resulted in attenuated hypoxia-induced extracellular acidification and reduced clonogenic survival under hypoxia in HT29 cells. The pH effects were present only in a [Formula: see text]-free buffer system and were accompanied by decreased lactate extrusion. The main finding of this work was that S4 treatment caused alterations in CAIX ectodomain shedding. This merits further investigation to understand how sulfamates influence CAIX activity and how such drugs may be of use in cancer treatment. PMID:26244271

  18. Activity of Gallium Meso- and Protoporphyrin IX against Biofilms of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is a challenging pathogen due to antimicrobial resistance and biofilm development. The role of iron in bacterial physiology has prompted the evaluation of iron-modulation as an antimicrobial strategy. The non-reducible iron analog gallium(III nitrate, Ga(NO33, has been shown to inhibit A. baumannii planktonic growth; however, utilization of heme-iron by clinical isolates has been associated with development of tolerance. These observations prompted the evaluation of iron-heme sources on planktonic and biofilm growth, as well as antimicrobial activities of gallium meso- and protoporphyrin IX (Ga-MPIX and Ga-PPIX, metal heme derivatives against planktonic and biofilm bacteria of multidrug-resistant (MDR clinical isolates of A. baumannii in vitro. Ga(NO33 was moderately effective at reducing planktonic bacteria (64 to 128 µM with little activity against biofilms (≥512 µM. In contrast, Ga-MPIX and Ga-PPIX were highly active against planktonic bacteria (0.25 to 8 µM. Cytotoxic effects in human fibroblasts were observed following exposure to concentrations exceeding 128 µM of Ga-MPIX and Ga-PPIX. We observed that the gallium metal heme conjugates were more active against planktonic and biofilm bacteria, possibly due to utilization of heme-iron as demonstrated by the enhanced effects on bacterial growth and biofilm formation.

  19. Anaglyph, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of North America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south and 736 meters east-west in central North America), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the North American continent is readily apparent.Active tectonics (structural deformation of the Earth's crust) along and near the Pacific North American plate boundary creates the great topographic relief seen along the Pacific coast. Earth's crustal plates converge in southern Mexico and in the northwest United States, melting the crust and producing volcanic cones. Along the California coast, the plates are sliding laterally past each other, producing a pattern of slices within the San Andreas fault system. And, where the plates are diverging, the crust appears torn apart as one huge tear along the Gulf of California (northwest Mexico), and as the several fractures comprising the Basin and Range province (in and around Nevada).Across the Great Plains, erosional patterns dominate, with stream channels surrounding and penetrating the remnants of older smooth slopes east of the Rocky Mountains. This same erosion process is exposing the bedrock structural patterns of the Black Hills in South Dakota and the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas. Lateral erosion and sediment deposition by the Mississippi River has produced the flatlands of the lower Mississippi Valley and the Mississippi Delta.To the north, evidence of the glaciers of the last ice age is widely found, particularly east of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and around the

  20. The XXL Survey. IX. Optical overdensity and radio continuum analysis of a supercluster at z = 0.43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, N.; Smolčić, V.; Milaković, D.; Novak, M.; Delhaize, J.; Gastaldello, F.; Ramos-Ceja, M. E.; Pacaud, F.; Bourke, S.; Carilli, C. L.; Ettori, S.; Hallinan, G.; Horellou, C.; Koulouridis, E.; Chiappetti, L.; Miettinen, O.; Melnyk, O.; Mooley, K.; Pierre, M.; Pompei, E.; Schinnerer, E.

    2016-06-01

    We present observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at 3 GHz (10 cm) toward a sub-field of the XXL-North 25 deg2 field targeting the first supercluster discovered in the XXL Survey. The structure has been found at a spectroscopic redshift of 0.43 and extending over 0.̊35 × 0.̊1 on the sky. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, we present the 3 GHz VLA radio continuum observations, the final radio mosaic and radio source catalogue, and, second, we perform a detailed analysis of the supercluster in the optical and radio regimes using photometric redshifts from the CFHTLS survey and our new VLA-XXL data. Our final 3 GHz radio mosaic has a resolution of 3.̋2 × 1.̋9, and encompasses an area of 41' × 41' with rms noise level lower than ~ 20 μJy beam-1. The noise in the central 15' × 15' region is ≈ 11 μJy beam-1. From the mosaic we extract a catalogue of 155 radio sources with signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) ≥ 6, eight of which are large, multicomponent sources, and 123 (79%) of which can be associated with optical sources in the CFHTLS W1 catalogue. Applying Voronoi tessellation analysis (VTA) in the area around the X-ray identified supercluster using photometric redshifts from the CFHTLS survey we identify a total of seventeen overdensities at zphot = 0.35 - 0.50, 7 of which are associated with clusters detected in the XMM-Newton XXL data. We find a mean photometric redshift of 0.43 for our overdensities, consistent with the spectroscopic redshifts of the brightest cluster galaxies of seven X-ray detected clusters. The full VTA-identified structure extends over ~ 0.̊6 × 0.̊2 on the sky, which corresponds to a physical size of ~ 12 × 4 Mpc2 at z = 0.43. No large radio galaxies are present within the overdensities, and we associate eight (S/N> 7) radio sources with potential group/cluster member galaxies. The spatial distribution of the red and blue VTA-identified potential group member galaxies, selected by their observed g - r

  1. Alice Amsden's impact on Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Shapiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available On March 15 2012, we lost Professor Alice Amsden, a great intellectual power in development economics. Her work was systematically marked by creativity, originality, relevance and her fearless commitment to always speak truth to power both in academic as well as in policy-making arenas. This In Memoriam concentrates on just one part of her great intellectual legacy: her impact to better understanding Latin America's development challenges, obstacles and policy options. Our paper focuses on three broad areas of her main influence in the region: the role of transnational corporations, the importance of manufactured exports for development, and industrial policy. As we here argue, in all of them, her work is and continues to be a substantial contribution to knowledge that policy makers will be well advised to take into account if the region is to finally enter a path of structural transformation and sustained economic and social development.

  2. Modifier activity of the protoporphyrin IX of the clastogenic damage induced by gamma radiation in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been demonstrated that the copper sodium chlorophyllin (CCS) it is a potent inhibitor of the one genetic damage induced by physical or chemical agents in systems like: bacteria, Drosophila, rainbow trout and mammals. Nevertheless it has been observed that under certain conditions it promotes it. In the laboratory of Drosophila of the ININ evidences have been obtained that the CCS increases the percentage of lethal embryonic dominant and post-embryonic induced by gamma radiation. One of the probable causes of this effect promoter, is the oxidizer stress that it could cause the metallic center of the CCS. The objective of this investigation it was the evaluation of the inhibitory action of the protoporphyrin IX (PP-IX) of the genetic damage induced by gamma radiation in the germinal line of Drosophila melanogaster. For such effect it was used the lethal dominant test by means of two protocols: one in the one that the PP-IX or CCS was administered to the females and the other one to the males. Females of genotype y/y and males of the canton-S stump were used. In both cases the males were treated with 40 Gy of gamma radiation. Its were count the embryonic lethal dominant (L-E) and those post-embryonic (L-PE) of the F1. The results indicated that after the one pretreatment with PP-IX to the crossed females with males treaties increase the percentage of L-E (P ≤ 0.001) and it diminished that of L-PE (P ≤ 0.001) compared with the sucrose control more radiation, however when it was pretreated with CCS also it was observed an increment in the percentage of L-E (P ≤ 0.001), but it doesn't present effect on that of L-PE. In contrast, when the males were pretreated, it was observed that the PP-IX tends to increase those L-E, but diminished the L-PE (P ≤ 0.05), however when it was pretreated with CCS was observed that increased the percentage of L-E (P ≤ 0.001) but diminished that of L-PE (P ≤ 0.001). It was concluded that none of the two pigments act as

  3. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible carbonic anhydrase-IX enhances hexokinase Ⅱ inhibitor-induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-jong YU; Hyo-suk LEE; Jung-hwan YOON; Jeong-hoon LEE; Sun-jung MYUNG; Eun-sun JANG; Min-sun KWAK; Eun-ju CHO; Ja-june JANG; Yoon-jun KIM

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The hypoxic condition within large or infiltrative hypovascular tumors produces intracellular acidification, which could activate many signaling pathways and augment cancer cell growth and invasion. Carbonic anhydrase-Ⅸ (CA-Ⅸ) is an enzyme lowering pH. This study is to examine whether hypoxia induces CA-Ⅸ in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, and to evaluate its clinical implication in HCC patients.Methods: Human HCC cell lines (Huh-7 and HepG2 cells) were used, and cell growth was assessed using MTS assay. CA-IX expression and apoptotic/kinase signaling were evaluated using immunoblotting. The cells were transfected with CA-Ⅸ-specific siRNA, or treated with its inhibitor 4-(2-aminoethyl) benzenesulfonamide (CAI#1), and/or the hexokinase Ⅱ inhibitor, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP). A clinic pathological analysis of 69 patients who underwent an HCC resection was performed using a tissue array.Results: Incubation of HCC cells under hypoxia (1% 02, 5% C02, 94% N2) for 36 h significantly increased CA-IX expression level. CAI#1(400 μmol/L) or CA-IX siRNA (100 μmol/L) did not influence HCC cell growth and induce apoptosis. However, CAI#1 or CA-IX siRNA at these concentrations enhanced the apoptosis induced by 3-BP (100 μmol/L). This enhancement was attributed to increased ER stress and JNK activation, as compared with 3-BP alone. Furthermore, a clinic pathological analysis of 69 HCC patients revealed that tumor CA-Ⅸ intensity was inversely related to E-cadherin intensity.Conclusion: Inhibition of hypoxia-induced CA-Ⅸ enhances hexokinase Ⅱ inhibitor-induced HCC apoptosis. Furthermore, CA-IX expres sion profiles may have prognostic implications in HCC patients. Thus, the inhibition of CA-Ⅸ, in combination with a hexokinase Ⅱ inhibitor, may be therapeutically useful in patients with HCCs that are aggressively growing in a hypoxic environment.

  4. Sustainability of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Sabogal, Raquel I.; Medlin, Elizabeth; Aquino, Gonzalo; Gelting, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The American Red Cross and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated on a sustainability evaluation of post-hurricane water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions in Central America. In 2006 and 2009, we revisited six study areas in rural El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua to assess sustainability of WASH interventions finalized in 2002, after 1998’s Hurricane Mitch. We used surveys to collect data, calculate indicators and identify factors that influence ...

  5. Health of America's newcomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L S

    2001-01-01

    Newcomer health and health care are policy issues with major outcomes of cost shifting and enormous consequences for newcomers and the community health nurses who promise them care. Newcomers are persons entering U.S. borders who could be asylees, refugees, immigrants, legal or illegal aliens, migrants, international adoptees, and others. Described in this article are the role federalism has played on the interplay among policymakers regarding newcomer health. Also addressed is newcomer health policy, including immigration policies, and newcomer health issues such as infectious diseases and questionable health care. Additional newcomer health issues such as newcomers at high risk for health problems, issues of access to care for newcomers, and welfare reform policies are discussed. Newcomer health and special interest group activities such as those from medicine and nursing are also addressed. Finally, meaningful options and possible solutions for newcomer health care concerns are identified and shared.

  6. Algunos Animales de Latino America = Some Animals of Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kathryn F. B.

    Developed by the Latin American Culture Studies Project for educators of elementary level children, these materials are designed to teach students the Spanish and English names of animals found in Latin America. The lesson includes coloring sheets, duplicating masters, fact sheets, the card game Maymayguashi, and directions for preparation. (DB)

  7. Remember Native America! The Earthworks of Ancient America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, Richard

    In the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries prehistoric earthworks were to be seen throughout North America. Fascinated colonialist and European settlers attributed these mysterious mounds to mythic Eurocentric sources rather recognizing them as evidence of prehistoric Amerinds. By the end of the nineteenth century interest in the…

  8. A pilot study on potential plasma hypoxia markers in the radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer. Osteopontin, carbonic anhydrase IX and vascular endothelial growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostheimer, C.; Bache, M.; Guettler, A.; Vordermark, D. [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Kotzsch, M. [Technical University Dresden, Department of Pathology, Dresden (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Hypoxic radioresistance plays a critical role in the radiotherapy of cancer and adversely impacts prognosis and treatment response. This prospective study investigated the interrelationship and the prognostic significance of several hypoxia-related proteins in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated by radiotherapy ± chemotherapy. Pretreatment osteopontin (OPN), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) plasma levels were determined by ELISA in 55 NSCLC (M0) patients receiving 66 Gy curative-intent radiotherapy or chemoradiation. Marker correlation, association with clinicopathological parameters and the prognostic value of a biomarker combination was evaluated. All biomarkers were linearly correlated and linked to different clinical parameters including lung function, weight loss (OPN), gross tumor volume (VEGF) and T stage (CA IX). High OPN (p = 0.03), VEGF (p = 0.02) and CA IX (p = 0.04) values were significantly associated with poor survival. Double marker combination additively increased the risk of death by a factor of 2 and high plasma levels of the triple combination OPN/VEGF/CA IX yielded a 5.9-fold risk of death (p = 0.009). The combined assessment of OPN/VEGF/CA IX correlated independently with prognosis (p = 0.03) in a multivariate Cox regression model including N stage, T stage and GTV. This pilot study suggests that a co-detection augments the prognostic value of single markers and that the integration of OPN, VEGF and CA IX into a hypoxic biomarker profile for the identification of patients with largely hypoxic and radioresistant tumors should be further evaluated. (orig.) [German] Hypoxische Radioresistenz spielt eine kritische Rolle in der Radiotherapie maligner Tumoren und beeinflusst Prognose und Therapieansprechen negativ. Diese prospektive Studie untersuchte den Zusammenhang und die prognostische Bedeutung einiger hypoxieassoziierter Proteine bei Patienten mit nicht-kleinzelligem Bronchialkarzinom

  9. Nitrogen Cycling In Latin America and : Drivers, Impacts And Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, J. P.; Bustamante, M.; Forti, M. C.; Peres, T.; Stein, A. F.; Jaramillo, V.; Perez, C.; Pinho, P. F.; Ascarrunz, N.; Austin, A.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Latin America is at a crossroads where a balance should be found between production of the major agricultural commodities, reasonable and planned urbanization and conservation of its natural ecosystems and associated goods and services. Most of the natural biological fixation of the globe occurs in forests of Latin America. On the other hand, Latin America has one of the highest rate of deforestation in the world, and one of the highest increases in the use of nitrogen fertilizers. A better understanding of the responses of the N cycle to human impacts will allow better conservation of biodiversity and natural resources, with an improvement in food security and more effective land use choices in biofuel development. Latin America is a unique region in multiple aspects, and particularly relevant for this proposal are the broad climatic gradient and economic patterns that include a diverse range of natural ecosystems and socio-economic development pathways. Additionally, the region is impaired by the lack of information on actual impacts of human activity on N cycling across this diverse range of ecosystems. Finally, the large expanse of tropical ecosystems and reservoirs of biodiversity juxtaposed with an intense economic incentive for development make our understanding of human impacts in this context particularly important for global change research in the region. An evaluation of current and predicted changes in climate and land use on nitrogen stocks and fluxes in the region what is being develop by the Nnet network (Nitrogen Cycling In Latin America: Drivers, Impacts And Vulnerabilities ). This presentation will bring the latest results of this integrative initiative in Latin America, focusing on the nitrogen budget associated to provision of ecosystem services and climate change.

  10. Carbonic Anhydrase IX is Not a Predictor of Outcomes in Non-Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma - A Digital Analysis of Tissue Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Zerati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The knowledge about the molecular biology of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC is evolving, and Carbonic Anhydrase type IX (CA-IX has emerged as a potential prognostic marker in this challenging disease. However, most of the literature about CA-IX on ccRCC comes from series on metastatic cancer, with a lack of series on non-metastatic cancer. The objective is to evaluate the expression of CA-IX in a cohort of non-metastatic ccRCC, correlating with 1 overall survival, and 2 with established prognostic parameters (T stage, tumor size, Fuhrman nuclear grade, microvascular invasion and peri-renal fat invasion. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective cohort study. We evaluated 95 patients with non-metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma, as to the expression of CA-IX. The analyzed parameters where: overall survival (OS, TNM stage, tumor size (TS, Fuhrman nuclear grade (FNG, microvascular invasion (MVI, peri-renal fat invasion (PFI. We utilized a custom built tissue microarray, and the immunoexpression was digitally quantified using the Photoshop® software. Results: Th e mean follow-up time was 7.9 years (range 1.9 to 19.5 years. The analysis of CA-IX expression against the selected prognostic parameters showed no correlation. The results are as follows: Overall survival (p = 0.790; T stage (p = 0.179; tumor size (p = 0.143; grouped Fuhrman nuclear grade (p = 0.598; microvascular invasion (p = 0.685, and peri-renal fat invasion (p = 0.104. Conclusion Carbonic anhydrase type IX expression does not correlate with overall survival and conventional prognostic parameters in non-metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

  11. Convergence Patterns in Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quiroga, Paola Andrea Barrientos

    Literature on convergence among Latin American countries is still scarce compared to other regions. Moreover, almost none of the research connects convergence to the economic history of Latin America and the usual finding is one speed of convergence. In this paper I analyze 32 countries and 108...

  12. Student Discipline in Colonial America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, John R.

    The basis for the severe discipline imposed on school children in colonial America, especially in the Puritan colonies, was the belief in original sin. The child was regarded as being born in sin and thus depraved and prone to sin. The purpose of education was to enable children to read the Bible and thus change the behavior which otherwise would…

  13. Indigenous autonomy in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Xanthaki, A.

    2015-01-01

    The American continent has a long tradition of autonomous regimes, both territorial and non-territorial. Autonomous regimes of American indigenous communities in particular have not been the subject of intense discussion and comparison, partly because the task of discussing such autonomous regimes in the whole of the Americas represents a huge challenge.

  14. Brain Injury Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Only) 1-800-444-6443 Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) Brain injury is not an event or an outcome. ... misunderstood, under-funded neurological disease. People who sustain brain injuries must have timely access to expert trauma ...

  15. Spina Bifida Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The Statement of the Spina Bifida Association of America (SBAA) explains SB as a malformation of the central nervous system, reports the formation of SBAA in 1974, explains SBAA's emphasis on local chapter organization, and describes SBAA services, including a bimonthly publication, public education efforts, and research validation projects. (GW)

  16. America's Consumerocracy: No Safe Haven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, Nancy Lee; Swain, Letitia Price; Huysman, Mary; Tarrant, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Recently the authors completed a course designed to expand and deepen their knowledge about America's consumerocracy and the methods that give it the immense power it has. As a result of their reading and shared thinking in this course, Teaching Adolescents in a Consumer Society, they feel strongly motivated and better prepared to craft…

  17. Language Politics in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Kanavillil

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to take stock of the politics of language as it has been playing out in Latin America, ever since the countries in this region were colonized by European powers, mainly Spain and Portugal. Linguistic imperialism is by no means a new phenomenon in this part of the world. In more recent times, the relentless advance of…

  18. Language Documentation in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetto, Bruna; Rice, Keren

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, the documentation of endangered languages has advanced greatly in the Americas. In this paper we survey the role that international funding programs have played in advancing documentation in this part of the world, with a particular focus on the growth of documentation in Brazil, and we examine some of the major opportunities…

  19. In silico designing of hyper-glycosylated analogs for the human coagulation factor IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Fahimeh; Zomorodipour, Alireza; Karkhane, Ali Asghar; Khorramizadeh, M Reza

    2016-07-01

    N-glycosylation is a process during which a glycan moiety attaches to the asparagine residue in the N-glycosylation consensus sequence (Asn-Xxx-Ser/Thr), where Xxx can be any amino acid except proline. Introduction of a new N-glycosylation site into a protein backbone leads to its hyper-glycosylation, and may improve the protein properties such as solubility, folding, stability, and secretion. Glyco-engineering is an approach to facilitate the hyper-glycosylation of recombinant proteins by application of the site-directed mutagenesis methods. In this regard, selection of a suitable location on the surface of a protein for introduction of a new N-glycosylation site is a main concern. In this work, a computational approach was conducted to select suitable location(s) for introducing new N-glycosylation sites into the human coagulation factor IX (hFIX). With this aim, the first 45 residues of mature hFIX were explored to find out suitable positions for introducing either Asn or Ser/Thr residues, to create new N-glycosylation site(s). Our exploration lead to detection of five potential positions, for hyper-glycosylation. For each suggested position, an analog was defined and subjected for N-glycosylation efficiency prediction. After generation of three-dimensional structures, by homology-based modeling, the five designed analogs were examined by molecular dynamic (MD) simulations, to predict their stability levels and probable structural distortions caused by amino acid substitutions, relative to the native counterpart. Three out of five suggested analogs, namely; E15T, K22N, and R37N, reached equilibration state with relatively constant Root Mean Square Deviation values. Additional analysis on the data obtained during MD simulations, lead us to conclude that, R37N is the only qualified analog with the most similar structure and dynamic behavior to that of the native counterpart, to be considered for further experimental investigations. PMID:27356208

  20. Identification of an iridium-containing compound with a formal oxidation state of IX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanjun; Zhou, Mingfei; Goettel, James T.; Schrobilgen, Gary J.; Su, Jing; Li, Jun; Schlöder, Tobias; Riedel, Sebastian

    2014-10-01

    One of the most important classifications in chemistry and within the periodic table is the concept of formal oxidation states. The preparation and characterization of compounds containing elements with unusual oxidation states is of great interest to chemists. The highest experimentally known formal oxidation state of any chemical element is at present VIII, although higher oxidation states have been postulated. Compounds with oxidation state VIII include several xenon compounds (for example XeO4 and XeO3F2) and the well-characterized species RuO4 and OsO4 (refs 2, 3, 4). Iridium, which has nine valence electrons, is predicted to have the greatest chance of being oxidized beyond the VIII oxidation state. In recent matrix-isolation experiments, the IrO4 molecule was characterized as an isolated molecule in rare-gas matrices. The valence electron configuration of iridium in IrO4 is 5d1, with a formal oxidation state of VIII. Removal of the remaining d electron from IrO4 would lead to the iridium tetroxide cation ([IrO4]+), which was recently predicted to be stable and in which iridium is in a formal oxidation state of IX. There has been some speculation about the formation of [IrO4]+ species, but these experimental observations have not been structurally confirmed. Here we report the formation of [IrO4]+ and its identification by infrared photodissociation spectroscopy. Quantum-chemical calculations were carried out at the highest level of theory that is available today, and predict that the iridium tetroxide cation, with a Td-symmetrical structure and a d0 electron configuration, is the most stable of all possible [IrO4]+ isomers.

  1. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part IX: Risk-Reduction Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Marvin L; Daily, Elaine K; O'Rourke, Ann P; Loretti, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    A disaster is a failure of resilience to an event. Mitigating the risks that a hazard will progress into a destructive event, or increasing the resilience of a society-at-risk, requires careful analysis, planning, and execution. The Disaster Logic Model (DLM) is used to define the value (effects, costs, and outcome(s)), impacts, and benefits of interventions directed at risk reduction. A Risk-Reduction Framework, based on the DLM, details the processes involved in hazard mitigation and/or capacity-building interventions to augment the resilience of a community or to decrease the risk that a secondary event will develop. This Framework provides the structure to systematically undertake and evaluate risk-reduction interventions. It applies to all interventions aimed at hazard mitigation and/or increasing the absorbing, buffering, or response capacities of a community-at-risk for a primary or secondary event that could result in a disaster. The Framework utilizes the structure provided by the DLM and consists of 14 steps: (1) hazards and risks identification; (2) historical perspectives and predictions; (3) selection of hazard(s) to address; (4) selection of appropriate indicators; (5) identification of current resilience standards and benchmarks; (6) assessment of the current resilience status; (7) identification of resilience needs; (8) strategic planning; (9) selection of an appropriate intervention; (10) operational planning; (11) implementation; (12) assessments of outputs; (13) synthesis; and (14) feedback. Each of these steps is a transformation process that is described in detail. Emphasis is placed on the role of Coordination and Control during planning, implementation of risk-reduction/capacity building interventions, and evaluation. Birnbaum ML , Daily EK , O'Rourke AP , Loretti A . Research and evaluations of the health aspects of disasters, part IX: Risk-Reduction Framework. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(3):309-325. PMID:27033777

  2. Ultrasound-targeted hepatic delivery of factor IX in hemophiliac mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C D; Moisyadi, S; Avelar, A; Walton, C B; Shohet, R V

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) was used to direct the delivery of plasmid and transposase-based vectors encoding human factor IX (hFIX) to the livers of hemophilia B (FIX-/-) mice. The DNA vectors were incorporated into cationic lipid microbubbles, injected intravenously, and transfected into hepatocytes by acoustic cavitation of the bubbles as they transited the liver. Ultrasound parameters were identified that produced transfection of hepatocytes in vivo without substantial damage or bleeding in the livers of the FIX-deficient mice. These mice were treated with a conventional expression plasmid, or one containing a piggyBac transposon construct, and hFIX levels in the plasma and liver were evaluated at multiple time points after UTMD. We detected hFIX in the plasma by western blotting from mice treated with either plasmid during the 12 days after UTMD, and in the hepatocytes of treated livers by immunofluorescence. Reductions in clotting time and improvements in the percentage of FIX activity were observed for both plasmids, conventional (4.15±1.98%), and transposon based (2.70±.75%), 4 to 5 days after UTMD compared with untreated FIX (-/-) control mice (0.92±0.78%) (P=0.001 and P=0.012, respectively). Reduced clotting times persisted for both plasmids 12 days after treatment (reflecting percentage FIX activity of 3.12±1.56%, P=0.02 and 3.08±0.10%, P=0.001, respectively). Clotting times from an additional set of mice treated with pmGENIE3-hFIX were evaluated for long-term effects and demonstrated a persistent reduction in average clotting time 160 days after a single treatment. These data suggest that UTMD could be a minimally invasive, nonviral approach to enhance hepatic FIX expression in patients with hemophilia.

  3. The first EGF domain of coagulation factor IX attenuates cell adhesion and induces apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tomomi; Kitano, Hisataka; Mamiya, Atsushi; Kokubun, Shinichiro; Hidai, Chiaki

    2016-07-01

    Coagulation factor IX (FIX) is an essential plasma protein for blood coagulation. The first epidermal growth factor (EGF) motif of FIX (EGF-F9) has been reported to attenuate cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of this motif on cell adhesion and apoptosis. Treatment with a recombinant EGF-F9 attenuated cell adhesion to the ECM within 10 min. De-adhesion assays with native FIX recombinant FIX deletion mutant proteins suggested that the de-adhesion activity of EGF-F9 requires the same process of FIX activation as that which occurs for coagulation activity. The recombinant EGF-F9 increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity release into the medium and increased the number of cells stained with annexin V and activated caspase-3, by 8.8- and 2.7-fold respectively, indicating that EGF-F9 induced apoptosis. Activated caspase-3 increased very rapidly after only 5 min of administration of recombinant EGF-F9. Treatment with EGF-F9 increased the level of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), but not that of phosphorylated MAPK 44/42 or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Inhibitors of caspase-3 suppressed the release of LDH. Caspase-3 inhibitors also suppressed the attenuation of cell adhesion and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK by EGF-F9. Our data indicated that EGF-F9 activated signals for apoptosis and induced de-adhesion in a caspase-3 dependent manner. PMID:27129300

  4. Demographic tensions in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    This discussion of Central America focuses on the rapid growth of its population, its stagnating economy, and those countries that are socioeconomically advanced. Between 1950-85 the population of Central America tripled, from 9.1 million to 26. 4 million, due to marked mortality declines and the absence of off-setting fertility declines. The distribution of Central Americas's growing populations sets its population growth apart from that of other developing regions. Currently, almost half of all Central Americans live in cities. Although the average growth rate for Central American countries has fallen and is expected to drop further, the decline does not counterbalance the effect of the absolute rise in population numbers. The average annual growth rate of more than 3% annually in the 1960s fell to about 2.6% in recent years, but this decline is due primarily to socioeconomically advanced Costa Rica and Panama. Central America's age structure further complicates the population crisis. About 43% of Central Americans are under the age of 15. When the increasingly larger young population group enters it reproductive years, the potential for future growth (albeit the falling rate of population increase) is unparalleled. UN population projections show the region's population at 40 million by the year 2000. The 1973 oil crisis began a downward spiral for the buoyant post World War II Central American economy. Between 1950-79, real per capita income growth in Central America doubled, with Central American economies growing an average of 5.3% annually. By the early 1980s, overseas markets of the trade-dependent countries of Central America had dried up due to protectionism abroad and slumping basic commodity prices. These and other factors plunged Central America into its current economic malaise of falling real per capita income, rising unemployment, curtailed export led economic growth, and a rising cost of living. In general, economic growth in Central America

  5. Settlement, territory and notarial formulas: a verification (Verona, IX-XII century Insediamento, territorio e formule notarili: una verifica (Verona, IX-XII secolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brugnoli

    2011-10-01

    well as synchronous – allows instead to highlight their links with the different practices in the territory: not only through the presence of landlordship, but also the structure of habitat, the forms of solidarity and the access to common resources.

     

    L’organizzazione del territorio rurale nel medioevo e la sua conoscibilità attraverso le tecniche ubicatorie utilizzate dai notai costitiscono un tema classico nella storiografia italiana della seconda metà del Novecento. La documentazione prodotta nel territorio veronese ben si presta per una verifica delle ipotesi e la formulazione di alcune linee guida per l’interpretazione delle formule notarili per quanto attiene all’insediamento e alla territorialità di villaggio. Il numero di documenti prodotti e conservati nel Veronese per i secoli IX-XII, e la loro omogeneità quanto a istituzioni che ce li hanno conservati e tramandati, permette di affrontare una complessa analisi che deve considerare diverse variabili. Sul piano documentario si tratta di possibili varietà, al limite dell’individualità, di formulari e di usi notarili; a queste si uniscono differenze geografiche, di assetti proprietari, dello sviluppo di presenze signorili e di pratiche agrarie, oltre che di popolamento che caratterizzano questo territorio. In particolare la varietà del quadro geografico, equamente suddiviso tra una fascia collinare di non disprezzabile estensione, una fascia di pianura asciutta e irrigua e una di bassa pianura soggetta a esondazioni si prospettava come un elemento positivo per identificare i diversi fattori attivi nella costruzione dell’insediamento rurale, la sua organizzazione e rappresentazione. Il presupposto di partenza è che le formule ubicatorie siano articolate in schemi frutto di una dialettica tra cultura notarile da un lato e percezione dell’organizzazione dello spazio dall’altro; quest’ultima a sua volta risultato del rapporto che si instaura tra le comunità umane e il

  6. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, Kevin R

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  7. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTar, Carleton [P.I.

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  8. Epithelial mesenchymal transition and pancreatic tumor initiating CD44+/EpCAM+ cells are inhibited by γ-secretase inhibitor IX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vindhya Palagani

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is an aggressive disease with a high rate of metastasis. Recent studies have indicated that the Notch signalling pathway is important in PDAC initiation and maintenance, although the specific cell biological roles of the pathway remain to be established. Here we sought to examine this question in established pancreatic cancer cell lines using the γ-secretase inhibitor IX (GSI IX to inactivate Notch. Based on the known roles of Notch in development and stem cell biology, we focused on effects on epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT and on pancreatic tumor initiating CD44+/EpCAM+ cells. We analyzed the effect of the GSI IX on growth and epithelial plasticity of human pancreatic cancer cell lines, and on the tumorigenicity of pancreatic tumor initiating CD44+/EpCAM+ cells. Notably, apoptosis was induced after GSI IX treatment and EMT markers were selectively targeted. Furthermore, under GSI IX treatment, decline in the growth of pancreatic tumor initiating CD44+/EpCAM+ cells was observed in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model. This study demonstrates a central role of Notch signalling pathway in pancreatic cancer pathogenesis and identifies an effective approach to inhibit selectively EMT and suppress tumorigenesis by eliminating pancreatic tumor initiating CD44+/EpCAM+ cells.

  9. Optical properties of Ge-rich G e1 -xS ix alloys: Compositional dependence of the lowest direct and indirect gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chi; Gallagher, J. D.; Senaratne, C. L.; Menéndez, J.; Kouvetakis, J.

    2016-03-01

    Ge-rich G e1 -xS ix alloys have been investigated using spectroscopic ellipsometry and photoluminescence at room temperature. Special emphasis was placed on the compositional dependence of the lowest-energy interband transitions. For x ≤0.05 , a compositional range of particular interest for modern applications, we find E0=0.799 (1 ) +3.214 (45 ) x +0.080 (44 ) x2 (in eV) for the lowest direct gap. The compositional dependence of the indirect gap is obtained from photoluminescence as Eind=0.659 (4 ) +1.18 (17 ) x (in eV). We find no significant discrepancies between these results and the extrapolations from measurements at higher Si concentrations. Such discrepancies had been suggested by recent work on G e1 -xS ix films on Si. Accurate knowledge of the interband transition energies is an important requirement for the design of devices incorporating Ge-rich G e1 -xS ix alloys and for the understanding of more complex systems, such as ternary G e1 -x -yS ixS ny alloys, in terms of its binary constituents.

  10. Monte Carlo modeling of in vivo protoporphyrin IX fluorescence and singlet oxygen production during photodynamic therapy for patients presenting with superficial basal cell carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Ronan M.; Brown, C. Tom A.; Moseley, Harry; Ibbotson, Sally; Wood, Kenny

    2011-04-01

    We present protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence measurements acquired from patients presenting with superficial basal cell carcinoma during photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatment, facilitating in vivo photobleaching to be monitored. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, taking into account photobleaching, are performed on a three-dimensional cube grid, which represents the treatment geometry. Consequently, it is possible to determine the spatial and temporal changes to the origin of collected fluorescence and generated singlet oxygen. From our clinical results, an in vivo photobleaching dose constant, β of 5-aminolaevulinic acid-induced PpIX fluorescence is found to be 14 +/- 1 J/cm2. Results from our MC simulations suggest that an increase from our typical administered treatment light dose of 75-150 J/cm2 could increase the effective PDT treatment initially achieved at a depth of 2.7-3.3 mm in the tumor, respectively. Moreover, this increase reduces the surface PpIX fluorescence from 0.00012 to 0.000003 of the maximum value recorded before treatment. The recommendation of administrating a larger light dose, which advocates an increase in the treatment time after surface PpIX fluorescence has diminished, remains valid for different sets of optical properties and therefore should have a beneficial outcome on the total treatment effect.

  11. Literate America on Illiterate America: An Essay Review of "Illiterate America."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    1986-01-01

    Reviews Jonathan Kozol's book, "Illiterate America." Asserts that Kozol's argument is insensitive to cultural variation and stems from an unquestioning commitment to humanism. Argues that conventional definitions of "literacy" have tended to be more closely related to particular social structures and values than to cognitive development and…

  12. External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae. The biology of the Andean silverspot butterfly Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1861 is still poorly known. This species is restricted to high elevations in the Andes, where the immature stages are found in close association with species of Passiflora belonging to the section Tacsonia (Juss. Harms, especially P. tripartida var. mollissima (Kunth, which is grown for subsistence by villagers. Herein we describe and illustrate the external features of the egg, larva and pupa of D. glycera, based on light and scanning electron microscopy.

  13. Seleucid, Demotic and Mediterranean mathematics versus Chapters VIII and IX of the Nine Chapters: accidental or significant similarities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Similarities of geometrical diagrams and arithmetical structures of problems have often been taken as evidence of transmission of mathematical knowledge or techniques between China and “the West”. Confronting on one hand some problems from Chapter VIII of the Nine Chapters with comparable problems...... known from Ancient Greek sources, on the other a Seleucid collection of problems about rectangles with a subset of the triangle problems from Chapter IX, it is concluded, (1) that transmission of some arithmetical riddles without method – not “from Greece” but from a transnational community of traders...

  14. SCCmec Type IX Element in Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcusaureusspa Type t337 (CC9) Isolated from Pigs and Pork in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Cavaco, Lina M; Sirichote, Pantip;

    2012-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcusaureus (MRSA) have emerged among livestock in several countries. In this study, we describe the results of a screening performed in pigs and raw pork samples in Thailand. Ten pork samples and 15 nasal swabs from pigs were collected from 2 markets and 1 pig farm...... and food products in Thailand have been observed but this is the first observation of MRSA CC9 associated with SCCmec IX in pork. This study indicates a likely widespread distribution of MRSA in pig and pork in Thailand and further investigation on the prevalence and importance of livestock associated...

  15. Recombinant factor IX (BAX326) in previously treated paediatric patients with haemophilia B: a prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urasinski, T; Stasyshyn, O; Andreeva, T; Rusen, L; Perina, F G; Oh, M S; Chapman, M; Pavlova, B G; Valenta-Singer, B; Abbuehl, B E

    2015-03-01

    A newly developed recombinant factor IX (BAX326(1) ) was investigated for prophylactic use in paediatric patients aged 96% of bleeds (100% of minor, 88.9% of moderate and 100% of major bleeds); the majority (88.5%) resolved after 1-2 infusions. Longer T1/2 and lower IR were observed in younger children (<6 years) compared to those aged 6 to 12 years. BAX326 administered as prophylactic treatment as well as for controlling bleeds is efficacious and safe in paediatric patients aged <12 years with haemophilia B. PMID:25495591

  16. Expression and Activity of Carbonic Anhydrase IX Is Associated With Metabolic Dysfunction in MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ying LI; Wang, Hai; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Tu, Chingkuang; Shiverick, Kathleen T.; Silverman, David N.; Frost, Susan C.

    2009-01-01

    The expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), a marker for hypoxic tumors, is correlated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. We show herein that the MDA-MB-231 cells, a “triple-negative,” basal B line, express exclusively CAIX, while a luminal cell line (T47D) expresses carbonic anhydrase XII (CAXII). CAIX expression in the basal B cells is both density-and hypoxia-dependent and is correlated with carbonic anhydrase activity. Evidence is provided that CAIX contributes to extracel...

  17. El especulum morale de Alfonso IX a la luz del pórtico de la gloria

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Rodríguez, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    La tutoría del regnum es confi ada a Adefonsus IX, Dei gratia Rex Legiones et Gallecie, a través de la Iglesia y su título queda asociado a la rectitud de sus actos (rex eris si recta facias) y deberes. Esta anotación otorga valor fuente bastante fi able a cuanto se dispone en la arquivolta derecha del Pórtico de la Gloria, en su mitad izquierda, donde no parece eventual la presencia en imágenes coronadas de quienes gobernaron el pueblo de Dios y fueron promotores del Pórtic...

  18. Prelabeled glycoprotein Ib/IX receptors are not cleared from exposed surfaces of thrombin-activated platelets.

    OpenAIRE

    White, J. G.; Krumwiede, M. D.; Cocking-Johnson, D.; Escolar, G.

    1996-01-01

    The present investigation has re-examined the hypothesis proposing that glycoprotein (GP)Ib/IX receptors for von Willebrand factor are rapidly cleared from exposed surfaces to internal membrane systems after activation of platelets by thrombin in suspension. Platelets were prelabeled with either a polyclonal antibody to GPIb alpha, antiglycocalicin (A-Gl), or a cocktail of two monoclonal antibodies, AP1 and 6D1, exposed to 0.1 or 0.2 U/ml thrombin for 5 or 10 minutes, fixed and stained with S...

  19. Early Earthquakes of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, James

    2004-11-01

    Robert Kovach's second book looks at the interplay of earthquake and volcanic events, archeology, and history in the Americas. Throughout history, major earthquakes have caused the deaths of millions of people and have damaged countless cities. Earthquakes undoubtedly damaged prehistoric cities in the Americas, and evidence of these events could be preserved in archeological records. Kovach asks, Did indigenous native cultures-Indians of the Pacific Northwest, Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas-document their natural history? Some events have been explicitly documented, for example, in Mayan codices, but many may have been recorded as myth and legend. Kovach's discussions of how early cultures dealt with fearful events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are colorful, informative, and entertaining, and include, for example, a depiction of how the Maya would talk to maize plants in their fields during earthquakes to reassure them.

  20. Pinta: Latin America's Forgotten Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Lola V

    2015-11-01

    Pinta is a neglected, chronic skin disease that was first described in the sixteenth century in Mexico. The World Health Organization lists 15 countries in Latin America where pinta was previously endemic. However, the current prevalence of pinta is unknown due to the lack of surveillance data. The etiological agent of pinta, Treponema carateum, cannot be distinguished morphologically or serologically from the not-yet-cultivable Treponema pallidum subspecies that cause venereal syphilis, yaws, and bejel. Although genomic sequencing has enabled the development of molecular techniques to differentiate the T. pallidum subspecies, comparable information is not available for T. carateum. Because of the influx of migrants and refugees from Latin America, U.S. physicians should consider pinta in the differential diagnosis of skin diseases in children and adolescents who come from areas where pinta was previously endemic and have a positive reaction in serological tests for syphilis. All stages of pinta are treatable with a single intramuscular injection of penicillin. PMID:26304920

  1. Nuclear governance in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Dawood

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an outlook of the regional relations concerning nuclear technology in Latin America. For that purpose, we initially discuss the historic relationship of the Latin American countries with the set of rules, norms, principles and organizations involved in nuclear governance. The article provides an analysis of the connection between the multilateral institutional framework and the bilateral arrangements aimed at curbing the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the region. The current state of nuclear cooperation among the countries of the region is also mapped. In addition, the article assesses the peaceful use of nuclear technology in the region and the potential expansion of the use of nuclear energy by the Latin American countries. Considerations on the trends for nuclear cooperation among the countries of Latin America are also offered.

  2. Synthesis of 4-(thiazol-2-ylamino)-benzenesulfonamides with carbonic anhydrase I, II and IX inhibitory activity and cytotoxic effects against breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Gawad, Nagwa M; Amin, Noha H; Elsaadi, Mohammed T; Mohamed, Fatma M M; Angeli, Andrea; De Luca, Viviana; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-07-01

    A series of 4-(thiazol-2-ylamino)-benzenesulfonamides was synthesized and screened for their carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitory and cytotoxic activity on human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Human (h) CA isoforms I, II and IX were included in the study. The new sulfonamides showed excellent inhibition of all three isoforms, with KIs in the range of 0.84-702nM against hCA I, of 0.41-288nM against hCA II and of 5.6-29.2 against the tumor-associated hCA IX, a validated anti-tumor target, with a sulfonamide (SLC-0111) in Phase I clinical trials for the treatment of hypoxic, metastatic solid tumors overexpressing CA IX. The new compounds showed micromolar inhibition of growth efficacy against breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines. PMID:27234893

  3. Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion Substrates Are Cleaved and Modified by a Sortase-Like Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Chen, Dina; Seers, Christine A; Mitchell, Helen A; Chen, Yu-Yen; Glew, Michelle D; Dashper, Stuart G; Reynolds, Eric C

    2015-09-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) of Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes proteins possessing a conserved C-terminal domain (CTD) to the cell surface. The C-terminal signal is essential for these proteins to translocate across the outer membrane via the T9SS. On the surface the CTD of these proteins is cleaved prior to extensive glycosylation. It is believed that the modification on these CTD proteins is anionic lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS), which enables the attachment of CTD proteins to the cell surface. However, the exact site of modification and the mechanism of attachment of CTD proteins to the cell surface are unknown. In this study we characterized two wbaP (PG1964) mutants that did not synthesise A-LPS and accumulated CTD proteins in the clarified culture fluid (CCF). The CTDs of the CTD proteins in the CCF were cleaved suggesting normal secretion, however, the CTD proteins were not glycosylated. Mass spectrometric analysis of CTD proteins purified from the CCF of the wbaP mutants revealed the presence of various peptide/amino acid modifications from the growth medium at the C-terminus of the mature CTD proteins. This suggested that modification occurs at the C-terminus of T9SS substrates in the wild type P. gingivalis. This was confirmed by analysis of CTD proteins from wild type, where a 648 Da linker was identified to be attached at the C-terminus of mature CTD proteins. Importantly, treatment with proteinase K released the 648 Da linker from the CTD proteins demonstrating a peptide bond between the C-terminus and the modification. Together, this is suggestive of a mechanism similar to sortase A for the cleavage and modification/attachment of CTD proteins in P. gingivalis. PG0026 has been recognized as the CTD signal peptidase and is now proposed to be the sortase-like protein in P. gingivalis. To our knowledge, this is the first biochemical evidence suggesting a sortase-like mechanism in Gram-negative bacteria.

  4. PREFACE: IX International Conference on Modern Techniques of Plasma Diagnostics and their Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savjolov, A. S.; Dodulad, E. I.

    2016-01-01

    The IX Conference on ''Modern Techniques of Plasma Diagnosis and their Application'' was held on 5 - 7 November, 2014 at National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (NRNU MEPhI). The goal of the conference was an exchange of information on both high-temperature and low-temperature plasma diagnostics as well as deliberation and analysis of various diagnostic techniques and their applicability in science, industry, ecology, medicine and other fields. The Conference also provided young scientists from scientific centres and universities engaged in plasma diagnostics with an opportunity to attend the lectures given by the leading specialists in this field as well as present their own results and findings. The first workshop titled ''Modern problems of plasma diagnostics and their application for control of chemicals and the environment'' took place at Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute (MEPhI) in June 1998 with the support of the Section on Diagnostics of the Council of Russian Academic of Science on Plasma Physics and since then these forums have been held at MEPhI every two years. In 2008 the workshop was assigned a conference status. More than 150 specialists on plasma diagnostics and students took part in the last conference. They represented leading Russian scientific centres (such as Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Thermonuclear Research, National Research Centre ''Kurchatov Institute'', Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics and others) and universities from Belarus, Ukraine, Germany, USA, Belgium and Sweden. About 30 reports were made by young researchers, students and post-graduate students. All presentations during the conference were broadcasted online over the internet with viewers in Moscow, Prague, St. Petersburgh and other cities. The Conference was held within the framework of the Centre of Plasma, Laser Research and Technology supported by MEPhI Academic Excellence Project (Russian

  5. Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  6. MICROSCALE CHEMISTRY IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge G. Ibáñez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A brief account of the development of Microscale Chemistry in Latin America is here presented. The US National Microscale Chemistry Center (Merrimack College, Massachusetts was instrumental in the initiationof several centers. Its Mexican counterpart, the Mexican Microscale Chemistry Center (CMQM, has been a key player in this process. Other participating countries include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Cuba,Guatemala, Perú and Uruguay.

  7. Developing nanotechnology in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Luciano; Shapira, Philip

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the development of nanotechnology in Latin America with a particular focus on Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. Based on data for nanotechnology research publications and patents and suggesting a framework for analyzing the development of R&D networks, we identify three potential strategies of nanotechnology research collaboration. Then, we seek to identify the balance of emphasis upon each of the three strategies by mapping the current research profile of those...

  8. Latin America: emerging nuclear market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for nuclear power in Latin American countries is surveyed. It is concluded that Latin America offers the greatest external market for all exporters of nuclear reactors and associated services in the near future. Mexico, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Bolivia are the only countries with fossil-fuel reserves adequate to meet their requirements in the next 20 to 30 years. Nuclear power is a necessity to maintain or improve the standard of living in the countries of Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Peru

  9. Music Therapy in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Lia Rejane Mendes Barcellos

    2001-01-01

    Music is one of the most important and strongest types of cultural expression in South America. With diverse roots in the myriad of cultures of the many countries which shape our continent, music contributes to the South American identity. Distinct sounds, rhythms, styles and instruments compose a musical tissue, in which it is possible to recognize the special colors of a specific country or the printed image of the sonorous "language" from a special region.

  10. Public Health in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Duncan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In this special issue the four articles focus on population health in terms of primary care and preventive medicine. This critical area of health often receives less attention than health care issues (more so in the popular press but also in academic analyses.Upon reviewing these very interesting and illuminating articles it was striking that despite significant cultural, economic, geographic and historical differences there are many commonalities which exist throughout the Americas.

  11. Breaking away to South America

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    In December 2010, Peter Dreesen of CERN’s Technology Department (TE) returned from a long trip to South America. In four months he traversed the entire Andean range, from the equator to a latitude of 55 degrees south—on a bicycle!   Peter Dreesen on the Salar de Uyuni Lake, Bolivia. 11 000 kilometres is one long bike ride! And yet, that’s what Peter Dreesen did, travelling from Quito, Ecuador to Ushuaia, Argentina. Peter, an engineer in the TE Department, is no novice: the year before, he cycled from Paris to Peking, a distance of 13 500 kilometres, in just over four months. His latest voyage began last August, when he loaded his bicycle and boarded a plane for South America. In the saddle. After a week of acclimatisation at three thousand metres altitude, Peter left Quito on 6 August 2010. He arrived in Ushuaia (el fin del mundo, the end of the world, as it’s known in South America) on 12 December 2010. He recounts: “It was a bizarre sensation...

  12. ALA-PpIX variability quantitatively imaged in A431 epidermoid tumors using in vivo ultrasound fluorescence tomography and ex vivo assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Flynn, Brendan P.; Gunn, Jason R.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Anand, Sanjay; Maytin, Edward V.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-03-01

    Treatment monitoring of Aminolevunilic-acid (ALA) - Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) of basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) calls for superficial and subsurface imaging techniques. While superficial imagers exist for this purpose, their ability to assess PpIX levels in thick lesions is poor; additionally few treatment centers have the capability to measure ALA-induced PpIX production. An area of active research is to improve treatments to deeper and nodular BCCs, because treatment is least effective in these. The goal of this work was to understand the logistics and technical capabilities to quantify PpIX at depths over 1mm, using a novel hybrid ultrasound-guided, fiber-based fluorescence molecular spectroscopictomography system. This system utilizes a 633nm excitation laser and detection using filtered spectrometers. Source and detection fibers are collinear so that their imaging plane matches that of ultrasound transducer. Validation with phantoms and tumor-simulating fluorescent inclusions in mice showed sensitivity to fluorophore concentrations as low as 0.025μg/ml at 4mm depth from surface, as presented in previous years. Image-guided quantification of ALA-induced PpIX production was completed in subcutaneous xenograft epidermoid cancer tumor model A431 in nude mice. A total of 32 animals were imaged in-vivo, using several time points, including pre-ALA, 4-hours post-ALA, and 24-hours post-ALA administration. On average, PpIX production in tumors increased by over 10-fold, 4-hours post-ALA. Statistical analysis of PpIX fluorescence showed significant difference among all groups; p<0.05. Results were validated by exvivo imaging of resected tumors. Details of imaging, analysis and results will be presented to illustrate variability and the potential for imaging these values at depth.

  13. Job flexibility in Latin America: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alejandro Ibarra Cisneros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of studies about labor flexibility show a partial image of the situation of Latin America labor markets. They are limited to confirm, the existence of high degrees of rigidity and the necessity to conduct labor reforms to the margin of specific national circumstances. The design of a synthetic labor rigidity indicator using methodology considered by the oecd, through a factor analysis for countries of IberoAmerica, allows obtaining certain advances in relation to this debate. The results establish the high importance of the rigidity in the procedures of collective dismissal, over normative aspects related to fixed term contracts. Finally, it is establish the little relation between flexibility levels and results in terms of economic development, putting into question the assertions that try to extrapolate strategies of flexibilization like isolated measurement to facilitate the economic progress of a country.

  14. Strangers and neighbours: cross-border banking in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. DEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with regulatory and competitive aspects of the mutual penetration by Canadian and U.S. banks of each other’s domestic markets. The authors assess the degree to which economic factors alone are responsible for the difference in growth rates between domestic and foreign banks in North America. They argue that regulation has not affected the growth of foreign banks in North America by addressing the question of reciprocity in banking regulations, before examining foreign banks in the U.S. and the manner in which they have been regulated. U.S. banks operating in Canada are then dealt with. Finally, the results of an empirical test of the proposition that the growth of cross-border banking is attributable to factors other than differential regulation is presented.

  15. Alfonso IX de León y el iter de su corte (1188-1230

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoria CAVERO DOMÍNGUEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfonso IX de León, a lo largo de su dilatado reinado, desarrolló la mayor parte de las actividades de la corte de forma itinerante, es decir en medio de sus largos y continuados desplazamientos, tal como reflejan las datas de los documentos de su cancillería. La ciudad de León, sede regia, no fue el epicentro de su corte, aunque en ella se desarrollaran las primeras cortes.La majeure partie des activités du roi de León Alphonse IX se déroulèrent, au cours de son long règne, de façon itinérante, c’est-à-dire au cours de ses longs déplacements, comme le réflètent les données documentaires de sa chancellerie. La ville de León, siège royal, ne fut pas l’épicentre de sa cour, mais accueillit pourtant les premières cortes.

  16. Comparative in vivo study of precursors of PpIX (ALA and MAL) used topically in photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Raquel F.; Inada, Natalia M.; Ferreira, Juliana; Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2009-06-01

    The efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) combined with aminolevulinic acid (ALA) or methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) in treatment of cancer has been studied for over ten years. However, there is no established dose for the topical use of these drugs in PDT. The purpose of this study was the comparison of induced PDT response of ALAsense (5-aminolevulinic acid - ALA) and Metvix (methyl aminolevulinate - MAL). Depth of necrosis induced by PDT was analyzed in normal liver of male Wistar rats, using different light doses and topical application of both PpIX precursors - ALA and MAL. PDT was performed with a diode laser at 630 nm with different doses of light (20, 50, 100 and 200 J/cm2), and intensity of 250 mW/cm2. Depth of necrosis analysis was used to calculate the threshold dose for each drug. The results showed that MAL-PDT presented a better response than ALA-PDT, mainly due to formulation differences. Moreover, the ability of the ALA PpIX production was more efficient.

  17. Su Santidad el Papa Pío IX, y la semana santa romana de 1866, visto por un ilustre valenciano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Río Hijas Ximenez, María Elena

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Francisco de Paula Ximénez and Marco made a trip to Italy in 1866. He left a chronicle unpublished. The story of his stay in Rome is published, during the Easter of this year. The chronicle of the celebrations reveals the fascination that exerted Pío IX on the travelling ones and it informs to us on the organization into which it was left of the Pontifical States.Francisco de Paula Ximénez y Marco hizo un viaje a Italia en 1866. Dejó una crónica inédita. Se publica el relato de su estancia en Roma, durante la semana santa de este año. La crónica de las celebraciones revela la fascinación que ejercía Pío IX sobre los peregrinos y nos informa sobre la organización de lo que quedaba de loa Estados Pontificios.

  18. $\\bbbc P^2$ and $\\bbbc P^{1}$ Sigma Models in Supergravity: Bianchi type IX Instantons and Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Akbar, M M

    2004-01-01

    We find instanton/cosmological solutions with biaxial Bianchi-IX symmetry, involving non-trivial spatial dependence of the $\\bbbc P^{1}$- and $\\bbbc P^{2}$-sigma-models coupled to gravity. Such manifolds arise in N=1, $d=4$ supergravity with supermatter actions and hence the solutions can be embedded in supergravity. There is a natural way in which the standard coordinates of these manifolds can be mapped into the four-dimensional physical space. Due to its special symmetry, we start with $\\bbbc P^{2}$ with its corresponding scalar Ansatz; this further requires the spacetime to be $SU(2) \\times U(1)$-invariant. The problem then reduces to a set of ordinary differential equations whose analytical properties and solutions are discussed. Among the solutions there is a surprising, special-family of exact solutions which owe their existence to the non-trivial topology of $\\bbbc P^{2}$ and are in 1-1 correspondence with matter-free Bianchi-IX metrics. These solutions can also be found by coupling $\\bbbc P^{1}$ to g...

  19. Characterization of IXINITY® (Trenonacog Alfa), a Recombinant Factor IX with Primary Sequence Corresponding to the Threonine-148 Polymorph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Dougald M; Jenny, Richard J; Van Cott, Kevin E; Buhay, Shelly; Saward, Laura L

    2016-01-01

    The goal of these studies was to extensively characterize the first recombinant FIX therapeutic corresponding to the threonine-148 (Thr-148) polymorph, IXINITY (trenonacog alfa [coagulation factor IX (recombinant)]). Gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism, and gel filtration were used to determine purity and confirm structure. Chromatographic and mass spectrometry techniques were used to identify and quantify posttranslational modifications. Activity was assessed as the ability to activate factor X (FX) both with and without factor VIIIa (FVIIIa) and in a standard clotting assay. All results were consistent across multiple lots. Trenonacog alfa migrated as a single band on Coomassie-stained gels; activity assays were normal and showed factor IX (FIXa) per IU of FIX. The molecule has >97%  γ-carboxylation and underwent the appropriate structural change upon binding calcium ions. Trenonacog alfa was activated normally with factor XIa (FXIa); once activated it bound to FVIIIa and FXa. When activated to FIXa, it was inhibited efficiently by antithrombin. Glycosylation patterns were similar to plasma-derived FIX with sialic acid content consistent with the literature reports of good pharmacokinetic performance. These studies have shown that trenonacog alfa is a highly pure product with a primary sequence and posttranslational modifications consistent with the common Thr-148 polymorphism of plasma-derived FIX. PMID:26997955

  20. Cloning and expression of two new prolactin-related proteins, prolactin-related protein-VIII and -IX, in bovine placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneyama Kanako

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolactin-related proteins (PRPs are specific proteins of the growth hormone/prolactin (GH/PRL family in bovine placenta. This study reports the identification and sequencing of a full-length cDNA for two new members of bovine PRPs, bPRP-VIII and -IX, and their localization and quantitative expression in bovine placenta. Methods New bPRP-VIII and -IX were identified from bovine placentome. Localization and quantitative gene expression in the placenta were respectively investigated by in situ hybridization and real-time RT-PCR methods. Recombinant proteins of these genes were produced by a mammalian HEK293 cell expression system. Results Full-length bPRP-VIII and -IX cDNA were respectively cloned with 909 and 910 nucleotide open-reading-frames corresponding to proteins of 236 and 238 amino acids. The predicted bPRP-VIII amino acid sequence shared about 40 to 70% homology with other bPRPs, and bPRP-IX had about 50 to 80 % homology of others. The two new bPRPs were detected only in the placenta by RT-PCR. mRNA was primarily expressed in the cotyledon and intercotyledonary tissues throughout gestation. An in situ hybridization analysis revealed the presence of bPRP-VIII and -IX mRNA in the trophoblastic binucleate and/or trinucleate cells. bPRP-VIII mRNA was observed in the extra-embryonic membrane on Day 27 of gestation, however, no bPRP-IX mRNA was observed in the extra-embryonic membrane in the same stage of pregnancy by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. Both new bPRP genes were possible to translate a mature protein in a mammalian cell expression system with approximately 28 kDa in bPRP-VIII and 38 kDa in bPRP-IX. Conclusion We identified the new members of bovine prolactin-related protein, bPRP-VIII and -IX. Localization and quantitative expression were confirmed in bovine placenta by in situ hybridization or real-time PCR. Their different temporal and spatial expressions suggest a different role for these genes in

  1. Coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient with hemophilia B: continuous recombinant factor IX infusion as per the Japanese guidelines for replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Kawamoto, Shunsuke; Kumagai, Kiichiro; Adachi, Osamu; Kanda, Keisuke; Ishikawa, Masaaki; Okitsu, Yoko; Harigae, Hideo; Kurosawa, Shin; Saiki, Yoshikatsu

    2016-08-01

    We herein report our experience of successfully managing the hemostatic system by controlling serum factor IX levels throughout the perioperative period in a patient with hemophilia B. Coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass was planned for a 52-year-old man with moderate severity of hemophilia B. During surgery, recombinant factor IX (rFIX; BeneFIX(®) Pfizer Japan inc., Tokyo, Japan) was administered by bolus infusion followed by continuous infusion as per the guidelines of the Japanese Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis. The operative course was uneventful without any considerable bleeding or complications. PMID:25523881

  2. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This final report for the Hybrid Ventilation Centre at Aalborg University describes the activities and research achievement in the project period from August 2001 to August 2006. The report summarises the work performed and the results achieved with reference to articles and reports published...

  3. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estep, Donald [Colorado State University

    2015-11-30

    This is the final report for the project titled "Enabling Predictive Simulation and UQ of complex Multiphysics PDE systems by the Development of Goal-Oriented Variational Sensitivity Analysis and a-Posteriori Error Estimation Methods" that ran from 9/1/2010 through 8/31/2015. The report describes the scientific progress, all manuscripts, and records project-related activities.

  4. US of tissue banking and transplantation in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue banking in North America began as surgical bone banking in individual hospitals and progressed to recovery of cadaveric tissues, initially by the United States Navy Tissue Bank and more recently to regional tissue banks throughout North America. The American Association of Tissue Banks was established in 1976 to develop standards for tissue banking and the eventual inspection and accreditation of tissue banks. The gathering of statistics of tissue banking practices was first undertaken in 1992, from accredited tissue banks. The most recent statistics were compiled in 1997 and will be reported at this conference.There are currently 63 accredited tissue banks in North America, 60 in the United States and three in Canada. Overall, tissue donation has increased by 48% during this 5 year reporting time. During the same period, the number of living surgical bone donors has decreased from nearly 3,000 to less than 500. This impact is largely due to the new regulations that have been implemented by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). There were over 340,000 bone grafts distributed in 1996, an increase of 20% over 1992, 33% were not sterilized, 21% were sterilized using irradiation, and 45% were demineralized. Only 1% were processed using ethylene oxide as a sterilant, a decrease from 15% in 1992. The primary mode of preservation and storage is freeze-drying with 90% of the tissues falling into this category and the rest being frozen. The second largest number of grafts distributed were skin grafts. Total tissue grafts distributed including cornea was 445,417. In January 1998, the FDA Final Rule regarding regulation of tissue banking became effective. The elements of that Final Rule and new tissue banking rules the FDA has proposed will be discussed along with regulations recently published by the Health and Human Services Department relative to organ and tissue donor referrals. Tissue Banking in North America continues to evolve and has become more and more

  5. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouvetakis, John

    2013-01-03

    The project addressed the need for improved multijunction solar cells as identified within the Solar America Initiative program. The basic Ge/InGaAs/InGaP triple-junction structure that has led to record commercial efficiencies remains unoptimized due to excess current in the germanium component. Furthermore, its deployment cannot be scaled up to terawatt-level applications due to bottlenecks related to germanium's cost and abundance. The purpose of the program was to explore new strategies developed at Arizona State University to deposit germanium films on much cheaper silicon substrates, largely eliminating the germanium bottleneck, and at the same time to develop new materials that should lead to an improvement in multijunction efficiencies. This included the ternary alloy SiGeSn, which can be inserted as a fourth junction in a Ge/SiGeSn/InGaAs/InGaP structure to compensate for the excess current in the bottom cell. Moreover, the possibility of depositing materials containing Sn on Si substrates created an opportunity for replacing the bottom Ge cell with a GeSn alloy, which, combined with new III-V alloys for the top cells, should enable 4-junction structures with perfectly optimized band gaps. The successes of the program, to be described below, has led to the developments of new strategies for the growth of high-quality germanium films on Si substrates and to a widespread recognition that SiGeSn is likely to play a significant role in future generations of high-efficiency devices, as demonstrated by new research and intellectual property efforts by major US industrial players.

  6. The emergence of scientific management in America

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin-George Toma; Ana-Maria Grigore; Paul Marinescu

    2014-01-01

    A scientific approach to management was initiated for the first time in America in the late 19th century. Scientific management arose mainly from the need to increase efficiency in America, but other key factors were the spread of big businesses and the expanding application of science in industry. The aims of our paper are to present the emergence of scientific management in America and to emphasize the contribution of some of the most representatives American authors to its development. The...

  7. Fuglene. Audubon: Birds of America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    the Royal Library and the University Library, joined the library cooperation of the 1800’s on an equal standing with the other two libraries. The Classen’s Library and the library’s founder, industrialist JF Classen are described briefly in this article. Due to two library mergers the Birds of America...... is now owned by the Royal Library. The acquisition of the Danish set by the Classen’s Library is examined by analyzing previously unpublished letters and is described for the first time, although not comprehensively, in this article. The provenance of this work, as described by Waldemar Fries in 1973...

  8. Una visita en Sud America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Oisfrute de una estadfa en el Hotel La Silla, el mejor hotel de Sud America con su tan unica atmosfera extraterrestre! Los espera su calificado personal de experimentados hoteleros, jefes de cocina, etc., ansiosos todos de satisfacer sus deseos hasta el mas mfnimo detalle. Naturalmente nuestro espacioso restaurant de tres estrellas ofrece un completo surtido de exquisitas comidas y deliciosos tragos (conocedores usualmente eligen "Oelicia Orion" 0 "Centauro Especial"). EI servicio cempleto durante 24 horas incluye nuestra ya mundialmente famosa "Cena de medianoche para los miradores de estrellas", por eso - no olvide: No pierda la oportunidad de una estadfa en EL HOTEL LA SILLA - una experiencia maravillosa!

  9. Nutritional situation in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    PAHO member countries maintain food and nutrition surveillance systems. The prevalence of malnutrition among children aged 0-4 in Latin American and Caribbean countries ranges from 0.8% in Chile to 38.5% in Guatemala. It is 2.9% in the US. Low height-for-age is most common among children aged 0-4 in Guatemala (57.9%), Bolivia (38.3%), Peru (35.2%), and Ecuador (34%). The interval between observations of malnutrition prevalence ranged from 22 years in Honduras to 3-4 years in Nicaragua and Panama. Overall, there was a downward trend in malnutrition rates in the Americas. Yet, malnutrition is increasing in Guatemala and Panama. Breast feeding, good weaning practices, appropriate feeding during disease episodes, nutrition education, and programs for immunization and control of diarrhea and respiratory diseases account for the downward trend. Anemia rates among pregnant women (=or 11 g Hb/dl) vary from 13% in Asuncion, Paraguay, to 61% in Misiones, Argentina. Those for preschoolers range from 22% to 45% in Brazil and 27% to 53% in Peru. The prevalence of goiter is more than 50% in Merida, Venezuela, and Chameza, Colombia. It differs greatly in different areas within the same country. Most countries have laws requiring iodination of all salt for human consumption, yet violations are common. Certain areas of the countries in the Americas have vitamin A deficiency rates ranging from 5% to 48.8%. Some countries have enacted laws for sugar enrichment with retinol palmitate to reduce vitamin A deficiency. During the 1970s, deaths from chronic diseases related to nutrition increased 105% in South America, 56% in Central America, Mexico, and Panama, and 21% in the Caribbean. Prevalence of obesity among children aged 0-6 varies from 2.2% in Nicaragua and Brazil to 10.7% in Chile. Adult obesity is most common in Uruguay (about 50%). It is more common among females than males. The highest rates among 20-29 year olds are in Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, and Peru. The US adult obesity

  10. Building America Top Innovations 2012: House Simulation Protocols (the Building America Benchmark)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored House Simulation Protocols, which have helped ensure consistent and accurate energy-efficiency assessments for tens of thousands of new and retrofit homes supported by the Building America program.

  11. La Calidad de las Aguas en el Curso Superior y Medio del Río Traiguén: IX Región-Chile Superior and Medium Water Quality in Traiguén River: IX Region-Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson R Rivera; Francisco Encina; Rodrigo Palma; Patricia Mejias

    2009-01-01

    En este trabajo se establece la calidad de agua del curso superior y medio del río Traiguén ubicado en la IX Región de la Araucanía en Chile. La caracterización fisicoquímica y microbiológica se efectuó fijando seis estaciones de muestreo, desde un lugar cercano a la naciente del río hasta el límite comunal de la ciudad de Victoria con Traiguén. Los valores mas bajos en los parámetros evaluados, los presentan las aguas de las estaciones 1 y 2 ubicadas fuera del límite urbano, contrariamente a...

  12. How Title IX and Proportionality Population Concepts Have Equalized Collegiate Women's Sports Programs with Men's Sports and Allows Spillover Gains for Women in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Nina H.; Compton, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Title IX of the Education Reformation Act was passed in 1972 for the purpose of providing equality between males and females in intercollegiate sports. Since its inception the disparity between men's and women's varsity athletics programs has persisted throughout American colleges and universities. Discrimination and equal protection concerns…

  13. Quinine-dependent antibodies bind a restricted set of epitopes on the glycoprotein Ib-IX complex : characterization of the epitopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgess, J K; Lopez, J A; Berndt, M C; Dawes, I; Chesterman, C N; Chong, B H

    1998-01-01

    Severe immune thrombocytopenia is an idiosyncratic complication of quinine therapy. Although in most cases the responsible antibody is directed against platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX, specificity for GPIIb-IIIa or both epitopes has also been reported. The objective of this study was to ch

  14. TE & ET 2014 | IX Congreso de Tecnología en Educación y Educación en Tecnología : Libro de actas

    OpenAIRE

    Red de Universidades con Carreras en Informática (RedUNCI); Frati, Fernando Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Compilación de los trabajos presentados al IX Congreso de Tecnología en Educación y Educación en Tecnología (TE & ET 2014) llevado a cabo los días 12 y 13 de junio de 2014 en la Universidad Nacional de Chilecito (provincia de La Rioja, Argentina).

  15. Trauma-Informed Response in the Age of Title IX: Considerations for College Counselors Working with Survivors of Power-Based Personal Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Abigail H.; Griffith, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and stalking are pervasive in the United States, and college women are disproportionately affected by this power-based personal violence (PBPV). Title IX mandates that colleges and universities offer support services to trauma survivors, and college counselors should be prepared to meet this need.…

  16. ADVANCES AND CHALLENGES IN SUGARCANE BIOTECHNOLOY AND PLANT PATHOLOGY: A REVIEW OF THE IX PLANT PATHOLOGY WORKSHOP AND VI MOLECULAR BIOLOGY WORKSHOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IX Pathology Workshop and VI Molecular Biology Workshop of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists (ISSCT) were organised jointly and hosted by the Colombian Sugarcane Research Centre (CENICAÑA) from 23-27 June 2008 at the Radisson Royal Hotel in Cali, Colombia. The Workshop was we...

  17. Data Summary Report for the Annual Fourmile Branch and F- and H-Area Seeplines, Appendix IX Metals and Radionuclides, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, J.

    1999-08-23

    This report presents a summary of the definitive data validation and verification for the 1998 RFI/RI annual Appendix IX metals and radionuclides survey for Fourmile Branch and the F- and H-Area Seeplines. The validation process began with project mobilization and continued through the delivery of EDDs and this report.

  18. Retsensioon : Riigikogu VII, VIII ja IX koosseis. Statistikat ja kommentaare. Peatoimetaja Aaro Mõttus. Tallinn : Riigikogu Kantselei, Eesti Rahvusraamatukogu, 2004. 326 lk. / Mart Nutt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nutt, Mart, 1962-

    2004-01-01

    Arvustus: Riigikogu VII, VIII ja IX koosseis. Statistikat ja kommentaare / peatoim. Aaro Mõttus. Tallinn : Riigikogu Kantselei, Eesti Rahvusraamatukogu, 2004. - Lisatud: Ott Heinapuu tutvustav sõnum retsenseeritud väljaande kohta lk. 193. - Vt. ka: http://www.riigikogu.ee/rito/index.php?id=11357

  19. Type IX Collagen Gene Mutations Can Result in Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia That Is Associated With Osteochondritis Dissecans and a Mild Myopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, Gail C.; Marcus-Soekarman, Dominique; Stolte-Dijkstra, Irene; Verrips, Aad; Taylor, Jacqueline A.; Briggs, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is a clinically variable and genetically heterogeneous disease that is characterized by mild short stature and early onset osteoarthritis. Autosomal dominant forms are caused by mutations in the genes that encode type IX collagen, cartilage oligomeric matrix prote

  20. Type IX collagen gene mutations can result in multiple epiphyseal dysplasia that is associated with osteochondritis dissecans and a mild myopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, G.C.; Marcus-Soekarman, D.; Stolte-Dijkstra, I.; Verrips, A.; Taylor, J.A.; Briggs, M.D.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is a clinically variable and genetically heterogeneous disease that is characterized by mild short stature and early onset osteoarthritis. Autosomal dominant forms are caused by mutations in the genes that encode type IX collagen, cartilage oligomeric matrix prote

  1. [The need to develop demographic census systems for Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A

    1987-01-01

    The author presents the case for developing new software packages specifically designed to process population census information for Latin America. The focus is on the problems faced by developing countries in handling vast amounts of data in an efficient way. First, the basic methods of census data processing are discussed, then brief descriptions of some of the available software are included. Finally, ways in which data processing programs could be geared toward and utilized for improving the accuracy of Latin American censuses in the 1990s are proposed.

  2. Research Agenda for the Built Environment in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Beatriz Murray

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper disseminates the outcomes of a series of interdisciplinary and multi-sector research seminars that focused on current development problems in a region of fast urban growth. Qualitative data was collected during round table discussions and workshops involving practitioners and government officials from some of the largest economies in Latin America. The authors then grouped these discussions into coherent themes and framed them into current scholarly debates. After assessing the suitability of theory to respond to practice, the paper concludes with four key areas for further research, with the final aim to encourage more scholarly analysis that can better inform development policy in emerging economies.

  3. Economic Thought in Eighteenth CenturyAmerica Prior to Indepencence

    OpenAIRE

    CICARELLI, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This paper examines the state of economic thought in the United States during the time period 1700 to 1775, an era that marks the end of the colonial age for the new nation.  This essay starts with an over view of economic conditions during the final phase of colonialism in America.  This is followed by a discussion of American economic thinking, divided into three distinct yet overlapping perspectives: (1) mainstream economic thought, which represents the dominant point of view abo...

  4. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R Paul Drake

    2004-01-12

    OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves.

  5. Atomic energy in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most countries in Latin America, including all those on the mainland, are Members of the Agency. Interest in the possibilities of nuclear energy has led to considerable activity, much of it in direct collaboration with the IAEA. Member States in the region are: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela. Of these, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela are operating, and Mexico and Uruguay are constructing, research reactors, while Chile and Peru are studying proposals. Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Uruguay have all agreed to accept Agency safeguards for reactors. The possibility of future needs for nuclear power is under examination by several countries, in some cases being related to desalination of water. All atomic work in Latin America is devoted to peaceful uses, and note-worthy progress has been made with proposals for a treaty which would make the whole region a militarily de-nuclearized zone. It is proposed that when this comes into effect the Agency will be asked to apply the controls developed in its safeguards system, and to carry out the inspections necessary to establish that work in progress is solely for peaceful purposes

  6. Gastroenterology training in Latin America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henry Cohen; Roque Saenz; Luiz E de Almeida Troncon; Maribel Lizarzabal; Carolina Olano

    2011-01-01

    Latin America is characterized by ethnic, geographical, cultural, and economic diversity; therefore, training in gastroenterology in the region must be considered in this context. The continent's medical education is characterized by a lack of standards and the volume of research continues to be relatively small. There is a multiplicity of events in general gastroenterology and in sub-disciplines, both at regional and local levels, which ensure that many colleagues have access to information. Medical education programs must be based on a clinical vision and be considered in close contact with the patients. The programs should be properly supervised, appropriately defined,and evaluated on a regular basis. The disparity between the patients' needs, the scarce resources available, and the pressures exerted by the health systems on doctors are frequent cited by those complaining of poor professionalism. Teaching development can play a critical role in ensuring the quality of teaching and learning in universities.Continuing professional development programs activities must be planned on the basis of the doctors' needs, with clearly defined objectives and using proper learning methodologies designed for adults. They must be evaluated and accredited by a competent body, so that they may become the basis of a professional regulatory system. The specialty has made progress in the last decades, offering doctors various possibilities for professional development. The world gastroenterology organization has contributed to the speciality through three distinctive, but closely inter-related, programs: Training Centers, Train-the-Trainers, and Global Guidelines, in which Latin America is deeply involved.

  7. China to be Latin America's2nd largest trade partner in 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Xnhua reported that China will become Latin America's second largest trade partner as early as in 2015,the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) said on September 8.Osvaldo Kacef,director of ECLAC's Economic Development Division,said the current China-Latin America trade volume has already reached that of Europe.

  8. The Application of Lean Thinking Principles and Kaizen Practices for the Successful Development and Implementation of the Ares I-X Flight Test Rocket and Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askins, B. R.; Davis, S. R.; Heitzman, K. S.; Olsen, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    On October 28, 2009 the Ares I-X flight test rocket launched from Kennedy Space Center and flew its suborbital trajectory as designed. The mission was successfully completed as data from the test, and associated development activities were analyzed, transferred to stakeholders, and well documented. A positive lesson learned from Ares I-X was that the application of lean thinking principles and kaizen practices was very effective in streamlining development activities. Ares I-X, like other historical rocket development projects, was hampered by technical, cost, and schedule challenges and if not addressed boldly could have resulted in cancellation of the test. The mission management team conducted nine major meetings, referred to as lean events, across its elements to assess plans, procedures, processes, requirements, controls, culture, organization, use of resources, and anything that could be changed to optimize schedule or reduce risk. The preeminent aspect of the lean events was the focus on value added activities and the removal or at least reduction in non-value added activities. Trained Lean Six Sigma facilitators assisted the Ares I-X developers in conducting the lean events. They indirectly helped formulate the mission s own unique methodology for assessing schedule. A core team was selected to lead the events and report to the mission manager. Each activity leveraged specialized participants to analyze the subject matter and its related processes and then recommended alternatives and solutions. Stakeholders were the event champions. They empowered and encouraged the team to succeed. The keys to success were thorough preparation, honest dialog, small groups, adherence to the Ares I-X ground rules, and accountability through disciplined reporting and tracking of actions. This lean event formula was game-changing as demonstrated by Ares I-X. It is highly recommended as a management tool to help develop other complex systems efficiently. The key benefits for

  9. Sustainability of biofuels in Latin America: Risks and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.janssen@wip-munich.de [WIP Renewable Energies, Sylvensteinstrasse 2, 81369 Munich (Germany); Rutz, Dominik Damian [WIP Renewable Energies, Sylvensteinstrasse 2, 81369 Munich (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Several Latin American countries are setting up biofuel programmes to establish alternative markets for agricultural commodities. This is mainly triggered by the current success of Brazilian bioethanol production for the domestic market and for export. Furthermore, the global biofuel market is expected to increase due to ambitious biofuel programmes in the EU and in the USA. Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica and Guatemala are focusing on bioethanol production from sugarcane whereas biofuel production in Argentina is based on soy biodiesel. Recent developments of the biofuel sector take place extremely rapid especially in Argentina, which became one of the five largest biodiesel producers in the world in 2008. Till date no specific biofuel sustainability certification systems have been implemented in Latin American, as well as on global level. This fact and the predominant use of food crops for biofuel production raise concerns about the sustainability of biofuel production related to environmental and social aspects. This paper provides an overview of the hotspots of conflicts in biofuel production in Latin America. It investigates presently available sustainability tools and initiatives to ensure sustainable biofuel production in Latin America. Finally, it provides an outlook on how to integrate sustainability in the Latin American biofuel sector. - Research Highlights: > This study investigates risks and opportunities of biofuels in Latin America. > Latin American countries are setting up programmes to promote biofuel development. > Strong biofuel sectors provide opportunities for economic development. > Potential negative impact includes deforestation and effects on food security. > Sustainability initiatives exist to minimise negative impact.

  10. Remittances in Central America: Whose Money is it Anyway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Rocha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In opposition to optimistic visions that present remittances as an opportunity for developing countries, this paper shows they are part and parcel of a process of economic imperialism, whereby their use and final destinations are strictly conditioned. In order to go beyond a conception of remittances as epiphenomenon, and in order to trace the role they play, this paper focuses on the transnational strategies of capital. It finds that remittances enable an increase in foreign investment and import production by facilitating the rise of a new class of consumers in Central America. Remittances create and feed a purchasing power that would not exist in their absence. Factories, fast food restaurants, communications companies, banks, travel agencies, and supermarkets are opening new branches throughout Central America in order to benefit from transnational savings that would otherwise be used differently. In this way, remittances are conditioned and co-opted by transnational capital’s strategies to sustain an ever growing market, with Central America more generally – and once again – potentially at risk of becoming characterized by enclave economies and chronic commercial deficits. The remittance-based economic model furthermore cannot be sustainable in the long run unless Central American countries keep exporting workers ad infinitum, something that is obviously not possible.

  11. Sustainability of biofuels in Latin America: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several Latin American countries are setting up biofuel programmes to establish alternative markets for agricultural commodities. This is mainly triggered by the current success of Brazilian bioethanol production for the domestic market and for export. Furthermore, the global biofuel market is expected to increase due to ambitious biofuel programmes in the EU and in the USA. Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica and Guatemala are focusing on bioethanol production from sugarcane whereas biofuel production in Argentina is based on soy biodiesel. Recent developments of the biofuel sector take place extremely rapid especially in Argentina, which became one of the five largest biodiesel producers in the world in 2008. Till date no specific biofuel sustainability certification systems have been implemented in Latin American, as well as on global level. This fact and the predominant use of food crops for biofuel production raise concerns about the sustainability of biofuel production related to environmental and social aspects. This paper provides an overview of the hotspots of conflicts in biofuel production in Latin America. It investigates presently available sustainability tools and initiatives to ensure sustainable biofuel production in Latin America. Finally, it provides an outlook on how to integrate sustainability in the Latin American biofuel sector. - Research Highlights: → This study investigates risks and opportunities of biofuels in Latin America. → Latin American countries are setting up programmes to promote biofuel development. → Strong biofuel sectors provide opportunities for economic development. → Potential negative impact includes deforestation and effects on food security. → Sustainability initiatives exist to minimise negative impact.

  12. 78 FR 48909 - SGS North America, Inc. (formerly SGS U.S. Testing Company, Inc.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration SGS North America, Inc. (formerly SGS U.S. Testing Company, Inc.) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's final decision expanding the recognition...

  13. Identification of the chlE gene encoding oxygen-independent Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester cyclase in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Kaori; Minamizaki, Kei; Fujita, Yuichi

    2015-08-01

    The fifth ring (E-ring) of chlorophyll (Chl) a is produced by Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester (MPE) cyclase. There are two evolutionarily unrelated MPE cyclases: oxygen-independent (BchE) and oxygen-dependent (ChlA/AcsF) MPE cyclases. Although ChlA is the sole MPE cyclase in Synechocystis PCC 6803, it is yet unclear whether BchE exists in cyanobacteria. A BLAST search suggests that only few cyanobacteria possess bchE. Here, we report that two bchE candidate genes from Cyanothece strains PCC 7425 and PCC 7822 restore the photosynthetic growth and bacteriochlorophyll production in a bchE-lacking mutant of Rhodobacter capsulatus. We termed these cyanobacterial bchE orthologs "chlE."

  14. First-principles IXS spectra for TiO{sub 2} and HfO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Linda; Sottile, Francesco [Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)

    2013-07-01

    Using time-dependent DFT and many-body perturbation theory, we determine the inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) spectra for bulk TiO{sub 2} and HfO{sub 2}. Excitations from valence and semi-core states are modeled, corresponding to transition energies up to 60 eV. By varying momentum transfer, plasmon dispersion can be observed. We characterize differences in the spectra for the rutile, anatase, and brookite polymorphs of TiO{sub 2}, as well as the cubic, tetragonal, and orthogonal polymorphs of HfO{sub 2}. These spectra are also Fourier transformed, allowing us to image the real-time and real-space electron density response to external perturbations.

  15. Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlvaine, Janet; Chandra, Subrato; Barkaszi, Stephen; Beal, David; Chasar, David; Colon, Carlos; Fonorow, Ken; Gordon, Andrew; Hoak, David; Hutchinson, Stephanie; Lubliner, Mike; Martin, Eric; McCluney, Ross; McGinley, Mark; McSorley, Mike; Moyer, Neil; Mullens, Mike; Parker, Danny; Sherwin, John; Vieira, Rob; Wichers, Susan

    2006-06-30

    This final report summarizes the work conducted by the Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (www.baihp.org) for the period 9/1/99-6/30/06. BAIHP is led by the Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida and focuses on factory built housing. In partnership with over 50 factory and site builders, work was performed in two main areas--research and technical assistance. In the research area--through site visits in over 75 problem homes, we discovered the prime causes of moisture problems in some manufactured homes and our industry partners adopted our solutions to nearly eliminate this vexing problem. Through testing conducted in over two dozen housing factories of six factory builders we documented the value of leak free duct design and construction which was embraced by our industry partners and implemented in all the thousands of homes they built. Through laboratory test facilities and measurements in real homes we documented the merits of 'cool roof' technologies and developed an innovative night sky radiative cooling concept currently being tested. We patented an energy efficient condenser fan design, documented energy efficient home retrofit strategies after hurricane damage, developed improved specifications for federal procurement for future temporary housing, compared the Building America benchmark to HERS Index and IECC 2006, developed a toolkit for improving the accuracy and speed of benchmark calculations, monitored the field performance of over a dozen prototype homes and initiated research on the effectiveness of occupancy feedback in reducing household energy use. In the technical assistance area we provided systems engineering analysis, conducted training, testing and commissioning that have resulted in over 128,000 factory built and over 5,000 site built homes which are saving their owners over $17,000,000 annually in energy bills. These include homes built by Palm Harbor Homes, Fleetwood, Southern Energy

  16. The X-ray spectral evolution of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luangtip, Wasutep; Roberts, Timothy P.; Done, Chris

    2016-08-01

    We present a new analysis of X-ray spectra of the archetypal ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg IX X-1 obtained by the Swift, XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observatories. This ULX is a persistent source, with a typical luminosity of ˜1040 erg s-1, that varied by a factor of 4-5 over eight years. We find that its spectra tend to evolve from relatively flat or two-component spectra in the medium energy band (1-6 keV), at lower luminosities, to a spectrum that is distinctly curved and disc-like at the highest luminosities, with the peak energy in the curved spectrum tending to decrease with increased luminosity. We argue that the spectral evolution of the ULX can be explained by super-Eddington accretion models, where in this case we view the ULX down the evacuated funnel along its rotation axis, bounded by its massive radiatively driven wind. The spectral changes then originate in enhanced geometric beaming as the accretion rate increases and wind funnel narrows, causing the scattered flux from the central regions of the supercritical flow to brighten faster than the isotropic thermal emission from the wind, and so the curved hard spectral component to dominate at the highest luminosities. The wind also Compton down-scatters photons at the edge of the funnel, resulting in the peak energy of the spectrum decreasing. We also confirm that Holmberg IX X-1 displays spectral degeneracy with luminosity, and suggest that the observed differences are naturally explained by precession of the black hole rotation axis for the suggested wind geometry.

  17. Estrogen and progesterone differentially regulate carbonic anhydrase II, III, IX, XII, and XIII in ovariectomized rat uteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Kamarulzaman; Giribabu, Nelli; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the uterus expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA) II, III, IX, XII, and XIII were investigated under the influence of sex-steroids in order to elucidate mechanisms underlying differential effects of these hormones on uterine pH. Uteri of ovariectomised rats receiving over three days either vehicle, estrogen, or progesterone or three days estrogen followed by three days either vehicle or progesterone were harvested. Messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels were quantified by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The distribution of CA isoenzymes proteins were examined by immunohistochemistry. The levels of CAII, III, XII, and XIII mRNAs and proteins were elevated while levels of CAIX mRNA and protein were reduced following progesterone-only and estrogen plus progesterone treatment, compared to the control and estrogen plus vehicle, respectively. Following estrogen treatment, expression of CAII, IX, XII, and CAXIII mRNAs and proteins were reduced, but remained at a level higher than control, except for CAIX, where its level was higher than the control and following progesterone treatment. Under progesterone-only and estrogen plus progesterone influences, high levels of CAII, III, XII, and XIII were observed in uterine lumenal and glandular epithelia and myometrium. However, a high level of CAIX was observed only under the influence of estrogen at the similar locations. In conclusion, high expression of CAII, III, XII, and XIII under the influence of progesterone and estrogen plus progesterone could result in the reduction of uterine tissue and fluid pH; however, the significance of high levels of CAIX expression under the influence of estrogen remains unclear. PMID:26709452

  18. The epidemiologic burden of hepatitis C virus infection in Latin America .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Shelagh M; Bibby, Meagan; Yuan, Yong; Donato, Bonnie M K; Jiménez-Mendez, R; Castañeda-Hernández, G; Rodríguez-Torres, Maribel; Levy, Adrian R

    2012-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major and growing public health concern worldwide, including in Latin America. With more efficacious therapies becoming available, decision-makers will require accurate estimates of disease prevalence to assess the potential impact of new treatments. However, few estimates of the epidemiologic burden, either overall or by country, are available for Latin America; and the potential impact of currently-available treatments on the epidemiologic burden of HCV in Latin America has not been assessed. To address this, we systematically reviewed twenty-five articles presenting population-based estimates of HCV prevalence from general population or blood donor samples, and supplemen- ted those with publically-available data, to estimate the total number of persons infected with HCV in Latin America at 7.8 million (2010). Of these, over 4.6 million would be expected to have genotype 1 chronic HCV, based on published data on the risk of progression to chronic disease and the HCV genotype distribution of Latin America. Finally, we calculated that between 1.6 and 2.3 million persons with genotype 1 chronic HCV would potentially benefit from current treatments, based on published estimates of genotype-specific treatment responsiveness. In conclusion, these estimates demonstrate the substantial present epidemiologic burden of HCV, and quantify the impending societal and clinical burden from untreated HCV in Latin America.

  19. Electricity and gas regulation in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, Peter N.

    1998-08-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Background Information; The Electricity Chain; The Gas Chain; The Regulatory Structure; International Activity; Argentina; Bolivia; Brazil; Chile; Colombia; Mexico; Peru; Venezuela; Central America; Other Latin American Markets; Non-Latin America Markets; The Caribbean. (Author)

  20. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    Luis E. Escobar; A. Townsend Peterson; Myriam Favi; Verónica Yung; Gonzalo Medina-Vogel

    2015-01-01

    The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75...

  1. Developments in Impact Assessment in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning with a background of recent global developments in this area, this presentation will focus on how global research has impacted North America and how North America is providing additional developments to address the issues of the global economy. Recent developments inc...

  2. SOUTH AMERICA: INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD SUPPLY POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalds W. Gonzalez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available South America has substantial potential to expand its forest plantations and raw material supply. From 1997 to 2005, South America had a high annual growth rate in the production of industrial roundwood, with Brazil and Chile being the most important countries. In the same period, Asia had the only negative regional production growth rate in the world, and China became the largest round wood importer in the world. This paper summarizes the status of production, consumption, imports, and exports of industrial roundwood and forest products in South America. Produc-tion and exports from South America have continually increased at annual growth rates exceeding the forestry sector in general and the U.S. in particular. Based on timber growing investments to date, a strong timber production and forest products manufacturing sector has developed in the Southern Cone countries of Chile, Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay, and is increasing in other countries in Latin America. There will be continued opportunities for forest plantations and new manufacturing facilities throughout South America, tempered somewhat by perceived country financial and political risks. These opportunities will allow South America to increase its share of world production and increase imports to North America and to Asia.

  3. South America Province Boundaries, 1999 (prv6ag)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. South America was divided into 107 geologic provinces as background...

  4. FOREWORD: IX International Symposium on Radiation from Relativistic Electrons in Periodic Structures (RREPS-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potylitsyn, Alexander; Karataev, Pavel

    2012-05-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the IX International Symposium on Radiation from Relativistic Electrons in Periodic Structures (RREPS'11) which was held at Royal Holloway, University of London on September 12-16, Egham, United Kingdom. The symposium was organized jointly by Royal Holloway, University of London and Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia. RREPS is a biennial series of symposia founded in September 1993 as an initiative of the Nuclear Physics Institute at Tomsk Polytechnic University. The intention was to strengthen the basic and applied research focused on radiation from relativistic electrons in condensed media, particularly from natural and artificial periodic structures, and to review the research activity in this area. Since then, the symposium has developed into a forum attracting young scientists from different areas of research and from many countries. Previous successful symposia were held at Tomsk, Russia (1993, 1995, 1997, 2003), Lake Baikal, Russia (1999), Lake Aiya, Altai, Russia (2001), Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic (2007) and Zvenigorod, Moscow region, Russia (2009). As an outcome of the symposia the conference proceedings have been published in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B (Vol. 145 No 1-2, October 1998; Vol. 173 No 1-2, January 2001; Vol. 201 No 1 January 2003; Vol. 227 No 1-2, January 2005; Vol. 266 No 17, September 2008) and Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 236, June 2010). The purpose of the present RREPS'11 symposium was to review the up-to-date situation in the area of electromagnetic radiation generated by relativistic charged particles in condensed media, and to discuss the research strategy for the near future. Nowadays, electromagnetic radiation studies cover electron energies from a few MeV up to hundreds of GeV in many laboratories throughout the world. The goal is to study the physics of the generation of various kinds of radiation and their

  5. Haematopoietic cell transplants in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, R P; Seber, A; Bonfim, C; Pasquini, M

    2016-07-01

    Haematopoietic cell transplants are done by more than 1500 transplant centres in 75 countries, mostly for life-threatening haematological disorders. However, transplant technology and access are not uniformly distributed worldwide. Most transplants are done predominately in Europe, North America and some Asian countries. We review transplant activity in Latin America, a geographic region with a population of >600 million persons living in countries with diverse economic and social development levels. These data indicate a 20-40-fold lower frequency of transplants in Latin America compared with Europe and North America. We show that although economics, infrastructure and expertise are important limitations, other variables also operate. Changes in several of these variables may substantially increase transplant activity in Latin America. PMID:26999468

  6. Evaluation of a gadolinium-based nanoparticle (AGuIX) for contrast-enhanced MRI of the liver in a rat model of hepatic colorectal cancer metastases at 9.4 tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to compare a Gd-based nanoparticle (AGuIX) with a standard extracellular Gd-based contrast agent (Gd-DOTA) for MRI at 9.4 T in rats with hepatic colorectal cancer metastases. 12 rats with hepatic metastases were subjected to MRI using a 9.4 T animal scanner. T1w self-gated FLASH sequences (TR/TE=45/2.5 ms, alpha = 45 , TA=1: 23 min, FOV=5.12 x 5.12 cm2, matrix = 256 x 256) were acquired before and at 10 time points after contrast injection. Each animal received 0.1 mmol/kg BW Gd-DOTA i.v. 2 days later AGuIX was applied at 0.01 mmol/kg BW (representing equal Gd doses). The SNR of normal liver (SNRliver), hyper- and hypoenhancing parts of tumors (SNRtumor, hyperenh/SNRtumor, hypoenhanc), erector spinae muscle (SNRmuscle), CNR and lesion enhancement (LE) were calculated based on ROI measurements. Mean SNRliver (Gd-DOTA: 14.6 ± 0.7; AGuIX: 28.2 ± 2.6, p < 0.001), SNRtumor, hyperenhanc (Gd-DOTA: 18.6 ± 1.2; AGuIX: 29.6 ± 2.8, p < 0.001), SNRtumor, hypoenhanc (Gd-DOTA: 12.0 ± 0.7; AGuIX: 15.4 ± 0.7, p < 0.001), SNRmuscle (Gd-DOTA: 12.3 ± 0.3; AGuIX: 14.0 ± 0.7, p < 0.001), mean CNR (Gd-DOTA: -2.5 ± 0.2; AGuIX: -7.5 ± 1.0, p < 0.001) and LE (Gd-DOTA: 3.8 ± 0.7; AGuIX: 14.9 ± 2.8, p=0.001) were significantly higher using AGuIX. Regardless of the larger molecular size, AGuIX demonstrates an early peak enhancement followed by a continuous washout. AGuIX provides better enhancement at 9.4 T compared to Gd-DOTA for equal doses of applied Gd. This is based on the molecule structure and the subsequent increased interaction with protons leading to a higher relaxivity. AGuIX potentially ameliorates the conspicuity of focal liver lesions and may improve the sensitivity in diagnostic imaging of malignant hepatic tumors.

  7. Evaluation of a gadolinium-based nanoparticle (AGuIX) for contrast-enhanced MRI of the liver in a rat model of hepatic colorectal cancer metastases at 9.4 tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, P.; Morr, D.; Mueller, A.; Massmann, A.; Seidel, R.; Schneider, G.; Buecker, A. [Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg (Germany). Clinic of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Lux, F.; Tillement, O. [Universite Claude Bernard, Lyon (France). Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents; Schaefer, T. [Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg (Germany). Dept. of General, Visceral and Pediatric Surgery; Menger, M.D. [Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg (Germany). Inst. for Clinical and Experimental Surgery

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to compare a Gd-based nanoparticle (AGuIX) with a standard extracellular Gd-based contrast agent (Gd-DOTA) for MRI at 9.4 T in rats with hepatic colorectal cancer metastases. 12 rats with hepatic metastases were subjected to MRI using a 9.4 T animal scanner. T1w self-gated FLASH sequences (TR/TE=45/2.5 ms, alpha = 45 , TA=1: 23 min, FOV=5.12 x 5.12 cm{sup 2}, matrix = 256 x 256) were acquired before and at 10 time points after contrast injection. Each animal received 0.1 mmol/kg BW Gd-DOTA i.v. 2 days later AGuIX was applied at 0.01 mmol/kg BW (representing equal Gd doses). The SNR of normal liver (SNRliver), hyper- and hypoenhancing parts of tumors (SNRtumor, hyperenh/SNRtumor, hypoenhanc), erector spinae muscle (SNRmuscle), CNR and lesion enhancement (LE) were calculated based on ROI measurements. Mean SNRliver (Gd-DOTA: 14.6 ± 0.7; AGuIX: 28.2 ± 2.6, p < 0.001), SNRtumor, hyperenhanc (Gd-DOTA: 18.6 ± 1.2; AGuIX: 29.6 ± 2.8, p < 0.001), SNRtumor, hypoenhanc (Gd-DOTA: 12.0 ± 0.7; AGuIX: 15.4 ± 0.7, p < 0.001), SNRmuscle (Gd-DOTA: 12.3 ± 0.3; AGuIX: 14.0 ± 0.7, p < 0.001), mean CNR (Gd-DOTA: -2.5 ± 0.2; AGuIX: -7.5 ± 1.0, p < 0.001) and LE (Gd-DOTA: 3.8 ± 0.7; AGuIX: 14.9 ± 2.8, p=0.001) were significantly higher using AGuIX. Regardless of the larger molecular size, AGuIX demonstrates an early peak enhancement followed by a continuous washout. AGuIX provides better enhancement at 9.4 T compared to Gd-DOTA for equal doses of applied Gd. This is based on the molecule structure and the subsequent increased interaction with protons leading to a higher relaxivity. AGuIX potentially ameliorates the conspicuity of focal liver lesions and may improve the sensitivity in diagnostic imaging of malignant hepatic tumors.

  8. Seleção de genótipos de cana-de-açúcar para acúmulo de protoporfirina ix com uso de herbicidas inibidores da protox Selection of Sugarcane Genotypes for Protoporphyrin IX Accumulation using Protox-Inhibiting Herbicides

    OpenAIRE

    L.R.M. Barberis; M.L.B. Trindade; E.D. Velini

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi selecionar genótipos de cana-de-açúcar por meio de inibidores da PROTOX e antioxidantes para indução do acúmulo de protoporfirina IX (PROTO IX) e/ou de seus precursores em plantas. Esses compostos podem ser utilizados como agentes sensibilizantes em terapia fotodinâmica (TFD), os quais possibilitam uma fonte de baixo custo para o tratamento de neoplasias e carcinomas. O experimento foi montado em câmara climatizada, com aplicação de nove tratamentos (1. oxy...

  9. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Robert C. [Texas A& M University; Kamon, Teruki [Texas A& M University; Toback, David [Texas A& M University; Safonov, Alexei [Texas A& M University; Dutta, Bhaskar [Texas A& M University; Dimitri, Nanopoulos [Texas A& M University; Pope, Christopher [Texas A& M University; White, James [Texas A& M University

    2013-11-18

    Overview The High Energy Physics Group at Texas A&M University is submitting this final report for our grant number DE-FG02-95ER40917. This grant has supported our wide range of research activities for over a decade. The reports contained here summarize the latest work done by our research team. Task A (Collider Physics Program): CMS & CDF Profs. T. Kamon, A. Safonov, and D. Toback co-lead the Texas A&M (TAMU) collider program focusing on CDF and CMS experiments. Task D: Particle Physics Theory Our particle physics theory task is the combined effort of Profs. B. Dutta, D. Nanopoulos, and C. Pope. Task E (Underground Physics): LUX & NEXT Profs. R. Webb and J. White(deceased) lead the Xenon-based underground research program consisting of two main thrusts: the first, participation in the LUX two-phase xenon dark matter search experiment and the second, detector R&D primarily aimed at developing future detectors for underground physics (e.g. NEXT and LZ).

  10. Lean manufacturing in the developing world methodology, case studies and trends from Latin America

    CERN Document Server

    Maldonado-Macías, Aidé; Cortes-Robles, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    This book presents some definitions and concepts applied in Latin America on lean manufacturing (LM), the LM tools most widely used and human and cultural aspects that most matter in this field. The book contains a total of 14 tools used and reported by authors from different countries in Latin America, with definition, timeline with related research, benefits that have been reported in literature, and case studies implemented in Latin American companies. Finally, the book presents a list of softwares available to facilitate the tools' implementation, monitoring and improvement.

  11. [Inequities in cardiovascular diseases in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2013-01-01

    In high-income countries, social inequalities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are well-documented. Although Latin America has a rich history of theory and conceptual discussion regarding social inequalities in health, empirical research has been more limited. In this commentary we summarize recent empirical work on social inequalities in CVD risk in Latin America, and highlight key research needs as well as implications for prevention. Although much remains unknown about the social patterning of CVD in Latin America, the limited studies to date indicate that inequalities in CVD risk vary across populations and markers of socioeconomic position, as well as disease risk marker. The strongest social inequalities are seen among women, and in urban areas, with regards to obesity, diabetes, and diet. Few studies, though, have been conducted in some parts of Latin America, including the countries of Central America and northern South America. Vital registration systems and nationally-representative risk factor surveys can be important sources of data, as long as information on socioeconomic indicators is collected. Longitudinal studies will also be important for investigating factors driving social inequalities. As policies and prevention strategies are put into place to reduce CVD in Latin America, they must also address factors generating social inequalities in CVD risk.

  12. La Calidad de las Aguas en los Ríos Cautín e Imperial, IX Región-Chile Water Quality in the Cautín and Imperial Rivers, IX Region-Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Rivera

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer la calidad descriptiva de agua de los ríos Cautín e Imperial que conforman la cuenca hidrográfica del río Imperial ubicada en la IX Región de la Araucanía-Chile. La caracterización fisicoquímica y microbiológica se efectuó fijando diez estaciones de muestreo. Los resultados muestran que las aguas de estos ríos no presentan problemas fisicoquímicos, de acuerdo a las normas chilenas oficiales. En la parte microbiológica se encontró un recuento alto de bacterias coliformes totales en algunas estaciones de muestreo, lo cual les da el carácter de no aptas para actividades con contacto directo y para el riego de verduras y frutas que se desarrollan a ras de suelo. Se puede predecir que una disminución del caudal de los ríos en el estiaje, provocará la mayor modificación del ecosistema, situación que se hace más crítica por la falta de un plan de manejo integral adecuadoThe objective of this work was to establish the descriptive water quality of the Cautín and Imperial rivers which form the Imperial River hydrographic basin in the IX Region of Araucanía, Chile. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluations were made at ten sampling stations. Physicochemical parameters measured in these rivers did not exceed the legally established Chilean water criteria. Microbiological testing showed high counts of coliform bacteria at some stations, exceeding water quality criteria for use in direct contact activities as well as for watering fruits and vegetables that develop at ground level. It can be predicted that reductions in river flow volume during dry periods will produce further modifications in this environment, which at present is not regulated by an appropriate integral management plan

  13. The emergence of scientific management in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin-George Toma

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A scientific approach to management was initiated for the first time in America in the late 19th century. Scientific management arose mainly from the need to increase efficiency in America, but other key factors were the spread of big businesses and the expanding application of science in industry. The aims of our paper are to present the emergence of scientific management in America and to emphasize the contribution of some of the most representatives American authors to its development. The methodological approach is literature review. Our paper shows that scientific management was essentially an American achievement that provided useful lessons for the whole human society.

  14. Post-War Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Kruijt

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available – Terror in the Countryside. Campesino Responses to Political Violence in Guatemala, 1954-1985, by Rachel A. May. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies/Research in International Studies/Latin America Series #35, 2001. – La guerrilla fue mi camino. Epitafio para César Montes, by Julio César Macías. Guatemala: Piedra Santa/Colección Afluentes de Modernidad, 1999. – Testigo de conciencia (Periodismo de Opinión Documentado, by Marco A. Mérida. Guatemala: ARCASAVI, 2000. – Centroamérica 2002. Un nuevo modelo de desarrollo regional, edited by Klaus Bodemer and Eduardo Gamarra. Caracas: Nueva Sociedad, 2002. – Who Governs? Guatemala Five years After the Peace Accords, by Rachel Sieder, Megan Thomas, George Vickers and Jack Spence. Cambridge, Mass.: Hemispheric Initiatives/Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA, January 2002. – Pasos hacia una nueva convivencia: Democracia y participación en Centroamérica, edited by Ricardo Córdova Macías, Günther Maihold and Sabina Kurtenbach. San Salvador: FUNDAUNGO, Instituto de Estudios Iberoamericanos de Hamburgo and Instituto Iberoamericano de Berlin, 2001. – Los desafíos de la democracia en Centroamérica, by René Poitevin and Alexander Sequén-Mónchez. Guatemala: FLACSO, 2002. – Más allá de las elecciones: Diez años después de los acuerdos de paz, edited by Hector Dada Hirezi. San Salvador: FLACSO, 2002. – Guatemala, un proyecto inconcluso: La multiculturalidad, un paso hacia la democracia, by Hugo Cayzac. Guatemala: FLACSO, 2001. – La violencia en el contexto del posconflicto, según la percepción de comunidades urbanas pobres de Guatemala, by Caroline Moser and Cathy McIlwaine. Washington/Bogotá: Banco Mundial-Región de Latinoamérica y el Caribe/Tercer Mundo Editores, 2001. – El lado oscuro de la eterna primavera. Violencia, criminalidad y delincuencia en la postguerra, by Manolo Vela, Alexander Sequén-Mónchez and Hugo Antonio Solares

  15. Tectonic history of the southeastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, R.D. Jr. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1993-03-01

    The present-day configuration of the crust of southeastern North America (SENA) is the product of a lengthy history traceable through more than 1 billion yr. of geologic time. The Appalachians (AP) record complete Wilson cycles of opening and closing of several oceans from ca. 690 Ma to 245 M. The final event forming the AP was the collision of SENA with Gondwana to form the supercontinent Pangaea. The Ouachitas (OA) had a somewhat different history culminating with island-arc collision during the Pennsylvanian--before the final collision began in the AP. SENA faced the open lapetos ocean no earlier than the Early Cambrian. The AP and OA were built on an earlier margin formed by rifting of the Rodonia super-continent formed by construction of the 1.2 to 1.0 Ga Grenville orogen, and farther west, a crust formed by still earlier (1.3 and 1.8 Ga) events. Recent suggestions that part of the AP platform is in Argentina raises the possibility that a fragment was rifted from between the AP and OA during the early Paleozoic. The crust beneath the Mississippi Embayment is atypical of continental crust, and would have been rifted during the Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic. The Argentine fragment may have been removed along a transform that was reactivated several times since. Northern Pangaea was rifted during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic and SENA once again faced open ocean-the nascent present Atlantic (AT) when spreading began. The Gulf of Mexico (GOM) also opened then forming extensive salt deposits. The AT opened partly along the old suture, but produced a failed rift in GA and FL leaving a piece of Africa forming the crust beneath the Coastal Plain as far south as central FL. The overlying sediments record recurrent uplift and decay of the AP and OA, cooling of new AT oceanic crust, eustatic sea-level changes during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, and uplift of the Rockies providing a new source of voluminous detritus that is still being deposited in the GOM.

  16. From upstream to downstream: Megatrends and latest developments in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kang; Pezeshki, S.; McMahon, J.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years, Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector has been characterized by reorganization, revitalization, regional cooperation, environmental awakening, and steady expansion. The pattern of these changes, which appear to be the megatrends of the region`s hydrocarbons sector development, will continue during the rest of the 1990s. To further study the current situation and future prospects of Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector, we critically summarize in this short article the key issues in the region`s oil and gas development. These megatrends in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector development will impact not only the future energy demand and supply in the region, but also global oil flows in the North American market and across the Pacific Ocean. Each country is individually discussed; pipelines to be constructed are discussed also.

  17. Reproductive governance in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lynn M; Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of reproductive governance as an analytic tool for tracing the shifting political rationalities of population and reproduction. As advanced here, the concept of reproductive governance refers to the mechanisms through which different historical configurations of actors - such as state, religious, and international financial institutions, NGOs, and social movements - use legislative controls, economic inducements, moral injunctions, direct coercion, and ethical incitements to produce, monitor, and control reproductive behaviours and population practices. Examples are drawn from Latin America, where reproductive governance is undergoing a dramatic transformation as public policy conversations are coalescing around new moral regimes and rights-based actors through debates about abortion, emergency contraception, sterilisation, migration, and assisted reproductive technologies. Reproductive discourses are increasingly framed through morality and contestations over 'rights', where rights-bearing citizens are pitted against each other in claiming reproductive, sexual, indigenous, and natural rights, as well as the 'right to life' of the unborn. The concept of reproductive governance can be applied to other settings in order to understand shifting political rationalities within the domain of reproduction. PMID:22889430

  18. The Norse discovery of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmoen, Iver A

    2005-12-01

    In the late 8th century, the stage for Viking expansion was set by commercial expansion in northwest Europe, the pressure of an increasing population in limited territorial reserves, and the development of the Viking ships. The Norsemen traveled extensively over the oceans, south to the Holy Land, and north to the White Sea and settled over a wide area from Sicily to Greenland. Historical sources, including the reports by Adam of Bremen and the Icelandic Sagas, describe several expeditions from Greenland to Vinland (somewhere along the east coast of North America) in approximately AD 1000 and later. Historians have arrived at highly different conclusions with respect to the location of Vinland (from Labrador to Georgia), but, in 1960, the Norwegian explorer Helge Ingstad localized ancient house sites on L'Ans aux Meadows, a small fishing village on the Northern beaches of Newfoundland. From 1961 to 1969, Ingstad and his wife, Anne Stine (an archaeologist), led several archaeological expeditions that revealed Viking turf houses with room for approximately 100 people. They also excavated a smithy, outdoor cooking pits, boathouses, a bathhouse, and enclosures for cattle, in addition to several Viking artifacts. The finds were C dated to AD 990 +/- 30. The present report reviews historical and archaeological evidence indicating the sites to which the Vikings traveled and attempted to settle in the new world.

  19. Science and Passion in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagredo Baeza, Rafael

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to increasing our knowledge and understanding of the naturalists who explored America at various times, particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries, we seek to discuss the personal, intimate, private, and sentimental nature of individuals who are usually described as well-bred, parsimonious, unfeeling, objective, rigorous, and methodical. For the same reason, perhaps, they are assumed to have stayed aloof from any form of sentimental or passionate relationships in the course of their excursions, despite the fact that the latter often lasted not for months but for years, and that in some instances were not conducted overland but involved prolonged voyages on the high seas.

    Además de avanzar en el conocimiento y comprensión de los naturalistas que exploraron América en algún momento, particularmente en los siglos XVIII y XIX, nos interesa relevar la dimensión personal, íntima, privada, sentimental, de sujetos que corrientemente son presentados como hombres comedidos, parcos, fríos, objetivos, rigurosos y metódicos y, tal vez por eso, se supone, ajenos a cualquier tipo de relación sentimental o pasional durante sus excursiones. Esto, a pesar de que muchas de ellas se prolongaron no ya por meses, sino que por años y que algunas de ellas no fueron itinerarios terrestres, sino que esencialmente marítimos, con largas temporadas en alta mar.

  20. Signatures of the non-Maxwellian $\\kappa$-distributions in optically thin line spectra \\subtitle{I. Theory and synthetic Fe IX--XIII spectra}

    CERN Document Server

    Dudík, J; Mason, H E; Dzifčáková, E

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of diagnosing the degree of departure from the Maxwellian distribution using single-ion spectra originating in astrophysical plasmas in collisional ionization equilibrium. New atomic data for excitation of Fe IX-XIII are integrated under the assumption of a kappa-distribution of electron energies. Diagnostic methods using lines of a single ion formed at any wavelength are explored. Such methods minimize uncertainties from the ionization and recombination rates, as well as the possible presence of non-equilibrium ionization. Approximations to the collision strengths are also investigated. The calculated intensities of most of the Fe IX-XIII EUV lines show consistent behaviour with kappa at constant temperature. Intensities of these lines decrease with kappa, with the vast majority of ratios of strong lines showing little or no sensitivity to kappa. Several of the line ratios, especially involving temperature-sensitive lines, show a sensitivity to kappa that is of the order of sev...

  1. Simulation of the population inversion at hydrogen-like F IX and Li III ion transitions in a recombining laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatial distributions of the intensities and inversion factor of the F IX ion lines of the Lyman series are studied as functions of the irradiation conditions. Laser plasma was produced by the first-harmonic radiation from a Nd laser (10-35 J, 0.6 ns) focused on a flat solid target. It is shown that, for moderate intensities (≅1014 W/cm2), the use of phase plates, which smooth spatial beam inhomogeneities on the target, results in an appreciable increase in size of the emission region of recombining F IX ions. The experimental data are compared with calculations by the 'Ion' computer code. Experiments on forming an extended active medium for lasing at the 4-3 transition of the hydrogen-like lithium ion are numerically simulated. This transition, having a wavelength of 208 nm in the UV spectral region, affords the inversion pickup using a resonator with available highly reflecting Al+MgF2 mirrors

  2. Venous thromboembolism in Latin America: a review and guide to diagnosis and treatment for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceresetto, Jose Manuel

    2016-01-01

    There are various region-specific challenges to the diagnosis and effective treatment of venous thromboembolism in Latin America. Clear guidance for physicians and patient education could improve adherence to existing guidelines. This review examines available information on the burden of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in Latin America and the regional issues surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Potential barriers to appropriate care, as well as treatment options and limitations on their use, are discussed. Finally, an algorithmic approach to the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolism in ambulatory patients is proposed and care pathways for patients with pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis are outlined for primary care providers in Latin America.

  3. Bathymetry of North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Bathymetry of North America map layer shows depth ranges using colors. The image was derived from the National Geophysical Data Center?s ETOPO2 elevation data,...

  4. Mineral Operations of Latin America and Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries...

  5. Microfinance: Lessons Learned in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas C. Miller-Sanabria

    2000-01-01

    The relative success of microfinance in rural credit programs in Latin America is the result of a decentralized development approach stressing a large microenterprise sector, stable and permanent institutions, an appropriate regulatory framework, and a stable economy as essential prerequisites

  6. 77 FR 74048 - Buy America Waiver Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... State of Michigan and the Government of Canada over the Detroit River linking Detroit, Michigan, to... public interest or when satisfactory quality domestic steel and iron products are not sufficiently... Federal Highway Administration Buy America Waiver Notification AGENCY: Federal Highway...

  7. 78 FR 12809 - Buy America Waiver Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... satisfactory quality domestic steel and iron products are not sufficiently available. This notice provides... deficient bridge carrying US-1 over the Piscataqua River between Portsmouth, NH, and Kittery, ME. The... Federal Highway Administration Buy America Waiver Notification AGENCY: Federal Highway...

  8. Energy market integration in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is a summary of presentations made during the 1997 Winter Meeting panel session on Power and Natural Gas in Latin America: Towards an Integrated Market. Reregulation and demand for energy resources to support economic growth are driving international natural gas and electricity exchange initiatives. Panelists focused on the gas and electric power industry in Latin America in terms of the: transport of gas or transmission of electricity; energy market integration in the southern cone of South America; and issues on gas use for electricity generation in South America countries. Countries such as Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru will export natural gas to Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Chile, an the energy matrices of these countries will change

  9. Nighttime Lights of North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is an image of nighttime lights for North America, including the Caribbean and most of Mexico. The data were collected in 1996 and 1997 as part of...

  10. Eucalyptus ESTs corresponding to the protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase enzyme related to the synthesis of heme, chlorophyll, and to the action of herbicides

    OpenAIRE

    Edivaldo Domingues Velini; Maria Lúcia Bueno Trindade; Elza Alves; Ana Catarina Catâneo; Celso Luis Marino; Ivan de Godoy Maia; Edson Seizo Mori; Edson Luiz Furtado; Iraê Amaral Guerrini; Carlos Frederico Wilcken

    2005-01-01

    This work was aimed at locating Eucalyptus ESTs corresponding to the PROTOX or PPO enzyme (Protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase, E.C. 1.3.3.4) directly related to resistance to herbicides that promote oxidative stress, changing the functionality of this enzyme. PROTOX, which is the site of action of diphenyl-ether (oxyfluorfen, lactofen, fomesafen), oxadiazole (oxadiazon and oxadiargyl), and aryl triazolinone (sulfentrazone and carfentrazone) herbicides, acts on the synthesis route of porphyrins whi...

  11. Preface - rethinking structural reform in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen J. Kay; Michael J. Chriszt

    2004-01-01

    The process of structural reform in Latin America has thus far been uneven, and various economic crises have raised doubts about reforms’ effectiveness and have caused public support for further reforms to wane. To promote and highlight research exploring structural reform’s impact on economic growth and income distribution in Latin America, the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) cosponsored the conference “Rethinking Structural Reform in Latin Ameri...

  12. Wind Powering America Initiative (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative engages in technology market acceptance, barrier reduction, and technology deployment support activities. This fact sheet outlines ways in which the Wind Powering America team works to reduce barriers to appropriate wind energy deployment, primarily by focusing on six program areas: workforce development, communications and outreach, stakeholder analysis and resource assessment, wind technology technical support, wind power for Native Americans, and federal sector support and collaboration.

  13. Building America Research-to-Market Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werling, Eric [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report presents the Building America Research-to-Market Plan (Plan), including the integrated Building America Technology-to-Market Roadmaps (Roadmaps) that will guide Building America’s research, development, and deployment (RD&D) activities over the coming years. The Plan and Roadmaps will be updated as necessary to adapt to research findings and evolving stakeholder needs, and they will reflect input from DOE and stakeholders.

  14. America and China in a New World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert E.Goodman

    2007-01-01

    <正>America has prided itself for the past 50 years on being a leader in all things:politics,human rights,and economics,However,in this new century,there are new paradigms that are arising that are forcing a change of attitude and views on how America views the rest of the world_and, especially,China.That is the subject of this discourse today.

  15. The International Crisis and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorio Corbo; Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel

    2013-01-01

    Latin America has been strongly affected by the international crisis and recession since late 2008. Compared with previous crises, how Latin America has faced this global crisis, what has been the role of different transmission mechanisms and how the structural conditions of the region have affected its vulnerability to external shocks? This paper aims at addressing these questions by assessing growth in the region’s seven major economies during 1990-2009; in particular, it examines the effec...

  16. Seleção de genótipos de cana-de-açúcar para acúmulo de protoporfirina ix com uso de herbicidas inibidores da protox Selection of Sugarcane Genotypes for Protoporphyrin IX Accumulation using Protox-Inhibiting Herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R.M. Barberis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi selecionar genótipos de cana-de-açúcar por meio de inibidores da PROTOX e antioxidantes para indução do acúmulo de protoporfirina IX (PROTO IX e/ou de seus precursores em plantas. Esses compostos podem ser utilizados como agentes sensibilizantes em terapia fotodinâmica (TFD, os quais possibilitam uma fonte de baixo custo para o tratamento de neoplasias e carcinomas. O experimento foi montado em câmara climatizada, com aplicação de nove tratamentos (1. oxyfluorfen + glutamato monossódico + vitaminas C e E; 2. oxyfluorfen + glutamato monossódico + vitaminas C e E + ácido levulênico; 3. oxyfluorfen; 4. carfentrazone + glutamato monossódico + vitaminas C e E; 5. carfentrazone + glutamato monossódico + vitaminas C e E + ácido levulênico; 6. carfentrazone; 7. testemunha + vitaminas C e E; 8. testemunha + vitaminas C e E + ácido levulênico; e 9. testemunha em oito genótipos de cana-de-açúcar (PO933499, RB806043, RB470355, PO830698, SP701143, PO901387, PO894414 e SP903414, dispostos em esquema fatorial 9 x 8, com quatro repetições. As repetições constituíram-se de folhas (20 cm destacadas de cada genótipo, sendo estas pulverizadas com os tratamentos mencionados, em simulador estacionário. Foram realizadas avaliações visuais de controle aos 2 DAA (dias após aplicação e, no fim do estudo, determinações analíticas via extração da biomassa fresca, verificando os teores de protoporfirina IX por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Os resultados mostraram que em curto prazo foram detectados aumentos significativos nas concentrações de PROTO IX para os genótipos RB470355 e SP903414 submetidos ao tratamento 2 e para o genótipo SP701143 submetido ao tratamento 8, indicando que eles podem ser utilizados como fontes acumuladoras de protoporfirina IX.The objective of this study was to select sugarcane genotypes through PROTOX inhibitors and antioxidants to induce the accumulation

  17. Caught between a Rock and a Hard Place: The Title IX Generation, Mathematics, and the State of Feminist Quantitative Social Science Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill R. Williams

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I reflect on the fortieth anniversary of the Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act of 1972 (Title IX, which prohibited discrimination based on sex in federally funded education programs in the United States and inspired educational programs that encourage girls to pursue math and science careers. I argue that despite the feminist underpinnings of Title IX, in recent years feminism has discouraged the advancement of women in math and science by excluding quantitative research from its publications, quantitative researchers from women's and gender studies programs, and quantitative training from its curriculum. I examine my own experience of growing up with Title IX programs, the long-term ramifications of those programs, and my recent struggles to do feminist demography to show how the relationship of feminism to the promotion of quantitative sciences has changed over time. I argue that there is an unfinished revolution in feminism and a stall in the development of feminist quantitative social science research that can only be resolved by creating intellectual space for feminist quantitative work in the academy.

  18. A new application of Gompertz function in photohemolysis: the effect of temperature on red blood cell hemolysis photosensitized by protoporphyrin IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Akhras, M

    2006-08-01

    Photosensitization by protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is accelerated at different irradiation temperatures, different dark incubation temperatures (Tinc) and different irradiation times. The applicability of Gompertz function to the fractional photohemolysis ratio, a and the rate of fractional photohemolysis, b is found to be the most appropriate model to fit the experimental data with minimum parameters and minimum errors. The reduction in Gompertz parameters, the fractional ratio values of a, and increase in the fractional rate values b, for 20 microM PpIX irradiated with black light at low irradiation temperature 5 degrees C and higher Tinc 37 degrees C was noticed. The parameter a has higher values at lower irradiation time and lower irradiation temperatures which indicates a longer photohemolysis process and longer t 50. Values of the parameter b were found to be strongly temperature-dependent, and always increase with increasing irradiation time and Tinc with lower values at lower irradiation time and lower Tinc. There are no significant changes in the lysis of RBCs process at irradiation temperatures equal to or higher than 35 degrees C. Similarly, no significant change on t50 at higher irradiation time at Tinc 24 and 37 degrees C. In conclusion, Gompertz analysis technique adapts to study the photohemolysis process at different conditions as a best-fit model.

  19. VLA Hosts "Flag Across America"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) hosted the runners and support personnel of the "Americans United Flag Across America" run as the transcontinental memorial and fundraising effort came through New Mexico. The flag run arrived at NRAO's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope west of Socorro, NM, early in the post-Midnight morning of Monday, November 5, and departed after sunrise that morning en route to the Arizona border. Drivers, runners and support personnel stayed overnight at the VLA. During the night, a "VLA Night Owl Run" kept the flag moving around the VLA area until the westward trek resumed after dawn. The run began Oct. 11, one month after the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington. Organized by employees of American and United Airlines to honor the flight crews lost in those attacks, to show support for U.S. troops and to raise funds to help the victims' families, the run will take an American flag from Boston Logan Airport to Los Angeles International Airport. The Boston-to-Los Angeles trip represents the intended journey of American Flight 11 and United Flight 175, both of which were crashed by terrorists into the World Trade Center. "Our observatory was proud to host this group and honored that they brought this flag through our facility," said Miller Goss, NRAO's director of VLA operations. The runners carried a flag that flew in a U.S. F-16 over Iraq in support of Operation Southern Watch on Oct. 2, and has visited Ground Zero in Manhattan. The flag is scheduled to arrive in Los Angeles on Veterans Day, Nov. 11. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  20. Healthy Municipios in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, H E; Llanos, G; Contreras, A; Rocabado, F; Gross, S; Suárez, J; González, J

    1995-09-01

    This article describes the Healthy Municipios movement in Latin America and gives examples of some PAHO projects that could become demonstration projects. The Healthy Municipios movement was established in the early 1990s. The movement aims to promote healthy municipalities according to objectives set forth in the 1987 Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion, the 1992 Declaration of Bogota, and the 1993 Caribbean Health Promotion Charter. The movement is a joint effort of government, the health sector, and the community in promoting health locally. Key features of the movement are its creativity, variety, political strength, and adaptation to local conditions. Technical cooperation serves the purpose of facilitating information exchange and promotes the use of modern techniques of analysis and scientific and technical information. All projects shared the following common features: initiation by the local community with strong political commitment, intersectoral organizational structure, widespread community mobilization and participation, problem solving activities, and a recognizable leader. Pioneering projects include the Comprehensive Project for Cienfuegos, Cuba; the Health Manizales, Colombia; the Network in Mexico; Baruta and El Hatillo, Venezuela; Valdivia, Chile; and San Carlos Canton, Costa Rica. It is concluded that these projects and most others aim to assure equity. These efforts are important for placing health on the political agenda and implementing healthy policies. The Valdivia project, for example, serves a population of about 120,000 in the urban city of Valdivia, the semi-urban area, and rural areas. The project was officially sanctioned by the President of Chile on World Health Day in 1993. Progress was reported in mass communication and school-based programs. Attention was directed also to prevention of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases and to the problem of traffic accidents.

  1. A Ceratopsian Dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Western North America, and the Biogeography of Neoceratopsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Farke

    Full Text Available The fossil record for neoceratopsian (horned dinosaurs in the Lower Cretaceous of North America primarily comprises isolated teeth and postcrania of limited taxonomic resolution, hampering previous efforts to reconstruct the early evolution of this group in North America. An associated cranium and lower jaw from the Cloverly Formation (?middle-late Albian, between 104 and 109 million years old of southern Montana is designated as the holotype for Aquilops americanus gen. et sp. nov. Aquilops americanus is distinguished by several autapomorphies, including a strongly hooked rostral bone with a midline boss and an elongate and sharply pointed antorbital fossa. The skull in the only known specimen is comparatively small, measuring 84 mm between the tips of the rostral and jugal. The taxon is interpreted as a basal neoceratopsian closely related to Early Cretaceous Asian taxa, such as Liaoceratops and Auroraceratops. Biogeographically, A. americanus probably originated via a dispersal from Asia into North America; the exact route of this dispersal is ambiguous, although a Beringian rather than European route seems more likely in light of the absence of ceratopsians in the Early Cretaceous of Europe. Other amniote clades show similar biogeographic patterns, supporting an intercontinental migratory event between Asia and North America during the late Early Cretaceous. The temporal and geographic distribution of Upper Cretaceous neoceratopsians (leptoceratopsids and ceratopsoids suggests at least intermittent connections between North America and Asia through the early Late Cretaceous, likely followed by an interval of isolation and finally reconnection during the latest Cretaceous.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of γ-AgI in Superionic Composite Glasses (AgIx(AgPO31-x

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suminta

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The γ-AgI phase was stabilized at room temperature in the composites glasses (AgIx(AgPO31-x with x = 0.6 and 0.7 via rapid quenching of their molten mixture. The measurement of the crystal structure has been carried out using an X-ray Difractometer at the Physics Departement of Ibaraki University, Japan. The micro strain and crystal size are derived from Hall’s equation. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows some Bragg peaks that correspond to the crystalline γ-AgI. By increasing the concentration of AgI, the peak width becomes more narrow and the position shifts to the higher angle. This indicates that the crystalline size and microstrain are increasing. The increase of micro strain (η, and particle size (D will increase the ionic mobility, thus increasing the ionic conductivity. It is concluded that solidification process on melt AgI into glass matrix AgPO3 not only decreases the micro strain and the particle size, but it also increases the ionic conductivity.

  3. AbIx: An Approach to Content-Based Approximate Query Processing in Peer-to-Peer Data Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-Kun Wang; Jian-Min Wang; Jia-Guang Sun; Sheng-Fei Shi; Hong Gao

    2007-01-01

    In recent years there has been a significant interest in peer-to-peer (P2P) environments in the community ofdata management. However, almost all work, so far, is focused on exact query processing in current P2P data systems.The autonomy of peers also is not considered enough. In addition, the system cost is very high because the informationpublishing method of shared data is based on each document instead of document set. In this paper, abstract indices (AbIx)are presented to implement content-based approximate queries in centralized, distributed and structured P2P data systems.It can be used to search as few peers as possible but get as many returns satisfying users' queries as possible on the guaranteeof high autonomy of peers. Also, abstract indices have low system cost, can improve the query processing speed, and supportvery frequent updates and the set information publishing method. In order to verify the effectiveness of abstract indices, asimulator of 10,000 peers, over 3 million documents is made, and several metrics are proposed. The experimental results showthat abstract indices work well in various P2P data systems.

  4. The magnesium-protoporphyrin IX (oxidative) cyclase system. Studies on the mechanism and specificity of the reaction sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C J; Mansfield, K E; Rezzano, I N; Hanamoto, C M; Smith, K M; Castelfranco, P A

    1988-10-15

    Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester cyclase activity was assayed in isolated developing cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. var. Beit Alpha) chloroplasts [Chereskin, Wong & Castelfranco (1982) Plant Physiol. 70, 987-993]. The presence of both 6- and 7-methyl esterase activities was detected, which permitted the use of diester porphyrins in a substrate-specificity study. It was found that: (1) the 6-methyl acrylate derivative of Mg-protoporphyrin monomethyl ester was inactive as a substrate for cyclization; (2) only one of the two enantiomers of 6-beta-hydroxy-Mg-protoporphyrin dimethyl ester had detectable activity as a substrate for the cyclase; (3) the 2-vinyl-4-ethyl-6-beta-oxopropionate derivatives of Mg-protoporphyrin mono- or di-methyl ester were approx. 4 times more active as substrates for cyclization than the corresponding divinyl forms; (4) at the level of Mg-protoporphyrin there was no difference in cyclase activity between the 4-vinyl and 4-ethyl substrates; (5) reduction of the side chain of Mg-protoporphyrin in the 2-position from a vinyl to an ethyl resulted in a partial loss of cyclase activity. This work suggests that the original scheme for cyclization proposed by Granick [(1950) Harvey Lect. 44, 220-245] should now be modified by the omission of the 6-methyl acrylate derivative of Mg-protoporphyrin monomethyl ester and the introduction of stereo-specificity at the level of the hydroxylated intermediate.

  5. The X-ray spectral evolution of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Luangtip, W; Done, C

    2016-01-01

    We present a new analysis of X-ray spectra of the archetypal ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg IX X-1 obtained by the Swift, XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observatories. This ULX is a persistent source, with a typical luminosity of ~10^40 erg s^-1, that varied by a factor of 4 - 5 over eight years. We find that its spectra tend to evolve from relatively flat or two-component spectra in the medium energy band (1-6 keV), at lower luminosities, to a spectrum that is distinctly curved and disc-like at the highest luminosities, with the peak energy in the curved spectrum tending to decrease with increased luminosity. We argue that the spectral evolution of the ULX can be explained by super-Eddington accretion models, where in this case we view the ULX down the evacuated funnel along its rotation axis, bounded by its massive radiatively driven wind. The spectral changes then originate in enhanced geometric beaming as the accretion rate increases and wind funnel narrows, causing the scattered flux from the central r...

  6. Suzaku Observations of Spectral Variations of the Ultra Luminous X-ray Source Holmberg IX X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Shogo B; Makishima, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Observations of the Ultra Luminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg IX X-1 were carried out with Suzaku twice, once on 2012 April 13 and then on 2012 October 24, with exposures of 180 ks and 217 ks, respectively. The source showed a hard power-law shape spectrum with a mild cutoff at $\\sim 8$ keV, which is typical of ULXs when they are relatively dim. On both occasions, the 0.6-11 keV spectrum was explained successfully in terms a cool ($\\sim 0.2$ keV) multi-color disk blackbody emission model and a thermal Comptonization emission produced by an electron cloud with a relatively low temperature and high optical depth, assuming that a large fraction of the disk-blackbody photons are Comptonized whereas the rest is observed directly. The 0.5-10 keV luminosity was $1.2\\times10^{40}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in April, and $\\sim 14\\%$ higher in October. This brightening was accompanied by spectral softening in $\\ge 2$ keV, with little changes in the $\\le 2$ keV spectral shape. This behavior can be understood if the accretion disk r...

  7. Modeling the NeIX Triplet Spectral Region of Capella with the Chandra and XMM-Newton Gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Ness, J U

    2003-01-01

    High resolution X-ray spectroscopy with the diffraction gratings of Chandra and XMM-Newton offers new chances to study a large variety of stellar coronal phenomena. A popular X-ray calibration target is Capella, which has been observed with all gratings with significant exposure times. We gathered together all available data of the HETGS (155ks), LETGS (219ks), and RGS (53ks) for comparative analysis focusing on the NeIX triplet at around 13.5A, a region that is severely blended by strong iron lines. We identify 18 emission lines in this region of the HEG spectrum, including many from FeXIX, and find good agreement with predictions from a theoretical model constructed using the Astrophysical Plasma Emission Code (APEC). The model uses an emission measure distribution derived from FeXV to FeXXIV lines. While these 18 emission lines cannot be isolated in the LETGS or RGS spectra, their wavelengths and fluxes as measured with HEG are consistent with the lower resolution spectra. In the Capella model for HEG, the...

  8. Liver gene therapy by lentiviral vectors reverses anti-factor IX pre-existing immunity in haemophilic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annoni, Andrea; Cantore, Alessio; Della Valle, Patrizia; Goudy, Kevin; Akbarpour, Mahzad; Russo, Fabio; Bartolaccini, Sara; D'Angelo, Armando; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Naldini, Luigi

    2013-11-01

    A major complication of factor replacement therapy for haemophilia is the development of anti-factor neutralizing antibodies (inhibitors). Here we show that liver gene therapy by lentiviral vectors (LVs) expressing factor IX (FIX) strongly reduces pre-existing anti-FIX antibodies and eradicates FIX inhibitors in haemophilia B mice. Concomitantly, plasma FIX levels and clotting activity rose to 50-100% of normal. The treatment was effective in 75% of treated mice. FIX-specific plasma cells (PCs) and memory B cells were reduced, likely because of memory B-cell depletion in response to constant exposure to high doses of FIX. Regulatory T cells displaying FIX-specific suppressive capacity were induced in gene therapy treated mice and controlled FIX-specific T helper cells. Gene therapy proved safer than a regimen mimicking immune tolerance induction (ITI) by repeated high-dose FIX protein administration, which induced severe anaphylactoid reactions in inhibitors-positive haemophilia B mice. Liver gene therapy can thus reverse pre-existing immunity, induce active tolerance to FIX and establish sustained FIX activity at therapeutic levels. These data position gene therapy as an attractive treatment option for inhibitors-positive haemophilic patients. PMID:24106222

  9. Vavian Clinac ix 加速器低剂量率特殊故障检修实例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永军

    2014-01-01

    美国Varian Clinac ix 加速器是Varian医用电子直线加速器“C”系列机型,整合了包括动态运动管理在内的在影像和治疗范围内的广泛应用。每一台Clinac直线加速器都基于全新高效的iX平台,并且每台系统都能够自定义配置。本文通过对Varian Clinac ix医用电子直线加速器低剂量率特殊故障检修实例进行介绍,希望能对各位同行检修美国Varian医用直线加速器“C”系列机型的低剂量率的故障检修有一定的帮助。

  10. Identification and Genetic Analysis of a Factor IX Gene Intron 3 Mutation in a Hemophilia B Pedigree in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hua Cao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hemophilia B is caused by coagulation defects in the factor IX gene located in Xq27.1 on the X chromosome. A wide range of mutations, showing extensive molecular heterogeneity, have been described in hemophilia B patients. Our study was aimed at genetic analysis and prenatal diagnosis of hemophilia B in order to further elucidate the pathogenesis of the hemophilia B pedigree in China. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing of all the coding regions was conducted in hemophilia B patients and carriers. Prenatal diagnosis of the proband was conducted at 20 weeks. RESULTS: We identified the novel point mutation 10.389 A>G, located upstream of the intron 3 acceptor site in hemophilia B patients. The fetus of the proband’s cousin was identified as a carrier. CONCLUSION: Our identification of a novel mutation in the F9 gene associated with hemophilia B provides novel insight into the pathogenesis of this genetically inherited disorder and also represents the basis of prenatal diagnosis.

  11. Variations among Japanese of the factor IX gene (F9) detected by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Chiyoko; Takahashi, Norio; Asakawa, Junichi; Hiyama, Keiko; Kodaira, Meiko (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan))

    1993-01-01

    In the course of feasibility studies to examine the efficiencies and practicalities of various techniques for screening for genetic variations, the human coagulation factor IX (F9) genes of 63 Japanese families were examined by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Four target sequences with lengths of 983-2,891 bp from the F9 genes of 126 unrelated individuals from Hiroshima and their 100 children were amplified by PCR, digested with restriction enzymes to approximately 500-bp fragments, and examined by DGGE - a total of 6,724 bp being examined per individual. GC-rich sequences (GC-clamps) of 40 bp were attached to both ends of the target sequences, as far as was feasible. Eleven types of new nucleotide substitutions were detected in the population, none of which produced RFLPs or caused hemophilia B. By examining two target sequences in a single lane, approximately 8,000 bp in a diploid individual could be examined. This approach is very effective for the detection of variations in DNA and is applicable to large-scale population studies. 46 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Characterization of IXINITY® (Trenonacog Alfa, a Recombinant Factor IX with Primary Sequence Corresponding to the Threonine-148 Polymorph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dougald M. Monroe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of these studies was to extensively characterize the first recombinant FIX therapeutic corresponding to the threonine-148 (Thr-148 polymorph, IXINITY (trenonacog alfa [coagulation factor IX (recombinant]. Gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism, and gel filtration were used to determine purity and confirm structure. Chromatographic and mass spectrometry techniques were used to identify and quantify posttranslational modifications. Activity was assessed as the ability to activate factor X (FX both with and without factor VIIIa (FVIIIa and in a standard clotting assay. All results were consistent across multiple lots. Trenonacog alfa migrated as a single band on Coomassie-stained gels; activity assays were normal and showed 97%  γ-carboxylation and underwent the appropriate structural change upon binding calcium ions. Trenonacog alfa was activated normally with factor XIa (FXIa; once activated it bound to FVIIIa and FXa. When activated to FIXa, it was inhibited efficiently by antithrombin. Glycosylation patterns were similar to plasma-derived FIX with sialic acid content consistent with the literature reports of good pharmacokinetic performance. These studies have shown that trenonacog alfa is a highly pure product with a primary sequence and posttranslational modifications consistent with the common Thr-148 polymorphism of plasma-derived FIX.

  13. Experiencia de desarrollo humano en la IX Región de La Araucanía, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Sanhueza Martínez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo es un concepto multidimensional y sus manifestaciones no son homogéneas en el plano territorial. Un indicador que intenta trascender el enfoque estrictamente económico, unidimensional, del desarrollo, e incorpora la noción de “oportunidades” para la población, es el índice de desarrollo humano (IDH. En este artículo se explica el IDH y sus componentes, y se aplica en un estudio específico en la IX Región de Chile, La Araucanía. Asimismo, se describen y analizan las diferencias de desarrollo humano que ha tenido esta región y sus comunas en función de su población rural, indígena, actividad económica principal y posición geográfica. El estudio culmina con una reflexión en torno a las principales causas de los desequilibrios de la región y las políticas públicas que ayudarían a superar su bajo nivel de desarrollo.

  14. Fibronectin-Alginate microcapsules improve cell viability and protein secretion of encapsulated Factor IX-engineered human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyar, Bahareh; Dodd, Megan; Marquez-Curtis, Leah; Janowska-Wieczorek, Anna; Hortelano, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Continuous delivery of proteins by engineered cells encapsu-lated in biocompatible polymeric microcapsules is of considerable therapeutic potential. However, this technology has not lived up to expectations due to inadequate cell--matrix interactions and subsequent cell death. In this study we hypoth-esize that the presence of fibronectin in an alginate matrix may enhance the viability and functionality of encapsulated human cord blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) expressing the human Factor IX (FIX) gene. MSCs were encapsulated in alginate-PLL microcapsules containing 10, 100, or 500 μg/ml fibronectin to ameliorate cell survival. MSCs in microcapsules with 100 and 500 μg/ml fibronectin demonstrated improved cell viability and proliferation and higher FIX secretion compared to MSCs in non-supplemented microcapsules. In contrast, 10 μg/ml fibronectin did not significantly affect the viability and protein secretion from the encapsulated cells. Differentiation studies demonstrated osteogenic (but not chondrogenic or adipogenic) differentiation capability and efficient FIX secretion of the enclosed MSCs in the fibronectin-alginate suspension culture. Thus, the use of recombinant MSCs encapsulated in fibronectin-alginate microcapsules in basal or osteogenic cultures may be of practical use in the treatment of hemophilia B. PMID:24564349

  15. Human platelet glycoprotein IX: An adhesive prototype of leucine-rich glycoproteins with flank-center-flank structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX complex on the surface of human platelets functions as the von Willebrand factor receptor and mediates von Willebrand factor-dependent platelet adhesion to blood vessels. GPIX is a relatively small (Mr, 17,000) protein that may provide for membrane insertion and orientation of the larger component of the complex. GPIb (Mr, 165,000). Using antibody screening, the authors cloned a cDNA encoding GPIX from a human erythroleukemia cell cDNA library constructed in phage λgt11. Lacking a 5' untranslated region and start codon, the cDNA sequence includes 604 nucleotides, beginning with 495 bases at the 5' end coding for 165 amino acids, followed by a stop codon and 106 noncoding bases at the 3' end. By Northern blot analysis, the GPIX cDNA hybridizes with a single 1.0-kilobase species of platelet poly(A)+ RNA. Translation of the cDNA sequence gives a predicted protein sequence beginning with a truncated putative signal sequence of 5 amino acids followed by a sequence of 17 amino acids matching that determined directly by Edman degradation of intact GPIX. GPIX contains a leucine-rich glycoprotein (LRG) sequence of 24 amino acids similar to conserved LRG sequences in GPIb and other proteins from humans, Drosophila, and yeast. The role of the flank-LRG center-flank structure in the evolution and function of the LRG proteins remains to be defined

  16. Geothermal direct heat use: market potential/penetration analysis for Federal Region IX (Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, W.; Tang, K. (eds.)

    1980-05-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential for geothermal direct heat use in Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Nevada (Federal Region IX). The analysis for each state was performed by a different team, located in that state. For each state, the study team was asked to: (1) define the resource, based on the latest available data; (2) assess the potential market growth for geothermal energy; and (3) estimate the market penetration, projected to 2020. Each of the four states of interest in this study is unique in its own way. Rather than impose the same assumptions as to growth rates, capture rates, etc. on all of the study teams, each team was asked to use the most appropriate set of assumptions for its state. The results, therefore, should reflect the currently accepted views within each state. The four state reports comprise the main portion of this document. A brief regional overview section was prepared by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, following completion of the state reports.

  17. The time-dependent accumulation of protoporphyrin IX fluorescence in nodular basal cell carcinoma following application of methyl aminolevulinate with an oxygen pressure injection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, E; Campbell, S; Allen, J; Mathew, J; Helliwell, P; Curnow, A

    2012-12-01

    Topical protoporphyrin (PpIX)-induced photodynamic therapy (PDT) relies on the penetration of the prodrug into the skin lesion and subsequent accumulation of the photosensitizer. Methyl aminolevulinate (MAL)-PDT is an established treatment for thinner and superficial non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) but for the treatment of the thicker nodular basal cell carcinoma (nBCC) enhanced penetration of the prodrug is required. This study employed a new higher pressure, oxygen pressure injection (OPI) device, at the time of Metvix® application with a view to enhancing the penetration of MAL into the tumors. Each patient had Metvix® applied to a single nBCC followed by application of a higher pressure OPI device. Following different time intervals (0, 30, 60, 120 or 180 min) the tumors were excised. The maximum depth and area of MAL penetration achieved in each lesion was measured using PpIX fluorescence microscopy. As expected, an increase in the depth of MAL-induced PpIX accumulation and area of tumor sensitized was observed over time; when the Metvix® cream was applied for 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min the median depth of PpIX fluorescence was 0%, 21%, 26.5%, 75.5% and 90%, respectively and the median area of tumor sensitized was 0%, 4%, 6%, 19% and 60%, respectively. As the investigation presented here did not include a control arm, the relative depths of fluorescence observed in this study were statistically compared (using the non-parametric Mann Whitney U test) with the results of our previous study where patients had Metvix® cream applied either with or without the standard pressure OPI device. When the higher pressure OPI device was employed compared to without OPI this increase was observed to be greater following 30, 120, and 180 min although overall not significantly (p=0.835). In addition, no significant difference between the higher pressure OPI device employed here and the previously investigated standard pressure OPI device was observed (p=0.403). However

  18. Combination photodynamic therapy using 5-fluorouracil and aminolevulinate enhances tumor-selective production of protoporphyrin IX and improves treatment efficacy of squamous skin cancers and precancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maytin, Edward V.; Anand, Sanjay

    2016-03-01

    In combination photodynamic therapy (cPDT), a small-molecule drug is used to modulate the physiological state of tumor cells prior to giving aminolevulinate (ALA; a precursor for protoporphyrin IX, PpIX). In our laboratory we have identified three agents (methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, and vitamin D) that can enhance therapeutic effectiveness of ALAbased photodynamic therapy for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, only one (5-fluorouracil; 5-FU) is FDA-approved for skin cancer management. Here, we describe animal and human studies on 5-FU mechanisms of action, in terms of how 5-FU pretreatment leads to enhanced PpIX accumulation and improves selectivity of ALA-PDT treatment. In A431 subcutaneous tumors in mice, 5-FU changed expression of heme enzyme (upregulating coproporphyrinogen oxidase, and down-regulating ferrochelatase), inhibited tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67), enhanced differentiation (E-cadherin), and led to strong, tumor-selective increases in apoptosis. Interestingly, enhancement of apoptosis by 5-FU correlated strongly with an increased accumulation of p53 in tumor cells that persisted for 24 h post- PDT. In a clinical trial using a split-body, bilaterally controlled study design, human subjects with actinic keratoses (AK; preneoplastic precursors of SCC) were pretreated on one side of the face, scalp, or forearms with 5-FU cream for 6 days, while the control side received no 5-FU. On the seventh day, the levels of PpIX in 4 test lesions were measured by noninvasive fluorescence dosimetry, and then all lesions were treated with PDT using methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) and red light (635 nm). Relative amounts of PpIX were found to be increased ~2-fold in 5-FU pretreated lesions relative to controls. At 3 months after PDT, the overall clinical response to PDT (reduction in lesion counts) was 2- to 3-fold better for the 5-FU pretreated lesions, a clinically important result. In summary, 5-FU is a useful adjuvant to aminolevulinate-based PDT

  19. Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South America

    OpenAIRE

    Carina Cesar; Koethe, John R; Mark J Giganti; Peter Rebeiro; Althoff, Keri N; Sonia Napravnik; Angel Mayor; Beatriz Grinsztejn; Marcelo Wolff; Denis Padgett; Juan Sierra-Madero; Eduardo Gotuzzo; Sterling, Timothy R; James Willig; Julie Levison

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART) services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods: HIV-positive adult...

  20. PUBLIC COMPANIES IN LATIN AMERICA: HISTORY, CONCEPTS, CASES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Guajardo Soto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the need to address the history of public companies in Latin America for having played a significant role in regional development during the 20th Century, as well as for the current reappearance of these organisms in the international energy sector, for the strategic role they still play in many countries and, lastly, because decades of privatization have weakened the collective memory on these organisms, in favour of the prevailing neoliberal version which justified the sale of the public heritage. Do we have good knowledge on the history behind the importance and track record of public companies in Mexico and Latin America? How can their resistance after decades of privatizations be explained? These queries are replied in the current dossier of the Public Management Journal, which gathers a group of studies analysing the cases of Uruguay, Costa Rica, Bolivia, Brazil and Argentina between 1912 and 2012, shedding light on the entrepreneurial activities of the State under different economic models. In these countries, public companies have placed themselves in vital areas for the functioning of the economies, such as telecommunications, electricity,oil, transportation and, to a lesser extent, manufacturing. The final section is an invitation not only to read but also to initiate an agenda to analyse and allow revealing the complex history of these public organisms.

  1. The ribbon continent of northwestern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamira-Areyan, Armando

    The tectonic structure of the Plate Boundary Zone (PBZ) between the Caribbean Plate (CARIB) and the South American Plate (SOAM) is interpreted using models that require CARIB motion from the Pacific into the Atlantic. Those models can be subdivided into: (1) those in which the island arc rocks that are now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ have collided with the northern South America margin, either obliquely or directly during the Cretaceous or during the Cenozoic, and (2) those in which the island arc rocks now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ collided with the west coast of South America during the Cretaceous and were transferred to the northern margin by transform motion during the Cenozoic. Magnetic anomalies were first rotated in the Central and South Atlantic, holding Africa fixed to establish how much NOAM had converged on SOAM during the Cenozoic. WSW convergence was discovered to have been accommodated in the northern boundary of the CARIB. There is no evidence of convergence in the form of Cenozoic island arc igneous rocks on the north coast of South America. Those results are consistent only with models of Class (2) that call for transform movement of material that had collided with the west coast of South America along the CARIB-SOAM PBZ on the northern margin of South America. 40Ar/39Ar ages of island arc rocks from northern Venezuela were found to be older than ca 70 Ma, which is consistent with a requirement of models of Class (2) that those rocks are from an island arc which collided with the west coast of South America during Cretaceous times. Testing that conclusion using data from Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, the Netherlands Antilles, Trinidad and Tobago has led to the construction of a new ribbon continent model of the northwestern Cordillera of South America. Because the part of the ribbon continent on the north coast of South America has been experiencing substantial deformation in the Maracaibo block during the past 10 m.y., structures in that body have had to be

  2. Gene therapy for hemophilia B mediated by recombinant adeno-associated viral vector with hFIXR338A, a high catalytic activity mutation of human coagulation factor IX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆华中; 陈立; 王红卫; 伍志坚; 吴小兵; 王学峰; 王鸿利; 卢大儒; 邱信芳; 薛京伦

    2001-01-01

    A mutant human factor IX with arginine at 338 residual changed to alanine (hFIXR338A) by site-directed mutagenesis was introduced into AAV vectors, and a recombinant adeno-associ- ated viral vector containing hFIXR338A, prepared by rHSV/AAV hybrid helper virus system, was directly introduced to the hind leg muscle of factor IX knock out mice. The expression and the biological activity of human factor IX mutant, hFIXR338A, and the immune response against it in the treated mice were assayed and detected. The results showed that (i) the high-level expression of human factor IX mutant protein, hFIXR338A, has been detected in rAAV-hFIXR338A treated hemophilia B mice and lasted more than 15 weeks; (ii) the clotting activity of hFIXR338A in plasma is 34.2%± 5.23%, which is remarkably higher than that of (14.27% ± 3.4%) of wild type hFIX treated mice in the activated partial thromboplastin assay; (iii) immune response against factor IX R338A was absent, with no factor IX mutant protein (hFIXR338A) inhibitors development in the treated mice; and (iv) no local or systemic side-effects and toxicity associated with the gene transfer were found. It demonstrated the potential use of treating hemophilia B by recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors with mutant hFIXR338A gene, an alternative strategy for hemophilia B gene therapy to wild-type human factor IX.

  3. Fiscal Policy in Latin America; Lessons and Legacies of the Global Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Oya Celasun; Francesco Grigoli; Keiko Honjo; Javier Kapsoli; Alexander D Klemm; Bogdan Lissovolik; Jan Luksic; Marialuz Moreno Badia; Joana Pereira; Marcos Poplawski-Ribeiro; Baoping Shang; Yulia Ustyugova

    2015-01-01

    Latin America’s bold fiscal policy reaction to the global financial crisis was hailed as a sign that the region had finally overcome its procyclical fiscal past. However, most countries of the region have not yet rebuilt their fiscal space, despite buoyant commodity revenues and relatively strong growth in the aftermath of the crisis. Using the experience of Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and Uruguay, this paper examines the lessons and legacies of the crisis by addressing the follo...

  4. Color-magnitude Diagrams of the Star-forming Galaxies Ho IX, Cam B, NGC 2976, and UGC 1281

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, T. B.; Bomans, D. J.

    We report results on a study of nearby late type galaxies performed with the 2m RC telescope of the Rozhen NAO with with 1×1 K CCD camera. The scale and the frame size are 0.32''/pix and 5.4'×5.4', respectively. At typical seeing of 1'' the data reach routinely a limiting magnitude of ˜4 mag. With these parameters many nearby galaxies, including the members of the IC 342 and M81 groups can be resolved into star-like and diffuse objects. This allows the determination of several fundamental properties of the galaxies, based on surface photometry and study of the brightest resolved objects. The most crucial parameter is the distance to the galaxy. It can be estimated to a standard error of 20 % using the brightest red and blue stars. Selection of these stars is greatly improved by analysis of the image shapes, which allows to detect diffuse objects, like cluster candidates and background galaxies. Further improvement gives the analysis of color-magnitude (CMD) and color-color diagrams. The CMDs also allow to estimate the age of the most recent star formation event and may hint at the metallicity. The CMDs of the low surface brightness irregular galaxies Ho IX and Cam B are very similar. Especially Cam B seems to be an extreme case of a low-mass star-forming dwarf galaxy. The CMD of NGC 2976 is very similar to this of the star burst galaxy M82 (Georgiev T., 2000, Compt. Rend. Acad. Bulg. Sci. 53/2, 5-8). The edge-on galaxy UGC 1281 is of intermediate star-forming activity, but the CMD is quite sparse.

  5. Probabilistic Estimation of Critical Flaw Sizes in the Primary Structure Welds of the Ares I-X Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Shantaram S.; Hoge, Peter A.; Patel, B. M.; Nagpal, Vinod K.

    2009-01-01

    The primary structure of the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) launch vehicle is constructed of welded mild steel plates. There is some concern over the possibility of structural failure due to welding flaws. It was considered critical to quantify the impact of uncertainties in residual stress, material porosity, applied loads, and material and crack growth properties on the reliability of the welds during its pre-flight and flight. A criterion--an existing maximum size crack at the weld toe must be smaller than the maximum allowable flaw size--was established to estimate the reliability of the welds. A spectrum of maximum allowable flaw sizes was developed for different possible combinations of all of the above listed variables by performing probabilistic crack growth analyses using the ANSYS finite element analysis code in conjunction with the NASGRO crack growth code. Two alternative methods were used to account for residual stresses: (1) The mean residual stress was assumed to be 41 ksi and a limit was set on the net section flow stress during crack propagation. The critical flaw size was determined by parametrically increasing the initial flaw size and detecting if this limit was exceeded during four complete flight cycles, and (2) The mean residual stress was assumed to be 49.6 ksi (the parent material s yield strength) and the net section flow stress limit was ignored. The critical flaw size was determined by parametrically increasing the initial flaw size and detecting if catastrophic crack growth occurred during four complete flight cycles. Both surface-crack models and through-crack models were utilized to characterize cracks in the weld toe.

  6. Validation of the manufacturing process used to produce long-acting recombinant factor IX Fc fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, J; Osborne, D; Dumont, J; Peters, R; Mei, B; Pierce, G F; Kobayashi, K; Euwart, D

    2014-07-01

    Recombinant factor IX Fc (rFIXFc) fusion protein is the first of a new class of bioengineered long-acting factors approved for the treatment and prevention of bleeding episodes in haemophilia B. The aim of this work was to describe the manufacturing process for rFIXFc, to assess product quality and to evaluate the capacity of the process to remove impurities and viruses. This manufacturing process utilized a transferable and scalable platform approach established for therapeutic antibody manufacturing and adapted for production of the rFIXFc molecule. rFIXFc was produced using a process free of human- and animal-derived raw materials and a host cell line derived from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293H cells. The process employed multi-step purification and viral clearance processing, including use of a protein A affinity capture chromatography step, which binds to the Fc portion of the rFIXFc molecule with high affinity and specificity, and a 15 nm pore size virus removal nanofilter. Process validation studies were performed to evaluate identity, purity, activity and safety. The manufacturing process produced rFIXFc with consistent product quality and high purity. Impurity clearance validation studies demonstrated robust and reproducible removal of process-related impurities and adventitious viruses. The rFIXFc manufacturing process produces a highly pure product, free of non-human glycan structures. Validation studies demonstrate that this product is produced with consistent quality and purity. In addition, the scalability and transferability of this process are key attributes to ensure consistent and continuous supply of rFIXFc.

  7. A two-component system regulates gene expression of the type IX secretion component proteins via an ECF sigma factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Tomoko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Naito, Mariko; Sato, Keiko; Kikuchi, Yuichiro; Kondo, Yoshio; Shoji, Mikio; Nakayama, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes potent pathogenic proteases, gingipains, via the type IX secretion system (T9SS). This system comprises at least 11 components; however, the regulatory mechanism of their expression has not yet been elucidated. Here, we found that the PorY (PGN_2001)-PorX (PGN_1019)-SigP (PGN_0274) cascade is involved in the regulation of T9SS. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis revealed a direct interaction between a recombinant PorY (rPorY) and a recombinant PorX (rPorX). rPorY autophosphorylated and transferred a phosphoryl group to rPorX in the presence of Mn(2+). These results demonstrate that PorX and PorY act as a response regulator and a histidine kinase, respectively, of a two component system (TCS), although they are separately encoded on the chromosome. T9SS component-encoding genes were down-regulated in a mutant deficient in a putative extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor, PGN_0274 (SigP), similar to the porX mutant. Electrophoretic gel shift assays showed that rSigP bound to the putative promoter regions of T9SS component-encoding genes. The SigP protein was lacking in the porX mutant. Co-immunoprecipitation and SPR analysis revealed the direct interaction between SigP and PorX. Together, these results indicate that the PorXY TCS regulates T9SS-mediated protein secretion via the SigP ECF sigma factor. PMID:26996145

  8. 78 FR 76791 - Availability of Version 4.0 of the Connect America Fund Phase II Cost Model; Adopting Current...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... workbook. Buried excavation costs are used. A toggle allows the user to exclude manholes (the current... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 54 Availability of Version 4.0 of the Connect America Fund Phase II Cost Model; Adopting Current Default Inputs in Final Version of Model AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission....

  9. The institutional foundations of energetic integration at the South America; Os fundamentos institucionais na integracao energetica da America do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, Lizett Paola Lopez; Guerra, Sinclair Mallet-Guy [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: lizlosu@fem.unicamp.br, sguerra@fem.unicamp.br; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia (IEE)]. E-mail: udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    From the revision and analysis of the energy integration process in South America, the present article goals to show which are the institutional basis that endorse the process, once these entities act directly with questions related to the energy sector or to the wider economic integration where the energy integration is inserted. Thus, the Regional entities, that can be associations, organizations and commissions, like ALADI, ARPEL, CEPAL, CIER, OLADE and others are mentioned and analyzed. The analysis points out that these entities constitute the institutional basis for support the decision making of the region countries, considering the achieved studies, the promoted debates, the establishment of norms and information treatment. Finally, it is emphasized that these entities can not and should not have decide and execute, since are the governments (politic will) the responsible for the planning and coordination role for having the integration project effectively implemented. (author)

  10. Fluorescence photobleaching of ALA and ALA-heptyl ester induced protoporphyrin IX during photodynamic therapy of normal hairless mouse skin: a comparison of two light sources and different illumination schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudroma, Xiao; Juzeniene, Asta; Ma, Li-Wei; Iani, Vladimir; Moan, Johan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated photobleaching of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and ALA-heptyl ester during superficial photodynamic therapy (PDT) in normal skin of the female BALB/c-nu/nu athymic mouse. We examined the effects of two light sources (laser and broadband lamp) and two different illumination schemes (fractionated light and continuous irradiation) on the kinetics of photobleaching. Our results show that light exposure (0-30 minutes, 10 mW/cm2) of wavelengths of approximately 420 nm (blue light) and 635 nm (red light) induced time-dependent PpIX photobleaching for mouse skin of 2% ALA and ALA-heptyl ester. Blue light (10 mW/cm2) caused more rapid PpIX photobleaching than did red light (100 mW/cm2), which is attributed to stronger absorption at 407 nm than at 632 nm for PpIX. In the case of light fractionation, fractionated light induced faster photobleaching compared with continuous light exposure after topical application of 2% ALA and ALA-heptyl ester in vivo. These have been suggested to allow reoxygenation of the irradiated tissue, with a consequent enhancement of singlet oxygen production in the second and subsequent fractions.

  11. Comparative Evaluation of the Antibacterial Efficacy of Type II Glass lonomer Cement, Type IX Glass lonomer Cement, and AMALGOMER™ Ceramic Reinforcement by Modified “Direct Contact Test”: An in vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assudani, Harsha G; Patil, Vidyavathi; Kukreja, Pratibha; Uppin, Chaitanya; Thakkar, Prachi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Streptococcus mutans (ATCC25175) has a profound effect on the incidence of dental decay in the human population. Many studies have been performed to assess the antimicrobial activity of different cements. However, little or no information is available about the antibacterial properties of Type II glass ionomer cement (GIC), Type IX GIC, and AMALGOMER™ ceramic reinforcement (CR). Aim: To comparatively evaluate the antibacterial activity of Type II GIC, Type IX GIC, and AMALGOMER™ CR by modified direct contact test. Materials and methods: The total sample size was 72 which was divided into four study groups. Six wells were coated by each: Type II GIC, Type IX GIC, AMALGOMER™ CR, and control group (only S. mutans). Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance and the intergroup comparison was done using post hoc Tukey test. Results: AMALGOMER™ CR was found to have a better antibacterial effect as compared with Type II and IX GIC. Conclusion: AMALGOMER™ CR can serve as a valuable cement in pediatric dentistry due to its anticariogenic property. How to cite this article: Hugar SM, Assudani HG, Patil V, Kukreja P, Uppin C, Thakkar P. Comparative Evaluation of the Antibacterial Efficacy of Type II Glass lonomer Cement, Type IX Glass Ionomer Cement, and AMALGOMER™ Ceramic Reinforcement by Modified “Direct Contact Test”: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):114-117. PMID:27365930

  12. Geography, Resources, and Environment of Latin America: An Undergraduate Science Course focused on Attracting Hispanic students to Science and on Educating Non-Hispanics about Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujana, I.; Stern, R. J.; Ledbetter, C. E.

    2004-12-01

    With NSF-CCLI funding, we have developed, taught, and evaluated a new lower-division science course for non-majors, entitled "Geography, Resources, and Environment of Hispanic America" (GRELA). This is an adaptation of a similar course, "Geology and Development of Modern Africa" developed by Barbara Tewksbury (Hamilton College), to attract African American students to science by highlighting cultural ties with their ancestral lands. We think that a similar approach focusing on Latin America may attract Hispanic undergraduates, at the same time that it increases awareness among non-Hispanic students about challenges facing our neighbors to the south. GRELA is an interdisciplinary exploration of how the physical and biological environment of Mexico, Central America, and South America have influenced the people who live there. The course consists of 20 lectures and requires the student to present a report partnering with correspondents in Latin American universities. GRELA begins with an overview of Latin American physical and cultural geography and geologic evolution followed by a series of modules that relate the natural resources and environment of Latin America to the history, economy, and culture of the region. This is followed by an exploration of pre-Columbian cultures. The use of metals by pre-Columbian, colonial, and modern cultures is presented next. We then discuss hydrocarbon resources, geothermal energy, and natural hazards of volcanoes and earthquakes. The last half of the course focuses on Earth System Science themes, including El Nino, glaciers, the Amazon river and rainforest, and coral reefs. The final presentation concerns population growth and water resources along the US-Mexico border. Grades are based on two midterms, one final, and a project which requires that groups of students communicate with scientists in Latin America to explore some aspect of geography, natural resources, or the environment of a Latin American region of common interest

  13. La Calidad de las Aguas en el Curso Superior y Medio del Río Traiguén: IX Región-Chile Superior and Medium Water Quality in Traiguén River: IX Region-Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson R Rivera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se establece la calidad de agua del curso superior y medio del río Traiguén ubicado en la IX Región de la Araucanía en Chile. La caracterización fisicoquímica y microbiológica se efectuó fijando seis estaciones de muestreo, desde un lugar cercano a la naciente del río hasta el límite comunal de la ciudad de Victoria con Traiguén. Los valores mas bajos en los parámetros evaluados, los presentan las aguas de las estaciones 1 y 2 ubicadas fuera del límite urbano, contrariamente a lo que ocurre con las estaciones 3, 4 y 5 que muestran los efectos de los afluentes: planta lácteos, curtiembre y aguas servidas respectivamente. Los resultados de la parte microbiológica señalan que las aguas de ninguna de las estaciones del río pueden emplearse como fuente de abastecimiento para consumo humano por estar sobre los límites fijados por la norma chilena (NCh 409, 1984. Se presentan limitaciones en sus comunidades así como para su uso en regadío, y recreación con contacto directo.The water quality in the upper and medium zone of Traiguén river in the Araucanía region was studied in the present work. Physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were measured at six sample stations in a zone that goes from close to the origin of the river to the limits of the city of Victoria with Traiguén. The influence of the Victoria town on the water quality of Traiguen river generates as consequence low values of studied parameters that were reported in sampling stations 1 and 2 located in the surrounding of Victoria town. A different situation was reported in stations 3, 4 and 5, that show the effects of waste dispose by milky industries, leather industries and waste water respectively. The results of microbiological parameters denoted that the water of all sampled stations can not be used for human use because the parameters are upper than regulations. Also, limitations were denoted in their ecological parameters, and for their

  14. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Unvented, Conditioned Crawlspaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research which influenced code requirements by demonstrating that unvented, conditioned crawlspaces use 15% to 18% less energy for heating and cooling while reducing humidity over 20% in humid climates.

  15. Adolescent Pregnancy in America: Causes and Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenico, Desirae M.; Jones, Karen H.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy has occurred throughout America's history. Only in recent years has it been deemed an urgent crisis, as more young adolescent mothers give birth outside of marriage. At-risk circumstances associated with adolescent pregnancy include medical and health complications, less schooling and higher dropout rates, lower career…

  16. A World of Hurt: Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    Massive socioeconomic problems have left Latin American education in a dire condition, and decades behind the rest of the globe in integrating technology into teaching and learning. But a few spots in the region offer signs of hope. In this article, the author describes several efforts at tech-based educational reform in Latin America.

  17. "Math for America" Isn't

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfmeyer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of the Math for America organization's actions, aims and affiliations are analyzed for their effects on urban schools and society at large. These aspects are argued as evidence to consider MfA as an agent working against democratic practice and in favor of furthering profit and its resultant inequitable resource distribution. The…

  18. The Race Race: Assimilation in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balis, Andrea; Aman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Can race and assimilation be taught? Interdisciplinary pedagogy provides a methodology, context, and use of nontraditional texts culled from American cultural history such as from, theater and historical texts. This approach and these texts prove useful for an examination of race and assimilation in America. The paper describes a course that while…

  19. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore, German departments must…

  20. High School Students and "Read Across America"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Julieta Dias; Hill, Ann

    2004-01-01

    Although more commonly associated with elementary school rather than high school students, "Read Across America" celebrations can cater to any age group and generate enthusiasm for reading long after the festivities have ended. In this article, the authors, library media specialists at Washington Township High School in Sewell, New Jersey, share …

  1. 78 FR 48218 - Buy America Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... . Background On July 10, 2013, at 78 FR 41492, the FHWA published in the Federal Register a notice seeking... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Buy America Policy AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),...

  2. Chinese Studies Librarianship in North America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karen T. Wei

    2004-01-01

    Although American libraries had begun collecting Chinese language materials in the 19th century, notably the United States Library of Congress in 1869, Yale in 1878, Harvard in 1879, and Berkeley in 1896, East Asian studies librarianship in North America, including China studies librarianship, was not fully developed until the 1960s. There was no formal organization that represented the interest of Chinese studies librarians because there were few of them and most of them were China scholars rather than trained librarians. More than 100 years later, the number of Chinese studies librarians in North America has increased considerably,primarily in response to the demand in the field of China studies and more recently to the needs of immigrant population and the general public who has an interest in China.This paper traces the history and growth of Chinese studies librarianship in North America, documents the development of the professional organization that represents Chinese studies librarians, and examines the training programs that prepare them for their jobs. It also attempts to propose an international exchange forum aiming to bring together Chinese studies librarians in North America and librarians in China in sharing their experience and expertise to achieve the ultimate goal of serving the users.

  3. Rat Lungworm Expands into North America

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-21

    Emily York, integrated pest management specialist at the Sam Noble Museum of Natural History, discusses the rat lungworm expansion in North America.  Created: 1/21/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/21/2016.

  4. Imaging of subducted lithosphere beneath South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engdahl, E.R.; Hilst, R.D. van der; Berrocal, J.

    1995-01-01

    Tomographic images are produced for the deep structure of the Andean subduction zone beneath western South America. The data used in the imaging are the delay times of P, pP and pwP phases from relocated teleseismic earthquakes in the region. Regionally, structural features larger than about 150 km

  5. Scientific research in America at risk

    CERN Multimedia

    Wojcicki, Esther

    2008-01-01

    "It is hard to believe, but science in America is struggling. Funding for scientific research has been cut back for years, but this year it is so bad that Fermi National Laboratory in the Chicago area, needs to close down for six weeks in 2008 to make ends meet." (1/2 page)

  6. Black America: Looking Inward or Outward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Vernon E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents some observations on what the recent attacks on affirmative action, the O. J. Simpson trial, and the Million Man March say about racism in America. In particular, the author assesses the Million Man March in terms of black leadership and its influence in helping black men to become more involved in constructive community service. (GR)

  7. 77 FR 6170 - Buy America Waiver Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ...'') for rehabilitation of the Congress Parkway Bascule Bridge over the South Branch of the Chicago River... inconsistent with the public interest or when satisfactory quality domestic steel and iron products are not... Federal Highway Administration Buy America Waiver Notification AGENCY: Federal Highway...

  8. Science Editing in America: An Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara Gastel

    2003-01-01

    @@ In America, science editing appears to be an increasingly recognized field. In what settings do American science editors work, and what kinds of work do they do ? What is their educational background? What style manuals and other resources do they use? What organizations serve them? What topics and issues do they find of professional interest?

  9. Micro Insurance Matters in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg , Mike; Ramanathan, C S

    2008-01-01

    This note discusses the rapidly evolving issue of micro insurance in Latin America and how microfinance institutions (MFIs), insurance companies and donors can respond to its challenges. This note is part of a series summarizing the Department of International Development-Latin American Markets and International Trade Program (DFID-LAMIT) eight-part distance learning program with South Ame...

  10. Child Labour in 1920 Urban America

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Manacorda

    2006-01-01

    When poor children are working rather than going to school, do their parents work less? And what happens to their siblings? Marco Manacorda looks for answers in the experience of child labour in urban America at the dawn of the jazz age.

  11. What's Cooking in America's Schoolyard Gardens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses what's cooking in America's schoolyard gardens. From First Lady Michelle Obama's world-famous Kitchen Garden, to Alice Waters' groundbreaking Edible Schoolyard in Berkeley, California, to a nationally recognized elementary school learning garden in the small Midwestern town of Ashland, Missouri, school children are planting…

  12. The Scapegoat Generation: America's War on Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, Mike A.

    Claiming that politicians, private interests, and the media unfairly blame adolescents for America's social problems, this book explodes various myths about teen pregnancy, violence, and risk behaviors. The chapters are: (1) "Impounding the Future," examining trends in various social indicators such as rising rates of child poverty versus…

  13. 78 FR 69531 - America Recycles Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... that contribute to climate change. In addition, it spurs economic growth, generating billions of... vital to our common welfare. Today, we face new threats--to our environment, our health, and our climate--that require all of us to do our part. On America Recycles Day, we carry forward a great...

  14. 75 FR 71003 - America Recycles Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 223 / Friday, November 19, 2010 / Presidential Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8601 of November 15, 2010 America Recycles Day, 2010 By the President of the.... The increased use of electronics and technology in our homes and society brings the challenge...

  15. Democracy in the Rest of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Patrick

    1991-01-01

    Describes the role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the political arena, as well as in development and public welfare roles. Traces the recent history of grassroots efforts to solve social problems in Latin America. NGOs can strengthen institution building and influence national policymaking. (KS)

  16. Latin America: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This learning aid is intended to help Americans become more effective in understanding and communicating with Latin Americans. The book consists of the following: (1) a map of Latin America, with area and population statistics for the various countries; (2) a brief description of the land, the people, the economy, diet, religion, government,…

  17. Building America - Resources for Energy Efficient Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-04-19

    Building America publications help builders achieve whole-house energy savings in five major climate zones. Using the recommendation and process improvements outlined in the Best Practices Series handbooks, builders can re-engineer their designs to improve energy performance and quality. Case studies for new and existing homes provide results from actual projects.

  18. Looking Past the Spin: Teach for America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Teach for America (TFA) is perceived as a major player in the education wars over the future of public schools, and a key ally of those who disparage teacher unions and schools of education, and who are enamored of entrepreneurial reforms that bolster the privatization of a once-sacred public responsibility. But what exactly is TFA's role in these…

  19. A Future Worthy of Teaching for America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The vision Megan Hopkins offers for the future design of Teach for America (TFA) combines the appeal of TFA--a pathway into teaching for able college graduates who are willing to work in high need schools--with recognition that to serve their students well, such schools must have highly skilled teachers who are able to address a wide range of…

  20. Evaluating Multigrade School Reform in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes three multigrade school reforms in Latin America: (1) Colombia's "Escuela Nueva", (2) Guatemala's "Nueva Escuela Unitaria", and (3) Chile's MECE-Rural. Each reform endowed primary teachers and students with special training and instructional materials, and encouraged new kinds of instruction in rural classrooms, with the goal…

  1. 2013 Building America Research Planning Meeting Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hunt, S. [Confluence Communications, Missoula, MT (united States)

    2014-02-01

    The Building America Research Planning Meeting was held October 28-30, 2013, in Washington, DC. This meeting provides one opportunity each year for the research teams, national laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) managers to meet in person to share the most pertinent information and collaboration updates. This report documents the presentations, highlights key program updates, and outlines next steps for the program.

  2. 76 FR 52380 - Buy America Waiver Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... a Buy America waiver is appropriate for the use of non-domestic 5 \\3/8\\'' stud link chain for a...\\'' stud link chain on a Federal- aid project in Larose, Louisiana. In accordance with Division A, section... comments inquired for more detailed information about the project and the purpose of using the stud...

  3. The Law and Bondage in Early America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. Sammy

    1976-01-01

    Concludes that economic determinism may not sufficiently explain servitude and other institutions in Colonial America but that the efforts of legal, cultural, and intellectual historians may reveal more about the subordination of whites and blacks to their social betters. (Author/AM)

  4. Forest health conditions in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the greatest forest health impacts in North America are caused by invasive forest insects and pathogens (e.g., emerald ash borer and sudden oak death in the US), by severe outbreaks of native pests (e.g., mountain pine beetle in Canada), and fires exacerbated by changing climate. Ozone and N and S pollutants continue to impact the health of forests in several regions of North America. Long-term monitoring of forest health indicators has facilitated the assessment of forest health and sustainability in North America. By linking a nationwide network of forest health plots with the more extensive forest inventory, forest health experts in the US have evaluated current trends for major forest health indicators and developed assessments of future risks. Canada and Mexico currently lack nationwide networks of forest health plots. Development and expansion of these networks is critical to effective assessment of future forest health impacts. - The forests of North America continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fragmentation, fires, native and invasive pests, and air pollution

  5. "Song of Myself":Song of America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳晴

    2015-01-01

    Walt Whitman's poem"Song of Myself"is one of his most representative works. It is not only a song of Whitman him-self, but also a song of America. This paper will make an analysis of this poem from the angle of its theme, including American identity and American dream.

  6. Uranium resources and geology of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since about the mid seventies, the International Atomic Energy Agency has held meetings on the geology and uranium resources of different geographic regions of the world. As a continuation of this series the Technical Committee Meeting on Uranium Resources and Geology of North America was held between 1-3 September 1987 in Saskatoon, Canada. The meeting took place in the University of Saskatchewan, hosted by the Department of Geological Sciences in cooperation with the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada. Thirty-six technical papers were presented to a group of over 85 participants from seven countries. These papers provided an excellent coverage of uranium occurrences and deposits and their geological framework in Canada and the USA, with analogies from other parts of the world. North America, the region dealt with in this meeting, is of eminent significance for the world's uranium production and the nuclear industry. Total WOCA U-resources according to the classification developed by the IAEA and the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD are periodically collected by these two organisations for their report on Uranium Resources, Production and Demand. Currently total WOCA known U resources recoverable at costs of less than $130/kg U or $50/lb U3O8) amount to 3.5 million t U, of which about 25% are located in North America, while the remainder is equally divided among Africa, Australia and the rest of WOCA (Asia, Europe, South America). Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Research Universities and the Future of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duderstadt, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The crucial importance of the research university as a key asset in achieving economic prosperity and security is widely understood, as evidenced by the efforts that nations around the globe are making to create and sustain institutions of world-class quality. Yet, while America's research universities remain the strongest in the world, they are…

  8. Sisterhood and Sentimentality: Americas's Earliest Preschool Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewes, Dorothy W.

    1995-01-01

    Describes how America's oldest child-care centers began during a period of economic growth and intellectual turbulence in the late 1800s, when women from all walks of American life united to promote the kindergarten movement inspired by the German Friedrich Froebel. Chronicles the movement from a women's history perspective. (ET)

  9. Special Issue on Labor in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornfield, Daniel B.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Includes "Labor Transnationalism?" (Cornfield); "Globalization and International Labor Organizing" (Boswell, Stevis); "Trade Unions and European Integration" (Hyman); "Trade Policy and Southern Economy" (Margo, Griffin); "Institutionalization of the Sociology of Work in Latin America" (Abramo et al.); "Impact of the Movement toward Hemispheric…

  10. Estudio de la flora de comunidades ruderales antropogénicas en la IX Región de la Araucanía, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez García, Carlos; San Martín Padovani, Cristina; Ojeda, Pedro

    1999-01-01

    Se estudió la flora ruderal de cuatro formaciones vegetales antropogénicas (matorrales de Pica-Pica, praderas, lagunas y arroyos con vegetación palustre y acuática) en la zona ubicada al poniente de la ciudad de Temuco (IX Región de la Araucanía, Chile). La lista de especies presentes se obtuvo de la primera columna de una tabla de vegetación formada por 403 censos, que fueron levantados con la metodología fitosociológica del Sur de Europa. Se encontró un total de 262 especies vegetales, con ...

  11. A Complex of Nuclear Factor I-X3 and STAT3 Regulates Astrocyte and Glioma Migration through the Secreted Glycoprotein YKL-40*

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sandeep K.; Bhardwaj, Reetika; Wilczynska, Katarzyna M.; Dumur, Catherine I.; Kordula, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear factor I-X3 (NFI-X3) is a newly identified splice variant of NFI-X that regulates expression of several astrocyte-specific markers, such as glial fibrillary acidic protein. Here, we identified a set of genes regulated by NFI-X3 that includes a gene encoding a secreted glycoprotein YKL-40. Although YKL-40 expression is up-regulated in glioblastoma multiforme, its regulation and functions in nontransformed cells of the central nervous system are widely unexplored. We find that expressio...

  12. CRKVE SV. VIDA NA KLISU I SV. MARIJE U BLIZNI GORNJOJ Prilog proučavanju vladarske predromaničke arhitekture IX. stoljeća

    OpenAIRE

    Bužančić, Radoslav

    2011-01-01

    Autor u radu donosi prikaz dviju vladarskih crkava iz IX. st. slična ustroja s westwerkom. Uz obje crkve pronađeni su ulomci kamene plastike s dedikacijskim natpisom, od kojih jedan spominje župana a drugi kraljicu. Na Klisu je pronađena ploča s reljefom na temu Majestas Domini. Obje crkve spadaju u privatne crkve, tzv. eigenkirche, što upućuje na novi način franačke organizacije teritorija s utvrđivanjem feudalnog posjeda (Ordensburgen).

  13. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nonproliferation Alterntive Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates

  14. The 5s25p 2P-5s5p24P intercombination lines in the In I isoelectronic sequence from Sb III to La IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 5s25p2P-5s5p24P intercombination lines in indium-like ions have been identified from Sb III to La IX. For Sb III and Te IV previously reported values are confirmed and for I V, the 5s5p24P3/2 level has been revised while all other 5s5p24P levels for all spectra have been reported for the first time. Thirty-three lines are classified, of which 20 are new. (author)

  15. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The Nonproliferation Alterntive Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates.

  16. Iconoclasmo e iconodulia entre oriente y occidente (siglos VIII-IX) Iconoclasm and iconoduly between east and west (8th-9th centuries)

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Hernández Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    El siguiente artículo trata acerca de la recepción en el occidente carolingio de la crisis iconoclasta. Reflexiona sobre la forma en que ambas cristiandades trataron el problema que las imágenes representan para las prácticas religiosas y las consecuencias políticas del culto de los iconos. El escrito afirma también que durante los siglos VIII y IX la crisis iconoclasta permitió la aparición de una tradición cristiana latina consciente de sí misma. Por lo tanto, se trató del momento que puso ...

  17. The Mediterranean fruit fly in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various methods of controlling the medfly are available and include the use of insecticides, bait sprays and the sterile insect technique (SIT). Each of these control strategies may be used alone or in sequence. With regard to the application of the SIT, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture through its Insect and Pest Control Section and Entomology Laboratory is in an excellent position to assist in containing the medfly in Central America. For the past 12 years, the laboratory has participated in all phases of medfly control by sterile insect releases in various climates. This involvement has included planning of medfly campaigns, development of pre-release techniques (bait spraying, trapping, etc.) and shipment and release of sterilized medflies. Small-scale field tests utilizing the SIT have been carried out by nine countries: Italy (Procida, Capri), Spain, Cyprus, Israel, Tunisia, Peru, Panama, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Other field projects presently being counselled and serviced are located in Argentina, Venezuela and the Canary Islands. The research and development that are still needed to effectively stabilize and gain control of the medfly situation in Central America include: The development and use of effective quarantine procedures in various countries; Development of effective conventional medfly control procedures under the conditions found in Central America; Development of methods to determine the geographic origin of medflies introduced into new areas; Medfly mass production (viz. all aspects of rearing Central American strains); Assessing the performance (competitiveness, etc.) of various strains; Logistics, including the development of systems for releasing pre-adult stages; Genetic rearing methods: developmental research in this area is particularly promising since the preferential production of males would allow considerable savings in the rearing costs of medflies for release; Development of adequate surveillance

  18. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Maxence S; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  19. The PorX response regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY two-component system does not directly regulate the Type IX secretion genes but binds the PorL subunit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxence S Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Type IX secretion system (T9SS is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion of surface attachment of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of the porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we showed that PorX does not bind and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  20. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.