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Sample records for americas energy environment

  1. Second biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This volume provides the proceedings for the Second Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, Environment, Agriculture, and Industry which was held August 21-24, 1995. The volume contains copies of full papers as provided by the researchers. Individual papers were separately indexed and abstracted for the database.

  2. America's Children and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search America's Children and the Environment Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us America's Children and the Environment is an EPA report that presents key information ...

  3. First biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this third volume deal with Environmental Issues, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. Concerning Environmental Issues, the following topics are emphasized: Global Climate Change, Biomass Utilization, Biofuel Test Procedures, and Commercialization of Biomass Products. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. First biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this third volume deal with Environmental Issues, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. Concerning Environmental Issues, the following topics are emphasized: Global Climate Change, Biomass Utilization, Biofuel Test Procedures, and Commercialization of Biomass Products. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  5. First Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this second volume cover Transportation Fuels, and Chemicals and Products. Transportation Fuels topics include: Biodiesel, Pyrolytic Liquids, Ethanol, Methanol and Ethers, and Commercialization. The Chemicals and Products section includes specific topics in: Research, Technology Transfer, and Commercial Systems. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. America`s energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, C.P.

    1998-04-01

    The gist of the paper is to demonstrate that the economical utilization of the country`s energy supply requires generating electric power wherever hydraulic or fuel energy is available, and collecting the power electrically, just as it is distributed electrically. In the first section a short review of the country`s energy supply in fuel and water power is given, and it is shown that the total potential hydraulic energy of the country is about equal to the total utilized fuel energy. In the second section it is shown that the modern synchronous station is necessary for large hydraulic powers, but the solution of the problem of the economic development of the far more numerous smaller water powers is the adoption of the induction generator. However, the simplicity of the induction generator station results from the relegation of all the functions of excitation, regulation, and control to the main synchronous station. The economic advantage of the induction generator station is that its simplicity permits elimination of most of the hydraulic development by using, instead of one large synchronous station, a number of induction generator stations and collecting their power electrically. The third section considers the characteristics of the induction generator and the induction-generator station, and its method of operation, and discusses the condition of ``dropping out of step of the induction generator`` and its avoidance. In the appendix the corresponding problem is pointed out with reference to fuel power, showing that many millions of kilowatts of potential power are wasted by burning fuel and thereby degrading its energy, that could be recovered by interposing simple steam turbine induction generators between the boiler and the steam heating systems, and collecting their power electrically.

  7. GDP and environment pressure: The role of energy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption for a sample of 21 Latin American and Caribbean countries during the 1970–2007 period. The investigation is made on the bases of the Energy Environmental Kuznets Curve (EEKC) hypothesis, using a panel data analysis. Energy consumption at aggregate level is used as an indicator of human environmental pressure and GDP per capita as an indicator of economic activity. Based in a cointegration approach, our results does not support the existence of a stable long run relationship between the series, rejecting the validity of such hypothesis for the selected sample over the 1970–2007 period. - Highlights: ► We analyze the relationship between energy consumption and per capita GDP. ► The main objective is to study the environmental pressure of energy consumption. ► We use the theoretical framework of EKC hypothesis. ► We found a U-shaped pattern instead of an inverted one. ► Socio-economic and institutional factors of the sample could explain our results.

  8. Biomass energy in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  9. Set America Free leader to speak on energy security at Virginia Tech

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Energy efficiency, energy security, and powering America's future while protecting the environment are the subjects of the Spring 2009 Energy and Environment Speaker Series sponsored by the Office of the Vice President for Research.

  10. Atomic energy in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most countries in Latin America, including all those on the mainland, are Members of the Agency. Interest in the possibilities of nuclear energy has led to considerable activity, much of it in direct collaboration with the IAEA. Member States in the region are: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela. Of these, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela are operating, and Mexico and Uruguay are constructing, research reactors, while Chile and Peru are studying proposals. Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Uruguay have all agreed to accept Agency safeguards for reactors. The possibility of future needs for nuclear power is under examination by several countries, in some cases being related to desalination of water. All atomic work in Latin America is devoted to peaceful uses, and note-worthy progress has been made with proposals for a treaty which would make the whole region a militarily de-nuclearized zone. It is proposed that when this comes into effect the Agency will be asked to apply the controls developed in its safeguards system, and to carry out the inspections necessary to establish that work in progress is solely for peaceful purposes

  11. Fostering renewable energy markets in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jeremy [North American Comission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation describes projects, programs and other issues addressed in order to promote renewable energy markets in North America. These are carried out by the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). In the first part of this presentation, there are going to be found some of the rules imposed by the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC). Then, it is shown the structure of the CEC as well as its programs, besides, there are presented the environment projects and the objectives along with their respective trades. There are described both benefits environmental and non-environmental. Also, there are shown the issues which the CEC is working in. And finally, it is shown a list mentioning the aspects that would change if: the expansion of the Mexico's Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE), happens, the grid-interconnected and the self supply of Renewable Electricity increase. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se describen los proyectos, los programas y otras cuestiones, cuyo objetivo es impulsar los mercados de energia renovable en America del Norte, realizadas por la North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation. En la primera parte, se encuentran algunas de las reglas impuestas por el Acuerdo de Cooperacion Ambiental de America del Norte (ACAAN). Enseguida, se muestra la estructura y los programas de la Comision para la Cooperacion Ambiental (CCA). Asimismo, se describen los proyectos ambientales, los objetivos junto con sus correspondientes tratados. Mas adelante, se explican tanto los beneficios ambientales como aquellos que no lo son. Igualmente, explican las cuestiones que podrian cambiar de: suceder la expansion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), incrementarse el auto- suministro de la energia renovable y los sistemas interconectados.

  12. Energy market integration in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is a summary of presentations made during the 1997 Winter Meeting panel session on Power and Natural Gas in Latin America: Towards an Integrated Market. Reregulation and demand for energy resources to support economic growth are driving international natural gas and electricity exchange initiatives. Panelists focused on the gas and electric power industry in Latin America in terms of the: transport of gas or transmission of electricity; energy market integration in the southern cone of South America; and issues on gas use for electricity generation in South America countries. Countries such as Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru will export natural gas to Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Chile, an the energy matrices of these countries will change

  13. Geopolitics and Energy Security in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Flaceliere, Aurore

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation looks at the energy security situation in South America and tries to evaluate why, even though the region possesses important resources, it finds itself today in a rather precarious situation regarding the future. Energy security is approached from a geopolitical perspective, and uses the literature to identify regional energy integration and the development of renewable energy within the energy matrix as two sine qua non conditions to the construction of energy security in ...

  14. 78 FR 60270 - BP America Inc., BP Corporation North America Inc., BP America Production Company, and BP Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission BP America Inc., BP Corporation North America Inc., BP America Production Company, and BP Energy Company; Notice of Designation of Commission Staff as Non-Decisional With...

  15. The world energy outlook: Latin America's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latin America's role in helping to provide the world's energy supplies is discussed. The following topics are discussed: crude oi lprice assumptions, world oil supply by region, OECD gas consumption by sectors, world primary energy shares, final world energy demand, world total primary energy demand, Latin American primary energy demand, and fuel shares of electricity output. It was concluded that the world's energy use will remain carbon based, world enregy consumption will significantly increase with the non-OECD share increasing to over 50%, and the rising importance of non-OECD countries means that no solution to the world's energy or environmental problems can be achieved without their participation

  16. Renewable energy in North America: Moving toward a richer mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobey, Cathy

    2010-09-15

    A follow-up to our January study with Economist Intelligence Unit, Renewable energy in North America. The update will further our call to action for a concerted group effort by energy suppliers, corporate consumers and government. 1. Introduction - State of the industry, progress made to replace carbon-based fossil fuels with alternative energy - Barriers - Pressure from public and government 2. Recent progress - Examine existing government incentive programs - International commitments - Examine the role of energy suppliers, corporate consumers and government 3. Call to Action - Creating an environment that encourages both supply and demand of renewable energy.

  17. Energy convergence in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status in energy markets in the U.S. was characterized as: (1) wholesale market for gas and electricity fully competitive, (2) de-integration in integrated utilities has begun, and (3) retail open access has accelerated. Customer choices in an open market were enumerated. The pace of reform in the U.S. electric industry was compared to reforms in the telecommunications, airlines, and natural gas industries. The structure and shape of the market in 2001, with additional restructuring in the intervening years factored in, was predicted. According to the prediction, value and usage of generation is likely to change dramatically, the entire cost structure of the industry will show significant drop, broad-based energy markets will be the major drivers in the business and retail competition will create a new class of very demanding consumers. A viewgraph showing the corporate profile of Enron, one of the United States' largest energy corporations was also provided.14 figs

  18. Energy policy issues in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Sierra, G. (Latin American Energy Organisation OLADE, Quito (Ecuador))

    1994-10-01

    Whilst recognising that the reduction of poverty levels in developing countries takes precedence to the improvement and protection of the environment, the author comments that any efforts geared to fostering socioeconomic development will indirectly address the environment issue. The aims of a broad strategy and a more specific energy strategy geared at fostering sustainable development in Latin America are discussed. It is suggested that development of hydropower should continue, that the share of natural gas in the regional energy balance be increased and that efforts be put into increasing energy efficiency and improving utilization technologies. Promotion of energy projects that generate employment, promotion of projects for the use of biomass as an energy source, and implementation of a series of joint ventures are ideas advocated. Possibilities of cooperation between the Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE) and the Dutch government are aired.

  19. Energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of primary fuel consumption structure on the environment in Poland is presented. Significant share of coal (hard and lignite) in electricity generation and also as a source of final energy is responsible for the present level of environment pollution in Poland. Having this in mind, the nuclear power option in electricity generation as presented and environmental impact of this energy source is analysed. The problem of the environment protection will be growing taking into account the perspective of electric energy consumption growth along with the economy growth according to actual forecast. (author)

  20. Energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This special dossier 'energy and environment' is made of 10 contributions dealing with: Man and energy, terrible lovers (Jean-Marc Jancovici); Wood fuel for southern countries (Jacques Valeix, Alain Bertrand, Philippe Girard); Energy and water: study of large-scale interactions, some medium-and long-term impacts (Jean-Francois Bonnet, Alain Ayong-Le-Kama, Stephane Cai); What solution for a sustainable nuclear energy? (Elisabeth Huffer); Opening of electricity markets: why? How? What environmental impacts? (Stephane Mattatia); Electricity and renewable energies: how far is the national grid capable to manage decentralized power sources? (Andre Merlin); Hydrogen, tomorrow's energy vector? (Jerome Perrin, Jean-Francois Deschamps; Energy in developing countries: the International Energy Agency (IEA) scenario (Cedric Philibert, Francois Cattier); The energy R and D program in the USA (Guillaume de Smedt); Energy mastery, the energy priority of the century (Pierre Radanne)

  1. Introduction - Latin America and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the second time in its history, the International Atomic Energy Agency is holding its General Conference in Latin America. The first was in Mexico City in September 1972; this September the Conference meets in Rio de Janeiro (in each case, the arrangement has been possible because of the very generous hospitality of the Host Government). Therefore, it is an appropriate occasion to devote a section of the IAEA Bulletin to nuclear energy in Latin America. The vast Latin American region presents many special opportunities for the introduction of nuclear science and technology. The first mission that the IAEA sent out, as far back as 1957, was to Latin America to promote co-operation in using radioisotope techniques. Today, these techniques are widely used by hospitals and medical research institutions throughout the region. Besides their medical applications, isotope techniques are also proving to be very useful in studying soils and irrigation, improving crops and livestock, and controlling insect pests. They also help make prudent use of the underground water resources in the region which, despite its bountiful rivers and tropical forests, includes many large arid areas. The major applications of nuclear technology have come only recently to Latin America, firstly in Argentina, where a 319 MW(e) nuclear power plant began operating at Atucha in 1974. It will soon be followed by the first Brazilian nuclear power plant - a 600 MW(e) light water plant at Angra dos Reis nearing completion. Argentina is building a second power plant at Embalse, and Brazil is planning two 1200 MW(e) plants at Angra and six more 1200 MW(e) units by 1990. Mexico is building its first nuclear plant at Laguna Verde, while other countries such as Chile and Colombia are planning the introduction of nuclear power. After a relatively slow start it, therefore, seems that nuclear power will go ahead fast in the Latin American region in the 1980's and 1990's. This is not surprising. Despite

  2. Alleviating Urban Energy Poverty in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    This regional study is comprised of three case studies, which concentrate on Greater Buenos Aires, Caracas and Rio de Janeiro - Caju. Each case focuses on the analysis of specific aspects of urban poverty, energy availability and policies to improve living conditions from the energy point of view. Unlike other developing regions in the world, the problem of energy poverty in Latin America has been concentrated increasingly in the large cities and urban areas. This problem has deep systemic, economic, political, structural and cultural roots. Providing basic energy services to the urban poor is an issue that requires far more attention and expertise than it is receiving today, and therefore WEC has taken the initiative to address this issue, and the results of their study are presented in this report.

  3. Legislation on renewable energy sources in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the development of renewable energy in Central America and the cooperation given by the European Comission in the promotion of renewable energy sources. Also discuss the current situation in energy demand in Central America and possible solutions linked to legislation that promotes the inversion of the private sector. The legal framework in each country of Central America is presented and its impact in the increasing of generation of energy through tax reductions, trading and prices

  4. Energy, Environment and IMCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives a brief description of the important role that the ionic and mixed conducting ceramics (IMCC) type of materials will play in the R&D of energy and environment technologies of the - presumably - near future. IMCC materials based technologies for energy harvesting, conversion and...... storage as well as for monitoring and protection of our environment are exemplified. The strong impact of the international IMCC research on development of devices based on such materials is illustrated, and some recent trends in the scientific exploration of IMCC are highlighted. Important groups of...

  5. Energy demand and life quality in America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Being considered an intermediate growth among projections of technological development expressive or of development restricted by ecological considerations, in the next 50 years, the demand of primary energy in the countries of the American continent arrived to value sufficiently high to allow to consent at levels of quality of life but next to those enjoyed at the moment in developed countries. There will be an expansion substantial of electric power demand that rots to require the installation, in countries of Latin America and Caribbean, of power plants with total capacity of the order of 400 GW until half-filled of century. The resource to the nuclear source was accentuated starting from the decade of 2020 and an enormous challenge for the governments of the region it will be the one of driving the construction of about 2.300 MW/year nuclear power plants between 2020 and 2050. (Author)

  6. Nuclear energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand for energy is very high in developed countries and is rapidly increasing in the developing countries. The supply of fossil fuels is limited and their use causes greenhouse effect and acid rain. Nuclear energy is an attractive option, as it does not cause these adverse effects. Very large amounts of oil, coal and gas have been saved in countries that have gone in for large scale nuclear energy. Releases of carbon dioxide which is a greenhouse gas and the oxides of nitrogen, which contribute to acid rain have been avoided in the process. However, the public is concerned about its other impacts on the environment, particularly of radioactive waste. The experts have shown that technology is available for safe disposal of radioactive wastes. Decommissioning has also been shown to be feasible. The radiological impact due to the release of radioactive materials from nuclear power plants is minimal. The dose due to these to the members of the public is too small to be measured. The estimated value of the radiation dose is a small fraction of the radiation dose due to natural background radiation present at all locations. The environment-friendly nature of nuclear power plants is getting due attention. (author)

  7. South America's energy integration overshadows Venezuela-US confrontational posture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venezuela's plans of a 10 000 km gas pipeline project spanning Latin America is presented. A brief analysis of Venezuela's petroleum industry is provided. President Hugo Chavez' main ambitions include reducing oil sales to the USA and to spark South America's energy integration

  8. Growing America's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    The emerging U.S. bioenergy industry provides a secure and growing supply of transportation fuels, biopower, and bioproducts produced from a range of abundant, renewable biomass resources. Bioenergy can help ensure a secure, sustainable, and economically sound future by reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil, developing domestic clean energy sources, and generating domestic green jobs. Bioenergy can also help address growing concerns about climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to create a healthier environment for current and future generations.

  9. Nuclear energy and environment: abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this meeting on nuclear energy and environment, abstracts on the following subjects were presented: nuclear fuels; materials; radioisotopes and its applications; reactors and nuclear power plants; regulations, energy and environment; radioactive wastes; and analytical techniques

  10. Energy environment and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the colonial period and well into the 20th century, Cuba's economic development was based mainly on extensive agricultural production, with unsustainable use and exploitation of the land and severe deforestation. Consequently, by the middle of the century Cuba had a problematic economic structure based largely on traditional agricultural production, with limited industrial development mainly concentrated in the sugarcane agro-industry, and an environment affected by deforestation. The social situation was critical, with high levels of poverty and low levels of health services. The profound economic and social transformations achieved since 1959 have led to favourable changes in the living conditions of the population and to increased protection of the environment and conservation of natural resources. Among the concrete actions taken to protect the environment was the preparation and approval of the National Environmental Strategy, through which the country's main environmental problems and their significant negative effects on the health and living standards of the population were identified. Today, Cuba's main environmental problems are soil degradation, deterioration of sanitation and environmental conditions in human settlements, contamination of inland and marine waters, deforestation and loss of biological diversity. The environmental impact of the energy sector in Cuba is considerable. The widespread use of old technologies, the lack of waste treatment plants and the financial resources needed for the introduction of new technologies, technological malpractice and the lack of an environmental consciousness in the recent past are the main reasons for this negative impact. The following sections address the environmental legislation and policies currently in place and the environmental impacts of the different energy sources

  11. Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean were discussed. Central America is composed of six small countries whose total population is 32 million. The Caribbean population is 20.5 million. Central America is generally poor in hydrocarbon reserves but the geological prospects in several of the countries are encouraging. The oil and petroleum products supply and demand picture, the main characteristics of the hydrocarbon market, structure of the oil industry, hydrocarbon market reforms, pricing issues and recent trend towards reforms in the electric power industry in Central America were discussed. An overview of the Inter-American Development Bank's (IDB) effort to provide technical assistance and loans to strengthen the energy sector development in Central America and the Caribbean was also given. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 23 figs

  12. Sustainable energy developments in Europe and North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Europe and North America account for 70% of world energy consumption, 61% of which are fossil fuels. Energy trends and patterns in this region, if pursued, would heavily impact on region- and world-wide energy and ecosystems. Would projected trends and supply structures by ''sustainable'', i.e. ''meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs'' (World Commission on Environment and Development)? What adaptations are warranted? What role could and should be played by regional energy and environmental co-operation, including through the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe? These are the issues dealt with by the present study mandated by the Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Energy - a principal subsidiary body of the UN-ECE - in 1988 and reviewed in 1990. In line with a decision taken by the Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Energy at their seventh session in October 1990, the study is released to the public domain, as customary under the responsibility of the secretariat. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Energy security in South America and Southern Africa: synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developing countries, the ability to provide adequate and reliable energy supplies is a key to sustainable economic development. The aim of this report is to study the energy supply security in both Southern Africa and South America and how these regions can participate in the international effort to combat climate change. This report showed that South Africa's energy sector mostly relies on carbon intensive coal while Brazil is mainly supplied by hydroelectricity. It was found that in both countries energy needs will increase significantly due to rising demand both internally and at a regional scale. However it was also shown that both Southern Africa and South America have important hydro, solar and wind renewable resources which could enhance their electricity security while minimizing their environmental impacts. This study demonstrated that Southern Africa and South America can enhance their electricity security through the use of renewable energies but that technology and financing is needed to develop the sector.

  14. Energy, ecology, and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Richard F

    1974-01-01

    Energy, Ecology, and the Environment discusses how our need for energy and the different means required to obtain it affect the environment and the harnessing of different natural resources. The book also aims to show more efficient ways to use and generate energy. The book, after a brief introduction to the concept of energy, covers topics such as the different energy resources and the demands, costs, and policies regarding energy. The book also discusses the problems brought about by the production of energy such as the hazards to nature and man; environmental problems and pollution; and

  15. Nuclear Energy and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    "Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

  16. Nuclear energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general view about the use of energy for brazilian development is presented. The international situation of the nuclear field and the pacific utilization of nuclear energy in Brazil are commented. The safety concepts used for reactor and nuclear facilities licensing, the environmental monitoring program and radiation protection program used in Brazil are described. (E.G.)

  17. Transport, energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Transportation demands a large and increasing share of total energy consumption in Europe. At the same time many European countries are facing difficult decisions in achieving their long term environmental goals. Therefore energy policy, environmental policy and transport policy should be seen and discussed in a common perspective. In particular the relative contribution from the transport sector and the energy sector involves a number of important and difficult issues. The aim of the conference was to bring together economists, scientists, manufactures, energy planners, transport planners, and decision makers in order to discuss the importance of the transport sector in relation to energy demand and long term environmental goals. General conference sessions covered. Trends in Transport Energy Demand and Environmental constraints, Technological Development and New Transport Systems, Lifestyle Changes and the Transport Sector, Megacities: Solutions to the Transport and Air Pollution Problems, Effectiveness of Public Policies, Transport and Energy sector, and Methods, Models and Data. The conference took place at Hotel Marienlyst, Elsinore, Denmark and attracted wide interest. The participants represented 14 different countries covering international organisations, ministries, universities, research centres, consulting firms, industry etc. (EG)

  18. 78 FR 14778 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ...Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. (Shell Energy) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant to section 202(e) of the Federal Power...

  19. 78 FR 14779 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ...Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. (Shell Energy) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the Federal Power...

  20. The Economics of America's Energy Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Henry

    This is an Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) pamphlet which reviews economic and technical considerations for the future development of energy sources. Included are sections on petroleum, synthetic fuels, oil shale, nuclear power, geothermal power, and solar energy. Also presented are data pertaining to U.S. energy production…

  1. Energy and the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1996-01-01

    Denmark was one of the first countries in the world to commit itself to reduction targets for CO2 emission. Official Danish energy plans are reviewed in the light of the actual energy development. The EU Commission has been promoting a liberalisation of the electricity market for some years. At a...... meeting in June 1996 in the EU Council of Ministers agreement was reached concerning the main market principles. The consequences for sustainable development are discussed in this paper.......Denmark was one of the first countries in the world to commit itself to reduction targets for CO2 emission. Official Danish energy plans are reviewed in the light of the actual energy development. The EU Commission has been promoting a liberalisation of the electricity market for some years. At a...

  2. Energy for the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes how Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. develops projects of biodiversity and clean energy in High Tatras. Solar panels help to increase convenience for tourists on the Tery's circular while building a culture flows and fish ladder to facilitate the survival of endangered species. At present, photovoltaic panels on the circular are installed with a total installed capacity of 1.2 kW. After the reconstruction will have a new system of power 9 kW.

  3. Environment and geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of geothermal energy for space heating, process heat or for the production of electricity is associated with the production of large quantities of hot water or steam from boreholes. Most of it is reinjected into the ground after heat extraction in surface heat exchangers. The demand for such huge water volumes includes the following fundamental environmental risks: - A disturbance of the underground water balance; - Cooling of the subsurface; -Emission of gases and solution of minerals; - Release of heat; - Variation of the landscape. (orig./BWI)

  4. Wind energy renewable energy and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn; Nelson, Vaughn

    2009-01-01

    Due to the mounting demand for energy and increasing population of the world, switching from nonrenewable fossil fuels to other energy sources is not an option-it is a necessity. Focusing on a cost-effective option for the generation of electricity, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment covers all facets of wind energy and wind turbines. The book begins by outlining the history of wind energy, before providing reasons to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy. After examining the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, and turbulence, it discusses the measur

  5. Energy balance and dietary habits of America's Cup sailors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Elisabetta; Delussu, Sofia A; Quattrini, Filippo M; Rodio, Angelo; Bernardi, Marco

    2007-08-01

    This research, which was conducted with crew members of an America's Cup team, had the following objectives: (a) to assess energy expenditure and intake during training; (b) to evaluate the sailors' diet, and (c) to identify any dietary flaws to determine the appropriate intake of nutrients, correct possible dietary mistakes, and improve their food habits. Energy expenditure was estimated on 15 sailors using direct measurements (oxygen consumption) and a 3-day activity questionnaire. Oxygen consumption was measured on sailors during both on-water America's Cup sailing training and dry-land fitness training. Composition of the diet was estimated using a 3-day food record. Average daily energy expenditure of the sailors ranged from 14.95 to 24.4 MJ, depending on body mass and boat role, with the highest values found in grinders and mastmen. Daily energy intake ranged from 15.7 to 23.3 MJ (from +6% to -18% of energy expenditure). The contributions of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to total energy intake were 43%, 18%, and 39% respectively, values that are not in accord with the recommended guidelines for athletes. Our results show the importance of assessing energy balance and food habits for America's Cup sailors performing different roles. The practical outcome of this study was that the sailors were given dietary advice and prescribed a Mediterranean diet, explained in specific nutrition lectures. PMID:17613739

  6. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2009 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  7. Environment protection and energy politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three aspects make the issue of energy politics and environment protection in the European Community interesting: Questions of competence, international stipulations, and the concrete measures the Community implements or plans in fulfillment of its duty to integrate these two political spheres. At the international level impulses for an environmentally benign energy policy are given by the World Climate Convention, the Agenda 21 passed at the Rio Conference, and by the European Energy Charter and its consequential documents. (orig./HSCH)

  8. Nuclear energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis of this paper is that the world will need more energy and not less in the coming decades but that this enormous energy consumption entails dangers to the environment not only locally but regionally and internationally through the emissions from the burning of fossil fuels which now provide 85% of the world's commercial energy supply. The solution to this problem is nuclear power. It does not contribute to global warming. 12 figs

  9. Energy law and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosemary Lyster; Adrian Bradbrook [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2006-08-15

    The current unsustainable practices worldwide in energy production and consumption have led to a plethora of environmental problems. Until recently environmental law largely overlooked the relevance of energy production and consumption; energy was seen to be of little significance to the advancement of sustainable development. This has changed since 2000 with the global concern attached to climate change, the publication by the United Nations of the World Energy Assessment and the detailed consideration given to this issue at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002. Australia has been seen to be lagging behind the other major industrialised nations of the world in addressing sustainable energy issues. Contents are: Overview of energy production and use in Australia; 2. Energy technologies and sustainable development; 3. Energy, international environmental law and sustainable development; 4. Evaluating Australian government initiatives relating to energy, climate change and the environment; 5. Sustainable energy in the Australian electricity and gas sectors; 6. State government initiatives relating to energy and the environment; 7. A sustainable energy law future for Australia. 2 apps.

  10. America's Energy Crisis: Reality or Hysteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinrad, Bernard I.

    1971-01-01

    The American energy crisis is real in that our supplies of fuel which can meet standards imposed on utility emissions are short, and their price is high. It is artificial in that many of the standards could be partially relaxed, and cheaper fuel used by utilities without significant public insult. ...Nuclear power from fission is our best bet."…

  11. Microscope on the Microfinance Business Environment in Latin America 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU); Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the dynamic, weighted model on the microfinance business environment, built by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) and supported with financing and advice by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and the Andean Development Corporation (Corporación Andina de Fomento, CAF).

  12. Wind energy renewable energy and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn

    2013-01-01

    As the demand for energy increases, and fossil fuels continue to decrease, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment, Second Edition considers the viability of wind as an alternative renewable energy source. This book examines the wind industry from its start in the 1970s until now, and introduces all aspects of wind energy. The phenomenal growth of wind power for utilities is covered along with applications such as wind-diesel, village power, telecommunications, and street lighting.. It covers the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, turbulence, wind resource, wind

  13. Energy and Minerals for America's Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a science strategy outlining the major natural science issues facing the Nation in the next decade. The science strategy consists of six science directions of critical importance, focusing on areas where natural science can make a substantial contribution to the well-being of the Nation and the world. This fact sheet focuses on energy and minerals and how USGS research can strengthen the Nation with information needed to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

  14. Energy and environment in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based upon the more meaningful changing recorded within the Italian energy sector in the year 2000, the Studies Department of ENEA (the Italian National board for new technologies, energy and environment) prepared the 'Rapporto Energia e Ambiente 2000', which provides a picture of the country energy and energy-related activities concerning the environment. In this paper, it is only provided a summary of the whole work. The complete report can be downloaded from the ENEA main page (www.enea.it). Italy gross domestic product (Gdp) grew by almost 3% in the year 2000, mostly sustained by an increase in the industrial production and services, as well. At the same time the total energy consumption rose to almost 185 Mtoe (+1% over 1999). Because Gdp grew more than the energy consumption, the energy intensity decreases in the year 2000. Almost 82% of the Italian energy needs (mainly oil and gas, even if electricity imports are increasing) depend upon imports. This heavy burden makes Italy particularly sensitive to both the oil price fluctuations and the euro/dollar exchange rate. Transportation absorbs a large and growing share of the energy consumption while showing quite an impact on the environment. From the supply side, renewable energy sources appear very promising because they allow the use of local resources, promote local development and may create new jobs, in area of the country with less favourable economic conditions. First among the European countries, a market mechanism to increase the use of renewable by establishing that a share of the whole electricity production (currently set at 2%) has to come from renewable has been introduced. However among the OECD countries, Italy records the lowest rate of R/D investments to GDP. This rate should more than double if the new opportunities coming from the development of innovative energy technologies have to be fully exploited

  15. Deep Energy Retrofit Guidance for the Building America Solutions Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. DOE Building America program has established a research agenda targeting market-relevant strategies to achieve 40% reductions in existing home energy use by 2030. Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs) are part of the strategy to meet and exceed this goal. DERs are projects that create new, valuable assets from existing residences, by bringing homes into alignment with the expectations of the 21st century. Ideally, high energy using, dated homes that are failing to provide adequate modern services to their owners and occupants (e.g., comfortable temperatures, acceptable humidity, clean, healthy), are transformed through comprehensive upgrades to the building envelope, services and miscellaneous loads into next generation high performance homes. These guidance documents provide information to aid in the broader market adoption of DERs. They are intended for inclusion in the online resource the Building America Solutions Center (BASC). This document is an assemblage of multiple entries in the BASC, each of which addresses a specific aspect of Deep Energy Retrofit best practices for projects targeting at least 50% energy reductions. The contents are based upon a review of actual DERs in the U.S., as well as a mixture of engineering judgment, published guidance from DOE research in technologies and DERs, simulations of cost-optimal DERs, Energy Star and Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE) product criteria, and energy codes.

  16. Energy situation in Latin America and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stage of economic development and the standard of living of individuals in a given region strongly influence the link between economic growth and energy demand. Advanced economies with high living standards have a relatively high level of energy use per capita. (Fig 1). Some 1.6 billion people one-quarter of the world population have no access to electricity. Four out of five people without electricity live in rural areas of the developing world. Electricity generation in the world is expected to nearly double between 2006 and 2025, from around 14.500 billion KWh to 26.000 billion KWh. The strongest growth in net electricity consumption is projected for the emerging economies of the world, averaging 4.0 percent per year (1). Although the nations of Central and South America are on favourable economic growth paths, the region's growth rate remains well below potential. Energy consumption induced by economic growth shows an increasing tendency in Latin America characterized by rapidly growing primary energy demand. Both residential and industrial electricity consumption had an increasing tendency in Latin America. In the last 15 years the increase was 60% and 74%, respectively. (2) Twelve countries in the region: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela, comprise 87% of the population and 93% of its installed electricity generating capacity. (2). (Fig 2). Latin America is a region rich in primary energy resources, where hydro-generation, especially in Brazil, has been dominating the power industry over the past decades. However, it is important to highlight the decreasing tendency of the share of hydroelectricity in total generation, which was reduced from 63% in 1990 to 55% in 2003,(2). At the same time, the most dynamically emerging primary energy resource is, at present, natural gas. These increasing tendency imply a growing reliance on non renewable fossil fuel utilization and a rising

  17. Central America's Macroeconomic Environment and the Role of the Investment Climate under Free Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, David; Loening, Josef L.

    2008-01-01

    Central America's economic performance in recent years has benefited from improved macroeconomic management, a favorable external environment, as well as rising investor confidence since the region has pursued greater access to global markets, particularly with the signing of DR-CAFTA in 2004. Nonetheless, while important reforms have been made, at the sectoral level, much remains to be done. The context of a less favorable global environment underlines the need to improve competiveness and e...

  18. Economic aspects for South America energy integration; Aspectos economicos para a integracao energetica da America do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, Jorge Alberto Alcala; Cardozo, Fernando Simoes [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Expansion of the internal market and external, production on a large scale and more dynamic economic growth would be the consequences of a regional integration in South America. However, due to the specific characteristics of South America this process did not occur. Many attempts were made through the years with the creation of institutions that tried to promote the integration of different forms of South America. This article analyses the current economic conditions in which this initiative is to achieve an energy integration, which seems feasible given the provision expresses the presidents of South American countries before a possible rationing of energy. Through analysis of the results it may be concluded that there is a growing demand for energy in all countries, which should be resolved first in order not to cut the development of South America. The main economic aspects which affect the process of integrating energy are the commercial structures of energy, the energy complementarities, the degree of development of infrastructure for interconnection, the industrial structure and conformation electric business. However, an immediate solution would be to boost bilateral integration energy projects and construction of transmission lines that interconnect the regional stations for the supply of electric energy. Moreover, as the conditions are not improved political and economic and there is no compatible models between technical institutions and legal and administrative, will not be achieved significant progress in the process of regional energy integration of South America. (author)

  19. Sustainable Energy Development and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeen Mustafa Omer

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The increased availability of reliable and efficient energy services stimulates new development alternatives. This article discusses the potential for such integrated systems in the stationary and portable power market in response to the critical need for a cleaner energy technology. Anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequent environmental impacts (acid precipitation, ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect or global warming are comprehensively discussed in this paper. Throughout the theme several issues relating to renewable energies, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. It is concluded that renewable environmentally friendly energy must be encouraged, promoted, implemented and demonstrated by full-scale plan especially for use in remote rural areas.

  20. Energy balances for Europe and North America 1970-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is based on the ECE Energy Data Bank collected by the Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Energy, supplemented by other official data available to the secretariat. The Energy Data Base contains energy balances from 1960 to 1985 for the market economy countries of western Europe and North America and from 1965 to 1985 for the centrally planned economy countries of eastern Europe. During the first session of the Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Energy held in 1979, countries decided to circulate a questionnaire on Selected Energy Issues covering the years 1973, 1978, 1980, 1985, 1990 and 2000 (ECE/ENERGY/2, para. 29). While the methodology for establishing the balances has been mutually agreed, the assumptions underlying each country's forecast are not necessarily comparable. At their fifth session held from 23 to 27 September 1985, the Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Energy agreed to issue a second questionnaire to collect revised projections for the years 1990 and 2000 (ECE/ENERGY/11, para. 50(b)). Information received served as benchmarks to construct a time series from 1970 to 1985. Commodities listed include solid fossil fuels, petroleum fuels, gaseous fuels both natural and derived, nuclear energy, hydro- and geothermal energy, electricity, steam and hot water, energy derived from non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, wave, tidal, etc.)

  1. Energy consumption, output and trade in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study uses panel cointegration regression techniques to examine the relationship between energy consumption, output and trade in a sample of 7 South American countries covering the period 1980 to 2007. Panel cointegration tests show a long-run relationship between 1) output, capital, labor, energy, and exports and 2) output, capital, labor, energy, and imports. Short-run dynamics show a bi-directional feedback relationship between energy consumption and exports, output and exports and output and imports. There is evidence of a one way short-run relationship from energy consumption to imports. In the long-run there is evidence of a causal relationship between trade (exports or imports) and energy consumption. These results have implications for energy policy and environmental policy. One important implication of these results is that environmental policies designed to reduce energy use will reduce trade. This puts environmental policy aimed at reducing energy consumption at odds with trade policy. - Highlights: ► I study the relationship between energy use, output and trade in South America. ► A panel VECM model is proposed and estimated. ► Short-run dynamics show a feedback relationship between energy use and exports. ► In the long-run there is evidence of a causal relationship between trade and energy. ► Environmental policies that reduce energy consumption will affect trade.

  2. Energy, Economic, and Environmental Benefits of the Solar America Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, S.

    2007-08-01

    The President's Solar America Initiative (SAI) was launched in January 2006 as part of the administration's Advanced Energy Initiative. The SAI is being led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP), with NREL providing analytical and technical support. The SAI has a goal of installing 5-10 GW of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States by 2015 and 70-100 GW of PV systems in the United States by 2030. To make PV cost-competitive with other energy resources, this requires that the installed cost of PV fall from approximately $8/Wdc in 2005 to $3.3/Wdc in 2015 and $2.5/Wdc in 2030. This report presents estimates of the potential energy, economic, and environmental benefits that could result should the SAI PV installation goals be achieved.

  3. Energy, pollution, environment and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the major environmental problems of today, such as climate change, air pollution, acidification of lakes and forests, deforestation and desertification, share a common causal factor: energy - its production, transformation and final use. The burning of fossil fuels has already contributed to acidification of lakes and forests, and threatens to alter the world's climate. Traditional open fires cause indoor air pollution, thereby harming the health of women and children in the Third World. In many developing countries, the disappearing forest base is increasingly unable to supply enough wood for energy needs, leading to even greater pressure on forests, which in turn can lead to desertification. Nuclear reactor accidents may release large quantities of radioactive materials, and hydro dams may fail and inundate large areas of land. Indeed, every energy system has some impact on health and the environment, either affecting the same group of people who enjoy the benefits: the exposure of a small group to fumes from a poorly vented common cooking device; or a different group: acid rain in one country caused by the burning of fossil fuels in another, or harm to the health of future generations from today's radioactive nuclear waste. During the past two decades, these energy- environment impacts have become so serious that they may limit further growth of the world's energy economy. Consequently, these problems are now being examined more closely by decision makers throughout the world, as well as by the general public. In addition, it has become clear that energy cannot be viewed in isolation and that pollution, environment and health issues must be integrated into the development of national and international energy policies, so that the adverse impacts of energy can be reduced. To do this, the relationships among different energy systems and their impacts need to be defined clearly. To that end, UNEP has convened conferences on this topic and prepared several

  4. Development of Renewable Energies in the liberation of the energy market in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the diagnostic of the current situation on renewable energy in Central America, including socio-economical situation, with economical index, supply and demand of energy and planning of wind resources. The experience of Europe in the promotion for the market of renewable energy, discussing the policies and cooperation between private sector and the government is included. A list of potential projects of renewable energy in each country of Central America based on biomass, hydro power, wind and other energy sources for power generation is presented

  5. Energy, environment and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globally, buildings are responsible for approximately 40% of the total world annual energy consumption. Most of this energy is for the provision of lighting, heating, cooling, and air conditioning. Increasing awareness of the environmental impact of CO2 and NOx emissions and CFCs triggered a renewed interest in environmentally friendly cooling, and heating technologies. Under the 1997 Montreal Protocol, governments agreed to phase out chemicals used as refrigerants that have the potential to destroy stratospheric ozone. It was therefore considered desirable to reduce energy consumption and decrease the rate of depletion of world energy reserves and pollution of the environment. One way of reducing building energy consumption is to design building, which are more economical in their use of energy for heating, lighting, cooling, ventilation and hot water supply. Passive measures, particularly natural or hybrid ventilation rather than air-conditioning, can dramatically reduce primary energy consumption. However, exploitation of renewable energy in buildings and agricultural greenhouses can, also, significantly contribute towards reducing dependency on fossil fuels. Therefore, promoting innovative renewable applications and reinforcing the renewable energy market will contribute to preservation of the ecosystem by reducing emissions at local and global levels. This will also contribute to the amelioration of environmental conditions by replacing conventional fuels with renewable energies that produce no air pollution or greenhouse gases. The provision of good indoor environmental quality while achieving energy and cost-efficient operation of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) plants in buildings represents a multi-variant problem. The comfort of building occupants is dependent on many environmental parameters including air speed, temperature, relative humidity and quality in addition to lighting and noise. The overall objective is to provide a high

  6. Environment and Citizenship in Latin America: A New Paradigm for Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    As a reflection of the ecological pressures associated with rapid modernization and globalization, the environment has become an enduring theme of public debate and protest in Latin America. Over the past decade, scholars have made increasing connections between such debate and a range of questions related to citizenship. Meanwhile, a discourse of ‘environmental citizenship’ has a growing prevalence in policy across the region. While these developments echo similar political and academic tren...

  7. Deep Energy Retrofit Guidance for the Building America Solutions Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. DOE Building America program has established a research agenda targeting market-relevant strategies to achieve 40% reductions in existing home energy use by 2030. Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs) are part of the strategy to meet and exceed this goal. DERs are projects that create new, valuable assets from existing residences, by bringing homes into alignment with the expectations of the 21st century. Ideally, high energy using, dated homes that are failing to provide adequate modern services to their owners and occupants (e.g., comfortable temperatures, acceptable humidity, clean, healthy), are transformed through comprehensive upgrades to the building envelope, services and miscellaneous loads into next generation high performance homes. These guidance documents provide information to aid in the broader market adoption of DERs.

  8. Resource area environment/energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document comprises a detailed analysis of the business economics of resources related to energy and the environment. Non-domestic and domestic conditions influencing the business economics of this subject area, its infrastructure, problems and future perspectives are dealt with. Tables (amongst other forms of information) indicate the turnover, exports, and numbers of involved employees, workplaces and firms involved in supply, general production, consultancy and production connected with the building sector. The energy sector is the most significant in this respect, giving 30,000 employed (18% in state institutions), a turnover of 63 billion Danish kroner, and with an export of 16 billion Danish kroner. The environmental sector employs 15,000 (29% in the public sector), the total turnover is 20 billion Danish kroner and of this 3 billion Danish kroner is related to export. Many firms are relatively small. A number of firms could compete internationally and this number is growing. (AB) (79 refs.)

  9. Nuclear energy and environment of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper included following contents: China needs to develop nuclear energy; China pays attention to the radiation environment management; the role of China National Environmental Protection Agency in nuclear energy and the environment

  10. 77 FR 65543 - Energy Corporation of America; Eastern American Energy Corporation; First ECA Midstream LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... ECA Midstream LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 16, 2012, Energy Corporation of America and Eastern American Energy Corporation (collectively, ECA), and First ECA Midstream LLC (First ECA Midstream), 501 56th Street SE., Charleston, West Virginia 25304, jointly filed in Docket No....

  11. Energy and environment. Annual report, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, R.G.; Lizama, L.R. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following programs: geothermal and geosciences; controlled thermonuclear research; chemical processing; instrument development; environment; energy use and conservation; energy analysis; and engineering sciences.

  12. Environment and energy. Umwelt und Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirkner, H.; Kneller, P.

    1981-01-01

    FACIT is a periodical intended to provide the reader with a survey of outstanding publications on topical subjects. At the same time, it offers a first insight into the subject field, enabling the reader to select among the literature cited the publications he may need to enhance his knowledge and information. The periodical is aimed at serving as a guide to the complex variety of publications in a subject field, and to offer information in brief. Vol. 1, Environment and Energy, cites representative statements and samples from the German-language literature in this field and gives hints for further reading.

  13. Modelling in nuclear energy environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Samaras

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Producing energy to supply the demands of our societies is reaching a critical limit. To tackle this issue, there is a slow renaissance of fission reactors and the push to realise fusion reactors. The safe, reliable and optimal performance of fusion and fission plants is dependent on the choice of suitable materials used as components and fuels. As these materials are degraded by their exposure to high temperatures, irradiation and a corrosive environment, it is necessary to address the issue of long term degradation of materials under service exposure in advanced plants. A higher confidence in life-time assessments of these materials requires an understanding of the related physical phenomena on a range of scales from the atomic level of single defect energetics all the way up to macroscopic effects.

  14. Evaluation of water and energy budgets over Colombia, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero-Bernal, Astrid; Hagemann, Stefan; Hoyos-Rincón, Isabel; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Ines

    2010-05-01

    The study presents a dataset intercomparison of reanalyses, data from other authors, and one regional climate model applied over South America with special focus on the hydrological cycle and the surface energy budget. The model simulated the 41 years from 1960 to 2000 by using quasi-observed boundary conditions derived from ECMWF re-analysis (ERA). The intercomparison focuses on one large catchment covering an area of major research interest within Colombia. The variables used are monthly mean surface air temperature, precipitation and river discharge. From the modelling perspective, the potential advantages of such comparative analyses are to provide information about model performance, enhance the understanding of hydrological behavior in a systematic dataset comparison framework, characterize consistencies and differences in datasets, and identify the requirements for catchment-scale hydrological models to reliably simulate future behavior.

  15. Energy and environment in Italy. Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based upon the more meaningful changing recorded within the Italian energy sector in the year 2000, the studies department of ENEA (the Italian National Board for New Technologies, Energy and Environment) prepared the 'Rapporto Energia e Ambiente 2000', which provides a picture of the country energy and energy-related activities concerning the environment

  16. 77 FR 39689 - Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ..., Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States. The existing international... Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc. AGENCY: Office of... Marketing North America, Inc. (GSEMNA) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the...

  17. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – Zero Energy-Ready Single-Family Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    Building homes that are zero energy-ready is a goal of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America program and one embodied in Building America’s premier home certification program, the Challenge Home program. This case study describes several examples of successful zero energy-ready home projects completed by Building America teams and partner builders.

  18. Energy End-Use Efficency and Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The notes describes the various uses of energy and the potentials for reducing the energy consumption. The issues dealt with includes: Introduction, Energy and Environment, Pumping, Ventilation, Refrigeration, Lighting, Industrial End-uses, Washing, Agriculture, Cooking, etc.......The notes describes the various uses of energy and the potentials for reducing the energy consumption. The issues dealt with includes: Introduction, Energy and Environment, Pumping, Ventilation, Refrigeration, Lighting, Industrial End-uses, Washing, Agriculture, Cooking, etc....

  19. Food, energy, and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardue, S L

    2010-04-01

    During the 2009 annual meeting of the Poultry Science Association, a symposium entitled "Global Views of New Agriculture: Food, Energy, and the Environment" was held that focused on several major issues affecting agriculture. Issues included future funding for basic agricultural research, sustainability, bioenergy, and their effects on global food markets. In many ways, a subtitle for the symposium could have been "Agriculture-Why What We Do Matters." It matters because of the fiscal and physical realities the planet will face in the coming decades relative to human population growth and the increasing demands to feed a hungry world. The challenges are daunting and the technologies to address them will require us to reevaluate the structure and policies we have established relative to agricultural research. In this case, change is all the more difficult because the traditional model of agricultural research has been so successful. One only needs to note the remarkable increases in productivity of the past half century of commodities such as corn and soybeans or feed efficiencies among broilers, laying hens, and turkeys to recognize the significant advancements that have been achieved. However, these historic gains have frequently required increased inputs, most notably fossil fuels. Food production in the future will likely be confronted with concerns involving energy, water, climate change, and the threat of agroterrorism. For example, we will need to develop crops that are more drought-resistant and more tolerant to a wider range of salinities as access to fresh water becomes more problematic. Animal agriculture will also need to adapt to diets composed of atypical feedstuffs. Whether future generations will inherit a world described by Paul Roberts in his books The End of Oil and The End of Food will be in part determined by the research model we adopt in the near term. PMID:20308413

  20. Environment, energy, and economic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberndorfer, Ulrich

    2009-09-25

    This thesis analyzes the relationship between environmental regulation as well as energy market developments on the one hand, and economic performance on the other. Due to its economic effects environmental regulation is controversially disputed. The thesis shows, however, that the economic impacts of the recently adopted climate policy in Europe, namely of the implementation of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme, have been modest at most. Consistent with economic theory, the low stringency of this regulatory measure that is aimed at combating man-made climate change is identified as one important driver of this result. Moreover, results presented in this thesis also indicate the important role which the political economy plays for the design of environmental regulation in general. These mechanisms are shown to be a driver of the low stringency and, consequently, of the small economic effects during the first phase of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme. The thesis highlights the role of investment stimulation if the goal of environmental regulation is not only the protection of the environment, but also the compatibility with economic goals. This thesis also provides new insights into the role of energy market developments for the economy. In this respect, the relevance of the EU carbon market for the financial market performance of European electricity generators is shown. Besides, this thesis particularly demonstrates the paramount importance of oil market developments for the economy as a whole. It suggests that amongst all natural resources, oil is the most relevant one to the pricing of Eurozone energy stocks. It is also shown that besides oil prices, oil volatility plays an important role for stock market development. Finally, the thesis highlights the relevance of oil market developments to the overall economy, in showing that unemployment in Germany is strongly affected by oil price shocks. In this respect, it also opposes claims that the

  1. Environment assisted energy transfer in dimer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Salman, E-mail: sksafi@comsats.edu.pk [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ibrahim, M.; Khan, M.K. [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-02-15

    The influence of collective and multilocal environments on the energy transfer between the levels of a dimer is studied. The dynamics of energy transfer are investigated by considering coupling of collective environment with the levels of the dimer in the presence of both two individuals and mutually correlated multilocal environments. It is shown that every way of coupling we consider assists, though differently, the probability of transition between the levels of dimer. The probability of transition is strongly enhanced when the two local environments are mutually correlated. -- Highlights: • The dynamics of energy transfer between the levels of a dimer are studied. • Coupling of collective as well as individual environments are considered. • The environments are in spin star configurations. • The environment assists the energy transfer between the levels. • For correlated multilocal environments, the transition probability is almost 100%.

  2. Problems of environment pollution in energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication relates to nuclear fuel cycle and environment, nuclear accidents, risk analysis, test of nuclear weapon, security problems of nuclear power plants, advantages and disadvantages of energy sources, climate variation due to environment pollution

  3. Energy and the environment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-15

    Work on the `Energy and the Environment` project has been focused on completion of two interrelated efforts: (1) development, production, and installation of energy related exhibits in the Ecology and Environment gallery, and (2) creation and implementation of the `Energy Backpack` program. The Energy exhibits have been available to over 1.5 million visitors since the opening of the new St. Louis Science Center. The `Energy Backpack` program will be implemented with students, teachers, and family groups this fall.

  4. The Landfill Gas-to-Energy Initiative for Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Terraza, Horacio; Grajales, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the Landfill Gas-to-Energy (LFGTE) Initiative in Latin America and the Caribbean are to. 1) contribute to the maximization of methane emissions reductions and the development of carbon trading opportunities; 2) promote LFGTE investment in Latin America and the Caribbean to improve solid waste management practices in the region; 3) create awareness of LFGTE opportunities; ...

  5. Renewable energy for America`s cities: Advanced Community Energy Systems Proposed Research, Development and Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleason, T.C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The first purpose of this paper is to describe ACES technologies and their potential impact on the environment, the US energy supply system and economy. The second purpose is to recommend an R,D&D program to the US Department of Energy which has as its goal the rapid development of the most promising of the new technologies. ACES supply thermal energy to groups of buildings, communities and cities in the form of hot or chilled water for building space heating, domestic hot water or air conditioning. The energy is supplied via a network of insulated, underground pipes linking central sources of supply with buildings. ACES, by definition, employ very high energy efficiency conversion technologies such as cogeneration, heat pumps, and heat activated chillers. These systems also use renewable energy sources such as solar energy, winter cold, wind, and surface and subsurface warm and cold waters. ACES compose a new generation of community-scale building heating and air conditioning supply technologies. These new systems can effect a rapid and economical conversion of existing cities to energy supply by very efficient energy conversion systems and renewable energy systems. ACES technologies are the most promising near term means by which cities can make the transition from our present damaging dependence on fossil fuel supply systems to an economically and environmentally sustainable reliance on very high efficiency and renewable energy supply systems. When fully developed to serve an urban area, ACES will constitute a new utility system which can attain a level of energy efficiency, economy and reliance on renewable energy sources not possible with currently available energy supply systems.

  6. Nuclear energy, radiation and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past few decades, energy has been the subject of much debate. Energy is the backbone of technology and economic development. Today, most machines run on electricity and they are needed to make anything and everything. Hence, our energy requirements have spiraled in the years following the industrial revolution. This rapid increase in use of energy has created problems of demand and supply in addition to the environmental consciousness which picked momentum in last decades of 20th century. The impending crisis the world over due to overuse of nonrenewable energy sources to reduce this gap shall soon lead to a situation for all concerned to take a prudent decision to tap other sources of energy, including relatively new renewable sources. Future economic growth crucially depends on the long-term availability of energy from sources that are affordable, accessible and environmentally friendly. The drive for more energy has had the happy consequences of spawning new technologies and improving earlier ones. Emphasis on renewable sources has resulted in viable harnessing of solar, wind and tidal energies. Even though these sources offer relatively clean energy, their potential to supply reliable energy in large scale in an economically viable way is limited. Nuclear energy offers a major source of commercial energy, which is economic, reliable and environmentally benign

  7. Technology, energy and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Glenn Terry

    This dissertation consists of three distinct papers concerned with technology, energy and the environment. The first paper is an empirical analysis of production under uncertainty, using agricultural production data from the central United States. Unlike previous work, this analysis identifies the effect of actual realizations of weather as well as farmers' expectations about weather. The results indicate that both of these are significant factors explaining short run profits in agriculture. Expectations about weather, called climate, affect production choices, and actual weather affects realized output. These results provide better understanding of the effect of climate change in agriculture. The second paper examines how emissions taxes induce innovation that reduces pollution. A polluting firm chooses technical improvement to minimize cost over an infinite horizon, given an emission tax set by a planner. This leads to a solution path for technical change. Changes in the tax rate affect the path for innovation. Setting the tax at equal to the marginal damage (which is optimal in a static setting with no technical change) is not optimal in the presence of technical change. When abatement is also available as an alternative to technical change, changes in the tax can have mixed effects, due to substitution effects. The third paper extends the theoretical framework for exploring the diffusion of new technologies. Information about new technologies spreads through the economy by means of a network. The pattern of diffusion will depend on the structure of this network. Observed networks are the result of an evolutionary process. This paper identifies how these evolutionary outcomes compare with optimal solutions. The conditions guaranteeing convergence to an optimal outcome are quite stringent. It is useful to determine the set of initial population states that do converge to an optimal outcome. The distribution of costs and benefits among the agents within an

  8. Smokefree environments in Latin America: on the road to real change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Schoj, Verónica; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Latin American countries are experiencing an increasing burden of tobacco-related diseases. Smoke free policies are cost-effective interventions to control both exposure of nonsmokers to the toxic chemicals in secondhand tobacco smoke and to reduce the prevalence of smoking and its consequent morbidity and mortality. The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has created momentum in Latin America to implement meaningful tobacco control policies. As of August 2007, Uruguay, two provinces and three cities in Argentina, and one state in Venezuela, had passed, regulated, and enforced 100% smokefree legislation. The tobacco industry, working through local subsidiaries, has been the strongest obstacle in achieving this goal and has prevented progress elsewhere in the region. During the 1990s, transnational tobacco companies Philip Morris International and British American Tobacco developed voluntary initiatives (“Courtesy of Choice” and “Environmental Tobacco Smoke Consultancy” programs) to prevent effective smokefree policies. Another important barrier in the region has often been a weak and fragmented local civil society. Opportunities in the region that should be taken into account are a high public support for smokefree environments and increasing capacity building available from international collaboration on tobacco control. Policymakers and tobacco control advocates should prioritize the implementation of smokefree policies in Latin America to protect nonsmokers, reduce smoking prevalence with its economic and disease burden in the region. PMID:19578527

  9. Powering Up: Assessing the growing municipal energy resilience building efforts in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelfing, Kara

    Energy related shortages and price volatilities can impact all levels of society. With coming fossil fuel depletion related to peak oil, it is expected these shortages and volatilities will increase in frequency, duration, and intensity. Resilience building is a strategy to minimize the effects of these events by modifying systems so they are less impacted and/or recover more quickly from disruptive events. Resilience building is being used, particularly at the municipal scale, to prepare for these coming energy related changes. These municipal efforts have only been in existence for five to ten years, and full implementation is still in progress. Little evaluation has been done of these municipal efforts to date, particularly in North America. Despite this, it is important to begin to assess the effectiveness of these efforts now. As a result, future efforts can be redirected to address weak areas and that lessons learned by vanguard communities can be applied in other communities attempting to build energy resilience in the future. This thesis involved the creation of a hybrid framework to evaluate municipal energy resilience building efforts. The framework drew primarily from planning process and factors identified as important to build resilience in social-ecological systems. It consisted of the following categories to group resilience building efforts: Economy, Resource Systems & Infrastructure, Public Awareness, Social Services, Transportation, Built Environment, and Natural Environment. Within these categories the following process steps should be observed: Context, Goals, Needs, Processes, and Outcomes. This framework was then tested through application to four case-study communities (Bloomington, IN, Hamilton, ON, Oakland, CA, Victoria, BC) currently pursuing energy resilience building efforts in North America. This qualitative research involved document analysis primarily of municipal documents related to energy planning efforts. Supplementary interviews

  10. Energy,Society and Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Energy Supply and Environmental Protection will be major is-sues for next century.They are the key factors for our sustainableeconomic development.I would like to share with you the followingviewgraphs,which show the following main points:1.Asia will be the center of development in the next century.2.Review the history of the growth of population,energy con-sumption and information technology.3.Asia will be the largest energy demand and the major car-

  11. United States of America Department of Energy Environmental Management Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This reports contains documentation of presentations given at the United States of America Department of Energy Environmental Management Advisory Committee Public Meeting held December 14--15, 1993 in Alexandria, Virginia.

  12. Energy-economics-environment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Planning and Economic Studies Section of the IAEA's Department of Nuclear Energy is focusing on topical studies related to energy and nuclear power in the context of sustainable development, and of techno-economic factors potentially affecting the future development of nuclear technologies. It offers over-arching analyses of energy, environmental and economic issues in the context of national sustainable development and energy security goals, and in competitive markets. These studies are done in collaboration with or used by MS and other international organisations for informed decision-making about the future role of nuclear technologies. The IAEA further offers energy assessments: comparing different energy technologies and choices, exploring and quantifying their costs, consequences and benefits, with a special focus, where appropriate, on nuclear power. Economic assessments offered include comparing the costs, relative cost-effectiveness and viability of nuclear and other technology choices, policy alternatives, or different climate change mitigation or sustainable development strategies, taking into account technology learning and innovation. Environmental assessments offered include estimating environmental impacts and external costs (health effects and materials damage) of pollution arising from specific energy production and use patterns

  13. Energy, environment and the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policy choices regarding energy and sustainable development need to be geared to the instruments that science and the economy make available in each country, partly because competitiveness restrictions be sustainable for the economy

  14. Energy and sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean: Approaches for the power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy and sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean is a joint project of the Latin American Organization of Energia (OLADE), the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (Cepal) of the United Nations and the Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammennarbeit (GTZ). The intention of this project is the one to fortify the processes of formulation of power policies to harmonize economic growth, social fairness and protection of the environment in order to contribute to that the reforms that come undertaking the countries from the region prohang to the sustainable development. The made work it is come off that the sustainability of the power development raises a series of challenges to future. Concordant with the reactivation of the economic growth in the Nineties a low power productivity is still pronounced. To this they add one reduced to cover of satisfaction of the power necessities and the forest deterioration, jointly with the low quality of the power consumption and the impacts in the level of transmissions that will have the incorporation of polluting sources in the expansion of the regional power systems. On the other hand, the work shows a preoccupation with respect to the sustainability of the expansion of the power systems. At the present time the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean do not have a significant responsibility in the global environmental problems, since single they generate 5% of the world-wide CO2 transmissions whereas the developed countries contribute around 70%. Nevertheless, the new power developments based on the greater hydrocarbon consumption will be able to increase the contribution from the region to the deterioration of the atmosphere. At the same time, the expansion based on the hydroelectric generation also has some limitations although it contributes positively to the mitigation of the transmissions, which raises new challenges to the reform of the power sector

  15. Energy taxes, environment and competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic theory about foreign trade and competition as well as empirical studies of relevance are not making evident that industries in general should pay lower environmental taxes than other kind of consumers. Consequently, economic theory cannot justify the present Danish energy tax regime where households are required to pay high energy taxes whereas industries are allowed to pay low energy taxes. On the contrary, it is more likely that reduced industry taxes will result in reduced welfare to society, lower income and lower employment as compared to a scenario of equal energy taxes. Theory can justify, however, a stepwise introduction of green taxes in order to make industries and markets adapt to the new regulatory framework. Moreover, some theoretical contributions argue that under certain circumstances one could point to a need for protecting certain kinds of industries (e.g. industries employing unskilled labour), but an exclusive tax reduction given to all industries is not supported by economic theory. By using the GTAP model we have calculated the welfare effect of levelling Danish energy taxes so households and industries have to pay equal energy taxes. The GTAP model has a good and international reputation for being designed to analyse international trade and competitiveness. We find that levelling the Danish energy taxes will increase welfare in Denmark by 1.3% equivalent to DKK 8 billion. The Danish energy tax reform, however, will cause an increase in CO2 emissions in neighbouring countries. The calculation does not consider the influence of the EU market for tradable CO2 permits introduced as from January 2005. (au)

  16. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the United States of America is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 12 June 1998

  17. Potential for Energy Storage in Combination with Renewable Energy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Lenin Balza; Christiaan Gischler; Nils Janson; Sebastián J. Miller; Gianmarco Servetti

    2014-01-01

    Can energy storage (ES) increase the share of renewable energy (RE) in total generation in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC)? The rationale for using ES in combination with RE in the LAC region is that it can enable a larger scale deployment of cost-saving intermittent RE, with which the region is highly endowed, without threatening grid stability or the ability to meet electricity demand. To test this rationale, the paper considers three case studies that represent the key market types i...

  18. Waterspout outbreaks over areas of Europe and North America: Environment and predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioutas, Michalis; Szilagyi, Wade; Keul, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Waterspout outbreak occurrences are examined for the areas of the Aegean and Ionian Seas, Eastern Mediterranean, the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe and the Great Lakes of North America. Notable outbreaks included a series of 13 waterspouts on September 5, 2002, and 25 plus waterspouts on September 21, 2006 off the Cretan north coast in the Aegean Sea. Two outbreak days with 10 waterspouts each, occurred on August 11 and 13, 2006 over the Baltic Sea. During the fall of 2003 an outbreak produced about 66 waterspouts during a week over the Great Lakes of North America. A preliminary climatology of waterspout outbreak occurrences showed August as the most active month for the Baltic Sea and the Great Lakes and September for the Aegean and Ionian Seas; a feature primary related to the warmest sea surface temperatures during these months. Synoptic data indicated that a closed low (CLOSED) type pattern prevailed during waterspout outbreaks over the Baltic and the Aegean and Ionian Seas and a longwave (LW) type over the Great Lakes. Thermodynamic, wind and moisture data indicated a marginally unstable environment for most waterspout outbreaks. A steep thermal gradient between the water surface and lowest layers proved to be a primary factor for Great Lakes waterspout outbreak occurrences. For the Baltic Sea, the primary factors were balanced between the thermal contrast in the lowest layers and the total positive buoyancy. For the Aegean and Ionian Seas, positive buoyancy was the dominant factor. Selected waterspout outbreak case studies are investigated in order to present specific synoptic, thermodynamic features and predictability for the three areas. The Szilagyi waterspout nomogram, which is used as a forecasting tool, was applied together with the Szilagyi waterspout index (SWI) and found to be strongly correlated with outbreak occurrences for the three geographical areas.

  19. Geothermal energy renewable energy and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Glassley, William E; Nelson, Vaughn

    2010-01-01

    Historically, cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly, use of geothermal energy has been limited to areas where obvious surface features pointed to the presence of a shallow local heat source, such as hot springs and volcanoes. However, recent technological advances have dramatically expanded the range and size of viable resources, especially for applications such as modular power generation, home heating, and other applications that can use heat directly. These recent developments have greatly expanded opportunities for utilizing geothermal energy. Reflecting cu

  20. Built Environment Energy Analysis Tool Overview (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Built Environment Energy Analysis Tool, which is designed to assess impacts of future land use/built environment patterns on transportation-related energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The tool can be used to evaluate a range of population distribution and urban design scenarios for 2030 and 2050. This tool was produced as part of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  1. Intelligent computing for sustainable energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kang [Queen' s Univ. Belfast (United Kingdom). School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Li, Shaoyuan; Li, Dewei [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Automation; Niu, Qun (eds.) [Shanghai Univ. (China). School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation

    2013-07-01

    Fast track conference proceedings. State of the art research. Up to date results. This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Conference on Intelligent Computing for Sustainable Energy and Environment, ICSEE 2012, held in Shanghai, China, in September 2012. The 60 full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions and present theories and methodologies as well as the emerging applications of intelligent computing in sustainable energy and environment.

  2. 75 FR 57911 - Application to Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery... (EDF) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant... application from EDF for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico for five...

  3. 75 FR 26202 - Application To Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery... (EDF) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant... application from EDF for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a...

  4. Electric energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis was made of the emission of air pollutants by the Argentine public utilities, taking into account the historical evolution from 1970 to 1989. This has shown the impact which the substitution policies implemented in the electrical sector have had on the emission of pollutants and on the 'greenhouse effect'. On the one hand, these policies consisted of the substitution of conventional thermal energy by hydroelectric and nuclear energy and, on the other hand, substitution of fuel oil, diesel oil and coal by natural gas. Since the conventional thermal power stations require additional investments in order to avoid air pollution, the investment savings originated in this respect by the abovementioned substitution policies have also been calculated. Although the environmental impacts caused by hydroelectric, nuclear and natural gas production installations are also important and are located geographically in other areas, there is no doubt that the substitution policies carried out in the Argentine electrical sector signify both an ecological and an economic benefit. (Author)

  5. Man, environment and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acceptability of nuclear fission as energy source is governed by three factors, economic, ecological and sociological. It is necessary to account first for the economic context and for the state of natural resources: gradual exhaustion of fossil fuels as a result of ever-increasing demands. The biological risk concept which determines the acceptable industrial application level is the second factor to be considered. The danger of radioactive contamination is almost inexistent except in the accident hypothesis, and power stations are built with excessive safeguards against hypothetical accidents. The idea of systematic processing of all working effluent to reduce radioactive waste discharge by several orders of magnitude (zero release principle) is being examined. At present, the waste discharge levels are always well below the limits set by the CIPR and present no danger to the population. The only serious problems seem to be the disposal of radioactive wastes and the plutonium non-proliferation question bound up with breeder reactors. Whereas vitrification, the new 'Synroc' process, offer some solution to the radioactive waste conditioning problem, responsibility for the proliferation of nuclear weapons rests with the human conscience alone. The development of nuclear power stations over several decades seems to present no inacceptable danger and offers the best compromise between growth and minimum risk requirements. The third factor to be accounted for is the opposition displayed by a fraction of the population to the development of nuclear energy for peaceful applications

  6. 76 FR 71007 - Mercuria Energy America, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Mercuria Energy America, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Mercuria Energy America, Inc.'s application for market-based rate... desiring to intervene or to protest should file with the Federal ] Energy Regulatory Commission, 888...

  7. Nuclear energy and natural environment. Information seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The material of the Jadwisin 93' seminar is the collection 20 of 19 articles discussing aspects of the subject of nuclear energy and natural environment. The lectures were presented at six sessions: 1) Nuclear energy applications in medicine, agriculture, industry, food preservation and protection of the environment; 2) Nuclear power in the world; 3) Public attitudes towards different energy options, the example of Sweden; 4) Nuclear power in neighbouring countries; 5) Radiation and human health; 6) Radioactive waste management and potential serious radiological hazards. The general conclusion of the seminar can be as follows. In some cases the nuclear power is a source of environment pollution but very often nuclear techniques are now used and certainly more often in the future will be used for environment and human health protection

  8. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Renewable Energy: Environment Protection and Energy Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Symposium and Exhibition on Renewable Energy 2003 organized by the Malaysian Institute of Energy (INTEM), the Malaysia Energy centre (PTM), Islamic Scientific, Education, and Cultural Organization (ISESCO), World Renewable Energy Network (WREN), Ministry of Energy, Communication and Multimedia, and the Ministry of Education, Malaysia has the following objectives (a) highlighting the role of renewable in meeting the energy demand particularly of developing countries (b) encouraging the effective transfer and efficient application of economic renewable energy technologies (c) assisting in the promotion of the environmental benefits of renewable energy (d) promoting business opportunities for renewable energy projects and their successful implementation (e) enhancing improved information, knowledge and education on renewable energy (f) providing a technical exhibition where manufacturers, suppliers and others can display their products and services and finally (h) providing a focal points for international networking. The topics covered are Solar Materials, Solar Thermal Applications, Photovoltaic technology, Biomass Conversion, Hydrogen and Fuel Cells, Wind Energy, Hydro Energy, Climate and the Environment, Low Energy Architecture, related Topics (Energy Management; Economics, Policy and Financing; Sustainable Energy Business Practices, Carbon tax and trading, Gender and Poverty Reduction). A total of 97 papers have been received from countries such as Malaysia, United States of America, United Kingdom, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Armenia, Romania, Denmark, Bahrain, Iraq, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Libya, Australia, Brunei, Belgium, New Zealand, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, India, Iran, Russia, and Turkey

  9. The international pressures on the energy market in Iberian America and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses Brazilian nuclear energy history, and addresses recent events, such as the international political pressures, the International Atomic Energy Agency/IAEA position, the new facts about nuclear energy in the world, the international energy market and the Iberian-America, the news about the Brazilian nuclear energy area, the best opportunities of good business in the Brazilian nuclear sector, the Brazilian Government and the Brazilian public position, in relation to International Law. (author)

  10. Towards a sustainable America: advancing prosperity, opportunity, and a healthy environment for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-05-01

    Humanity faces an unprecedented challenge as our numbers grow, while Earth and its capacity to support us do not. People across the United States and around the world aspire to better lives for themselves and for their children: food, shelter, a safe and healthy environment, education, jobs, and other material needs and conveniences. Industries strive to produce more goods, farmers to grow more crops; and human demands on forests, fields, rivers, and oceans increase. Our challenge is to create a future in which prosperity and opportunity increase while life flourishes and pressures on oceans, earth, and atmosphere - the biosphere - diminish; to create, as the Council's vision suggests, "a life- sustaining Earth that supports "a dignified, peaceful, and equitable existence." It is a powerful vision, and the two co-chairs of the President's Council on Sustainable Development (PCSD), fervently believe it is achievable - a unifying and necessary goal for the boundless capacity of human ingenuity so manifest in America. This document addresses climate change, environmental management, metropolitan and rural strategies, and international leadership.

  11. Environment, vegetation and greenness (NDVI) along the North America and Eurasia Arctic transects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI; an index of vegetation greenness and photosynthetic capacity) indicate that tundra environments are generally greening and becoming more productive as climates warm in the Arctic. The greening, however, varies and is even negative in some parts of the Arctic. To help interpret the space-based observations, the International Polar Year (IPY) Greening of the Arctic project conducted ground-based surveys along two >1500 km transects that span all five Arctic bioclimate subzones. Here we summarize the climate, soil, vegetation, biomass, and spectral information collected from the North America Arctic transect (NAAT), which has a more continental climate, and the Eurasia Arctic transect (EAT), which has a more oceanic climate. The transects have broadly similar summer temperature regimes and overall vegetation physiognomy, but strong differences in precipitation, especially winter precipitation, soil texture and pH, disturbance regimes, and plant species composition and structure. The results indicate that summer warmth and NDVI increased more strongly along the more continental transect. (letter)

  12. Environment, vegetation and greenness (NDVI) along the North America and Eurasia Arctic transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. A.; Epstein, H. E.; Raynolds, M. K.; Kuss, P.; Kopecky, M. A.; Frost, G. V.; Daniëls, F. J. A.; Leibman, M. O.; Moskalenko, N. G.; Matyshak, G. V.; Khitun, O. V.; Khomutov, A. V.; Forbes, B. C.; Bhatt, U. S.; Kade, A. N.; Vonlanthen, C. M.; Tichý, L.

    2012-03-01

    Satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI; an index of vegetation greenness and photosynthetic capacity) indicate that tundra environments are generally greening and becoming more productive as climates warm in the Arctic. The greening, however, varies and is even negative in some parts of the Arctic. To help interpret the space-based observations, the International Polar Year (IPY) Greening of the Arctic project conducted ground-based surveys along two >1500 km transects that span all five Arctic bioclimate subzones. Here we summarize the climate, soil, vegetation, biomass, and spectral information collected from the North America Arctic transect (NAAT), which has a more continental climate, and the Eurasia Arctic transect (EAT), which has a more oceanic climate. The transects have broadly similar summer temperature regimes and overall vegetation physiognomy, but strong differences in precipitation, especially winter precipitation, soil texture and pH, disturbance regimes, and plant species composition and structure. The results indicate that summer warmth and NDVI increased more strongly along the more continental transect.

  13. Towards a sustainable America: advancing prosperity, opportunity, and a healthy environment for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humanity faces an unprecedented challenge as our numbers grow, while Earth and its capacity to support us do not. People across the United States and around the world aspire to better lives for themselves and for their chil- dren: food, shelter, a stie and healthy environment, education, jobs, and other material needs and conveniences. Industries strive to produce more goods, farmers to grow more crops; and human demands on forests, fields, rivers, and oceans increase. Our challenge is to create a future in which prosperity and opportunity increase while life flourishes and pressures on oceans, earth, and atmosphere - the biosphere - diminish; to create, as the Council's vision suggests, ''a life- sustaining Ear and that supports ''a dignified, peaceful, and equitable existence. '' It is a powerful vision, and the two of us, brought together as co-chairs of the President's Council on Sustainable Development (PCS D), fervently believe it is achievable - a uniting and necessary goal for the boundless capacity of human ingenuity so manifest in America. This document addresses climate change, environmental management, metropolitan and rural strategies, and international leadership

  14. Renewable energies. A challenge and an opportunity for Central America; Energias renovables. Un reto y una oportunidad para America Central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, Leo; Castro S, Rene [Instituto Centroamericano de Administracion de Empresas (INCAE) (Costa Rica)

    2007-07-15

    There are analyzed in this working paper the following aspects: the Central America countries and their relations with the regional energy potencies -Mexico and Venezuela- and the impact they have in the energy supply. There are also explore the following aspects: the San Jose Agreement linked to the fossil fuels supply, the emerging scope boosted by Brazil and Colombia regarding to the alternative fuels. [Spanish] Este trabajo analiza los paises centroamericanos y sus relaciones con las potencias energeticas regionales como Mexico y Venezuela, y como estas impactan el suministro de energia en la region. Tambien se exploran mecanismos como el Pacto de San Jose, ligado al suministro de combustibles fosiles y las oportunidades emergentes impulsadas por Brasil y Colombia con combustibles alternativos.

  15. Advances in energy and environment. Vol. 1: Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 5th conference of energy and environment was held on 3-6 June 1996 in Cairo. The specialists discussed the effects of advances in energy and environment. The applications of solar energy, heat transfer, thermal application, storage and bio-conversion, fuels, energy and development. Studies were discussed at the meeting and more than 1000 papers were presented. This first volume covers papers presented on the following topics: solar thermal, heat transfer and thermal applications, storage and bio-conversion, refrigeration and iar conditioning, combustion, fuels and engines, energy and development. tabs., figs

  16. Energy and sustainable development in Latin America; Energie und nachhaltige Entwicklung in Lateinamerika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suding, P.H. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit, Quito (Ecuador). Projekt OLADE/CEPAL/GTZ `Energie und Nachhaltige Entwicklung in Lateinamerika und der Karibik`

    1997-04-01

    In contrast to South East Asia, whose capital is mostly `human capital`, Latin America and the Caribbean have large natural resources. Some of these countries have lived off their substance without investing in their future, i.e. in human capital and in non-human capital suited for long-term use. The OLADE/CEPAL/GTZ project `Energy and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean` has been running since 1993 with support by the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ). Its results suggest that developments in power supply in this region should be viewed with some misgivings. The euphoria over investments should not blind potential investors to the structural problems of these countries which may turn out to be adverse to sustainable development. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Gegensatz zu den Laendern Suedostasiens, deren Kapital ueberwiegend aus `Humankapital` besteht, stuetzt sich der Reichtum Lateinamerikas und der Karibik (LAuK) in starkem Umfang auf natuerliche Ressourcen. Einige dieser ressourcenbasierten Laender haben bisher vor ihrer Substanz gezehrt, ohne ausreichend in ihre Zukunft, d.h. in menschliches und langfristig nutzbares Sachkapital, zu investieren. Die Ergebnisse des seit 1993 mit Unterstuetzung der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) durchgefuehrten Projekts OLADE/CEPAL/GTZ `Energie und Entwicklung in Lateinamerika und der Karibik` legen eine vorsichtige Beurteilung der energiewirtschaftlichen Entwicklung nahe. Bei aller Investitionseuphorie sollten strukturelle Schwaechen, die die Nachhaltigkeit der Entwicklungsstrategien in Frage stellen, nicht uebersehen werden. (orig.)

  17. The New Energy Landscape: Shale Gas in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Mares, David R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the potential for shale gas in Latin America, and the technical and institutional obstacles to the industry's development. The first part of the paper analyzes the characteristics of the shale gas revolution that developed in the U.S. and highlights its precarious nature, the requirements for its initial development, and future prospects. The second part turns to the Latin American context - with a focus on Argentina and México - drawing on the lessons from the U.S. experi...

  18. Societal Benefits from Renewable Energy in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Vergara; Paul Isbell; Rios, Ana R.; José Ramon Gómez; Leandro Alves

    2014-01-01

    Population growth and advances in quality of life in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) will require the region to rapidly increase its energy supply, even if major improvements in energy efficiency are attained. The region is characterized by a low-carbon power matrix and a potential to produce over 78 PWh from non-traditional renewable energy technologies (NRETs). However, bias toward fossil fuels and the perceived cost disadvantages prevent further market entry of renewable energy. Addi...

  19. 75 FR 64306 - Shell Energy North America (US), LP; Notice of Institution of Proceeding and Refund Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Shell Energy North America (US), LP; Notice of Institution of Proceeding and... U.S.C. 824e (2005), concerning the justness and reasonableness of Shell Energy North America (US), LP's market- based rate authority in the Central and Southwest balancing authority area. Shell...

  20. 77 FR 45596 - Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. v. California Independent System Operator Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. v. California Independent System... Energy North America (US), L.P. (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against the California Independent... Commission's list of Corporate Officials. Any person desiring to intervene or to protest this filing...

  1. From the lab to the marketplace: Making America`s buildings more energy efficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Since the mid 1970s, DOE has invested some $70 million in research and development at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for development of advanced energy-efficient building technologies, software, and standards. That investment has helped spawn a $2.4-billion U.S. market for key products-energy-efficient lighting and advanced window coatings-and efficiency standards for residential equipment and computerized tools for more efficient building design. By 1993 DOE`s initial investment had reduced consumers` energy bills by an estimated $5 billion ($1.3 billion in 1993 alone). By 2015 we estimate that the products of that investment will save consumers $16 billion annually. LBL research partnerships address a host of other building technology issues as well-building technology issues whose economic benefits are less easy to quantify but whose overall worth is equally important. We analyze public policy issues such as the role of efficiency options as a mitigation strategy for global climate change. We develop planning and demand-management methodologies for electric and gas utilities. We identify technologies and analytical methods for improving human comfort and the quality of indoor air. We contribute to the information superhighway. We focus on the special problems and opportunities presented by energy use in the public sector. And we do all these things at the local, national, and international levels. At LBL, we are part of the multi-laboratory, interdisciplinary approach to building technology research supported by DOE`s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. We also participate in buildings-related research supported by DOE`s Office of Health and Environmental Research, other federal agencies, and industry. This document describes LBL`s role within this wider effort.

  2. From the lab to the marketplace: Making America`s buildings more energy efficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Since the mid 1970s, DOE has invested some $70 million in research and development at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for energy-efficiency studies of advanced building technologies. That investment has helped spawn a $2.4-billion US market for key products -- energy-efficient lighting and advanced window coatings -- and efficiency standards for residential equipment and computerized tools for more efficient building design. By 1993 DOE`s initial investment had reduced consumers` energy bills by an estimated $5 billion ($1.3 billion in 1993 alone). By 2015 the authors estimate that the products of that investment will save consumers $16 billion annually. But LBL research partnerships address a host of other building technology issues as well-building technology issues whose economic benefits are less easy to quantify but whose overall worth is equally important. They analyze public policy issues such as the role of efficiency options as a mitigation strategy for global climate change. They develop planning and demand-management methodologies for electric and gas utilities. They identify technologies and analytical methods for improving human comfort and the quality of indoor air. They contribute to the information superhighway. They focus on the special problems and opportunities presented by energy use in the public sector. And they do all these things at the local, national, and international levels. At LBL, they are part of the multi-laboratory, interdisciplinary approach to building technology research supported by DOE`s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. They also participate in buildings-related research supported by DOE`s Office of Health and Environmental Research, other federal agencies, and industry. This document describes LBL`s role within this wider effort.

  3. Energy-economic models and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current century - an era of environmental awareness - requires energy resources to satisfy the world's future energy demands. We can use current energy use scenarios to help us to understand how energy systems could change. Such scenarios are not an exercise in prophecy; rather they are designed to challenge our thinking in order to make better decisions today. The conventional modeling approach tends to extrapolate changes in energy consumption from historical trends; however, technology innovation sometimes causes drastic reforms in energy systems in the industrial, commercial, residential and transportation sectors. The economic aspects are another key issue to be considered in order to understand future changes in energy systems. The quantity of the energy supply is set to meet the price of the energy demand of end users. This occurs on the condition that the price of the energy supply equates with the price on the demand side under the market mechanism. This paper reviews the various issues associated with the energy-economic model and its application to national energy policies, renewable energy systems, and the global environment. (Author)

  4. The energy-development-environment nexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is the key factor in tackling two of the major problems now facing humanity: the environment and development. Adequate and appropriate energy supplies are essential to economic and social development, especially for Third World countries, but at the same time energy production and utilization are responsible for much of the damage being done to the environment. As everyone now knows, the combustion of fossil fuels is the main source of greenhouse gases and of the threat to the stability of world climate. Nuclear power, which once seemed an answer to the constantly increasing demand for energy, is now challenged by public opinion in many countries as a result of various nuclear accidents and the problems of processing and storing nuclear waste. So how do we extricate ourselves from the energy environment-development tangle? Clearly, advanced countries have an interest in transferring environment-friendly technologies to developing countries in order to reduce the pollution which puts the global as well as the local environment at risk. The North is, by and large, becoming aware of the choices involved in protecting the environment versus industrial growth and unlimited use of motor vehicles. For the South, these choices are a luxury they can ill afford, given the imperative of rapid development. The solution must be for greater international co-operation, with the North assisting the South (and the former Communist bloc) financially and through transfer of appropriate technologies at affordable cost. Reconciling the environment and development with respect to the energy cycle is a task of fundamental importance for the future. The prime responsibility for this task obviously lies with industries, but action is also required from governments, to enable them to play their part effectively. Advanced countries must demonstrate that development is fully compatible with protecting the environment. They can do so by using market forces, provided that the appropriate

  5. International Cooperation and Energy/Environment crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combination of old and new tensions led to a new energy crisis. This crisis is very difficult to solve due to the multiple interests and the global and sovranational nature of its interdependent dimensions (economic, political and environmental). In a deep global economic crisis context, the challenges posed to the modern world by energy and the environment have to be faced with the international cooperation and dialogue, as it was in the past.

  6. Dilemmas for China: Energy, economy and environment

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Xu; Benjamin C. McLellan; Snowden, Simon; Zhang, Baosheng; Höök, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    China's current national policies promote high levels of economic growth, transforming China into a "world factory", but at a high cost in terms of energy and the environment. At the same time, this growth and transformation also forms the backbone of China's economy, underpinning social stability. China faces a dilemma to reconcile its economy, energy system and environmental security. Each aspect of this triad is discussed in this study to illuminate the challenges faced by China, and China...

  7. Physics literacy, energy and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    2003-03-01

    Socially aware science literacy courses are sorely needed in every nation that is industrialized and democratic. This article puts societal topics into the more general context of science literacy, suggests that socially significant topics can fit comfortably into a physics literacy course, looks at energy and environment issues, and discusses how one might teach three such issues: energy use in transportation, global ozone depletion and global warming.

  8. Energy demand and life quality in America; Demanda de energia y calidad de vida en las Americas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitalnik, J. [ELETRONUCLEAR, 65, Rua da Candelaria- 10 andar, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)]. E-mail: jspitalnik@alternex.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Being considered an intermediate growth among projections of technological development expressive or of development restricted by ecological considerations, in the next 50 years, the demand of primary energy in the countries of the American continent arrived to value sufficiently high to allow to consent at levels of quality of life but next to those enjoyed at the moment in developed countries. There will be an expansion substantial of electric power demand that rots to require the installation, in countries of Latin America and Caribbean, of power plants with total capacity of the order of 400 GW until half-filled of century. The resource to the nuclear source was accentuated starting from the decade of 2020 and an enormous challenge for the governments of the region it will be the one of driving the construction of about 2.300 MW/year nuclear power plants between 2020 and 2050. (Author)

  9. Renewable energy to the Indian environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossil fuel reserves are diminishing rapidly across the world. Greenhouse gas emissions, climatic changes and global warming have a direct impact on the environment. A secure and accessible supply of energy is very crucial for the sustainability of modern societies. There is an urgent need for a quicker switch over of energy systems from conventional to renewable that are sustainable and can meet the present and projected world energy demand. Renewable energy has a large potential to become the fuel of the future. The present study is aimed to explore such potential and achievements in India. India is expected to have high growth rate in energy demand over the coming years due to its huge population and rapid economic development. The renewable energy prospects/spectrums of India have been highlighted. (author)

  10. Turkey Energy and Environment Review : Synthesis Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Gaps in knowledge about the interface between energy and the environment, were identified sometime in the late 1990s, and a number of studies were then conceived to address this knowledge gap, and advance the level of understanding, by collecting additional information, through specialized analyses. This Synthesis Report summarizes the results of ten studies, collectively referred to as th...

  11. Abstracts of the Second energy conference of the Latin America and the Caribbean (ENERLAC'95)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE), with support from the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Ecuador, held the Second Energy Conference of Latin America and the Caribbean (ENERLAC 95) under the heading Energy Integration and Private-Sector Participation, essentially aimed at bringing together top public and private sector executives of latin america and the caribbean and entrepreneurs, investors, representatives of commercial banks and financial institutions to identify and concretize business opportunities and foster the energy integration of the region by identifying projects and investment opportunities in the sector. The present document is a reference work compiling the abstracts of the presentations that have been submitted and selected for ENERLAC 95. This publication provides a wide range of opinions and ideas about many energy sector topics

  12. The energy challenges of North America; Los retos energeticos de America del Norte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Eduardo [Universidad Johns Hopkins (JHU), Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Varela Salazar, Myrna R. [Universidad de Columbia, Nueva York, Nueva York (United States)

    2006-11-15

    The objective of this article is, on one hand, to evaluate the dependency of the United States (US) as far as its oil imports, and by the other, the regional consequences that could mean the declination of the production and of the Mexican exports. Mexico could put into injunction the diversification looked for by US and have other undesirable consequences, such as higher prices and bilateral and including international tensions. In addition, the fall of the oil exports will damage the public finances of Mexico, reason why the reform of its energy sector and the necessity of moderating the dependency of the government from the oil income by means of a fiscal reform that can not be postponed, in spite of the strong prevailing political resistance. [Spanish] El objetivo de este articulo es, por un lado, evaluar la dependencia de Estados Unidos (EU) en cuanto a sus importaciones de petroleo, y por el otro, las consecuencias regionales que podria significar la declinacion de la produccion y de las exportaciones mexicanas. Mexico podria poner en entredicho la diversificacion buscada por EU y tener otras consecuencias indeseables, como precios mas altos y tensiones bilaterales e inclusive internacionales. Ademas, la caida de las exportaciones petroleras danara las finanzas publicas de Mexico, por lo que la reforma de su sector energetico y la necesidad de atemperar la dependencia del gobierno de los ingresos petroleros mediante una reforma fiscal se volverian inaplazables, a pesar de las fuertes resistencias politicas imperantes.

  13. 75 FR 17706 - FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC, Complainant v. Great Lakes Hydro America LLC Rumford Falls Hydro LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FPL Energy Maine Hydro LLC, Complainant v. Great Lakes Hydro America LLC... Hydro America LLC and Rumford Falls Hydro LLC (Respondents) alleging that Respondents are violating... to protest this filing must file in accordance with Rules 211 and 214 of the Commission's Rules...

  14. Kazakhstan and America: the Frontiers of Energy Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekbolat Almadiyev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the development and use of policy instruments and tools for energy cooperation promotion between Kazakhstan and the United States. The role of energy diplomacy in foreign policy strategy of the Republic of Kazakhstan is due to the progressive growth of the relationship between the economic interests of Kazakhstan and the United States. The main objectives of the energy policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan are: the internal energy market formation, energy supplies on a competitive basis and energy security provision, as well as the improvement of the environmental sustainability of the energy. Modern American transnational enterprises have at their disposal significant financial resources, technological and managerial capacity. They are able to develop oil and gas fields effectively in the Republic of Kazakhstan with the least financial costs and minimal environmental damage.

  15. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  16. Green energy. Biomass fuels and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United Nations Environment Programme has been concerned with energy/environment issues since it was first set up after the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm in 1972. In the late 1970s, UNEP compiled three comprehensive reports on the the environmental impacts of the production and use of fossil fuels, nuclear energy and renewable energy sources. In 1987 it was decided to update the volume on renewable energy since knowledge of biofuels and their effects on the environment had greatly improved. Among many innovations, Brazil's decision to embark on a major, and now successful, programme to produce ethanol from sugarcane as a substitute vehicle fuel is one of the most significant. At the same time, energy tree crops, agroforestry systems and the use of plantations for environmental improvement have become issues of key importance to sustainable development in developing countries. Biomass fuels, of course, have always been important in terms of the numbers of people who use them; the significant change during the 1980s was that the potential advantages of these fuels took on a new significance in the light of environmental degradation and related issues such as greenhouse warming. The biomass fuels began to be considered as attractive energy sources in their own right - not simply as 'last resort' fuels for developing countries with only limited energy options. While this development may solve some environmental problems, it certainly raises others - the improper utilization of biomass fuels in the past has been responsible for deforestation, desertification and the ill health of many millions of the women in developing countries who use biomass fuels in unventilated huts. These issues currently affect about half of the world population. The new UNEP study was intended to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental issues raised by the use of biomass fuels, and hence to reduce or eliminate their adverse impacts while

  17. Dilemmas for China: Energy, Economy and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Tang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available China’s current national policies promote high levels of economic growth, transforming China into a “world factory”, but at a high cost in terms of energy and the environment. At the same time, this growth and transformation also forms the backbone of China’s economy, underpinning social stability. China faces a dilemma to reconcile its economy, energy system and environmental security. Each aspect of this triad is discussed in this study to illuminate the challenges faced by China, and China’s dilemma in energy, economy and environment is analyzed from the perspective of its participation in current global supply chains. While China must import a significant proportion of its energy and a large proportion of primary materials, a large share of these imports are returned to the global market as industrial exports. China is bound by its own course of action and unable to radically change its position for the foreseeable future as the road to economic development and employment stability is through policies built on exports and shifting development models, presenting a tough socio-economic trade-off. China’s growth challenges are discussed as an example of challenges more broadly faced in the developing world. China’s success or failure in achieving a sustainable developmental pattern will inevitably have a significant influence on the global environment.

  18. 77 FR 2954 - Notice of Stakeholder Meetings on Rural Energy for America Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Rural Business-Cooperative Service Notice of Stakeholder Meetings on Rural Energy for America Program... Business-Cooperative Service (RBS) will hold meetings for stakeholders focusing on Rural Development's... Development State Directors. Stakeholders must contact the appropriate Rural Development State Office in...

  19. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 13: Energy Performance Techniques and Technologies: Preserving Historic Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, Michelle L.; Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Makela, Erin KB; Schneider, Elaine C.; Kaufman, Ned

    2011-03-01

    This guide is a resource to help contractors renovate historic houses, while addressing issues such as building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. The best practices described in this document are based on the results of research and demonstration projects conducted by Building America’s research teams. Building America brings together the nation’s leading building scientists with over 300 production builders to develop, test, and apply innovative, energy-efficient construction practices. The guide is available for download from the DOE Building America website www.buildingamerica.gov.

  20. Dilemmas for China: Energy, Economy and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Tang; Benjamin C. McLellan; Simon Snowden; Baosheng Zhang; Mikael Höök

    2015-01-01

    China’s current national policies promote high levels of economic growth, transforming China into a “world factory†, but at a high cost in terms of energy and the environment. At the same time, this growth and transformation also forms the backbone of China’s economy, underpinning social stability. China faces a dilemma to reconcile its economy, energy system and environmental security. Each aspect of this triad is discussed in this study to illuminate the challenges faced by China, a...

  1. Energy and the Environment: Volume 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 24 papers in this volume are entitled: The art of energy efficiency--Protecting the environment with better technology; On the road to global ecology; Best practices for renewable energy implementation--Integrating end-user and commercial-sector opportunities and constraints; Biomass conversion to fuels; Changing trends in greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide; Economic growth, liberalization, and the environment--A review of the evidence; Harmful algal blooms--A model for emergence of pathogenic microorganisms under conditions of ecological stress; Enhancing the performance of nuclear power reactors--Issues and opportunities; Environmental issues along the US-Mexico border--Drivers of change and the response of citizens and institutions; Ethics and international business; Fuel cells; High-level nuclear waste--The status of Yucca Mountain; Hydrogen production, transmission, and distribution; It's not easy being green--Innovative environmental technologies enhance hydropower's role in sustainable development; Megacities and the atmosphere; Methods for attributing ambient air pollutants to emission sources; Nuclear energy in the twenty-first century--Examination of a contentious subject; Pollution and human health in the St. Lawrence estuary; Southern perspectives in technology transfer; The post-Kyoto regime on climate change--Southern perspectives; Flexibility in the timing and mechanisms of greenhouse gas controls--A review of economic arguments; How much is energy R and D worth as insurance; A review of technical change in assessments of climate policy; and Energy technology and global change--Modeling techniques developed at NASA

  2. Nuclear, energy, environment, wastes, society - NEEDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the seven projects based on partnerships between several bodies, companies and agencies (CNRS, CEA, Areva, EDF, IRSN, ANDRA, BRGM) on research programmes on nuclear systems and scenarios, on resources (mines, processes, economy), on the processing and packaging of radioactive wastes, on the behaviour of materials for storage, on the impact of nuclear activities on the environment, on the relationship between nuclear, risks and society, and on materials for nuclear energy

  3. Major shrimp pathogenic virus in america and their relationship with low salinity environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Enrique Godínez Siordia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp aquaculture is an expanding activity in many countries in which the health status is a determining factor for its success. In this review we present world shrimp viral agents, with emphasis in America reported virus and the influence of water salinity.

  4. Modern energy consumption and economic modernisation in Latin America and the Caribbean between 1890 and 1925

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Varas, M. del Mar; Y????ez, C??sar; Folchi, Mauricio; Carreras, Albert

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of comparable macroeconomic indicators for most of the Latin American economies before the 1930s, the apparent consumption of energy is used in this paper as a proxy of the degree of modernisation of Latin America and the Caribbean. This paper presents an estimate of the apparent consumption per head of modern energies (coal, petroleum and hydroelectricity) for 30 countries of Latin American and the Caribbean for 1890 to 1925, multiplying the number of countries ...

  5. The importance of advancing technology to America's energy goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide range of energy technologies appears to be needed for the United States to meet its energy goals. A method is developed that relates the uncertainty of technological progress in eleven technology areas to the achievement of CO2 mitigation and reduced oil dependence. We conclude that to be confident of meeting both energy goals, each technology area must have a much better than 50/50 probability of success, that carbon capture and sequestration, biomass, battery electric or fuel cell vehicles, advanced fossil liquids, and energy efficiency technologies for buildings appear to be almost essential, and that the success of each one of the 11 technologies is important. These inferences are robust to moderate variations in assumptions.

  6. Environment, energy and economy: Strategies for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with short-term and long-term issues associated with directions of economic development in developing as well as industrialized countries. It examines various aspects of the interrelationships among the environment, energy requirements, and economic development. It emphasizes the increasing environmental stress arising from such human activities as growing energy consumption associated with economic development; the risk of further environmental degradation due to economic development in developing countries; the importance of global environmental problems such as climate change resulting from greenhouse gas emissions; the role of new technologies in solving the trilemma of energy demand, economic development; and the need for removing technological, economic, and social barriers to achieving sustainable development. It underscores the need for further scientific information and analytical studies, such as improved climate and econometric modeling

  7. New solutions in energy supply. Business and investment forums for renewable energy. Africa and Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This ENERGIE publication is one of a series highlighting the potential for innovative non-nuclear energy technologies to become widely applied and contribute superior services to the citizen. European Commission strategies aim at influencing the scientific and engineering communities, policy makers and key market actors to create, encourage, acquire and apply cleaner, more efficient and more sustainable energy solutions for their own benefit and that of our wider society. Funded under the European Union's Fifth Framework Programme for Research, technological Development and Demonstration (RTD), ENERGIE's range of supports cover research, development, demonstration, dissemination, replication and market uptake - the full process of converting new ideas into practical solutions to real needs. Its publications, in print and electronic form, disseminate the results of actions carried out under this and previous Framework Programmes, including former JOULE-THERMIE actions. Jointly managed by Directorate-General Energy and Transport and Directorate-General Research, ENERGIE has a total budget of Euro 1042 million over the period 1999 to 2002. Delivery is organised principally around two Key Actions, Cleaner Energy Systems, including Renewable Energies, and Economic and Efficient Energy for a Competitive Europe, within the theme 'Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development', supplemented by coordination and cooperative activities of a sectoral and cross-sectoral nature. With targets guided by the Kyoto Protocol and associated policies, ENERGIE's integrated activities are focussed on new solutions which yield direct economic and environmental benefits to the energy user, and strengthen European competitive advantage by helping to achieve a position of leadership in the energy technologies of tomorrow. The resulting balanced improvements in energy, environmental and economic performance will help to ensure a sustainable future for Europe

  8. Environment and Citizenship in Latin America: A New Paradigm for Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Latta and Hannah Wittman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available As a reflection of the ecological pressures associated with rapid modernization and globalization, the environment has become an enduring theme of public debate and protest in Latin America. Over the past decade, scholars have made increasing connections between such debate and a range of questions related to citizenship. Meanwhile, a discourse of ‘environmental citizenship’ has a growing prevalence in policy across the region. While these developments echo similar political and academic trends in the Global North, the Latin American context demands a unique set of theoretical and methodological approaches to studying the intersection of ecology and citizenship, sensitive to the specific historical, cultural, and ecological character of the region. We outline a research agenda spanning questions of land, identity and citizenship; environmental justice and de-colonization; social subjectivity and the state; urban natures and citizens; and the materiality/subjectivity of nature. This array of approaches points to a more acute conceptualization of citizenship, both in terms of its understanding of politics and its treatment of ecology; it also offers a point of view that recognizes citizens and natures as dynamic realities, which mutually condition each other in a sphere of ongoing contest.   Resumen: Medio ambiente y ciudadanía en América Latina: un nuevo paradigma para la teoría y práctica Como reflexión de los impactos ecológicos asociados con la modernización rápida y la globalización, el medio ambiente se ha transformado en un tema de debate y protesta constante en Latinoamérica. Durante la última década, un número creciente de académicos ha observado conexiones entre tal debate y una gama de asuntos relacionados con la ciudadanía. Al mismo tiempo, un discurso de ‘ciudadanía ambiental’ ha alcanzado una prevalencia notable en las políticas públicas de la región. Aunque estos acontecimientos reflejan de una tendencia

  9. Regional Energy Integration in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-15

    The regional study has been conducted by the WEC Latin American Member Committees. Having identified that the weak link between existing national energy infrastructures remains a major stumbling block to strengthening regional economic integration, this study aims to propose alternative views -- primarily on the integration of electricity and natural gas markets.

  10. Turkey - Energy and the Environment : Issues and Options Paper

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    This report represents an initial effort to assist Turkey in developing its energy-environment strategy. It represents the first phase of the Turkey Energy and Environment Review. A previous draft of the paper, translated into Turkish, served as the basic discussion document at an Energy and Environment workshop on the environmental impact of energy development in turkey held in Ankara on ...

  11. Electronic Energy Transfer in Polarizable Heterogeneous Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Casper Steinmann; Kongsted, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical prediction of transport and optical properties of protein-pigment complexes is of significant importance when aiming at understanding the structure versus function relationship in such systems. Electronic energy transfer (EET) couplings represent a key property in this respect since...... such couplings provide important insight into the strength of interaction between photo-active pigments in protein-pigment complexes. Recently, attention has been payed to how the environment modifies or even controls the electronic couplings. To enable such theoretical predictions, a fully polarizable embedding...... of transition densities in the calculation of the electronic couplings - also when including the explicit environment contribution - can be replaced by a much simpler transition point charge description without comprising the quality of the model predictions....

  12. Geothermal energy and global environment. Chinetsu energy to chikyu kankyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-25

    The geothermal energy is explained together with the global environment. The global environment problem comprises ozonospheric destruction, acid rain and global warming. The important elements of measures against the global warming are rise in prediction accuracy (rise in accuracy of prediction model for which the reflection on the cloud, rainfall and evaporation, percentage of the ocean, and biosystem are taken into consideration) and technological development for the measures (high efficiency utilization of energy, reduction in CO2 production, CO2 removal, storage and recycling technology). A prediction example of the worldwide energy in 2050 indicates that the nuclear power, fossil fuel and geothermal energy occupy 50, 20 and 8%, respectively. Though poor in economical performance, the geothermal power generation will be competitive, if assumption is made of a future rise in fossil fuel cost. It is more practical than the photovoltaic power generation and wind power generation. Its CO2 emission per kWH is smaller than that of the hydraulic power generation and nuclear power generation. In the geothermal power generation, H2S largely influences the atmospheric environment. As measures against the H2S, stretford and other different processes are put in practical use. For the water quality environment, what is important is measures against the As. 24 refs., 25 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Optimal Energy Taxation for Environment and Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, Y.D. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    Main purpose of this research is to investigate about how to use energy tax system to reconcile environmental protection and economic growth, and promote sustainable development with the emphasis of double dividend hypothesis. As preliminary work to attain this target, in this limited study I will investigate the specific conditions under which double dividend hypothesis can be valid, and set up the model for optimal energy taxation. The model will be used in the simulation process in the next project. As the beginning part in this research, I provide a brief review about energy taxation policies in Sweden, Netherlands, and the United States. From this review it can be asserted that European countries are more aggressive in the application of environmental taxes like energy taxes for a cleaner environment than the United States. In next part I examined the rationale for optimal environmental taxation in the first-best and the second-best setting. Then I investigated energy taxation how it can provoke various distortions in markets and be connected to the marginal environmental damages and environmental taxation. In the next chapter, I examined the environmentally motivated taxation in the point of optimal commodity taxation view. Also I identified the impacts of environmental taxation in various circumstances intensively to find out when the environment tax can yield double dividend after taking into account of even tax-interaction effects. Then it can be found that even though in general the environmental tax exacerbates the distortion in the market rather than alleviates, it can also improve the welfare and the employment under several specific circumstances which are classified as various inefficiencies in the existing tax system. (author). 30 refs.

  14. Environment, Renewable Energy and Reduced Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Khazanov, G.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Increased energy security and reduced carbon emissions pose significant challenges for science and technology. However, they also create substantial opportunities for innovative research and development. In this review paper, we highlight some of the key opportunities and mention public policies that are needed to enable the efforts and to maximize the probability of their success. Climate is among the uttermost nonlinear behaviors found around us. As recent studies showed the possible effect of cosmic rays on the Earth's climate, we investigate how complex interactions between the planet and its environment can be responsible for climate anomalies.

  15. Managing Current Complexity: Critical Energy Infrastructure Failures in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin MacDonald

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper applies the competing theories of High Reliability Organizations (HRO and Normal Accidents Theory (NAT, two competing views of risk management in highly-complex and tightly-coupled systems, in analyzing the 1998 Ice Storm and the 2003 Blackout to examine vulnerabilities in North America’s critical energy infrastructure (CEI. Inferences are then made by highlighting the similarities and differences in the two cases, which are then used to draw lessons for public managers regarding the protection of CEIs.

     

    As CEIs are highly-complex and tightly-coupled systems, failures stemming from complex and uncertain risks are inevitable. There is an increasingly low tolerance for failure in energy infrastructure because society’s critical infrastructures have become increasingly interdependent. Public managers must regulate CEIs in order to ensure an emphasis is placed on safety and security while also finding ways to reduce unnecessary complexities. It is through the adoption of such measures that public managers will aid in minimizing the cascading effects of inevitable failures.

     

  16. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  17. The peaceful uses of nuclear energy in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study's main task is to investigate the efficiency of the Tlatelolco regime from the point of view of the legislative intent, which also includes aspects of legal policy. The study discusses the validity and effects of this Treaty not only with regard to doubtful items or elements of uncertainty having their roots in the wording of the Treaty itself, but also the hitherto achieved degree of contractual submission to the regime of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The legal position of some so-called 'threshold countries' is of particular interest in this context, as these are not yet fully bound by the Treaty, but nevertheless committed themselves (or are urged to) in some way or other. An evaluation of their position from the international law point of view will have effects on the Federal Republic of Germany, and possibly on national German restrictions on exports in accordance with the German Foreign Trade and Payments Law. (orig./HP)

  18. Meta-Analysis of Income and Price Elasticities Energy Demand: Some Public Policy Implications for Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Galindo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the variation in empirical estimates of the income and price elasticities of energy demand. The evidence presented, through a meta-analysis, allows identification of the weighted average of the income and price elasticities, shows that the estimates are very heterogeneous, that there is publication bias, and that factors such as region, energy sector, among others, affect its volatility. The evidence also indicates that income elasticity in Latin America is greater than in the OECD countries, and that the price elasticity of energy demand is lower in Latin America than in the OECD countries. Therefore, continued economic growth in Latin America will be accompanied by a growth in energy demand. Moreover, the establishment of a tax in Latin America, under the current elasticities, is less effective and will be insufficient to control the increase in energy consumption.

  19. Cornerstones of a renewable energy law for emerging markets in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1990, effective support schemes for renewable energies have been introduced mainly in European countries. In this article, the authors explain which consequences different general conditions could have on the design and functioning of feed-in laws. Cornerstones for an adjusted feed-in law to the particular general conditions of emerging and developing countries in South America will be drawn, which should give support to the decision-makers for designing an attuned and well-functioning feed-in legislation.

  20. Handbook for the Preparation of Landfill Gas to Energy Projects in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Conestoga-Rovers & Associates

    2004-01-01

    This Handbook has been developed for the World Bank to facilitate the development of landfill gas (LFG) management and landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) projects in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). It is expected that the Handbook will be used by those who, own, operate, engineer and regulate landfill sites in LAC as a roadmap for the assessment of candidate projects and to initiate dev...

  1. The Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) - A Building America Energy Efficient Housing Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb Aldrich; Lois Arena; Dianne Griffiths; Srikanth Puttagunta; David Springer

    2010-12-31

    This final report summarizes the work conducted by the Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) (http://www.carb-swa.com/), one of the 'Building America Energy Efficient Housing Partnership' Industry Teams, for the period January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. The Building America Program (BAP) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program (BTP). The long term goal of the BAP is to develop cost effective, production ready systems in five major climate zones that will result in zero energy homes (ZEH) that produce as much energy as they use on an annual basis by 2020. CARB is led by Steven Winter Associates, Inc. with Davis Energy Group, Inc. (DEG), MaGrann Associates, and Johnson Research, LLC as team members. In partnership with our numerous builders and industry partners, work was performed in three primary areas - advanced systems research, prototype home development, and technical support for communities of high performance homes. Our advanced systems research work focuses on developing a better understanding of the installed performance of advanced technology systems when integrated in a whole-house scenario. Technology systems researched included: - High-R Wall Assemblies - Non-Ducted Air-Source Heat Pumps - Low-Load HVAC Systems - Solar Thermal Water Heating - Ventilation Systems - Cold-Climate Ground and Air Source Heat Pumps - Hot/Dry Climate Air-to-Water Heat Pump - Condensing Boilers - Evaporative condensers - Water Heating CARB continued to support several prototype home projects in the design and specification phase. These projects are located in all five program climate regions and most are targeting greater than 50% source energy savings over the Building America Benchmark home. CARB provided technical support and developed builder project case studies to be included in near-term Joule Milestone reports for the following community scale projects: - SBER Overlook at

  2. Chemistry, sun, energy and environment; Chimie, soleil, energie et environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchy, M. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Industries Chimiques (ENSIC), 54 - Villers-les-Nancy (France); Enea, O. [Poitiers Univ., 86 (France); Flamant, G. [IMP-Odeillo-CNRS (France)] (and others)

    2000-07-01

    This document provides the 35 papers presented at the 'Chemistry, Sun, Energy and Environment' meeting, held February 3-4, 2000 in Saint-Avold, France. The main studied topic was the use of solar radiation for water treatment, volatile organic compounds decomposition and in some thermochemical processes. These research subjects are tackled in a fundamental and practical point of view. (O.M.)

  3. 78 FR 15718 - Iberdrola Renewables, Inc. PacifiCorp NextEra Energy Resources, LLC Invenergy Wind North America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Iberdrola Renewables, Inc. PacifiCorp NextEra Energy Resources, LLC Invenergy Wind North America LLC Horizon Wind Energy LLC v. Bonneville Power Administration; Notice...

  4. School education on energy and environment problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japanese school, elementary and junior- and senior-high, it is widely agreed that teaching of energy and environment is desirable, as has been adopted in a course of study of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. This paper reports the present state of affairs on these problems from elementary schools to high schools, describing of each school year or grade and each lessons separately. It contains the results of the author's investigation on curriculum and syllabus including some classroom practices and measurement of natural radioactivity and radiation with the help of adequate measuring instruments and visits to some related facilities. Methods of learning and teaching are also studied together with some future prospect. (S. Ohno)

  5. Basic physics program for a low energy antiproton source in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We summarize much of the important science that could be learned at a North American low energy antiproton source. It is striking that there is such a diverse and multidisciplinary program that would be amenable to exploration. Spanning the range from high energy particle physics to nuclear physics, atomic physics, and condensed matter physics, the program promises to offer many new insights into these disparate branches of science. It is abundantly clear that the scientific case for rapidly proceeding towards such a capability in North America is both alluring and strong. 38 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Fungal Genomics for Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 200 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  7. Target: South America: Southern neighbour is growing quickly as a go-to region of energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, C. G.

    2005-01-03

    An overview of economic development in the twelve countries of South America is provided, with the focus being on the energy sector. The article examines the current state of the oil and natural gas industry in each of the countries, especially in Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela, the countries with the largest proved oil reserves, taking a close look at the investment environment, the political and economic climate for development, the exploration efforts, and opportunities for foreign companies, particularly Canadian, to participate in the energy sector of the economy. Among Canadian companies, Petro Canada is the most active; it has operated in Venezuela since 2002, and has a 50 per cent working interest in the La Ceiba block that straddles the eastern shores of Lake Maracaibo. While the national oil company plays a significant role in the country's hydrocarbon industry, creating a special dynamic for foreign companies, Petro Canada is is eager to apply its heavy oil technology and experience from Canada in Venezuela which has significant heavy oil resources. QRC Colombia Ltd., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Quadra Resources Corporation of Canada, also intends to stay, and considers Colombia to be pro-business and one that provides a world-class environment for foreign enterprises. With sliding royalty scales similar to those in Alberta, and with average finding costs as low as $2 per barrel, the percentage economic returns to the producer are said to be among the top five in the world. By contrast, EnCana does not see a future role for itself in South America, and put its 36.3 per cent interest in the 450,000 bbls/day Oleoducto de Crudos Pesados (OCP) that nearly doubled Ecuador's oil transport capacity when it came on-stream in September 2003 on the auction block. This action was taken after the company was subjected to criticism from environmentalists and human rights activists, and after running into difficulties with the government. The overall

  8. Indicators and Performance Measures for Transportation, Environment and Sustainability in North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    A study trip to USA and Canada was undertaken in October 2000 with support from the German Marshall Fund. The purpose of the trip was to learn about performance planning and performance indicators in the area of transportation and environment. The report describe findings from the trip in the...... following areas: how performance planning for transportation and environment is conducted in the US and Canada at federal, state and municipal level, to what extent performance planning serve as an instrument to integrate environmental and sustainability goals in transportation policy which specific...

  9. 2008 Microscope on the Microfinance Business Environment in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU)

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results and analysis of the dynamic, weighted model on the microfinance business environment, built by the Economist Intelligence Unit and supported with financing and advice by the IDB and the Corporación Andina de Fomento (CAF).

  10. Cornerstones of a renewable energy law for emerging markets in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1990, effective support schemes for renewable energies have been introduced mainly in European countries. In this article, the authors explain which consequences different general conditions could have on the design and functioning of feed-in laws. Cornerstones for an adjusted feed-in law to the particular general conditions of emerging and developing countries in South America will be drawn, which should give support to the decision-makers for designing an attuned and well-functioning feed-in legislation. (author)

  11. Energy as an indicator of modernization in Latin America, 1890-1925

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Varas, María del Mar; Yáñez, César; Folchi, Mauricio; Carreras, Albert

    2010-01-01

    This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: RUBIO, M. d. M., YÁÑEZ, C., FOLCHI, M. and CARRERAS, A. (2010), Energy as an indicator of modernization in Latin America, 1890–1925. The Economic History Review, 63: 769–804, which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0289.2009.00463.x. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.

  12. Atmospheric environment responses to fossil energy and renewable energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossil energy consumption and the atmospheric environmental problems are closely related leading together with various recent weather phenomena such as the climate change, global warming, greenhouse effect and atmospheric pollution. Accumulation of harmful emissions from the fossil fuels such as coal and oil causes increase in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere which shield the long wave solar irradiation from the earth to outer space and consequently the temperature within the atmospheric layer increases giving rise to expected global warming and many long term undesirable disastrous events such as droughts, floods, the sea level rises as a result of polar ice melting, shifts of tropical belts towards the polar regions, undulating of low lying lands in addition to many other social effects. In order to reduce these undesirable effects, the atmosphere as a common property of all the world, must be protected jointly by all the countries. Hence, each country must contribute her share by reducing the use of fossil fuels with the replacement of environment friendly renewable energy resources such as solar, solar-hydrogen, wind and hydropower. In order to know the right for a country to defend herself for future accusations of atmospheric environmental pollution she must know and set up policies as her energy consumption levels and renewable energy potentials. This paper presents general account of fossil fuel usage consequences in the atmosphere. 15 refs

  13. Energy Efficiency Standards of Induction Motors, ¿Are you Prepared Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Londoño-Parra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia the regulatory process regarding the energy efficiency of end-use prod-ucts is emerging with the draft technical regulation product labeling RETIQ, which includes in Annex E, the test methods for determining the efficiency of motors alternat-ing current induction. The goal of this paper is to compare the energy efficiency of induction motors between the countries of Latin America and the countries of the major economies of the globe, considering four aspects: the current state of classification standards and test procedures of induction motors efficiency, multilateral agreements of mutual recognition, the infrastructure to conduct tests of the standard and support programs to improve the efficiency of electric motor-driven systems. The study reveals that Latin America is a considerable delay in the implementation of classification standards and methods for testing the efficiency of electric motors, most widely used in the world: IEC 60034-30:2008, IEC 60034-2-1: 2007 IEEE 112:2004 and EPAct'92, with respect to the countries of the European Union, United States, China, Australia, and other developed countries, in which these standards have been adopted. Furthermore, the region is evident in the absence of programs focused on improving the energy efficiency of electric motors and a limited number of accredited laboratories to evaluate their efficiency, which leads to most Latin American countries to establish agreements mutual recognition for this purpose.

  14. Energy Efficiency Standards of Induction Motors, ¿Are you Prepared Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Londoño-Parra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia the regulatory process regarding the energy efficiency of end-use products is emerging with the draft technical regulation product labeling RETIQ, which includes in Annex E, the test methods for determining the efficiency of motors alternating current induction. The goal of this paper is to compare the energy efficiency of induction motors between the countries of Latin America and the countries of the major economies of the globe, considering four aspects: the current state of classification standards and test procedures of induction motors efficiency, multilateral agreements of mutual recognition, the infrastructure to conduct tests of the standard and support programs to improve the efficiency of electric motor-driven systems. The study reveals that Latin America is a considerable delay in the implementation of classification standards and methods for testing the efficiency of electric motors, most widely used in the world: IEC 60034-30:2008, IEC 60034-2-1: 2007 IEEE 112:2004 and EPAct'92, with respect to the countries of the European Union, United States, China, Australia, and other developed countries, in which these standards have been adopted. Furthermore, the region is evident in the absence of programs focused on improving the energy efficiency of electric motors and a limited number of accredited laboratories to evaluate their efficiency, which leads to most Latin American countries to establish agreements mutual recognition for this purpose.

  15. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 16: 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Adams, Karen; Butner, Ryan S.; Ortiz, Sallie J.

    2011-09-01

    This best practices guide is the 16th in a series of guides for builders produced by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America program. This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct homes that are among the most energy-efficient available, while addressing issues such as building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the mixed-humid climate can build homes that have whole-house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark with no added overall costs for consumers. The best practices described in this document are based on the results of research and demonstration projects conducted by Building America’s research teams. Building America brings together the nation’s leading building scientists with over 300 production builders to develop, test, and apply innovative, energy-efficient construction practices. Building America builders have found they can build homes that meet these aggressive energy-efficiency goals at no net increased costs to the homeowners. Currently, Building America homes achieve energy savings of 40% greater than the Building America benchmark home (a home built to mid-1990s building practices roughly equivalent to the 1993 Model Energy Code). The recommendations in this document meet or exceed the requirements of the 2009 IECC and 2009 IRC and those requirements are highlighted in the text. Requirements of the 2012 IECC and 2012 IRC are also noted in text and tables throughout the guide. This document will be distributed via the DOE Building America website: www.buildingamerica.gov.

  16. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 15: 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Hot-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Adams, Karen; Noonan, Christine F.

    2011-09-01

    This best practices guide is the 15th in a series of guides for builders produced by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America program. This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct homes that are among the most energy-efficient available, while addressing issues such as building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the hot-humid climate can build homes that have whole-house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark with no added overall costs for consumers. The best practices described in this document are based on the results of research and demonstration projects conducted by Building America’s research teams. Building America brings together the nation’s leading building scientists with over 300 production builders to develop, test, and apply innovative, energy-efficient construction practices. Building America builders have found they can build homes that meet these aggressive energy-efficiency goals at no net increased costs to the homeowners. Currently, Building America homes achieve energy savings of 40% greater than the Building America benchmark home (a home built to mid-1990s building practices roughly equivalent to the 1993 Model Energy Code). The recommendations in this document meet or exceed the requirements of the 2009 IECC and 2009 IRC and those requirements are highlighted in the text. Requirements of the 2012 IECC and 2012 IRC are also noted in text and tables throughout the guide. This document will be distributed via the DOE Building America website: www.buildingamerica.gov.

  17. Energy and Environment Division, annual report FY 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osowitt, M. (ed.)

    1981-07-01

    This report covers research in: energy analysis; energy efficiency studies; solar energy; chemical process; energy-efficient buildings; environmental pollutant studies; combustion research; laser spectroscopy and trace elements; and oil shale and coal research. An energy and environment personnel listing is appended. Separate projects are indexed individually for the database. (PSB)

  18. China's energy, environment and policy perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the specific features of the energy in China, and addresses those key challenges in China is that the coexist of (1) higher total energy production and lower per capita level; (2) lower per capita energy resources level with unrational energy consumption structure; (3) lower energy utilization efficiency and higher energy conservation potential; and (4) unequal distribution of energy resources. It reviews the key environmental problems related to the feature of energy production and consumption. Based on the analysis, the author furthers addresses the policy and actions needed.

  19. Essays on political economy of energy and environment..

    OpenAIRE

    Ovaere, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    In this PhD dissertation we gain insight into environmental policies and their enforcement, and the political process that leads to the in practice observed suboptimal policies. The area of interest is the European Union (EU) and the United States of America (USA). We apply a specific class of models that is ideally suited to study the impact of incentives and selection on environmental and energy policymaking: political agency models. At the heart of these models is the principal-agent relat...

  20. Energy transactions in Mexico, Central and South America. 1. ed.; Transacciones energeticas en Mexico, Centro y Sudamerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [ed.] [Programa Universitario de Energia (PUE), Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    This document contains the technical proceedings of the Second National Congress of the Mexican Association for the Economy of Energy that took place the days 23, 24 and 25 of September of 1996. In this seminar it was spoken on the global overview of the energy markets; the exploration and oil production in Latin America: present and future; oil-producing and petrochemistry in Latin America; regional and global markets; the deregulation of the electrical sector; experiences and perspective in Latin America; environmental externalisation in the energy systems; amelioration of the impact on the costs and the prices of the energy by means of technology and energy efficiency. [Spanish] Este documento contiene la memoria tecnica del segundo congreso nacional de la Asociacion Mexicana para la Economia Energetica A. C. llevado a efecto los dias 23, 24 y 25 de septiembre de 1996. En este seminario se hablo sobre la panoramica global de los mercados energeticos; la exploracion y produccion petrolera en America Latina: presente y futuro; petroliferos y petroquimica en America Latina: mercados regionales y globales; la desregulacion del sector electrico: experiencias y perspectivas en Latinoamerica; externalidades ambientales en los sistemas energeticos: mitigacion por medio de tecnologia y eficiencia energetica e impacto sobre los costos y los precios de la energia.

  1. Energy and Environment Division annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, J.A. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    Research activities of this Division are reported under nine separate programs, namely: Energy Analysis; Solar Energy; Energy-Efficient Buildings; Chemical Process Research and Development; Environmental Research; Atmospheric Aerosol Research; Oil Shale Research; Instrumentation Development; and Combustion Research. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the nine programs, each of which contained several individual research summaries, with responsible researchers listed. All of the abstracts will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA), and five will appear in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).

  2. Energy conservation and sustainable economic growth: The case of Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the causal relationships among energy consumption, economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions in twenty countries from Latin America and the Caribbean region. The methodology includes the use of Phillips and Perron (PP) tests, a cointegration model with vector error correction modeling (VECM) and vector autoregression (VAR) with Granger causality. The study concludes that of the twenty countries analyzed, only in four of them will it be possible to implement energy conservation polices without affecting their economic growth, four others are not able to consider an energy conservation policy with economic growth, and the other twelve should focus on their economic growth before adopting any conservation policies. Energy efficiency was found in this region, especially in the countries which have both cointegration and short-term equilibrium. - Highlights: → Only four countries could implement energy conservation polices without affecting economic growth. → Twelve nations should focus on their economic growth before designing any energy conservation policies. → Energy efficiency was found in the countries which have both cointegration and short-term equilibrium.

  3. Energy conservation and sustainable economic growth: The case of Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ching-Chih, E-mail: chan5305@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Transportation and Communication Management Science, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Soruco Carballo, Claudia Fabiola, E-mail: claudita.s.c@gmail.com [Institute of International Management, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Economics, Universidad Mayor de San Andres, 1995 Villazon ave., La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)

    2011-07-15

    This study examines the causal relationships among energy consumption, economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions in twenty countries from Latin America and the Caribbean region. The methodology includes the use of Phillips and Perron (PP) tests, a cointegration model with vector error correction modeling (VECM) and vector autoregression (VAR) with Granger causality. The study concludes that of the twenty countries analyzed, only in four of them will it be possible to implement energy conservation polices without affecting their economic growth, four others are not able to consider an energy conservation policy with economic growth, and the other twelve should focus on their economic growth before adopting any conservation policies. Energy efficiency was found in this region, especially in the countries which have both cointegration and short-term equilibrium. - Highlights: > Only four countries could implement energy conservation polices without affecting economic growth. > Twelve nations should focus on their economic growth before designing any energy conservation policies. > Energy efficiency was found in the countries which have both cointegration and short-term equilibrium.

  4. The competitive environment of the North American energy marketing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various issues regarding U.S. wholesale energy marketing were discussed with particular emphasis on how energy marketing is changing industries in North America. In 1998, the energy industry reported a growth in revenue of 26 per cent despite declining natural gas prices. It was emphasized that several major competitive issues need to be addressed by industry competitors in order to operate in this unpredictable market. These issues include profitability, market volatility and mergers and acquisitions. This paper presented a list of the top 10 North American Energy marketers in 1998. Although the number of marketers in the energy sector continues to grow, it is expected that the numbers will decline significantly within three years. This will be due mostly to the continuation of major mergers and acquisitions. It was concluded that in general, energy marketing may become an even more attractive industry because of increasing operating margins. 5 tabs., 2 figs

  5. Impact and Process Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-05-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the impacts and processes of the former Wind Powering America(WPA) initiative sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). WPA has an underlying goal of dramatically increasing the use of wind energy in the U.S.

  6. Atomic energy training centres in Latin America. Report of IAEA Mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1958, the Brazilian representative on the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency - supported by the Governors from Argentina and Guatemala - proposed that a study should be made of the possibility of setting up one or more atomic energy training centres in Latin America. Countries now having facilities that could be used for co-operative training are Argentina, where rapid strides are being made in building up an integrated atomic energy centre in the Buenos Aires; Brazil, which has successfully established a physical science nuclear laboratory and a radio-biology centre; Venezuela, with a medico-biological centre from which much may be expected; and Mexico, where nuclear science courses are to be provided by the University of Mexico. The report discusses two alternatives for the establishment of training centres: 'specialized centres' or 'integrated centres' and concludes that the integrated centre is the preferable one however specialized centres stand a much higher chance of being staffed successfully. They are inherently smaller and consequently costs for facilities and equipment are much less. In addition use might be made of existing facilities. It is stated that one of the specialized atomic energy training centres to be established might well be in the field of radio-botany. Agriculture is a major source of income throughout Latin America. There are many agricultural schools and experimental stations throughout the region and also the Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Science at Turrialba, Costa Rica. The authors of the report concluded that a training centre in radio-botany should provide vitally needed knowledge and vitally needed specialists to all the agricultural installations in Latin America. The report recommends that (1) the Agency should meet the requests of Latin American universities by, for example, supplying equipment and sending experts; (2) at least one specialized training centre should be established

  7. Simulation of indoor environment in low energy housing

    OpenAIRE

    Vagiannis, Georgios; Knudsen, Henrik N.; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether low energy consumption in dwellings imposes problems by deteriorating the indoor environment. Several indoor environment parameters were correlated with the energy consumption of low energy houses. One house from a village of low energy houses in Denmark was selected and sensitivity analyses were conducted for the importance of occupancy, ventilation, window opening, and heat recovery efficiency. In particular occupancy and venting played significan...

  8. ENERGY, ENVIRONMENT, AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeen Omer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of new and renewable sources of energy available in Sudan is now a major issue in the future energy strategic planning for the alternative to the fossil conventional energy to provide part of the local energy demand. Like many of the African leaders in renewable energy utilisation, Sudan has a well-defined commitment to continue research, development, and implementation of new technologies. Sustainable low-carbon energy scenarios for the new century emphasise the untapped potential of renewable resources are needed. Rural areas of Sudan can benefit from this transition. The increased availability of reliable and efficient energy services stimulates new development alternatives. It is concluded that renewable environmentally friendly energy must be encouraged, promoted, implemented, and demonstrated by full-scale plant especially for use in remote rural areas.

  9. Texas - Energy Collaborations Working for the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-12-01

    This fact sheet highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics.

  10. Energy, environment, and sustainable development in the new century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new century's ultimate global challenge will be for the world community to sustain its growth while preserving environment in the presence of ever increasing world population, that is, balancing economy, environment, and population problems. The sheer magnitude of population growth, together with people's innate aspirations for improved life, will put enormous demands on energy production. Deployment of new, energy-intensive technologies will further increase the pressure. The increased energy production and consumption in turn will inevitably impact on our global environment, as exemplified by such issues as global climate change. Environmental issues associated with energy production and use are affecting society's preferences for different types of energy. Thus, energy and environment will remain two poles of a central global issue in this century. The challenge is then how to produce energy in a way that is friendly to environment. The combination of nuclear power and various renewable energy sources may offer a key component to meeting the challenge. This paper presents a big picture of globally sustainable development in the new century. The role of energy and environment is brought to the fore in this context. In particular, it addresses the importance of nuclear power and renewable energy, as this combination of options will absolutely minimize the emission of greenhouse gases that have steadily and alarmingly degraded our atmospheric environment. (authors)

  11. NASA's Meteoroid Environments Office's Response to Three Significant Bolide Events Over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, Rhiannon C.; Cooke, William J.; Kingery, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    Being the only U.S. Government entity charged with monitoring the meteor environment, the Meteoroid Environment Office has deployed a network of all sky and wide field meteor cameras, along with the appropriate software tools to quickly analyze data from these systems. However, the coverage of this network is still quite limited, forcing the incorporation of data from other cameras posted to the internet in analyzing many of the fireballs reported by the public and media. A procedure has been developed that determines the analysis process for a given fireball event based on the types and amount of data available. The differences between these analysis process will be explained and outlined by looking at three bolide events, all of which were large enough to produce meteorites. The first example is an ideal event - a bright meteor that occurred over NASA's All Sky Camera Network on August 2, 2014. With clear video of the event from various angles, a high-accuracy trajectory, beginning and end heights, orbit and approximate brightness/size of the event are able to be found very quickly using custom software. The bolide had the potential to have dropped meteorites, so dark flight analysis and modeling was performed, allowing potential fall locations to be mapped as a function of meteorite mass. The second case study was a bright bolide that occurred November 3, 2014 over West Virginia. This was just north of the NASA southeastern all-sky network, and just south of the Ohio-Pennsylvania network. This case study showcases the MEO's ability to use social media and various internet sources to locate videos of the event from obscure sources (including the Washington Monument) for anything that will permit a determination of a basic trajectory and fireball light curve The third case study will highlight the ability to use doppler weather radar in helping locate meteorites, which enable a definitive classification of the impactor. The input data and analysis steps differ for

  12. Latin America, an important new player in the great global energy game. The possibilities for an energy dialogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this paper deals with the latin america. Latin American energy has become a major strategic and geopolitical issue. During the last three years events in Ecuador, Bolivia and Venezuela have shown that these countries also count in the development of the world gas and oil markets. The prospects of growth in the global demand for energy during the next twenty years make one realize the shortfall between world demand and availability, in the same way that the recurrence of geopolitical crises in the regions of the world oil producers, like the Middle East, could have a destabilizing effect on international economic and political balance. Latin America will thus have a key role to play, provided that its social and political crises do not become geopolitical crises of a much more serious nature. The second part presents the possibilities of the energy dialogue. Four essential factors determine today situation in the world market: the rapid growth in the demand for energy resources in Asian countries; the increasing gap between the quantities produced and those consumed in the industrialized countries; the capacity of refining facilities and transport is already insufficient, and additional oil production possibilities are limited; and finally, the lack of openness in the world market in black gold. Efforts aimed at bringing together energy strategies and systems are a key part of the cooperation between the European Union and Russia. A similar dialogue has begun with the principal emerging powers of the Asian-Pacific Region. Our cooperation, including that within the framework of Russia presidency of the G8, will essentially be aimed at putting in place a common system of development of the key aspects of our energy policy. We are ready to act as intermediary between all the parties concerned. (authors)

  13. Energy. Chapter in the background information report Welfare and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study on Welfare and the Environment in the Netherlands insight is given in the possible changes and their impact on the environment in which present and future generations will live and work, focusing on living, working, mobility, agriculture, energy, environment, nature and water. Attention is paid to regional differences, spatial distribution and the future of big cities and rural areas. In this publication the energy subject is highlighted

  14. Children's health and the environment in North America : a first report on available indicators and measures : executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents North America's contribution to the global initiative to promote environmental and child health protection. It indicates that despite improvements in many areas, children remain at risk from environmental threats. The report focuses on the following 3 priority areas: asthma and respiratory disease; lead and other chemicals, including pesticides and waterborne diseases. This document is the first integrated, regional report providing indicators for a series of children's health and environment issues. It is intended to increase awareness of the relationship between environmental risks and children's health and to provide a means of measuring and promoting change. An introduction to the participating countries was included along with population data, birth rates, child mortality, immunization rates and socioeconomic determinants of health. The affect of outdoor and indoor air pollution on asthma and respiratory disease in Canada, Mexico and the United States was discussed along with blood lead levels and the affect of lead in the home, as well as industrial releases of lead, chemicals and pesticides. Drinking water and sanitation issues were also discussed with reference to the link with waterborne diseases. It was concluded that more effort in trilateral collaboration is needed to improve the quality of future reports. Some observations and opportunities for improvement were noted. figs

  15. Energy, environment and development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the socialist revolution in 1949, China has undergone periods of strong growth followed by years of political turmoil and economic setback. However, for the period 1953-1988 as a whole, the gross domestic product (GDP) grew at an average rate of 6.9% p.a., while energy consumption showed a growth rate of 8.5%. Two features of the economy are important in order to understand the development and current structure of energy consumption: Manufacturing industry, in particular the energy intensive sectors, represent an exceptionally large share of GDP; regional and local self-reliance has been the major priority in Chinese economic policy. Hence, the economy is largely based on small units which do not enjoy the full benefits of economies of scale, nor have they the financial power or technical skills required to use modern technologies. These factors have contributed to the exceptionally high intensity (energy consumption per unit of GDP) in China. Though there are major flaws in comparing energy intensities between countries, it is generally believed that the aggregated energy intensity of China is three times the level of industrialized countries, and twice as high as in many other developing countries. China has achieved impressive results in energy improvements during the 1980s, albeit from a level of high energy intensity. Energy efficiency improved on average 4% p.a. from 1980 to 1988. The major part of the improvement (50-60%) was the results of changes to industrial structures, while technological improvements and improved management in industry contributed 1/3. Though important improvements in energy efficiency are expected, projections of energy consumption in this report indicate annual growth in energy consumption of 3.5% for the next 35 years. This will imply more than a threefold increase in CO2 emissions to 2025 (from 2 billions tons of CO2 in 1990 to 6.8 billion tons in 2025). 40 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs

  16. SOURCES OF ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L. Spash; Young, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    Energy from fossil fuels have become dominant in the industrialised and industrialising economies of the world. However, fossil fuels are also recognised as heavily polluting and responsible for a range of modern environmental and health problems. Nuclear power is a similar conventional energy source in that it relies upon depletion of a limited stock resource and is associated with a range of social and environmental problems. However, the alternative energy sources relying upon flow reso...

  17. China' s Fundamental Research in Energy Utilizations and Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuTao; LinRumou; JinHongguang; PengXiaofeng

    2003-01-01

    The progress in the science of energy utilizations will act crucial effect on the developments of energy science and technology, which will then promote social and economical developments and fulfill requirements for the national strategic objectives. For the sake of sustainable development, a harmonious blend of energy utilizations and environment considerations will become one of the vital topics in the future research area of energy science. It is suggested that clean and high-efficiency utilization of traditional or fossil energy resources, fundamental investigations on the energy and environment theory, renewable energy utilizations, and the development of nuclear energy are selected as priority research areas during the period of the Tenth Five-year Plan of China, according to the development trend of the world energy science and the research background of Chinese energy science, It is expected to promote the interdisciplinary investigations in the science of energy utilizations and provide scientific and technological supports for the development of related advanced high technologies,

  18. Wind energy's role in a deregulated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of wind energy in Canada was the focus of this presentation. Wind energy is the fastest growing source of new electrical power in the world. In 1997 the world-wide capacity was 1495 MW, with Germany (535 MW), Spain (263 MW) and Denmark (259 MW) leading the way. It is clear that Canadian markets lag behind the world in recognizing the value of wind energy. The rationale for this is economic downturn, cheap hydrocarbon energy, a closed electricity market, minimal commitment to greenhouse gas reduction, and a significant oversupply of installed capacity. Nevertheless, there are many potential benefits for Canadian grids by wind generated electricity, not the least of which are tangible reductions in carbon emissions per kWh. It was noted that significant risk reductions have resulted from size and technological improvements. Besides being environmentally benign, wind energy also provides unequaled opportunities for load matching, distributed generation, and low operating and ongoing fuel costs. Aggressive marketers such as Enron and Vision Quest have predicted that because of these advantages, and the willingness of many potential customers to pay more for 'green' energy, renewable energy sources such as wind and solar, will capture a significant share of the world energy market over the next 20 years. tabs., figs

  19. The Environment, Energy, and the Tinbergen Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Higher energy prices and the growing concern about global warming have led to a number of policy goals and targets designed to curb global warming and/or the development of alternative sources of energy. However, the Tinbergen Rule states that for each and every policy target there must be at least one policy tool. If there are fewer tools than…

  20. Interconnections between energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virtually every phase of energy production, delivery, and use exacts some environmental toll: land disturbance from coal mining, toxic residues as a by-product of petroleum extraction, oil spillage from tanker operations, airborne emissions from power pants, buildup of radioactive nuclear wastes. Despite these cost, however, energy delivers services that are essential to economic well-being. The challenge is to mange the energy system to produce both the economic and environmental benefits that people value. Meeting this goal is a global challenge on both fronts. The economic challenge is neither less daunting nor less global. The purpose of this article is to assess whether the energy system can in fact be managed to produce both the economic and environmental services likely to be demanded of it. There is as yet not definitive answer to this question, and we do not provide one here. The authors can, however, sketch some of the prerequisites to a successful outcome

  1. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-10-01

    `Wood for Energy Production`, 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named `Wood Chips for Energy Production`. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. `Wood for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  2. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  3. An integrated approach to energy prospects for North America and the rest of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many international organizations and research institutions have released recently unequivocal scenarios on energy's future prospects. The peak in global oil production is likely to happen in the next ten to fifteen years, if it hasn't already happened, and decisions to be made in the near future are likely to have large impacts on our quality of life in the coming decades. This study presents an integrated tool for national energy planning customized to North America. The authors analyzed the impact of world oil production on economic, social and environmental indicators. Two cases of global ultimate recoverable oil reserves are considered, a low and medium estimate within current research. Three sets of policy directions were chosen: Business As Usual (Market Based), Maximum Push for Renewables, and Low Carbon Emissions. Results of the simulations show that without restrictions on emissions coal becomes the dominant energy in the longer term. On the other hand, if US policymakers are able to effectively implement the necessary polices, such as a 20% RPS by 2020 and increased CAFE Standards, along with increased energy conservation and efficiency, the medium to longer-term economic impacts of a global peak in oil production can be mitigated, while a sustained reduction in emissions would require a larger effort. (author)

  4. Proceedings of the Symposium on Nuclear Energy and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The symposium was organized and set against the background of the industry is traditional concern for safety and the environment. The purpose of the symposium was to contribute further to the international bank of knowledge by describing recent experience, especially of Latin-America countries, in adopting, adapting and developing the practices of the industry for ensuring safety and compatibility with the environment. In the cause of four days, june 28 to july 1993, thirty five papers were presented, besides fourteen articles were arranged in the following sessions: invited speakers, safety and risk assessment, environmental protection, waste management and disposal emergency planning and public acceptance and health aspects. The Latin American Section of the American Nuclear Society convened the symposium in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (B.C.A.)

  5. Environment and development of a sustainable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organized every four years by the European Nuclear Society world nuclear congress ENC provides an invaluable opportunity to take stock of the industry's position in the world. The file consists of papers from 'ENC 98', which took place at the end of October in NICE. It reviews the technical, economic and environmental position and expectations of nuclear energy with respect to the other sources of energy as far as sustainable development is concerned. (author)

  6. Energy options and the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, a brief historical sketch of the progress of industrialized society and the change in the quantity and quality of energy system accompanying it is made. It is likely to see a very unstable oil market in future, and it is irresponsible to continue the use of oil simply by burning it to obtain heat and electricity. This time is the opportunity to complete a new energy transition, preserving oil for more effective utilization. There is no single energy source which is as versatile, easy to transport and to use, and cheap as oil, therefore, the relative merits and demerits of various available resources must be carefully assessed. Natural gas, the green-house effect caused by burning fossil fuel, hydroelectric power, nuclear fission power, solar, biomass, wind and geothermal energies are discussed. The important alternatives for the future are nuclear fission power, biomass, and by the middle of the next century, nuclear fusion energy. A pluralistic system is the best suitable to the complex society of the next century, having about 8 billion population. A scenario representing the contribution of nuclear energy in 2050 is illustrated, but the clouds on the nuclear horizon must be dispelled. (Kako, I.)

  7. Electronic Energy Transfer in Polarizable Heterogeneous Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Casper Steinmann; Kongsted, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    such couplings provide important insight into the strength of interaction between photo-active pigments in protein-pigment complexes. Recently, attention has been payed to how the environment modifies or even controls the electronic couplings. To enable such theoretical predictions, a fully polarizable...... higher-order multipole moments. We use this extended model to systematically examine three different ways of obtaining EET couplings in a heterogeneous medium ranging from use of the exact transition density to a point-dipole approximation. Several interesting observations are made including that...... explicit use of transition densities in the calculation of the electronic couplings - also when including the explicit environment contribution - can be replaced by a much simpler transition point charge description without comprising the quality of the model predictions....

  8. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP); Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  9. WESTERN ENERGY RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT: GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geothermal energy--from subsurface heat sources created by the underlying geologic configuration of the earth--is addressed, from an environmental research and development perspective. The report covers various geothermal energy systems, which serve as present or potential energy...

  10. Biomass energy systems and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, H. M.; Kanciruk, P.; Roop, R. D.; Sharples, F. E.; Tatum, J. S.; Oakes, K. M.

    The technology, resources, applied, and experimental features of biomass energy resources are explored, with an emphasis on environmental and social implications of large-scale biomass development. The existing land and water based biomass resource is described in terms of available energy, ecological concerns, agricultural crops, livestock production, freshwater systems, and ocean systems. Attention is given to proposed systems of biomass energy production from forestry and silviculture, agricultural crops, livestock wastes, and freshwater and ocean systems. A survey is made of various biomass materials, techniques for conversion to gas, liquid fuels, or for direct combustion, and impacts of large-scale biomass production and harvest are examined. Particular note is made of the effects of scaling biomass conversion systems, including near- and long-term applications, and ethics and aesthetic concerns.

  11. Straw for energy production. Technology - Environment - Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Nielsen, C.; Larsen, M.G.; Nielsen, V.; Zielke, U.; Kristensen, J.K.; Holm-Christensen, B.

    1998-12-31

    `Straw for Energy Production`, second edition, provides a readily accessible background information of special relevance to the use of straw in the Danish energy supply. Technical, environmental, and economic aspects are described in respect of boiler plants for farms, district heating plants, and combined heat and power plants (CHP). The individual sections deal with both well-known, tested technology and the most recent advances in the field of CHP production. This publication is designed with the purpose of reaching the largest possible numbers of people and so adapted that it provides a valuable aid and gives the non-professional, general reader a thorough knowledge of the subject. `Straw for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  12. Energy and environment: Search for compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the essential elements which are to form integral part of future 'sustainable growth' oriented energy policies of industrialized nations, and in particular, of Italy, heavily dependent of foreign supplied petroleum. Focus is on steps to counter increases in levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, the result of the combustion of fossil fuels, and held to be largely responsible for greenhouse effect related climatic change. The immediate steps to be taken are identified as being the putting of a stronger emphasis on energy conservation in the developed countries and technology transfer to Eastern Bloc nations which currently have little or nothing in the way of installed pollution control equipment

  13. Conflicting energy, environment, economy policies in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental concerns, both at the local and global levels, have been present in Mexico's energy planning and national and international commitments. However, deregulation policies and financial constraints in the public sector seem to come in conflict with respect to greenhouse gas emissions in the development of the Mexican energy system. This is specially noticeable in the power sector where expansion of non fossil fuel generation has been essentially postponed at present and only the substitution of fuel oil and diesel by natural gas is contemplated. (Author)

  14. 76 FR 20943 - Notice of Funds Availability (NOFA) Inviting Applications for the Rural Energy for America Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Scott Collins, USDA Rural Development, 9025 River Road, Marcy, NY 13403, (315) 736-3316 Ext. 4, scott...) Reallocation of grants funds. Based on the quality of the applications received under this Notice and subject... Rural Energy for America Program AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  15. 75 FR 74750 - In the Matter of Toshiba America Nuclear Energy Corporation and All Other Persons Who Seek or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Toshiba America Nuclear Energy Corporation and All Other Persons Who Seek or Obtain Access to Safeguards Information Described Herein; Order Imposing Safeguards Information Protection Requirements for Access to...

  16. Looking ahead. Green energy - our environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Pembina envisions a world in which our immediate and future needs are met in a manner that protects the earth's living systems; ensures clean air, land and water; prevents dangerous climate change; and provides for a safe and just global community.' But what exactly does this mean? What does this sustainable world look like? How do we get from where we are now - to this? From Climate Change to Biodiversity - the demand for energy is shaping the environmental challenges of the present and the future. Paul will present Pembina's perspective on the risks, challenges, issues and opportunities ahead - and why the need for action is urgent. The Pembina Institute is an independent, not-for-profit environmental policy research and education organization. Founded in Drayton Valley, Alberta, the Pembina Institute has a multidisciplinary staff of more than thirty, with offices in Drayton Valley, Calgary, Edmonton, Vancouver and Ottawa. Pembina advances sustainable energy solutions through innovative research, education, consulting and advocacy. The Pembina Institute's major policy research and education programs are in the areas of sustainable energy, climate change, environmental governance, ecological fiscal reform, sustainability indicators, and the environmental impacts of the energy industry. (author)

  17. Energy, environment and development in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexico is a country at the crossroads. It has huge potentials in energy, in natural resources and in human resources. It is currently experiencing one of the most serious crises in its history - economic, ecological, political - and it is making efforts to overcome the problems behind these crises, which may affect us all because of Mexico's importance as energy producer and energy consumer. Mexico is one of the developing countries which has participated actively in finding solutions to the worlds environmental problems not least the problem of climatic changes as a result of increasing energy consumption. Mexico is seeing the consequences at local and national level, and is taking steps to change course. At the same time, it has also expressed interest in participating in international initiatives and cooperation to solve these problem. But Mexico finds itself in a situation not unlike that of many East European countries after the fall of the communist regimes. The old system is tumbling, the will to change is present, but there is a lack of resources. 123 refs., 45 tabs

  18. Homeland security: safeguarding America's future with energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-08-01

    The State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) presents this 10th annual report following the one-year anniversary of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. This event has had profound impacts on all segments of American society, not the least of which is this country’s energy sector. Long before September 11, a number of energy issues grabbed the nation’s attention, including opening the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to oil and natural gas exploration, the power crisis in California, nationwide natural gas and gasoline price increases, and the administration’s May 2001 National Energy Policy. However, the events of September 11 refocused attention on the prominent role energy plays in the country’s homeland security. For the most part, the energy aspects of homeland security have focused on the physical security of critical energy emergency planning and energy infrastructure, such as power plants, refineries, and power and fuel transmission systems. While STEAB recognizes the importance of protecting our existing energy infrastructure, this should not be the sole focus of homeland security as it relates to energy.

  19. Partnerships for Progress?: Evaluating the Environment for Public-Private Partnerships in Latin America and the Caribbean: Findings and methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU)

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a new benchmarking model and index that assesses the readiness of countries in Latin America and the Caribbean to participate in public-private partnerships in the infrastructure sector. The model was built by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) and was supported fi nancially by the Multilateral Investment Fund (MIF) and the Program to Promote Public-Private Partnerships in Latin America and the Caribbean funded by the government of Spain.

  20. A worldwide perspective on energy, environment and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems with energy supply and use are related not only to global warming, but also to such environmental concerns as air pollution, ozone depletion forest destruction and emission of radioactive substances. These issues must be taken into consideration simultaneously if humanity is to achieve a bright energy future with minimal environmental impacts. Much evidence exists which suggests that the future will be negatively impacted if humans keep degrading the environment. There is an intimate connection between energy, the environment and sustainable development. A society seeking sustainable development ideally must utilise only energy resources which cause no environmental impact (e.g. which release no emissions to the environment). However, since all energy resources lead to some environmental impact, it is reasonable to suggest that some (not all) of the concerns regarding the limitations imposed on sustainable development by environmental emissions and their negative impacts can be part overcome through increased energy efficiency. A strong relation clearly exists between energy efficiency and environmental impact since, for the same services or products, less resource utilisation and pollution is normally associated with higher efficiency processes. Anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequent environmental impact (Focusing on acid precipitation, stratospheric ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect) are comprehensively discussed in this paper. Also, some solutions to current environmental issues in terms of energy conservation and renewable energy technologies are identified and some theoretical and practical limitations on increased energy efficiency are explained. The relations between energy and sustainable development, and between the environment and sustainable development, are described, and in illustrative example is presented. Throughout the paper several issues relating to energy, environment and sustainable development are examined

  1. Landfill gas from environment to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landfill gas is an alternative source of energy which can be commercially exploited wherever municipal solid wastes are disposed of in sanitary landfills. In this context, it was decided to launch a comprehensive study on the subject of energy valorization of landfill gas. The main topics dealt with in the study, which is supported by a comprehensive literature survey and six detailed case-studies, include; (i) the environmental impact of landfill gas, (ii) the process of landfill gas genesis and the technology of landfill gas control by its exploitation, (iii) the monitoring of landfill gas emissions, (iv) the policies and legal aspects of landfill gas in the European Community and in the world, (v) the estimation of landfill gas potentials and economics of landfill gas control and exploitation, (vi) the status of landfill gas exploitation in the European Community and in the world. (authors). refs., figs., tabs

  2. Energy and environment: an intergovernmental perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keenan, B.R. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    The Ohio River Valley Assembly was convened for round table discussions of the development of the energy resources of the valley and the environmental impacts. The participation was limited to government officials and participants included representatives from local, state, and federal governments and from several regional organizations with particular responsibilities in the Ohio River Valley. The background papers, comments by legislators, speeches, and the final report of the Assembly are compiled. (JSR)

  3. Energy and environment: transitions in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 91 abstracts of contributions delivered as lectures and 47 abstracts of contributions presented as posters. Out of them, 4 have been inputted in INIS. They deal with air pollution in Turkey, with impacts of open pit mines in North Bohemia on the quality of air, environmental impacts of the thermal power plant at Drobeta Turnu Severin in Romania, and with Latvia's environmental problems associated with energy supplies. (M.D.)

  4. Energy, the environment and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the author's view on the environmental problems and nuclear power. The world demand for energy has increased rapidly due to the increase of population and the overall rise in living standards, resulting in many signs that the world is experiencing a growing shortage of energy and continuing need for flexible planning and the search for new sources. Fossil fuels are polluting the atmosphere, leading to climate change, acid rain and global warming. This has led many countries to look again at nuclear power. For the widespread opposition to nuclear power, the author lists up the fear of nuclear weapons, the fear of nuclear radiations including reprocessing plants as well as natural radioactivity and cosmic rays, the fear about the safety of nuclear reactors, and production of large amount of radioactive wastes. The author compares various energy sources, and insists that there is a strong reluctance to face the truth, as Governments knowing that nuclear power is politically so unpopular would not advocate the construction of new nuclear stations. (S. Ohno)

  5. Review on Environment Monitoring System and Energy Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Nikita Gaikwad; Yogita Mistry

    2015-01-01

    The Environment monitoring is one of the applications of wireless sensor network. The most serious environment pollution is air pollution because different air pollutant causes damage to human health and causes global warming. To avoid such effect on human health and climate change Environment monitoring systems are used. This paper provides the short overview of different environmental air pollution monitoring systems and Energy efficiency in WSN to reduced the power consumption ...

  6. Review on Environment Monitoring System and Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Gaikwad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Environment monitoring is one of the applications of wireless sensor network. The most serious environment pollution is air pollution because different air pollutant causes damage to human health and causes global warming. To avoid such effect on human health and climate change Environment monitoring systems are used. This paper provides the short overview of different environmental air pollution monitoring systems and Energy efficiency in WSN to reduced the power consumption of system.

  7. Energy/environment/technology two visions, two directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox-Penner, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper compares the energy policies proposed by the U.S. Congress and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Connections between energy, economy, environment, and technology are discussed in some detail. The National Energy Policy Plan of the DOE is summarized, and the impact of budget cuts proposed by Congress are projected. Aspects of the DOE plan which are emphasized include research and development, minimization of regulation, and eliminating redundant government and private industry efforts. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Environment. 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catalogue lists all publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with the Environment issued during the period 1980-1993. The major subjects covered include: effect of agrochemical residues on soils and aquatic ecosystems, application of radioisotopes in conservation of the environment, siting of nuclear power plants, environmental isotope data and environmental contamination due to nuclear accidents

  9. Sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duić, Neven; Guzović, Zvonimir; Kafarov, Vyatcheslav;

    2013-01-01

    The 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES Conference), attended by 418 scientists from 55 countries representing six continents. It was held in 2011 and dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies...... and technologies for increasing the sustainability of development, taking into account its economic, environmental and social pillars, as well as methods for assessing and measuring sustainability of development, regarding energy, transport, water and environment systems and their many combinations....

  10. The Surface Energy Budget in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twine, T. E.; Snyder, P. K.; Hertel, W.

    2011-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) occur when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings because of differences in vegetation cover, buildings and other development, and infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. This difference in temperature is proportional to the size of the city and can be in excess of 2-5°C during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. UHIs can exacerbate the warming during heat waves and play a role in additional heat-related mortality, an increase in tropospheric ozone, and economic losses that total in the billions of dollars from excess energy consumption. Many cities are experimenting with strategies to reduce urban warming. A number of mitigation strategies involve manipulating the surface energy budget to either reduce the amount of solar radiation absorbed at the surface or offset absorbed energy through latent cooling. Options include using building materials with different properties of reflectivity and emissivity, increasing the reflectivity of parking lots, covering roofs with vegetation, and increasing the amount of vegetation overall through tree planting or increasing green space. The goal of the Islands in the Sun project is to understand the formation and behavior of urban heat islands and to mitigate their effects through sensible city engineering and design practices. Methods include analysis of global remotely sensed datasets, the development of a reduced-complexity urban model, and evaluation of measurements made in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA). The TCMA is a 7,700 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul. Mitigation of the UHI in northern latitude cities, such as the TCMA, is a challenge because (1) residents in more northerly cities are more likely to suffer heat-related illness

  11. The Severe Energy and Environment Situation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Weizhong; Jin Wen

    2006-01-01

    @@ To trade off high energy consumption for high GDP growth making both energy consumption and environment pollution of the developing China top in the world is an undisputed fact. The 11th Five- Year Plan has stipulated 20% decrease of specific energy consumption in this period as a restrictive index, this has been gradually detailed and practiced into every link. To compile the thesis of "How to Realize the Target of Energy Consumption 20% Decreased in the 11th Five Year period," this Journal invited Mr. Fang Weizhong, the president of China Macro-Economic Association to contribute a paper entitled "The Severe Energy and Environment Situation in China," in which reasons of failed target of energy consumption in the 10th Five Year period and how to realize energy consumption index in the 11th Five Year period are precisely calculated and in-depth analyzed with detail and practical data.

  12. Renewable energies for power generation in Latin America: market, technologies and perspectives; Energias renovables para generacion de electricidad en America Latina: mercado, tecnologias y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Martino Jannuzzi, Gilberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP e International Energy Initiative (Brazil); De Buen Rodriguez, Odon [Energia, Tecnologia y Educacion, S.C., ENTE, S.C. (Mexico); Gorenstein Dedecca, Joao [International Energy Initiative, IEI (Brazil); Goncalves Nogueira, Larissa [International Energy Initiative, IEI (Brazil); Maia Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative, IEI (Brazil); Navarro, Judith [Energia, Tecnologia y Educacion, S.C., ENTE, S.C. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Latin America has a wealth of renewable energy resources, although the utilization of these resources has historically been carried out in the region by large hydroelectric energy plants. Nevertheless, according to the present report, there is an immense potential for wider use of new sources of renewable energy, including Small-Scale Hydroelectric (SSH), wind, solar and geothermal. Considering only the renewable sources used for power generation in the countries studied, they are observed to account for between 2.5 and 5% of the current installed capacity of these countries. Brazil and Peru use roughly 5%, Argentina and Colombia 4% and Mexico and Chile 2.5% of current capacity. Among the alternative sources used, biomass is observed to be predominant, corresponding to 50% of the installed capacity of those countries, collectively, followed by SSH (37%) and wind energy (13%). The installed capacity of photovoltaic energy (PV) continues to be insignificant. In this work, large hydroelectric plants are not included as renewable sources, only CHP is included. Among the countries studied, Brazil is currently responsible for more than 70% of the installed capacity of the renewable sources used for power generation, followed by Mexico (9%) and Argentina (7%). Colombia and Central American countries represent 5% of current installed capacity, each, and the remaining countries are responsible for 2%, with the exception of Venezuela. The high contribution of biomass as an alternative source in Brazil and Argentina explains its predominance in this area. With respect to total hydroelectric potential, Mexico has already exploited a large part portion of its economically viable resources, as much as 87.4%, much higher than the average for the region. While Brazil stands out for the large participation of hydroelectric energy, 58.4% of the economically exploitable capacity still remains. Nevertheless, those resources are concentrated in the northern region of the country and

  13. Building America Case Study: Southern Energy Homes, First DOE Zero Energy Ready Manufactured Home, Russellville, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    Three side-by-side lab houses were built, instrumented and monitored in an effort to determine through field testing and analysis the relative contributions of select technologies toward reducing energy use in new manufactured homes.The lab houses in Russellville, Alabama compared the performance of three homes built to varying levels of thermal integrity and HVAC equipment: a baseline HUD-code home equipped with an electric furnace and a split system air conditioner; an ENERGY STAR manufactured home with an enhanced thermal envelope and traditional split system heat pump; and a house designed to qualify for Zero Energy Ready Home designation with a ductless mini-split heat pump with transfer fan distribution system in place of the traditional duct system for distribution. Experiments were conducted in the lab houses to evaluate impact on energy and comfort of interior door position, window blind position and transfer fan operation. The report describes results of tracer gas and co-heating tests and presents calculation of the heat pump coefficient of performance for both the traditional heat pump and the ductless mini-split. A series of calibrated energy models was developed based on measured data and run in three locations in the Southeast to compare annual energy usage of the three homes.

  14. High Performance Homes That Use 50% Less Energy Than the DOE Building America Benchmark Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes lessons learned from designing, building, and monitoring five affordable, energy-efficient test houses in a single development in the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) service area. This work was done through a collaboration of Habitat for Humanity Loudon County, the US Department of Energy (DOE), TVA, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The houses were designed by a team led by ORNL and were constructed by Habitat's volunteers in Lenoir City, Tennessee. ZEH5, a two-story house and the last of the five test houses to be built, provided an excellent model for conducting research on affordable high-performance houses. The impressively low energy bills for this house have generated considerable interest from builders and homeowners around the country who wanted a similar home design that could be adapted to different climates. Because a design developed without the project constraints of ZEH5 would have more appeal for the mass market, plans for two houses were developed from ZEH5: a one-story design (ZEH6) and a two-story design (ZEH7). This report focuses on ZEH6, identical to ZEH5 except that the geothermal heat pump is replaced with a SEER 16 air source unit (like that used in ZEH4). The report also contains plans for the ZEH6 house. ZEH5 and ZEH6 both use 50% less energy than the DOE Building America protocol for energyefficient buildings. ZEH5 is a 4 bedroom, 2.5 bath, 2632 ft2 house with a home energy rating system (HERS) index of 43, which qualifies it for federal energy-efficiency incentives (a HERS rating of 0 is a zero-energy house, and a conventional new house would have a HERS rating of 100). This report is intended to help builders and homeowners build similar high-performance houses. Detailed specifications for the envelope and the equipment used in ZEH5 are compared with the Building America Benchmark building, and detailed drawings, specifications, and lessons learned in the construction and analysis of data gleaned

  15. Stress of urban energy consumption on air environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang YAN; Li LI; Bin CHEN

    2009-01-01

    With rapid urbanization and heavy industria-lization as well as the rapid increase of cars in China, the effect of energy consumption on urban air environment is increasingly becoming serious, and has become a hot topic for both scholars and decision-makers. This paper explores the effect mechanism and regulation of urban energy consumption on the air environment, and summarizes the framework of the stress effect relationship and the evolutionary process. In accordance with the effect relationship of the internal factors between the two, analytic approaches studying the stress effect of urban energy consumption on air environment are proposed, including the analysis of air environment effects caused by urban energy consumption structure change, and the analysis of air environment effects caused by urban energy economic efficiency change, as well as a decomposition analysis of air pollutant emission caused by urban energy consumption. Applying the above-mentioned approaches into a case study on Beijing City, this paper analyzes the effect relationship among urban energy consumption structure improvement, energy economic efficiency increase and air quality change since the period when Beijing City officially proposed to bid for the 2008 Olympic Games in 1998. In addition, it further analyzes the effect and contribution of urban industrial activity level, industrial economic structure, industrial energy intensity, and industrial energy structure as well as emission coefficients on the change in industrial SO2 emission, which can provide valuable information to the government for making comPrehensive environmental policies, with the use of the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) method. It is shown that under the precondition that the industrial economy maintain a continuous and rapid increase, improvements in energy intensity and a decline in emission coefficients are the main means for reducing Beijing's industrial SO2 emissions.

  16. Energy conservation and the environment: conflict or complement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.

    1978-09-01

    The policy discussion following the Oil Embargo was clouded with fears of a return to a primitive existence based on drastically reduced energy inputs to society, or, on the other hand, an abandoning of environmental goals, allegedly a major barrier to development of new energy supplies. Often the energy use associated with environmental improvements was cited as a reason for expanding energy supplies, as if to say that a conflict existed between a clean environment and reductions in energy use. Or it was argued that a relaxation of environmental goals would lower the direct costs of harvesting and using energy and thereby alleviate the need for energy conservation. It has also been argued that the geopolitics of energy alone will force us to substitute riskier or ''dirtier'' energy sources for relatively clean oil and gas. Indeed, there is no question that the relationship among energy, the environment, and economic well-being is complicated. This essay sorts out many of the confusing aspects in order to show how goals relating to the efficient use of energy are aligned both with traditional economic goals and with modern environmental goals. To do this the author analyzes in depth the role of energy in the economy and, using examples, traces the origins of many of the misconceptions about that role--misconceptions that have inhibited a profound discussion of energy-related goals.

  17. Energy and integration in North and South America; Energie und Integration in Nord- und Suedamerika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maihold, Guenther; Husar, Joerg (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    As the book shows, energy relationships in the American continent are defined by the world's biggest energy consumer, the USA, paralleled by an increasing resources-related nationalism among the energy producers of the southern hemisphere of the continent. The strategic character of energy in all its different forms (petroleum and natural gas, coal, electricity, bioethanol) is reflected both in the development of the total hemispheral relationships and in various attempts to design regional integration processes. The subject is getting increasingly explosive due to problems with oil production in the Arctic region and off the US coast; in addition, there are first cooperation projects between state-owned Latin American companies and Chinese or Russian oil companies that are viewed with serious misgivings by the USA. This book presents infrastructural projects and cooperation projects in the context of national energy policies and takes a look at the potentials for conflict resulting from divergent conceptions and interests of the key actors. (orig./RHM)

  18. Energy integration experiences at the Europe, at the Nordic countries and at the Central America: considerations relevant to the South America integration process; Experiencias de integracao energetica na Europa, nos paises nordicos e na America Central: consideracoes relevantes ao processo de integracao Sul-Americana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Adriana Fiorotti; Andreza, Fernanda Marques Pereira; Soares, Jeferson Borghetti; Pinheiro, Maria Fernanda Bacile; Oliveira, Ricardo Gorini de [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: adriana.campos@epe.gov.br, fernanda.andreza@epe.gov.br; jeferson.soares@epe.gov.br, maria.pinheiro, ricardo.gorini@epe.gov.br

    2010-07-01

    In view of institutional/contractual regulatory problems at the South America, some experiences of energy integration at the electrical sectors and natural gas (Nordic countries. European Union and Central America), identifying related vantages and advantageous. Besides, there is an attempt of characterization of the process step of energy integration, and the fitting of regions in these steps, observing that the process of energy integration in the South America it is found in a initial step yet if it is considered the used methodology by the Colombian enterprise Interconexion Electrica S.A.E.S.P. - ISA (2007)

  19. Western Energy Resources and the Environment: Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    This document on geothermal energy is the first in a series of summary reports prepared by the Office of Energy, Minerals and Industry of the Environmental Protection Agency. The series describes what environmental effects are known or expected from new energy resource development in the western third of the United States. The series indicates some of the research and development activities under way and reviews the non-environmental constraints to resource development. It also serves as a reference for planners and policymakers on the entire range of problems and prospects associated with the development of new energy resources. [DJE-2005

  20. Shale Gas and Tight Oil: A Panacea for the Energy Woes of America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Shale gas has been heralded as a "game changer" in the struggle to meet America's demand for energy. The "Pickens Plan" of Texas oil and gas pioneer T.Boone Pickens suggests that gas can replace coal for much of U.S. electricity generation, and oil for, at least, truck transportation1. Industry lobby groups such as ANGA declare "that the dream of clean, abundant, home grown energy is now reality"2. In Canada, politicians in British Columbia are racing to export the virtual bounty of shale gas via LNG to Asia (despite the fact that Canadian gas production is down 16 percent from its 2001 peak). And the EIA has forecast that the U.S. will become a net exporter of gas by 20213. Similarly, recent reports from Citigroup and Harvard suggest that an oil glut is on the horizon thanks in part to the application of fracking technology to formerly inaccessible low permeability tight oil plays. The fundamentals of well costs and declines belie this optimism. Shale gas is expensive gas. In the early days it was declared that "continuous plays" like shale gas were "manufacturing operations", and that geology didn't matter. One could drill a well anywhere, it was suggested, and expect consistent production. Unfortunately, Mother Nature always has the last word, and inevitably the vast expanses of purported potential shale gas resources contracted to "core" areas, where geological conditions were optimal. The cost to produce shale gas ranges from 4.00 per thousand cubic feet (mcf) to 10.00, depending on the play. Natural gas production is a story about declines which now amount to 32% per year in the U.S. So 22 billion cubic feet per day of production now has to be replaced each year to keep overall production flat. At current prices of 2.50/mcf, industry is short about 50 billion per year in cash flow to make this happen4. As a result I expect falling production and rising prices in the near to medium term. Similarly, tight oil plays in North Dakota and Texas have been heralded

  1. Industrial energy efficiency: Achieving success in a difficult environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellow, Carl

    2010-09-15

    Energy use and the resulting environmental impacts are major points of concern for the world in the 21st century. Opinions that define the challenges of sustainable energy options are as diverse as the proposed solutions. The industrial sector is a key area both from the standpoint of the amount of energy consumed and the magnitude of the energy options that exist there. However, history has shown that success in the industrial energy sector requires careful planning and consideration of the unique challenges of the manufacturing environment.

  2. Communication of 14 March 2000 received from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the communication of 14 March 2000 received from the Permanent Mission of the United States of America to the International Atomic Energy Agency including two statements of the President and the Secretary of State of the United States of America regarding the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty

  3. Restructuring the oil segment in South America: public policy, private capital and energy integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World Oil Industry (WOI) developed through two types of economic organization, built up around vertically integrated and internationalized enterprises: the US model, based on private international firms, and the model centered on setting up State-run enterprises, initially in the United Kingdom, Argentina and Mexico. However, from the first oil crisis (1973) onwards, the World Oil Industry has gradually been un-bundled through nationalization and the loss of control over the reserves by the oil majors. With this new configuration of the industry, from the 1980's onwards, the strategies of the major international oil companies focused on developing the spot market, while lowering investment and operating costs, introducing correlated diversification strategies, and enhancing industrial concentration through mergers and acquisitions and/or cooperation agreements between companies. The core purpose of these strategic shifts is to obtain control over new oil field areas. The restructuring processes of national oil industries all over the world - particularly in South America - constituted an important drive aligned with these new guidelines, headed up by the global oil operators. This paper analyzes the changes in the South American oil sector during the 1990's, analyzing aspects involved in awarding mineral rights in the upstream segment. Despite similar policies, market deregulation processes follow different patterns. However, the most significant aspect is an increase in the presence of international private capital in the dynamics of this sector, mainly in regional energy integration processes. (authors)

  4. The Fossil Fueled Metropolis: Los Angeles and the Emergence of Oil-Based Energy in North America, 1865--1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Jason Arthur

    Beginning with coal in the nineteenth century, the mass production and intensive consumption of fossil fuel energy fundamentally changed patterns of urban and industrial development in North America. Focusing on the metropolitan development of Los Angeles, this dissertation examines how the emergence of oil-based capitalism in the first three decades of the twentieth century was sustained and made increasingly resilient through the production of urban and industrial space. In a region where coal was scarce, the development of oil-based energy was predicated on long-term investments into conversion technologies, storage systems and distribution networks that facilitated the efficient and economical flow of liquefied fossil fuel. In this dissertation, I argue that the historical and geographical significance of the Southern California petroleum industry is derived from how its distinctive market expansion in the first three decades of the twentieth century helped establish the dominance of oil-based energy as the primary fuel for transportation in capitalist society. In North America, the origins of oil-based capitalism can be traced to the turn of the twentieth century when California was the largest oil-producing economy in the United States and Los Angeles was the fastest growing metropolitan region. This dissertation traces how Los Angeles became the first city in North America where oil became a formative element of urban and industrial development: not only as fuel for transportation, but also in the infrastructures, landscapes and networks that sustain a critical dependence on oil-based energy. With a distinctive metropolitan geography, decentralized and automobile-dependent, Los Angeles became the first oil-based city in North America and thus provides an ideal case study for examining the regional dynamics of energy transition, establishment and dependence. Interwoven with the production of urban and industrial space, oil remains the primary fuel that

  5. A Review of Solar Energy and the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raha Sulaiman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar Energy has been acknowledged as a free and infinite source of energy. In Built Environment (BE, solar energy has been used since pre-historic time. Many improvements and technologies .have been developed with respect to their potential. As solar supplies free energy, the issues with regard to their development in the BE will be examined. The solar energy is used in building either in Passive Solar Design (PSD or Active Solar Design (ASD. Rapid development in BE has caused global warming effect where the heating and cooling of the building contribute to half the total energy consumption of the nation and the construction industry leading to CO2 emission level at 300 million tonnes. It is found that solar energy produces different energy performances which result from different building technique that affected the environment in various ways. Whether or not the energy performances depend on the materials used, the equipment installed in the building or the energy sources supplied to the building , the improvement and development of solar energy still continues and grows.

  6. Sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► This special issue of contributions presented at the 6th SDEWES Conference. ► Buildings are becoming energy neutral. ► Process integration enables significant improvements of energy efficiency. ► The electrification of transport and measures to increase its efficiency are needed. ► Renewable energy is becoming more viable while being complicated to integrate. -- Abstract: The 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES Conference), attended by 418 scientists from 55 countries representing six continents. It was held in 2011 and dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies and technologies for increasing the sustainability of development, taking into account its economic, environmental and social pillars, as well as methods for assessing and measuring sustainability of development, regarding energy, transport, water and environment systems and their many combinations.

  7. Role of nuclear produced hydrogen for global environment and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainability on economical growth, energy supply and environment are major issues for the 21. century. Within this context, one of the promising concepts is the possibility of nuclear-produced hydrogen. In this study, the effect of nuclear-produced hydrogen on the environment is discussed, based on the output of the computer code 'Grape', which simulates the effects of the energy, environment and economy in 21. century. Five cases are assumed in this study. The first case is 'Business as usual by Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)', the second 'CO2 limited to 550 ppm by ICE', the third 'CO2 limited to 550 ppm by Hybrid Car', the fourth 'CO2 limited to 550 ppm by Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) with Hydrogen produced by conventional Steam Methane Reforming (SMR)' and the fifth 'CO2 limited to 550 ppm by FCV with Nuclear Produced-Hydrogen'. The energy used for transportation is at present about 25% of the total energy consumption in the world and is expected to be the same in the future, if there is no improvement of energy efficiency for transportation. On this point, the hybrid car shows the much better efficiency, about 2 times better than traditional internal combustion engines. Fuel Cell powered Vehicles are expected to be a key to resolving the combined issue of the environment and energy in this century. The nuclear-produced hydrogen is a better solution than conventional hydrogen production method using steam methane reforming. (author)

  8. Renewable energy for America's cities: Advanced Community Energy Systems Proposed Research, Development and Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleason, T.C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The first purpose of this paper is to describe ACES technologies and their potential impact on the environment, the US energy supply system and economy. The second purpose is to recommend an R,D D program to the US Department of Energy which has as its goal the rapid development of the most promising of the new technologies. ACES supply thermal energy to groups of buildings, communities and cities in the form of hot or chilled water for building space heating, domestic hot water or air conditioning. The energy is supplied via a network of insulated, underground pipes linking central sources of supply with buildings. ACES, by definition, employ very high energy efficiency conversion technologies such as cogeneration, heat pumps, and heat activated chillers. These systems also use renewable energy sources such as solar energy, winter cold, wind, and surface and subsurface warm and cold waters. ACES compose a new generation of community-scale building heating and air conditioning supply technologies. These new systems can effect a rapid and economical conversion of existing cities to energy supply by very efficient energy conversion systems and renewable energy systems. ACES technologies are the most promising near term means by which cities can make the transition from our present damaging dependence on fossil fuel supply systems to an economically and environmentally sustainable reliance on very high efficiency and renewable energy supply systems. When fully developed to serve an urban area, ACES will constitute a new utility system which can attain a level of energy efficiency, economy and reliance on renewable energy sources not possible with currently available energy supply systems.

  9. Building America Case Study: Zero Energy Ready Home Multifamily Project: Mutual Housing at Spring Lake, Woodland, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Building cost effective, high performance homes that provide superior comfort, health, and durability is the goal of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Zero Energy Ready Homes (ZERH) program. Through Building America research and other innovative programs throughout the country, many of the technical challenges to building to the ZERH standard have been addressed. This case study describes the development of a 62-unit multifamily community constructed by nonprofit developer Mutual Housing at the Spring Lake subdivision in Woodland, CA. The Spring Lake project is expected to be the first ZERH-certified multifamily project nationwide. Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation worked with Mutual Housing throughout the project. The case study discusses challenges encountered, lessons learned, and how obstacles were overcome. An objective of this project was to gain a highly visible foothold for residential buildings built to the DOE ZERH specification that can be used to encourage participation by other California builders.

  10. Sustainable urbanization: energy and environment in the Chongqing Municipality, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bai-zhan; LIU Meng; YAO Run-ming; Koen Steermers

    2005-01-01

    Chongqing is the largest municipality under the Chinese Central Government (MCG) in terms of administrative area and population and is now the most important economic and cultural center of the upper Yangtze River and Three Gorges area. The Three Gorges Dam project, one of the largest world infrastructure projects, causes a great deal of immigration to Chongqing and results in the rapid urbanization of the city, and it has brought in a great deal of environmental impact, which is a global concerned issue. This paper introduces the city profile of Chongqing municipality and its urbanization impact on energy and environment. The demand and the trend of energy consumption in built environment (building and transport) have been analysed. The living environment of Chongqing residents and the local energy efficient policy have been introduced. Finally the authors discuss the key issues of the sustainable urban development of Chongqing.

  11. Young people and environment, technology, nuclear energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young people have a particular attitude on the questions about environment and energy, and also about technology. Several inquiries show that young people are more aware of environmental questions than their elders. Their anxiety is bigger against pollution than the average of French people and it seems that they are more attentive to dangers for the planet: it is the sign of a broader opening on the world. Young people are ready to adhere to a group or association for environment and have sympathy for ecologists; they have hostility against nuclear energy. Age and education level have to be specified to complicate the question. This contribution gives some elements about the opinion of young people between 15-25 years old on environment, technology and nuclear energy in France. (N.C.)

  12. Geothermal energy in the new competitive electric sector of Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the problem of the allocation of risks in private or mixed geothermal projects, within the framework of the new competitive electric sector being structured in Latin America. (The author)

  13. Solar America Cities Awards, Solar Energy Technologies Program, Fact Sheet, March 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-01

    This publication represents an ongoing effort to support outreach activities through the Solar America Cities program. The two-page fact sheet offers an overview of the SAC program and lists specific resources for more information on developing solar programs.

  14. Proceedings of the international conference on environment and energy: souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theme of the conference has great relevance to address various emerging Environmental and Energy issues under growing economies of developing countries like India. Energy consumption and environmental protection go hand-in-hand, and pollution problems posed by the use of fossil fuels are major concern throughout world. Global consensus has now emerged on the need for implementation of radical technological and structural changes on both the generation and energy usage sectors in-order to protect the environment even as we maintain economic growth where renewable and clean energy technologies are expected to play vital role. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  15. Growing against ourselves; the energy-environment tangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the first section which describes problems encountered in dealing with energy and the environment, the second section of this book presents technical problems such as electrical energy supply and demand, cooling problems, air pollution, and their biological and environmental effects, specificly regarding nuclear power production. Further, energy policies of the United States, the United Kingdom, France and Poland are reviewed containing comparative evaluations of different energy sources, among which nuclear power and fossile fuel plants are included. Future strategies and approaches are discussed in part three where LMFBR plants, fission energy and solar energy are reviewed as alternatives for future energy production and a proposal is made to use system analysis in environmental control

  16. Statistics and predictions of population, energy and environment problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the situation that world's population, especially in developing countries, is rapidly growing, humankind is facing to global problems that they cannot steadily live unless they find individual places to live, obtain foods, and peacefully get energy necessary for living for centuries. For this purpose, humankind has to think what behavior they should take in the finite environment, talk, agree and execute. Though energy has been long respected as a symbol for improving living, demanded and used, they have come to limit the use making the global environment more serious. If there is sufficient energy not loading cost to the environment. If nuclear energy regarded as such one sustain the resource for long and has market competitiveness. What situation of realization of compensating new energy is now in the case the use of nuclear energy is restricted by the society fearing radioactivity. If there are promising ones for the future. One concerning with the study of energy cannot go without knowing these. The statistical materials compiled here are thought to be useful for that purpose, and are collected mainly from ones viewing future prediction based on past practices. Studies on the prediction is so important to have future measures that these data bases are expected to be improved for better accuracy. (author)

  17. ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1979-12-01

    The research reported in this volume was undertaken during FY 1979 within the Energy & Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. This volume will comprise a section of the Energy & Environment Division 1979 Annual Report, to be published in the summer of 1980. Work reported relate to: thermal performance of building envelopes; building ventilation and indoor air quality; a computer program for predicting energy use in buildings; study focused specifically on inherently energy intensive hospital buildings; energy efficient windows and lighting; potential for energy conservation and savings in the buildings sector; and evaluation of energy performance standards for residential buildings.

  18. Accounting for derivative contracts in an energy environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter reviews the latest developments in the accounting for derivative contracts in the energy environment, covering the US accounting and disclosure requirements and the Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) 133 Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities, and the Emerging Issues Task Force Consensus (EITF) 98-10 accounting for energy trading and risk management activities. UK accounting and disclosure requirements and the international point of view are discussed. Three different types of hedges are described

  19. Example of system simulation in the energy-environment sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreger, W.

    1976-07-01

    Efforts have been made for some time now to exploit electronic data processing (EDP) to a greater extent for planning. In view of the increased attention being paid to the subject of energy and the environment, an EDP pilot application acting as an information system for the energy sector has been compiled for use by the German Federal Republic. The advantages of this system, a report on which is given by the author, are manifold.

  20. Analysis on Energy Consumption and Indoor Environment in Kunming, China

    OpenAIRE

    Tianchi Hu; Hiroshi Yoshino

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to investigate and analyze the actual conditions of the urban residential energy consumption, and hence to ascertain what will be the important factors that influence the annual energy consumption in Kunming, which has a mild climate. The questionnaire surveys reveal building characteristics, housing appliances, household characteristics, indoor thermal environment and aspects of life style, during winter and summer seasons. The questionnaire analyses show that ...

  1. How magnetics and granulometry of continental margin sediments reflect terrestrial and marine environments of South America and West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Razik, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Continental margins are supplied by terrigenous clastic, as well as by biogenic marine sediments and, thus, act as natural archives for various environmental conditions. This thesis delineates sediment-distribution patterns off SE South America (20-55 deg. S) and NW Africa (14-17 deg. N) mainly based on rock-magnetic properties supplemented by clastic grain-size distributions, major-element concentrations, planktic and benthic foraminiferal assemblages, as well as stable-isotope signatures ob...

  2. Building America Best Practices Series: Builders Challenge Guide to 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Marine Climate (Volume 11)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2010-09-01

    With the measures described in this guide, builders in the marine climate can build homes that have whole-house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark with no added overall costs for consumers.

  3. Building America Residential System Research Results. Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eastment, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes Building America research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  4. Effects of Land Use Changes on the Water and Energy Balance Over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, M.; Herdies, D. L.; Angelis, C.

    2013-05-01

    With the objective of analyzing the effects of land use changes in the Amazon and its consequences on the main components of the water and energy balance over South America, with emphasis on the Amazon and La Plata Basin, two experiments were carried for 10-year period (1999-2008), in which the land use conditions were modified, representing conditions for the 90s (CONTROL Experiment) and current conditions over land use in the Amazon region (Experiment 1). Changes in land use were observed mainly in the Amazon region and southern Brazil. The numerical model used to perform the simulations was the ETA in its climate version, using as an initial and boundary condition the CFSR/NCEP reanalysis datasets. The results show for the analyzed period that there was a reduction of 3.3 mm/month in average rainfall rates in the La Plata Basin and 4.2 mm/month in the Amazon region, with some places where this reduction was more pronounced. Seasonally was observed that during the summer there is an average reduction of 3.9 mm/month in the Amazon region. Already on the La Plata Basin was observed an average increase of 11.7 mm/month in the La Plata Basin during the summer and an reduction in winter season. Through the overall result was also possible to conclude that the changes in land use for more realistic conditions, there were significant reductions in evapotranspiration and latent heat fluxes, as well as an increase in sensible heat fluxes, especially over the regions where the changes were more pronounced. Through the analyzes it can be observed that in general the La Plata Basin is sensitive to changes in land use over the Amazon and adjacent regions, allowing to conclude that such changes can influence the amount of rainfall, the intensity of the major meteorological systems, as well as temperature trends on the regions analyzed.

  5. Solar America Cities Awards: Solar America Initiative Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-03-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Solar America Cities activities within the Solar America Initiative and lists the 25 cities that have received financial awards from the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. Energy in the environment and the second law of thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    The relationship between the consumption of energy by technological cultures and the second law of thermodynamics is discussed. The analysis is based on a description of the operation of a mechanical device which consumes energy. It is concluded that the flow of energy in manifold spontaneous conditions, which play a vital role in the operation of any technological process, remove most of the energy flow path from the control of the operator. It is stated that the increased efficiency of a process can benefit the environment only as much as this efficiency enables the total energy input to be reduced for a given level of production and increasing efficiency cannot meet the problems of an increased rate of energy utilization.

  7. Environment. 1990-2001. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This catalog lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with the Environment, and issued during the period 1 January 1990 - 30 April 2001. Most publications are issued in English, though some are also available in other languages. These are noted in the catalogue

  8. South America Geologic Map (geo6ag)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. The geologic map of South America was digitized so that we could use...

  9. Enhancing energy security in Malayia: the challenges towards sustainable environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahid, E. J. M.; Siang, C. Ch; Peng, L. Y.

    2013-06-01

    Energy is known as one of the essential ingredients for economic development and security of energy supply is crucial in ensuring continuous economic development of a country. Malaysia's proven domestic oil reserves are estimated to last for another 25 years, while that of gas for another 39 years as of 2011. Despite the depleting indigenous energy resources, the primary energy demand has continued to grow robustly, at an annual rate of 6.3 percent per year from 1990 to 2010, while the primary energy import has grown 7.2% per year and the primary energy export has grown at a slower rate of 1.9% per year. This worrying trend is further compounded by the faster rate of primary oil import averaging 10.5% per year while the primary energy export has shrink at a rate of 1.4% per year. This paper has identified two main concerns namely overdependence on fossil fuel and increasing energy import dependency in creating a precarious position towards energy self-sufficiency. The study will analyse the energy security of the country and explore possible options and challenges in enhancing the energy supply security toward sustainable environment.

  10. Enhancing energy security in Malayia: the challenges towards sustainable environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is known as one of the essential ingredients for economic development and security of energy supply is crucial in ensuring continuous economic development of a country. Malaysia's proven domestic oil reserves are estimated to last for another 25 years, while that of gas for another 39 years as of 2011. Despite the depleting indigenous energy resources, the primary energy demand has continued to grow robustly, at an annual rate of 6.3 percent per year from 1990 to 2010, while the primary energy import has grown 7.2% per year and the primary energy export has grown at a slower rate of 1.9% per year. This worrying trend is further compounded by the faster rate of primary oil import averaging 10.5% per year while the primary energy export has shrink at a rate of 1.4% per year. This paper has identified two main concerns namely overdependence on fossil fuel and increasing energy import dependency in creating a precarious position towards energy self-sufficiency. The study will analyse the energy security of the country and explore possible options and challenges in enhancing the energy supply security toward sustainable environment.

  11. Renewable energy technologies and its adaptation in an urban environment

    OpenAIRE

    Thampi, Ravindranathan; Byrne, Owen; Surolia, Praveen K.

    2014-01-01

    This general article is based on the inaugural talk delivered at the opening of OMTAT 2013 conference. It notes that the integration of renewable energy sources into living and transport sectors presents a daunting task, still. In spite of the fact that the earth and its atmosphere continually receive 1.7 × 1017 watts of radiation from the sun, in the portfolio of sustainable and environment friendly energy options, which is about 16% of the world’s energy consumption and mostly met by biomas...

  12. Paradise recovered: energy production and waste management in island environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we investigate the conclusions of a previous study by the authors regarding the competitiveness of waste-to-energy (WTE) technologies with data from Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico's situation matches many of the conditions laid out in the earlier study and the island is currently seeking to modernize its energy production and waste management options. Examining production and environmental costs, we find that modern pollution control technology, high-energy production costs, and limited availability of suitable landfill sites render WTE facilities an economically and environmentally attractive option for Puerto Rico. Similar results likely hold in other island environments

  13. Mechanisms linking energy balance and reproduction: impact of prenatal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhinehart, Erin M

    2016-01-01

    The burgeoning field of metabolic reproduction regulation has been gaining momentum due to highly frequent discoveries of new neuroendocrine factors regulating both energy balance and reproduction. Universally throughout the animal kingdom, energy deficits inhibit the reproductive axis, which demonstrates that reproduction is acutely sensitive to fuel availability. Entrainment of reproductive efforts with energy availability is especially critical for females because they expend large amounts of energy on gestation and lactation. Research has identified an assortment of both central and peripheral factors involved in the metabolic regulation of reproduction. From an evolutionary perspective, these mechanisms likely evolved to optimize reproductive fitness in an environment with an unpredictable food supply and regular bouts of famine. To be effective, however, the mechanisms responsible for the metabolic regulation of reproduction must also retain developmental plasticity to allow organisms to adapt their reproductive strategies to their particular niche. In particular, the prenatal environment has emerged as a critical developmental window for programming the mechanisms responsible for the metabolic control of reproduction. This review will discuss the current knowledge about hormonal and molecular mechanisms that entrain reproduction with prevailing energy availability. In addition, it will provide an evolutionary, human life-history framework to assist in the interpretation of findings on gestational programming of the female reproductive function, with a focus on pubertal timing as an example. Future research should aim to shed light on mechanisms underlying the prenatal modulation of the adaptation to an environment with unstable resources in a way that optimizes reproductive fitness. PMID:26943613

  14. Straw and energy crops- analysis of economy, energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the biomass agreement of 14 June 1993 was to increase the use of biomass fuels in the Danish power plants to 1.2 million tons straw and 200 000 wood chips. Contribution from straw combustion should reach 25 PJ in year 2000. However biomass cultivation can endanger the governmental policy of pesticide and nitrogen reduction in agriculture. In the worst harvest years straw quantity can be reduced to 70 % of the normal level, while in good years there would occur a 3-4 fold excess of straw. Supply depends in a decisive degree on the offered price as the indirect cost can vary much (wet straw, delayed sawing, lost fertilizer value etc.). Potential for energy crops can be based on ca 300 000 ha present fallow agricultural areas. Cost is higher than that for straw, the most probable plants are elephant grass, willow, rape, sugar beets, winter cereals. Cost is lower for perennial plants, but at least 10-12 years are necessary for such crops to become profitable. Generally the biofuel crops are more expensive than crops for immediate combustion. Expenses for energy crops will decrease with time per ton dry matter, but ground rent for soils previously fallow has to be taken into account. A reduced nitrogen fertilization will reduce the economic profits quite essentially due to smaller harvests. Pesticide consumption will not have to grow as straw and elephant grass do not require any larger quantities (unless very large areas of one crop are cultivated).(EG) 92 refs

  15. Communication as a management task: Energy and environment. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy utilities are working in an area of the community confronted by critical questions. The motto fo the 2nd IZE Communications Day proceedings was: 'Energy and the Environment - Public relations in the area of tension between Ecology and Economy'. It was a meeting of domestic and international business directors, politicians, public-relations specialists and journalists. The main concern of the lectures, discussions, workshops and conversation topics was how communication with the medium could be improved, thus enhancing their image in the press, on the radio and television. Top editors from the leading newspapers have strated and discussed their policy. A workshop case-study showed how readily the credibility and acceptance of the energy and environment sector could be improved through longterm, honest, dialogue-oriented and professional public relations work. (orig./UA)

  16. Investigation of building energy autonomy in the sahelian environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, O.; Ouedraogo, A.; Kuznik, F.; Baillis, D.; Koulidiati, J.

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the energy generation of a set of photovoltaic panels is compared with the energy load of a building in order to analyse its autonomy in the sahelian environment when taking into account, the orientation, the insulation and the energy transfer optimisation of its windows. The Type 56 TRNSYS multizone building model is utilized for the energy load simulation and the Type 94 model of the same code enables the coupling of photovoltaic (PV) panels with the building. Without insulation, the PV energy generation represents 73.52 and 111.79% of the building electric energy load, respectively for poly-crystalline and mono-crystalline panels. For the same PV characteristics and when we insulate the roof and the floor, the energy generation increases to represent successively 121.09 and 184.13%. In the meantime, for building without insulation and with insulate the roof, the floor and 2 cm insulated walls, the energy consumption ratios decrease respectively from 201.13 to 105.20 kWh/m2/year. The investigations finally show that it is even possible to generate excess energy (positive energy building) and reduce the number and incident surface area of the PV panels if we conjugate the previous model with building passive architectural design mode (orientation, solar protection ...).

  17. Urban environment interventions linked to the promotion of physical activity. A mixed methods study applied to the urban context of Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Luis F; Sarmiento, Rodrigo; Ordoñez, Maria Fernanda; Pardo, Carlos Felipe; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Mallarino, Christina H; Miranda, J Jaime; Mosquera, Janeth; Parra, Diana Celmira; Reis, Rodrigo; Quistberg, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This study summarizes the evidence from quantitative systematic reviews that assessed the association between urban environment attributes and physical activity. It also documents sociopolitical barriers and facilitators involved in urban interventions linked with active living in the ten most populated urban settings of Latin America. The synthesis of evidence indicates that several attributes of urban environments are associated with physical activity, including land-use mix and cycling infrastructure. The documentary analysis indicated that despite the benefits and opportunities provided by the programs and existing infrastructure in the examined cities, an overall concern is the rising inequality in the coverage and distribution of the initiatives in the region. If these programs and initiatives are to achieve a real population level effect that helps to reduce health disparities, they need to examine their social and spatial distribution within the cities so they can reach underserved populations and develop to their full potential. PMID:25748111

  18. Solar energy: an environment friendly reliable and sustainable source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid enhancement in consumption of fossil fuels in order to meet the day-to day increasing energy requirements has blown a danger sign for all nations. Global warming effect has compelled researchers to discover other techniques of energy generation instead of traditional ways in order to reduce adverse effects on global terrain. Renewable energy resources have got attention of global entrepreneurs due to their long lasting availability and environment friendliness. Solar technology is finding increased application in both domestic and military application. This paper discusses the ideas behind the art of design of solar cells and their historical developments. It also covers the kind of techniques/ methodologies used for solar energy conversion into electrical energy with comparison between different renewable technologies and solar technology. This paper gives the brief review of world energy resources and their consumption v/s Solar energy production percentage. Researchers in the field of energy generation have impressed by the Prodigious results of Renewable Energies. Today's most of the high ranked international universities of developed countries in collaboration with government/ industries have been carrying on advance researches in the field of renewable technologies. (author)

  19. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND...

  20. An Energy-Economy-Environment Model for Simulating the Impacts of Socioeconomic Development on Energy and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Many rapidly developing regions have begun to draw the attention of the world. Meanwhile, the energy and environmental issues associated with rapid economic growth have aroused widespread critical concern. Therefore, studying energy, economic, and environmental systems is of great importance. This study establishes a system dynamic model that covers multiple aspects of those systems, such as energy, economy, population, water pollution, air pollution, solid waste, and technology. The model designed here attempts to determine the impacts of socioeconomic development on the energy and environment of Tongzhou District in three scenarios: under current, planning, and sustainable conditions. The results reveal that energy shortages and water pollutions are very serious and are the key issues constraining future social and economic development. Solid waste emissions increase with population growth. The prediction results provide valuable insights into social advancement. PMID:24683332

  1. An Energy-Economy-Environment Model for Simulating the Impacts of Socioeconomic Development on Energy and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many rapidly developing regions have begun to draw the attention of the world. Meanwhile, the energy and environmental issues associated with rapid economic growth have aroused widespread critical concern. Therefore, studying energy, economic, and environmental systems is of great importance. This study establishes a system dynamic model that covers multiple aspects of those systems, such as energy, economy, population, water pollution, air pollution, solid waste, and technology. The model designed here attempts to determine the impacts of socioeconomic development on the energy and environment of Tongzhou District in three scenarios: under current, planning, and sustainable conditions. The results reveal that energy shortages and water pollutions are very serious and are the key issues constraining future social and economic development. Solid waste emissions increase with population growth. The prediction results provide valuable insights into social advancement.

  2. Building America Case Study: High Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates; Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    ?Ducts in conditioned space (DCS) represent a high priority measure for moving the next generation of new homes to the Zero Net Energy performance level. Various strategies exist for incorporating ducts within the conditioned thermal envelope. To support this activity, in 2013 the Pacific Gas & Electric Company initiated a project with Davis Energy Group (lead for the Building America team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation) to solicit builder involvement in California to participate in field demonstrations of various DCS strategies. Builders were given incentives and design support in exchange for providing site access for construction observation, diagnostic testing, and builder survey feedback. Information from the project was designed to feed into California's 2016 Title 24 process, but also to serve as an initial mechanism to engage builders in more high performance construction strategies. This Building America project complemented information collected in the California project with BEopt simulations of DCS performance in hot/dry climate regions.

  3. Competitive energy markets. The effective route to improving the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Market forces, operating in an increasingly competitive energy market, are a preferred route to achieving environmental and energy efficiency benefits, than those which can be achieved through a managed approach adopted by many governments. It is shown, through examples, how electricity is a catalyst for change at several levels in business, the community and the general economy. Experience in the United Kingdom indicates that free market forces and inter-energy competition not only help improve the regional and therefore national economy, but they offer a very effective way of introducing improvements in energy efficiency and the environment. Governments should establish the framework for competition and regulation but not attempt to manage an industry, which is invariably done more effectively by those who run them. (author)

  4. Nuclear neutrino energy spectra in high temperature astrophysical environments

    CERN Document Server

    Misch, G Wendell

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical environments that reach temperatures greater than $\\sim$ 100 keV can have significant neutrino energy loss via both plasma processes and nuclear weak interactions. We find that nuclear processes likely produce the highest-energy neutrinos. Among the important weak nuclear interactions are both charged current channels (electron capture/emission and positron capture/emission) and neutral current channels (de-excitation of nuclei via neutrino pair emission). We show that in order to make a realistic prediction of the nuclear neutrino spectrum, one must take nuclear structure into account; in some cases, the most important transitions may involve excited states, possibly in both parent and daughter nuclei. We find that the standard technique of producing a neutrino energy spectrum by using a single transition with a Q-value and matrix element chosen to fit published neutrino production rates and energy losses will not accurately capture important spectral features.

  5. Environment-adjusted regional energy efficiency in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study applies the four-stage DEA procedure to calculate the energy efficiency of 23 regions in Taiwan from 1998 to 2007. After controlling for the effects of external environments, only Taipei City, Chiayi City, and Kaohsiung City are energy efficient. Note that Kaohsiung City reaches the efficiency frontier due to the adjustment via partial environmental factors such as higher education attainment and transport vehicles. We also find a worsening trend for Taiwan's energy efficiency. Not only is there a gap of energy efficiency between Taiwan's metropolitan areas and the other regions, but the gap has also widened in recent years. Those inefficient counties should be given priority and the savings potential. Except for road density, the evidence indicates that each environmental factor has partial incremental effects on input slacks. As more cars and motorcycles are unfavorable externalities affecting partial energy efficiency, the central government should help local governments retire inefficient old motor vehicles, encourage energy-saving vehicle models, and provide convenient mass transportation systems. Besides, people with higher education cause industrial energy inefficient in Taiwan. The conscious of effective energy saving is necessary to schools, communities, and employee accordingly.

  6. Economy, energy and environment - Methods to analyze connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives a review of instruments that can be used for finding economic, structural and environmental effects of decisions in the environmental area, and describe what is possible to achieve, economically and technically. Twelve different aspects are used for characterizing the instruments. Applications and limitations of the instruments are discussed. For many instruments there exists a lively discussion on their weaknesses and limitations. We focus on system analytical instruments, i.e. environment-economic methods, energy and energy-economic modelling and environment-system-analytical tools In the economic area we discuss I/O-analyses, CGE-models and econometric models as well as a few descriptive analytica tools: Cost-benefit analysis, CBA and Life Cycle Analyses.

  7. Wind energy in a competitive electricity supply environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strbac, G.; Jenkins, N. [Manchester Centre for Electrical Energy, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    In the UK, there has been an increasing interest in the commercial aspects of the impact of wind energy on transmission and distribution networks. In a competitive electricity supply environment, mechanisms for pricing network services are considered to be the main vehicle for evaluating that impact. This article reviews the major pricing strategies based on embedded costs, short and long run marginal costing theory as well as time-of-use pricing, and comments on the influence of each particular strategy on the calculated value of wind energy. Also, prospective tools for evaluating savings in capital and operating network costs due to wind generation, are identified. (author)

  8. Proposal for an energy - environment strategy in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results of a study carried out from a environmental protection point of view by a multi-branch team of 25 Romanian experts. A general block diagram type procedure of elaborating a national energy-environment strategy has been proposed. The sustainable development has been chosen as an overall evaluating criterion involving the fulfillment of the following conditions: the environmental protection; the best use of material, financial and human resources; the promotion of equity. For strategic objectives have been identified: increasing energy efficiency; reconsidering the existing generation capacities and their future trends; diversifying the primary resources and their suppliers; reducing the energy impacts on the environment, and three support objectives: creation of an economic and financial framework market oriented; setting up a regulatory system for efficient market operation; establishing an institutional framework for the energy sector. The fundamental concepts promoted and recommended to be used have been: sustainable development, energy efficiency, competition, integrated resources planning, demand-side management. (author). 2 figs. 4 refs

  9. The Swedish Dilemma: Nuclear Energy v. the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A phaseout of nuclear power in Sweden is supposed to be accomplished by year 2010. This study is an economic analysis of the questions that are parts of the Swedish nuclear dilemma. Even though the economic questions are in focus, the important environmental, health and safety questions are also treated. The basic argument is that Sweden should choose an energy system that allows its citizens to maximize their consumption in a long-term perspective. Consumption is here given a meaning that includes elements outside the market, such as environmental, health and safety aspects valued in a reasonable way. Considerations must also be given to international aspects like global environment, a free and open system of trade and the value of a stable set of rules and proprietary rights. The study compares the economic pros and cons of different energy systems within this general frame. A detailed model of the Swedish energy and power sectors was developed for the study, called the Swedish Energy and Environment Policy (SEEP) model. The SEEP model is built on modern economic theory and includes energy and environmental factors in a uniform way. 51 refs, 36 tabs, 6 figs

  10. The Swedish dilemma - Nuclear energy v. the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordhaus, W.D. [Yale Univ. (United States)

    1995-11-01

    A phaseout of nuclear power in Sweden is supposed to be accomplished by year 2010. This study is an economic analysis of the questions that are parts of the nuclear dilemma. Even though the economic questions are in focus, the important environmental, health and safety questions are also treated. The basic argument is that Sweden should choose an energy system that allows its citizens to maximize their consumption in a long-term perspective. Consumption is here given a meaning that includes elements outside the market, such as environmental, health and safety aspects valued in a reasonable way. Considerations must also be given to international aspects like global environment, a free and open system of trade and the value of a stable set of rules and proprietary rights. The study compares the economic pros and cons of different energy systems within this general frame. A detailed model of the Swedish energy and power sectors was developed for the study, called the Swedish Energy and Environment Policy (SEEP) model. the SEEP model is built on modern economic theory and includes energy and environmental factors in a uniform way. 8 figs 16 tabs.

  11. The Swedish dilemma - Nuclear energy v. the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A phaseout of nuclear power in Sweden is supposed to be accomplished by year 2010. This study is an economic analysis of the questions that are parts of the nuclear dilemma. Even though the economic questions are in focus, the important environmental, health and safety questions are also treated. The basic argument is that Sweden should choose an energy system that allows its citizens to maximize their consumption in a long-term perspective. Consumption is here given a meaning that includes elements outside the market, such as environmental, health and safety aspects valued in a reasonable way. Considerations must also be given to international aspects like global environment, a free and open system of trade and the value of a stable set of rules and proprietary rights. The study compares the economic pros and cons of different energy systems within this general frame. A detailed model of the Swedish energy and power sectors was developed for the study, called the Swedish Energy and Environment Policy (SEEP) model. the SEEP model is built on modern economic theory and includes energy and environmental factors in a uniform way. 8 figs 16 tabs

  12. The energy for the 21. century: techniques, economy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    12 papers have been presented. 1) Climate changing. The atmospheric circulation model coupled to the ocean model is the most powerful current tool to explain climate processes and to validate possible climate evolutions. 2) Health hazards due to the combustion of fossil fuels. The effects of atmospheric particles on mortality, cancer risks and on respiratory organs, are considered. 3) The evaluation of external effects of transport on the environment. The paper gives examples of exposure-response function relating to impacts on the built environment, atmospheric visibility, vegetation and human health. 4) Energy consumption and economic growth. 5) Impact of low radiation doses on human health. 6) Hydrogen: production methods and costs. 7) Fossil energies reserves: incertitude on definition, volume and forecasting. 8) Energetic valorization of biomass by thermo-chemical way. 9) Technical and economic aspects of wind energy. 10) Nuclear energy: the French example. 11) The future of photovoltaic energy, its actual growth rate is about 25-35 % a year and its main asset is to benefit technological progress that allows a sharp 50 % cut in costs every 10 years. 12) Fuel cells, their operating principle, the fuel used, their applications and perspective. (A.C.)

  13. Nanobiotechnology in energy, environment and electronics methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolini, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Present Challenges and Future Solutions via Nanotechnology for Electronics, Environment and Energy; Claudio NicoliniPart A: MethodsInfluence of Chromosome Translocation on Yeast Life Span: Implications for Long-Term Industrial Biofermentation; Jason Sims, Dmitri Nikitin, and Carlo V. BruschiPulsed Power Nanotechnologies for Disintegration and Breaking Up of Refractory Precious Metals Ores; Valentin A. Chanturiya and Igor Zh. BuninModeling of Software Sensors in Bioprocess; Luca Belmonte and Claudio NicoliniN

  14. Environment, 1986-1997. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Environment and issued during the period of 1986-1997. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance have been included. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain papers in languages other than English, but all of these papers have abstracts in English

  15. Progress in integrated energy-economy-environment model system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Energy-Economy-Environment Model System has been developed for providing analytical tools for the system analysis and technology assessments in the field of nuclear research and development. This model system consists of the following four model groups. The first model block installs 5 models and can serve to analyze and generate long-term scenarios on economy-energy-environment evolution. The second model block installs 2 models and can serve to analyze the structural transition phenomena in energy-economy-environment interactions. The third model block installs 2 models and can handle power reactor installation strategy problem and long-term fuel cycle analysis. The fourth model block installs 5 models and codes and can treats cost-benefit-risk analysis and assessments. This report describes mainly the progress and the outlines of application of the model system in these years after the first report on the research and development of the model system (JAERI-M 84 - 139). (author)

  16. Constraining Habitable Environments on Mars by Quantifying Available Geochemical Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, L. L.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2009-12-01

    The search for life on Mars includes the availability of liquid water, access to biogenic elements and an energy source. In the past, when water was more abundant on Mars, a source of energy may have been the limiting factor for potential life. Energy, either from photosynthesis or chemosynthesis, is required in order to drive metabolism. Potential martian organisms most likely took advantage of chemosynthetic reactions at and below the surface. Terrestrial chemolithoautotrophs, for example, thrive off of chemical disequilibrium that exists in many environments and use inorganic redox (reduction-oxidation) reactions to drive metabolism and create cellular biomass. The chemical disequilibrium of six different martian environments were modeled in this study and analyzed incorporating a range of water and rock compositions, water:rock mass ratios, atmospheric fugacities, pH, and temperatures. All of these models can be applied to specific sites on Mars including environments similar to Meridiani Planum and Gusev Crater. Both a mass transfer geochemical model of groundwater-basalt interaction and a mixing model of groundwater-hydrothermal fluid interaction were used to estimate hypothetical martian fluid compositions that results from mixing over the entire reaction path. By determining the overall Gibbs free energy yields for redox reactions in the H-O-C-S-Fe-Mn system, the amount of geochemical energy that was available for potential chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms was quantified and the amount of biomass that could have been sustained was estimated. The quantity of biomass that can be formed and supported within a system depends on energy availability, thus sites that have higher levels and fluxes of energy have greater potential to support life. Results show that iron- and sulfur-oxidation reactions would have been the most favorable redox reactions in aqueous systems where groundwater and rock interacted at or near the surface. These types of reactions could

  17. Energy technologies and the environment: Environmental information handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This revision of Energy Technologies and the Environment reflects the changes in energy supply and demand, focus of environmental concern, and emphasis of energy research and development that have occurred since publication of the earlier edition in 1980. The increase in availability of oil and natural gas, at least for the near term, is responsible in part for a reduced emphasis on development of replacement fuels and technologies. Trends in energy development also have been influenced by an increased reliance on private industry initiatives, and a correspondingly reduced government involvement, in demonstrating more developed technologies. Environmental concerns related to acid rain and waste management continue to increase the demand for development of innovative energy systems. The basic criteria for including a technology in this report are that (1) the technology is a major current or potential future energy supply and (2) significant changes in employing or understanding the technology have occurred since publication of the 1980 edition. Coal is seen to be a continuing major source of energy supply, and thus chapters pertaining to the principal coal technologies have been revised from the 1980 edition (those on coal mining and preparation, conventional coal-fired power plants, fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification, and coal liquefaction) or added as necessary to include emerging technologies (those on oil shale, combined-cycle power plants, coal-liquid mixtures, and fuel cells).

  18. Energy, The Environment And Astronomy: Education And Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Bernadette; Doppmann, G.; Kalas, P.; Lacy, J.; Beck, T.; Marshall, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    The specter of global climate change is arguably the most pressing scientific, social and ethical issue of our time. Although the relatively small field of astronomy represents only a fraction of the total human carbon emissions, astronomers have a great potential, and therefore perhaps a great responsibility, to educate themselves and the public on this issue. In addition, the average per capita carbon emissions of professional astronomers are not small, and our profession can do much to reduce its energy consumption and maximize the cost-benefit ratio of our work. At the January AAS meeting, we are organizing a half-day splinter meeting titled "Energy, the Environment and Astronomy: Education and Action". The focus will be on energy conservation and education as it relates to professional astronomy. Education focuses on informing ourselves, our students and the general public with which we interact, about the real issues, the necessary actions, and the likely consequences of various energy consumption and carbon emission scenarios. Action focuses on effective energy conservation and renewable energy initiatives within professional astronomy. Air travel, solar energy at ground-based observatories, and Gemini's "Green Initiative” are among the topics that will be discussed. The splinter meeting will be open to all and will include expert speakers from outside astronomy, contributed talks by astronomers, and a discussion session.

  19. Analysis on Energy Consumption and Indoor Environment in Kunming, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianchi Hu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study are to investigate and analyze the actual conditions of the urban residential energy consumption, and hence to ascertain what will be the important factors that influence the annual energy consumption in Kunming, which has a mild climate. The questionnaire surveys reveal building characteristics, housing appliances, household characteristics, indoor thermal environment and aspects of life style, during winter and summer seasons. The questionnaire analyses show that only 5% of the investigated households have air conditioning, and 12% have heating appliances. Most households use solar energy as a water heater energy source because the sunshine hours in Kunming are long. The energy consumption analyses show that the average annual energy consumption of households in Kunming reached 12.2 GJ, and cooking accounted for 5.3 GJ, which is the largest part. Most of the time in summer, the outdoor temperature is lower than living room and bedroom temperatures; thus, natural ventilation is a useful cooling method for households in Kunming. The absolute humidity in summer is about 11 g/kg, while in winter it is about 5 g/kg. The influence factor analyses show that building construction year, water heater type and annual income are important influential factors on annual energy consumption.

  20. Energy-Based Voronoi Partition in Constant Flow Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Ru, Yu

    2011-01-01

    As is well known, energy cost can greatly impact the deployment of battery-powered sensor networks in remote environments such as rivers or oceans. Motivated by this, we propose here an energy-based metric and associate energy-based Voronoi partitions with mobile vehicles in constant flows. The metric corresponds to the minimum energy that a vehicle requires to move from one point to another in the flow environment, and the resulting partition can be used by the vehicles in cooperative control tasks such as task assignment and coverage. Based on disk-based and asymptote-based approximations of the Voronoi regions, we determine a subset (or lower bound) and superset (or upper bound) of an agent's Voronoi neighbors. We then show that, via simulations, the upper bound is tight and its cardinality remains bounded as the number of generators increases. Finally, we propose efficient algorithms to compute the upper bound (especially when the generators dynamically change), which enables the fast calculation of Voron...

  1. Technological learning in energy-environment-economy modelling: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims at providing an overview and a critical analysis of the technological learning concept and its incorporation in energy-environment-economy models. A special emphasis is put on surveying and discussing, through the so-called learning curve, both studies estimating learning rates in the energy field and studies incorporating endogenous technological learning in bottom-up and top-down models. The survey of learning rate estimations gives special attention to interpreting and explaining the sources of variability of estimated rates, which is shown to be mainly inherent in R and D expenditures, the problem of omitted variable bias, the endogeneity relationship and the role of spillovers. Large-scale models survey show that, despite some methodological and computational complexity related to the non-linearity and the non-convexity associated with the learning curve incorporation, results of the numerous modelling experiments give several new insights with regard to the analysis of the prospects of specific technological options and their cost decrease potential (bottom-up models), and with regard to the analysis of strategic considerations, especially inherent in the innovation and energy diffusion process, in particular the energy sector's endogenous responses to environment policy instruments (top-down models). (author)

  2. International Development Partnerships and Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technologies in Developing Countries: Cases in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonova, Inna

    Access to energy is vital for sustainable development and poverty alleviation, yet billions of people in developing countries continue to suffer from constant exposure to open fires and dangerous fuels, such as kerosene. Renewable energy technologies are being acknowledged as suitable solutions for remote rural communities in much of the developing world and international development non-governmental organizations (NGOs) increasingly play important roles in the diffusion of these technologies via development partnerships. While these partnerships are widely promoted, many questions related to their functioning and effectiveness remain open. To advance the theory and practice, this interdisciplinary exploratory research provides in-depth insights into the nature of international NGO-driven development partnerships in rural renewable energy and their effectiveness based on the case studies in Talamanca, Costa Rica and Cajamarca, Peru. The analysis of the nature of development partnerships shows that partnerships in the case studies differ in structure, size and diversity of actors due to differentiation in the implementation strategies, technological complexities, institutional and contextual factors. A multi-theoretical approach is presented to explain the multiple drivers of the studied development partnerships. The research highlights partnership constraints related to the provision of rural renewable energy, the organizational type and institutional environments. Based on the case studies this research puts forward theoretical propositions regarding the factors that affect the effectiveness of the partnerships. In terms of the partnership dynamics dimension, several key factors of success are confirmed from the existing literature, namely shared values and goals, complementary expertise and capacities, confidence and trust, clear roles and responsibilities, effective communication. Additional factors identified are personality match and continuity of staff. In

  3. Building America Case Study: Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes; Whole-House Solutions for New Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-01

    ?This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH). The scope of this project involved building four HPMH prototypes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual % savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). The HPMH home is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.
    home is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  4. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 12: Builders Challenge Guide to 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Cold and Very Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Love, Pat M.

    2011-02-01

    This best practices guide is the twelfth in a series of guides for builders produced by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America program. This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct homes that are among the most energy-efficient available, while addressing issues such as building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the cold and very cold climates can build homes that have whole-house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark with no added overall costs for consumers. The best practices described in this document are based on the results of research and demonstration projects conducted by Building America’s research teams. Building America brings together the nation’s leading building scientists with over 300 production builders to develop, test, and apply innovative, energy-efficient construction practices. Building America builders have found they can build homes that meet these aggressive energy-efficiency goals at no net increased costs to the homeowners. Currently, Building America homes achieve energy savings of 40% greater than the Building America benchmark home (a home built to mid-1990s building practices roughly equivalent to the 1993 Model Energy Code). The recommendations in this document meet or exceed the requirements of the 2009 IECC and 2009 IRC and thos erequirements are highlighted in the text. This document will be distributed via the DOE Building America website: www.buildingamerica.gov.

  5. Taxing energy to improve the environment. Efficiency and distributional effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijdra, B.J.; Van der Horst, A. [Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1998-02-01

    The effects of environmental tax policy in a dynamic overlapping-generations model of a small open economy with environmental quality incorporated as a durable consumption good have been studied. Raising the energy tax may deliver an efficiency gain if agents care enough about the environment. The benefits are unevenly distributed across generations since capital ownership, and the capital loss induced by a tax increase, rises with age. A suitable egalitarian bond policy can be employed in order to ensure everybody gains to the same extent. With this additional instrument the optimal energy tax can be computed. The authors further considered a tax reform that simultaneously lowers labour taxation and raises the energy tax. This policy delivers qualitatively similar consequences as the first scenario, though all changes are less pronounced. A double dividend may appear soon after the reform but vanishes in the course of the transition. 22 refs.

  6. Taxing energy to improve the environment. Efficiency and distributional effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of environmental tax policy in a dynamic overlapping-generations model of a small open economy with environmental quality incorporated as a durable consumption good have been studied. Raising the energy tax may deliver an efficiency gain if agents care enough about the environment. The benefits are unevenly distributed across generations since capital ownership, and the capital loss induced by a tax increase, rises with age. A suitable egalitarian bond policy can be employed in order to ensure everybody gains to the same extent. With this additional instrument the optimal energy tax can be computed. The authors further considered a tax reform that simultaneously lowers labour taxation and raises the energy tax. This policy delivers qualitatively similar consequences as the first scenario, though all changes are less pronounced. A double dividend may appear soon after the reform but vanishes in the course of the transition. 22 refs

  7. Eco-balance of nuclear energy: efficiency and environment conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usually, the term of 'green power' is understood as hydro, wind and solar power. However, nuclear energy has also important advantages for the environment, when the whole life cycle of the energy production is considered. To produce a given quantity of electric power, nuclear energy plants need much less raw materials, especially metallic materials, than other energy production systems. In the case of nuclear energy the ratio between the total energy production and the invested energy (building and dismantling of the power plant, extraction of uranium and production of the fuel elements, waste disposal) is very high (presently larger than 10). For the uranium enrichment, replacing the gas diffusion method by the centrifugation will still increase this ratio. The known uranium reserves can fulfil the present requirements during many centuries; additional uranium reserves exist as by-products in phosphate mines, in gold mine clearings, or in the coal ashes. Used in fast neutron breeders, uranium provides more than 50 times more energy than in today's reactors; only the already existing stocks of unused low-concentration uranium would cover the fuel needs of all existing reactors for more than 4,000 years. Nuclear reactors show a very good availability; they operate at full power for ∼90% of the time, while this ratio is only ∼15% for wind power plants and ∼10% for photovoltaic plants. Nuclear power plants as well as hydro power plants produce clearly less green-house gases than wind power plants and ∼10 times less than photovoltaic plants. The most modern gas power plants emits 70 times more of them. Considered as the principal obstacle to nuclear energy, radioactive wastes represent however only very small volumes. Their disposal in deep repositories is a safe method to eliminate them. In Switzerland the solution proposed by the NAGRA was approved by the Federal Council

  8. The Operation Consequence of Nuclear Energy to Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective of the paper is to give information the operation consequence of nuclear energy to environment, so that expected as organizer of PLTN can anticipate or depress as minimum as possible radiology impact to the radiation workers and society in general, and also socialization that operation of nuclear energy do not give the negative impact, if conducted its control to environment seriously. Parts of which it is important to know from this paper are : one. Estimate of equivalent dose of collective effective in a normal condition is the operation cycle for nuclear energy at worker and local or regional resident 10, 100 or 10.000 next years. 2. Equivalent dose of global collective effective is for various the radiation sources. 3. Estimate of dose per cap ut annual of nuclear electric power until year 2500. 4. Aspect of non-radiology is to cooler system, usage of farm, dismissal of chemistry, advantage of hot water waste, its effect to fish, benthos, plankton, vegetation, animal and preparation of nuclear emergency

  9. Energy, Transport, & the Environment Addressing the Sustainable Mobility Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    King, Sir

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable mobility is a highly complex problem as it is affected by the interactions between socio-economic, environmental, technological and political issues. Energy, Transport, & the Environment: Addressing the Sustainable Mobility Paradigm brings together leading figures from business, academia and governments to address the challenges and opportunities involved in working towards sustainable mobility. Key thinkers and decision makers approach topics and debates including:   ·         energy security and resource scarcity ·         greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions ·         urban planning, transport systems and their management ·         governance and finance of transformation ·         the threats of terrorism and climate change to our transport systems.   Introduced by a preface from U.S. Secretary Steven Chu and an outline by the editors, Dr Oliver Inderwildi and Sir David King, Energy, Transport, & the Environment is divided into six secti...

  10. Thermal indoor environment and energy consumption in a plus-energy house: cooling season measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    floor cooling system) and increasing the ventilation rate provided a better thermal indoor environment but with increased energy consumption. The thermal indoor environment and energy performance of the house can be improved with decreased glazing area, increased thermal mass, installation of solar......The present study is concerned with the thermal indoor environment and HVAC system energy consumption of a detached, one-story, single family, plus-energy house during a cooling season. The house was located in Denmark and it has been used as a full-scale experimental facility for one year. The...... house was cooled by a floor cooling system and was ventilated with a mechanical ventilation system. Different operative temperature set-points and different ventilation rates were tested. Operative temperature at a representative location inside the occupied zone was used as an indicator of the thermal...

  11. Energy and environment in Mediterranean. Stakes and prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seventh section of Blue Plan turns on a field which is in the middle of any production and transport activities and plays a part of great importance in domestic life. In the same time, it bears the stamp of pollutions and risks on maritime and land environment, as well from a local point of view as from an earthly point of view, with the possible change of climate. Recent evolution, encountered difficulties and possible futures for production and consumption of energy on the whole Mediterranean basin are analysed here

  12. Perspective of electrospun nanofibers in energy and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraman Sundaramurthy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the recent developments of electrospun semiconducting metal oxide/polymer composite nanostructures in energy and environment related applications. Electrospinning technique has the advantage of synthesizing nanostructures with larger surface to volume ratio, higher crystallinity with phase purity and tunable morphologies like nanofibers, nanowires, nanoflowers and nanorods. The electrospun nanostructures have exhibited unique electrical, optical and catalytic properties than the bulk counter parts as well as nanomaterials synthesized through other approaches. These nanostructures have improved diffusion and interaction of molecules, transfer of electrons along the matrix and catalytic properties with further surface modification and functionalization with combination of metals and metal oxides.

  13. Future of nuclear power: energy, environment and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeting of experts of Russia and the USA - The future of nuclear energetics: power, ecology, safety - taking place in 22 - 24 July 2002, in Moscow is reviewed. The subject matter of the discussion came to be the question of the provision by Russia and the USA the future, where atomic energy will be favorable to economic growth, improvement of living conditions, environment and non-proliferation of nuclear weapon. The prognosis of the development of nuclear energetics in XXI century is given; concrete directions of the Russian-American cooperation are suggested. Factors that will be favored to the advantageous development of the cooperation are determined

  14. Energy in the Environment - Initiatives 2004-08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Jehn

    2009-09-11

    Under the Energy and Environment Initiative, the GWPC/GWPRF will expand the oil and gas electronic commerce initiatives used to enhance the Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) and the Cost Effective Regulatory Approach (CERA). The GWPC/GWPRF has identified the following priorities for work efforts during the time period that will act as the base from which selections for each work period will be proposed. Work tasks will be presented for each reporting period by the GWPC from areas selected from the general list of priorities.

  15. Climate variability and human impact on the environment in South America during the last 2000 years: synthesis and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flantua, S. G. A.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Vuille, M.; Behling, H.; Carson, J. F.; Gosling, W. D.; Hoyos, I.; Ledru, M. P.; Montoya, E.; Mayle, F.; Maldonado, A.; Rull, V.; Tonello, M. S.; Whitney, B. S.; González-Arango, C.

    2015-07-01

    An improved understanding of present-day climate variability and change relies on high-quality data sets from the past two millennia. Global efforts to reconstruct regional climate modes are in the process of validating and integrating paleo-proxies. For South America, however, the full potential of vegetation records for evaluating and improving climate models has hitherto not been sufficiently acknowledged due to its unknown spatial and temporal coverage. This paper therefore serves as a guide to high-quality pollen records that capture environmental variability during the last two millennia. We identify the pollen records with the required temporal characteristics for PAGES-2 ka climate modelling and we discuss their sensitivity to the spatial signature of climate modes throughout the continent. Diverse patterns of vegetation response to climate change are observed, with more similar patterns of change in the lowlands and varying intensity and direction of responses in the highlands. Pollen records display local scale responses to climate modes, thus it is necessary to understand how vegetation-climate interactions might diverge under variable settings. Additionally, pollen is an excellent indicator of human impact through time. Evidence for human land use in pollen records is useful for archaeological hypothesis testing and important in distinguishing natural from anthropogenically driven vegetation change. We stress the need for the palynological community to be more familiar with climate variability patterns to correctly attribute the potential causes of observed vegetation dynamics. The LOTRED-SA-2 k initiative provides the ideal framework for the integration of the various paleoclimatic sub-disciplines and paleo-science, thereby jumpstarting and fostering multi-disciplinary research into environmental change on centennial and millennial time scales.

  16. Climate variability and human impact on the environment in South America during the last 2000 years: synthesis and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. A. Flantua

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An improved understanding of present-day climate variability and change relies on high-quality data sets from the past two millennia. Global efforts to reconstruct regional climate modes are in the process of validating and integrating paleo-proxies. For South America, however, the full potential of vegetation records for evaluating and improving climate models has hitherto not been sufficiently acknowledged due to its unknown spatial and temporal coverage. This paper therefore serves as a guide to high-quality pollen records that capture environmental variability during the last two millennia. We identify the pollen records with the required temporal characteristics for PAGES-2 ka climate modelling and we discuss their sensitivity to the spatial signature of climate modes throughout the continent. Diverse patterns of vegetation response to climate change are observed, with more similar patterns of change in the lowlands and varying intensity and direction of responses in the highlands. Pollen records display local scale responses to climate modes, thus it is necessary to understand how vegetation-climate interactions might diverge under variable settings. Additionally, pollen is an excellent indicator of human impact through time. Evidence for human land use in pollen records is useful for archaeological hypothesis testing and important in distinguishing natural from anthropogenically driven vegetation change. We stress the need for the palynological community to be more familiar with climate variability patterns to correctly attribute the potential causes of observed vegetation dynamics. The LOTRED-SA-2 k initiative provides the ideal framework for the integration of the various paleoclimatic sub-disciplines and paleo-science, thereby jumpstarting and fostering multi-disciplinary research into environmental change on centennial and millennial time scales.

  17. International Conference on Energy-Environment, CIEM 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume dedicated to the International Conference on Energy-Environment, CIEM 2005, held on 20-21 October in Bucharest, Romania, contains the communications presented in the following 8 sections: 1. Electrical Power Engineering (11 papers); 2. Reliability, Risk, Maintenance (11 papers); 3. Hydro-power Engineering (14 papers); 4. Environmental Protection (13); 5. Thermo-power Engineering (8 papers); 6. Nuclear-Power Engineering (11 papers); 7. Renewable Energy (10 papers); 8. Sustainable Development (13). An introductory paper was given by professor Adrian Badea, Dean of Power Engineering Faculty, Bucharest Politehnica University, titled 'Present and perspectives of the development of higher education in the field of power engineering in the Politehnica University of Bucharest'. Among others stressed are the extended partnership relations which the faculty has with industry and research sectors in Romania

  18. The Centres for Environment-friendly Energy Research (FME)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    High expectations for Norway's Centres for Environment-friendly Energy Research (FME).The FME centres address a broad range of areas, allcentral to developing the energy sector of the future. The activities of the eight centres established in 2009 focus on renewable energy, raising energy efficiency, energy planning, and carbon capture and storage (CCS). In 2011 three new FME centres were established which focus on social science-related energy research. The FME scheme is a direct follow-up of the broad-based political agreement on climate policy achieved in the Storting in January 2008, and of the national RandD Energi21 strategy submitted in February 2008 to the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy. In April 2008 the Research Council of Norway's Executive Board decided to launch a process to establish centres for environment-friendly energy research, and a funding announcement was issued that same year. In 2010 it was decided that additional FME centres would be established in the field of social science-related energy research. After a thorough assessment of each project (based on feasibility, scientific merit, potential to generate value creation and innovation, and composition of the consortium) eight applicants were selected to become FME centres in February 2009. A new call for proposals was issued in 2010, and three more centres were awarded FME status in February 2011. The objective of the FME scheme is to establish time-limited research centres which conduct concentrated, focused and long-term research of high international calibre in order to solve specific challenges in the energy sphere. The selected centres must exhibit higher goals, a longer-term perspective and a more concentrated focus than is required under other funding instruments for the same scientific area. The make-up of the centres is critical to achieving this objective. The centres bring together Norway's leading research institutions and key players in private enterprise, the

  19. Multi-energy imagers for a radiotherapy treatment environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonuk, Larry E.; Liu, Langechuan; Liang, Albert K.; El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao, Qihua; Koniczek, Martin; Jiang, Hao

    2015-03-01

    Over the last ~15 years, the central goal in external beam radiotherapy of maximizing dose to the tumor while minimizing dose to surrounding normal tissues has been greatly facilitated by the development and clinical implementation of many innovations. These include megavoltage active matrix flat-panel imagers (MV AMFPIs) designed to image the treatment beam, and separate kilovoltage (kV) AMFPIs and x-ray sources designed to provide high-contrast projection and cone-beam CT images in the treatment room. While these systems provide clinically valuable information, a variety of advantages would accrue through introduction of the capability to produce clinically useful, high quality imaging information at multiple energies (e.g., kV and MV) from a single detector along the treatment beam direction. One possible approach for achieving this goal involves substitution of the x-ray converters used in conventional MV AMFPIs with thick, segmented crystalline scintillators designed for dual-energy operation, coupled with the addition of x-ray imaging beams that contain a significant diagnostic component. A second approach involves introduction of a large area, monolithic array of photon counting pixels with multiple energy thresholds and event counters, which could provide multi-spectral views of the treatment beam with improved contrast. In this paper, the motivations behind, and the merits of each approach are described. In addition, prospects for such dual-energy imagers and photon counting array designs are discussed in the context of the radiotherapy environment.

  20. Renewable energy technologies and its adaptation in an urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This general article is based on the inaugural talk delivered at the opening of OMTAT 2013 conference. It notes that the integration of renewable energy sources into living and transport sectors presents a daunting task, still. In spite of the fact that the earth and its atmosphere continually receive 1.7 × 1017 watts of radiation from the sun, in the portfolio of sustainable and environment friendly energy options, which is about 16% of the world’s energy consumption and mostly met by biomass, only a paltry 0.04% is accredited to solar. First and second generation solar cells offer mature technologies for applications. The most important difficulty with regards to integration with structures is not only the additional cost, but also the lack of sufficient knowledge in managing the available energy smartly and efficiently. The incorporation of PV as a part of building fabric greatly reduces the overall costs compared with retrofitting. BIPV (Building Integrated photovoltaic) is a critical technology for establishing aesthetically pleasing solar structures. Infusing PV and building elements is greatly simplified with some of the second generation thin film technologies now manufactured as flexible panels. The same holds true for 3rd generation technologies under development such as, and dye- and quantum dot- sensitized solar cells. Additionally, these technologies offer transparent or translucent solar cells for incorporation into windows and skylights. This review deals with the present state of solar cell technologies suitable for BIPV and the status of BIPV applications and its future prospects

  1. Energy demand, poverty and the urban environment in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents some insights into the prime problems of energy and related environmental issues as well as urbanisation in Jordan. The country has very limited natural resources: water is scarce; arable land is limited; and fossil-fuel sources are few. Moreover, the population is increasing rapidly. Hence, problems are arising. During the last 30 years, the country has experienced vast changes in its infrastructure with respect to the housing, urbanisation, commerce, agriculture and industry. Such developments have led to increasing demographic stresses: unemployment has increased and poverty is experienced by more than half of the population. The pressures have resulted in a high percentage of the population moving from rural to urban areas and so society is becoming less self-sufficient. At present, energy consumption in the residential sector accounts for about one quarter of the kingdom's fuel consumption. Kerosene, bottled LPG, diesel fuel and electricity are the main forms of energy used by households, but kerosene is still the dominant fuel because about 83% of households depend on it for space and water heating. The use of open fires and/or portable stoves has led to an increasing number of people being killed each year by suffocation or suffering health problems due to the inhalation of fumes and gaseous pollutants. Thus a national plan to achieve energy thrift and protect the environment, as well as accomplish the more rational utilisation of the limited natural resources available, is urgently needed and should be enacted soon. (author)

  2. Renewable energy technologies and its adaptation in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampi, K. Ravindranathan; Byrne, Owen; Surolia, Praveen K.

    2014-01-01

    This general article is based on the inaugural talk delivered at the opening of OMTAT 2013 conference. It notes that the integration of renewable energy sources into living and transport sectors presents a daunting task, still. In spite of the fact that the earth and its atmosphere continually receive 1.7 × 1017 watts of radiation from the sun, in the portfolio of sustainable and environment friendly energy options, which is about 16% of the world's energy consumption and mostly met by biomass, only a paltry 0.04% is accredited to solar. First and second generation solar cells offer mature technologies for applications. The most important difficulty with regards to integration with structures is not only the additional cost, but also the lack of sufficient knowledge in managing the available energy smartly and efficiently. The incorporation of PV as a part of building fabric greatly reduces the overall costs compared with retrofitting. BIPV (Building Integrated photovoltaic) is a critical technology for establishing aesthetically pleasing solar structures. Infusing PV and building elements is greatly simplified with some of the second generation thin film technologies now manufactured as flexible panels. The same holds true for 3rd generation technologies under development such as, and dye- and quantum dot- sensitized solar cells. Additionally, these technologies offer transparent or translucent solar cells for incorporation into windows and skylights. This review deals with the present state of solar cell technologies suitable for BIPV and the status of BIPV applications and its future prospects.

  3. 75 FR 68784 - Healthy Indoor Environment Protocols for Home Energy Upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... AGENCY Healthy Indoor Environment Protocols for Home Energy Upgrades AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Healthy Indoor Environment Protocols for Home Energy Upgrades, in conjunction with the availability of the..., abate, and mitigate indoor pollution, including the development and dissemination of guidance on...

  4. Modeling Impacts On and Feedbacks Among Surface Energy and Water Budgets Due to Aerosols-In-Snow Across North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaida, C. M.; Xue, Y.; Chin, M.; Flanner, M.; De Sales, F.; Painter, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    Snow albedo is known to have a significant impact on energy and water budgets by modulating land-atmosphere flux exchanges. In recent decades, anthropogenic activities that cause dust and soot emission and deposition on snow-covered areas have lead to the alteration of snow albedo. Our study aims to investigate and quantitatively assess the impact of aerosols-in-snow on surface energy and water budgets at a local and regional scale using a recently enhanced regional climate model that has physically based snow processes, including aerosols in snow. We employ NCAR's WRF-ARW model, which we have previously coupled with a land surface model, Simplified Simple Biosphere version 3 (SSiB-3). We improve the original WRF/SSiB-3 framework to include a snow-radiative transfer model, Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiative (SNICAR) model, which considers the effects of snow grain size and aerosols-in-snow on snow albedo evolution. Furthermore, the modified WRF/SSiB-3 can now account for the deposition and tracking of aerosols in snow. The model is run for 10 continuous years (2000-2009) over North America under two scenarios: (1) no aerosol deposition in snow, and (2) with GOCART dust, black carbon, and organic carbon surface deposition in snow. By comparing the two cases, we can investigate the impact of aerosols-in-snow. We examine the changes in surface energy balance, such as albedo, surface net solar radiation (radiative forcing), and surface air and skin temperature, and how these might interact with, and lead to, changes in the hydrologic cycle, including SWE, runoff, evapotranspiration and soil moisture. We investigate the mechanisms and feedbacks that might contribute to the changes seen across select regions of North America, which are potentially a result of both local and remote effects.

  5. Essays on price dynamics, discovery, and dynamic threshold effects among energy spot markets in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Haesun

    2005-12-01

    Given the role electricity and natural gas sectors play in the North American economy, an understanding of how markets for these commodities interact is important. This dissertation independently characterizes the price dynamics of major electricity and natural gas spot markets in North America by combining directed acyclic graphs with time series analyses. Furthermore, the dissertation explores a generalization of price difference bands associated with the law of one price. Interdependencies among 11 major electricity spot markets are examined in Chapter II using a vector autoregression model. Results suggest that the relationships between the markets vary by time. Western markets are separated from the eastern markets and the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas. At longer time horizons these separations disappear. Palo Verde is the important spot market in the west for price discovery. Southwest Power Pool is the dominant market in Eastern Interconnected System for price discovery. Interdependencies among eight major natural gas spot markets are investigated using a vector error correction model and the Greedy Equivalence Search Algorithm in Chapter III. Findings suggest that the eight price series are tied together through six long-run cointegration relationships, supporting the argument that the natural gas market has developed into a single integrated market in North America since deregulation. Results indicate that price discovery tends to occur in the excess consuming regions and move to the excess producing regions. Across North America, the U.S. Midwest region, represented by the Chicago spot market, is the most important for price discovery. The Ellisburg-Leidy Hub in Pennsylvania and Malin Hub in Oregon are important for eastern and western markets. In Chapter IV, a threshold vector error correction model is applied to the natural gas markets to examine nonlinearities in adjustments to the law of one price. Results show that there are nonlinear

  6. Annual review of energy and the environment. Volume 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socolow, R.H. [ed.] [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Anderson, D. [ed.] [Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Harte, J. [ed.] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Thirteen papers are included in this volume. The titles and authors are: From Physics to Development Strategies by Jose Goldemberg; Rewards and Penalties of Monitoring the Earth by Charles D. Keeling; Science and Nonscience Concerning Human-Caused Climate Warming by J. D. Mahlman; Consumption of Materials in the United States, 1990--1995 by Grecia Matos and Lorie Wagner; Future Technologies for Energy-Efficient Iron and Steel Making by Jeroen de Beer, Ernst Worrell, and Kornelis Blok; The O{sub 2} Balance of the Atmosphere: A Tool for Studying the Fate of Fossil Fuel CO{sub 2} by Michael L. Bender, Mark Battle, and Ralph F. Keeling; Mexican Electric End-Use Efficiency: Experiences to Date by Rafael Friedmann and Claudia Sheinbaum; Drinking Water in Developing Countries by Ashok Gadgil; Engineering-Economic Studies of Energy Technologies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Opportunities and Challenges by Marilyn A. Brown, Mark D. Levine, Joseph P. Romm, Arthur H. Rosenfeld, and Jonathan G. Koomey; Climate Change Mitigation in the Energy and Forestry Sectors of Developing Countries by Jayant A. Sathaye and N. H. Ravindranath; Toward a Productive Divorce: Separating DOE Cleanups from Transition Assistance by M. Russell; Recycling Metals for the Environment by Iddo K. Wernick and Nickolas J. Themelis; and Environmentally Conscious Chemical Process Design by J. A. Cano-Ruiz and G. J. McRae.

  7. Project CELIA: Climate and environment of the last interglacial (Isotope stage 5) in Arctic and subarctic North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stage 5e of the marine oxygen isotope record is the last time when world ice volume was lower, sea level was higher, and world climate warmer than during any part of the Holocene. To develop more accurate proxy data for natural climate change during the last interglacial, a multidisciplinary group of scientists working as regional teams has developed Project CELIA to generate and synthesize knowledge for this period from high latitude terrestrial and nearshore marine environments. The authors have cited 13 terrestrial sequences distributed across the Arctic and Subarctic for detailed study based upon well-exposed stratigraphy, abundance of organic remains, and geochronological potential. In addition, information from select marine cores bearing terrestrial pollen and ice cores from Devon and Agassiz Ice Caps will also be incorporated. These data will highlight regional changes in vegetation patterns, tree line position, permafrost distribution, and sea ice conditions from which ocean/atmospheric changes can be inferred. This information will be of value for testing hypotheses generated by GCMs and other simulations of interglacial conditions, refining such models and providing insight to future environments resulting from global warming. CELIA will be carried out over the next 5 years and will be directed by an international board of experts under the auspices of the University of Alberta's Canadian Circumpolar Institute

  8. Energy and Environment Directorate Status Report March 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, J S

    2006-02-21

    The Energy and Environment Directorate (E& ED) is one of 13 directorates at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), which is operated by the University of California (UC) for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). We operate in the context of a national security laboratory and focus on meeting major national needs, especially from a long-term perspective. In the LLNL context, E&ED is a hybrid ''program'' and ''discipline'' directorate, combining the program development responsibilities in the national energy and environment arenas to the benefit of the entire Laboratory and also serving as the Laboratory's science base of atmospheric, earth, environmental, and energy science. This Status Report is part of the annual evaluation process required by the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of its contract with UC. The annual review typically will focus on about one third of the activities and programs of a directorate, so that the entire organization is evaluated over a three-year window. This year's review is focused on the basic science foundations for the directorate and two major program areas in the directorate, with an update from a third program. The programs for review are: (1) Earth System Science and Engineering; (2) Nuclear Systems Science and Engineering; and (3) NARAC/IMAAC update. Major questions to be addressed during this review include: (1) Are the programmatic directions appropriate? How can they be improved? (2) What actions can E&ED take to ensure success? How well poised for success are the current staff and facilities? What additions are needed? (3) What recommendations can be made to the Director and the University? This Status Report provides background information on the entire directorate including the parts of the directorate that are the focus of this year's review by the Energy and Environment Directorate Review Committee, to be held

  9. Thermal indoor environment and energy consumption in a plus-energy house: cooling season measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the thermal indoor environment and HVAC system energy consumption of a detached, one-story, single family, plus-energy house during a cooling season. The house was located in Denmark and it has been used as a full-scale experimental facility for one year. The house was cooled by a floor cooling system and was ventilated with a mechanical ventilation system. Different operative temperature set-points and different ventilation rates were tested. Operative tem...

  10. Analysis of renewable energy incentives in the Latin America and Caribbean region: The feed-in tariff case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable energy is becoming a priority for Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) countries because of energy challenges such as demand growth, high dependence on imported fossil fuels, and climate change. As of 2010, 12 LAC countries have implemented formal targets for renewable energy deployment. Some of the LAC countries, namely Argentina, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, are using feed-in tariffs (FITs) to promote renewables. FITs are long-term, guaranteed purchase agreements for green electricity at a price that can provide project developers a reasonable return on investment. FITs are increasingly popular because if designed well, they can mitigate investor risk in renewables. This article presents a low-risk FIT design and then uses this design to benchmark the existing LAC region FITs. - Highlights: ► 12 LAC countries have implemented formal targets for renewable energy deployment. ► Argentina, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, are using feed-in tariffs (FITs) to promote renewables. ► Low-risk FIT design of feed-in tariffs in the LAC region can be improved

  11. Fluxes of water and energy in physically heterogeneous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breshears, D.D.; Barnes, F.J.; Davenport, D.W. [and others

    1997-11-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Fluxes of water and energy at the near-surface environment are tightly interrelated with a heterogeneous vegetation pattern that is a mosaic of tree canopies and intercanopy area. The objective was to improve the ability to predict these interrelationships, which are not well quantified. The authors (1) quantified how vegetation overstory determines the patterns of soil moisture and near-ground solar radiation, (2) developed spatial neighborhood analyses that demonstrated how woody plants exploit canopy/intercanopy heterogeneity, (3) developed a spatially explicit model for predicting near-ground solar radiation for sites along a grassland-forest continuum, (4) developed a water balance model that predicted temporal shifts in soil moisture between canopy and intercanopy patches, and (5) used the collective results to assess large-scale ecosystem responses to climate variations that lead to accelerated soil erosion.

  12. 78 FR 54669 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed RES Americas Moapa Solar Energy Center...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Vegas Review Journal and the Moapa Valley Progress and on the following Web site: www.MoapaSolarEnergy... of a solar energy ground lease and agreements entered into by the Tribe with Moapa Solar LLC... caption ``DEIS Comments, Proposed Moapa Solar Energy Center'' on the first page of your written...

  13. Assessing the suitability of Holocene environments along the central Belize coast, Central America, for the reconstruction of hurricane records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomat, Friederike; Gischler, Eberhard

    2016-03-01

    Since the Belize coast was repeatedly affected by hurricanes and the paleohurricane record for this region is poor, sediment cores from coastal lagoon environments along the central Belize coast have been examined in order to identify storm deposits. The paleohurricane record presented in this study spans the past 8000 years and exhibits three periods with increased evidences of hurricane strikes occurring at 6000-4900, 4200-3600 and 2200-1500 cal yr BP. Two earlier events around 7100 and 7900 cal yr BP and more recent events around 180 cal yr BP and during modern times have been detected. Sand layers, redeposited corals and lagoon shell concentrations have been used as proxies for storm deposition. Additionally, hiatuses and reversed ages may indicate storm influence. While sand layers and corals represent overwash deposits, the lagoon shell concentrations, which mainly comprise the bivalve Anomalocardia cuneimeris and cerithid gastropods, have been deposited due to changes in lagoon salinity during and after storm landfalls. Comparison with other studies reveals similarities with one record from Belize, but hardly any matches with other published records. The potential for paleotempestology reconstructions of the barrier-lagoon complexes along the central Belize coast differs depending on geomorphology, and deposition of washovers in the lagoon basins is limited, probably due to the interplay of biological, geological and geomorphological processes.

  14. Building America Case Study: Multifamily Zero Energy Ready Home Analysis, Elmsford, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    Two multifamily buildings planned in Climate Zone 4 were analyzed to determine the cost, energy and performance implications of redesigning them to comply with Zero Energy Ready Home, a recognition program of the U.S. Department of Energy. Energy modeling was conducted on one representative apartment in each building using BEopt. Construction costs were obtained from the developer and subcontractors to determine savings and cost increases over ENERGY STAR. It was found that seven items would be necessary to change to comply with ZERH criteria when starting from the original design which was compliant with ENERGY STAR version 3.0. Design changes were made to the exterior walls, domestic water heating system, duct protection, duct design, garage ventilation, and pest control to comply with ZERH requirements. Energy impacts of upgrading from the original design to ZERH resulted in 2 to 8 percent reduction in modeled source energy consumption, or 1.7 to 10.4 MMBtu per year, although the original design was already about 8 percent better than a design configured to minimum ENERGY STAR criteria. According to the BEopt analysis, annualized energy related costs of the ZERH design were slightly higher for the apartment and slightly lower for the townhome when compared to the original design.

  15. 77 FR 2948 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Rural Energy for America Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... producers and rural small businesses reduce energy costs and consumption and help meet the Nation's critical..., parental status, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, political beliefs, reprisal, or...

  16. 78 FR 19183 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Rural Energy for America Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... producers and rural small businesses reduce energy costs and consumption and help meet the Nation's critical..., and where applicable, sex, marital status, familial status, parental status, religion,...

  17. Using EnergyPlus to Perform Dehumidification Analysis on Building America Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Xia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Dane [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This study used EnergyPlus to investigate humidity issues on a typical mid-1990s reference home, a 2006 International Energy Conservation Code home, and a high-performance home in a hot-humid climate; the study confirmed that supplemental dehumidification should be provided to maintain space relative humidity below 60% in a hot-humid climate.

  18. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network): Best Practices to Enhance Informal Geoscience Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, R.; Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D.; Crowley, K. J.; Steiner, M. A.; Divers, M. T.; Hopkins, K. G.; Giarratani, L.; Gilmore, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    While energy links all living and non-living systems, the integration of energy, the environment, and society is often not clearly represented in 9 - 12 classrooms and informal learning venues. However, objective public learning that integrates these components is essential for improving public environmental literacy. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network) is a National Science Foundation funded initiative that uses an Earth Systems Science framework to guide experimental learning for high school students and to improve public learning opportunities regarding the energy-environment-society nexus in a Museum setting. One of the primary objectives of the ENERGY-NET project is to develop a rich set of experimental learning activities that are presented as exhibits at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA). Here we detail the evolution of the ENERGY-NET exhibit building process and the subsequent evolution of exhibit content over the past three years. While preliminary plans included the development of five "exploration stations" (i.e., traveling activity carts) per calendar year, the opportunity arose to create a single, larger topical exhibit per semester, which was assumed to have a greater impact on museum visitors. Evaluative assessments conducted to date reveal important practices to be incorporated into ongoing exhibit development: 1) Undergraduate mentors and teen exhibit developers should receive additional content training to allow richer exhibit materials. 2) The development process should be distributed over as long a time period as possible and emphasize iteration. This project can serve as a model for other collaborations between geoscience departments and museums. In particular, these practices may streamline development of public presentations and increase the effectiveness of experimental learning activities.

  19. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the...... origin and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  20. Role of renewable hydrogen in global energy-environment-economic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy language method has been used to develop a dynamic model which generated inter-substitution of energy sources and energy currencies in the energy market, and provided information on complex interactions between energy, environment and economics. Substitution of the fossil fuel system by the solar hydrogen energy system has been analyzed, with particular attention given to effects on economic growth and on the environment. The results have shown that an early transition to the solar hydrogen energy system would provide long term benefits to economy and to the environment. 6 figs., 1 tab., 15 refs

  1. Strengthening America's Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Rose; Kumpfer, Karol

    2000-01-01

    Improving parenting practices and the family environment is the most effective, enduring strategy for combating juvenile delinquency. Describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's Strengthening America's Families Initiative. Highlights several family-focused prevention programs identified as exemplary, explaining how they…

  2. United States of America [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The USA uses more energy than any other country in the world. Energy consumption exceeds domestic supply, which continuously declines. Currently, 27% of the energy needs are imported, a share which will rise to 31% by 2020. In 2007, the USA consumed in total 2337 Mtoe of primary energy. An estimate of the energy use in 2008 is given. The country's largest source representing 39% of the energy demand is crude oil, of which 60% must be imported. About 66% of the oil is consumed in the transportation sector and 24% in the industrial sector, while the remainder is used for residential and commercial heating. The USA is also the largest consumer of natural gas, with 27% of the world's annual production. Natural gas is increasingly used for electricity production (almost doubled to 21% in 2007 compared to 1990) and will remain in the nearer term the fuel of choice for new electric power plants. About 16% of the natural gas consumed is imported, partly in the form of LNG. Regasification of LNG is a growing industry. Coal is the most abundantly available energy resource in the USA. About 50% of the electricity production is from coal, which is responsible for a relatively high level of pollutant emissions. The USA will need approximately 400 GW of new power generation capacity by 2020. In 2007, nuclear energy accounted for 837 TW-h or 19% of the total electricity production from the operation of 104 nuclear reactors with a capacity of 101.2 GW(e). To maintain this nuclear share, the equivalent of 30 1000 MW nuclear reactors will have to be built. Renewables are basically used for electricity production with a share of 9% (with 6% from hydro and 3% from other renewables).

  3. Energy metabolism and the high-altitude environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    At high altitude the barometric pressure falls, challenging oxygen delivery to the tissues. Thus, whilst hypoxia is not the only physiological stress encountered at high altitude, low arterial P(O2) is a sustained feature, even after allowing adequate time for acclimatization. Cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism is altered in subjects at, or returning from, high altitude. In the heart, energetic reserve falls, as indicated by lower phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratios. The underlying mechanism is unknown, but in the hypoxic rat heart fatty acid oxidation and respiratory capacity are decreased, whilst pyruvate oxidation is also lower after sustained hypoxic exposure. In skeletal muscle, there is not a consensus. With prolonged exposure to extreme high altitude (>5500 m) a loss of muscle mitochondrial density is seen, but this was not observed in a simulated ascent of Everest in hypobaric chambers. At more moderate high altitude, decreased respiratory capacity may occur without changes in mitochondrial volume density, and fat oxidation may be downregulated, although this is not seen in all studies. The underlying mechanisms, including the possible role of hypoxia-signalling pathways, remain to be resolved, particularly in light of confounding factors in the high-altitude environment. In high-altitude-adapted Tibetan natives, however, there is evidence of natural selection centred around the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway, and metabolic features in this population (e.g. low cardiac phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratios, increased cardiac glucose uptake and lower muscle mitochondrial densities) share similarities with those in acclimatized lowlanders, supporting a possible role for the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway in the metabolic response of cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism to high altitude. PMID:26315373

  4. Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels in North America: Opportunities for Harmonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanwiemcgrory, Laura; Wiel, Stephen; Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Harrington, Lloyd

    2002-05-16

    To support the North American Energy Working Group's Expert Group on Energy Efficiency (NAEWG-EE), USDOE commissioned the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP) to prepare a resource document comparing current standards, labels, and test procedure regulations in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The resulting document reached the following conclusions: Out of 24 energy-using products for which at least one of the three countries has energy efficiency regulations, three products -- refrigerators/freezers, split system central air conditioners, and room air conditioners -- have similar or identical minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in the three countries. These same three products, as well as three-phase motors, have similar or identical test procedures throughout the region. There are 10 products with different MEPS and test procedures, but which have the short-term potential to develop common test procedures, MEPS, and/or labels. Three other noteworthy areas where possible energy efficiency initiatives have potential for harmonization are standby losses, uniform endorsement labels, and a new standard or label on windows. This paper explains these conclusions and presents the underlying comparative data.

  5. South America Province Boundaries, 1999 (prv6ag)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. South America was divided into 107 geologic provinces as background...

  6. Energy-efficient lighting applications in a supermarket environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammer, D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the application of energy-efficient lighting in a retail environment, specifically a supermarket. It will reveal the general theory behind Big V`s chosen lighting design, and then discuss two examples of the application: one, a retrofit to an existing supermarket; the other, the adaption of the design to a new store. The factors that influence Big V`s lighting design are: (1) the best presentation of product for merchandising purposes, and (2) the lowest operating cost. These two factors can often be mutually exclusive. For merchandising purposes, the best design would make the product `jump off the shelf` at a customer, preferably into his/her shopping cart. Such an arrangement would include high footcandle levels along with a very high color rendering index (CRI). To design only to these requirements would result in very high original and operating costs for the lighting system. However, to base the design on cost considerations alone would result in low light levels at a very low CRI. Since neither option is acceptable, Big V`s design is a compromise, combining the best light quality at a reasonable cost.

  7. Energy market environments in Europe and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On July 21, the technical program of the IEEE Power Engineering Society (PES) 1997 Summer Meeting began with a joint plenary, cosponsored by VDE-ETG. Simultaneous translation allowed the audience to listen to the presentations in either German or English. Emerging Energy Market Environments in Europe and the United states was chaired by H.J. Haubrich, RWTH, and H.B. Puettgen, Georgia Institute of Technology. Following welcome addresses and introductory remarks by E.F. Peschke, chair or the local organizing committee, K. Bechtold, BEWAG, Berlin, H. Wolters, VDE chair, L. Bochanky, ETG chair, Charles K. Alexander, IEEE president, and Robert A. Dent, PES president, the following presentations were given: The Process of Integration of the East and West European Networks, Juergen Stotz, VEAG, Germany; Electric Power Turns into a Commodity: A Change of Paradigm in the Power Industry, Dietmar Winje, BEWAG, Germany; The Brave New World of Customer Satisfaction, Gale Klappa, Southwest Utilities, United Kingdom; Deregulation Risks and Opportunities, Donald H. Denton, Jr., Duke Power Company, United States. Summaries of the four presentations are included

  8. Some aspects on hydraulic energy and environment in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey is not rich in petroleum and natural gas resources and is dependent on energy. Electricity generation in Turkey from its own domestic resources is, at present, about 40% and is expected to be at 20% by the year 2020. It has been planned that the maximum capacity for hydraulic and other national resources will be reached by the year 2020. This means that the total electricity generated by domestic resources is to be 245 TWh/yr, and the remaining electricity demand of about 302 TWh/yr for the year 2020 must be ensured by imported resources. In Turkey, hydropower projects are part of integrated water resources development. Most new powerplants will be developed as build, operate and transfer (BOT) or build, own and operate (BOO ) projects with the private sector. It is expected that many foreign investors and financiers will also be interested in the Turkish hydropower market. For a sustainable development the next investments should be made for clean technologies such as hydropower. Depending upon the latest technological developments, other economic and political factors will also affect the quality of the environment

  9. Building America Case Study: BrightBuilt Home, Modular Zero Energy, Portland, Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    Kaplan Thompson Architects (KTA) has specialized in sustainable, energy-efficient buildings, and they have designed several custom, zero-energy homes in New England. These zero-energy projects have generally been high-end, custom homes with budgets that could accommodate advanced energy systems. In an attempt to make zero energy homes more affordable and accessible to a larger demographic, KTA explored modular construction as way to provide high-quality homes at lower costs. In mid-2013, KTA formalized this concept when they launched BrightBuilt Home (BBH). The BBH mission is to offer 'a line of architect-designed, high-performance homes that are priced to offer substantial savings off the lifetime cost of a typical home and can be delivered in less time.' For the past two years, CARB has worked with BBH and Keiser Homes (the primary modular manufacturer for BBH) to discuss challenges related to wall systems, HVAC, and quality control. In Spring of 2014, CARB and BBH began looking in detail on a home to be built in Lincolnville, Maine, by Black Bros. Builders. This report details the solution package specified for this modular plan and the challenges that arose during the project.

  10. Economy, energy and environment - Methods to analyze connections; Ekonomi, energi och miljoe - metoder att analysera samband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlroth, Sofia; Finnveden, Goeran; Hochschorner Elisabeth [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Industrial Ecology; Ekvall, Thomas [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Systems Technology; Wadeskog, Anders; Palm, Viveka [Statistics Sweden, Stockholm (Sweden). Environmental Accounts

    2003-12-01

    This report gives a review of instruments that can be used for finding economic, structural and environmental effects of decisions in the environmental area, and describe what is possible to achieve, economically and technically. Twelve different aspects are used for characterizing the instruments. Applications and limitations of the instruments are discussed. For many instruments there exists a lively discussion on their weaknesses and limitations. We focus on system analytical instruments, i.e. environment-economic methods, energy and energy-economic modelling and environment-system-analytical tools In the economic area we discuss I/O-analyses, CGE-models and econometric models as well as a few descriptive analytica tools: Cost-benefit analysis, CBA and Life Cycle Analyses.

  11. Nuclear energy, its social impact to the environment. The renewable energy sources, a viable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present arguments against nuclear energy and pro renewable energy sources. Thus, the water used in Uranium mining and primary ore processing becomes contaminated in long lived radioisotopes and so a threat for local ecosystems and communities. Then, during the fabrication, enrichment, and handling of nuclear fuel the workers are exposed to radiations and dangerous accidental radioactive leaks can occur. But, by far, the most menacing aspect of nuclear power exploitation remains the human errors in operating the nuclear plants which can result in major accidents like that from Chernobyl which spread radioactivity all over the Europe. The equipment used in nuclear facilities which is highly contaminated as well as the burned fuel implies transportation and long term storage which also present high risks. The major advantage of the nuclear energy consists in its very low environment impact and its null contribution to the greenhouse effect. In contrast, the renewable energy sources appear to be both increasingly cheaper and more safe for man and environment. The authors present a list of twelve major advantages pleading in favour of development of renewable energy technology

  12. Case study feasibility analysis of the Pelamis wave energy convertor in Ireland, Portugal and North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance and economic viability of the Pelamis wave energy converter (WEC) has been investigated over a 20 year project time period using 2007 wave energy data from various global locations: Ireland, Portugal, USA and Canada. Previous reports assessing the Pelamis quote a disparate range of financial returns for the Pelamis, necessitating a comparative standardised assessment of wave energy economic indicators. An Excel model (NAVITAS) was created for this purpose which estimated the annual energy output of Pelamis for each location using wave height (Hs) and period (Tz) data, and produced financial results dependant on various input parameters. The economic indicators used for the analysis were cost of electricity (COE), net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR), modelled at a tariff rate of EUR0.20/kWh. Analysis of the wave energy data showed that the highest annual energy output (AEO) and capacity for the Pelamis was the Irish site, as expected. Portugal returned lower AOE similar to the lesser North American sites. Monthly energy output was highest in the winter, and was particularly evident in the Irish location. Moreover, the difference between the winter wave energy input and the Pelamis energy output for Ireland was also significant as indicated by the capture width, suggesting that Pelamis design was not efficiently capturing all the wave energy states present during that period. Modelling of COE for the various case study locations showed large variation in returns, depending on the number of WEC modelled and the initial cost input and learning curve. COE was highest when modelling single WEC in comparison to multiples, as well as when using 2004 initial costs in comparison to 2008 costs (at which time price of materials peaked). Ireland returned the lowest COE of EUR0.05/kWh modelling over 100 WEC at 2004 cost of materials, and EUR0.15/kWh at 2008 prices. Although favourable COE were recorded from some of the modelled scenarios

  13. Sustainable energy in rural areas as part of energy sector modernization in latin america and the caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric power industry in the world seems to have reached a watershed in history, characterized by deregulation, breakup of state monopolies, participation of private-sector capital, globalization of trade operations and a search for more environmentally friendly technological alternatives. Latin America is not removed from this process. Over the last few years, dramatic changes have taken place in the organizational, economic, and technological structures of the region's power utilities. Each country has adopted the schemes that it deemed most suitable to move toward a modern, efficient, and profitable electric power sector. Nevertheless, there is also a risk that the changes will have exogenous motivations or else are motivated solely by the need to capitalize with the sale of assets of the power utilities to resolve the difficult economic situation being experienced by some of the countries. In these cases, the opportunity for a genuine search of alternative schemes that help to guarantee equity and opportunity in electric power supply, as well as environmental protection, would be wasted. (The author)

  14. Proceedings of the 8. Brazilian congress on energy: energy policy, regulation and sustainable development. v. 1: energy, environment and energy sector regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theme energy policy, regulation and sustainable development chosen for the 8. Brazilian congress on energy to be held in Rio de Janeiro from 30 November of 1999 to 02 December of 1999, specifically means the contribution of energy to a satisfactory quality of life for everyone. Within such a context, the congress technical programme theme has been structured around six different divisions: energy, environment and development; energy sector regulation; energy policy and planning; technology innovation; energy conservation; and renewable energy sources and rural areas energy supply

  15. ACCESSING OVERSEAS MARKETS ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS AND APPLIANCE LABELING IN ASIA AND LATIN AMERICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the project is to reduce pollution and environmental degradation by increasing the efficiency of energy end-uses in the industrial and household sectors of key Asian and Latin American countries. This will be accomplished by encouraging the adoption and harmo...

  16. Building America Case Study: Philadelphia Housing Authority Energy-Efficiency Turnover Protocols, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    Over one million HUD-supported public housing units provide rental housing for eligible low-income families across the country. A survey of over 100 public housing authorities (PHAs) across the country indicated that there is a high level of interest in developing low-cost solutions that improve energy efficiency and can be seamlessly included in the refurbishment process. Further, PHAs, have incentives (both internal and external) to reduce utility bills. ARIES worked with four PHAs to develop packages of energy efficiency retrofit measures the PHAs can cost-effectively implement with their own staffs in the normal course of housing operations at the time when units are refurbished between occupancies. The energy efficiency turnover protocols emphasized air infiltration reduction, duct sealing, and measures that improve equipment efficiency. ARIES documented implementation in 18 housing units. Reductions in average air leakage were 16 percent and duct leakage reductions averaged 23 percent. Total source energy consumption savings due to implemented measures was estimated at 3-10 percent based on BEopt modeling with a simple payback of 1.6 to 2.5 years. Implementation challenges were encountered mainly related to required operational changes and budgetary constraints. Nevertheless, simple measures can feasibly be accomplished by PHA staff at low or no cost. At typical housing unit turnover rates, these measures could impact hundreds of thousands of units per year nationally.

  17. Using EnergyPlus to Perform Dehumidification Analysis on Building America Homes: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, X.; Winkler, J.; Christensen, D.

    2011-03-01

    A parametric study was conducted using EnergyPlus version 6.0 to investigate humidity issues on a typical mid-1990s reference home, a 2006 International Energy Conservation Code home, and a high-performance home in a hot-humid climate. The impacts of various dehumidification equipment and controls are analyzed on the high performance home. The study examined the combined effects of infiltration and mechanical ventilation with balanced and unbalanced mechanical ventilation systems. Indoor relative humidity excursions were examined; specifically, the number of excursions, average excursion length, and maximum excursion length. Space relative humidity, thermal comfort, and whole-house source energy consumption were analyzed for indoor relative humidity set points of 50%, 55%, and 60%. The study showed and explained why similar trends of high humidity were observed in all three homes regardless of energy efficiency, and why humidity problems are not necessarily unique in high-performance homes. Thermal comfort analysis indicated that occupants are unlikely to notice indoor humidity problems. The study confirmed that supplemental dehumidification should be provided to maintain space relative humidity below 60% in a hot-humid climate.

  18. Feasibility study of porous media compressed air energy storage in South Carolina, United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Alexandra-Selene

    Renewable Energy Systems (RES) such as solar and wind, are expected to play a progressively significant role in electricity production as the world begins to move away from an almost total reliance on nonrenewable sources of power. In the US there is increasing investment in RES as the Department of Energy (DOE) expands its wind power network to encompass the use of offshore wind resources in places such as the South Carolina (SC) Atlantic Coastal Plain. Because of their unstable nature, RES cannot be used as reliable grid-scale power sources unless power is somehow stored during excess production and recovered at times of insufficiency. Only two technologies have been cited as capable of storing renewable energy at this scale: Pumped Hydro Storage and Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES). Both CAES power plants in existence today use solution-mined caverns as their storage spaces. This project focuses on exploring the feasibility of employing the CAES method to store excess wind energy in sand aquifers. The numerical multiphase flow code, TOUGH2, was used to build models that approximate subsurface sand formations similar to those found in SC. Although the aquifers of SC have very low dips, less than 10, the aquifers in this study were modeled as flat, or having dips of 00. Cycle efficiency is defined here as the amount of energy recovered compared to the amount of energy injected. Both 2D and 3D simulations have shown that the greatest control on cycle efficiency is the volume of air that can be recovered from the aquifer after injection. Results from 2D simulations showed that using a dual daily peak load schedule instead of a single daily peak load schedule increased cycle efficiency as do the following parameters: increased anisotropy, screening the well in the upper portions of the aquifer, reduced aquifer thickness, and an initial water displacement by the continuous injection of air for at least 60 days. Aquifer permeability of 1x10-12 m2 produced a cycle

  19. Energy pricing and implications for the Nigerian environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy pricing has been shown to have direct impact on energy demand and hence on energy efficiency. Regulated pricing which is below actual production price encourages inefficient use of energy with sometimes associated environmental problems. The important consideration presently being given to development of energy in an environmentally safe and economically prosperous society implies that energy pricing an play an important role in achieving these objectives

  20. New Zealand and Australia wind energy in a non subsidised market environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieshout, P. van [DesignPower New Zealand Ltd., Wellington (New Zealand)

    1996-12-31

    Significant preliminary work has been undertaken by New Zealand and Australian Power/Generation Companies regarding Wind Power. Turbines are installed in Australia and New Zealand to test the wind and the technical applicability in the Australian wind diesel and the New Zealand high wind speed environment. Projects in Esperance, Thursday Island and King Island illustrate hybrid wind diesel applications. A single Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) has been successfully operated in New Zealand for the last 3 years. A new 3.5 MW wind farm is operational and Resource Consent has been granted for a 65 MW wind farm in New Zealand. Design Power is very proud to be involved in many of the New Zealand and Australian projects. It is obvious that wind power is just starting here, however the start has been promising and it is expected that wind power is here to stay. This paper will address some of the issues associated with wind power in New Zealand and Australia, particularly those that are different from Europe and America. It shows the opportunities and challenges regarding the operation of WTGs in these countries. It addresses the non subsidized electrical pricing structure and the influence of the economically necessary high wind speeds or diesel systems on the choice of technology, particularly the control algorithm of WTGs and the subsystems. It reviews several of the issues associated with predicting the amount of energy that a WTG can generate, again taking into account the high wind speed control algorithms. It further addresses the issue of embedded generation and the influence that a wind farm might have on the electrical network. It continues to address issues associated with wind diesel systems. The paper concludes that wind power will be viable in the near future both in New Zealand and Australia, but also that care should be taken with data analysis and hardware choices during the next phase of implementation of wind power in New Zealand and Australia. 7 figs.

  1. Energy Return on Energy Invested for Tight Gas Wells in the Appalachian Basin, United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Sell

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The energy cost of drilling a natural gas well has never been publicly addressed in terms of the actual fuels and energy required to generate the physical materials consumed in construction. Part of the reason for this is that drilling practices are typically regarded as proprietary; hence the required information is difficult to obtain. We propose that conventional tight gas wells that have marginal production characteristics provide a baseline for energy return on energy invested (EROI analyses. To develop an understanding of baseline energy requirements for natural gas extraction, we examined production from a mature shallow gas field composed of vertical wells in Pennsylvania and materials used in the drilling and completion of individual wells. The data were derived from state maintained databases and reports, personal experience as a production geologist, personal interviews with industry representatives, and literature sources. We examined only the “upstream” energy cost of providing gas and provide a minimal estimate of energy cost because of uncertainty about some inputs. Of the materials examined, steel and diesel fuel accounted for more than two-thirds of the energy cost for well construction. Average energy cost per foot for a tight gas well in Indiana County is 0.59 GJ per foot. Available production data for this natural gas play was used to calculate energy return on energy invested ratios (EROI between 67:1 and 120:1, which depends mostly on the amount of materials consumed, drilling time, and highly variable production. Accounting for such inputs as chemicals used in well treatment, materials used to construct drill bits and drill pipe, post-gathering pipeline construction, and well completion maintenance would decrease EROI by an unknown amount. This study provides energy constraints at the single-well scale for the energy requirements for drilling in geologically simple systems. The energy and monetary costs of wells from

  2. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''

  3. Bridging the gap between energy and the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Robert A.; Scott, Kate; Hinton, Emma D.; Austen, Melanie C.; Barrett, John; Beaumont, Nicola; Blaber-Wegg, Tina; Brown, Gareth; Carter-Silk, Eleanor; Cazenave, Pierre; Eigenbrod, Felix; Hiscock, Kevin; Hooper, Tara; Lovett, Andrew; Papathanasopoulou, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    Meeting the world’s energy demand is a major challenge for society over the coming century. To identify the most sustainable energy pathways to meet this demand, analysis of energy systems on which policy is based must move beyond the current primary focus on carbon to include a broad range of ecosystem services on which human well-being depends. Incorporation of a broad set of ecosystem services into the design of energy policy will differentiates between energy technology options to identif...

  4. Bridging the gap between energy and the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Robert A. Holland; Scott, Kate; Hinton, Emma D.; Austen, Melanie C.; Barrett, John; Beaumont, Nicola; Blaber-Wegg, Tina; Brown, Gareth; Carter-Silk, Eleanor; Cazenave, Pierre; Eigenbrod, Felix; Hiscock, Kevin; Hooper, Tara; Lovett, Andrew; Papathanasopoulou, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    Meeting the world's energy demand is a major challenge for society over the coming century. To identify the most sustainable energy pathways to meet this demand, analysis of energy systems on which policy is based must move beyond the current primary focus on carbon to include a broad range of ecosystem services on which human well-being depends. Incorporation of a broad set of ecosystem services into the design of energy policy will differentiates between energy technology options to identif...

  5. The LAGO Collaboration: Searching for high energy GRB emissions in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, H.; Lago Collaboration

    2012-02-01

    During more than a decade Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB a cosmological phenomena of tremendous power) have been extensively studied in the keV - MeV energy range. However, the higher energy emission still remains a mystery. The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (L.A.G.O.) is an international collaboration started in 2005 aiming at a better understanding of the GRB by studying their emission at high energies (> 1 GeV), where the fluxes are low and measurements by satellites are difficult. This is done using the Single Particle Technique, by means of ground-based Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCD) at sites of high altitude. At those altitudes it is possible to detect air showers produced by high energy photons from the GRB, i. e. a higher rate of events on a short time scale, of the order of the second. The Pierre Auger Observatory could detect such GRB given its large number of detectors, but at 1400 m.a.s.l. the expected signal is quite small. At higher altitudes, similar performance is expected with only a very small number of WCD. As of 2011, high altitude WCD are in operation at Sierra Negra (Mexico, 4650 m.a.s.l.), Chacaltaya (Bolivia, 5200 m.a.s.l.), Maracapomacocha (Peru, 4200 m.a.s.l.), and new WCDs are being installed in Venezuela (Pico Espejo, 4750 m.a.s.l.), Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Guatemala. Most of the new WCDs will not be at high enough altitude to detect GRB, never the less it will allow obtaining valuable measurements of secondaries at ground level, which are relevant for solar physics. The LAGO sensitivity to GRB is determined from simulations (under a sudden increase of 1 GeV - 1 TeV photons from a GRB) of the gamma initiated particle shower in the atmosphere and the WCD response to secondaries. We report on WDC calibration and operation at high altitude, GRB detectability, background rates, search for bursts in several months of preliminary data, as well as search for signals at ground level when satellite burst is reported, all these show the

  6. Avian fatalities at wind energy facilities in North America: A comparison of recent approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Douglas H.; Loss, Scott R.; Smallwood, K. Shawn; Erickson, Wallace P.

    2016-01-01

    Three recent publications have estimated the number of birds killed each year by wind energy facilities at 2012 build-out levels in the United States. The 3 publications differ in scope, methodology, and resulting estimates. We compare and contrast characteristics of the approaches used in the publications. In addition, we describe decisions made in obtaining the estimates that were produced. Despite variation in the 3 approaches, resulting estimates were reasonably similar; about a quarter- to a half-million birds are killed per year by colliding with wind turbines.

  7. Energy 2000 Investment Programme - Effects on the economy, energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of an evaluation made of the Energy 2000 Investment Programme which was launched to stimulate the economy and help meet Switzerland's goals in the energy sector. The aims of the evaluation and the methods used are discussed. The implementation of the programme, which provided financial support for energy-relevant projects implemented by private persons and institutions, is described and comments are made on the results obtained in the various regions of Switzerland. Further, the problems encountered, such as the economic situation, the shortage of energy consultants in western Switzerland, the short time available for the programme's implementation and the limited possibilities of spreading information in the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning sector are discussed. Also, the so-called 'go-along' effect - the unintentional support of projects that would have been realised anyway - is described. The positive results of the programme - in particular the correct and efficient implementation of those projects it supported - are mentioned. The last part of the report describes the impact of the programme on the Swiss economy, the consumption and use of energy and on the environment and presents appropriate figures

  8. Quality audits of radiotherapy centres in Latin America: a pilot experience of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Latin America radiotherapy quality varies significantly among hospitals, where highly equipped academic centers coexist with others not meeting minimal requirements. In 2007, the International Atomic Energy Agency published guidelines for auditing radiotherapy centers, known as the “Quality Assurance Team for Radiation Oncology” (QUATRO) audits. The present report summarizes a pilot experience with QUATRO audits to 12 radiotherapy centres. The findings from QUATRO audits conducted in 12 radiotherapy centres in Latin America between 2008 and 2013 were analysed. Events representing weaknesses or gaps in the process of radiotherapy were recorded. Relevant data for estimating human and technological needs of visited centres were processed. The main difficulties and strengths faced by institutions were also documented. All 12 radiotherapy centres were successfully audited following the QUATRO method. IAEA provided a dosimetry kit for quality control. Forty percent of audited institutions were immersed in a health system that did not recognize cancer as a public health priority problem. With few exceptions, local training programs for physicists and technologists were scarce and research was not an activity of interest among physicians. Centres were provided with sufficient staff to meet the local demand, both in the case of radiation oncologists, physicists and radiation therapists. Three centres lacking the minimum infrastructure were identified. Three institutions did not perform gynaecological brachytherapy, and one installation delivered around 900 teletherapy treatments annually without simulation, planning or dosimetry equipment for that purpose. Recommendations to centres were classified as related to personnel, infrastructure, processes and institutional organizational aspects. Many recommendations warned governments about the evident need for allocating more budgetary resources to radiotherapy. Most recommendations pointed out different aspects related

  9. Wind energy technology: an option for a renewable clean environment energy. Low impact renewable energy: options for a clean environment and healthy Canadian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Canada debates ways to address climate change, the country's low-impact renewable energy industries want to ensure that Canadians are provided with all of the options available to them. Accordingly, they have come together to create Options for a Clean Environment and Healthy Canadian Economy. Recognizing there is no 'silver bullet' solution to climate change, this document identifies an important suite of measures that, along with others, will allow Canada to achieve its long-term economic and environmental goals. The measures described in this document represent an investment in Canada's future. If implemented, they will reduce annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by more than 12 million tonnes (Mt) by the year 2010 (roughly 8% of Canada's reduction target), create thousands of new jobs, and reduce health-care costs by millions of dollars each year. The most significant dividends from these measures, however, will occur after 2010 as a result of having set in motion fundamental changes in the attitudes of Canadians and the nature of the Canadian energy market. By 2020, the spin-off actions prompted by these measures will likely have resulted in GHG reductions twice as great as those achieved in 2010. This document highlights the opportunities associated specifically with Canada's low-impact renewable energy resources. These are non-fossil-fuel resources that are replenished through the earth's natural cycles and have a minimal impact on the environment and human health. They include wind, solar, earth energy, run-of-river hydro and sustainable biomass fuels. These resources can replace fossil fuels in a variety of areas, including electricity and space and water heating. Fuel cells, although not a renewable resource in themselves, are a promising technology that in combination with renewables have the potential to deliver versatile low-impact electricity. The document also identifies opportunities associated with the increased use of passive renewable energy

  10. Advances in energy and environment. Vol. 2: Air quality, water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 5th conference of energy and environment was held on 3-6 June 1996 in Cairo. The specialists discussed the effects of advances in energy and environment. The applications of solar energy, heat transfer, thermal application, storage and bio-conversion, fuels, energy and development. This second volume covers papers presented on the subjects air pollution, environmental protection, solid and hazardous wastes, water and wastewater treatment. tabs., figs

  11. The Relationship between Disaggregate Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and Environment for Asian Developing Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Raza Cheema; Attiya Yasmin Javid

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the link between disaggregate energy consumption (coal, petroleum, electricity, renewable energy consumption), economic growth and environment for Asian Developing countries. Cointegration tests verify long run relationship among energy consumption and growth, energy consumption and environment degradation along with trade openness and financial development as control variables. To find long run elasticities fully modified OLS is used, which confirms that all forms of dis...

  12. Plasma simulations of emission line regions in high energy environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Chris T.

    This dissertation focuses on understanding two different, but in each case extreme, astrophysical environments: the Crab Nebula and emission line galaxies. These relatively local objects are well constrained by observations and are test cases of phenomena seen at high-z where detailed observations are rare. The tool used to study these objects is the plasma simulation code known as Cloudy. The introduction provides a brief summary of relevant physical concepts in nebular astrophysics and presents the basic features and assumptions of Cloudy. The first object investigated with Cloudy, the Crab Nebula, is a nearby supernova remnant that previously has been subject to photoionization modeling to reproduce the ionized emission seen in the nebula's filamentary structure. However, there are still several unanswered questions: (1) What excites the H2 emitting gas? (2) How much mass is in the molecular component? (3) How did the H2 form? (4) What is nature of the dust grains? A large suite of observations including long slit optical and NIR spectra over ionized, neutral and molecular gas in addition to HST and NIR ground based images constrain a particularly bright region of H2 emission, Knot 51, which exhibits a high excitation temperature of ˜3000 K. Simulations of K51 revealed that only a trace amount of H2 is needed to reproduce the observed emission and that H2 forms through an uncommon nebular process known as associative detachment. The final chapters of this dissertation focus on interpreting the narrow line region (NLR) in low-z emission line galaxies selected by a novel technique known as mean field independent component analysis (MFICA). A mixture of starlight and radiation from an AGN excites the gas present in galaxies. MFICA separates galaxies over a wide range of ionization into subsets of pure AGN and pure star forming galaxies allowing simulations to reveal the properties responsible for their observed variation in ionization. Emission line ratios can

  13. Wave energy transmission apparatus for high-temperature environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, John D. (Inventor); Edwards, William C. (Inventor); Kelliher, Warren C. (Inventor); Carlberg, Ingrid A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A wave energy transmission apparatus has a conduit made from a refractory oxide. A transparent, refractory ceramic window is coupled to the conduit. Wave energy passing through the window enters the conduit.

  14. Empirical Essays on Energy, the Environment, and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Kruse, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The thesis at hand aims to improve the understanding of green energy innovation. In three interrelated essays it applies empirical methods to analyze two main aspects of green energy innovation: its determinants and its impact on firm performance. The first essay empirically investigates the effect of energy prices and technological knowledge on innovation in green energy technologies. The analysis is conducted using patent data from the European Patent Office on a panel of 26 OECD countries ...

  15. CALORSTOCK'94. Thermal energy storage. Better economy, environment, technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the first volume of the proceedings of CALORSTOCK'94, the sixth international conference on thermal energy storage held in Espoo, Finland on August 22-25, 1994. This volume contains 58 presentations from the following six sessions: Aquifer storage, integration into energy systems, Simulation models and design tools, IEA energy conservation through energy storage programme workshop, Earth coupled storage, District heating and utilities

  16. Energy in the urban environment: the role of energy use and energy efficiency in buildings; Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A century ago, the world had many cities of which the greatest were magnificent centers of culture and commerce. However, even in the most industrialized countries at the time, only a tiny fraction of the people lived in these cities. Most people lived in rural areas, in small towns, in villages, and on farms. Visits to a great city were, for most of the population, uncommon events often of great fascination. The world has changed dramatically in the intervening years. Now most of the industrial world lives in urban areas in close proximity to large cities. Industry is often located in these vast urban areas. As the urbanized zones grow in extent, they begin to approach one another, as on the East Coast of the United States. The phenomenon of urbanization has moved to developing countries as well. There has been a flood of migrants who have left impoverished rural areas to seek economic opportunities in urban areas throughout the developing world. This movement from the countryside to cities has changed the entire landscape and economies of developing nations. Importantly, the growth of cities places very great demands on infrastructure. Transportation systems are needed to assure that a concentrated population can receive food from the countryside without fail. They are needed to assure personal and work-related travel. Water supplies must be created, water must be purified and maintained pure, and this water must be made available to a large population. Medical services - and a host of other vital services - must be provided to the population. Energy is a vital underpinning of all these activities, and must be supplied to the city in large quantities. Energy is, in many ways, the enabler of all the other services on which the maintenance of urban life depends. In this paper, we will discuss the evolution of energy use in residential and commercial buildings. This topic goes beyond urban energy use, as buildings exist in both urban and non-urban areas. The topic

  17. Renewable energies, development, and environment: discourses, realities, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After two contributions describing the context of renewable energies and their different objectives and roles in the North and in the South, a set of contributions discusses some controversies and generally accepted ideas about renewable energies: fossil energy appraisal and the greenhouse effect of presently used fuels, the issue of irregularity and climate hazards, photovoltaic energy as a development key for South countries, vulnerability of energy systems, renewable energies and energy market privatisation. The next set of contributions deals with different examples: renewable energies in Africa, electricity and high dams, small hydro developments in China, wind energy in Morocco, solar water-heaters in Tunisia, bio-energies and food security, second generation bio-fuels, biomass energy in Cambodia. Sheets are then proposed with a brief historical overview, a description of the state of the art, an indication of the installed power, of market shares, and a brief discussion of perspectives for the different renewable energy sources: large and small hydro, photovoltaic, thermodynamic solar, wind, geothermal, thermal solar, bio-fuels, biomass, and biogas

  18. An Energy Environment Education Program for Grade 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Esther; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains 41 interdisciplinary energy and environmental education activities to help students become familiar with past, present, and alternative sources of energy as well as the economic and environmental cost of energy consumption, and to develop an awareness of how limited resources affect life style. Each activity,…

  19. Center for Advanced Energy Studies: Computer Assisted Virtual Environment (CAVE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The laboratory contains a four-walled 3D computer assisted virtual environment - or CAVE TM — that allows scientists and engineers to literally walk into their data...

  20. China energy, environment, and climate study: Background issues paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, Jonathan E.; Fridley, David G.; Logan, Jeffrey; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Bangcheng; Xu, Qing

    2000-10-10

    The total costs and impacts of expanding energy use in China will depend, in part, on a number of important factors, an understanding of which is vital for China's policy-makers. These issues include the additional environmental and public health impacts associated with energy use, the economic costs of infrastructure expansion to meet growing energy needs, and the potential role that renewable energy technologies could play if pushed hard in China's energy future. This short report summarizes major trends and issues in each of these three areas.

  1. Food and agriculture in relation to energy, environment and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current trends in cultivated land, world population, agricultural practices food and energy are briefly reviewed. The rise in energy input/food energy output ratios with modernization is indicated. Nutritional needs, and trends in food and energy demand per capita are also indicated. Some emerging constraints in relation to soil fertility and agrochemical usage are identified. A growing pressure on land for ''energy and chemical farming'' is foreseen. Losses of native and added soil nitrogen, comparable with total industrial fertilizer nitrogen fixation, seem unavoidable for two decades at least. This consideration of trends and their interactions suggests the need for more effective interdisciplinary study, longer-term planning and international cooperation. (author)

  2. Issues - II. Renewable energies and environment law: the exploitation of renewable energies or when the implementation of a measure aimed at the protection of the environment impacts the environment; water as a renewable energy source: to which price?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first article discusses the different impacts that renewable energies may have on the environment, i.e. on the human environment (risks associated with dams, aesthetic impacts, impacts on landscapes, neighbouring nuisances) or on the natural environment (natural media, wildlife and flora). A second article outlines that the legal framework of hydroelectricity is rather old and therefore ignored (willingly or not?) environmental concerns whereas environmental impacts actually exist. Therefore, a new legal context must be defined, notably by taking into account objectives defined in the international and European Union law, in particularly the requirements related to ecological continuity

  3. Energy and environment in the ASEAN: challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is one of the most dynamic economic regions of the world. Its economy is linked with its diverse energy resources, high-level urbanization, and rapid industrialization. ASEAN's growing economy in the last two decades has increased the concern of sustainable development in the face of deteriorating energy security, environmental pollution, and economic hardship in energy investment. However, opportunities exist to tackle these issues. Increasing energy efficiency (both supply and demand side), exploitation of renewable energy resources (mostly hydro), and an integrated approach on energy resource management are some of the important approaches toward the sustainable energy path. Because the options are capital-intensive, cooperation and development of appropriate institutional structures and decision mechanism across the region are urgently needed

  4. Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future: Report to the Secretary of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Preamble The Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future (BRC) was formed by the Secretary of Energy at the request of the President to conduct a comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and recommend a new strategy. It was co-chaired by Rep. Lee H. Hamilton and Gen. Brent Scowcroft. Other Commissioners are Mr. Mark H. Ayers, the Hon. Vicky A. Bailey, Dr. Albert Carnesale, Sen. Pete Domenici, Ms. Susan Eisenhower, Sen. Chuck Hagel, Mr. Jonathan Lash, Dr. Allison M. Macfarlane, Dr. Richard A. Meserve, Dr. Ernest J. Moniz, Dr. Per Peterson, Mr. John Rowe, and Rep. Phil Sharp. The Commission and its subcommittees met more than two dozen times between March 2010 and January 2012 to hear testimony from experts and stakeholders, to visit nuclear waste management facilities in the United States and abroad, and to discuss the issues identified in its Charter. Additionally, in September and October 2011, the Commission held five public meetings, in different regions of the country, to hear feedback on its draft report. A wide variety of organizations, interest groups, and individuals provided input to the Commission at these meetings and through the submission of written materials. Copies of all of these submissions, along with records and transcripts of past meetings, are available at the BRC website (www.brc.gov). This report highlights the Commission’s findings and conclusions and presents recommendations for consideration by the Administration and Congress, as well as interested state, tribal and local governments, other stakeholders, and the public.

  5. Energy scope of handoff strategies in macro-femtocell environments

    KAUST Repository

    León, Jaime Peña

    2012-06-01

    Energy consumption in downlink mode is becoming an important topic as cellular communications grow into a large scale enterprise. The search for high rates keeping energy constraints low has put forward the idea that cells with smaller size may improve not only the capacity of the network, but also reduce the amount of energy that is needed to achieve such capacities. When using heterogeneous networks, users can be encouraged to handoff to a femtocell, that offers better capacity per unit energy spent, by means of different handoff strategies. These strategies may also improve the energy use of the network if the handoff priority is given to both, capacity, and energy use. © 2012 IEEE.

  6. Energy options and implications for the Nigerian environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the significance and importance of energy in national life, energy conversion factors and an overview of the various energy resources in Nigeria. It also presents the impacts of fuels in terms of emissions resulting from the exploitation of fuels and their environmental impacts. A number of concepts are put forward in order to evolve a new paradigm for mitigating global effects of environmental pollution

  7. ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN IN THE NUCLEAR ENERGY WORLD

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, İslam Safa

    2012-01-01

    Energy is the indispensable primary matter of the World. Electrical energy is the central figure of industry, modern and prosperous life, progress in science and technology. The World and our country changes and progresses at a rattling rate. However, because of harming the environmental, this alternation and progrees intimidates human being while promising prosperity and developement on the other hand. In fact, energy resources, primary components of life and developement, are graduall...

  8. Annual review of energy and the environment. Volume 20, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book discusses the broad topic of environmental science. Several articles specifically address the climate problem. The development of emission inventories, which are crucial inputs to climate models, is discussed. The complex task of simplifying the structure of environmental science in order to produce environmental indices that permit more subtle environmental policies is evaluated. Several authors present aspects of environmental policy analysis, all in an international context. In addition, other topics focus on energy supply, energy demand, energy use, and energy efficiency. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  9. Renewable energy and environment ally sustainable development in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Pakistan, about two-thirds of the primary energy requirements are met through conventional sources while traditional biomass accounts the remaining one-third The primary commercial energy is largely based on fossil fuels. Indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the coal available in the country is of poor quality. Environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from energy use are becoming significant environmental issues in the country. Achieving solutions to these environmental problems requires long-term potential actions for sustainable development. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions. Pakistan's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. This paper presents review of the present energy situation and environmental sustainability, and assesses the potential of renewable energy sources in Pakistan. Also, potential solutions to current environmental problems are identified along with renewable energy technologies. Several problems relating to renewable energy sources, environmentally sustainable development are discussed from both current and future perspectives. The present study shows that there is substantial potential of renewables in Pakistan. For achieving environmentally sustainable development, renewables must be developed and utilized. (author)

  10. Opening the gas market - Effects on energy consumption, energy prices and the environment and compensation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the effects of a future liberalisation of the gas market in Switzerland. The report first examines the current situation of the gas supply industry in Switzerland. The contents of European Union Guidelines are described and their implementation in Switzerland is discussed. Experience already gained in other countries is looked at, including market opening already implemented in the USA and Great Britain. The effect of market-opening on gas prices is discussed; the various components of the gas price are examined and comparisons are made with international figures. The pressure of competition on the individual sectors of the gas industry are looked at and the perspectives in the gas purchasing market are examined. The report presents basic scenarios developed from these considerations. Further effects resulting from a market opening are discussed, including those on the structure of the gas industry, its participants, electricity generation, energy use and the environment, consumers in general, security of supply and the national economy. Possible compensatory measures are discussed and factors for increasing efficiency and the promotion of a competitive environment are discussed. In the appendix, two price scenarios are presented

  11. Impact of the Last Glacial Cycle on Late-Holocene temperature and energy reconstructions from terrestrial borehole temperatures in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Beltrami

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Reconstructions of past climatic changes from borehole temperature profiles are important independent estimates of temperature histories over the last millennium. There remain, however, multiple uncertainties in the interpretation of these data as climatic indicators and as estimates of the changes in heat content of the continental subsurface due to long-term climatic change. One of these uncertainties is associated with the often ignored impact of the last glacial cycle on the subsurface energy content, and on the estimate of the background quasi steady-state signal associated with the diffusion of accretionary energy from the Earth's interior. Here we provide the first estimate of the impact of the development of the Laurentide ice sheet on the estimates of energy and temperature reconstructions from measurements of terrestrial borehole temperatures in North America. We use basal temperature values from the data-calibrated Memorial University of Newfoundland Glacial Systems Model to quantify the extent of the perturbation to estimated steady-state temperature profiles and to derive spatial maps of the expected impacts on measured profiles over North America. Furthermore, we present quantitative estimates of the potential effects of temperature changes during the last glacial cycle on the borehole reconstructions over the last millennium for North America. The range of these possible impacts are estimated using synthetic basal temperatures for a period covering 120 ka to the present day that include the basal temperature history uncertainties from an ensemble of results from the calibrated numerical model. For all the locations, we find that within the depth ranges that are typical for available boreholes (≈600 m, the induced perturbations to the steady-state temperature profile are on the order of 10 mW m−2, decreasing with greater depths. Results indicate that site-specific heat content estimates over North America can differ by as much

  12. Bio-energy and the environment: land of possible misunderstanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a point of view that bio-energy could assume sustainable environmental features for our future. The principal arguments of this paper are: bio-energy system and carbon emission -including confrontation of CO2 emissions between electricity closed system and a coal-based electric generation system - soil erosion, fertilizer use, pesticide use, and biodiversity. (author)

  13. Annual review of energy and the environment--Volume 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book focuses on the central role that environmental concerns play in energy issues. Topics of discussion include the following: environmental science; energy end use and conservation; international and regional issues; behavioral aspects; economics; risks and impacts; resources and technologies; and policy. Individual chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  14. Distributed energy resources and benefits to the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akorede, Mudathir Funsho; Hizam, Hashim; Pouresmaeil, Edris

    2010-01-01

    The recently released report of the International Energy Outlook (IEO2009) projects an increase of 44% in the world energy demand from 2006 to 2030, and 77% rise in the net electricity generation worldwide in the same period. However, threatening in the said report is that 80% of the total genera...

  15. Bio-energy and the environment: land of possible misunderstanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moncada P C, Pietro (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Energy Lab.); Grassi, G. (Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate General for Science, Research and Development)

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a point of view that bio-energy could assume sustainable environmental features for our future. The principal arguments of this paper are: bio-energy system and carbon emission -including confrontation of CO[sub 2] emissions between electricity closed system and a coal-based electric generation system - soil erosion, fertilizer use, pesticide use, and biodiversity. (author)

  16. OECD/IEA/ETSAP energy-environment systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel supply and demand mix as well as energy technology configuration are analyzed by the MARKAL model for the future Japanese energy system, when reduction of environmental emissions is taken into consideration. The Reference Energy System (RES) covers whole sectors, i.e., fuel conversion and energy transformation, industry, residential and commercial, and transportation sectors. Environmental emissions considered here are SOx, NOx, CO2, and radio activity, and the time horizon is an interval from 1985 to 2030. Both SOx and NOx emission can be reduced much by present art of reduction measures. From the view points of cost effectiveness, abatement technologies including fluegas treatments take the highest priority and fuel switching and technology substitution follow in this order. For CO2 reduction, both nuclear and renewable energy technologies are essential among them. (author)

  17. Energy and the environment. Democratic decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summaries of the (mainly qualitative) discussions cover the following topics: forecasts of energy demand and supply for Europe for the period 1985 to 2000; cost, security and environmental aspects of future energy supplies; energy conservation; questions concerning the relative expansion of nuclear power programmes and coal production; renewable resources; matters of special interest to nuclear power, e.g. choice of reactor system, reprocessing, waste management; public opinion; relationship between economic growth and energy consumption, and the probable effects of further substantial increases in the real price of oil; economic and social aspects of energy policy; proliferation of nuclear weapon capability, and the associated problems. At the close of the Colloquy, a communication was adopted, reviewing the situation and proposing questions for further study by the appropriate committees of the Assembly. (U.K.)

  18. Energy mechanism of charges analyzed in real current environment

    CERN Document Server

    Ianconescu, R; Ianconescu, Reuven

    2003-01-01

    We analyze in this work the energy transfer process of accelerated charges, the mass fluctuations accompanying this process, and their inertial properties. Based on a previous work, we use here the dipole antenna, which is a very convenient framework for such analysis, for analyzing those characteristics. We show that the radiation process can be viewed by two energy transfer processes: one from the energy source to the charges and the second from the charges into the surrounding space. Those processes, not being in phase, result in mass fluctuations. The same principle is true during absorption. We show that in a transient period between absorption and radiation the dipole antenna gains mass according to the amount of absorbed energy and loses this mass as radiated energy. We rigorously prove that the gain of mass, resulting from electrical interaction has inertial properties in the sense of Newton's third low. We arrive to this result by modeling the reacting spacetime region by an electric dipole.

  19. Illiterate America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Jonathan

    Intended for those involved in American social service and educational communities, this book addresses the widespread problem of illiteracy in the United States and the social consequences of this problem. Following an introduction, the chapters in the first section of the book discuss the growing crisis of illiterate America, specifically, the…

  20. Developing economic environment: energy for a billion people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ongoing reforms in the Indian economy provide an interesting canvas for optimal development of the energy sector serving the needs for a billion people. It will be necessary in the global interest, to avoid the pitfalls of developing an energy intensive society as in the west and remain within the realms of sustainable development. It also deals with the strategies to be adopted for energy conservation, rehabilitation of existing plants and optimal utilisation of hydro thermal capacities by integrated grid operation on a commercial basis and setting up of pumped storage plants. 9 tabs

  1. Report on energy-environment education in physics class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the teaching of environmental problems is that the students who live in the 21st century acquire a moral and practical understanding of these issues. In a class of the high-school physics, energy and environmental problems were taught. They learned the second law of thermodynamics and the irreversibility principle in physics, and the energy-environmental problem. As a practical assignment, they surveyed saving methods of electric energy in their home, and reduced its consumption. Students' impressions of this assignment are also introduced. (author)

  2. The Text of a Protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Thailand and the United States of America Terminating the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand and the Government of the United States of America for the Application of Safeguards and Terminating the Protocol Suspending that Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of a protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Thailand and the United States of America terminating the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand and the Government of the United States of America for the Application of Safeguards and terminating the Protocol suspending that Agreement is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Protocol entered into force on 27 June 1974, pursuant to Section 6 thereof.

  3. Energy, sustainability and the environment technology, incentives, behavior

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of carbon reduction and economic sustainability is significantly complicated by competing aspects of socioeconomic practices as well as legislative, regulatory, and scientific requirements and protocols. An easy to read and understand guide, Sioshansi, along with an international group of contributors, moves through the maze of carbon reduction methods and technologies, providing steps and insights to meet carbon reduction requirements and maintaining the health and welfare of the firm. The book's three part treatment is based on a clear and rigorous exposition of a wide range of options to reduce the carbon footprint Part 1 of the book, Challenge of Sustainability, examines the fundamental drivers of energy demand - economic growth, the need for basic energy services, and the interdependence of economic, political, environmental, social, equity, legacy and policy issues. Part 2 of the book, Technological Solutions, examines how energy can be used to support basic energy service needs of homes...

  4. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy[Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-07-01

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  5. Energy technologies and the environment: environmental information handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual draws together information on the environmental consequences of energy technologies that will be in use in the United States during the next 20 years. We hope it will prove useful to planners, policymakers, legislators, researchers, and environmentalists. The information on environmental issues, control technologies, and energy production and conservation processes should also be a convenient starting point for deeper exploration. Published references are given for the statements, data, and conclusions so that the interested reader can obtain more detailed information where necessary. Environmental aspects of energy technologies are presented in a form suitable for government and public use and are intended to assist decisionmakers, researchers, and the public with basic information and references that can be relied upon through changing policies and changing world energy prices

  6. Competitive energy markets. The effective route to improving the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate how market forces, operating in an increasingly competitive energy market, are a preferred route to achieving environmental and energy efficiency benefits than those which can be achieved through a managed approach adopted by many governments. It shows, through UK examples such as shifting to electricity in several industrial processes, how electricity is a catalyst for change at several levels in business, the community and the general economy

  7. Minimizing Energy Consumption of MPI Programs in Realistic Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Guermouche, Amina; Triquenaux, Nicolas; Pradelle, Benoit; Jalby, William

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic voltage and frequency scaling proves to be an efficient way of reducing energy consumption of servers. Energy savings are typically achieved by setting a well-chosen frequency during some program phases. However, determining suitable program phases and their associated optimal frequencies is a complex problem. Moreover, hardware is constrained by non negligible frequency transition latencies. Thus, various heuristics were proposed to determine and apply frequencies, but evaluating the...

  8. Strategic environments (SWOT) for nuclear energy innovation in the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In prospecting the role of nuclear energy in a future society, it is necessary to foresee the social attitudes towards energy, economy and environment, and to analyze their interactions with the exploitation of nuclear energy itself. As those issues, this article looks upon the change of the socio-economic environment, the concerns about nuclear power and eco-environment, and the sustainability and limits of the energy resources, etc. With this perception, the so-called SWOT analysis is employed to identify the internal strengths (S) and/or weaknesses (W) of nuclear energy compared with other energy competitors on the basis of the evaluation of the external factors which are likely to play the roles of opportunities (O) for and/or threats (T) against the technological change in nuclear energy. (authors)

  9. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 11. Builders Challenge Guide to 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Marine Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Love, Pat M.

    2010-09-01

    This best practices guide is the eleventh in a series of guides for builders produced by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America Program. This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct homes that are among the most energy-efficient available, while addressing issues such as building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the marine climate (portions of Washington, Oregon, and California) can achieve homes that have whole house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark (a home built to mid-1990s building practices roughly equivalent to the 1993 Model Energy Code) with no added overall costs for consumers. These best practices are based on the results of research and demonstration projects conducted by Building America’s research teams. The guide includes information for managers, designers, marketers, site supervisors, and subcontractors, as well as case studies of builders who are successfully building homes that cut energy use by 40% in the marine climate. This document is available on the web at www.buildingamerica.gov. This report was originally cleared 06-29-2010. This version is Rev 1 cleared in Nov 2010. The only change is the reference to the Energy Star Windows critieria shown on pg 8.25 was updated to match the criteria - Version 5.0, 04/07/2009, effective 01/04/2010.

  10. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP); Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  11. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-01-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  12. Corrosion performance of iron aluminides in fossil energy environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1997-12-01

    Corrosion of metallic structural materials in complex gas environments of coal gasification and combustion is a potential problem. The corrosion process is dictated by concentrations of two key constituents: sulfur as H{sub 2}S or SO{sub 2} and chlorine as HCl. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the current status of the corrosion performance of alumina scales that are thermally grown on Fe-base alloys, including iron aluminides, in multicomponent gas environments of typical coal-conversion systems. Mechanisms of scale development/breakdown, performance envelopes for long-term usage of these materials, approaches to modifying the surfaces of engineering alloys by cladding or coating them with intermetallics, and in-service experience with these materials are emphasized. The results are compared with the performance of chromia-forming alloys in similar environments. The paper also discusses the available information on corrosion performance of alloys whose surfaces were enriched with Al by the electrospark deposition process or by weld overlay techniques.

  13. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy: a program of the inter-america development bank to support the creation of markets for energy efficiency and non conventional renewable energy and clean and effective urban transportation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the efforts made in the past, including the creation of a unit focusing exclusively on this topic during the eighties, IDB has had only limited success in promoting the efficient use of energy and renewable sources on a small scale. Since 1975, about 50 small-scale and medium-scale renewable energy projects have been financed for a total amount of USD600 million (between 5% and 10% of energy sector loans) and about USD50 million in efficient use of energy. (The author)

  14. Environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tošovská, Eva

    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education , 2006 - (Zemčík, P.; Žigić, K.), s. 62-66 ISBN 80-7343-110-6 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : environment * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/publications/books/

  15. Combined Optimisation of Indoor Environment and Energy Consumptionusing the Eco-factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    The paper presents a combined optimisation of the indoor environment and the energy consumption using the Eco-factor. It enables environmental assessment of different energy sources and techniques in the design and planning of energy efficient buildings with low environmental impact and desired i...

  16. PSI Scientific Report 2005. Volume 3: Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaepfer-Miller, J.; Gerber, B. (eds.)

    2006-04-15

    The overarching goal of energy research at PSI is to provide scientific nd technical solutions for the development of cost-effective, reliable, socially acceptable and environmentally sustainable energy. his research is done within two departments: General Energy and nuclear Energy and Safety, their research highlights from 2005 are documented in the following chapter. Major accomplishments of the past year include: a pioneer solar power-plant; improvements in catalysts and processes for the production of methane from wood; development of characterization tools to improve combustion processes; fuel cells, and batteries under operating conditions; carbon dioxide in forests; and a new dating method for glacial ice. Progress was made in determining the suitability of opalinus clay to store radioactive waste and how iodine exposure could be reduced under normal operation and in the event of a severe accident at a nuclear power-plant. Systems analysis research also included a report on the external environmental costs of electricity and whether the Swiss population are willing to pay for renewable energy. This report only highlights a selection of the work done at PSI in the past year; information about many other ongoing projects can be accessed through our website, (www.psi.ch). (author)

  17. PSI Scientific Report 2005. Volume 3: Energy and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overarching goal of energy research at PSI is to provide scientific nd technical solutions for the development of cost-effective, reliable, socially acceptable and environmentally sustainable energy. his research is done within two departments: General Energy and nuclear Energy and Safety, their research highlights from 2005 are documented in the following chapter. Major accomplishments of the past year include: a pioneer solar power-plant; improvements in catalysts and processes for the production of methane from wood; development of characterization tools to improve combustion processes; fuel cells, and batteries under operating conditions; carbon dioxide in forests; and a new dating method for glacial ice. Progress was made in determining the suitability of opalinus clay to store radioactive waste and how iodine exposure could be reduced under normal operation and in the event of a severe accident at a nuclear power-plant. Systems analysis research also included a report on the external environmental costs of electricity and whether the Swiss population are willing to pay for renewable energy. This report only highlights a selection of the work done at PSI in the past year; information about many other ongoing projects can be accessed through our website, (www.psi.ch). (author)

  18. Energy technologies and their impact on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book is a source of information for readers who wish to know all about the current status and the potentials of technological means available to achieve an improvement of the environmental situation in the energy sector. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of the environmental impacts of fossil, nuclear, or regenerative energy systems, and topical problems of air pollution abatement to prevent immission are discussed in detail. As the transport and traffic sector is a major contributor to air pollution, this sector is dealt with in a separate chapter that discusses the relevant energy aspects and environmental aspects, together with general and specific means that can be taken in the traffic sector in order to reduce emissions. The results of the analyses of the situation are summarized and form the basis of proposals made for new approaches and a restructurization of today's energy supply system, for example by enhanced utilization of regenerative energy sources. Concrete examples given in this context refer to the hydrogen technology among other possible alternatives. The book presents numerous tables and data collections which round up the survey of the current situation. (orig./HP)

  19. Energy and environment: The position of European industrial consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the position of the International Federation of Industrial Energy Consumers (IFIEC) Europe, the European arm of the IFIEC, on the issue of CO2 emissions and global warming. It has been claimed that the amount of carbon used in the industrial, transport and domestic sectors may be a major contributing factor to the atmospheric buildup of CO2. According to this thinking, a carbon tax has been proposed which would induce consumers to switch fuels or conserve energy, thereby reducing emissions on a global level. The IFIEC Europe does not believe that using taxes to resolve such environmental problems would be effective, nor does it hold that such a tax would have a real impact on the global reduction of CO2. Instead IFIEC Europe sees the need for further scientific research to find lasting cost effective solutions to the problem. The paper discusses the role of industry, energy use policies and a combined heat and power system as some steps towards alleviating environmental problems. IFIEC Europe sees the importance of technology transfer and co-operation between decision makers in dealing with the problems. Key adjustments in energy policies are suggested and the conclusion is drawn that until scientific research can more clearly describe the cause/effect phenomenon of CO2 emissions and in the absence of international agreements, IFIEC Europe believes energy conservation and efficiency to be effective and relatively low cost responses to the global warming problem. (author)

  20. Energy Consumption and Indoor Environment Predicted by a Combination of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Building Energy Performance Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2003-01-01

    An interconnection between a building energy performance simulation program and a Computational Fluid Dynamics program (CFD) for room air distribution is introduced for improvement of the predictions of both the energy consumption and the indoor environment.The article describes a calculation of the energy consumption in a large building where the building energy simulation program is modified by CFD predictions of the flow between three zones that are connected by pressure and buoyancy-drive...

  1. Annual review of energy and the environment: Volume 19, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with energy and environmental issues in the United States and Europe. Some articles focus on specific technologies, three within the energy supply system and three within the energy end-use system. The supply category includes articles on the international gas trade, the nuclear power system, and hydropower. Each is a demonstration of the tools of social science illuminating the economically feasible and the technologically responsible. The end-use category includes articles on the automobile, the air conditioner and refrigerator, and the solar pump or stove. Past policies and present realities of the relationships between current economics and environmental problems are presented. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  2. Energy-Environment interface: an economic model approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is separated in two parts. The first part has four chapters, from the first to the fourth one;the second part has four chapters, from the fifth to the eighth one. The first part describes an analysis of different areas about the subject: the energy sphere, the environmental sphere, the notion of external effects and environmental policy in terms of instruments. The second part is the analysis of the results of a model, aiming to determine the energy strategies in matter of electricity production and their investments to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. 181 refs

  3. Portable energy: autonomy and integration in the human environment; Energie portable: autonomie et integration dans l'environnement humain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Multon, F.; Delamarche, P. [Rennes-2 Universite, Lab. de Physiologie et de Biomecanique de l& #x27; Exercice Mulsculaire, UMR. APS, 35 (France); Lucchese, P. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dir. de la Recherche Technologique, Hydrogene et Pile a Combustible, 92 (France)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    This colloquium was motivated by the possibility to recover in our environment the energy produced by our movements, but also the heat emitted and the radiations received by the human body in order to supply the energy needs of portable electronic devices (telephones, micro-computers, watches, prostheses etc..). It tries to answer the different problems raised by the implementation of portable energy sources: the energy resources in the human environment, the physical and technological processes of energy production and storage, the electronic energy conversion and remote transmission means, the intelligent energy management, and the existing and potential applications of these processes. This document brings together 16 communications presented by searchers from various domains (biology, medicine, electrochemistry, computer science, mechanics, thermodynamics, electronics etc..) on the following topics: energy in the human body, possibilities of miniaturization of fuel cells, thermo-mechanical micro-generators, thermoelectric generation, solar cells and autonomy, micro-chargeable batteries, double-layer super-capacitors (principles and electrical behaviour), renewable energies in watches, electro-mechanical devices for the exploitation of human movements energy, trans-dermal power supply, new mechanical-aided systems for blood circulation, problems and their solutions related to portable telephones, low voltage and high efficiency power electronic systems for portable applications, remote energy transmission, intelligent energy management (equipments and softwares), electromagnetic environments and health. (J.S.)

  4. Food, energy and the environment from a Swedish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National sector responsibility legislation places specific obligations on Swedish sector authorities to handle environmental issues within their sector. Because of this responsibility, there is a need to map environmental impacts from sectors and to identify key problems and strategies to reduce impacts in each sector. Agriculture and energy are two sectors causing severe environmental impacts, and these are therefore interesting as case studies. Employing a systems perspective when exploring impacts and options for their reduction ensures that problems are not simply shifted in time or space or between problems, but are considered in a holistic manner. Using this perspective, indirect effects such as changes upstream or downstream of the production chain, as well as among consumers, can be considered when seeking strategies to reduce environmental impacts in a sector. A method to investigate environmental impacts from a sector was developed and tested in the cases of agriculture and energy (Papers I and II). The method was based on environmentally extended Input-Output Analysis (IOA) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). IOA-data from Swedish Environmental Accounts were used as the starting point for the inventory. Such data provide information on direct and indirect impacts from the sector. To capture those aspects not included in the Environmental Accounts, the Swedish Environmental Quality Objectives were subsequently used as a checklist, and information on the missing aspects was obtained from literature. For further processing of the data, characterisation and weighting methods from LCA methodology were used to identify hotspots, i.e. the most important problems. The results showed that biodiversity, greenhouse effect, eutrophication, use of non-renewable resources and toxicity were potential hotspots in the agriculture sector. In the energy sector, the hotspots were air quality, greenhouse effect, use of non-renewable resources and toxicity. Analysis of sector

  5. Balancing energy and the environment: the case of geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellickson, P.L.; Brewer, S.

    1978-06-01

    The results of part of a Rand study on the federal role in resolving environmental issues arising out of the implementation of energy projects are reported. The projects discussed are two geothermal programs in California: the steam resource development at The Geysers (Lake and Sonoma counties) in northern California, and the wet brine development in the Imperial Valley in southern California.

  6. Environment and future of the nuclear energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the problem of the renewal of the French electro-nuclear park with respect to the energetic, economical, environmental, political and ethical aspects. The theoretical framework chosen for this analysis is the one of sustainable development because of the uncertainty, irreversibility and equity aspects characterizing this choice. Thus, this work evaluates the capacity of the nuclear technology to ensure the simultaneous reproduction of the economical sphere, of the human sphere and of the biosphere. The past, present and future energy situation of France is analyzed in the first chapter together with the characteristics of the nuclear choice. In the second chapter, the analysis of the different possible energy options leads to the conclusion that the nuclear option remains the most suitable for a conciliation between economy and ecology, but that a diversification of the reactor technologies is necessary to take advantage of the efficiency of each technology with respect to its use. The nuclear choice has the advantage to limit the arbitration between the economical, ecological, political and human stakes. The realization of the diversification project supposes to leave opened all energy options and to be prepared to the replacement of the present day power plants by 2010-2020. The success of this policy will depend on the risk mastery and information efforts that public authorities and nuclear industry actors will carry on to avoid any social opposition with respect to nuclear energy. (J.S.)

  7. Energy, environment leaders to speak at Virginia Tech

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Six key national energy and environmental policy leaders from government and business--including Robert F. Kennedy Jr. and James R. Schlesinger--will speak at Virginia Tech this spring as part of a broader university initiative to foster collective participation from faculty, staff, students, and the community, in addressing the environmental challenges of the region, nation, and world.

  8. Biodiversity, energy and environment. A contribution from national productive sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work are reported the discussions in the ambit of national italian energy and environmental conference and the general information indicated in the Convection on biological diversity. The recommendations of UE are addressed to biological diversity conservation, sustainable use of living resources

  9. Energy, environment, and policy choices: Summer institutes for science and social studies educators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marek, E.A.; Chiodo, J.J.; Gerber, B.L.

    1997-06-01

    The Center for Energy Education (CEE) is a partnership linking the University of Oklahoma, Close Up Foundation and Department of Energy. Based upon the theme of energy, environment and public policy, the CEE`s main purposes are to: (1) educate teachers on energy sources, environmental issues and decisionmaking choices regarding public policy; (2) develop interdisciplinary curricula that are interactive in nature (see attachments); (3) disseminate energy education curricula; (4) serve as a resource center for a wide variety of energy education materials; (5) provide a national support system for teachers in energy education; and (6) conduct research in energy education. The CEE conducted its first two-week experimentially-based program for educators during the summer of 1993. Beginning at the University of Oklahoma, 57 teachers from across the country examined concepts and issues related to energy and environment, and how the interdependence of energy and environment significantly influences daily life. During the second week of the institute, participants went to Washington, D.C. to examine the processes used by government officials to make critical decisions involving interrelationships among energy, environment and public policy. Similar institutes were conducted during the summers of 1994 and 1995 resulting in nearly 160 science and social studies educators who had participated in the CEE programs. Collectively the participants represented 36 states, the Pacific Territories, Puerto Rico, and Japan.

  10. Department of Energy Support for Operations of the WMO/GAW Quality Control/Science Activity Center for the Americas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, B. B.

    2003-11-13

    As a formal activity of the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch, to provide, through agency collaboration, a center of excellence in the United States that would impose quality assurance techniques on data collected by national air and precipitation quality networks operating in the Americas (north, south, and central).

  11. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 9: Builders Challenge Guide to 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; Love, Pat M.

    2009-10-23

    This best practices guide is the ninth in a series of guides for builders produced by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America Program. This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct homes that are among the most energy-efficient available, while addressing issues such as building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the hot-dry and mixed-dry climates can achieve homes that have whole house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark (a home built to mid-1990s building practices roughly equivalent to the 1993 Model Energy Code) with no added overall costs for consumers. These best practices are based on the results of research and demonstration projects conducted by Building America’s research teams. The guide includes information for managers, designers, marketers, site supervisors, and subcontractors, as well as case studies of builders who are successfully building homes that cut energy use by 40% in the hot-dry and mixed-dry climates.

  12. Comparative assessment of health environment and climate change from coal and nuclear energy-chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the health, environment impact and climate change from coal and nuclear energy-chain in China. The health impact from nuclear energy-chain is less than 3-4 Orders from coal energy chain. The radiological impact from nuclear energy chain is also less than 1-2 orders. the release airborne effluents from coal energy chain have become main sources of air pollution. The development of nuclear energy is one of the real way to decrease pollution, of cause, it is important to increase the efficiency of energy conversion and to decrease the release effluents

  13. Method for design of low-energy type houses based on simulations of indoor environment and energy use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to reduce energy consumption in buildings and in general improve energy efficiency in the building sector in Denmark, as in the rest of the EU. Energy savings, however, should go hand in hand with providing a healthy and comfortable indoor environment. So, the aim of this thesis is...... to contribute to the development of Danish low-energy residential buildings with good indoor environment. To reach the target of a fossil-free energy supply in Denmark by 2050, both new building design and renovation of existing buildings to meet future energy requirements need to be taken into...... account. To encourage the development of appropriate designs for new low-energy buildings and façade renovation of existing buildings, improved knowledge is needed on window design. The research consisted of two parts. First in relation to window design in a typical Danish single-family house constructed...

  14. Marine-hydrokinetic energy and the environment: Observations, modeling, and basic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Guala, Michele; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2012-03-01

    Research at the Interface of Marine Hydrokinetic Energy and the Environment: A Workshop; Minneapolis, Minnesota, 5-7 October 2011 Marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy harvesting technologies convert the kinetic energy of waves and water currents into power to generate electricity. Although these technologies are in early stages of development compared to other renewable technologies, such as solar and wind energy, they offer electricity consumers situated near coastlines or inland rivers an alternative energy technology that can help meet renewable portfolio standards. However, the potential environmental impacts of MHK energy are far from well understood, both in general principles and in site-specific cases. As pressure for new MHK energy licenses builds, accelerated research in providing the scientific understanding of harnessing the natural power of water for renewable energy at a competitive cost and without harming the environment becomes a priority.

  15. Observation of energy fluxes and micrometeorological environment variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulation study of evapotranspiration needs observation data of the corresponding land and environmental. Using models, hourly variation or even more rapidly evapotranspiration variation can be simulated. The simulation results should be verified and compared with observation data, to modify and improve the models reliability. The rapid variation of latent and sensible heat flux can be provided, most directly, using Eddy-correlation system. Beside this method of measurement, it is also important to measure standard atmospheric variables such as temperature, humidity, and wind velocity, and also solar radiation as the source of energy. These data can be used to evaluate the evapotranspiration using indirect methods of Penman-Monteith and Bowen ratio. The observation was conducted at Kyushu University Experimental Farm during summer and early of autumn year 2003. The land conditions chosen for this research were grass field, bare field and paddy field Observation results show the differences of environmental variables and energy fluxes on each land condition

  16. Perspectives in nuclear power, energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment in informing the public on the pros and cons of nuclear power was carried out in Sweden during the autumn and winter of 1974. Study groups were arranged in collaboration with various organisations involved in adult education. The Ministry for Industry provided the background material, consisting of various official publications and a literature list, and general information. Almost 100,000 persons participated in these study circles. Neither protagonists or antagonists of nuclear power were satisfied with the material provided. A subjective conclusion is that the public opinion requires continued economic growth and increased consumption of energy, though conservation is to be strived for. There are considerable doubts regarding nuclear energy and a majority are probably opposed, but there is also opposition to dependence on imported fuel. Further hydroelectric construction would be accepted but there is scepsis regarding wind, solar and geothermal power. (JIW)

  17. Project of recommendations on energy choices compatible with environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published by one of the commissions set into place by the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' in France this document states a set of recommendations for the reduction of greenhouse gas (and particularly CO2) emissions within the frame of the struggle against global warming. This objective is here addressed by recommending practices enabling energy savings. On a short and middle term (that is until 2030) a first set of recommendations is formulated for the building sector (development of environmental standards, of quality standards, of the use of solar energy), the transport sector (development of bio-fuels, of hybrid motor technology), the industry sector, and the electricity sector (consumption, production, and storage). A second set of recommendations is aimed at preparing the following period (2030-2050) and is related to the development of CO2 capture and sequestration technologies, of fourth generation nuclear reactors, and the use of hydrogen

  18. Energy and the new politics of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevent pollution, with clean technologies. These may be words befitting an industry with wastes affected by international laws such as the London Dumping Convention, but what about the wastes of the energy business? The LDC has adopted the precautionary principle. Where global warming is concerned - if the world's climate scientists are to be believed - adopting the precautionary principle would require a global cut in anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions of more than 60%. The LDC intends to outlaw, globally, all dumping of industrial waste at sea by 1995. Who can imagine a world in which the Global Climate Convention (for which negotiations begin in February) could or would countenance outlawing, globally, all dumping of energy-related waste in the atmosphere by 1995 (author)

  19. Study on modeling of Energy-Economy-Environment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seung Jin [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-07-01

    This study analyzed the effect of carbon dioxide reduction policy generated by energy use by developing a new operation general equilibrium model. This model is a multi sector successive dynamic model, designed to be able to forecast economic variables as well as GDP, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emission amount until 2030 for every 5 years. Using this model, it analyzed three greenhouse gas reduction policy scenarios, the introduction of world single carbon tax, the setting up limit of greenhouse gas discharge, and the introduction of international discharge permit trading system. It analyzes that it gives a heavy burden to Korean economy when Korean government implements the greenhouse gas reduction policy with only domestic policy instrument. Therefore it is considered that it is required to reduce greenhouse gas cost-effectively by using Kyoto Protocol actively, such as international permit trading, co-implementation, and clean development system, when greenhouse gas reduction gives a heavy burden. Moreover, a policy that is dependent only on price mechanism, such as carbon tax or permit trading, to reduce greenhouse gas requires a very high cost and has a limitation. Therefore, to relieve some burden on economy requires to implement non-price mechanism simultaneously such as energy technology development and restructuring on industry and transportation system. (author). 70 refs., 11 figs., 34 tabs.

  20. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-12-31

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''.

  1. Proceedings of the Standing Senate committee on Energy, the Environment and Natural Resources. Issue no.13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Second Proceedings on: Study on the policy options available to the government to achieve the objective of containing emissions associated with energy production and use in Canada with a view to improving the environment and to make recommendations thereon

  2. Method for integrated design of low energy buildings with high quality indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen

    Energy performance and indoor environment have due to new increased regulatory demands become decisive design parameters in the building design process. In order to comply with the increased regulatory demands, we present an integrated design method which argues that the design of buildings must ...... become the preferred method for integrated design of low energy buildings with high quality indoor environment.......Energy performance and indoor environment have due to new increased regulatory demands become decisive design parameters in the building design process. In order to comply with the increased regulatory demands, we present an integrated design method which argues that the design of buildings must...... start on room level rather than total building level. The proposed method starts with the establishment of design goals, including goals regarding energy performance and indoor environment, followed by a building physical analysis of performance-decisive parameters. This analysis is used to establish a...

  3. Considerations for a regional energy - environment game. [Development and application of methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, J; Saaty, T; Blair, P; Ma, F; Ojalvo, S; Rahbar, F; Shimamoto, G

    1975-06-30

    The elements and structure of a small-scale regional energy-environment game are presented, with special emphasis on the definition of appropriate actors and state variables as well as characterization of the target region for which the game is designed. The results of this Phase I game will be used to aid the design of components in a more comprehensive game (Phase II) that can be used for investigating various energy-environment scenarios in a regional assessment study program. The principal results that will be used in the Phase II effort are: (1) definition of the target region; (2) development of reference scenarios describing energy-environment trends and mechanisms within the target region; (3) characterization of principal actors involved in the regional energy - environment system; and (4) definition of a set of factors or state variables that reflect the state of that system. (auth)

  4. SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM: CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1980-10-01

    controller and to evaluate commercially available units. Research is continuing on 'passive' approaches to solar heating and cooling where careful considerations of architectural design, construction materials, and the environment are used to moderate a building's interior climate. Computer models of passive concepts are being developed in a collaborative project with Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. These models will be incorporated into public domain building energy analysis computer programs to be used in systems studies and in the design of commercial buildings on a case study basis. The investigation of specific passive cooling methods is an ongoing project; for example, a process is being studied in which heat storage material would be cooled by radiation to the night sky, then provide 'coolness' to the building. The laboratory personnel involved in the solar cooling, controls, and passive projects are also providing technical support to the Solar Heating and Cooling Research and Development Branch of DOE in developing program plans, evaluating proposals, and making technical reviews of projects at other institutions and in industry. Low grade heat is a widespread energy resource that could make a significant contribution to energy needs if economical methods can be developed for converting it to useful work. Investigations continued this year on the feasibility of using the 'shape-memory' alloy, Nitinol, as a basis for constructing heat engines that could operate from energy sources such as solar heated water, industrial waste heat, geothermal brines, and ocean thermal gradients. Several projects are investigating longer-term possibilities for utilizing solar energy. One project involves the development of a new type of solar thermal receiver that would be placed at the focus of a central receiver system or a parabolic dish. The conversion of the concentrated sunlight to thermal energy would be accomplished by the absorption of the

  5. Considering the effects of traditional sustainable architecture on environment and saving energy in Semnan?

    OpenAIRE

    FARAJIRAD, Abdalreza; RAJABI, Azita; MESGARIAN, Hooman

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Not observing the balance of the architecture with the environment and nature in today’s architecture and city building causes some unpleasant results such as pollution of the environment, reduction of natural resources, climate changes and increasing reduction of energy resources. Paying attention to the climate conditions, human life environment ,introducing the different aspects of climate in architecture and building different urban spaces, passages, neighborhoods and buildings ...

  6. Intelligent Energy Optimization for User Intelligible Goals in Smart Home Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Corno, Fulvio; Razzak, Faisal

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent management of energy consumption is one of the key issues for future energy distribution systems, smart buildings, and consumer appliances. The problem can be tackled both from the point of view of the utility provider, with the intelligence embedded in the smart grid, or from the point of view of the consumer, thanks to suitable local energy management systems (EMS). Conserving energy, however, should respect the user requirements regarding the desired state of the environment, t...

  7. Building Environment Analysis Based on Temperature and Humidity for Smart Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kwang-Ho Won; Jaeseok Yun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) control strategy as part of the smart energy system that can balance occupant comfort against building energy consumption using ubiquitous sensing and machine learning technology. We have developed ZigBee-based wireless sensor nodes and collected realistic temperature and humidity data during one month from a laboratory environment. With the collected data, we have established a building environment model using ...

  8. It is time to re-think on environment, energy and economics (E3)

    OpenAIRE

    Yallwe, Alem Hagos; Buscemi, Antonino

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The paper summarized some theories and facts related to Environment, Energy and Economics. This work paper provides some highlights about the theoretical issues and facts regarding to environmental pollutions and its effect on economy and the importance of relying on other source energy to fulfil the increasing demand of power or electricity. Moreover, the paper also discussed by making comparison between industrialized and developing countries about their effect on environment ...

  9. Proactive energy - environment policy strategies: a role for input - output analysis?

    OpenAIRE

    P J G Pearson

    1989-01-01

    This paper contains a consideration of the recent arguments in favour of adopting 'anticipate and prevent' or 'proactive' energy - environment policy strategies, in place of the 'reactive' strategies that are a feature of many current approaches to policymaking in this area. The roles that energy - environment modelling might play in investigating alternative scenarios and proactive policy strategies are then examined. The focus is on the advantages and disadvantages of using input - output a...

  10. Environment, the earth, ocean, energy resource, nuclear, city, construction and civil engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with Korean future technology like environment, the earth, ocean, energy, resource, nuclear, city, construction and civil engineering, which mentions the purpose of investigation, system of investigation, summary of investigation, object of research, important research and development field, prediction on realizable period, propel method of research and development, policy, characteristic of respondent, future technology table for major projects, result of the investigation by field : Environment, the earth, ocean, energy resource, nuclear, city, construction and civil engineering.

  11. Social science literature on the environment: review and prospects for energy studies. A preliminary literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, P.

    1975-01-01

    Much of the social science literature on environment is of recent origin and represents the response of the social science research community to a complex societal problem in which technology is a major factor. Energy represents another such problem to which the social science research community is now turning its attention. Because energy problems and environment problems have some similarities and because energy-conversion processes have large effects on the environment, a review of the social science literature on environment was undertaken. The purposes of this review are as follows: (1) to study the possible utility in energy research of some of the concepts developed in social science research on the environment; (2) to study the possible utility in energy research of some of the methodologies utilized in social science research on the environment; and (3) to study the extent to which the results of social science research on the environment have contributed to the development of policy. The first two items above receive major attention in this preliminary literature survey. 50 references.

  12. The environment and energy sustainable world the role of renew able

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy is an essential element for all industrial and socio-economic development. About 75% of the world energy supplies come from fossils fuels i.e. coal, gas and oil. The world has limited reserves and these are being depleted fast. The ways these are used are unsustainable. The environment pollution caused by their combustion is a great threat for the lives of inhabitants on this earth. The energy and environment is the biggest issue of present time. Strict restrictions on their use are bound to come in the near future. Renewable energy technologies can provide the solution to this problem of growing demand of energy with having no impact on the environment. A number of such energy sources are becoming progressively compatible and can playa vital role in providing the social services and improving the living conditions of the people in remote areas where even the basic facilities are not available. Worldwide efforts are being made to promote these energy technologies. Pakistan is energy deficit country and largely depends on import of oil. Under the present scenario of energy pattern, the renewable energy sources are becoming more important. However, Pakistan so far, has shown low pace in the development and implementation of renewable energy applications, despite the fact that Pakistan renewable energy resources base is quite extensive. (author)

  13. Energy and the environment: a review of the main features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Science and technology have so far failed to discover practicable methods of tapping, on a large scale, the almost limitless supplies of energy in the form of solar radiation and its geophysical effects, the hot rocks inside the earth, and the thermonuclear potential of the hydrogen in the oceans. The problem with the natural energy sources is primarily an economic one. Despite its immense technical difficulties, thermonuclear fusion power seems a better long-term prospect. Biological methods of capturing solar energy, through photosynthesis, are not very promising. To meet this country's needs for petrol and gas from methane made from wood, about half the land area would have to be covered with coniferous forests. Fossil oil and gas supplies are unlikely to meet world needs for more than about 30 years longer. Coal supplies are much more plentiful and there is a good case for a strong technical effort on the desulphurisation of coal, to make it environmentally more acceptable, and on the conversion of coal to high-grade oil and gas. There is not enough uranium to support a world programme of thermal neutron reactors for more than about 20 years. The fast breeder reactor can overcome this problem, but the large-scale usage of these, in the next century, will aggravate the already deep anxieties about the risks to Society from radioactivity and other nuclear hazards. It is thus important to press forward strongly with programmes of fusion nuclear power, which would be more acceptable socially and environmentally. Later in the next century, the effects of man's sctivities on the world's climate may become important. It is already time to begin now to investigate these scientifically. (author)

  14. Distributed Energy Systems in the Built Environment - European Legal Framework on Distributed Energy Systems in the Built Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Pront-van Bommel, S.; Bregman, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to outline the stimuli provided by European law for promoting integrated planning of distributed renewable energy installations on the one hand and its limitations thereof on the other hand, also with regard to the role of local governments.

  15. Nuclear options in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of the Treaty of Tlatelolco, 1967, providing for the designation of Latin America as a Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (NWFZ); additional protocols attached to the Treaty are available for signature by States outside the region. The Treaty is administered by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (OPANAL). Reference is made to its latest meeting, held in May 1983. The present paper also discusses the following: Non-Proliferation Treaty (with references to safeguards agreements concluded between each State and the IAEA); nuclear suppliers' group; peaceful nuclear explosions; nuclear energy programmes in Latin America. (U.K.)

  16. Nuclear energy and environment: legal and institutional aspects in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental control and sanitary surveillance of nuclear and radiological activities are incumbent upon the Federal Union, the States, Federal District and the Municipalities in Brazil. The performance thereof falls under the Environmental National System (SISNAMA) and the Unified Health System (SUS) respectively. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) controls the radiation protection and nuclear safety aspects of those activities. This paper analyses the division of competency on nuclear energy control as well as the necessity of harmonising the nuclear licensing proceedings with the environmental licensing proceedings, i.e., the ''Environmental Impact Assessment'' (EIA) and its respective ''Report on Environmental Impact'' (RIMA) provided for in the new Federal Brazilian Constitution. Public participation in the environmental control is also discussed as well as the constitutional and legal requirements for environmental protection applicable specifically to nuclear power plants. In the specific case of the final disposal repository for the radioactive waste generated from the radiological accident in Goiania, the procedures for its licensing are reported. (author)

  17. A guide to geothermal energy and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagel, Alyssa; Bates, Diana; Gawell, Karl

    2005-04-22

    Geothermal energy, defined as heat from the Earth, is a statute-recognized renewable resource. The first U.S. geothermal power plant, opened at The Geysers in California in 1960, continues to operate successfully. The United States, as the world's largest producer of geothermal electricity, generates an average of 15 billion kilowatt hours of power per year, comparable to burning close to 25 million barrels of oil or 6 million short tons of coal per year. Geothermal has a higher capacity factor (a measure of the amount of real time during which a facility is used) than many other power sources. Unlike wind and solar resources, which are more dependent upon weather fluctuations and climate changes, geothermal resources are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. While the carrier medium for geothermal electricity (water) must be properly managed, the source of geothermal energy, the Earth's heat, will be available indefinitely. A geothermal resource assessment shows that nine western states together have the potential to provide over 20 percent of national electricity needs. Although geothermal power plants, concentrated in the West, provide the third largest domestic source of renewable electricity after hydropower and biomass, they currently produce less than one percent of total U.S. electricity.

  18. Electrical energy alternatives and their effect on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US has alternated its favored electrical energy sources several times over the past fifty years. It may soon change course again. Fifty years ago, the favored source was hydroelectric power. Electricity demand at the time was relatively small in comparison to today. Many rivers provided excellent, economical sites. In the 1950s, rapid growth in demand shifted interest to gas and oil because they were relatively clean, cheap, and easily transportable. A growing dependency on foreign oil led to the oil embargo and the rapid increase of prices in the 1970s. Use of oil was then discouraged by cost and federal regulation. Natural gas prices rose with oil prices, and federal regulations multiplied. Coal and uranium emerged as the favored fuels. However, nuclear power then came into disfavor in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s. Emphasis on coal increased. The need for short construction schedules and reduced atmospheric emissions has since returned the emphasis to natural gas. Now pollution concerns are calling all fossil fuels into question. Hydroelectric sites are unavailable. Oil supplies are limited and foreign sourced. Coal is recognized as a major source of pollution. Natural gas is costly and limited. Renewable energy sources are incapable of meeting needs. And nuclear power safety and waste disposal issues still hinder its acceptance. So, where does the US go from here?

  19. Environmental challenges and opportunities of the evolving North American electricity market : Assessing barriers and opportunities for renewable energy in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A substantial contribution to the electricity supply of North America can be made by renewable energy. Its uses range from transport fuels based on biomass, to space and hot water heating in buildings and industry. Two possible options are distributed forms of renewable energy and central large-scale technology. Significant employment opportunities could be created from the manufacturing, installation and maintenance of renewable technology. In Mexico, the United States and Canada, rural economic development could be enhanced through the use of wind and biomass fuels. Every three years between 1994 and 2001, wind power installations doubled, and a comparable rate was achieved for the period 1996 to 2001 in the case of photovoltaic shipments. North America's share of this accelerating market in renewable energy sources is declining. To rectify the situation, the author indicated that several issues need to be addressed in all three countries and the trading rules in place under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) need to be reconciled. Several recommendations were made concerning topics as varied as general policy principles to promote renewable technology, establishment of incentives for renewables, renewable electricity, biomass fuels, economic and social policies, research and development and purchasing. 30 refs

  20. Energy and environment annual report 1974. [Environmental Research programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumstein, C. (ed.)

    1974-01-01

    Research in the Division's environmental science program includes air pollution, water pollution, and the effects of pollutants on man and natural ecosystems. Work has focused on the chemistry and physics of particle surfaces. Using the technique of electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), surface reactions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds have been studied, and results include the identification of new chemical forms of nitrogen on particle surfaces and evidence for the importance of particle surfaces in the catalysis of sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid. The Division's work in water pollution has been devoted to the study of trace metals in the estuarine environment, especially in San Francisco Bay. Studies on the effect of dredging operations on trace metals in the Mare Island ship channel and on the distribution of cadmium in Bay sediments have been performed. Research has also been conducted on the distribution of trace elements between bound states on suspended particles and in solution in Bay waters. Research is being conducted on a variety of problems relating to effects of pollutants. Biological studies seeking to discover effects of specific environmental insults such as oxidants at the cellular level have been done, and epidemiological studies have been initiated on the impacts of trace metals on human health. Theoretical studies in an attempt to develop a basis for assessing the stability of ecological systems are also being undertaken.

  1. Changes in Surface Wind Speed over North America from CMIP5 Model Projections and Implications for Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujay Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The centennial trends in the surface wind speed over North America are deduced from global climate model simulations in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project—Phase 5 (CMIP5 archive. Using the 21st century simulations under the RCP 8.5 scenario of greenhouse gas emissions, 5–10 percent increases per century in the 10 m wind speed are found over Central and East-Central United States, the Californian Coast, and the South and East Coasts of the USA in winter. In summer, climate models projected decreases in the wind speed ranging from 5 to 10 percent per century over the same coastal regions. These projected changes in the surface wind speed are moderate and imply that the current estimate of wind power potential for North America based on present-day climatology will not be significantly changed by the greenhouse gas forcing in the coming decades.

  2. Department of Energy LLW disposal; adapting to a changing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's philosophy is evolving to meet the challenge of providing safe and cost-effective LLW management. The DOE expects to use a system approach by obtaining consensus on performance requirements with all of the involved regulatory agencies and by applying these performance requirements to the best available site. Engineered features will be added either through the stabilization of the waste or site improvements as required to meet the performance requirements. Necessary waste stabilization will be incorporated into the waste acceptance criteria relieving the operator from making waste treatment decisions on a strict cost-effectiveness basis. The initial analysis to determine a configuration which meets minimum performance requirements will also serve as the baseline for additional analyses to meet the ALARA requirements

  3. Energy, environment and sustainable development - tough decisions for a democracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossin, A.D.

    1994-12-31

    Electricity is recognized to be essential to attaining even minimum modem levels of human welfare in any country. However, where electricity is available, the public shows little concern about where it comes from or what it takes to make sure supply continues to be adequate. In the next century, the world will have to face the difficult decision about the long-term use of plutonium as fuel, and deal with its implications for nonproliferation. What the United States does on this issue will affect all nations, and particularly those around the Pacific Basin. How do responsible leaders set rational priorities in a democracy, when every issue has its vocal advocates and the news media can reach every household? If democracies are to avoid the downside risks of energy shortages, leadership will have to emerge that has the courage to tell the people the truth. That means providing scientific facts and explanations in terms that people can understand.

  4. Solar cells: An environment-benign energy source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attention is paid to a study on the environmental aspects of solar cell production techniques and the possibility of recycling solar cell materials. In the study the following types of solar cell modules are dealt with: CdTe and CuInSe2, amorphous silicon, crystalline silicon, and GaAs. It appears that silicon solar cells have minor environmental effects and are controllable. However, attention should be paid to the energy consumption and the use of etching and purification materials during the production of solar cells, and the emission of heavy metals from f.e. CdTe/CIS solar cells during and after usage. Without effective recycling enough supplies of indium, selenium and tellurium cannot be guaranteed. 3 figs., 1 ill

  5. Energy and environment market conditions in Mexico. Business focus series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides: (1) an overview of the Mexican economy and the energy and environmental sectors; (2) specific market assessments of the oil and gas sector, the electric power sector, the industrial air pollution control sector, and the municipal and industrial water pollution control sector; and (3) an analysis of the Mexican business climate and procedures. Each of the sectors is projected to show significant growth over the next several years. The Mexican government has taken many positive steps to improve the country's business climate, including trade and foreign exchange liberalization, foreign investment incentives, and strengthened intellectual property regulation. The North American Free Trade Agreement is expected to further improve the business climate in Mexico

  6. Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-14

    A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

  7. Building Environment Analysis Based on Temperature and Humidity for Smart Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ho Won

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning control strategy as part of the smart energy system that can balance occupant comfort against building energy consumption using ubiquitous sensing and machine learning technology. We have developed ZigBee-based wireless sensor nodes and collected realistic temperature and humidity data during one month from a laboratory environment. With the collected data, we have established a building environment model using machine learning algorithms, which can be used to assess occupant comfort level. We expect the proposed HVAC control strategy will be able to provide occupants with a consistently comfortable working or home environment.

  8. Building Environment Analysis based on Temperature and Humidity for Smart Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jaeseok; Won, Kwang-Ho

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) control strategy as part of the smart energy system that can balance occupant comfort against building energy consumption using ubiquitous sensing and machine learning technology. We have developed ZigBee-based wireless sensor nodes and collected realistic temperature and humidity data during one month from a laboratory environment. With the collected data, we have established a building environment model using machine learning algorithms, which can be used to assess occupant comfort level. We expect the proposed HVAC control strategy will be able to provide occupants with a consistently comfortable working or home environment. PMID:23202004

  9. Environmental programs of the Department of Energy and Environment annual highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental Sciences is one of the four areas comprising the Department of Energy and Environment at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It carries out a wide range of activities in atmospheric sciences, environmental chemistry, oceanographic sciences, and land and freshwater environmental sciences. In general, these programs are concerned with identification and measurement of pollutants introduced into the environment by energy-related activities and the evaluation and prediction of the effects or potential effects of these pollutants on the environment. This highlights report for Environmental Programs covers the year 1978 and describes the objectives and funding levels of each of the programs, major accomplishments during the year, planned future activities, and current publications

  10. Environmental programs of the Department of Energy and Environment annual highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manowitz, B

    1978-12-01

    Environmental Sciences is one of the four areas comprising the Department of Energy and Environment at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It carries out a wide range of activities in atmospheric sciences, environmental chemistry, oceanographic sciences, and land and freshwater environmental sciences. In general, these programs are concerned with identification and measurement of pollutants introduced into the environment by energy-related activities and the evaluation and prediction of the effects or potential effects of these pollutants on the environment. This highlights report for Environmental Programs covers the year 1978 and describes the objectives and funding levels of each of the programs, major accomplishments during the year, planned future activities, and current publications.

  11. Integrating energy and environment. Analytical framework and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the problems of the electricity sector in the developing world differ among regions and countries, and while environmental priorities differ between the industrialized and the developing world, it is clear that the expected growth of electricity generation will present a variety of common problems. Consequently, there is a need for a comprehensive and integrated conceptual framework for analysis and decision making that will enable policy makers to identify options which lead to improvements in all relevant indices of sustainable development whenever possible, and to make trade-offs among them where necessary. Typically, the application of project level environmental valuation techniques at the power system planning level is extremely difficult owing to intricacies in the valuation of certain social and ecological impacts. In addition, the valuation techniques used, such as contingent valuation, are more appropriate at the micro-level and less effective in situations dealing with a potentially large number of technology, site and mitigation options. Use of MCA, as opposed to cost-benefit analysis, offers policy makers an alternative when progress made towards multiple planning objectives cannot be measured in terms of a single criterion such as monetary value. A practical case study involving MCA is used to demonstrate successfully how environmental considerations may be incorporated into power system planning in Sri Lanka. Finally, it is becoming evident that dealing with energy related environmental and social issues, especially at the global level, will require more co-operation between industrialized and developing countries. Given the resource constraints of developing countries, enhanced financial and technological resource flows from the industrialized world are crucial if the prospects for sustainable energy development are to be realized on a global scale. 14 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Combining a survey approach and energy and indoor environment auditing in historic buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohdin, Patrik; Dalewski, Mariusz; Moshfegh, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – This paper presents an approach where a survey study is combined with energy and indoor environment auditing in the built environment. The combination of methods presented in this paper is one way to obtain a wider perspective on the indoor environment and energy use and also let the...... research project. Design/methodology/approach – A combination of energy and indoor environment auditing and standardized occupant surveys. Findings – The main findings in the paper are related to the good agreement between results from standardized occupant surveys and physical measurements. The...... possibility to triangulate problems related to poor indoor conditions was shown to be one main advantage of the combined methodology presented in the paper. A standardized survey approach also allows benchmarking, in this case with two groups representing “average” buildings as well as a group representing...

  13. Essays on energy, equity, and the environment in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Debra Kim

    1999-11-01

    The essays in this dissertation explore different environmental and public policy issues relevant to developing countries. Essay I examines household-level survey responses to the question "How willing would you be to pay somewhat higher taxes to the government if you knew the money would be spent to protect the environment and prevent land, water and air pollution?" Specifically, for twelve developing and three developed countries included in the survey, the empirical relationships among willingness to pay for environmental quality, relative household income and national income are investigated. The results indicate that when the effects of household and national income are combined, households with below-average income in low-income countries are less willing to pay for environmental protection than those with above-average income in high-income countries. Furthermore, willingness to pay for environmental protection increases more significantly with relative household income than with national income. Essay II uses data from urban Bolivia to study the determinants of household fuel choice, an important link between deforestation and indoor air pollution in developing countries. In particular, the effects of fixed fuel costs, income growth, and female earned income on household fuel choice are examined. The results imply that reduction in firewood use in developing countries is not likely to occur simply as the result of income growth. The essay discusses possible policy implications based on the results that fixed fuel costs appear to be a deterrent to switching to a cleaner fuel and households with female earned income seem less likely to use firewood than other households. Essay III analyzes the equity implications of the elimination of fuel subsidies in the 1985 Bolivian economic reforms. An analysis of the direct static burden shows that while the elimination of gasoline subsidies was progressively distributed, the elimination of LPG and kerosene subsidies

  14. Integrated environment and energy management; Integreret miljoe- og energiledelse - erfaringer fra 11 virksomheder - Baggrundsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pommer, Kirsten [Teknologisk Inst., Taastrup (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    The report collects experiences from 11 companies from different sectors. The companies have during the past few years been working with integration of environment and energy management. the report forms background for the booklet 'Spar penge pae miljoe og energi - slae to fluer med et smaek'. (BA)

  15. The Delicate Balance: An Energy and the Environment Chemistry Module. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Glen; Keifer, William; Sandoval, Amado

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide science teachers with the necessary guidance and suggestions for teaching about energy and the environment. In this book, energy is discussed as one aspect of a general problem in environmental chemistry. The material in this book can be integrated with the other modules in a sequence that helps students…

  16. CFD Applications in Energy and Environment Sectors: Volume 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi and Hashim R. Abdol Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chapter 1: Simulation and Modelling of Oxygen Coal Combustion with Flue Gas Recirculation. Chaouki Ghenai Chapter 2: The Choice of the Best Air Distribution Concept in Air-Conditioned Auditorium by Means of CFD Numerical Prediction. Barbara Lipska, Piotr Koper Chapter 3: CFD Applications in Natural Ventilation of Buildings and Air Quality Dispersion. N. Nikolopoulos, A. Nikolopoulos, I. Papadakis, K.-S. P. Nikas Chapter 4: CFD Modeling of Air Pollutant Transport and Dispersion. Labovský Juraj, Jelemenský Ľudovít Chapter 5: CFD Modeling of Multiphase Flow in Environmental Engineering. Masroor Mohajerani, Mehrab Mehrvar, Farhad Ein-Mozaffari Chapter 6: CFD Study on the Roles of Trees on Airflow and Pollutant Dispersion within Urban Street Canyons. Salim Mohamed Salim, Andrew Chan, Riccardo Buccolieri, Silvana Di Sabatino Chapter 7: Energy Efficiency and Air Quality in Hospitals Design. Essam E. Khalil Chapter 8: Application of CFD in Pulverized Fuel Combustion. M. Tayyeb Javed, Tahira Sultana Chapter 9: A Heat Transfer Model For Fluids Based on Cellular Automaton Application to an Air Conditioning of A Building. Andrés Saiz Martínez Chapter 10: CFD Application in Power Plants. Essam E. Khalil Chapter 11: Analysis and Computation of the Heat Charge/Discharge Behavior in Packed Bed Thermal Storage Systems. Pei-Wen Li, Jon Van Lew, Wafaa Karaki, Cho Lik Chan, Jake Stephens

  17. Energy-environment-development interactions. Report on working group 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural resources, including strategic resources as oil or fresh water, have been the cause of disputes and wars among nations. Natural resources have also been catalyzers of conflicts and objectives of military actions. In last decades, new potential sources of conflict have emerged, as high geographical concentration of fossil duels, acceleration of the depletion and pollution of otherwise renewable resources, and the increase of resource scarcity because of higher demands from population growth and larger consumption per capita. The potential change of climate threatens to become an important source of international tensions in the near future and to provoke the scarcity of vital resources in particular regions. If the world is to engage in a true process of sustainable development, radical changes in the present strategies and patterns of resources use are needed. This working group focused on the problems and potential solutions related to renewable energy sources. The topic of water and security were discussed as well as multilateral agreements and negotiations regarding global climate change

  18. Energy, environment and sustainable development - tough decisions for a democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity is recognized to be essential to attaining even minimum modern levels of human welfare in any country. However, where electricity is available, the public shows little concern about where it comes from or what it takes to make sure supply continues to be adequate. In the next century, the world will have to face the difficult decision about the long-term use of plutonium as fuel, and deal with its implications for nonproliferation. What the United States does on this issue will affect all nations, and particularly those around the Pacific Basin. How do responsible leaders set rational priorities in a democracy, when every issue has its vocal advocates and the news media can reach every household? If democracies are to avoid the down side risks of energy shortages, leadership will have to emerge that has the courage to tell the people the truth, by providing scientific facts and explanations in terms that people can understand. The issues discussed in this paper illustrate how policies are being decided by populism and not by leaders on the basics of scientific evidence. 2 refs

  19. Leveraging Human-environment Systems in Residential Buildings for Aggregate Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoqi

    Reducing the energy consumed in the built environment is a key objective in many sustainability initiatives. Existing energy saving methods have consisted of physical interventions to buildings and/or behavioral modifications of occupants. However, such methods may not only suffer from their own disadvantages, e.g. high cost and transient effect, but also lose aggregate energy saving potential due to the oftentimes-associated single-building-focused view and an isolated examination of occupant behaviors. This dissertation attempts to overcome the limitations of traditional energy saving research and practical approaches, and enhance residential building energy efficiency and sustainability by proposing innovative energy strategies from a holistic perspective of the aggregate human-environment systems. This holistic perspective features: (1) viewing buildings as mutual influences in the built environment, (2) leveraging both the individual and contextualized social aspects of occupant behaviors, and (3) incorporating interactions between the built environment and human behaviors. First, I integrate three interlinked components: buildings, residents, and the surrounding neighborhood, and quantify the potential energy savings to be gained from renovating buildings at the inter-building level and leveraging neighborhood-contextualized occupant social networks. Following the confirmation of both the inter-building effect among buildings and occupants' interpersonal influence on energy conservation, I extend the research further by examining the synergy that may exist at the intersection between these "engineered" building networks and "social" peer networks, focusing specifically on the additional energy saving potential that could result from interactions between the two components. Finally, I seek to reach an alignment of the human and building environment subsystems by matching the thermostat preferences of each household with the thermal conditions within their

  20. Papers of the EECO 2003 Environment and Energy Conference : preserving the environment and promoting U.S. and Canada trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environment and Energy Conference is a bi-national cross-border forum on trade and environmental issues pertaining to the Great Lakes Economy in both Canada and the United States. Delegates from business, government and non-government organizations attended the conference to gain insight on how to ensure economic and environmental health of the Great Lakes region in order to contribute to sustainable growth. The presentations addressed environmental issues such as energy security; restructuring; urban transit; threats to clean air; cities; water demands in the Great Lakes ecosystems; new cars and new fuels; and, the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The conference featured 32 presentations, of which 4 were indexed separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  1. Papers of the EECO 2003 Environment and Energy Conference : preserving the environment and promoting U.S. and Canada trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environment and Energy Conference is a bi-national cross-border forum on trade and environmental issues pertaining to the Great Lakes Economy in both Canada and the United States. Delegates from business, government and non-government organizations attended the conference to gain insight on how to ensure economic and environmental health of the Great Lakes region in order to contribute to sustainable growth. The presentations addressed environmental issues such as energy security; restructuring; urban transit; threats to clean air; cities; water demands in the Great Lakes ecosystems; new cars and new fuels; and, the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The conference featured 32 presentations, of which 4 were indexed separately for inclusion in this database

  2. World oil prices: prospects and implications for energy policy-makers in Latin America's oil-deficit countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    This study considers two broad topics: future prices for world crude oil and energy policy in Latin American oil-deficit countries. Chapter I identifies and explains the pattern of world crude oil prices in the post-war era. Chapter II provides an analysis of the structure of today's world crude oil market from the point of view of price formation. Chapter III discusses the current pattern of energy policies in the industrialized, oil-importing countries. Again, the emphasis is on price formation. Chapter IV focuses on the price forecast. It opens with an estimate of the maximum level of the long-run incremental cost of supplying world oil over the next two decades. Chapter V deals with the range of options open to policy-makers in Latin America's oil-deficit countries as they confront the expected price of world crude oil. It closes with a discussion of the security of oil imports in Latin America's oil-deficit countries.

  3. The impacts of a plume-rise scheme on earth system modeling: climatological effects of biomass aerosols on the surface temperature and energy budget of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes Neto, Otacilio L.; Coutinho, Mariane M.; Marengo, José A.; Capistrano, Vinícius B.

    2016-05-01

    Seasonal forest fires in the Amazon are the largest source of pollutants in South America. The impacts of aerosols due to biomass burning on the temperature and energy balance in South America are investigated using climate simulations from 1979 to 2005 using HadGEM2-ES, which includes the hot plume-rise scheme (HPR) developed by Freitas et al. (Estudos Avançados 19:167-185, 2005, Atmos Chem Phys 7:3385-3398, 2007, Atmos Chem Phys 10:585-594, 2010). The HPR scheme is used to estimate the vertical heights of biomass-burning aerosols based on the thermodynamic characteristics of the underlying model. Three experiments are performed. The first experiment includes the HPR scheme, the second experiment turns off the HPR scheme and the effects of biomass aerosols (BIOMASS OFF), and the final experiment assumes that all biomass aerosols are released at the surface (HPR OFF). Relative to the BIOMASS OFF experiment, the temperature decreased in the HPR experiment as the net shortwave radiation at the surface decreased in a region with a large amount of biomass aerosols. When comparing the HPR and HPR OFF experiments, the release of biomass aerosols higher on the atmosphere impacts on temperature and the energy budget because the aerosols were transported by strong winds in the upper atmospheric levels.

  4. RENEWABLE ENERGY, A KEY TO INTEGRATING COMPETITIVE POLICIES WITH ADVANCED ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Cinade Lucian Ovidiu

    2011-01-01

    Development of competitive policies and improvement of environment protection strategies are two basic trends of the development of the European Unique Market. Energy, also known as "industry bread", is basic product and strategic resource, where energy industry plays an obvious role in the economic and social development of any community. Traditional energy production is marred by three major drawbacks: it generates negative externalities by polluting; it is totally in the hands of the produ...

  5. Uncertainty-averse TRANSCO planning for accommodating renewable energy in CO2 reduction environment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi; Wang, Qi; Xue, Yusheng; Østergaard, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The concern of the environment and energy sustainability requests a crucial target of CO2 abatement and results in a relatively high penetration of renewable energy generation in the transmission system. For maintaining system reliability and security, the transmission company (TRANSCO) has to make strategic planning to handle the uncertainty challenges from the intermittent renewable energy resources. In this paper, a stochastic multi-period multi-objective transmission planning (MPMOTP) mod...

  6. Influence of the environment on the fragmentation of amino acids provoked by low-energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With highly charged ions at low energy, molecules can be ionised on fs timescale at large distances without appreciable energy transfer. Their interaction with small amino acids leads to the fragmentation by cleavage of the weakest bond similarly to the other radiation induced fragmentation. A protective effect of the environment is observed when the molecules are embedded in a cluster of amino acids. The molecular cluster acts as a 'buffer' dissipating the excess energy.

  7. Energy and environment: the risks and the challenges of a predicted crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human development is closely correlated to the energies use. And the energy consumption is correlated to the environmental pollution. This book allows to understand the nature of the difficulties and their importance, and to identify actions to fight against the crisis. Bringing many data, it provides information on the different energies sources, the primary, final and use energy, the reserves, the potential of the renewable energies, the risks for the health and the environment, the constraints and the 21 century perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  8. Sustainable development of cabins. An investigation of cabin owners' attitudes towards the environment and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation on private cabin owners in the three Buskerud (Norway) municipalities: Sigdal, Rollag and Hol. The main purpose has been to evaluate the state of local value-creation related to cabin tourism, energy and environmental aspects of the cabin-usage, and other conditions related to sustainable development. This report deals in specific with environment and energy questions concerning cabin owners, and their attitudes towards energy-saving measures. Results from the investigation show that the standard on facilities of cabins has increased, indicating that the energy consumption will rise accordingly. Income is the primary explanation factor in relation to energy consumption. More results are presented in the report (ml)

  9. Competitive dynamics of energy, environment, and economy in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper applies the Lotka–Volterra model to investigate the competitive interactions among energy, environment, and economy (3Es) in the U.S. The proposed LV-COMSUD (Lotka–Volterra COmpetition Model for SUstainable Development) has satisfactory performance for model fitting and provides a useful multivariate framework to predict outcomes concerning these interactions. Our key findings include a pure competition between emissions and GDP (Gross Domestic Product), neutralisms between renewable and fossil/nuclear energy, and commensalisms between GDP and renewable/fossil energy and between nuclear energy and fossil energy/emissions. These results indicate that renewable/fossil energy use contributes to GDP and interacts indirectly with emissions, that an environmental Kuznets curve exists, and that the amount of produced nuclear energy correlates with emission. The U.S. is dependent on non-clean energy sources and its energy efficiency has room for improvement. The results provide unique insights for policy makers to craft up sustainable economic development plans. Overall, it is suggested that for developed markets such as the U.S., to enhance energy security and mitigate climate changes, improving energy efficiency and developing low-carbon clean energy should be top priorities. - Highlights: • The competitive interactions among energy, environment, and economy are examined. • A pure competition between emissions and GDP exists and an EKC exists. • Energy use contributes to GDP and interacts indirectly with emissions. • Nuclear energy was used to tackle the growth of emissions/fossil energy use. • Improved energy efficiency is a viable policy to enhance energy security in U.S

  10. ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS PROGRAM Chapter from the Energy and Environment Division Annual Report 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1981-05-01

    The aim of the Energy Efficient Buildings Program is to conduct theoretical and experimental research on various aspects of building technology that will permit such gains in energy efficiency without decreasing occupants' comfort or adversely affecting indoor air quality. To accomplish this goal, we have developed five major research groups. The foci of these groups are: Energy Performance of Buildings; Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality; Building Energy Analysis; Energy Efficient Windows and Lighting; and Building Energy Data, Analysis and Demonstration.

  11. Energy potential mapping: visualising energy characteristics for the exergetic optimisation of the built environment

    OpenAIRE

    Michiel Fremouw; Siebe Broersma; Andy van den Dobbelsteen

    2013-01-01

    It is difficult to fully satisfy the energy demand of today’s society with renewables. Nevertheless, most of the energy we use is lost as non-functional waste energy, whereas a large part of the built environment’s energy demand is only for low-quality energy, so the initial demand for primary, high-quality energy can be reduced by more effective usage, such as by low-exergy means. Gaining insight into the parameters of energy demands and local renewable and residual energy potentials enables...

  12. Little People of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information. Our Sponsors Welcome to Little People of America Little People of America (LPA) is a nonprofit organization that provides support ... survey can be seen here. © Little People of America 250 El Camino Real Suite 218, Tustin, CA ...

  13. Energy in attractive, living environments. Energy efficiency and environmental planning; Energie in wervende woonmilieus. Energie-efficientie en ruimtelijke ordening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, M.; Korbee, H. [W/E adviseurs duurzaam bouwen, Gouda (Netherlands)

    1996-08-01

    A selection of five high-quality, sustainable urban development plans is presented. The plans are assessed by experts for their attractiveness and the options to save energy. After a brief overview of the applied criteria, details of the five selected plans are presented. For each plan the results of the expert panel discussions and the energetic assessment are given. The plans are Oikos in Enschede, Zenderpark in IJsselstein, GWL-area in Amsterdam, Java island in Amsterdam, and De Muzen in Almere, all in the Netherlands. In the last chapter more insight into the relation between urban development measures and energy efficiency is given

  14. Catalyst in alternate energy resources for producing environment friendly clean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon monoxide, a by-product of the Chemical Process Industries, is a deadly poisonous gas; if released into the atmosphere causes irreparable damage to the environment. A bimetallic catalyst system Ru: Mn doped with different concentrations of 'K' (Potassium) and supported on high surface area alumina support was prepared by co impregnation method, dispersed and reduced at 450 deg. C under hydrogen flow using a closed reactor system at atmospheric pressure for the utilization of poisonous CO gas to produce environmental friendly clean energy. Fischer Tropsch catalyst, when subjected to CO/hydrogenation, gives methane and other hydrocarbon products. The main purpose of this research work was two fold: 1. The powder catalyst when dispersed/reduced on a high surface area oxide support spreads on the surface of the system in a different orientations and shapes. The particle size of the prepared catalysts ranges from 5.0-25.0 nm. The whole system forms a complicated mixture of numerous particles and hence becomes very complicated to study. The characterisation of these randomly oriented particles having different sizes and shapes is a difficult job. This required sensitive UHV spectroscopic techniques like SSIMS, XPS, EEls, XRD and TEM. Their operations needs strong skills. Hence the first aim was to utilize these techniques for the characterization of the prepared catalysts and to establish the usefulness of these techniques in studying such complicated systems. 2. Since Ru is a very good Fischer Tropsch catalyst for the production of aliphatic hydrocarbons product. Our other aim was to find out whether if by surface modification through additives or by surface reconstructing through chemical treatment, we could alter the path of this CO/hydrogenation reaction to produce potentially important unsaturated/aromatic hydrocarbon products. This would serve our dual purpose in which we could use poisonous CO for useful purpose. Hence 'K' potassium as surface modifier is

  15. Concept of the Interactive Platform for Real Time Energy Consumption Analysis in the Complex Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Podgornik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a concept of interactive and comprehensive platform based on advanced metering infrastructure for exchanging information on energy consumption and consequently on energy efficiency in urban and industrial environment which can serve as powerful tool for monitoring of progress in transition toward low carbon society. Proposed concept aims at supporting energy utilities in optimizing energy performance of both supply and demand side aspect of their work and have a potential to fill the gap and help in harmonization of interests between the energy utilities, energy service providers, local energy agencies and citizens. The proposed concept should be realized as a platform with the modular architecture, allowing future expansion of user’s portfolio and inventory management (new energy efficiency measures, technologies, different industries, urban districts and regions.

  16. RENEWABLE ENERGY, A KEY TO INTEGRATING COMPETITIVE POLICIES WITH ADVANCED ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinade Lucian Ovidiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of competitive policies and improvement of environment protection strategies are two basic trends of the development of the European Unique Market. Energy, also known as 'industry bread', is basic product and strategic resource, where energy industry plays an obvious role in the economic and social development of any community. Traditional energy production is marred by three major drawbacks: it generates negative externalities by polluting; it is totally in the hands of the producers; hence, prices rise at their will, of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. Present study focuses on electric energy industry, yet bearing over the whole length of the chain producer-to-end-consumer, thus revealed as particularly complex. The question is do alternative energy sources meet the prerequisite of market being competitive meanwhile environment protection being highly observed. We identify limits in point, of the energy market; effects of market liberalization; entry barriers; interchangeability level of energy sources; active forces on the energy market. Competitive rivalry has been expressed as per market micro-economic analysis, based on Michael Porter's 5-forces model. It will thus be noticed that, morphologically, competition evolution depends firstly on the market type. For the time being, the consumer on the energy market stays captive, for various reasons such as: legislation; limits of energy transfer infrastructure; scarcity of resources; resources availability imbalance; no integrative strategy available, of renewable energy resources usage. Energy availability is vital for human society to function. Comparative advantages of renewable energy resources are twofold, as manifested: in terms of economics, i.e. improving competition by substitute products entered at the same time as new producers enter market; and in terms of ecology, by reducing CO2 emissions. As to energy production technology and transfer, the complementary nature will

  17. Energy transfer in structured and unstructured environments: master equations beyond the Born-Markov approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Iles-Smith, Jake; Lambert, Neill; Nazir, Ahsan

    2015-01-01

    We explore excitonic energy transfer dynamics in a molecular dimer system coupled to both structured and unstructured oscillator environments. By extending the reaction coordinate master equation technique developed in [J. Iles-Smith, N. Lambert, and A. Nazir, Phys. Rev. A 90, 032114 (2014)], we go beyond the commonly used Born-Markov approximations to incorporate system-environment correlations and the resultant non-Markovian dynamical effects. We obtain energy transfer dynamics for both underdamped and overdamped oscillator environments that are in perfect agreement with the numerical hierarchical equations of motion over a wide range of parameters. Furthermore, we show that the Zusman equations, which may be obtained in a semiclassical limit of the reaction coordinate model, are often incapable of describing the correct dynamical behaviour. This demonstrates the necessity of properly accounting for quantum correlations generated between the system and its environment when the Born-Markov approximations no ...

  18. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems - Volume II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Duić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – JSDEWES is an international journal dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies and technologies for increasing the sustainability of development by de-coupling growth from natural resources and replacing them with knowledge based economy, taking into account its economic, environmental and social pillars, as well as methods for assessing and measuring sustainability of development, regarding energy, transport, water, environment and food production systems and their many combinations. In total 32 manuscripts were published in Volume II, all of them reviewed by at least two reviewers. The Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems would like to thank reviewers for their contribution to the quality of the published manuscripts.

  19. Fragile isthmus under pressure. Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ypsilantis, J

    1992-01-01

    In Costa Rica the 1300 hectares of rainforest that comprise La Selva Biological Station support more than 1.5 times the number of plant and animal species found in California. In Central America over 2/3 of all deforestation has occurred since 1950, and closed canopy forest has shrunk dramatically during the past 40 years. The population in Central America, plus Mexico, grew by around 28% during the period 1977-87. At the same time the surface of forests and woodlands decreased by 13%, to 26% of the total land area. Croplands grew by 4% during these 10 years, to 13% of the total land area, and pastures by 2% to 37%; and unproductive lands grew by 14% to 24% of total land area. 50% of land is seriously eroded or degraded in El Salvador and over 30% in Guatemala. Central America's population was 22 million in 1980, 29 million in 1990, and it is anticipated to reach 63 million by 2025. Central America's urban population reached 46% in the 1990s: over 13 million with continuing increases in the next few decades. The growing population's need for fuelwood and the demand for agricultural land pose the main threat to forests in the coming decades. Close to 90% of the energy used by households comes from fuelwood. In the Telire reserve in Costa Rica 366 Cabecars are not yet an environmental threat for the forest. The Peten area in Guatemala is inhabited by around 300,000 people whose destructive slash and burn practices pose a serious threat to the environment which is exacerbated by a high population growth rate of 5.5% a year. PMID:12317701

  20. Environment-adjusted total-factor energy efficiency of Taiwan's service sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study computes the pure technical efficiency (PTE) and energy-saving target of Taiwan's service sectors during 2001–2008 by using the input-oriented data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach with the assumption of a variable returns-to-scale (VRS) situation. This paper further investigates the effects of industry characteristics on the energy-saving target by applying the four-stage DEA proposed by Fried et al. (1999). We also calculate the pre-adjusted and environment-adjusted total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) scores in these service sectors. There are three inputs (labor, capital stock, and energy consumption) and a single output (real GDP) in the DEA model. The most energy efficient service sector is finance, insurance and real estate, which has an average TFEE of 0.994 and an environment-adjusted TFEE (EATFEE) of 0.807. The study utilizes the panel-data, random-effects Tobit regression model with the energy-saving target (EST) as the dependent variable. Those service industries with a larger GDP output have greater excess use of energy. The capital–labor ratio has a significantly positive effect while the time trend variable has a significantly negative impact on the EST, suggesting that future new capital investment should also be accompanied with energy-saving technology in the service sectors. - Highlights: • The technical efficiency and energy-saving target of service sectors are assessed. • The pre-adjusted and environment-adjusted total-factor energy efficiency scores in services are assessed. • The industrial characteristic differences are examined by the panel-data, random-effects Tobit regression model. • Labor, capital, and energy and an output (GDP) are included in the DEA model. • Future new capital investment should also be accompanied with energy-saving technology in the service sectors